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Sample records for hand skill predicts

  1. Predictability of hand skill and cognitive abilities from craniofacial width in right- and left-handed men and women: relation of skeletal structure to cerebral function

    OpenAIRE

    Dayi, Ertunc; Okuyan, Mukadder; Tan, Uner

    2002-01-01

    Recently, a family of homeobox genes involved in brain and craniofacial development was identified. In light of this genetic background, we hypothesized that some functional characteristics of human brain (hand skill, cognition) may be linked to some structural characteristics of human skull (e.g. craniofacial width) in humans. Hand preference was assessed by the Oldfield`s Handedness Questionaire. Hand skill was measured by Peg Moving Task. Face width was measured from the anteroposterior ce...

  2. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  3. Hands-On Skills for Caregivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A + A You are here Home Hands-On Skills for Caregivers Printer-friendly version When you’re ... therapist who can help you develop your transferring skills. Allow for their reality Remember to accept your ...

  4. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold

    2016-01-01

    Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right-left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would...... be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11-16 years). Participants were asked to fluently draw superimposed circles with their right dominant and left non-dominant hand. Temporal regularity...... of circle drawing movements was assessed for each hand using a digitizing tablet. Although all participants were right-handed, there was substantial inter-individual variation regarding the relative right-hand advantage for fluent circle drawing. All subjects underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging...

  5. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-12-01

    Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right-left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11-16 years). Participants were asked to fluently draw superimposed circles with their right dominant and left non-dominant hand. Temporal regularity of circle drawing movements was assessed for each hand using a digitizing tablet. Although all participants were right-handed, there was substantial inter-individual variation regarding the relative right-hand advantage for fluent circle drawing. All subjects underwent whole-brain diffusion tensor imaging at 3 Tesla. The right and left CST were defined as regions-of-interest and mean fractional anisotropy (FA) and diffusivity values were calculated for right and left CST. On average, mean FA values were higher in the left CST relative to right CST. The degree of right-left FA asymmetry showed a linear relationship with right-left asymmetry in fluent circle drawing after correction for age and gender. The higher the mean FA values were in the left dominant CST relative to the right non-dominant CST, the stronger was the relative right-hand advantage for regular circle drawing. These findings show that right-left differences in manual proficiency are highly variable in right-handed adolescents and that this variation is associated with a right-left microstructural asymmetry of the CST.

  6. Microstructural asymmetry of the corticospinal tracts predicts right-left differences in circle drawing skill in right-handed adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Angstmann, Steffen; Madsen, Kathrine Skak; Skimminge, Arnold; Jernigan, Terry L; Baaré, William F C; Siebner, Hartwig Roman

    2016-01-01

    © 2016, The Author(s). Most humans show a strong preference to use their right hand, but strong preference for the right hand does not necessarily imply a strong right–left asymmetry in manual proficiency (i.e., dexterity). Here we tested the hypothesis that intra-individual asymmetry of manual proficiency would be reflected in microstructural differences between the right and left corticospinal tract (CST) in a cohort of 52 right-handed typically-developing adolescents (11–16 years). Partici...

  7. Fingerprint verification prediction model in hand dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chew K; Chang, Choong C; Johor, Asmah; Othman, Puwira; Baba, Roshidah

    2015-07-01

    Hand dermatitis associated fingerprint changes is a significant problem and affects fingerprint verification processes. This study was done to develop a clinically useful prediction model for fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. A case-control study involving 100 patients with hand dermatitis. All patients verified their thumbprints against their identity card. Registered fingerprints were randomized into a model derivation and model validation group. Predictive model was derived using multiple logistic regression. Validation was done using the goodness-of-fit test. The fingerprint verification prediction model consists of a major criterion (fingerprint dystrophy area of ≥ 25%) and two minor criteria (long horizontal lines and long vertical lines). The presence of the major criterion predicts it will almost always fail verification, while presence of both minor criteria and presence of one minor criterion predict high and low risk of fingerprint verification failure, respectively. When none of the criteria are met, the fingerprint almost always passes the verification. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.937, and the goodness-of-fit test showed agreement between the observed and expected number (P = 0.26). The derived fingerprint verification failure prediction model is validated and highly discriminatory in predicting risk of fingerprint verification in patients with hand dermatitis. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  8. IMPROVING LISTENING SKILL TO FAIRYTALES USING A HAND PUPPETS MEDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desy Sugianto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to describe the increase the ability of listening to fairy tales using hand puppets media in grade III State Elementary School 16 Sungai Ringin Sintang year 2016/2017. The approach of this study was a qualitative descriptive form of classroom action research. The result showed that (1 the puppets media enhanced students’ listening skills very well, seen from students’ active and enthusiastic participation; (2 the listening skill in the first cycle gained the average of 63.78 and reached 72.42 in cycle two. This showed an increase of learning outcome from the first to the second cycle of 8.64 points. The general completeness level in the first cycle was 60.71% with satisfactory categories and in the second cycle reached 85.71% in both categories; (3 The response of students to the application of a hand puppet media was very good. This shows that the use of hand puppets media while listening to fairy tales is a way that can attract students’ attention.

  9. Decadal Prediction Skill in the GEOS-5 Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Yoo-Geun; Rienecker, Michele M.; Suarez, Max J.; Vikhliaev, Yury; Zhao, Bin; Marshak, Jelena; Vernieres, Guillaume; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2013-01-01

    A suite of decadal predictions has been conducted with the NASA Global Modeling and Assimilation Office's (GMAO's) GEOS-5 Atmosphere-Ocean general circulation model. The hind casts are initialized every December 1st from 1959 to 2010, following the CMIP5 experimental protocol for decadal predictions. The initial conditions are from a multivariate ensemble optimal interpolation ocean and sea-ice reanalysis, and from GMAO's atmospheric reanalysis, the modern-era retrospective analysis for research and applications. The mean forecast skill of a three-member-ensemble is compared to that of an experiment without initialization but also forced with observed greenhouse gases. The results show that initialization increases the forecast skill of North Atlantic sea surface temperature compared to the uninitialized runs, with the increase in skill maintained for almost a decade over the subtropical and mid-latitude Atlantic. On the other hand, the initialization reduces the skill in predicting the warming trend over some regions outside the Atlantic. The annual-mean Atlantic meridional overturning circulation index, which is defined here as the maximum of the zonally-integrated overturning stream function at mid-latitude, is predictable up to a 4-year lead time, consistent with the predictable signal in upper ocean heat content over the North Atlantic. While the 6- to 9-year forecast skill measured by mean squared skill score shows 50 percent improvement in the upper ocean heat content over the subtropical and mid-latitude Atlantic, prediction skill is relatively low in the sub-polar gyre. This low skill is due in part to features in the spatial pattern of the dominant simulated decadal mode in upper ocean heat content over this region that differ from observations. An analysis of the large-scale temperature budget shows that this is the result of a model bias, implying that realistic simulation of the climatological fields is crucial for skillful decadal forecasts.

  10. The left hand doesn't know what the right hand is doing: the disruptive effects of attention to the hands in skilled typewriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, Gordon D; Crump, Matthew J C

    2009-10-01

    Everyone knows that attention to the details disrupts skilled performance, but little empirical evidence documents this fact. We show that attention to the hands disrupts skilled typewriting. We had skilled typists type words preceded by cues that told them to type only the letters assigned to one hand or to type all of the letters. Cuing the hands disrupted performance markedly, slowing typing and increasing the error rate (Experiment 1); these deleterious effects were observed even when no keystrokes were actually inhibited (Experiment 3). However, cuing the same letters with colors was not disruptive (Experiment 2). We account for the disruption with a hierarchical control model, in which an inner loop controls the hands and an outer loop controls what is typed. Typing letters using only one hand requires the outer loop to monitor the inner loop's output; the outer loop slows inner-loop cycle time to increase the likelihood of inhibiting responses with the unwanted hand. This produces the disruption.

  11. Surgical training in your hands: organising a skills course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnand, Henry; Mutimer, Jon

    2012-12-01

    The advent of simulated surgical skills courses has brought dynamic changes to the traditional approach to acquiring practical skills in surgery. Teaching is a core part of the surgical profession, and any trainee can be involved in the organisation of skills training courses. This paper outlines the importance of organising surgical skills courses for trainees, and provides a practical guide on how to do so within busy clinical environments. The paper examines how to plan a course, how to design the programme, and provides tips on faculty staff requirements, venue, finance and participants, with additional suggestions for assessment and evaluation. We recommend the organisation of skills courses to any trainee. By following key ground rules, the surgical trainee can enable the acquisition of advanced learning opportunities and the ability to demonstrate valuable organisational skills. © Blackwell Publishing Ltd 2012.

  12. Attention to the hands disrupts skilled typewriting: the role of vision in producing the disruption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapp, Kristy M; Logan, Gordon D

    2011-11-01

    Drawing typists' attention to their hands by asking them to type only letters assigned to the left or the right hand disrupts their performance, slowing the rate of typing and increasing errors. In this article we test the hypothesis that slowing occurs because typists watch their hands to determine which hand types which letter. Skilled typists were cued to type letters of one hand or of both hands while they could view their hands on the keyboard and while their vision was blocked by a box placed over the keyboard. Typing was slower when letters of one hand were typed than when letters of both hands were typed, and the slowing was greater when the hands were covered than when they were not. This supports the hypothesis that slowing occurs because typists watch their hands. However, typists were able to type letters of one hand when the keyboard was covered, so typists must have monitored kinesthetic information as well.

  13. Clinical psychomotor skills among left and right handed medical students: are the left-handed medical students left out?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnassar, Sami; Alrashoudi, Aljoharah Nasser; Alaqeel, Mody; Alotaibi, Hala; Alkahel, Alanoud; Hajjar, Waseem; Al-Shaikh, Ghadeer; Alsaif, Abdulaziz; Haque, Shafiul; Meo, Sultan Ayoub

    2016-03-22

    There is a growing perception that the left handed (LH) medical students are facing difficulties while performing the clinical tasks that involve psychomotor skill, although the evidence is very limited and diverse. The present study aimed to evaluate the clinical psychomotor skills among Right-handed (RH) and left-handed (LH) medical students. For this study, 54 (27 left handed and 27 right handed) first year medical students were selected. They were trained for different clinical psychomotor skills including suturing, laparoscopy, intravenous cannulation and urinary catheterization under the supervision of certified instructors. All students were evaluated for psychomotor skills by different instructors. The comparative performance of the students was measured by using a global rating scale, each selected criteria was allotted 5-points score with the total score of 25. There were no significant differences in the performance of psychomotor skills among LH and RH medical students. The global rating score obtained by medical students in suturing techniques was: LH 15.89 ± 2.88, RH 16.15 ± 2.75 (p = 0.737), cannulation techniques LH 20.44 ± 2.81, RH 20.70 ± 2.56 (p = 0.725), urinary catheterization LH 4.33 ± 0.96 RH 4.11 ± 1.05 (p = 0.421). For laparoscopic skills total peg transfer time was shorter among LH medical students compared to RH medical students (LH 129.85 ± 80.87 s vs RH 135.52 ± 104.81 s) (p = 0.825). However, both RH and LH students completed their procedure within the stipulated time. Among LH and RH medical students no significant difference was observed in performing the common surgical psychomotor skills. Surgical skills for LH or RH might not be a result of innate dexterity but rather the academic environment in which they are trained and assessed. Early laterality-related mentoring in medical schools as well as during the clinical residency might reduce the inconveniences faced by the left-handed

  14. Temporal predictive mechanisms modulate motor reaction time during initiation and inhibition of speech and hand movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johari, Karim; Behroozmand, Roozbeh

    2017-08-01

    Skilled movement is mediated by motor commands executed with extremely fine temporal precision. The question of how the brain incorporates temporal information to perform motor actions has remained unanswered. This study investigated the effect of stimulus temporal predictability on response timing of speech and hand movement. Subjects performed a randomized vowel vocalization or button press task in two counterbalanced blocks in response to temporally-predictable and unpredictable visual cues. Results indicated that speech and hand reaction time was decreased for predictable compared with unpredictable stimuli. This finding suggests that a temporal predictive code is established to capture temporal dynamics of sensory cues in order to produce faster movements in responses to predictable stimuli. In addition, results revealed a main effect of modality, indicating faster hand movement compared with speech. We suggest that this effect is accounted for by the inherent complexity of speech production compared with hand movement. Lastly, we found that movement inhibition was faster than initiation for both hand and speech, suggesting that movement initiation requires a longer processing time to coordinate activities across multiple regions in the brain. These findings provide new insights into the mechanisms of temporal information processing during initiation and inhibition of speech and hand movement. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Potential Predictability and Prediction Skill for Southern Peru Summertime Rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    WU, S.; Notaro, M.; Vavrus, S. J.; Mortensen, E.; Block, P. J.; Montgomery, R. J.; De Pierola, J. N.; Sanchez, C.

    2016-12-01

    The central Andes receive over 50% of annual climatological rainfall during the short period of January-March. This summertime rainfall exhibits strong interannual and decadal variability, including severe drought events that incur devastating societal impacts and cause agricultural communities and mining facilities to compete for limited water resources. An improved seasonal prediction skill of summertime rainfall would aid in water resource planning and allocation across the water-limited southern Peru. While various underlying mechanisms have been proposed by past studies for the drivers of interannual variability in summertime rainfall across southern Peru, such as the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), Madden Julian Oscillation (MJO), and extratropical forcings, operational forecasts continue to be largely based on rudimentary ENSO-based indices, such as NINO3.4, justifying further exploration of predictive skill. In order to bridge this gap between the understanding of driving mechanisms and the operational forecast, we performed systematic studies on the predictability and prediction skill of southern Peru summertime rainfall by constructing statistical forecast models using best available weather station and reanalysis datasets. At first, by assuming the first two empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs) of summertime rainfall are predictable, the potential predictability skill was evaluated for southern Peru. Then, we constructed a simple regression model, based on the time series of tropical Pacific sea-surface temperatures (SSTs), and a more advanced Linear Inverse Model (LIM), based on the EOFs of tropical ocean SSTs and large-scale atmosphere variables from reanalysis. Our results show that the LIM model consistently outperforms the more rudimentary regression models on the forecast skill of domain averaged precipitation index and individual station indices. The improvement of forecast correlation skill ranges from 10% to over 200% for different

  16. Changes in arm-hand function and arm-hand skill performance in patients after stroke during and after rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franck, Johan Anton; Smeets, Rob Johannes Elise Marie; Seelen, Henk Alexander Maria

    2017-01-01

    Arm-hand rehabilitation programs applied in stroke rehabilitation frequently target specific populations and thus are less applicable in heterogeneous patient populations. Besides, changes in arm-hand function (AHF) and arm-hand skill performance (AHSP) during and after a specific and well-described rehabilitation treatment are often not well evaluated. This single-armed prospective cohort study featured three subgroups of stroke patients with either a severely, moderately or mildly impaired AHF. Rehabilitation treatment consisted of a Concise_Arm_and_hand_ Rehabilitation_Approach_in_Stroke (CARAS). Measurements at function and activity level were performed at admission, clinical discharge, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after clinical discharge. Eighty-nine stroke patients (M/F:63/23; mean age:57.6yr (+/-10.6); post-stroke time:29.8 days (+/-20.1)) participated. All patients improved on AHF and arm-hand capacity during and after rehabilitation, except on grip strength in the severely affected subgroup. Largest gains occurred in patients with a moderately affected AHF. As to self-perceived AHSP, on average, all subgroups improved over time. A small percentage of patients declined regarding self-perceived AHSP post-rehabilitation. A majority of stroke patients across the whole arm-hand impairment severity spectrum significantly improved on AHF, arm-hand capacity and self-perceived AHSP. These were maintained up to one year post-rehabilitation. Results may serve as a control condition in future studies.

  17. The influence of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Przekoracka-Krawczyk, Anna; Jaśkowski, Wojciech; Verwey, Willem B.; van der Lubbe, Rob

    2017-01-01

    Motor imagery has been argued to affect the acquisition of motor skills. The present study examined the specificity of motor imagery on the learning of a fine hand motor skill by employing a modified discrete sequence production task: the Go/NoGo DSP task. After an informative cue, a response

  18. Technology-supported training of arm-hand skills in stroke

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, A.A.A.

    2010-01-01

    Impaired arm-hand performance is a serious consequence of stroke that is associated with reduced self-efficacy and poor quality of life. Task-oriented arm training is a therapy approach that is known to improve skilled arm-hand performance, even in chronic stages after stroke. At the start of this

  19. Consistency of hand preference: predictions to intelligence and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D W; Gottfried, A; Bathurst, K

    1991-05-01

    Gottfried and Bathurst (1983) reported that hand preference consistency measured over time during infancy and early childhood predicts intellectual precocity for females, but not for males. In the present study longitudinal assessments of children previously classified by Gottfried and Bathurst as consistent or nonconsistent in cross-time hand preference were conducted during middle childhood (ages 5 to 9). Findings show that (a) early measurement of hand preference consistency for females predicts school-age intellectual precocity, (b) the locus of the difference between consistent vs. nonconsistent females is in verbal intelligence, and (c) the precocity of the consistent females was also revealed on tests of school achievement, particularly tests of reading and mathematics.

  20. Construct validity for eye-hand coordination skill on a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Shohei; Konishi, Kozo; Yasunaga, Takefumi; Yoshida, Daisuke; Kinjo, Nao; Kobayashi, Kiichiro; Ieiri, Satoshi; Okazaki, Ken; Nakashima, Hideaki; Tanoue, Kazuo; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Hashizume, Makoto

    2007-12-01

    This study was carried out to investigate whether eye-hand coordination skill on a virtual reality laparoscopic surgical simulator (the LAP Mentor) was able to differentiate among subjects with different laparoscopic experience and thus confirm its construct validity. A total of 31 surgeons, who were all right-handed, were divided into the following two groups according to their experience as an operator in laparoscopic surgery: experienced surgeons (more than 50 laparoscopic procedures) and novice surgeons (fewer than 10 laparoscopic procedures). The subjects were tested using the eye-hand coordination task of the LAP Mentor, and performance was compared between the two groups. Assessment of the laparoscopic skills was based on parameters measured by the simulator. The experienced surgeons completed the task significantly faster than the novice surgeons. The experienced surgeons also achieved a lower number of movements (NOM), better economy of movement (EOM) and faster average speed of the left instrument than the novice surgeons, whereas there were no significant differences between the two groups for the NOM, EOM and average speed of the right instrument. Eye-hand coordination skill of the nondominant hand, but not the dominant hand, measured using the LAP Mentor was able to differentiate between subjects with different laparoscopic experience. This study also provides evidence of construct validity for eye-hand coordination skill on the LAP Mentor.

  1. Hand Strength, Handwriting, and Functional Skills in Children With Autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaniz, Michele L; Galit, Eleanor; Necesito, Corina Isabel; Rosario, Emily R

    2015-01-01

    To establish hand strength development trends in children with autism and to investigate correlations between grip and pinch strength, components of handwriting, and functional activities in children with and without autism. Fifty-one children were divided into two groups: typically developing children and children on the autism spectrum. Each child completed testing for pinch and grip strength, handwriting legibility, pencil control, and independence in functional activities. The children with autism followed the same strength development trends as the typically developing children. Grip strength correlated with pencil control in both groups and with handwriting legibility in the typically developing children but not in the children with autism. Grip and pinch strength correlated with independence with functional activities in both groups. This study provides evidence that grip and pinch strength are important components in developing pencil control, handwriting legibility, and independence with functional fine motor tasks. Copyright © 2015 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  2. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossmy, Ori; Mukamel, Roy

    2017-01-01

    Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement), manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  3. Short Term Motor-Skill Acquisition Improves with Size of Self-Controlled Virtual Hands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ori Ossmy

    Full Text Available Visual feedback in general, and from the body in particular, is known to influence the performance of motor skills in humans. However, it is unclear how the acquisition of motor skills depends on specific visual feedback parameters such as the size of performing effector. Here, 21 healthy subjects physically trained to perform sequences of finger movements with their right hand. Through the use of 3D Virtual Reality devices, visual feedback during training consisted of virtual hands presented on the screen, tracking subject's hand movements in real time. Importantly, the setup allowed us to manipulate the size of the displayed virtual hands across experimental conditions. We found that performance gains increase with the size of virtual hands. In contrast, when subjects trained by mere observation (i.e., in the absence of physical movement, manipulating the size of the virtual hand did not significantly affect subsequent performance gains. These results demonstrate that when it comes to short-term motor skill learning, the size of visual feedback matters. Furthermore, these results suggest that highest performance gains in individual subjects are achieved when the size of the virtual hand matches their real hand size. These results may have implications for optimizing motor training schemes.

  4. Formation of social and household skills in children with hand defects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimon, Nataly; Koryukov, Alexander; Loseva, Nina; Starobina, Elena

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to consider the peculiarities of forming social and household skills, and the criteria for their evaluation, as well as an assessment of functional capacity, in children with hand defects both before and after surgical treatment and rehabilitation courses using a system of games. We elaborated and implemented a program of social rehabilitation of preschool children with congenital and acquired hand defects for the development of their functional capabilities and the formation of social and household skills after surgical treatment and prosthetics using play therapy methods. As part of this work, 140 preschool children aged 3-7 years underwent social rehabilitation. Most of the children had congenital hand defects-122 children (87 %): 96 children (79 %) with ectrodactylia, adactylia, hypoplasia, aplasia, hand splitting, club hand, or partial gigantism; 26 children (21 %) with congenital syndactylism and constricted bonds and 18 children (13 %) with acquired defects (burn deformity, amputation). 110 children (79 %) had reached the stage of surgical correction; 30 children (21 %) reached the stage of prosthetics. Most of the children participating in the experiment (78 children, 56 %) had defects of fingers on one hand. The program aimed at solving specific rehabilitation tasks: formation and improvement of all possible types of grip under the existing defect including those after surgery and prosthetics; development of tactile sensations in fingers; development of fine motor skills; increase in range of motion in all joints of the damaged hand; development of attention and concentration; formation of social and household skills appropriate to age; and development of the ability to achieve the set task. Analysis of the level of social and household skills of children with hand defects undergoing rehabilitation treatment at the hospital depending on the age prior to medical and social rehabilitation showed that preschool children with

  5. Examining construct validity of a new naturalistic observational assessment of hand skills for preschool- and school-age children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Chi-Wen; Brown, Ted; McDonald, Rachael

    2012-04-01

    The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills is a new assessment that utilises a naturalistic observational method to capture children's real-life hand skill performance when engaged at various types of daily activities in everyday living contexts. The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills is designed for use with 2- to 12-year-old children with a range of disabilities or health conditions. The study aimed to investigate construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills in Australian children. Rasch analysis was used to examine internal construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills in a mixed sample of 53 children with disabilities (including autism spectrum disorder, developmental/genetic disorders and physical disabilities) and 85 typically developing children. External construct validity was examined by correlating with three questionnaires evaluating daily living skills and hand skills. Rasch goodness-of-fit analysis suggested that all 22 activity items and 19 of 20 hand skill items in the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills measured a single construct. The Assessment of Children's Hand Skills items were placed in a clinically meaningful hierarchy from easy to hard, and the difficulty range of the items also matched the majority of children with disabilities and typically developing preschool-aged children. Moderate to high correlations (0.59 ≤ Spearman's ρ coefficients ≤ 0.89, P assessments of daily living and fine motor skills. This study provided preliminary evidence supporting the construct validity of the Assessment of Children's Hand Skills for its clinical application in assessing children's real-life hand skill performance in Australian contexts. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  6. Fine finger motor skill training with exoskeleton robotic hand in chronic stroke: stroke rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ockenfeld, Corinna; Tong, Raymond K Y; Susanto, Evan A; Ho, Sze-Kit; Hu, Xiao-ling

    2013-06-01

    Background and Purpose. Stroke survivors often show a limited recovery in the hand function to perform delicate motions, such as full hand grasping, finger pinching and individual finger movement. The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of an exoskeleton robotic hand together with fine finger motor skill training on 2 chronic stroke patients. Case Descriptions. Two post-stroke patients participated in a 20-session training program by integrating 10 minutes physical therapy, 20 minutes robotic hand training and 15 minutes functional training tasks with delicate objects(card, pen and coin). These two patients (A and B) had cerebrovascular accident at 6 months and 11 months respectively when enrolled in this study. Outcomes. The results showed that both patients had improvements in Fugl-Meyer assessment (FM), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT). Patients had better isolation of the individual finger flexion and extension based on the reduced muscle co-contraction from the electromyographic(EMG) signals and finger extension force after 20 sessions of training. Discussion. This preliminary study showed that by focusing on the fine finger motor skills together with the exoskeleton robotic hand, it could improve the motor recovery of the upper extremity in the fingers and hand function, which were showed in the ARAT. Future randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate the clinical effectiveness.

  7. Hand Posture Prediction Using Neural Networks within a Biomechanical Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta C. Mora

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes the use of artificial neural networks (ANNs in the framework of a biomechanical hand model for grasping. ANNs enhance the model capabilities as they substitute estimated data for the experimental inputs required by the grasping algorithm used. These inputs are the tentative grasping posture and the most open posture during grasping. As a consequence, more realistic grasping postures are predicted by the grasping algorithm, along with the contact information required by the dynamic biomechanical model (contact points and normals. Several neural network architectures are tested and compared in terms of prediction errors, leading to encouraging results. The performance of the overall proposal is also shown through simulation, where a grasping experiment is replicated and compared to the real grasping data collected by a data glove device.

  8. The Enhancement of Communication Skill and Prediction Skill in Colloidal Concept by Problem Solving Learning

    OpenAIRE

    Anggraini, Agita Dzulhajh; Fadiawati, Noor; Diawati, Chansyanah

    2012-01-01

    Accuracy educators in selecting and implementing learning models influence students' science process skills. Models of learning that can be applied to improve science process skills and tend constructivist among athers learning model of problem solving. This research was conducted to describe the effectiveness of the learning model of problem solving in improving communication skills and prediction skills. Subjects in this research were students of high school YP Unila Bandar Lampung Even ...

  9. Retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills after hands-only training versus conventional training in novices: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Young Joon; Cho, Youngsuk; Cho, Gyu Chong; Ji, Hyun Kyung; Han, Song Yi; Lee, Jin Hyuck

    2017-01-01

    Objective Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest; however, retention of skills after training remains uncertain. Recently, hands-only CPR has been shown to be as effective as conventional CPR. The purpose of this study is to compare the retention rate of CPR skills in laypersons after hands-only or conventional CPR training. Methods Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 CPR training methods: 80 minutes of hands-only CPR tra...

  10. Relationships between hand laterality and verbal and spatial skills in 436 healthy adults balanced for handedness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellet, E; Jobard, G; Zago, L; Crivello, F; Petit, L; Joliot, M; Mazoyer, B; Tzourio-Mazoyer, N

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between manual laterality and cognitive skills remains highly controversial. Some studies have reported that strongly lateralised participants had higher cognitive performance in verbal and visuo-spatial domains compared to non-lateralised participants; however, others found the opposite. Moreover, some have suggested that familial sinistrality and sex might interact with individual laterality factors to alter cognitive skills. The present study addressed these issues in 237 right-handed and 199 left-handed individuals. Performance tests covered various aspects of verbal and spatial cognition. A principal component analysis yielded two verbal and one spatial factor scores. Participant laterality assessments included handedness, manual preference strength, asymmetry of motor performance, and familial sinistrality. Age, sex, education level, and brain volume were also considered. No effect of handedness was found, but the mean factor scores in verbal and spatial domains increased with right asymmetry in motor performance. Performance was reduced in participants with a familial history of left-handedness combined with a non-maximal preference strength in the dominant hand. These results elucidated some discrepancies among previous findings in laterality factors and cognitive skills. Laterality factors had small effects compared to the adverse effects of age for spatial cognition and verbal memory, the positive effects of education for all three domains, and the effect of sex for spatial cognition.

  11. Toddler hand preference trajectories predict 3-year language outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Eliza L; Gonzalez, Sandy L; Coxe, Stefany; Campbell, Julie M; Marcinowski, Emily C; Michel, George F

    2017-11-01

    A growing body of work suggests that early motor experience affects development in unexpected domains. In the current study, children's hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation (RDBM) was measured at monthly intervals from 18 to 24 months of age (N = 90). At 3 years of age, children's language ability was assessed using the Preschool Language Scales 5th edition (PLS™-5). Three distinct RDBM hand preference trajectories were identified using latent class growth analysis: (1) children with a left hand preference but a moderate amount of right hand use; (2) children with a right hand preference but a moderate amount of left hand use; and (3) children with a right hand preference and only a mild amount of left hand use. Stability over time within all three trajectories indicated that children did not change hand use patterns from 18 to 24 months. Children with the greatest amount of preferred (i.e., right) hand use demonstrated higher expressive language scores compared to children in both trajectories with moderate levels of non-preferred hand use. Children with the greatest amount of right hand use also had higher scores for receptive language compared to children with a right hand preference but moderate left hand use. Results support that consistency in handedness as measured by the amount of preferred hand use is related to distal language outcomes in development. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Predicting the reading skill of Japanese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogino, Tatsuya; Hanafusa, Kaoru; Morooka, Teruko; Takeuchi, Akihito; Oka, Makio; Ohtsuka, Yoko

    2017-02-01

    To clarify cognitive processes underlining the development of reading in children speaking Japanese as their first language, we examined relationships between performances of cognitive tasks in the preschool period and later reading abilities. Ninety-one normally developing preschoolers (41 girls and 50 boys; 5years 4months to 6years 4months, mean 5years 10months) participated as subjects. We conducted seven cognitive tasks including phonological awareness tasks, naming tasks, and working memory tasks in the preschool period. In terms of reading tasks, the hiragana naming task was administered in the preschool period; the reading times, which is a composite score of the monomoraic syllable reading task, the word and the non-word reading tasks, and the single sentence reading task, was evaluated in first and second grade; and the kanji reading task (naming task) was tested in second grade. Raven's colored progressive matrices and picture vocabulary test revised were also conducted in first grade. Correlation analyses between task scores and stepwise multiple regression analyses were implemented. Tasks tapping phonological awareness, lexical access, and verbal working memory showed significant correlations with reading tasks. In the multiple regression analyses the performances in the verbal working memory task played a key role in predicting character naming task scores (the hiragana naming task and the kanji reading task) while the digit naming task was an important predictor of reading times. Unexpectedly, the role of phonological (mora) awareness was modest among children speaking Japanese. Cognitive functions including phonological awareness, digit naming, and verbal working memory (especially the latter two) were involved in the development of reading skills of children speaking Japanese. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Specific mindfulness skills differentially predict creative performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, M.; Nevicka, B.; ten Velden, F.S.

    2014-01-01

    Past work has linked mindfulness to improved emotion regulation, interpersonal skills, and basic cognitive abilities, but is unclear about the relation between mindfulness and creativity. Studies examining effects of mindfulness on factors pertinent to creativity suggest a uniform and positive

  14. An analysis of prediction skill of monthly mean climate variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Arun; Chen, Mingyue; Wang, Wanqiu [Climate Prediction Center, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (CPC/NCEP), Camp Springs, MD (United States)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper, lead-time and spatial dependence in skill for prediction of monthly mean climate variability is analyzed. The analysis is based on a set of extensive hindcasts from the Climate Forecast System at the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. The skill characteristics of initialized predictions is also compared with the AMIP simulations forced with the observed sea surface temperature (SST) to quantify the role of initial versus boundary conditions in the prediction of monthly means. The analysis is for prediction of monthly mean SST, precipitation, and 200-hPa height. The results show a rapid decay in skill with lead time for the atmospheric variables in the extratropical latitudes. Further, after a lead-time of approximately 30-40 days, the skill of monthly mean prediction is essentially a boundary forced problem, with SST anomalies in the tropical central/eastern Pacific playing a dominant role. Because of the larger contribution from the atmospheric internal variability to monthly time-averages (compared to seasonal averages), skill for monthly mean prediction associated with boundary forcing is also lower. The analysis indicates that the prospects of skillful prediction of monthly means may remain a challenging problem, and may be limited by inherent limits in predictability. (orig.)

  15. Playing off the curve - testing quantitative predictions of skill acquisition theories in development of chess performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaschler, Robert; Progscha, Johanna; Smallbone, Kieran; Ram, Nilam; Bilalić, Merim

    2014-01-01

    Learning curves have been proposed as an adequate description of learning processes, no matter whether the processes manifest within minutes or across years. Different mechanisms underlying skill acquisition can lead to differences in the shape of learning curves. In the current study, we analyze the tournament performance data of 1383 chess players who begin competing at young age and play tournaments for at least 10 years. We analyze the performance development with the goal to test the adequacy of learning curves, and the skill acquisition theories they are based on, for describing and predicting expertise acquisition. On the one hand, we show that the skill acquisition theories implying a negative exponential learning curve do a better job in both describing early performance gains and predicting later trajectories of chess performance than those theories implying a power function learning curve. On the other hand, the learning curves of a large proportion of players show systematic qualitative deviations from the predictions of either type of skill acquisition theory. While skill acquisition theories predict larger performance gains in early years and smaller gains in later years, a substantial number of players begin to show substantial improvements with a delay of several years (and no improvement in the first years), deviations not fully accounted for by quantity of practice. The current work adds to the debate on how learning processes on a small time scale combine to large-scale changes.

  16. Preliminary evaluation of SensHand V1 in assessing motor skills performance in Parkinson disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallo, Filippo; Esposito, Dario; Rovini, Erika; Aquilano, Michela; Carrozza, Maria Chiara; Dario, Paolo; Maremmani, Carlo; Bongioanni, Paolo

    2013-06-01

    Nowadays, the increasing old population 65+ as well as the pace imposed by work activities lead to a high number of people that have particular injuries for limbs. In addition to persistent or temporary disabilities related to accidental injuries we must take into account that part of the population suffers from motor deficits of the hands due to stroke or diseases of various clinical nature. The most recurrent technological solutions to measure the rehabilitation or skill motor performance of the hand are glove-based devices, able to faithfully capture the movements of the hand and fingers. This paper presents a system for hand motion analysis based on 9-axis complete inertial modules and dedicated microcontroller which are fixed on fingers and forearm. The technological solution presented is able to track the patients' hand motions in real-time and then to send data through wireless communication reducing the clutter and the disadvantages of a glove equipped with sensors through a different technological structure. The device proposed has been tested in the study of Parkinson's disease.

  17. Can video games be used to predict or improve laparoscopic skills?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Bradley H; Landsittel, Douglas; Averch, Timothy D

    2005-04-01

    Performance of laparoscopic surgery requires adequate hand-eye coordination. Video games are an effective way to judge one's hand-eye coordination, and practicing these games may improve one's skills. Our goal was to see if there is a correlation between skill in video games and skill in laparoscopy. Also, we hoped to demonstrate that practicing video games can improve one's laparoscopic skills. Eleven medical students (nine male, two female) volunteered to participate. On day 1, each student played three commercially available video games (Top Spin, XSN Sports; Project Gotham Racing 2, Bizarre Creations; and Amped 2, XSN Sports) for 30 minutes on an X-box (Microsoft, Seattle, WA) and was judged both objectively and subjectively. Next, the students performed four laparoscopic tasks (object transfer, tracing a figure-of-eight, suture placement, and knot-tying) in a swine model and were assessed for time to complete the task, number of errors committed, and hand-eye coordination. The students were then randomized to control (group A) or "training" (i.e., video game practicing; group B) arms. Two weeks later, all students repeated the laparoscopic skills laboratory and were reassessed. Spearman correlation coefficients demonstrated a significant relation between many of the parameters, particularly time to complete each task and hand-eye coordination at the different games. There was a weaker association between video game performance and both laparoscopic errors committed and hand-eye coordination. Group B subjects did not improve significantly over those in group A in any measure (P >0.05 for all). Video game aptitude appears to predict the level of laparoscopic skill in the novice surgeon. In this study, practicing video games did not improve one's laparoscopic skill significantly, but a larger study with more practice time could prove games to be helpful.

  18. Patient Hand Hygiene at Home Predicts Their Hand Hygiene Practices in the Hospital

    OpenAIRE

    Barker, Anna; Sethi, Ajay; Shulkin, Emily; Caniza, Rachell; Zerbel, Sara; Safdar, Nasia

    2014-01-01

    We examine factors associated with hand hygiene practices of hospital patients. Hygiene decreased compared to at home, and home practices were strongly associated with hospital practices. Understanding and leveraging the intrinsic value some patients associate with hand hygiene may be important for improving overall hospital hygiene and decreasing healthcare-associated infections.

  19. Can Constraint Induced Movement Therapy Improve In-Hand Manipulation Skills: A Single Subject Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somaye Kavousipor

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study describes a single subject design (ABA that shows the effective use of constraint induced movement therapy in improvement of quality and performance of in-hand manipulation skills for a 10 year old boy and a 9 years old girl with hemiplegic cerebral palsy, as Dickerson (2007 showed it in arm movement and function. Methods: To determine the effectiveness of CIMT by the use of C-statistic analysis and visual analysis. Approach: The first step was to design a child friendly group activity and home based intervention program through occupation. The possible effectiveness of CIMT was evaluated by daily measurements and video recording of 6 sub skills of in-hand manipulation according to Pont category (2009 in defined activity. Results: For making the treatment more cost effective, families can produce a simple clinical setting at home and participate in their child treatment plan actively. Discussion: A client center intervention will facilitate the use and quality of fingers and hand motion. Also a group activity can motivate participants to participate more and better.

  20. Retention of cardiopulmonary resuscitation skills after hands-only training versus conventional training in novices: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Joon; Cho, Youngsuk; Cho, Gyu Chong; Ji, Hyun Kyung; Han, Song Yi; Lee, Jin Hyuck

    2017-06-01

    Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) training can improve performance during simulated cardiac arrest; however, retention of skills after training remains uncertain. Recently, hands-only CPR has been shown to be as effective as conventional CPR. The purpose of this study is to compare the retention rate of CPR skills in laypersons after hands-only or conventional CPR training. Participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 CPR training methods: 80 minutes of hands-only CPR training or 180 minutes of conventional CPR training. Each participant's CPR skills were evaluated at the end of training and 3 months thereafter using the Resusci Anne manikin with a skill-reporting software. In total, 252 participants completed training; there were 125 in the hands-only CPR group and 127 in the conventional CPR group. After 3 months, 118 participants were randomly selected to complete a post-training test. The hands-only CPR group showed a significant decrease in average compression rate (P=0.015), average compression depth (P=0.031), and proportion of adequate compression depth (P=0.011). In contrast, there was no difference in the skills of the conventional CPR group after 3 months. Conventional CPR training appears to be more effective for the retention of chest compression skills than hands-only CPR training; however, the retention of artificial ventilation skills after conventional CPR training is poor.

  1. Neither Basic Life Support knowledge nor self-efficacy are predictive of skills among dental students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, C; Ho, J D; Guerin, S; Yeoh, Y L; Mohamed Medhat, M; Doody, K; Hwang, S; Hania, M; Boggs, S; Nolan, A; Nunn, J

    2017-08-01

    Basic life support (BLS) is considered a core competence for the graduating dentist. This study aimed to measure BLS knowledge, self-efficacy and skills of undergraduate dental students in Dublin. This study consisted of a cross-sectional survey measuring BLS knowledge and self-efficacy, accompanied by a directly observed BLS skills assessment in a subsample of respondents. Data were collected in January 2014. Bivariate correlations between descriptive and outcome variables (knowledge, self-efficacy and skills) were tested using Pearson's chi-square. We included knowledge and self-efficacy as predictor variables, along with other variables showing association, into a binary logistic regression model with BLS skills as the outcome measure. One hundred and thirty-five students participated. Almost all (n = 133, 98.5%) participants had BLS training within the last 2 years. One hundred and four (77%) felt that they were capable of providing effective BLS (self-efficacy), whilst only 46 (34.1%) scored >80% of knowledge items correct. Amongst the skills (n = 85) subsample, 38.8% (n = 33) were found to pass the BLS skills assessment. Controlling for gender, age and skills assessor, the regression model did not identify a predictive relationship between knowledge or self-efficacy and BLS skills. Neither knowledge nor self-efficacy was predictive of BLS skills. Dental students had low levels of knowledge and skills in BLS. Despite this, their confidence in their ability to perform BLS was high and did not predict actual competence. There is a need for additional hands-on training, focusing on self-efficacy and BLS skills, particularly the use of AED. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Fine-motor skills testing and prediction of endovascular performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Bo; Lönn, Lars; Schroeder, Torben V

    2013-01-01

    Performing endovascular procedures requires good control of fine-motor digital movements and hand-eye coordination. Objective assessment of such skills is difficult. Trainees acquire control of catheter/wire movements at various paces. However, little is known to what extent talent plays for novice...

  3. Seasonal temperature prediction skill over Southern Africa and human health

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lazenby, MJ

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available An assessment of probabilistic prediction skill of seasonal temperature extremes over Southern Africa is presented. Verification results are presented for six run-on seasons; September to November, October to December, November to January, December...

  4. Potential predictability and forecast skill in ensemble climate forecast: a skill-persistence rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Yishuai; Rong, Xinyao; Liu, Zhengyu

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the factors relationship between the forecast skills for the real world (actual skill) and perfect model (perfect skill) in ensemble climate model forecast with a series of fully coupled general circulation model forecast experiments. It is found that the actual skill for sea surface temperature (SST) in seasonal forecast is substantially higher than the perfect skill on a large part of the tropical oceans, especially the tropical Indian Ocean and the central-eastern Pacific Ocean. The higher actual skill is found to be related to the higher observational SST persistence, suggesting a skill-persistence rule: a higher SST persistence in the real world than in the model could overwhelm the model bias to produce a higher forecast skill for the real world than for the perfect model. The relation between forecast skill and persistence is further proved using a first-order autoregressive model (AR1) analytically for theoretical solutions and numerically for analogue experiments. The AR1 model study shows that the skill-persistence rule is strictly valid in the case of infinite ensemble size, but could be distorted by sampling errors and non-AR1 processes. This study suggests that the so called "perfect skill" is model dependent and cannot serve as an accurate estimate of the true upper limit of real world prediction skill, unless the model can capture at least the persistence property of the observation.

  5. Hand Preference for Precision Grasping Predicts Language Lateralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Claudia L. R.; Goodale, Melvyn A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigated whether or not there is a relationship between hand preference for grasping and hemispheric dominance for language--and how each of these is related to other traditional measures of handedness. To do this we asked right- and left-handed participants to put together two different sets of 3D puzzles made out of big or very small…

  6. Causes of skill in seasonal predictions of the Arctic Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arun; Chen, Mingyue

    2017-11-01

    Based on an analysis of hindcasts from a seasonal forecast system, complemented by the analysis of a large ensemble of AMIP simulations, possible causes for skillful prediction of the winter Arctic Oscillation (AO) on a seasonal time-scale are analyzed. The possibility that the recent increase in AO skill could be due to model improvements, or due to changes in the persistence characteristics of the AO, is first discounted. The analysis then focuses on exploring the possibility that the recent increase in prediction skill in AO may be due to sampling variations or could have physical causes. Temporal variations in AO skill due entirely to sampling alone cannot be discounted as this is a fundamental constraint on verifications over a short time-series. This notion is supported from theoretical considerations, and from the analysis of the temporal variations in the perfect model skill where substantial variations in skill due to sampling alone are documented. As for the physical causes, the analysis indicates possible links in the prediction skill of AO with the SST forcing from the tropics, particularly related to the SST variations associated with the Trans-Niño Index (TNI). Interannual and low frequency variations in the TNI could have contributed to similar temporal variations in AO skill. For example, a dominance of central Pacific El Niño events after 2000 (a reflection of low-frequency variations in TNI) coincided with an increase in the prediction skill of AO. The analysis approach and results provide an avenue for further investigations; for example, model simulations forced with the SST pattern associated with the TNI, to establish or reaffirm causes for AO skill.

  7. Common variants in left/right asymmetry genes and pathways are associated with relative hand skill.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William M Brandler

    Full Text Available Humans display structural and functional asymmetries in brain organization, strikingly with respect to language and handedness. The molecular basis of these asymmetries is unknown. We report a genome-wide association study meta-analysis for a quantitative measure of relative hand skill in individuals with dyslexia [reading disability (RD] (n = 728. The most strongly associated variant, rs7182874 (P = 8.68 × 10(-9, is located in PCSK6, further supporting an association we previously reported. We also confirmed the specificity of this association in individuals with RD; the same locus was not associated with relative hand skill in a general population cohort (n = 2,666. As PCSK6 is known to regulate NODAL in the development of left/right (LR asymmetry in mice, we developed a novel approach to GWAS pathway analysis, using gene-set enrichment to test for an over-representation of highly associated variants within the orthologs of genes whose disruption in mice yields LR asymmetry phenotypes. Four out of 15 LR asymmetry phenotypes showed an over-representation (FDR ≤ 5%. We replicated three of these phenotypes; situs inversus, heterotaxia, and double outlet right ventricle, in the general population cohort (FDR ≤ 5%. Our findings lead us to propose that handedness is a polygenic trait controlled in part by the molecular mechanisms that establish LR body asymmetry early in development.

  8. Research of hands' strength and endurance indications of arm sport athletes having different levels of skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Podrigalo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : comparative study of indicators of hands’ strength and endurance at athletes of arm sport of different skill levels. Material : the study involved 50 athletes. Athletes were divided into two groups: 1 - 15 athletes with high skill levels (age 25,25 ± 0,62 years and 2 - 35 athletes and fans of mass categories (age 22,21 ± 0,35 years. Results : it is shown that the results of carpal dynamometry right and left hands were significantly higher in group 1 (respectively: 60,50 ± 0,91 kg and 53,75 ± 0,83 kg against 52,35 ± 0,51 kg and 48 53 ± 0,46 kg. Strength endurance was significantly higher in group 2 (respectively: 32,97 ± 0,61 sec 33,09 ± 0,62 sec against 23,78 ± 0,85 sec and 24,66 ± 0,78 sec. Found that carpal dynamometry has a maximum contribution to the system (in group 1 for the right hand - 18.17, for the left - 23.50, in group 2 - 7.44 and 7.10. Correlation coefficients dynamometry in group 1 were significantly higher. Strength endurance had almost no connection with the study of reliable performance. Conclusions : it is proved that the level of carpal dynamometry is an important informative and adequate criterion. This indicator is characterized by a maximum contribution backbone.

  9. [Hand fine motor skills and use of both hand and arm in subjects after a stroke: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostolaza, M; Abudarham, J; Dilascio, S; Drault-Boedo, E; Gallo, S; Garcete, A; Kramer, M; Maiaru, M; Mendelevich, A; Modica, M; Peralta, F; Sanchez-Correa, C

    2017-04-01

    In clinical practice it is important to be able to assess the function of the upper limb of the patient who has suffered a stroke. There is currently no systemic review that could identify assessment tools for the 'fine use of the hand' and 'use of both hand and arm'. Primary, to identify observational tools which can assess the fine use of the hand and the use of both hand and arm in patients with stroke sequels. Secondary, to analyze the bias risk in the included articles, describing and categorizing the clinical utility, validity and reliability. A search was carried in Medline, LILACS, SciELO and Open Grey, which included articles published until October 2015. Studies that validate assessing tools of the upper limb in subjects with a stroke sequel which evaluate the fine use of the hand and the use of both hand and arm were included. Eleven tools in evaluate observational haven been selected, which assess the fine use of the hand and the use of hand and arm. In every case both validity and reliability have been reported, but clinical utility has been less considered for assessment. The studies that researched these tools showed a high risk of bias in their development. ARAT-19 showed a lower bias risk, but when it has to do with applicability and the reference trial is taken into account, the level of concern is high.

  10. Assessment of comparative skills between hand-assisted and straight laparoscopic colorectal training on an augmented reality simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblanc, F; Delaney, C P; Neary, P C; Rose, J; Augestad, K M; Senagore, A J; Ellis, C N; Champagne, B J

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare skills sets during a hand-assisted and straight laparoscopic colectomy on an augmented reality simulator. Twenty-nine surgeons, assigned randomly in 2 groups, performed laparoscopic sigmoid colectomies on a simulator: group A (n = 15) performed hand-assisted then straight procedures; group B (n = 14) performed straight then hand-assisted procedures. Groups were compared according to prior laparoscopic colorectal experience, performance (time, instrument path length, and instrument velocity changes), technical skills, and operative error. Prior laparoscopic colorectal experience was similar in both groups. Both groups had better performances with the hand-assisted approach, although technical skill scores were similar between approaches. The error rate was higher with the hand-assisted approach in group A, but similar between both approaches in group B. These data define the metrics of performance for hand-assisted and straight laparoscopic colectomy on an augmented reality simulator. The improved scores with the hand-assisted approach suggest that with this simulator a hand-assisted model may be technically easier to perform, although it is associated with increased intraoperative errors.

  11. MJO prediction skill of the subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, S. W.; Lim, Y.; Kim, D.

    2017-12-01

    The Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO), the dominant mode of tropical intraseasonal variability, provides the primary source of tropical and extratropical predictability on subseasonal to seasonal timescales. To better understand its predictability, this study conducts quantitative evaluation of MJO prediction skill in the state-of-the-art operational models participating in the subseasonal-to-seasonal (S2S) prediction project. Based on bivariate correlation coefficient of 0.5, the S2S models exhibit MJO prediction skill ranging from 12 to 36 days. These prediction skills are affected by both the MJO amplitude and phase errors, the latter becoming more important with forecast lead times. Consistent with previous studies, the MJO events with stronger initial amplitude are typically better predicted. However, essentially no sensitivity to the initial MJO phase is observed. Overall MJO prediction skill and its inter-model spread are further related with the model mean biases in moisture fields and longwave cloud-radiation feedbacks. In most models, a dry bias quickly builds up in the deep tropics, especially across the Maritime Continent, weakening horizontal moisture gradient. This likely dampens the organization and propagation of MJO. Most S2S models also underestimate the longwave cloud-radiation feedbacks in the tropics, which may affect the maintenance of the MJO convective envelop. In general, the models with a smaller bias in horizontal moisture gradient and longwave cloud-radiation feedbacks show a higher MJO prediction skill, suggesting that improving those processes would enhance MJO prediction skill.

  12. Pre-Service Physics Teachers’ Perception toward Hands-on Lab Activity and 21st Century Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, D. H.; Risdianto, E.; Sutarno, S.

    2017-09-01

    This study aimed to describe the hands-on lab activities and 21st century skills of pre-service physics teachers at a university in Bengkulu. The respondents of this study were 113 students who have been finished and were following the laboratory course. The research instrument was questionnaire. The explored aspects of laboratory activities were motivation, the importance of laboratory activities, equipment, laboratory activities process, suitability of curriculum, assessment, laboratory design, and the 21st century skills training. The 21st century skills explored consist of learning and innovation skills, life and careers skills, and media, information and technology skills. The data obtained will be analyzed descriptively. Based on the results of data analysis was obtained that they have a good perception toward the aspect of motivation, the importance of hands-on lab activities, and laboratory activities process; and the perception was fair for other aspects. The lowest perception score was obtained in the aspects of the 21st century skills training. This result was in accordance with the 21st century skills of pre-service physics teachers which were still in moderate category. So it is necessary to develop a model of laboratory activities design that can training and enhancing the 21st century skills for pre-service physics teachers.

  13. Benchmarking ensemble streamflow prediction skill in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrigan, Shaun; Prudhomme, Christel; Parry, Simon; Smith, Katie; Tanguy, Maliko

    2018-03-01

    Skilful hydrological forecasts at sub-seasonal to seasonal lead times would be extremely beneficial for decision-making in water resources management, hydropower operations, and agriculture, especially during drought conditions. Ensemble streamflow prediction (ESP) is a well-established method for generating an ensemble of streamflow forecasts in the absence of skilful future meteorological predictions, instead using initial hydrologic conditions (IHCs), such as soil moisture, groundwater, and snow, as the source of skill. We benchmark when and where the ESP method is skilful across a diverse sample of 314 catchments in the UK and explore the relationship between catchment storage and ESP skill. The GR4J hydrological model was forced with historic climate sequences to produce a 51-member ensemble of streamflow hindcasts. We evaluated forecast skill seamlessly from lead times of 1 day to 12 months initialized at the first of each month over a 50-year hindcast period from 1965 to 2015. Results showed ESP was skilful against a climatology benchmark forecast in the majority of catchments across all lead times up to a year ahead, but the degree of skill was strongly conditional on lead time, forecast initialization month, and individual catchment location and storage properties. UK-wide mean ESP skill decayed exponentially as a function of lead time with continuous ranked probability skill scores across the year of 0.75, 0.20, and 0.11 for 1-day, 1-month, and 3-month lead times, respectively. However, skill was not uniform across all initialization months. For lead times up to 1 month, ESP skill was higher than average when initialized in summer and lower in winter months, whereas for longer seasonal and annual lead times skill was higher when initialized in autumn and winter months and lowest in spring. ESP was most skilful in the south and east of the UK, where slower responding catchments with higher soil moisture and groundwater storage are mainly located

  14. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Lisa M; Van Beurden, Eric; Morgan, Philip J; Brooks, Lyndon O; Beard, John R

    2008-12-01

    To determine whether childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency predicts subsequent adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness. In 2000, children's proficiency in a battery of skills was assessed as part of an elementary school-based intervention. Participants were followed up during 2006/2007 as part of the Physical Activity and Skills Study, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using the Multistage Fitness Test. Linear regression was used to examine the relationship between childhood fundamental motor skill proficiency and adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness controlling for gender. Composite object control (kick, catch, throw) and locomotor skill (hop, side gallop, vertical jump) were constructed for analysis. A separate linear regression examined the ability of the sprint run to predict cardiorespiratory fitness. Of the 928 original intervention participants, 481 were in 28 schools, 276 (57%) of whom were assessed. Two hundred and forty-four students (88.4%) completed the fitness test. One hundred and twenty-seven were females (52.1%), 60.1% of whom were in grade 10 and 39.0% were in grade 11. As children, almost all 244 completed each motor assessments, except for the sprint run (n = 154, 55.8%). The mean composite skill score in 2000 was 17.7 (SD 5.1). In 2006/2007, the mean number of laps on the Multistage Fitness Test was 50.5 (SD 24.4). Object control proficiency in childhood, adjusting for gender (P = 0.000), was associated with adolescent cardiorespiratory fitness (P = 0.012), accounting for 26% of fitness variation. Children with good object control skills are more likely to become fit adolescents. Fundamental motor skill development in childhood may be an important component of interventions aiming to promote long-term fitness.

  15. Predicting self-monitoring skills using textual posts on Facebook

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Qiwei; Glas, Cornelis A.W.; Kosinski, Michal; Stillwell, David J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2014-01-01

    The popularity of the social networking site Facebook (FB) has grown unprecedented during the past five years. The research question investigated is whether posts on FB would also be applicable for the prediction of users’ psychological traits such as self-monitoring (SM) skill that is supposed to

  16. Skill forecasting from ensemble predictions of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Nielsen, Henrik Aalborg; Madsen, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Optimal management and trading of wind generation calls for the providing of uncertainty estimates along with the commonly provided short-term wind power point predictions. Alternative approaches for the use of probabilistic forecasting are introduced. More precisely, focus is given to prediction...... risk indices aiming to give a comprehensive signal on the expected level of forecast uncertainty. Ensemble predictions of wind generation are used as input. A proposal for the definition of prediction risk indices is given. Such skill forecasts are based on the spread of ensemble forecasts (i.e. a set...... of alternative scenarios for the coming period) for a single prediction horizon or over a took-ahead period. It is shown on the test case of a Danish offshore wind farm how these prediction risk indices may be related to several levels of forecast uncertainty (and potential energy imbalances). Wind power...

  17. Skill forecasting from different wind power ensemble prediction methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinson, Pierre; Nielsen, Henrik A; Madsen, Henrik; Kariniotakis, George

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation on alternative approaches to the providing of uncertainty estimates associated to point predictions of wind generation. Focus is given to skill forecasts in the form of prediction risk indices, aiming at giving a comprehensive signal on the expected level of forecast uncertainty. Ensemble predictions of wind generation are used as input. A proposal for the definition of prediction risk indices is given. Such skill forecasts are based on the dispersion of ensemble members for a single prediction horizon, or over a set of successive look-ahead times. It is shown on the test case of a Danish offshore wind farm how prediction risk indices may be related to several levels of forecast uncertainty (and energy imbalances). Wind power ensemble predictions are derived from the transformation of ECMWF and NCEP ensembles of meteorological variables to power, as well as by a lagged average approach alternative. The ability of risk indices calculated from the various types of ensembles forecasts to resolve among situations with different levels of uncertainty is discussed

  18. Does transcranial direct current stimulation affect the learning of a fine sequential hand motor skill with motor imagery?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sobierajewicz, Jagna; Jaskowski, Wojciech; van der Lubbe, Robert Henricus Johannes

    2017-01-01

    Learning a fine sequential hand motor skill, comparable to playing the piano or learning to type, improves not only due to physical practice, but also due to motor imagery. Previous studies revealed that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and motor imagery independently affect motor

  19. Regional cerebral blood flow during rest and skilled hand movements by xenon-133 inhalation and emission computerized tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauritzen, M; Henriksen, L; Lassen, N A

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 16 normal adult volunteers during rest and in 10 the study was repeated during skilled hand movements. A fast-rotating ("dynamic"), single-photon emission computerized tomograph (ECT) with four detector heads was used. Xenon-133 was inhaled over a 1...... motor area on both sides by 34 +/- 15% (p less than 0.025)....

  20. Hands-On Defibrillation Skills of Pediatric Acute Care Providers During a Simulated Ventricular Fibrillation Cardiac Arrest Scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalala, Utpal S; Balakumar, Niveditha; Zamora, Maria; Appachi, Elumalai

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Timely defibrillation in ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VFCA) is associated with good outcome. While defibrillation skills of pediatric providers have been reported to be poor, the factors related to poor hands-on defibrillation skills of pediatric providers are largely unknown. The aim of our study was to evaluate delay in individual steps of the defibrillation and human and non-human factors associated with poor hands-on defibrillation skills among pediatric acute care providers during a simulated VFCA scenario. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of video evaluation of hands-on defibrillation skills of pediatric providers in a simulated VFCA in our children's hospital. Each provider was asked to use pads followed by paddles to provide 2 J/kg shock to an infant mannequin in VFCA. The hands-on skills were evaluated for struggle with any step of defibrillation, defined a priori as >10 s delay with particular step. The data was analyzed using chi-square test with significant p -value 10 s delay) with each of connecting the pads/paddles to the device, using pads/paddles on the mannequin and using buttons on the machine was 34 (50%), 26 (38%), and 31 (46%), respectively. Conclusions: The defibrillation skills of providers in a tertiary care children's hospital are poor. Both human and machine-related factors are associated with delay in defibrillation. Prior use of the study defibrillator is associated with a significantly shorter time-to-first shock as compared to prior use of any other defibrillator or no prior use of any defibrillator.

  1. Fine motor skills enhance lexical processing of embodied vocabulary: A test of the nimble-hands, nimble-minds hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suggate, Sebastian; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2017-10-01

    Research suggests that fine motor skills (FMS) are linked to aspects of cognitive development in children. Additionally, lexical processing advantages exist for words implying a high body-object interaction (BOI), with initial findings indicating that such words in turn link to children's FMS-for which we propose and evaluate four competing hypotheses. First, a maturational account argues that any links between FMS and lexical processing should not exist once developmental variables are controlled for. Second, functionalism posits that any link between FMS and lexical processing arises due to environmental interactions. Third, the semantic richness hypothesis argues that sensorimotor input improves lexical processing, but predicts no links between FMS and lexical processing. A fourth account, the nimble-hands, nimble minds (NHNM) hypothesis, proposes that having greater FMS improves lexical processing for high-BOI words. In two experiments, the response latencies of preschool children (n = 90, n = 76, ages = 5;1) to 45 lexical items encompassing high-BOI, low-BOI, and less imageable words were measured, alongside measures of FMS, reasoning, and general receptive/expressive vocabulary. High-BOI words appeared to show unique links to FMS, which remained after accounting for low-BOI and less imageable words, general vocabulary, reasoning, and chronological age. Although further work is needed, the findings provide initial support for the NHNM hypothesis.

  2. The effects of hand gestures on verbal recall as a function of high- and low-verbal-skill levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick-Horbury, Donna

    2002-04-01

    The author examined the effects of cueing for verbal recall with the accompanying self-generated hand gestures as a function of verbal skill. There were 36 participants, half with low SAT verbal scores and half with high SAT verbal scores. Half of the participants of each verbal-skill level were cued for recall with their own gestures, and the remaining half was given a free-recall test. Cueing with self-generated gestures aided the low-verbal-skill participants so that their retrieval rate equaled that of the high-verbal-skill participants and their loss of recall over a 2-week period was minimal. This effect was stable for both concrete and abstract words. The findings support the hypothesis that gestures serve as an auxiliary code for memory retrieval.

  3. Hands On, Minds On: How Executive Function, Motor, and Spatial Skills Foster School Readiness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Claire E.

    2018-01-01

    A growing body of research indicates that three foundational cognitive skills--executive function, motor skills, and spatial skills--form the basis for children to make a strong academic, behavioral, and social transition to formal school. Given inequitable early learning environments or "opportunity gaps" in the United States, these…

  4. The pace of vocabulary growth helps predict later vocabulary skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Raudenbush, Stephen W.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2011-01-01

    Children vary widely in the rate at which they acquire words—some start slow and speed up, others start fast and continue at a steady pace. Do early developmental variations of this sort help predict vocabulary skill just prior to kindergarten entry? This longitudinal study starts by examining important predictors (SES, parent input, child gesture) of vocabulary growth between 14 and 46 months (n=62), and then uses growth estimates to predict children's vocabulary at 54 months. Velocity and acceleration in vocabulary development at 30 months predicted later vocabulary, particularly for children from low socioeconomic backgrounds. Understanding the pace of early vocabulary growth thus improves our ability to predict school readiness, and may help identify children at risk for starting behind. PMID:22235920

  5. Seasonal prediction skill of winter temperature over North India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, P. R.; Kar, S. C.; Mohanty, U. C.; Dey, S.; Kumari, S.; Sinha, P.

    2016-04-01

    The climatology, amplitude error, phase error, and mean square skill score (MSSS) of temperature predictions from five different state-of-the-art general circulation models (GCMs) have been examined for the winter (December-January-February) seasons over North India. In this region, temperature variability affects the phenological development processes of wheat crops and the grain yield. The GCM forecasts of temperature for a whole season issued in November from various organizations are compared with observed gridded temperature data obtained from the India Meteorological Department (IMD) for the period 1982-2009. The MSSS indicates that the models have skills of varying degrees. Predictions of maximum and minimum temperature obtained from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) climate forecast system model (NCEP_CFSv2) are compared with station level observations from the Snow and Avalanche Study Establishment (SASE). It has been found that when the model temperatures are corrected to account the bias in the model and actual orography, the predictions are able to delineate the observed trend compared to the trend without orography correction.

  6. Different hands. Markets for intermediate skills in Germany, the. U.S. and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Lieshout, H.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    This dissertation analyzes and compares how empirical markets for intermediate skills operate under different governance regimes. The central question was: how do markets for intermediate skills operate in Germany, the U.S. and the Netherlands? What options for vocational education and training

  7. IMPROVING CHILDREN‘S SPEECH SKILLS USE MEDIA-ASSISTED STORY TELLING WITH STORY APRONS AND HAND PUPPETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radeni Sukma Indra Dewi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Problem in this study regarding the lack of language profieciency, especially in speaking skills. This study aims to determine the speaking skills improvement after application of media-aided Story Aprons and Hand Puppets in the second semester of children in group B3 in kindergarten Pertiwi 45 academic year 2016/2017. This research is a classroom action research conducted in two cycles. The subjects were 31 children in group B3 in the second semester of kindergarten Pertiwi 45 in academic year 2016/2017, which consists of 16 girl and 15 boys. Data collected research on speaking skill with observation form sheet format. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistical analysis and quantitative descriptive analysis method. The result showed that an increase speaking skill by applying the method of storytelling assisted hand puppet media in the first cycle of 63,31% which is at the low category had experienced an increase in the second cycle into 80,81% were classified in the high category. Based on the results of the research and the analysis increased ability to speak at 17,50% of children in group B3 kindergarten Pertiwi 45 Semarang.

  8. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Striatal volume predicts level of video game skill acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Basak, Chandramallika; Neider, Mark B; Prakash, Ruchika S; Voss, Michelle W; Graybiel, Ann M; Simons, Daniel J; Fabiani, Monica; Gratton, Gabriele; Kramer, Arthur F

    2010-11-01

    Video game skills transfer to other tasks, but individual differences in performance and in learning and transfer rates make it difficult to identify the source of transfer benefits. We asked whether variability in initial acquisition and of improvement in performance on a demanding video game, the Space Fortress game, could be predicted by variations in the pretraining volume of either of 2 key brain regions implicated in learning and memory: the striatum, implicated in procedural learning and cognitive flexibility, and the hippocampus, implicated in declarative memory. We found that hippocampal volumes did not predict learning improvement but that striatal volumes did. Moreover, for the striatum, the volumes of the dorsal striatum predicted improvement in performance but the volumes of the ventral striatum did not. Both ventral and dorsal striatal volumes predicted early acquisition rates. Furthermore, this early-stage correlation between striatal volumes and learning held regardless of the cognitive flexibility demands of the game versions, whereas the predictive power of the dorsal striatal volumes held selectively for performance improvements in a game version emphasizing cognitive flexibility. These findings suggest a neuroanatomical basis for the superiority of training strategies that promote cognitive flexibility and transfer to untrained tasks.

  10. Visuospatial Aptitude Testing Differentially Predicts Simulated Surgical Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchcliff, Emily; Green, Isabel; Destephano, Christopher; Cox, Mary; Smink, Douglas; Kumar, Amanika; Hokenstad, Erik; Bengtson, Joan; Cohen, Sarah

    2018-02-05

    To determine if visuospatial perception (VSP) testing is correlated to simulated or intraoperative surgical performance as rated by the American College of Graduate Medical Education (ACGME) milestones. Classification II-2 SETTING: Two academic training institutions PARTICIPANTS: 41 residents, including 19 Brigham and Women's Hospital and 22 Mayo Clinic residents from three different specialties (OBGYN, general surgery, urology). Participants underwent three different tests: visuospatial perception testing (VSP), Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS®) peg transfer, and DaVinci robotic simulation peg transfer. Surgical grading from the ACGME milestones tool was obtained for each participant. Demographic and subject background information was also collected including specialty, year of training, prior experience with simulated skills, and surgical interest. Standard statistical analysis using Student's t test were performed, and correlations were determined using adjusted linear regression models. In univariate analysis, BWH and Mayo training programs differed in both times and overall scores for both FLS® peg transfer and DaVinci robotic simulation peg transfer (p<0.05 for all). Additionally, type of residency training impacted time and overall score on robotic peg transfer. Familiarity with tasks correlated with higher score and faster task completion (p= 0.05 for all except VSP score). There was no difference in VSP scores by program, specialty, or year of training. In adjusted linear regression modeling, VSP testing was correlated only to robotic peg transfer skills (average time p=0.006, overall score p=0.001). Milestones did not correlate to either VSP or surgical simulation testing. VSP score was correlated with robotic simulation skills but not with FLS skills or ACGME milestones. This suggests that the ability of VSP score to predict competence differs between tasks. Therefore, further investigation is required into aptitude testing, especially prior

  11. Watch what you type: the role of visual feedback from the screen and hands in skilled typewriting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Kristy M; Logan, Gordon D; Yamaguchi, Motonori

    2015-01-01

    Skilled typing is controlled by two hierarchically structured processing loops (Logan & Crump, 2011): The outer loop, which produces words, commands the inner loop, which produces keystrokes. Here, we assessed the interplay between the two loops by investigating how visual feedback from the screen (responses either were or were not echoed on the screen) and the hands (the hands either were or were not covered with a box) influences the control of skilled typing. Our results indicated, first, that the reaction time of the first keystroke was longer when responses were not echoed than when they were. Also, the interkeystroke interval (IKSI) was longer when the hands were covered than when they were visible, and the IKSI for responses that were not echoed was longer when explicit error monitoring was required (Exp. 2) than when it was not required (Exp. 1). Finally, explicit error monitoring was more accurate when response echoes were present than when they were absent, and implicit error monitoring (i.e., posterror slowing) was not influenced by visual feedback from the screen or the hands. These findings suggest that the outer loop adjusts the inner-loop timing parameters to compensate for reductions in visual feedback. We suggest that these adjustments are preemptive control strategies designed to execute keystrokes more cautiously when visual feedback from the hands is absent, to generate more cautious motor programs when visual feedback from the screen is absent, and to enable enough time for the outer loop to monitor keystrokes when visual feedback from the screen is absent and explicit error reports are required.

  12. Psychomotor testing predicts rate of skill acquisition for proficiency-based laparoscopic skills training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, Dimitrios; Korndorffer, James R; Black, F William; Dunne, J Bruce; Sierra, Rafael; Touchard, Cheri L; Rice, David A; Markert, Ronald J; Kastl, Peter R; Scott, Daniel J

    2006-08-01

    Laparoscopic simulator training translates into improved operative performance. Proficiency-based curricula maximize efficiency by tailoring training to meet the needs of each individual; however, because rates of skill acquisition vary widely, such curricula may be difficult to implement. We hypothesized that psychomotor testing would predict baseline performance and training duration in a proficiency-based laparoscopic simulator curriculum. Residents (R1, n = 20) were enrolled in an IRB-approved prospective study at the beginning of the academic year. All completed the following: a background information survey, a battery of 12 innate ability measures (5 motor, and 7 visual-spatial), and baseline testing on 3 validated simulators (5 videotrainer [VT] tasks, 12 virtual reality [minimally invasive surgical trainer-virtual reality, MIST-VR] tasks, and 2 laparoscopic camera navigation [LCN] tasks). Participants trained to proficiency, and training duration and number of repetitions were recorded. Baseline test scores were correlated to skill acquisition rate. Cutoff scores for each predictive test were calculated based on a receiver operator curve, and their sensitivity and specificity were determined in identifying slow learners. Only the Cards Rotation test correlated with baseline simulator ability on VT and LCN. Curriculum implementation required 347 man-hours (6-person team) and 795,000 dollars of capital equipment. With an attendance rate of 75%, 19 of 20 residents (95%) completed the curriculum by the end of the academic year. To complete training, a median of 12 hours (range, 5.5-21), and 325 repetitions (range, 171-782) were required. Simulator score improvement was 50%. Training duration and repetitions correlated with prior video game and billiard exposure, grooved pegboard, finger tap, map planning, Rey Figure Immediate Recall score, and baseline performance on VT and LCN. The map planning cutoff score proved most specific in identifying slow learners

  13. Automated robot-assisted surgical skill evaluation: Predictive analytics approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fard, Mahtab J; Ameri, Sattar; Darin Ellis, R; Chinnam, Ratna B; Pandya, Abhilash K; Klein, Michael D

    2018-02-01

    Surgical skill assessment has predominantly been a subjective task. Recently, technological advances such as robot-assisted surgery have created great opportunities for objective surgical evaluation. In this paper, we introduce a predictive framework for objective skill assessment based on movement trajectory data. Our aim is to build a classification framework to automatically evaluate the performance of surgeons with different levels of expertise. Eight global movement features are extracted from movement trajectory data captured by a da Vinci robot for surgeons with two levels of expertise - novice and expert. Three classification methods - k-nearest neighbours, logistic regression and support vector machines - are applied. The result shows that the proposed framework can classify surgeons' expertise as novice or expert with an accuracy of 82.3% for knot tying and 89.9% for a suturing task. This study demonstrates and evaluates the ability of machine learning methods to automatically classify expert and novice surgeons using global movement features. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. BOOK REVIEW - DOC, PATIENTS' OUTCOME IS IN YOUR HAND. IMPROVE YOUR CLINICAL SKILL WITH DERMATOLOGY CLINICAL SKILL TEST KIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROHNA RIDZWAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The author has condensed her almost 30 years of working experience to present dermatology in a uniqueand interesting manner in this book. Unlike a textbook, the reader is guided on common as well as commonly misdiagnosed skin conditions including adverse drug reactions and occupational dermatoses by a series of quizzes which are different from the usual multiple choice type of questions. Responses are scored accordingto their implications on the respondent; for example, the answer will denote that the respondent is either a safe doctor, wasteful of resources or may cause harm to the patient.It will be advantageous for the reader to know basic dermatology but the author has considered readers who may be unfamiliar with the terms by first testing the reader on his knowledge of common dermatological terminologies. The correct answers are given. Useful tips are also provided to differentiate and recognise the skin lesions. With more than 300 coloured images of a wide range of skin conditions collected from local patients, the reader will be able to actively challenge himself in privacy and at his own pace. This book is simple and fun as a learning tool and will be very useful for housemen, postgraduate medical trainees and primary healthcare providers who want to assess their skills in dermatology.

  15. Using virtual reality technology and hand tracking technology to create software for training surgical skills in 3D game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakirova, A. A.; Ganiev, B. A.; Mullin, R. I.

    2015-11-01

    The lack of visible and approachable ways of training surgical skills is one of the main problems in medical education. Existing simulation training devices are not designed to teach students, and are not available due to the high cost of the equipment. Using modern technologies such as virtual reality and hands movements fixation technology we want to create innovative method of learning the technics of conducting operations in 3D game format, which can make education process interesting and effective. Creating of 3D format virtual simulator will allow to solve several conceptual problems at once: opportunity of practical skills improvement unlimited by the time without the risk for patient, high realism of environment in operational and anatomic body structures, using of game mechanics for information perception relief and memorization of methods acceleration, accessibility of this program.

  16. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruijt, Steffie; Jongsma, Marijtje L A; van der Kamp, John; Steenbergen, Bert

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in different rotation angles. Response accuracy and response duration were registered. Response durations of the trials with a correct judgment were fitted to a-priori defined predictive sinusoid models, representing different strategies to successfully perform the hand laterality judgment task. The first model predicted systematic changes in response duration as a function of rotation angle of the displayed hand. The second model predicted that response durations are affected by biomechanical constraints of hand rotation. If observed data could be best described by the first model, this would argue for a mental imagery strategy that does not involve motor processes to solve the task. The second model reflects a motor imagery strategy to solve the task. In line with previous research, we showed an age-related increase in response accuracy and decrease in response duration in children. Observed data for both back and palm view showed that motor imagery strategies were used to perform hand laterality judgments, but that not all the children use these strategies (appropriately) at all times. A direct comparison of response duration patterns across age sheds new light on age-related differences in the strategies employed to solve the task. Importantly, the employment of the motor imagery strategy for successful task performance did not change with age.

  17. Prediction skill of rainstorm events over India in the TIGGE weather prediction models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuna Sagar, S.; Rajeevan, M.; Vijaya Bhaskara Rao, S.; Mitra, A. K.

    2017-12-01

    Extreme rainfall events pose a serious threat of leading to severe floods in many countries worldwide. Therefore, advance prediction of its occurrence and spatial distribution is very essential. In this paper, an analysis has been made to assess the skill of numerical weather prediction models in predicting rainstorms over India. Using gridded daily rainfall data set and objective criteria, 15 rainstorms were identified during the monsoon season (June to September). The analysis was made using three TIGGE (THe Observing System Research and Predictability Experiment (THORPEX) Interactive Grand Global Ensemble) models. The models considered are the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) and the UK Met Office (UKMO). Verification of the TIGGE models for 43 observed rainstorm days from 15 rainstorm events has been made for the period 2007-2015. The comparison reveals that rainstorm events are predictable up to 5 days in advance, however with a bias in spatial distribution and intensity. The statistical parameters like mean error (ME) or Bias, root mean square error (RMSE) and correlation coefficient (CC) have been computed over the rainstorm region using the multi-model ensemble (MME) mean. The study reveals that the spread is large in ECMWF and UKMO followed by the NCEP model. Though the ensemble spread is quite small in NCEP, the ensemble member averages are not well predicted. The rank histograms suggest that the forecasts are under prediction. The modified Contiguous Rain Area (CRA) technique was used to verify the spatial as well as the quantitative skill of the TIGGE models. Overall, the contribution from the displacement and pattern errors to the total RMSE is found to be more in magnitude. The volume error increases from 24 hr forecast to 48 hr forecast in all the three models.

  18. Regional cerebral blood flow during rest and skilled hand movements by xenon-133 inhalation and emission computerized tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauritzen, M.; Henriksen, L.; Lassen, N.A.

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) was studied in 16 normal adult volunteers during rest and in 10 the study was repeated during skilled hand movements. A fast-rotating (''dynamic''), single-photon emission computerized tomograph (ECT) with four detector heads was used. Xenon-133 was inhaled over a 1-min period at a concentration of 10 mCi/L. The arrival and washout of the radioisotope was recorded during four 1-min periods. Two slices, 2 cm thick, 7 and 12 cm above the orbitomeatal line were obtained in every study. CBF averaged 60 ml/100 g/min (SD +/- 11) in the lower slice and 51 ml/100 g/min (SD +/- 13) in the upper slice. A symmetric pattern comparing right to left sides was found in both slices. Finger tapping and writing with the right hand increased CBF in specific areas of the upper slice: in the contralateral hand area by 35 +/- 15% (p less than 0.025), and in the supplementary motor area on both sides by 34 +/- 15%

  19. The left IPL represents stored hand-postures for object use and action prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michiel evan Elk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Action semantics enables us to plan actions with objects and to predict others’ object-directed actions as well. Previous studies have suggested that action semantics are represented in a fronto-parietal action network that has also been implicated to play a role in action observation. In the present fMRI study it was investigated how activity within this network changes as a function of the predictability of an action involving multiple objects and requiring the use of action semantics. Participants performed an action prediction task in which they were required to anticipate the use of a centrally presented object that could be moved to an associated target object (e.g. hammer - nail. The availability of actor information (i.e. presenting a hand grasping the central object and the number of possible target objects (i.e. 0, 1 or 2 target objects were independently manipulated, resulting in different levels of predictability. It was found that making an action prediction based on actor information resulted in an increased activation in the extrastriate body area (EBA and the fronto-parietal action observation network (AON. Predicting actions involving a target object resulted in increased activation in the bilateral IPL and frontal motor areas. Within the AON, activity in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL and the left premotor cortex (PMC increased as a function of the level of action predictability. Together these findings suggest that the left IPL represents stored hand-postures that can be used for planning object-directed actions and for predicting other’s actions as well.

  20. Long-term progressive motor skill training enhances corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hemisphere and motor performance of the untrained hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Grey, Michael James

    2017-01-01

    It is well-established that unilateral motor practice can lead to increased performance in the opposite non-trained hand. Here, we test the hypothesis that progressively increasing task difficulty during long-term skill training with the dominant right hand increase performance and corticomotor...... and accuracy to individual proficiency promotes motor skill learning and drives the iM1-CSE resulting in enhanced performance of the non-trained hand. The results underline the importance of increasing task difficulty progressively and individually in skill learning and rehabilitation training. This article...... excitability of the left non-trained hand. Subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task engaging right digit V for 6 weeks with either progressively increasing task difficulty (PT) or no progression (NPT). Corticospinal excitability(CSE) was evaluated from the resting motor threshold(rMT) and recruitment...

  1. Long-term progressive motor skill training enhances corticospinal excitability for the ipsilateral hemisphere and motor performance of the untrained hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lasse; Larsen, Malte Nejst; Grey, Michael James

    2017-01-01

    It is well established that unilateral motor practice can lead to increased performance in the opposite non-trained hand. Here, we test the hypothesis that progressively increasing task difficulty during long-term skill training with the dominant right hand increase performance and corticomotor...... demands for timing and accuracy to individual proficiency promotes motor skill learning and drives the iM1-CSE resulting in enhanced performance of the non-trained hand. The results underline the importance of increasing task difficulty progressively and individually in skill learning and rehabilitation...... excitability of the left non-trained hand. Subjects practiced a visuomotor tracking task engaging right digit V for 6 weeks with either progressively increasing task difficulty (PT) or no progression (NPT). Corticospinal excitability (CSE) was evaluated from the resting motor threshold (rMT) and recruitment...

  2. Working memory dysfunctions predict social problem solving skills in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jia; Tan, Shu-ping; Walsh, Sarah C; Spriggens, Lauren K; Neumann, David L; Shum, David H K; Chan, Raymond C K

    2014-12-15

    The current study aimed to examine the contribution of neurocognition and social cognition to components of social problem solving. Sixty-seven inpatients with schizophrenia and 31 healthy controls were administrated batteries of neurocognitive tests, emotion perception tests, and the Chinese Assessment of Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills (CAIPSS). MANOVAs were conducted to investigate the domains in which patients with schizophrenia showed impairments. Correlations were used to determine which impaired domains were associated with social problem solving, and multiple regression analyses were conducted to compare the relative contribution of neurocognitive and social cognitive functioning to components of social problem solving. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia performed significantly worse in sustained attention, working memory, negative emotion, intention identification and all components of the CAIPSS. Specifically, sustained attention, working memory and negative emotion identification were found to correlate with social problem solving and 1-back accuracy significantly predicted the poor performance in social problem solving. Among the dysfunctions in schizophrenia, working memory contributed most to deficits in social problem solving in patients with schizophrenia. This finding provides support for targeting working memory in the development of future social problem solving rehabilitation interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Kinect technology for hand tracking control of surgical robots: technical and surgical skill comparison to current robotic masters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonjae; Leonard, Simon; Shademan, Azad; Krieger, Axel; Kim, Peter C W

    2014-06-01

    Current surgical robots are controlled by a mechanical master located away from the patient, tracking surgeon's hands by wire and pulleys or mechanical linkage. Contactless hand tracking for surgical robot control is an attractive alternative, because it can be executed with minimal footprint at the patient's bedside without impairing sterility, while eliminating current disassociation between surgeon and patient. We compared technical and technologic feasibility of contactless hand tracking to the current clinical standard master controllers. A hand-tracking system (Kinect™-based 3Gear), a wire-based mechanical master (Mantis Duo), and a clinical mechanical linkage master (da Vinci) were evaluated for technical parameters with strong clinical relevance: system latency, static noise, robot slave tremor, and controller range. Five experienced surgeons performed a skill comparison study, evaluating the three different master controllers for efficiency and accuracy in peg transfer and pointing tasks. da Vinci had the lowest latency of 89 ms, followed by Mantis with 374 ms and 3Gear with 576 ms. Mantis and da Vinci produced zero static error. 3Gear produced average static error of 0.49 mm. The tremor of the robot used by the 3Gear and Mantis system had a radius of 1.7 mm compared with 0.5 mm for da Vinci. The three master controllers all had similar range. The surgeons took 1.98 times longer to complete the peg transfer task with the 3Gear system compared with Mantis, and 2.72 times longer with Mantis compared with da Vinci (p value 2.1e-9). For the pointer task, surgeons were most accurate with da Vinci with average error of 0.72 mm compared with Mantis's 1.61 mm and 3Gear's 2.41 mm (p value 0.00078). Contactless hand-tracking technology as a surgical master can execute simple surgical tasks. Whereas traditional master controllers outperformed, given that contactless hand-tracking is a first-generation technology, clinical potential is promising and could

  4. Infant and Toddler Oral- and Manual-Motor Skills Predict Later Speech Fluency in Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gernsbacher, Morton Ann; Sauer, Eve A.; Geye, Heather M.; Schweigert, Emily K.; Goldsmith, H. Hill

    2008-01-01

    Background: Spoken and gestural communication proficiency varies greatly among autistic individuals. Three studies examined the role of oral- and manual-motor skill in predicting autistic children's speech development. Methods: Study 1 investigated whether infant and toddler oral- and manual-motor skills predict middle childhood and teenage speech…

  5. A multi-source, multi-study investigation of job performance prediction by political skill

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Ferris, G.R.; Munyon, T.P.

    2011-01-01

    -sectional and longitudinal designs, this research tested the hypotheses that employee political skill, measured from the perspective of employees' assessor A, will positively predict job performance rated by assessor B (i.e. Hypothesis 1a), and vice versa, that employee political skill measured by assessor B will predict...

  6. Potential predictability and forecast skill in ensemble climate forecast: the skill-persistence rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Rong, X.; Liu, Z.

    2017-12-01

    This study investigates the factors that impact the forecast skill for the real world (actual skill) and perfect model (perfect skill) in ensemble climate model forecast with a series of fully coupled general circulation model forecast experiments. It is found that the actual skill of sea surface temperature (SST) in seasonal forecast is substantially higher than the perfect skill on a large part of the tropical oceans, especially the tropical Indian Ocean and the central-eastern Pacific Ocean. The higher actual skill is found to be related to the higher observational SST persistence, suggesting a skill-persistence rule: a higher SST persistence in the real world than in the model could overwhelm the model bias to produce a higher forecast skill for the real world than for the perfect model. The relation between forecast skill and persistence is further examined using a first-order autoregressive model (AR1) analytically for theoretical solutions and numerically for analogue experiments. The AR1 model study shows that the skill-persistence rule is strictly valid in the case of infinite ensemble size, but can be distorted by the sampling error and non-AR1 processes.

  7. Intervention to enhance skilled arm and hand movements after stroke: A feasibility study using a new virtual reality system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McLaughlin Margaret

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rehabilitation programs designed to develop skill in upper extremity (UE function after stroke require progressive practice that engage and challenge the learner. Virtual realty (VR provides a unique environment where the presentation of stimuli can be controlled systematically for optimal challenge by adapting task difficulty as performance improves. We describe four VR tasks that were developed and tested to improve arm and hand movement skills for individuals with hemiparesis. Methods Two participants with chronic post-stroke paresis and different levels of motor severity attended 12 training sessions lasting 1 to 2 hours each over a 3-week period. Behavior measures and questionnaires were administered pre-, mid-, and post-training. Results Both participants improved VR task performance across sessions. The less impaired participant averaged more time on task, practiced a greater number of blocks per session, and progressed at a faster rate over sessions than the more impaired participant. Impairment level did not change but both participants improved functional ability after training. The less impaired participant increased the number of blocks moved on the Box & Blocks test while the more impaired participant achieved 4 more items on the Functional Test of the Hemiparetic UE. Conclusion Two participants with differing motor severity were able to engage in VR based practice and improve performance over 12 training sessions. We were able to successfully provide individualized, progressive practice based on each participant's level of movement ability and rate of performance improvement.

  8. Extending the Theory of Normative Social Behavior to Predict Hand-Washing among Koreans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Minwoong; Lapinski, Maria Knight

    2018-04-10

    The current study tests the predictions of the theory of normative social behavior (TNSB) in a hand-washing context in a Korean sample and extends the theory to examine the role of perceived publicness, a variable believed to activate face concerns, as a moderator of the norm-behavior relationship. The findings show substantial main effects for all of the study variables on behavior. In addition, the descriptive norm-behavior relationship is moderated by perceived publicness and outcome expectations, but the nature of the interactions is not consistent with that evidenced in previous literature on US samples. Implications for normative theory and communication campaigns are discussed.

  9. Differential Role of CBT Skills, DBT Skills and Psychological Flexibility in Predicting Depressive versus Anxiety Symptom Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Christian A.; Beard, Courtney; Kertz, Sarah J.; Hsu, Kean; Björgvinsson, Thröstur

    2016-01-01

    Objective Studies have reported associations between cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) skill use and symptom improvement in depressed outpatient samples. However, little is known regarding the temporal relationship between different subsets of therapeutic skills and symptom change among relatively severely depressed patients receiving treatment in psychiatric hospital settings. Method Adult patients with major depression (N=173) receiving combined psychotherapeutic and pharmacological treatment at a psychiatric hospital completed repeated assessments of traditional CBT skills, DBT skills and psychological flexibility, as well as depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results Results indicated that only use of behavioral activation (BA) strategies significantly predicted depressive symptom improvement in this sample; whereas DBT skills and psychological flexibility predicted anxiety symptom change. In addition, a baseline symptom severity X BA strategies interaction emerged indicating that those patients with higher pretreatment depression severity exhibited the strongest association between use of BA strategies and depressive symptom improvement. Conclusions Findings suggest the importance of emphasizing the acquisition and regular use of BA strategies with severely depressed patients in short-term psychiatric settings. In contrast, an emphasis on the development of DBT skills and the cultivation of psychological flexibility may prove beneficial for the amelioration of anxiety symptoms. PMID:27057997

  10. Individual differences in the rubber-hand illusion: predicting self-reports of people's personal experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haans, Antal; Kaiser, Florian G; Bouwhuis, Don G; Ijsselsteijn, Wijnand A

    2012-10-01

    Can we assess individual differences in the extent to which a person perceives the rubber-hand illusion on the basis of self-reported experiences? In this research, we develop such an instrument using Rasch-type models. In our conception, incorporating an object (e.g., a rubber hand) into one's body image requires various sensorimotor and cognitive processes. The extent to which people can meet these requirements thus determines how intensely people experience and, simultaneously, describe the illusion. As a consequence, individual differences in people's susceptibility to the rubber-hand illusion can be determined by inspecting reports of their personal experiences. The proposed model turned out to be functional in its capability to predict self-reports of people's experiences and to reliably assess individual differences in susceptibility to the illusion. Regarding validity, we found a small, but significant, correlation between individual susceptibility and proprioceptive drift. Additionally, we found that asynchrony, and tapping rather than stroking the fingers constrain the experience of the illusion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. In-Season Yield Prediction of Cabbage with a Hand-Held Active Canopy Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Rongting; Min, Ju; Wang, Yuan; Cheng, Hu; Zhang, Hailin; Shi, Weiming

    2017-10-08

    Efficient and precise yield prediction is critical to optimize cabbage yields and guide fertilizer application. A two-year field experiment was conducted to establish a yield prediction model for cabbage by using the Greenseeker hand-held optical sensor. Two cabbage cultivars (Jianbao and Pingbao) were used and Jianbao cultivar was grown for 2 consecutive seasons but Pingbao was only grown in the second season. Four chemical nitrogen application rates were implemented: 0, 80, 140, and 200 kg·N·ha -1 . Normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) was collected 20, 50, 70, 80, 90, 100, 110, 120, 130, and 140 days after transplanting (DAT). Pearson correlation analysis and regression analysis were performed to identify the relationship between the NDVI measurements and harvested yields of cabbage. NDVI measurements obtained at 110 DAT were significantly correlated to yield and explained 87-89% and 75-82% of the cabbage yield variation of Jianbao cultivar over the two-year experiment and 77-81% of the yield variability of Pingbao cultivar. Adjusting the yield prediction models with CGDD (cumulative growing degree days) could make remarkable improvement to the accuracy of the prediction model and increase the determination coefficient to 0.82, while the modification with DFP (days from transplanting when GDD > 0) values did not. The integrated exponential yield prediction equation was better than linear or quadratic functions and could accurately make in-season estimation of cabbage yields with different cultivars between years.

  12. Nintendo Wii video-gaming ability predicts laparoscopic skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badurdeen, Shiraz; Abdul-Samad, Omar; Story, Giles; Wilson, Clare; Down, Sue; Harris, Adrian

    2010-08-01

    Studies using conventional consoles have suggested a possible link between video-gaming and laparoscopic skill. The authors hypothesized that the Nintendo Wii, with its motion-sensing interface, would provide a better model for laparoscopic tasks. This study investigated the relationship between Nintendo Wii skill, prior gaming experience, and laparoscopic skill. In this study, 20 participants who had minimal experience with either laparoscopic surgery or Nintendo Wii performed three tasks on a Webcam-based laparoscopic simulator and were assessed on three games on the Wii. The participants completed a questionnaire assessing prior gaming experience. The score for each of the three Wii games correlated positively with the laparoscopic score (r = 0.78, 0.63, 0.77; P skill overlap between the Nintendo Wii and basic laparoscopic tasks. Surgical candidates with advanced Nintendo Wii ability may possess higher baseline laparoscopic ability.

  13. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meyer Anneke

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1 Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2 Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3 Are there gender differences? (4 Is there an effect of age? (5 Are there differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand? Method A total of 528 children (264 classified as having symptoms of ADHD and 264 matched comparisons of both genders and from seven different South African ethnic groups participated in the study. They were assessed with three simple, easy to administer instruments which measure various functions of motor speed and eye-hand coordination: The Grooved Pegboard, the Maze Coordination Task, and the Finger Tapping Test. The results were analysed as a function of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance. Results The findings indicate that children with symptoms of ADHD performed significantly poorer on the Grooved Pegboard and Motor Coordination Task, but not on the Finger Tapping Test than their comparisons without ADHD symptoms. The impairment was most severe for the subtype with symptoms of ADHD-C (combined and less severe for the subtypes with symptoms of ADHD-PI (predominantly inattentive and ADHD-HI (predominantly hyperactive/impulsive. With few exceptions, both genders were equally affected while there were only slight differences in performance between the dominant and non-dominant hand. The deficiencies in motor control were mainly confined to the younger age group (6 – 9 yr. Conclusion An association between the symptoms of ADHD and motor problems was demonstrated in terms of accuracy and speed in fairly complex tasks, but not in simple motor tests of speed. This deficiency is found

  14. Objective structured assessment of technical skills evaluation of theoretical compared with hands-on training of shoulder dystocia management: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkle, Bernd; Pueth, Julia; Hefler, Lukas A; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2012-10-01

    To compare the skills of performing a shoulder dystocia management algorithm after hands-on training compared with demonstration. We randomized medical students to a 30-minute hands-on (group 1) and a 30-minute demonstration (group 2) training session teaching a standardized shoulder dystocia management scheme on a pelvic training model. Participants were tested with a 22-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scoring system after training and 72 hours thereafter. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores were the primary outcome. Performance time, self-assessment, confidence, and global rating scale were the secondary outcomes. Statistics were performed using Mann-Whitney U test, χ test, and multiple linear regression analysis. Two hundred three participants were randomized. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills scores were significantly higher in group 1 (n=103) compared with group 2 (n=100) (17.95±3.14 compared with 15.67±3.18, respectively; PTechnical Skills scores were still significantly higher in group 1 (n=67) compared with group 2 (n=60) (18.17±2.76 compared with 14.98±3.03, respectively; PTechnical Skills scores. Hands-on training helps to achieve a significant improvement of shoulder dystocia management on a pelvic training model. www.ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01618565. I.

  15. Determination of Constructs and Dimensions of Employability Skills Based Work Performance Prediction: A Triangular Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmat, Normala; Buntat, Yahya; Ayub, Abdul Rahman

    2015-01-01

    The level of the employability skills of the graduates as determined by job role and mapped to the employability skills, which correspond to the requirement of employers, will have significant impact on the graduates’ job performance. The main objective of this study was to identify the constructs and dimensions of employability skills, which can predict the work performance of electronic polytechnic graduate in electrical and electronics industry. A triangular qualitative approach was used i...

  16. Predicting English Word Reading Skills for Spanish-Speaking Students in First Grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páez, Mariela; Rinaldi, Claudia

    2006-10-01

    This article describes the word reading skills in English and Spanish for a sample of 244 Spanish-speaking, English-learning (hence, bilingual) students in first grade and presents a predictive model for English word reading skills. The children in the study were assessed at the end of kindergarten and first grade, respectively. Data were gathered with 3 subtests of the Woodcock Language Proficiency Battery and a researcher-developed phonological awareness task. Results showed that, on average, children's English word reading skills were similar to monolingual norms whereas their Spanish word reading skills averaged 1 SD below the mean. English vocabulary, English phonological awareness, and Spanish word reading skills in kindergarten were found to be significant predictors of English word reading skills in first grade. Educational implications for screening language and reading skills and promising areas for targeted instruction for this population are discussed.

  17. When patient safety and skills development go hand in hand through targeted prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers in patients with spinal-cord injury

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steensgaard, Randi; Bonne, Stine

    2017-01-01

    - to increase patient safety through conscious, targeted monitoring and treatment by nurses of all types of PU/wounds observed in patients at the Centre - to ensure a high degree of professionalism in rehabilitative nursing care given to patients with PU/wounds, by developing nursing skills Method The PU...... the intervention’s effect on skills development and systematic PU/wound care. Results Questionnaires were returned by 19 nurses and 15 social and health-care assistants (response rate 76%). Of these respondents, 91% believed they had the necessary skills in preventive PU/wound care; and 73% believed they could...... provide PU/wound-care treatment; whereas only 55% assessed themselves as competent to document PU/wound treatment. The nursing staff experienced increased qualification and skills acquisition through their work with the PU/wound patrol, and they reported the benefit of being able to engage in nursing...

  18. Predictive model for early math skills based on structural equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón, Estíbaliz; Navarro, José I; Aguilar, Manuel; Cerda, Gamal; García-Sedeño, Manuel

    2016-12-01

    Early math skills are determined by higher cognitive processes that are particularly important for acquiring and developing skills during a child's early education. Such processes could be a critical target for identifying students at risk for math learning difficulties. Few studies have considered the use of a structural equation method to rationalize these relations. Participating in this study were 207 preschool students ages 59 to 72 months, 108 boys and 99 girls. Performance with respect to early math skills, early literacy, general intelligence, working memory, and short-term memory was assessed. A structural equation model explaining 64.3% of the variance in early math skills was applied. Early literacy exhibited the highest statistical significance (β = 0.443, p < 0.05), followed by intelligence (β = 0.286, p < 0.05), working memory (β = 0.220, p < 0.05), and short-term memory (β = 0.213, p < 0.05). Correlations between the independent variables were also significant (p < 0.05). According to the results, cognitive variables should be included in remedial intervention programs. © 2016 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Executive Functioning Skills Uniquely Predict Chinese Word Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kevin K. H.; McBride-Chang, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    Eighty-five Hong Kong Chinese children were tested across both the 2nd and 3rd years of kindergarten (ages 4-5 years) on tasks of inhibitory control, working memory, vocabulary knowledge, phonological awareness, morphological awareness, and word reading. With age, vocabulary knowledge, and metalinguistic skills statistically controlled, the…

  20. Tropical cyclone prediction skills - MJO and ENSO dependence in S2S data sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, C. Y.; Camargo, S.; Vitart, F.; Sobel, A. H.; Tippett, M.

    2017-12-01

    The El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) are two important climate controls on tropical cyclone (TC) activity. The seasonal prediction skill of dynamical models is determined in large part by their accurate representations of the ENSO-TC relationship. Regarding intraseasonal TC variability, observations suggest MJO to be the primary control. Given the ongoing effort to develop dynamical seasonal-to-subseasonal (S2S) TC predictions, it is important to examine whether the global models, running on S2S timescales, are able to reproduce these known ENSO-TC and MJO-TC relationships, and how this ability affects forecasting skill. Results from the S2S project (from F. Vitart) suggest that global models have skill in predicting MJO phase with up to two weeks of lead time (four weeks for ECMWF). Meanwhile, our results show that, qualitatively speaking, the MJO-TC relationship in storm genesis is reasonably captured, with some models (e.g., ECMWF, BoM, NCEP, MetFr) performing better than the others. However, we also find that model skill in predicting basin-wide genesis and accumulated cyclone energy (ACE) are mainly due to the models' ability to capture the climatological seasonality. Removing the seasonality significantly reduces the models' skill; even the best model (ECMWF) in the most reliable basin (western north Pacific and Atlantic) has very little skill (close to 0.1 in Brier skill score for genesis and close to 0 in rank probability skill score for ACE). This brings up the question: do any factors contribute to intraseasonal TC prediction skill other than seasonality? Is the low skill, after removing the seasonality, due to poor MJO and ENSO simulations, or to poor representation of other ENSO-TC or MJO-TC relationships, such as ENSO's impact on the storm tracks? We will quantitatively discuss the dependence of the TC prediction skill on ENSO and MJO, focusing on Western North Pacific and Atlantic, where we have sufficient

  1. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills. PMID:27303342

  2. Fine motor skills predict maths ability better than they predict reading ability in the early primary school years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola J. Pitchford

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the U.K. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first two years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the U.K. that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  3. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitchford, Nicola J; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognized as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths development in two studies with primary school children of low-to-mid socio-economic status in the UK. Two key findings were revealed. First, despite being in the first 2 years of primary school education, significantly better performance was found in reading compared to maths across both studies. This may reflect the protective effects of recent national-level interventions to promote early literacy skills in young children in the UK that have not been similarly promoted for maths. Second, fine motor skills were a better predictor of early maths ability than they were of early reading ability. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that fine motor skills did not significantly predict reading ability when verbal short-term memory was taken into account. In contrast, Fine Motor Integration remained a significant predictor of maths ability, even after the influence of non-verbal IQ had been accounted for. These results suggest that fine motor skills should have a pivotal role in educational interventions designed to support the development of early mathematical skills.

  4. The advantage of a decreasing right-hand superiority: the influence of laterality on a selected musical skill (sight reading achievement).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopiez, Reinhard; Galley, Niels; Lee, Ji In

    2006-01-01

    In this study, the unrehearsed performance of music, known as 'sight reading', is used as a model to examine the influence of motoric laterality on highly challenging musical performance skills. As expertise research has shown, differences in this skill can be partially explained by factors such as accumulated practise and an early start to training. However, up until now, neurobiological factors that may influence highly demanding instrumental performance have been widely neglected. In an experiment with 52 piano students at a German university music department, we could show that the most challenging musical skill, sight reading (which is characterized by extreme demands on the performer's real time information processing), is positively correlated with decreasing right-hand superiority of performers. Laterality was measured by the differences between left and right-hand performance in a speed tapping task. SR achievement was measured using an accompanying task paradigm. An overall superiority of 22% for non-right-handed pianists was found. This effect is gender-related and stronger in non-right-handed males (r(24) = -0.49, p0.05). We conclude that non-right-handed motoric laterality is associated with neurobiological advantages required for sight reading, an extremely demanding musical subskill.

  5. Multi-model global assessment of subseasonal prediction skill of atmospheric rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deflorio, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are global phenomena that are characterized by long, narrow plumes of water vapor transport. They are most often observed in the midlatitudes near climatologically active storm track regions. Because of their frequent association with floods, landslides, and other hydrological impacts on society, there is significant incentive at the intersection of academic research, water management, and policymaking to understand the skill with which state-of-the-art operational weather models can predict ARs weeks-to-months in advance. We use the newly assembled Subseasonal-to-Seasonal (S2S) database, which includes extensive hindcast records of eleven operational weather models, to assess global prediction skill of atmospheric rivers on S2S timescales. We develop a metric to assess AR skill that is suitable for S2S timescales by counting the total number of AR days which occur over each model and observational grid cell during a 2-week time window. This "2-week AR occurrence" metric is suitable for S2S prediction skill assessment because it does not consider discrete hourly or daily AR objects, but rather a smoothed representation of AR occurrence over a longer period of time. Our results indicate that several of the S2S models, especially the ECMWF model, show useful prediction skill in the 2-week forecast window, with significant interannual variation in some regions. We also present results from an experimental forecast of S2S AR prediction skill using the ECMWF and NCEP models.

  6. High Predictive Skill of Global Surface Temperature a Year Ahead

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folland, C. K.; Colman, A.; Kennedy, J. J.; Knight, J.; Parker, D. E.; Stott, P.; Smith, D. M.; Boucher, O.

    2011-12-01

    We discuss the high skill of real-time forecasts of global surface temperature a year ahead issued by the UK Met Office, and their scientific background. Although this is a forecasting and not a formal attribution study, we show that the main instrumental global annual surface temperature data sets since 1891 are structured consistently with a set of five physical forcing factors except during and just after the second World War. Reconstructions use a multiple application of cross validated linear regression to minimise artificial skill allowing time-varying uncertainties in the contribution of each forcing factor to global temperature to be assessed. Mean cross validated reconstructions for the data sets have total correlations in the range 0.93-0.95,interannual correlations in the range 0.72-0.75 and root mean squared errors near 0.06oC, consistent with observational uncertainties.Three transient runs of the HadCM3 coupled model for 1888-2002 demonstrate quite similar reconstruction skill from similar forcing factors defined appropriately for the model, showing that skilful use of our technique is not confined to observations. The observed reconstructions show that the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) likely contributed to the re-commencement of global warming between 1976 and 2010 and to global cooling observed immediately beforehand in 1965-1976. The slowing of global warming in the last decade is likely to be largely due to a phase-delayed response to the downturn in the solar cycle since 2001-2, with no net ENSO contribution. The much reduced trend in 2001-10 is similar in size to other weak decadal temperature trends observed since global warming resumed in the 1970s. The causes of variations in decadal trends can be mostly explained by variations in the strength of the forcing factors. Eleven real-time forecasts of global mean surface temperature for the year ahead for 2000-2010, based on broadly similar methods, provide an independent test of the

  7. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-10-01

    The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls' physical activity behavior. A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh's Self-Description Questionnaire. Children's physical activity was assessed by the Physical Activity Questionnaire for Older Children. Multiple linear regression model was used to determine whether perceived motor competence or motor skill competence best predicts moderate-to-vigorous self-report physical activity. Multiple regression analysis indicated that motor skill competence and perceived motor competence predicted 21% variance in physical activity (R(2)=0.21, F=48.9, P=0.001), and motor skill competence (R(2)=0.15, ᵝ=0.33, P= 0.001) resulted in more variance than perceived motor competence (R(2)=0.06, ᵝ=0.25, P=0.001) in physical activity. Results revealed motor skill competence had more influence in comparison with perceived motor competence on physical activity level. We suggest interventional programs based on motor skill competence and perceived motor competence should be administered or implemented to promote physical activity in young girls.

  8. Efficacy of an extended theory of planned behaviour model for predicting caterers' hand hygiene practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Deborah A; Griffith, Christopher J

    2008-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the factors which influence caterers' hand hygiene practices using social cognitive theory. One hundred and fifteen food handlers from 29 catering businesses were observed carrying out 31,050 food preparation actions in their workplace. Caterers subsequently completed the Hand Hygiene Instrument (HHI), which ascertained attitudes towards hand hygiene using constructs from the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) and the Health Belief Model. The TPB provided a useful framework for understanding caterers' implementation of hand hygiene practices, explaining 34% of the variance in hand hygiene malpractices (p behavioural control and intention (p food safety culture.

  9. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faber, Irene R; Elferink-Gemser, Marije T; Faber, Niels R; Oosterveld, Frits G J; Nijhuis-Van der Sanden, Maria W G

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be included in a talent

  10. Predicting hand function in older adults: evaluations of grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chiung-Ju; Marie, Deana; Fredrick, Aaron; Bertram, Jessica; Utley, Kristen; Fess, Elaine Ewing

    2017-08-01

    Hand function is critical for independence in activities of daily living for older adults. The purpose of this study was to examine how grip strength, arm curl strength, and manual dexterous coordination contributed to time-based versus self-report assessment of hand function in community-dwelling older adults. Adults aged ≥60 years without low vision or neurological disorders were recruited. Purdue Pegboard Test, Jamar hand dynamometer, 30-second arm curl test, Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, and the Late-Life Function and Disability Instrument were administered to assess manual dexterous coordination, grip strength, arm curl strength, time-based hand function, and self-report of hand function, respectively. Eighty-four adults (mean age = 72 years) completed the study. Hierarchical multiple regressions show that older adults with better arm curl strength (β = -.25, p function test. In comparison, older adults with better grip strength (β = .40, p function. The relationship between grip strength and hand function may be test-specific. Grip strength becomes a significant factor when the test requires grip strength to successfully complete the test tasks. Arm curl strength independently contributed to hand function in both time-based and self-report assessments, indicating that strength of extrinsic muscles of the hand are essential for hand function.

  11. Prediction and Stability of Mathematics Skill and Difficulty

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Rebecca B.; Cirino, Paul T.; Barnes, Marcia A.; Ewing-Cobbs, Linda; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Stuebing, Karla K.; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the stability of math learning difficulties over a 2-year period and investigated several factors that might influence this stability (categorical vs. continuous change, liberal vs. conservative cut point, broad vs. specific math assessment); the prediction of math performance over time and by performance level was also evaluated. Participants were 144 students initially identified as having a math difficulty (MD) or no learning difficulty according to low achievem...

  12. Why do early mathematics skills predict later reading? The role of mathematical language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpura, David J; Logan, Jessica A R; Hassinger-Das, Brenna; Napoli, Amy R

    2017-09-01

    A growing body of evidence indicates that the development of mathematics and literacy skills is highly related. The importance of literacy skills-specifically language-for mathematics development has been well rationalized. However, despite several prominent studies indicating that mathematics skills are highly predictive of literacy development, the reason for this relation is not well understood. The purpose of this study was to identify how and why early mathematics is predictive of early literacy development. Participants included 125 preschool children 3-5 years old (M = 4 years 3 months). Participants were assessed on mathematics, literacy, and cognitive measures in both the fall and spring of their preschool year. Mediation analyses indicated that the relation between early mathematics and literacy skills is mediated by children's mathematical language skills. These findings suggest that, in prior research identifying mathematical performance as a significant predictor of later literacy skills, mathematical performance may have acted only as a proxy measure for more complex language skills such as those assessed on a mathematical language measure. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J.; Göbel, Silke M.; Hulme, Charles

    2015-01-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3–4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4–5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder. PMID:26412946

  14. Early language and executive skills predict variations in number and arithmetic skills in children at family-risk of dyslexia and typically developing controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moll, Kristina; Snowling, Margaret J; Göbel, Silke M; Hulme, Charles

    2015-08-01

    Two important foundations for learning are language and executive skills. Data from a longitudinal study tracking the development of 93 children at family-risk of dyslexia and 76 controls was used to investigate the influence of these skills on the development of arithmetic. A two-group longitudinal path model assessed the relationships between language and executive skills at 3-4 years, verbal number skills (counting and number knowledge) and phonological processing skills at 4-5 years, and written arithmetic in primary school. The same cognitive processes accounted for variability in arithmetic skills in both groups. Early language and executive skills predicted variations in preschool verbal number skills, which in turn, predicted arithmetic skills in school. In contrast, phonological awareness was not a predictor of later arithmetic skills. These results suggest that verbal and executive processes provide the foundation for verbal number skills, which in turn influence the development of formal arithmetic skills. Problems in early language development may explain the comorbidity between reading and mathematics disorder.

  15. Integration of Hands-On Team Training into Existing Curriculum Improves Both Technical and Nontechnical Skills in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caskey, Robert C; Owei, Lily; Rao, Raghavendra; Riddle, Elijah W; Brooks, Ari D; Dempsey, Daniel T; Morris, Jon B; Neylan, Christopher J; Williams, Noel N; Dumon, Kristoffel R

    Nontechnical skills are an essential component of surgical education and a major competency assessed by the ACGME milestones project. However, the optimal way to integrate nontechnical skills training into existing curricula and then objectively evaluate the outcome is still unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the effect laparoscopic team-based task training would have on the nontechnical skills needed for laparoscopic surgery. 9 PGY-1 residents underwent an established training curriculum for teaching the knowledge and technical skills involved in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Initial training involved a didactic session, expert-led practice on a porcine model in a simulated operating room and laparoscopic skills practice on a virtual reality trainer. Residents then performed a laparoscopic cholecystectomy on the same porcine model as a preintervention test. Three to four months following this, residents were subjected to specific nontechnical skills training involving 2 simple team-based laparoscopic tasks. They then practiced a further 4 to 6 hours on the virtual reality trainer. A repeat postintervention laparoscopic cholecystectomy was then performed 3 to 4 months after nontechnical skills training. Both the preintervention and postintervention laparoscopic cholecystectomies were audiovisually recorded and then evaluated by 2 independent surgeons in a blinded fashion. Technical skills were assessed using objective structured assessment of technical skills (OSATS) and a technique specific rating scale (TRS) that we developed for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Nontechnical skills were assessed using nontechnical skills for surgeons (NOTSS). Residents also completed a survey at the beginning and end of the training. Tertiary care, university based teaching institution. A total of 9 general surgery residents at the intern level. The mean OSATS score improved from 13.7 ± 1.24 to 26.7 ± 0.31 (p training. There was a strong correlation between OSATS and

  16. Motor skill changes and neurophysiologic adaptation to recovery-oriented virtual rehabilitation of hand function in a person with subacute stroke: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fluet, Gerard G; Patel, Jigna; Qiu, Qinyin; Yarossi, Matthew; Massood, Supriya; Adamovich, Sergei V; Tunik, Eugene; Merians, Alma S

    2017-07-01

    The complexity of upper extremity (UE) behavior requires recovery of near normal neuromuscular function to minimize residual disability following a stroke. This requirement places a premium on spontaneous recovery and neuroplastic adaptation to rehabilitation by the lesioned hemisphere. Motor skill learning is frequently cited as a requirement for neuroplasticity. Studies examining the links between training, motor learning, neuroplasticity, and improvements in hand motor function are indicated. This case study describes a patient with slow recovering hand and finger movement (Total Upper Extremity Fugl-Meyer examination score = 25/66, Wrist and Hand items = 2/24 on poststroke day 37) following a stroke. The patient received an intensive eight-session intervention utilizing simulated activities that focused on the recovery of finger extension, finger individuation, and pinch-grasp force modulation. Over the eight sessions, the patient demonstrated improvements on untrained transfer tasks, which suggest that motor learning had occurred, as well a dramatic increase in hand function and corresponding expansion of the cortical motor map area representing several key muscles of the paretic hand. Recovery of hand function and motor map expansion continued after discharge through the three-month retention testing. This case study describes a neuroplasticity based intervention for UE hemiparesis and a model for examining the relationship between training, motor skill acquisition, neuroplasticity, and motor function changes. Implications for rehabilitation Intensive hand and finger rehabilitation activities can be added to an in-patient rehabilitation program for persons with subacute stroke. Targeted training of the thumb may have an impact on activity level function in persons with upper extremity hemiparesis. Untrained transfer tasks can be utilized to confirm that training tasks have elicited motor learning. Changes in cortical motor maps can be used to document

  17. Childhood self-regulatory skills predict adolescent smoking behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    deBlois, Madeleine E; Kubzansky, Laura D

    2016-01-01

    -regulatory skills across multiple domains may reduce future health risk behaviors.

  18. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S.; Jongsma, M.L.; Kamp, J. van der; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in

  19. Predictive models to determine imagery strategies employed by children to judge hand laterality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spruijt, S; Jongsma, M.L.A.; van der Kamp, J.; Steenbergen, B.

    2015-01-01

    A commonly used paradigm to study motor imagery is the hand laterality judgment task. The present study aimed to determine which strategies young children employ to successfully perform this task. Children of 5 to 8 years old (N = 92) judged laterality of back and palm view hand pictures in

  20. Time dependency of the prediction skill for the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in initialized decadal hindcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sebastian; Düsterhus, André; Pohlmann, Holger; Müller, Wolfgang A.; Baehr, Johanna

    2017-11-01

    We analyze the time dependency of decadal hindcast skill in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre within the time period 1961-2013. We compare anomaly correlation coefficients and temporal interquartile ranges of total upper ocean heat content and sea surface temperature for three differently initialized sets of hindcast simulations with the global coupled model MPI-ESM. All initializations use weakly coupled assimilation with the same full value nudging in the atmospheric component and different assimilation techniques for oceanic temperature and salinity: (1) ensemble Kalman filter assimilating EN4 observations and HadISST data, (2) nudging of anomalies to ORAS4 reanalysis, (3) nudging of full values to ORAS4 reanalysis. We find that hindcast skill depends strongly on the evaluation time period, with higher hindcast skill during strong multiyear trends, especially during the warming in the 1990s and lower hindcast skill in the absence of such trends. Differences between the prediction systems are more pronounced when investigating any 20-year subperiod within the entire hindcast period. In the ensemble Kalman filter initialized hindcasts, we find significant correlation skill for up to 5-8 lead years, albeit along with an overestimation of the temporal interquartile range. In the hindcasts initialized by anomaly nudging, significant correlation skill for lead years greater than two is only found in the 1980s and 1990s. In the hindcasts initialized by full value nudging, correlation skill is consistently lower than in the hindcasts initialized by anomaly nudging in the first lead years with re-emerging skill thereafter. The Atlantic meridional overturning circulation reacts on the density changes introduced by oceanic nudging, this limits the predictability in the subpolar gyre in the first lead years. Overall, we find that a model-consistent assimilation technique can improve hindcast skill. Further, the evaluation of 20 year subperiods within the full hindcast period

  1. 3D hand motion trajectory prediction from EEG mu and beta bandpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korik, A; Sosnik, R; Siddique, N; Coyle, D

    2016-01-01

    A motion trajectory prediction (MTP) - based brain-computer interface (BCI) aims to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory of upper limb movement using electroencephalography (EEG). The most common MTP BCI employs a time series of bandpass-filtered EEG potentials (referred to here as the potential time-series, PTS, model) for reconstructing the trajectory of a 3D limb movement using multiple linear regression. These studies report the best accuracy when a 0.5-2Hz bandpass filter is applied to the EEG. In the present study, we show that spatiotemporal power distribution of theta (4-8Hz), mu (8-12Hz), and beta (12-28Hz) bands are more robust for movement trajectory decoding when the standard PTS approach is replaced with time-varying bandpower values of a specified EEG band, ie, with a bandpower time-series (BTS) model. A comprehensive analysis comprising of three subjects performing pointing movements with the dominant right arm toward six targets is presented. Our results show that the BTS model produces significantly higher MTP accuracy (R~0.45) compared to the standard PTS model (R~0.2). In the case of the BTS model, the highest accuracy was achieved across the three subjects typically in the mu (8-12Hz) and low-beta (12-18Hz) bands. Additionally, we highlight a limitation of the commonly used PTS model and illustrate how this model may be suboptimal for decoding motion trajectory relevant information. Although our results, showing that the mu and beta bands are prominent for MTP, are not in line with other MTP studies, they are consistent with the extensive literature on classical multiclass sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI studies (classification of limbs as opposed to motion trajectory prediction), which report the best accuracy of imagined limb movement classification using power values of mu and beta frequency bands. The methods proposed here provide a positive step toward noninvasive decoding of imagined 3D hand movements for movement-free BCIs.

  2. Revealing skill of the MiKlip decadal prediction system by three-dimensional probabilistic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Stolzenberger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Decadal climate predictions and their verification are part of ongoing research. This article studies different methods applied to decadal hindcasts of three-dimensional atmospheric variables to evaluate the MiKlip (Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen prediction system. Variables such as upper air temperature are tight to the core of the prediction system and hence help to reveal its power and deficiencies. The verification uses both, necessary and sufficient probabilistic measures. We analyze annual and multi-year averages of air temperature and geopotential height and the parametrized quantity net water flux at the ocean surface, the so-called freshwater flux, also known as E‑P (evaporation minus precipitation, as an important variable for atmosphere-ocean coupling. The model data stem from various versions of the MiKlip prediction system and constitute different sets of ensemble hindcasts covering 1979–2012. The results reveal that the freshwater flux is far more sensitive to model deficiencies than the basic dynamical variables and the predictability decays much earlier with prediction lead time. Initializing the atmospheric component is more important for the predictability than the difference in resolution between two model versions. The combined initialization of atmosphere and ocean has the effect of increasing the predictability in the inner tropics from 1 to 2 years compared to the ocean only initialization. For prediction year 7–10, the hindcasts are still closer to each other than to the uninitialized historical runs indicating that the prediction system is still influenced by the initial conditions. The skill for prediction year 7–10 is, however, only marginally larger than the skill of the uninitialized ensemble. The three-dimensional skill analysis reveals a clear indication of a mid-tropospheric temperature error developing in the tropical Pacific area.

  3. Predicting and explaining behavioral intention and hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Naiqing; Roberts, Kevin R

    2017-04-01

    Using hand sanitizers can reduce bacterial contamination and is an efficient and inexpensive method of preventing infections. The purpose of this study was to explore the behavioral intention (low and absolute), attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control of hand sanitizer use among US Army soldiers. A questionnaire was developed following an expert panel (N = 5) review and 2 pilot studies (N = 35) to ensure questionnaire validity and clarity. Surveys were distributed among nontrainee soldiers during lunch periods. A total of 201 surveys were collected. Results indicated that attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral controls explained 64% of the variance in behavioral intention. Attitude remained the strongest predictor of behavior (β = 0.70, P hand sanitizers hold significantly different behavioral and normative beliefs than low intenders. Other soldiers create negative social pressure about using hand sanitizers, indicating that if other soldiers use hand sanitizers, they will refuse to do so. Intervention to ensure use of hand sanitizer should focus on strengthening behavioral and normative beliefs among low intenders. This should increase the overall well being of the military. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A Study on the Prediction of the Teaching Profession Attitudes by Communication Skills and Professional Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çimen, Latife Kabakli

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the prediction of the attitudes regarding teaching profession by the communication skills and professional motivation of pedagogical formation students. 261 pre-service teachers receiving pedagogical formation training Istanbul at a private university in the 2014-2015 academic year were included in the research as…

  5. The predictive skill of species distribution models for plankton in a changing climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brun, Philipp Georg; Kiørboe, Thomas; Licandro, Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    Statistical species distribution models (SDMs) are increasingly used to project spatial relocations of marine taxa under future climate change scenarios. However, tests of their predictive skill in the real-world are rare. Here, we use data from the Continuous Plankton Recorder program, one...... null models, is essential to assess the robustness of projections of marine planktonic species under climate change...

  6. Predicting Dyslexia in a Transparent Orthography from Grade 1 Literacy Skills: A Prospective Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigozzi, Lucia; Tarchi, Christian; Pinto, Giuliana; Accorti Gamannossi, Beatrice

    2016-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to explore the predictability of dyslexia from 1st-grade literacy skills in Italian students. We followed 407 Italian students in primary school from the 1st through the 3rd grades. Students were diagnosed with dyslexia in the 3rd grade. We retrospectively tested participants' 1st-grade performance in…

  7. The Nature and Use of Prediction Skills in a Biological Computer Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Derrick R.; Good, Ron

    1988-01-01

    Describes mechanisms of thought associated with making predictions. Concludes that successful predictors had high initial knowledge of the subject matter and were formally operational. Unsuccessful predictors had low initial knowledge and were concretely operational. Systematic manipulation, note taking, and higher-level thinking skills were…

  8. Mothers' Predictions of Their Son's Executive Functioning Skills: Relations to Child Behavior Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    This study examined mothers' ability to accurately predict their sons' performance on executive functioning tasks in relation to the child's behavior problems. One-hundred thirteen mothers and their 4-7 year old sons participated. From behind a one-way mirror, mothers watched their sons perform tasks assessing inhibition and planning skills.…

  9. Primary School Text Comprehension Predicts Mathematical Word Problem-Solving Skills in Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björn, Piia Maria; Aunola, Kaisa; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2016-01-01

    This longitudinal study aimed to investigate the extent to which primary school text comprehension predicts mathematical word problem-solving skills in secondary school among Finnish students. The participants were 224 fourth graders (9-10 years old at the baseline). The children's text-reading fluency, text comprehension and basic calculation…

  10. Assessment of prediction skill in equatorial Pacific Ocean in high resolution model of CFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arora, Anika; Rao, Suryachandra A.; Pillai, Prasanth; Dhakate, Ashish; Salunke, Kiran; Srivastava, Ankur

    2018-01-01

    The effect of increasing atmospheric resolution on prediction skill of El Niño southern oscillation phenomenon in climate forecast system model is explored in this paper. Improvement in prediction skill for sea surface temperature (SST) and winds at all leads compared to low resolution model in the tropical Indo-Pacific basin is observed. High resolution model is able to capture extreme events reasonably well. As a result, the signal to noise ratio is improved in the high resolution model. However, spring predictability barrier (SPB) for summer months in Nino 3 and Nino 3.4 region is stronger in high resolution model, in spite of improvement in overall prediction skill and dynamics everywhere else. Anomaly correlation coefficient of SST in high resolution model with observations in Nino 3.4 region targeting boreal summer months when predicted at lead times of 3-8 months in advance decreased compared its lower resolution counterpart. It is noted that higher variance of winds predicted in spring season over central equatorial Pacific compared to observed variance of winds results in stronger than normal response on subsurface ocean, hence increases SPB for boreal summer months in high resolution model.

  11. Word skipping: effects of word length, predictability, spelling and reading skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slattery, Timothy J; Yates, Mark

    2017-08-31

    Readers eyes often skip over words as they read. Skipping rates are largely determined by word length; short words are skipped more than long words. However, the predictability of a word in context also impacts skipping rates. Rayner, Slattery, Drieghe and Liversedge (2011) reported an effect of predictability on word skipping for even long words (10-13 characters) that extend beyond the word identification span. Recent research suggests that better readers and spellers have an enhanced perceptual span (Veldre & Andrews, 2014). We explored whether reading and spelling skill interact with word length and predictability to impact word skipping rates in a large sample (N=92) of average and poor adult readers. Participants read the items from Rayner et al. (2011) while their eye movements were recorded. Spelling skill (zSpell) was assessed using the dictation and recognition tasks developed by Sally Andrews and colleagues. Reading skill (zRead) was assessed from reading speed (words per minute) and accuracy of three 120 word passages each with 10 comprehension questions. We fit linear mixed models to the target gaze duration data and generalized linear mixed models to the target word skipping data. Target word gaze durations were significantly predicted by zRead while, the skipping likelihoods were significantly predicted by zSpell. Additionally, for gaze durations, zRead significantly interacted with word predictability as better readers relied less on context to support word processing. These effects are discussed in relation to the lexical quality hypothesis and eye movement models of reading.

  12. Can a virtual reality assessment of fine motor skill predict successful central line insertion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamadipanah, Hossein; Parthiban, Chembian; Nathwani, Jay; Rutherford, Drew; DiMarco, Shannon; Pugh, Carla

    2016-10-01

    Due to the increased use of peripherally inserted central catheter lines, central lines are not performed as frequently. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a virtual reality (VR)-based assessment of fine motor skills can be used as a valid and objective assessment of central line skills. Surgical residents (N = 43) from 7 general surgery programs performed a subclavian central line in a simulated setting. Then, they participated in a force discrimination task in a VR environment. Hand movements from the subclavian central line simulation were tracked by electromagnetic sensors. Gross movements as monitored by the electromagnetic sensors were compared with the fine motor metrics calculated from the force discrimination tasks in the VR environment. Long periods of inactivity (idle time) during needle insertion and lack of smooth movements, as detected by the electromagnetic sensors, showed a significant correlation with poor force discrimination in the VR environment. Also, long periods of needle insertion time correlated to the poor performance in force discrimination in the VR environment. This study shows that force discrimination in a defined VR environment correlates to needle insertion time, idle time, and hand smoothness when performing subclavian central line placement. Fine motor force discrimination may serve as a valid and objective assessment of the skills required for successful needle insertion when placing central lines. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Technology-assisted training of arm-hand skills in stroke: concepts on reacquisition of motor control and therapist guidelines for rehabilitation technology design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Willmann Richard D

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is the purpose of this article to identify and review criteria that rehabilitation technology should meet in order to offer arm-hand training to stroke patients, based on recent principles of motor learning. Methods A literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, and EMBASE (1997–2007. Results One hundred and eighty seven scientific papers/book references were identified as being relevant. Rehabilitation approaches for upper limb training after stroke show to have shifted in the last decade from being analytical towards being focussed on environmentally contextual skill training (task-oriented training. Training programmes for enhancing motor skills use patient and goal-tailored exercise schedules and individual feedback on exercise performance. Therapist criteria for upper limb rehabilitation technology are suggested which are used to evaluate the strengths and weaknesses of a number of current technological systems. Conclusion This review shows that technology for supporting upper limb training after stroke needs to align with the evolution in rehabilitation training approaches of the last decade. A major challenge for related technological developments is to provide engaging patient-tailored task oriented arm-hand training in natural environments with patient-tailored feedback to support (re learning of motor skills.

  14. The use of a measure of acute irritation to predict the outcome of repeated usage of hand soap products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C; Wilkinson, M; McShane, P; Pennington, D; Fernandez, C; Pierce, S

    2011-06-01

    Healthcare-associated infection is an important worldwide problem that could be reduced by better hand hygiene practice. However, an increasing number of healthcare workers are experiencing irritant contact dermatitis of the hands as a result of repeated hand washing. This may lead to a reduced level of compliance with regard to hand hygiene. To assess whether a measure of acute irritation by hand soaps could predict the effects of repeated usage over a 2-week period. In a double-blind, randomized comparison study, the comparative irritation potential of four different hand soaps was assessed over a 24-h treatment period. The effect of repeated hand washing with the hand soap products over a 2-week period in healthy adult volunteers on skin barrier function was then determined by assessment of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), epidermal hydration and a visual assessment using the Hand Eczema Severity Index (HECSI) at days 0, 7 and 14. A total of 121 subjects from the 123 recruited completed phase 1 of the study. All four products were seen to be significantly different from each other in terms of the irritant reaction observed and all products resulted in a significantly higher irritation compared with the no-treatment control. Seventy-nine of the initial 121 subjects were then enrolled into the repeated usage study. A statistically significant worsening of the clinical condition of the skin as measured by HECSI was seen from baseline to day 14 in those subjects repeatedly washing their hands with two of the four soap products (products C and D) with P-values of 0·02 and 0·01, respectively. Subclinical assessment of the skin barrier function by measuring epidermal hydration was significantly increased from baseline to day 7 after repeated hand washing with products A, B and D but overall no significant change was seen in all four products tested by day 14. A statistically significant increase in TEWL at day 14 was seen for product A (P = 0·02) indicating a

  15. Predicting Students' Skills in the Context of Scientific Inquiry with Cognitive, Motivational, and Sociodemographic Variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehring, Andreas; Nowak, Kathrin H.; Belzen, Annette Upmeier zu; Tiemann, Rüdiger

    2015-06-01

    Research on predictors of achievement in science is often targeted on more traditional content-based assessments and single student characteristics. At the same time, the development of skills in the field of scientific inquiry constitutes a focal point of interest for science education. Against this background, the purpose of this study was to investigate to which extent multiple student characteristics contribute to skills of scientific inquiry. Based on a theoretical framework describing nine epistemological acts, we constructed and administered a multiple-choice test that assesses these skills in lower and upper secondary school level (n = 780). The test items contained problem-solving situations that occur during chemical investigations in school and had to be solved by choosing an appropriate inquiry procedure. We collected further data on 12 cognitive, motivational, and sociodemographic variables such as conceptual knowledge, enjoyment of chemistry, or language spoken at home. Plausible values were drawn to quantify students' inquiry skills. The results show that students' characteristics predict their inquiry skills to a large extent (55%), whereas 9 out of 12 variables contribute significantly on a multivariate level. The influence of sociodemographic traits such as gender or the social background becomes non-significant after controlling for cognitive and motivational variables. Furthermore, the performance advance of students from upper secondary school level can be explained by controlling for cognitive covariates. We discuss our findings with regard to curricular aspects and raise the question whether the inquiry skills can be considered as an autonomous trait in science education research.

  16. Motor Skill Competence and Perceived Motor Competence: Which Best Predicts Physical Activity among Girls?

    OpenAIRE

    Khodaverdi, Zeinab; Bahram, Abbas; Khalaji, Hassan; Kazemnejad, Anoshirvan

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The main purpose of this study was to determine which correlate, perceived motor competence or motor skill competence, best predicts girls? physical activity behavior. Methods A sample of 352 girls (mean age=8.7, SD=0.3 yr) participated in this study. To assess motor skill competence and perceived motor competence, each child completed the Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Physical Ability sub-scale of Marsh?s Self-Description Questionnaire. Children?s physical activit...

  17. Seasonal maximum temperature prediction skill over Southern Africa: 1- vs 2-tiered forecasting systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Lazenby, MJ

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available TEMPERATURE PREDICTION SKILL OVER SOUTHERN AFRICA: 1- VS. 2-TIERED FORECASTING SYSTEMS Melissa J. Lazenby University of Pretoria, Private Bag X20, Pretoria, 0028, South Africa Willem A. Landman Council for Scientific and Industrial....J., Tyson, P.D. and Tennant, W.J., 2001. Retro-active skill of multi- tiered forecasts of summer rainfall over southern Africa. International Journal of Climatology, 21, 1- 19. Mason, S.J. and Graham, N.E., 2002. Areas beneath the relative operating...

  18. Skills training through hands-on practical activities in civil technology – a case study of three technical schools in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mogale Maeko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Skills training for Civil Technology learners in South African schools, is an aspect entrenched in the Civil Technology policy document in order to produce skilled personnel for a sustainable economy. Practical activities through the Practical Assessment Task (PAT are national requirements for all practical-based subjects from grades 10–12 in South African schools. The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of Civil Technology practical activities in three South African schools in the Eastern Cape Province. Purposive sampling was used to identify 41 learners and 3 teachers to participate in the study. Questionnaires, semi-structured interviews and observation as data collection methods were instruments used to collect data. The study has found that learners exit grade 12 without basic practical hands-on skills. Civil Technology practical activities were found to be inadequately offered in the three schools investigated. Educators should be well-trained by higher education institutions (HEIs to conduct practical activities with learners so that these learners are equipped with marketable skills in order to contribute to a sustainable economy after grade 12. Technology teacher education and training should include regular exposure and visits to relevant industries in order for teachers to keep abreast with the latest technological developments. The supply of equipment to schools should be coupled with routine maintenance of the equipment.

  19. Fine motor skills in South African children with symptoms of ADHD: influence of subtype, gender, age, and hand dominance

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Anneke; Sagvolden, Terje

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Motor problems, often characterised as clumsiness or poor motor coordination, have been associated with ADHD in addition to the main symptom groups of inattention, impulsiveness, and overactivity. The problems addressed in this study were: (1) Are motor problems associated with ADHD symptoms, also in African cultures? (2) Are there differences in motor skills among the subtypes with ADHD symptoms? (3) Are there gender differences? (4) Is there an effect of age? (5) Are the...

  20. The nature and use of prediction skills in a biological computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavoie, Derrick R.; Good, Ron

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the science process skill of prediction using qualitative research methodology. The think-aloud interview, modeled after Ericsson and Simon (1984), let to the identification of 63 program exploration and prediction behaviors.The performance of seven formal and seven concrete operational high-school biology students were videotaped during a three-phase learning sequence on water pollution. Subjects explored the effects of five independent variables on two dependent variables over time using a computer-simulation program. Predictions were made concerning the effect of the independent variables upon dependent variables through time. Subjects were identified according to initial knowledge of the subject matter and success at solving three selected prediction problems.Successful predictors generally had high initial knowledge of the subject matter and were formal operational. Unsuccessful predictors generally had low initial knowledge and were concrete operational. High initial knowledge seemed to be more important to predictive success than stage of Piagetian cognitive development.Successful prediction behaviors involved systematic manipulation of the independent variables, note taking, identification and use of appropriate independent-dependent variable relationships, high interest and motivation, and in general, higher-level thinking skills. Behaviors characteristic of unsuccessful predictors were nonsystematic manipulation of independent variables, lack of motivation and persistence, misconceptions, and the identification and use of inappropriate independent-dependent variable relationships.

  1. Predicting Couples' Marital Satisfaction Based on Relationship Beliefs and Relationship Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    خلیل اسماعیل‌پور

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results showed that there was significant difference between husbands’ and their wives' marital satisfaction. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that relational skills and marriage duration were, respectively, significant predictors of husbands’ marital satisfaction. Also, relational skills and some of relational beliefs- such as "things should always be perfect between us", "we should do everything together" and "romanticism", had significant contribution in prediction of wives’ martial satisfaction, respectively. Contributions of other relational beliefs were not significant. These results clarified the role of relational shills and relational beliefs in marital satisfaction, and confirmed that cognitive-behavior approaches, through training relational skills for couples, and therapeutic interventions to change wives' irrational beliefs would be effective in treating marital problems. This Study, according to cognitive-behavior approach, tries to investigate the role of relationship beliefs and relationship skills in couples' marital satisfaction. To do so, 160 persons (80 couples from Tabriz were selected.  After establishing the motivation for participation in the research and getting their informed consent, they were asked to fill out Relationship Beliefs Questionnaire (RBQ, Moradi's marital relationship skills questionnaire and marital satisfaction questionnaire (ENRICH.

  2. Fine motor skill predicts expressive language in infant siblings of children with autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M

    2013-11-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor skill from 12 to 24 months in HR infants (Study 1) and its relation to later expressive vocabulary at 36 months in HR infants (Study 2). In Study 1, we also included 25 infants without a family history of autism to serve as a normative comparison group for a parent-report fine motor measure. We found that HR infants exhibited fine motor delays between 12 and 24 months and expressive vocabulary delays at 36 months. Further, fine motor skill significantly predicted expressive language at 36 months. Fine motor and expressive language skills are related early in development in HR infants, who, as a group, exhibit risk for delays in both. Our findings highlight the importance of considering fine motor skill in children at risk for language impairments and may have implications for early identification of expressive language difficulties. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Sara A; Ganley, Colleen M; Purpura, David J

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  4. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children's Math Skills.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara A Hart

    Full Text Available There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children's math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children's math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children's skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills.

  5. Reliability of didactic grades to predict practical skills in an undergraduate dental college in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zawawi, Khalid H; Afify, Ahmed R; Yousef, Mohammed K; Othman, Hisham I; Al-Dharrab, Ayman A

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal study was aimed to investigate the association between didactic grades and practical skills for dental students and whether didactic grades can reliability predict the dental students' practical performance. Didactic and practical grades for graduates from the Faculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz University, between the years 2009 and 2011 were collected. Four courses were selected: Dental Anatomy, Operative Dentistry, Prosthodontics, and Orthodontics. Pearson product-moment correlation analyses between didactic and practical scores were conducted. There was only a significant correlation between didactic and practical scores for the Dental Anatomy course (Pdidactic scores (Pdidactic and practical scores for all subjects. Based on the findings of this study, the relationship between didactic grades and practical performance is course specific. Didactic grades do not reliably predict the students' practical skills. Measuring practical performances should be independent from didactic grading.

  6. Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) evaluation of theoretical versus hands-on training of vaginal breech delivery management: a randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buerkle, Bernd; Rueter, Katharina; Hefler, Lukas A; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2013-12-01

    To compare the skills of performing a vaginal breech (VB) delivery after hands-on training versus demonstration. We randomized medical students to a 30-min demonstration (group 1) or a 30-min hands-on (group 2) training session using a standardized VB management algorithm on a pelvic training model. Subjects were tested with a 25 item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scoring system immediately after training and 72 h thereafter. OSATS scores were the primary outcome. Performance time (PT), self assessment (SA), confidence (CON), and global rating scale (GRS) were the secondary outcomes. Statistics were performed using the Mann-Whitney U-test, chi-square test, and multiple linear regression analysis. 172 subjects were randomized. OSATS scores (primary outcome) were significantly higher in group 2 (n=88) compared to group 1 (n=84) (21.18±2.29 vs. 20.19±2.37, respectively; p=0.006). The secondary outcomes GRS (10.31±2.28 vs. 9.17±2.21; p=0.001), PT (214.60±57.97 s vs. 246.98±59.34 s; ptraining leads to a significant improvement of VB management in a pelvic training model, but this effect was only seen in the short term. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A randomized comparison of video demonstration versus hands-on training of medical students for vacuum delivery using Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilal, Ziad; Kumpernatz, Anne K; Rezniczek, Günther A; Cetin, Cem; Tempfer-Bentz, Eva-Katrin; Tempfer, Clemens B

    2017-03-01

    To compare medical students' skills for vaginal operative delivery by vacuum extraction (VE) after hands-on training versus video demonstration. We randomized medical students to an expert demonstration (group 1) or a hands-on (group 2) training using a standardized VE algorithm on a pelvic training model. Students were tested with a 40-item Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skills (OSATS) scoring system after training and 4 days later. OSATS scores were the primary outcome. Performance time, self-assessment, confidence, and global rating scale were secondary outcomes. We assessed the constructive validity of OSATS in this VE model comparing metric scores of experts and students. In all, 137 students were randomized. OSATS scores were higher in group 2 (n = 63) compared with group 1 (n = 74) (32.89 ± 6.39 vs 27.51 ± 10.27, respectively; P training is superior to video demonstration for teaching VE on a pelvic model.

  8. Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills Performance: 2D Versus 3D Vision and Classic Instrument Versus New Hand-Held Robotic Device for Laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Mariana; Carvalho, Ana F; Costa, Patrício; Pereira, Ricardo; Moreira, Antonio; Rodrigues, Nuno; Laureano, Sara; Correia-Pinto, Jorge; Vilaça, João L; Leão, Pedro

    2016-02-01

    Laparoscopic surgery has undeniable advantages, such as reduced postoperative pain, smaller incisions, and faster recovery. However, to improve surgeons' performance, ergonomic adaptations of the laparoscopic instruments and introduction of robotic technology are needed. The aim of this study was to ascertain the influence of a new hand-held robotic device for laparoscopy (HHRDL) and 3D vision on laparoscopic skills performance of 2 different groups, naïve and expert. Each participant performed 3 laparoscopic tasks-Peg transfer, Wire chaser, Knot-in 4 different ways. With random sequencing we assigned the execution order of the tasks based on the first type of visualization and laparoscopic instrument. Time to complete each laparoscopic task was recorded and analyzed with one-way analysis of variance. Eleven experts and 15 naïve participants were included. Three-dimensional video helps the naïve group to get better performance in Peg transfer, Wire chaser 2 hands, and Knot; the new device improved the execution of all laparoscopic tasks (P < .05). For expert group, the 3D video system benefited them in Peg transfer and Wire chaser 1 hand, and the robotic device in Peg transfer, Wire chaser 1 hand, and Wire chaser 2 hands (P < .05). The HHRDL helps the execution of difficult laparoscopic tasks, such as Knot, in the naïve group. Three-dimensional vision makes the laparoscopic performance of the participants without laparoscopic experience easier, unlike those with experience in laparoscopic procedures. © The Author(s) 2015.

  9. Beneficial effects of an investigational wristband containing Synsepalum dulcificum (miracle fruit) seed oil on the performance of hand and finger motor skills in healthy subjects: A randomized controlled preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorin, Steven; Wakeford, Charles; Zhang, Guodong; Sukamtoh, Elvira; Matteliano, Charles Joseph; Finch, Alfred Earl

    2018-02-01

    Miracle fruit (Synsepalum dulcificum) seed oil (MFSO) contains phytochemicals and nutrients reported to affect musculoskeletal performance. The purpose of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of a compression wristband containing MFSO on its ability to measurably improve the hand and finger motor skills of participants. Healthy right-handed participants (n = 38) were randomized in this double-blind, placebo-controlled study of MFSO and vehicle wristbands. Subjects wore the wristband on their left hand 4-6 weeks and then only on their right hand 2-4 weeks; the contralateral untreated hand served as an additional control. Twelve hand/finger motor skills were measured using quantitative bio-instrumentation tests, and subject self-assessment questionnaires were conducted. With each hand, in 9/12 tests, the MFSO group showed a clinically meaningful average improvement compared with an average worsening in the vehicle group. Statistical superiority to the control treatment group was exhibited in 9/12 tests for each hand (p motor skills. Use of the MFSO wristband may improve an individual's manual dexterity skills and ability to maintain this performance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors Phytotherapy Research Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Development of the Metacognitive Skills of Prediction and Evaluation in Children With or Without Math Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Adia J.; Mazzocco, Michèle M. M.; Baker, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Metacognition refers to knowledge about one’s own cognition. The present study was designed to assess metacognitive skills that either precede or follow task engagement, rather than the processes that occur during a task. Specifically, we examined prediction and evaluation skills among children with (n = 17) or without (n = 179) mathematics learning disability (MLD), from grades 2 to 4. Children were asked to predict which of several math problems they could solve correctly; later, they were asked to solve those problems. They were asked to evaluate whether their solution to each of another set of problems was correct. Children’s ability to evaluate their answers to math problems improved from grade 2 to grade 3, whereas there was no change over time in the children’s ability to predict which problems they could solve correctly. Children with MLD were less accurate than children without MLD in evaluating both their correct and incorrect solutions, and they were less accurate at predicting which problems they could solve correctly. However, children with MLD were as accurate as their peers in correctly predicting that they could not solve specific math problems. The findings have implications for the usefulness of children’s self-review during mathematics problem solving. PMID:20084181

  11. Feasibility of Using an Arm Weight-Supported Training System to Improve Hand Function Skills in Children With Hemiplegia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Swetha; Coletti, Daniel J; Berlin, Hilary; Friel, Kathleen

    This investigation was a pilot feasibility trial evaluating the use of an arm-weight-supported training device to improve upper-extremity function in children with hemiplegia. A single-group within-subject design was used. Participants were 6 children ages 7-17 yr with upper-extremity weakness secondary to hemiplegia. The intervention consisted of 15-18 treatment sessions using an arm-weight-supported training device with the affected upper extremity. Fine motor function was assessed using the Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test, the Box and Block Test, and the Assisting Hand Assessment. We examined participants' interactions with the device and assessment scores pre- and postintervention. Five of the 6 children exhibited some changes after the therapy. The system required significant modifications to ensure appropriate positioning. The arm-weight-supported system may be viable for therapeutic use. Future studies should use randomized controlled designs and compare effectiveness of weight-supported training with that of other rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  12. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-08-01

    Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level - a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of 'late talkers' resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to be improved when considering family

  13. Do infant vocabulary skills predict school-age language and literacy outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, Fiona J; Reen, Gurpreet; Plunkett, Kim; Nation, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Background Strong associations between infant vocabulary and school-age language and literacy skills would have important practical and theoretical implications: Preschool assessment of vocabulary skills could be used to identify children at risk of reading and language difficulties, and vocabulary could be viewed as a cognitive foundation for reading. However, evidence to date suggests predictive ability from infant vocabulary to later language and literacy is low. This study provides an investigation into, and interpretation of, the magnitude of such infant to school-age relationships. Methods Three hundred British infants whose vocabularies were assessed by parent report in the 2nd year of life (between 16 and 24 months) were followed up on average 5 years later (ages ranged from 4 to 9 years), when their vocabulary, phonological and reading skills were measured. Results Structural equation modelling of age-regressed scores was used to assess the strength of longitudinal relationships. Infant vocabulary (a latent factor of receptive and expressive vocabulary) was a statistically significant predictor of later vocabulary, phonological awareness, reading accuracy and reading comprehension (accounting for between 4% and 18% of variance). Family risk for language or literacy difficulties explained additional variance in reading (approximately 10%) but not language outcomes. Conclusions Significant longitudinal relationships between preliteracy vocabulary knowledge and subsequent reading support the theory that vocabulary is a cognitive foundation of both reading accuracy and reading comprehension. Importantly however, the stability of vocabulary skills from infancy to later childhood is too low to be sufficiently predictive of language outcomes at an individual level – a finding that fits well with the observation that the majority of ‘late talkers’ resolve their early language difficulties. For reading outcomes, prediction of future difficulties is likely to

  14. Hand-hygiene compliance does not predict rates of resistant infections in critically ill surgical patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaraman, Sudha P; Klompas, Michael; Bascom, Molli; Liu, Xiaoxia; Piszcz, Regina; Rogers, Selwyn O; Askari, Reza

    2014-10-01

    Our institution had a major outbreak of multi-drug-resistant Acinetobacter (MDRA) in its general surgical and trauma intensive care units (ICUs) in 2011, requiring implementation of an aggressive infection-control response. We hypothesized that poor hand-hygiene compliance (HHC) may have contributed to the outbreak of MDRA. A response to the outbreak including aggressive environmental cleaning, cohorting, and increased hand hygiene compliance monitoring may have led to an increase in HHC after the outbreak and to a consequent decrease in the rates of infection by the nosocomial pathogens methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), and Clostridium difficile. Hand-hygiene compliance, tracked in monthly audits by trained and anonymous observers, was abstracted from an infection control database. The incidences of nosocomial MRSA, VRE, and C. difficile were calculated from a separate prospectively collected data base for 6 mo before and 12 mo after the 2011 outbreak of MDRA in the institution's general surgical and trauma ICUs, and data collected prospectively from two unaffected ICUs (the thoracic surgical ICU and medical intensive care unit [MICU]). We created a composite endpoint of "any resistant pathogen," defined as MRSA, VRE, or C. difficile, and compared incidence rates over time, using the Wilcoxon signed rank test and Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient to measure the correlations among these rates. Rates of HHC before and after the outbreak of MDRA were consistently high in both the general surgical (median rates: 100% before and 97.6% after the outbreak, p=0.93) and trauma ICUs (median rates: 90% before and 96.75% after the outbreak, p=0.14). In none of the ICUs included in the study did the rates of HHC increase in response to the outbreak of MDRA. The incidence of "any resistant pathogen" decreased in the general surgical ICU after the outbreak (from 6.7/1,000 patient-days before the outbreak to 2

  15. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7-11 years Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene R Faber

    Full Text Available Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players' potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player's future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7-11 years. Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05. Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items 'aiming at target', 'throwing a ball', and 'eye-hand coordination' in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%. Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment's outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%. This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  16. Can Perceptuo-Motor Skills Assessment Outcomes in Young Table Tennis Players (7–11 years) Predict Future Competition Participation and Performance? An Observational Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Forecasting future performance in youth table tennis players based on current performance is complex due to, among other things, differences between youth players in growth, development, maturity, context and table tennis experience. Talent development programmes might benefit from an assessment of underlying perceptuo-motor skills for table tennis, which is hypothesized to determine the players’ potential concerning the perceptuo-motor domain. The Dutch perceptuo-motor skills assessment intends to measure the perceptuo-motor potential for table tennis in youth players by assessing the underlying skills crucial for developing technical and tactical qualities. Untrained perceptuo-motor tasks are used as these are suggested to represent a player’s future potential better than specific sport skills themselves as the latter depend on exposure to the sport itself. This study evaluated the value of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment for a talent developmental programme by evaluating its predictive validity for competition participation and performance in 48 young table tennis players (7–11 years). Players were tested on their perceptuo-motor skills once during a regional talent day, and the subsequent competition results were recorded half-yearly over a period of 2.5 years. Logistic regression analysis showed that test scores did not predict future competition participation (p >0.05). Yet, the Generalized Estimating Equations analysis, including the test items ‘aiming at target’, ‘throwing a ball’, and ‘eye-hand coordination’ in the best fitting model, revealed that the outcomes of the perceptuo-motor skills assessment were significant predictors for future competition results (R2 = 51%). Since the test age influences the perceptuo-motor skills assessment’s outcome, another multivariable model was proposed including test age as a covariate (R2 = 53%). This evaluation demonstrates promising prospects for the perceptuo-motor skills assessment to be

  17. Probabilistic evaluation of decadal prediction skill regarding Northern Hemisphere winter storms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Kruschke

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Winter wind storms related to intense extra-tropical cyclones are meteorological extreme events, often with major impacts on economy and human life, especially for Europe and the mid-latitudes. Hence, skillful decadal predictions regarding the frequency of their occurrence would be of great socio-economic value. The present paper extends the study of Kruschke et al. (2014 in several aspects. First, this study is situated in a more impact oriented context by analyzing the frequency of potentially damaging wind storm events instead of targeting at cyclones as general meteorological features which was done by Kruschke et al. (2014. Second, this study incorporates more data sets by analyzing five decadal hindcast experiments – 41 annual (1961–2001 initializations integrated for ten years each – set up with different initialization strategies. However, all experiments are based on the Max-Planck-Institute Earth System Model in a low-resolution configuration (MPI-ESM-LR. Differing combinations of these five experiments allow for more robust estimates of predictive skill (due to considerably larger ensemble size and systematic comparisons of the underlying initialization strategies. Third, the hindcast experiments are corrected for model bias and potential drifts over lead time by means of a novel parametric approach, accounting for non-stationary model drifts. We analyze whether skillful probabilistic three-category forecasts (enhanced, normal or decreased can be provided regarding winter (ONDJFM wind storm frequencies over the Northern Hemisphere (NH. Skill is assessed by using climatological probabilities and uninitialized transient simulations as reference forecasts. It is shown that forecasts of average winter wind storm frequencies for winters 2–5 and winters 2–9 are skillful over large parts of the NH. However, most of this skill is associated with external forcing from transient greenhouse gas and aerosol concentrations

  18. Predictive equations for lumbar spine loads in load-dependent asymmetric one- and two-handed lifting activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arjmand, N; Plamondon, A; Shirazi-Adl, A; Parnianpour, M; Larivière, C

    2012-07-01

    Asymmetric lifting activities are associated with low back pain. A finite element biomechanical model is used to estimate spinal loads during one- and two-handed asymmetric static lifting activities. Model input variables are thorax flexion angle, load magnitude as well as load sagittal and lateral positions while response variables are L4-L5 and L5-S1 disc compression and shear forces. A number of levels are considered for each input variable and all their possible combinations are introduced into the model. Robust yet user-friendly predictive equations that relate model responses to its inputs are established. Predictive equations with adequate goodness-of-fit (R(2) ranged from ~94% to 99%, P≤0.001) that relate spinal loads to task (input) variables are established. Contour plots are used to identify combinations of task variable levels that yield spine loads beyond the recommended limits. The effect of uncertainties in the measurements of asymmetry-related inputs on spinal loads is studied. A number of issues regarding the NIOSH asymmetry multiplier are discussed and it is concluded that this multiplier should depend on the trunk posture and be defined in terms of the load vertical and horizontal positions. Due to an imprecise adjustment of the handled load magnitude this multiplier inadequately controls the biomechanical loading of the spine. Ergonomists and bioengineers, faced with the dilemma of using either complex but more accurate models on one hand or less accurate but simple models on the other hand, have hereby easy-to-use predictive equations that quantify spinal loads under various occupational tasks. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Number Line Estimation Predicts Mathematical Skills: Difference in Grades 2 and 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Meixia; Cai, Dan; Leung, Ada W S

    2017-01-01

    Studies have shown that number line estimation is important for learning. However, it is yet unclear if number line estimation predicts different mathematical skills in different grades after controlling for age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of number line estimation on two mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving) in grade 2 and grade 4. One hundred and forty-eight children from Shanghai, China were assessed on measures of number line estimation, non-verbal cognitive ability (non-verbal matrices), working memory (N-back), attention (expressive attention), and mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving). The results showed that in grade 2, number line estimation correlated significantly with calculation fluency ( r = -0.27, p problem-solving ( r = -0.52, p problem-solving ( r = -0.38, p problem-solving (12.0%) and calculation fluency (4.0%) after controlling for the effects of age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. In grade 4, number line estimation accounted for unique variance in math problem-solving (9.0%) but not in calculation fluency. These findings suggested that number line estimation had an important role in math problem-solving for both grades 2 and 4 children and in calculation fluency for grade 2 children. We concluded that number line estimation could be a useful indicator for teachers to identify and improve children's mathematical skills.

  20. Land-surface initialisation improves seasonal climate prediction skill for maize yield forecast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceglar, Andrej; Toreti, Andrea; Prodhomme, Chloe; Zampieri, Matteo; Turco, Marco; Doblas-Reyes, Francisco J

    2018-01-22

    Seasonal crop yield forecasting represents an important source of information to maintain market stability, minimise socio-economic impacts of crop losses and guarantee humanitarian food assistance, while it fosters the use of climate information favouring adaptation strategies. As climate variability and extremes have significant influence on agricultural production, the early prediction of severe weather events and unfavourable conditions can contribute to the mitigation of adverse effects. Seasonal climate forecasts provide additional value for agricultural applications in several regions of the world. However, they currently play a very limited role in supporting agricultural decisions in Europe, mainly due to the poor skill of relevant surface variables. Here we show how a combined stress index (CSI), considering both drought and heat stress in summer, can predict maize yield in Europe and how land-surface initialised seasonal climate forecasts can be used to predict it. The CSI explains on average nearly 53% of the inter-annual maize yield variability under observed climate conditions and shows how concurrent heat stress and drought events have influenced recent yield anomalies. Seasonal climate forecast initialised with realistic land-surface achieves better (and marginally useful) skill in predicting the CSI than with climatological land-surface initialisation in south-eastern Europe, part of central Europe, France and Italy.

  1. Predicting lotto numbers : A natural experiment on the gambler's fallacy and the hot hand fallacy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suetens, Sigrid; Galbo-Jorgensen, C.B.; Tyran, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the ’law of small numbers’ using a data set on lotto gambling that allows to measure players’ reactions to draws. While most players pick the same set of numbers week after week, we find that those who do change, react on average as predicted by the law of small numbers as formalized

  2. Visualization of uncertainties and forecast skill in user-tailored seasonal climate predictions for agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedlmeier, Katrin; Gubler, Stefanie; Spierig, Christoph; Flubacher, Moritz; Maurer, Felix; Quevedo, Karim; Escajadillo, Yury; Avalos, Griña; Liniger, Mark A.; Schwierz, Cornelia

    2017-04-01

    Seasonal climate forecast products potentially have a high value for users of different sectors. During the first phase (2012-2015) of the project CLIMANDES (a pilot project of the Global Framework for Climate Services led by WMO [http://www.wmo.int/gfcs/climandes]), a demand study conducted with Peruvian farmers indicated a large interest in seasonal climate information for agriculture. The study further showed that the required information should by precise, timely, and understandable. In addition to the actual forecast, two complex measures are essential to understand seasonal climate predictions and their limitations correctly: forecast uncertainty and forecast skill. The former can be sampled by using an ensemble of climate simulations, the latter derived by comparing forecasts of past time periods to observations. Including uncertainty and skill information in an understandable way for end-users (who are often not technically educated) poses a great challenge. However, neglecting this information would lead to a false sense of determinism which could prove fatal to the credibility of climate information. Within the second phase (2016-2018) of the project CLIMANDES, one goal is to develop a prototype of a user-tailored seasonal forecast for the agricultural sector in Peru. In this local context, the basic education level of the rural farming community presents a major challenge for the communication of seasonal climate predictions. This contribution proposes different graphical presentations of climate forecasts along with possible approaches to visualize and communicate the associated skill and uncertainties, considering end users with varying levels of technical knowledge.

  3. A tale of two hands: Children's early gesture use in narrative production predicts later narrative structure in speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Özlem Ece; Levine, Susan C.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Speakers of all ages spontaneously gesture as they talk. These gestures predict children's milestones in vocabulary and sentence structure. We ask whether gesture serves a similar role in the development of narrative skill. Children were asked to retell a story conveyed in a wordless cartoon at age 5 and then again at 6, 7, and 8. Children's narrative structure in speech improved across these ages. At age 5, many of the children expressed a character's viewpoint in gesture, and these children were more likely to tell better-structured stories at the later ages than children who did not produce character-viewpoint gestures at age 5. In contrast, framing narratives from a character's perspective in speech at age 5 did not predict later narrative structure in speech. Gesture thus continues to act as a harbinger of change even as it assumes new roles in relation to discourse. PMID:25088361

  4. Skill prediction of local weather forecasts based on the ECMWF ensemble

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ziehmann

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensemble Prediction has become an essential part of numerical weather forecasting. In this paper we investigate the ability of ensemble forecasts to provide an a priori estimate of the expected forecast skill. Several quantities derived from the local ensemble distribution are investigated for a two year data set of European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF temperature and wind speed ensemble forecasts at 30 German stations. The results indicate that the population of the ensemble mode provides useful information for the uncertainty in temperature forecasts. The ensemble entropy is a similar good measure. This is not true for the spread if it is simply calculated as the variance of the ensemble members with respect to the ensemble mean. The number of clusters in the C regions is almost unrelated to the local skill. For wind forecasts, the results are less promising.

  5. Forecast skill score assessment of a relocatable ocean prediction system, using a simplified objective analysis method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onken, Reiner

    2017-11-01

    A relocatable ocean prediction system (ROPS) was employed to an observational data set which was collected in June 2014 in the waters to the west of Sardinia (western Mediterranean) in the framework of the REP14-MED experiment. The observational data, comprising more than 6000 temperature and salinity profiles from a fleet of underwater gliders and shipborne probes, were assimilated in the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), which is the heart of ROPS, and verified against independent observations from ScanFish tows by means of the forecast skill score as defined by Murphy(1993). A simplified objective analysis (OA) method was utilised for assimilation, taking account of only those profiles which were located within a predetermined time window W. As a result of a sensitivity study, the highest skill score was obtained for a correlation length scale C = 12.5 km, W = 24 h, and r = 1, where r is the ratio between the error of the observations and the background error, both for temperature and salinity. Additional ROPS runs showed that (i) the skill score of assimilation runs was mostly higher than the score of a control run without assimilation, (i) the skill score increased with increasing forecast range, and (iii) the skill score for temperature was higher than the score for salinity in the majority of cases. Further on, it is demonstrated that the vast number of observations can be managed by the applied OA method without data reduction, enabling timely operational forecasts even on a commercially available personal computer or a laptop.

  6. Key Insights into Hand Biomechanics: Human Grip Stiffness Can Be Decoupled from Force by Cocontraction and Predicted from Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannes Höppner

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the relation between grip force and grip stiffness for the human hand with and without voluntary cocontraction. Apart from gaining biomechanical insight, this issue is particularly relevant for variable-stiffness robotic systems, which can independently control the two parameters, but for which no clear methods exist to design or efficiently exploit them. Subjects were asked in one task to produce different levels of force, and stiffness was measured. As expected, this task reveals a linear coupling between force and stiffness. In a second task, subjects were then asked to additionally decouple stiffness from force at these force levels by using cocontraction. We measured the electromyogram from relevant groups of muscles and analyzed the possibility to predict stiffness and force. Optical tracking was used for avoiding wrist movements. We found that subjects were able to decouple grip stiffness from force when using cocontraction on average by about 20% of the maximum measured stiffness over all force levels, while this ability increased with the applied force. This result contradicts the force–stiffness behavior of most variable-stiffness actuators. Moreover, we found the thumb to be on average twice as stiff as the index finger and discovered that intrinsic hand muscles predominate our prediction of stiffness, but not of force. EMG activity and grip force allowed to explain 72 ± 12% of the measured variance in stiffness by simple linear regression, while only 33 ± 18% variance in force. Conclusively the high signal-to-noise ratio and the high correlation to stiffness of these muscles allow for a robust and reliable regression of stiffness, which can be used to continuously teleoperate compliance of modern robotic hands.

  7. Identifying and Assessing Gaps in Subseasonal to Seasonal Prediction Skill using the North American Multi-model Ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pegion, K.; DelSole, T. M.; Becker, E.; Cicerone, T.

    2016-12-01

    Predictability represents the upper limit of prediction skill if we had an infinite member ensemble and a perfect model. It is an intrinsic limit of the climate system associated with the chaotic nature of the atmosphere. Producing a forecast system that can make predictions very near to this limit is the ultimate goal of forecast system development. Estimates of predictability together with calculations of current prediction skill are often used to define the gaps in our prediction capabilities on subseasonal to seasonal timescales and to inform the scientific issues that must be addressed to build the next forecast system. Quantification of the predictability is also important for providing a scientific basis for relaying to stakeholders what kind of climate information can be provided to inform decision-making and what kind of information is not possible given the intrinsic predictability of the climate system. One challenge with predictability estimates is that different prediction systems can give different estimates of the upper limit of skill. How do we know which estimate of predictability is most representative of the true predictability of the climate system? Previous studies have used the spread-error relationship and the autocorrelation to evaluate the fidelity of the signal and noise estimates. Using a multi-model ensemble prediction system, we can quantify whether these metrics accurately indicate an individual model's ability to properly estimate the signal, noise, and predictability. We use this information to identify the best estimates of predictability for 2-meter temperature, precipitation, and sea surface temperature from the North American Multi-model Ensemble and compare with current skill to indicate the regions with potential for improving skill.

  8. Interest level in 2-year-olds with autism spectrum disorder predicts rate of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition

    OpenAIRE

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2 years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill acquisition to the age of 3 years. A total of 70 toddlers with autism spectrum disorder, mean age of 21.9 months, were scored using Interest Level Sco...

  9. Exploring Best Practice Skills to Predict Uncertainties in Venture Capital Investment Decision-Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blum, David Arthur

    Algae biodiesel is the sole sustainable and abundant transportation fuel source that can replace petrol diesel use; however, high competition and economic uncertainties exist, influencing independent venture capital decision making. Technology, market, management, and government action uncertainties influence competition and economic uncertainties in the venture capital industry. The purpose of this qualitative case study was to identify the best practice skills at IVC firms to predict uncertainty between early and late funding stages. The basis of the study was real options theory, a framework used to evaluate and understand the economic and competition uncertainties inherent in natural resource investment and energy derived from plant-based oils. Data were collected from interviews of 24 venture capital partners based in the United States who invest in algae and other renewable energy solutions. Data were analyzed by coding and theme development interwoven with the conceptual framework. Eight themes emerged: (a) expected returns model, (b) due diligence, (c) invest in specific sectors, (d) reduced uncertainty-late stage, (e) coopetition, (f) portfolio firm relationships, (g) differentiation strategy, and (h) modeling uncertainty and best practice. The most noteworthy finding was that predicting uncertainty at the early stage was impractical; at the expansion and late funding stages, however, predicting uncertainty was possible. The implications of these findings will affect social change by providing independent venture capitalists with best practice skills to increase successful exits, lessen uncertainty, and encourage increased funding of renewable energy firms, contributing to cleaner and healthier communities throughout the United States..

  10. Skill of Predicting Heavy Rainfall Over India: Improvement in Recent Years Using UKMO Global Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Kuldeep; Ashrit, Raghavendra; Bhatla, R.; Mitra, A. K.; Iyengar, G. R.; Rajagopal, E. N.

    2017-11-01

    The quantitative precipitation forecast (QPF) performance for heavy rains is still a challenge, even for the most advanced state-of-art high-resolution Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) modeling systems. This study aims to evaluate the performance of UK Met Office Unified Model (UKMO) over India for prediction of high rainfall amounts (>2 and >5 cm/day) during the monsoon period (JJAS) from 2007 to 2015 in short range forecast up to Day 3. Among the various modeling upgrades and improvements in the parameterizations during this period, the model horizontal resolution has seen an improvement from 40 km in 2007 to 17 km in 2015. Skill of short range rainfall forecast has improved in UKMO model in recent years mainly due to increased horizontal and vertical resolution along with improved physics schemes. Categorical verification carried out using the four verification metrics, namely, probability of detection (POD), false alarm ratio (FAR), frequency bias (Bias) and Critical Success Index, indicates that QPF has improved by >29 and >24% in case of POD and FAR. Additionally, verification scores like EDS (Extreme Dependency Score), EDI (Extremal Dependence Index) and SEDI (Symmetric EDI) are used with special emphasis on verification of extreme and rare rainfall events. These scores also show an improvement by 60% (EDS) and >34% (EDI and SEDI) during the period of study, suggesting an improved skill of predicting heavy rains.

  11. Multi-Annual Climate Predictions for Fisheries: An Assessment of Skill of Sea Surface Temperature Forecasts for Large Marine Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Desiree Tommasi

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Decisions made by fishers and fisheries managers are informed by climate and fisheries observations that now often span more than 50 years. Multi-annual climate forecasts could further inform such decisions if they were skillful in predicting future conditions relative to the 50-year scope of past variability. We demonstrate that an existing multi-annual prediction system skillfully forecasts the probability of next year, the next 1–3 years, and the next 1–10 years being warmer or cooler than the 50-year average at the surface in coastal ecosystems. Probabilistic forecasts of upper and lower seas surface temperature (SST terciles over the next 3 or 10 years from the GFDL CM 2.1 10-member ensemble global prediction system showed significant improvements in skill over the use of a 50-year climatology for most Large Marine Ecosystems (LMEs in the North Atlantic, the western Pacific, and Indian oceans. Through a comparison of the forecast skill of initialized and uninitialized hindcasts, we demonstrate that this skill is largely due to the predictable signature of radiative forcing changes over the 50-year timescale rather than prediction of evolving modes of climate variability. North Atlantic LMEs stood out as the only coastal regions where initialization significantly contributed to SST prediction skill at the 1 to 10 year scale.

  12. Cortical Responses to Chinese Phonemes in Preschoolers Predict Their Literacy Skills at School Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Tian; Shuai, Lan; Frost, Stephen J; Landi, Nicole; Pugh, Kenneth R; Shu, Hua

    2018-01-01

    We investigated whether preschoolers with poor phonological awareness (PA) skills had impaired cortical basis for detecting speech feature, and whether speech perception influences future literacy outcomes in preschoolers. We recorded ERP responses to speech in 52 Chinese preschoolers. The results showed that the poor PA group processed speech changes differentially compared to control group in mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN). Furthermore, speech perception in kindergarten could predict literacy outcomes after literacy acquisition. These suggest that impairment in detecting speech features occurs before formal reading instruction, and that speech perception plays an important role in reading development.

  13. Predicting maternal parenting stress in middle childhood: the roles of child intellectual status, behaviour problems and social skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neece, C; Baker, B

    2008-12-01

    Parents of children with intellectual disabilities (ID) typically report elevated levels of parenting stress, and child behaviour problems are a strong predictor of heightened parenting stress. Interestingly, few studies have examined child characteristics beyond behaviour problems that may also contribute to parenting stress. The present longitudinal study examined the contribution of child social skills to maternal parenting stress across middle childhood, as well as the direction of the relationship between child social skills and parenting stress. Families of children with ID (n = 74) or typical development (TD) (n = 115) participated over a 2-year period. Maternal parenting stress, child behaviour problems and child social skills were assessed at child ages six and eight. Child social skills accounted for unique variance in maternal parenting stress above and beyond child intellectual status and child behaviour problems. As the children matured, there was a significant interaction between child social skills and behaviour problems in predicting parenting stress. With respect to the direction of these effects, a cross-lagged panel analysis indicated that early parenting stress contributed to later social skills difficulties for children, but the path from children's early social skills to later parenting stress was not supported, once child behaviour problems and intellectual status were accounted for. When examining parenting stress, child social skills are an important variable to consider, especially in the context of child behaviour problems. Early parenting stress predicted child social skills difficulties over time, highlighting parenting stress as a key target for intervention.

  14. Simulation-Based Laparoscopic Surgery Crisis Resource Management Training-Predicting Technical and Nontechnical Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Mitchell G; Fok, Kai H; Ordon, Michael; Pace, Kenneth T; Lee, Jason Y

    2017-12-19

    To develop a unique simulation-based assessment using a laparoscopic inferior vena cava (IVC) injury scenario that allows for the safe assessment of urology resident's technical and nontechnical skills, and investigate the effect of personality traits performance in a surgical crisis. Urology residents from our institution were recruited to participate in a simulation-based training laparoscopic nephrectomy exercise. Residents completed demographic and multidimensional personality questionnaires and were instructed to play the role of staff urologist. A vasovagal response to pneumoperitoneum and an IVC injury event were scripted into the scenario. Technical and nontechnical skills were assessed by expert laparoscopic surgeons using validated tools (task checklist, GOALS, and NOTSS). Ten junior and five senior urology residents participated. Five residents were unable to complete the exercise safely. Senior residents outperformed juniors on technical (checklist score 15.1 vs 9.9, p Technical performance scores correlated with NOTSS scores (p technical performance (p technical score (p = 0.03) and pass/fail rating (p = 0.04). Resident level of training and laparoscopic experience correlated with technical performance during a simulation-based laparoscopic IVC injury crisis management scenario, as well as multiple domains of nontechnical performance. Personality traits of our surgical residents are similar and did not predict technical skill. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Real-time prediction of hand trajectory by ensembles of cortical neurons in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessberg, Johan; Stambaugh, Christopher R.; Kralik, Jerald D.; Beck, Pamela D.; Laubach, Mark; Chapin, John K.; Kim, Jung; Biggs, S. James; Srinivasan, Mandayam A.; Nicolelis, Miguel A. L.

    2000-11-01

    Signals derived from the rat motor cortex can be used for controlling one-dimensional movements of a robot arm. It remains unknown, however, whether real-time processing of cortical signals can be employed to reproduce, in a robotic device, the kind of complex arm movements used by primates to reach objects in space. Here we recorded the simultaneous activity of large populations of neurons, distributed in the premotor, primary motor and posterior parietal cortical areas, as non-human primates performed two distinct motor tasks. Accurate real-time predictions of one- and three-dimensional arm movement trajectories were obtained by applying both linear and nonlinear algorithms to cortical neuronal ensemble activity recorded from each animal. In addition, cortically derived signals were successfully used for real-time control of robotic devices, both locally and through the Internet. These results suggest that long-term control of complex prosthetic robot arm movements can be achieved by simple real-time transformations of neuronal population signals derived from multiple cortical areas in primates.

  16. Impact of vegetation variability on potential predictability and skill of EC-Earth simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Martina; Hurk, Bart van den; Haarsma, Reindert; Hazeleger, Wilco [Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt (Netherlands)

    2012-12-15

    Climate models often use a simplified and static representation of vegetation characteristics to determine fluxes of energy, momentum and water vapour between surface and lower atmosphere. In order to analyse the impact of short term variability in vegetation phenology, we use remotely-sensed leaf area index and albedo products to examine the role of vegetation in the coupled land-atmosphere system. Perfect model experiments are carried out to determine the impact of realistic temporal variability of vegetation on potential predictability of evaporation and temperature, as well as model skill of EC-Earth simulations. The length of the simulation period is hereby limited by the availability of satellite products to 2000-2010. While a realistic representation of vegetation positively influences the simulation of evaporation and its potential predictability, a positive impact on 2 m temperature is of smaller magnitude, regionally confined and more pronounced in climatically extreme years. (orig.)

  17. What roles do errors serve in motor skill learning? An examination of two theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanli, Elizabeth A; Lee, Timothy D

    2014-01-01

    Easy-to-difficult and difficult-to-easy progressions of task difficulty during skill acquisition were examined in 2 experiments that assessed retention, dual-task, and transfer tests of learning. Findings of the first experiment suggest that an easy-to difficult progression did not consistently induce implicit learning processes and was not consistently beneficial to performance under a secondary-task load. The findings of experiment two did not support the predictions made based on schema theory and only partially supported predictions based on reinvestment theory. The authors interpret these findings to suggest that the timing of error in relation to the difficulty of the task (functional task difficulty) plays a role in the transfer of learning to novel versions of a task.

  18. Number Line Estimation Predicts Mathematical Skills: Difference in Grades 2 and 4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meixia Zhu

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that number line estimation is important for learning. However, it is yet unclear if number line estimation predicts different mathematical skills in different grades after controlling for age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of number line estimation on two mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving in grade 2 and grade 4. One hundred and forty-eight children from Shanghai, China were assessed on measures of number line estimation, non-verbal cognitive ability (non-verbal matrices, working memory (N-back, attention (expressive attention, and mathematical skills (calculation fluency and math problem-solving. The results showed that in grade 2, number line estimation correlated significantly with calculation fluency (r = -0.27, p < 0.05 and math problem-solving (r = -0.52, p < 0.01. In grade 4, number line estimation correlated significantly with math problem-solving (r = -0.38, p < 0.01, but not with calculation fluency. Regression analyses indicated that in grade 2, number line estimation accounted for unique variance in math problem-solving (12.0% and calculation fluency (4.0% after controlling for the effects of age, non-verbal cognitive ability, attention, and working memory. In grade 4, number line estimation accounted for unique variance in math problem-solving (9.0% but not in calculation fluency. These findings suggested that number line estimation had an important role in math problem-solving for both grades 2 and 4 children and in calculation fluency for grade 2 children. We concluded that number line estimation could be a useful indicator for teachers to identify and improve children’s mathematical skills.

  19. The top 100: hanging on for another wild oil price ride with new survival skills and help from hired hands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvie, W.; Jaremko, G.

    1998-01-01

    A forecast of industry performance in 1998 predicts that despite the heavy plunge of prices in 1997 that resulted in an increase in the TSE oil and gas index of only 2.8 per cent compared to 36.6 per cent in 1996, the Canadian oil and gas industry will be able to hang on. This is due to new technology, overhauled companies, improved management, a more diverse mix of products, better access to export outlets and new expertise in marketing, trading, hedging and risk assessment. Industry forecasts call for 12,000 new wells in 1998 which, if realized, will be the second best performance for the industry since 1986. Takeovers by the likes of Renaissance Energy, the merger by Nova Corporation and TransCanada Pipelines and the prospect of new competition to the Nova-TransCanada System by the Alliance Pipeline Project, are just some of the twists and turns that help maintain the buoyancy of the industry. Heavy oil developments are likely to remain dormant during 1998, although the long term prospects look strong. Husky Oil's $ 500 million expansion of its Lloydminster upgrader is seen as the lone bright spot in 1998. The natural gas sector has kept the industry going in 1997, but with the heating season over, the immediate prospects are not very bright. Gas prices are likely to decline during the summer, but with new pipeline capacity coming on-stream soon, the artificially low gas prices in Alberta should begin to ease later in the year. Conventional oil prices are expected to rise, provided OPEC members can keep recalcitrant members in check. If light oil prices do not rise soon, the forecast calls for several oil companies to end up on the auctioneer's block

  20. Evaluation of probabilistic flow predictions in sewer systems using grey box models and a skill score criterion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thordarson, Fannar Ørn; Breinholt, Anders; Møller, Jan Kloppenborg

    2012-01-01

    term and a diffusion term, respectively accounting for the deterministic and stochastic part of the models. Furthermore, a distinction is made between the process noise and the observation noise. We compare five different model candidates’ predictive performances that solely differ with respect...... to the diffusion term description up to a 4 h prediction horizon by adopting the prediction performance measures; reliability, sharpness and skill score to pinpoint the preferred model. The prediction performance of a model is reliable if the observed coverage of the prediction intervals corresponds to the nominal...... coverage of the prediction intervals, i.e. the bias between these coverages should ideally be zero. The sharpness is a measure of the distance between the lower and upper prediction limits, and skill score criterion makes it possible to pinpoint the preferred model by taking into account both reliability...

  1. Processing speed and executive functions predict real-world everyday living skills in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, O; Penadés, R; Baeza, I; Sánchez-Gistau, V; De la Serna, E; Fonrodona, L; Andrés-Perpiñá, S; Bernardo, M; Castro-Fornieles, J

    2012-06-01

    Cognition and clinical variables are known to be among the most predictive factors of real-world social functioning and daily living skills in adult-onset schizophrenia. Fewer studies have focused on their impact in adolescents with early-onset schizophrenia (EOS). The aim of this study is to examine the relationships and the predictive value of cognition and clinical variables on real-world daily living skills in a sample of adolescents with EOS. Cognitive, clinical and real-world everyday living skills measures were administered to 45 clinically and pharmacologically stabilized adolescent outpatients with EOS and 45 healthy control subjects matched by age and sex. Multi-variant analyses to compare cognitive and real-world functioning profiles between patients and controls and regression analysis to identify predictors of real-world functioning scores in patients were used. Adolescents with EOS showed a generalized cognitive and real-world daily living skills dysfunction. Several cognitive and clinical variables significantly correlated with real-world daily living skills functioning but only the processing speed and executive functions emerged as independent predictors of everyday living skills scores, explaining 25.1% of the variance. Slowness in processing information and executive dysfunction showed a significant impact on real-world daily living skills in EOS, independently from clinical symptoms and other cognitive variables. Nevertheless, much of the variance in the daily living skills measure remained unaccounted for, suggesting that other factors were involved as well in this young population.

  2. Word reading skill predicts anticipation of upcoming spoken language input: a study of children developing proficiency in reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, Nivedita; Huettig, Falk

    2014-10-01

    Despite the efficiency with which language users typically process spoken language, a growing body of research finds substantial individual differences in both the speed and accuracy of spoken language processing potentially attributable to participants' literacy skills. Against this background, the current study took a look at the role of word reading skill in listeners' anticipation of upcoming spoken language input in children at the cusp of learning to read; if reading skills affect predictive language processing, then children at this stage of literacy acquisition should be most susceptible to the effects of reading skills on spoken language processing. We tested 8-year-olds on their prediction of upcoming spoken language input in an eye-tracking task. Although children, like in previous studies to date, were successfully able to anticipate upcoming spoken language input, there was a strong positive correlation between children's word reading skills (but not their pseudo-word reading and meta-phonological awareness or their spoken word recognition skills) and their prediction skills. We suggest that these findings are most compatible with the notion that the process of learning orthographic representations during reading acquisition sharpens pre-existing lexical representations, which in turn also supports anticipation of upcoming spoken words. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Interest Level in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorder Predicts Rate of Verbal, Nonverbal, and Adaptive Skill Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klintwall, Lars; Macari, Suzanne; Eikeseth, Svein; Chawarska, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have suggested that skill acquisition rates for children with autism spectrum disorders receiving early interventions can be predicted by child motivation. We examined whether level of interest during an Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule assessment at 2?years predicts subsequent rates of verbal, nonverbal, and adaptive skill…

  4. Fine Motor Skills Predict Maths Ability Better than They Predict Reading Ability in the Early Primary School Years

    OpenAIRE

    Pitchford, Nicola J.; Papini, Chiara; Outhwaite, Laura A.; Gulliford, Anthea

    2016-01-01

    Fine motor skills have long been recognised as an important foundation for development in other domains. However, more precise insights into the role of fine motor skills, and their relationships to other skills in mediating early educational achievements, are needed to support the development of optimal educational interventions. We explored concurrent relationships between two components of fine motor skills, Fine Motor Precision and Fine Motor Integration, and early reading and maths devel...

  5. Predicting Job Crafting From the Socially Embedded Perspective: The Interactive Effect of Job Autonomy, Social Skill, and Employee Status

    OpenAIRE

    Sekiguchi, Tomoki; Li, Jie; Hosomi, Masaki

    2017-01-01

    Job crafting represents the bottom-up process of change employees make in their work boundaries and plays an important role in the management of organizational change. Following the socially embedded perspective, we examine the roles of job autonomy, social skill, and employee status in predicting job crafting. Study 1 with a sample of 509 part-time employees found that job autonomy and social skill not only directly but also interactively influenced job crafting. Study 2 with a sample of 564...

  6. Intelligent Prediction of Soccer Technical Skill on Youth Soccer Player's Relative Performance Using Multivariate Analysis and Artificial Neural Network Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Abdullah, M. R; Maliki, A. B. H. M; Musa, R. M; Kosni, N. A; Juahir, H

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to predict the potential pattern of soccer technical skill on Malaysia youth soccer players relative performance using multivariate analysis and artificial neural network techniques. 184 male youth soccer players were recruited in Malaysia soccer academy (average age = 15.2±2.0) underwent to, physical fitness test, anthropometric, maturity, motivation and the level of skill related soccer. Unsupervised pattern recognition of principal component analysis (PCA) was used to ident...

  7. Narrative Ability of Children With Speech Sound Disorders and the Prediction of Later Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellman, Rachel L.; Lewis, Barbara A.; Freebairn, Lisa A.; Avrich, Allison A.; Hansen, Amy J.; Stein, Catherine M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose The main purpose of this study was to examine how children with isolated speech sound disorders (SSDs; n = 20), children with combined SSDs and language impairment (LI; n = 20), and typically developing children (n = 20), ages 3;3 (years;months) to 6;6, differ in narrative ability. The second purpose was to determine if early narrative ability predicts school-age (8–12 years) literacy skills. Method This study employed a longitudinal cohort design. The children completed a narrative retelling task before their formal literacy instruction began. The narratives were analyzed and compared for group differences. Performance on these early narratives was then used to predict the children’s reading decoding, reading comprehension, and written language ability at school age. Results Significant group differences were found in children’s (a) ability to answer questions about the story, (b) use of story grammars, and (c) number of correct and irrelevant utterances. Regression analysis demonstrated that measures of story structure and accuracy were the best predictors of the decoding of real words, reading comprehension, and written language. Measures of syntax and lexical diversity were the best predictors of the decoding of nonsense words. Conclusion Combined SSDs and LI, and not isolated SSDs, impact a child’s narrative abilities. Narrative retelling is a useful task for predicting which children may be at risk for later literacy problems. PMID:21969531

  8. Characteristics predicting laparoscopic skill in medical students: nine years' experience in a single center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Tsutomu; Matsutani, Takeshi; Hagiwara, Nobutoshi; Fujita, Itsuo; Nakamura, Yoshiharu; Kanazawa, Yoshikazu; Makino, Hiroshi; Mamada, Yasuhiro; Fujikura, Terumichi; Miyashita, Masao; Uchida, Eiji

    2018-01-01

    We introduced laparoscopic simulator training for medical students in 2007. This study was designed to identify factors that predict the laparoscopic skill of medical students, to identify intergenerational differences in abilities, and to estimate the variability of results in each training group. Our ultimate goal was to determine the optimal educational program for teaching laparoscopic surgery to medical students. Between 2007 and 2015, a total of 270 fifth-year medical students were enrolled in this observational study. Before training, the participants were asked questions about their interest in laparoscopic surgery, experience with playing video games, confidence about driving, and manual dexterity. After the training, aspects of their competence (execution time, instrument path length, and economy of instrument movement) were assessed. Multiple regression analysis identified significant effects of manual dexterity, gender, and confidence about driving on the results of the training. The training results have significantly improved over recent years. The variability among the results in each training group was relatively small. We identified the characteristics of medical students with excellent laparoscopic skills. We observed educational benefits from interactions between medical students within each training group. Our study suggests that selection and grouping are important to the success of modern programs designed to train medical students in laparoscopic surgery.

  9. Higher resting heart rate variability predicts skill in expressing some emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Grant, Rosemary C I; Sollers, John J; Booth, Roger J; Consedine, Nathan S

    2016-12-01

    Vagally mediated heart rate variability (vmHRV) is a measure of cardiac vagal tone, and is widely viewed as a physiological index of the capacity to regulate emotions. However, studies have not directly tested whether vmHRV is associated with the ability to facially express emotions. In extending prior work, the current report tested links between resting vmHRV and the objectively assessed ability to facially express emotions, hypothesizing that higher vmHRV would predict greater expressive skill. Eighty healthy women completed self-reported measures, before attending a laboratory session in which vmHRV and the ability to express six emotions in the face were assessed. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed a marginal main effect for vmHRV on skill overall; individuals with higher resting vmHRV were only better able to deliberately facially express anger and interest. Findings suggest that differences in resting vmHRV are associated with the objectively assessed ability to facially express some, but not all, emotions, with potential implications for health and well-being. © 2016 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  10. Self-Perceived Cooking Skills in Emerging Adulthood Predict Better Dietary Behaviors and Intake 10 Years Later: A Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utter, Jennifer; Larson, Nicole; Laska, Melissa N; Winkler, Megan; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2018-05-01

    To determine whether perceived cooking skills in emerging adulthood predicts better nutrition a decade later. Data were collected as part of the Project Eating and Activity in Teens and Young Adults longitudinal study. Participants reported on adequacy of cooking skills in 2002-2003 (age 18-23 years) and subsequently reported on nutrition-related outcomes in 2015-2016 (age 30-35 years) (n = 1,158). Separate regression models were used to examine associations between cooking skills at age 18-23 years and each subsequent outcome. One fourth of participants described their cooking skills as very adequate at 18-23 years, with no statistically significant differences by sociodemographic characteristics. Reports of very adequate cooking skills at age 18-23 years predicted better nutrition-related outcomes 10 years later, such as more frequent preparation of meals including vegetables (P skills by emerging adulthood may have long-term benefits for nutrition over a decade later. Ongoing and new interventions to enhance cooking skills during adolescence and emerging adulthood are warranted but require strong evaluation designs that observe young people over a number of years. Copyright © 2018 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Early gross motor skills predict the subsequent development of language in children with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bedford, Rachael; Pickles, Andrew; Lord, Catherine

    2016-09-01

    Motor milestones such as the onset of walking are important developmental markers, not only for later motor skills but also for more widespread social-cognitive development. The aim of the current study was to test whether gross motor abilities, specifically the onset of walking, predicted the subsequent rate of language development in a large cohort of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). We ran growth curve models for expressive and receptive language measured at 2, 3, 5 and 9 years in 209 autistic children. Measures of gross motor, visual reception and autism symptoms were collected at the 2 year visit. In Model 1, walking onset was included as a predictor of the slope of language development. Model 2 included a measure of non-verbal IQ and autism symptom severity as covariates. The final model, Model 3, additionally covaried for gross motor ability. In the first model, parent-reported age of walking onset significantly predicted the subsequent rate of language development although the relationship became non-significant when gross motor skill, non-verbal ability and autism severity scores were included (Models 2 & 3). Gross motor score, however, did remain a significant predictor of both expressive and receptive language development. Taken together, the model results provide some evidence that early motor abilities in young children with ASD can have longitudinal cross-domain influences, potentially contributing, in part, to the linguistic difficulties that characterise ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 993-1001. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research. © 2015 The Authors Autism Research published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Autism Research.

  12. Time dependency of the prediction skill for the North Atlantic subpolar gyre in initialized decadal hindcasts with MPI-ESM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Sebastian; Düsterhus, Andre; Pohlmann, Holger; Müller, Wolfgang; Baehr, Johanna

    2017-04-01

    We analyze the time dependency of decadal hindcast skill in the North Atlantic subpolar gyre within the time period 1961-2013. We compare anomaly correlation coefficients and interquartile ranges of total upper ocean heat content and sea surface temperature for three differently initialized sets of hindcast simulations with the global coupled model MPI-ESM. All initializations use weakly coupled assimilation with the same full-field nudging in the atmospheric component and different assimilation techniques for oceanic temperature and salinity: (1) ensemble Kalman filter assimilating EN4 and HadISST observations, (2) nudging of anomalies to ORAS4 reanalysis, (3) nudging of full values to ORAS4 reanalysis. We find that hindcast skill depends strongly on the evaluation time period, with higher hindcast skill during strong multiyear trends and lower hindcast skill in the absence of such trends. While there may only be small differences between the prediction systems in the analysis focusing on the entire hindcast period, these differences between the hindcast systems are much more pronounced when investigating any 20-year subperiod within the entire hindcast period. For the ensemble Kalman filter high skill in the assimilation experiment is generally linked to high skill in the initialized hindcasts. Such direct link does not seem to exist in the hindcasts initialized by either nudged system. In the ensemble Kalman filter initialized hindcasts, we find significant hindcast skill for up to 5 to 8 lead years, except for the 1970s. In the nudged system initialized hindcasts, hindcast skill is consistently diminished in lead years 2 and 3 with lowest skill in the 1970s as well. Overall, we find that a model-consistent assimilation technique can improve hindcast skill. Further, the evaluation of 20 year subperiods within the full hindcast period provides essential insights to judge the success of both the assimilation and the subsequent hindcast skill.

  13. [Application of R-based multiple seasonal ARIMA model, in predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi province].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, F; Zhu, N; Qiu, L; Wang, J J; Wang, W H

    2016-08-10

    To apply the ' auto-regressive integrated moving average product seasonal model' in predicting the number of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi province. In Shaanxi province, the trend of hand, foot and mouth disease was analyzed and tested, under the use of R software, between January 2009 and June 2015. Multiple seasonal ARIMA model was then fitted under time series to predict the number of hand, foot and mouth disease in 2016 and 2017. Seasonal effect was seen in hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi province. A multiple seasonal ARIMA (2,1,0)×(1,1,0)12 was established, with the equation as (1 -B)(1 -B12)Ln (Xt) =((1-1.000B)/(1-0.532B-0.363B(2))*(1-0.644B12-0.454B12(2)))*Epsilont. The mean of absolute error and the relative error were 531.535 and 0.114, respectively when compared to the simulated number of patients from Jun to Dec in 2015. RESULTS under the prediction of multiple seasonal ARIMA model showed that the numbers of patients in both 2016 and 2017 were similar to that of 2015 in Shaanxi province. Multiple seasonal ARIMA (2,1,0)×(1,1,0)12 model could be used to successfully predict the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Shaanxi province.

  14. Skill of Global Raw and Postprocessed Ensemble Predictions of Rainfall over Northern Tropical Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Peter; Knippertz, Peter; Fink, Andreas H.; Schlueter, Andreas; Gneiting, Tilmann

    2018-04-01

    Accumulated precipitation forecasts are of high socioeconomic importance for agriculturally dominated societies in northern tropical Africa. In this study, we analyze the performance of nine operational global ensemble prediction systems (EPSs) relative to climatology-based forecasts for 1 to 5-day accumulated precipitation based on the monsoon seasons 2007-2014 for three regions within northern tropical Africa. To assess the full potential of raw ensemble forecasts across spatial scales, we apply state-of-the-art statistical postprocessing methods in form of Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) and Ensemble Model Output Statistics (EMOS), and verify against station and spatially aggregated, satellite-based gridded observations. Raw ensemble forecasts are uncalibrated, unreliable, and underperform relative to climatology, independently of region, accumulation time, monsoon season, and ensemble. Differences between raw ensemble and climatological forecasts are large, and partly stem from poor prediction for low precipitation amounts. BMA and EMOS postprocessed forecasts are calibrated, reliable, and strongly improve on the raw ensembles, but - somewhat disappointingly - typically do not outperform climatology. Most EPSs exhibit slight improvements over the period 2007-2014, but overall have little added value compared to climatology. We suspect that the parametrization of convection is a potential cause for the sobering lack of ensemble forecast skill in a region dominated by mesoscale convective systems.

  15. Soft skills, hard skills, and individual innovativeness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hendarman, Achmad Fajar; Cantner, Uwe

    2018-01-01

    of Indonesian firms from different industries are used from an online survey on manager and worker perceptions related to individual innovation performance on the one hand and individual skills on the other hand. The results show that soft skills and hard skills are significantly and positively associated...... with individual level innovativeness. However, no complementarity (positive interaction effect) is found between soft skills and hard skills....

  16. Exploring Predictability of Instructor Ratings Using a Quantitative Tool for Evaluating Soft Skills among MBA Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Robert T.; Gilfoil, David M.; Doll, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Academic researchers have often touted the growing importance of "soft skills" for modern day business leaders, especially leadership and communication skills. Despite this growing interest and attention, relatively little work has been done to develop and validate tools to assess soft skills. Forty graduate students from nine MBA…

  17. Predictability of a Coupled Model of ENSO Using Singular Vector Analysis: Optimal Growth and Forecast Skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yan

    The optimal growth and its relationship with the forecast skill of the Zebiak and Cane model are studied using a simple statistical model best fit to the original nonlinear model and local linear tangent models about idealized climatic states (the mean background and ENSO cycles in a long model run), and the actual forecast states, including two sets of runs using two different initialization procedures. The seasonally varying Markov model best fit to a suite of 3-year forecasts in a reduced EOF space (18 EOFs) fits the original nonlinear model reasonably well and has comparable or better forecast skill. The initial error growth in a linear evolution operator A is governed by the eigenvalues of A^{T}A, and the square roots of eigenvalues and eigenvectors of A^{T}A are named singular values and singular vectors. One dominant growing singular vector is found, and the optimal 6 month growth rate is largest for a (boreal) spring start and smallest for a fall start. Most of the variation in the optimal growth rate of the two forecasts is seasonal, attributable to the seasonal variations in the mean background, except that in the cold events it is substantially suppressed. It is found that the mean background (zero anomaly) is the most unstable state, and the "forecast IC states" are more unstable than the "coupled model states". One dominant growing singular vector is found, characterized by north-south and east -west dipoles, convergent winds on the equator in the eastern Pacific and a deepened thermocline in the whole equatorial belt. This singular vector is insensitive to initial time and optimization time, but its final pattern is a strong function of initial states. The ENSO system is inherently unpredictable for the dominant singular vector can amplify 5-fold to 24-fold in 6 months and evolve into the large scales characteristic of ENSO. However, the inherent ENSO predictability is only a secondary factor, while the mismatches between the model and data is a

  18. Predicting College Students' First Year Success: Should Soft Skills Be Taken into Consideration to More Accurately Predict the Academic Achievement of College Freshmen?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Erica Dion

    2013-01-01

    This study presents a survey developed to measure the skills of entering college freshmen in the areas of responsibility, motivation, study habits, literacy, and stress management, and explores the predictive power of this survey as a measure of academic performance during the first semester of college. The survey was completed by 334 incoming…

  19. Predicting failing performance on a standardized patient clinical performance examination: the importance of communication and professionalism skills deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Anna; Boscardin, Christy; Chou, Calvin L; Loeser, Helen; Hauer, Karen E

    2009-10-01

    The purpose is to determine which assessment measures identify medical students at risk of failing a clinical performance examination (CPX). Retrospective case-control, multiyear design, contingency table analysis, n = 149. We identified two predictors of CPX failure in patient-physician interaction skills: low clerkship ratings (odds ratio 1.79, P = .008) and student progress review for communication or professionalism concerns (odds ratio 2.64, P = .002). No assessments predicted CPX failure in clinical skills. Performance concerns in communication and professionalism identify students at risk of failing the patient-physician interaction portion of a CPX. This correlation suggests that both faculty and standardized patients can detect noncognitive traits predictive of failing performance. Early identification of these students may allow for development of a structured supplemental curriculum with increased opportunities for practice and feedback. The lack of predictors in the clinical skills portion suggests limited faculty observation or feedback.

  20. Improvement of skills and knowledge by a hands-on cardiac CT course. Before and after evaluation with a validated questionnaire and self-assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, E.; Germershausen, C.; Greupner, J.; Schnapauff, D.; Rief, M.; Grigoryev, M.; Wollenberg, U.; Dewey, Marc [Inst. fuer Radiologie, Charite-Univ. Berlin (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Purpose: cardiac computed tomography (CT) is becoming increasingly important in noninvasive imaging. To meet this demand, there are a growing number of short training courses for cardiac CT. Whether such courses improve the knowledge and skills of participants is not known. Materials and methods: the concept of a two-day cardiac CT course consisting of introductory lectures, live patient examinations, and hands-on exercises for interpreting cardiac CT scans on workstations was analyzed using participant evaluations (scales from 1 = excellent to 6 = very poor). Participants rated their increase in knowledge and completed a validated questionnaire with 20 questions. Results: a total of 102 participants attended the courses. There were significant differences in the number of correctly answered test questions between cardiac CT experts and participants at the beginning of the course (91.5 {+-} 6.3% vs. 62.4 {+-} 16.1% p < 0.001). The number of questions answered correctly by the participants increased significantly after completion of the course (mean increase of 4 correctly answered questions, 81.8 {+-} 11.4%. vs. 62.4 {+-} 16.1% p < 0.001). This objective increase in knowledge was in good agreement with participant self-assessments (76.4 {+-} 12.6% vs. 81.8 {+-} 11.4%). The quality of the course received good to very good scores, ranging from 1.8 {+-} 0.7 for speed of presentation to 1.4 {+-} 0.5 for lecturer competence. The score for overall course quality was 1.4 {+-} 0.6. Conclusion: A relatively short cardiac CT course can significantly improve the quantifiable knowledge of participants. The overall quality of the course was rated as very good. (orig.)

  1. Improvement of skills and knowledge by a hands-on cardiac CT course. Before and after evaluation with a validated questionnaire and self-assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, E.; Germershausen, C.; Greupner, J.; Schnapauff, D.; Rief, M.; Grigoryev, M.; Wollenberg, U.; Dewey, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: cardiac computed tomography (CT) is becoming increasingly important in noninvasive imaging. To meet this demand, there are a growing number of short training courses for cardiac CT. Whether such courses improve the knowledge and skills of participants is not known. Materials and methods: the concept of a two-day cardiac CT course consisting of introductory lectures, live patient examinations, and hands-on exercises for interpreting cardiac CT scans on workstations was analyzed using participant evaluations (scales from 1 = excellent to 6 = very poor). Participants rated their increase in knowledge and completed a validated questionnaire with 20 questions. Results: a total of 102 participants attended the courses. There were significant differences in the number of correctly answered test questions between cardiac CT experts and participants at the beginning of the course (91.5 ± 6.3% vs. 62.4 ± 16.1% p < 0.001). The number of questions answered correctly by the participants increased significantly after completion of the course (mean increase of 4 correctly answered questions, 81.8 ± 11.4%. vs. 62.4 ± 16.1% p < 0.001). This objective increase in knowledge was in good agreement with participant self-assessments (76.4 ± 12.6% vs. 81.8 ± 11.4%). The quality of the course received good to very good scores, ranging from 1.8 ± 0.7 for speed of presentation to 1.4 ± 0.5 for lecturer competence. The score for overall course quality was 1.4 ± 0.6. Conclusion: A relatively short cardiac CT course can significantly improve the quantifiable knowledge of participants. The overall quality of the course was rated as very good. (orig.)

  2. Seasonal prediction skill of ECMWF System 4 and NCEP CFSv2 retrospective forecast for the Northern Hemisphere Winter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Webster, Peter J.; Curry, Judith A.

    2012-01-01

    The seasonal prediction skill for the Northern Hemisphere winter is assessed using retrospective predictions (1982-2010) from the ECMWF System 4 (Sys4) and National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) CFS version 2 (CFSv2) coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal climate prediction systems. Sys4 shows a cold bias in the equatorial Pacific but a warm bias is found in the North Pacific and part of the North Atlantic. The CFSv2 has strong warm bias from the cold tongue region of the eastern Pacific to the equatorial central Pacific and cold bias in broad areas over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. A cold bias in the Southern Hemisphere is common in both reforecasts. In addition, excessive precipitation is found in the equatorial Pacific, the equatorial Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in Sys4, and in the South Pacific, the southern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in CFSv2. A dry bias is found for both modeling systems over South America and northern Australia. The mean prediction skill of 2 meter temperature (2mT) and precipitation anomalies are greater over the tropics than the extra-tropics and also greater over ocean than land. The prediction skill of tropical 2mT and precipitation is greater in strong El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters than in weak ENSO winters. Both models predict the year-to-year ENSO variation quite accurately, although sea surface temperature trend bias in CFSv2 over the tropical Pacific results in lower prediction skill for the CFSv2 relative to the Sys4. Both models capture the main ENSO teleconnection pattern of strong anomalies over the tropics, the North Pacific and the North America. However, both models have difficulty in forecasting the year-to-year winter temperature variability over the US and northern Europe. (orig.)

  3. Seasonal prediction skill of ECMWF System 4 and NCEP CFSv2 retrospective forecast for the Northern Hemisphere Winter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hye-Mi; Webster, Peter J.; Curry, Judith A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Science, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2012-12-15

    The seasonal prediction skill for the Northern Hemisphere winter is assessed using retrospective predictions (1982-2010) from the ECMWF System 4 (Sys4) and National Center for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) CFS version 2 (CFSv2) coupled atmosphere-ocean seasonal climate prediction systems. Sys4 shows a cold bias in the equatorial Pacific but a warm bias is found in the North Pacific and part of the North Atlantic. The CFSv2 has strong warm bias from the cold tongue region of the eastern Pacific to the equatorial central Pacific and cold bias in broad areas over the North Pacific and the North Atlantic. A cold bias in the Southern Hemisphere is common in both reforecasts. In addition, excessive precipitation is found in the equatorial Pacific, the equatorial Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in Sys4, and in the South Pacific, the southern Indian Ocean and the western Pacific in CFSv2. A dry bias is found for both modeling systems over South America and northern Australia. The mean prediction skill of 2 meter temperature (2mT) and precipitation anomalies are greater over the tropics than the extra-tropics and also greater over ocean than land. The prediction skill of tropical 2mT and precipitation is greater in strong El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) winters than in weak ENSO winters. Both models predict the year-to-year ENSO variation quite accurately, although sea surface temperature trend bias in CFSv2 over the tropical Pacific results in lower prediction skill for the CFSv2 relative to the Sys4. Both models capture the main ENSO teleconnection pattern of strong anomalies over the tropics, the North Pacific and the North America. However, both models have difficulty in forecasting the year-to-year winter temperature variability over the US and northern Europe. (orig.)

  4. Socio-Emotional Skills, Behavior Problems, and Spanish Competence Predict the Acquisition of English among English Language Learners in Poverty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winsler, Adam; Kim, Yoon Kyong; Richard, Erin R.

    2014-01-01

    This article analyzes the role that individual differences in children's cognitive, Spanish competence, and socio-emotional and behavioral skills play in predicting the concurrent and longitudinal acquisition of English among a large sample of ethnically diverse, low-income, Hispanic preschool children. Participants assessed at age 4 for language,…

  5. Prediction of Emotional Understanding and Emotion Regulation Skills of 4-5 Age Group Children with Parent-Child Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dereli, Esra

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study is to examine whether personal attributes, family characteristics of the child and parent-child relations predict children's emotional understanding and emotion regulation skills. The study was conducted with relational screening model, one of the screening models. Study sample included 423 children between the…

  6. Predictive Value of Social Skills in Living Together at Primary School. Analysis in a Cultural Diversity Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera Torres, Lucía; Bravo Antonio, Iván

    2012-01-01

    Coexistence at school stands out as one of the main goals in today's education (Carretero, 2008; Ortega, 2007). The aim of this study developed within a cultural diversity context is to identify the specific dimensions of social skills through which the different elements favouring or hindering coexistence at school can be predicted. A total of…

  7. The Prediction of Labor Force Status: Implications from International Adult Skill Assessments. Research Report. ETS RR-16-11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tongyun; von Davier, Matthias; Hancock, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    This report investigates the prediction of labor force status using observed variables, such as gender, age, and immigrant status, and more importantly, measured skill variables, including literacy proficiency and a categorical rating of educational attainment based on the 1994 International Adult Literacy Survey (IALS), the 2003 Adult Literacy…

  8. Do Basic Skills Predict Youth Unemployment (16- to 24-Year-Olds) Also when Controlled for Accomplished Upper-Secondary School? A Cross-Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti; Gabrielsen, Egil; Mykletun, Reidar

    2010-01-01

    Basic skills and educational level are closely related, and both might affect employment. Data from the Adult Literacy and Life Skills Survey were used to examine whether basic skills in terms of literacy and numeracy predicted youth unemployment (16-24 years) while controlling for educational level. Stepwise logistic regression showed that in…

  9. Which employment interview skills best predict the employability of schizophrenic patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charisiou, J; Jackson, H J; Boyle, G J; Burgess, P M; Minas, I H; Joshua, S D

    1989-06-01

    To examine the effects of verbal and nonverbal interview microbehaviors and interview characteristics on employability, Simulated Employment Interviews were conducted with 46 psychiatric inpatients who each met the DSM-III criteria for a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Each interview was videotaped and shown to two raters, who generated independent ratings for six microbehaviors (eye-contact, facial gestures, body posture, verbal content, voice volume, and length of speech) and six subject characteristics (motivation, self-confidence, ability to communicate, manifest adjustment, manifest intelligence and overall interview skill). A panel of three Commonwealth Employment Service psychologists viewed the same videotaped interviews and generated employability ratings. Verbal and nonverbal microbehaviors were relatively independent while subject characteristics were highly interdependent. Microbehaviors and characteristics correlated at a high level. Of the 12 interview microbehaviors and characteristics, manifest adjustment and ability to communicate accounted for 64% of the total variance in predicting employability. Interviewees who were perceived as behaving in an adjusted manner and as being good communicators were rated as more employable.

  10. Which skills and factors better predict winning and losing in high-level men's volleyball?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Javier; Rodríguez-Guerra, Jorge; Buscà, Bernat; Serra, Núria

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which skills and factors better predicted the outcomes of regular season volleyball matches in the Spanish "Superliga" and were significant for obtaining positive results in the game. The study sample consisted of 125 matches played during the 2010-11 Spanish men's first division volleyball championship. Matches were played by 12 teams composed of 148 players from 17 different nations from October 2010 to March 2011. The variables analyzed were the result of the game, team category, home/away court factors, points obtained in the break point phase, number of service errors, number of service aces, number of reception errors, percentage of positive receptions, percentage of perfect receptions, reception efficiency, number of attack errors, number of blocked attacks, attack points, percentage of attack points, attack efficiency, and number of blocks performed by both teams participating in the match. The results showed that the variables of team category, points obtained in the break point phase, number of reception errors, and number of blocked attacks by the opponent were significant predictors of winning or losing the matches. Odds ratios indicated that the odds of winning a volleyball match were 6.7 times greater for the teams belonging to higher rankings and that every additional point in Complex II increased the odds of winning a match by 1.5 times. Every reception and blocked ball error decreased the possibility of winning by 0.6 and 0.7 times, respectively.

  11. Prediction of Marital Satisfaction based on Coping Skills and Time Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    سپیده حق شناس

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to predict marital satisfaction based on coping skills and time perspective. The research method was correlation and the statistical population composed of couples living in the 2nddistrict of Tehran. By convenience sampling method, 250 individuals were selected and were asked to complete the ENRICH Marital Satisfaction Scale, the Lazarus & Folkman’s Coping Styles Questionnaire and the Zimbardo’s Time Perspective Inventory. The results showed that 12.5% of variance of marital satisfa-ction can be explained by the time perspective and the use of coping strategies in couples. The findings also indicated that there was a negative association between emotional coping strategies and marital satisfaction; while, there was no significant relationship between problem-oriented strategies and marital satisfaction. In examining the relationship between views of time and marital satisfaction, the results indicated that there was a negative significant relationship between marital satisfaction with past negative view of time, present hedonistic and believing in present fatalistic. According to the results of t-test for gender differences, there was no significant difference between men and women in marital satisfaction, using coping strategies and time views.

  12. Predictive Power of Parenting Styles on Children’s Social Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Bartholomeu

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between parenting styles and children’s social skills, establishing significant correlations between those two constructs. A total of 202 children, 7 to 10 years old, male and female, attending second to fourth year of government schools in São Paulo, Brazil, were participants of this research. They collectively completed Children’s Social Skills Test (THAS-C and Parental Styles Inventory (IEP. Results suggest that positive parental styles are predictors of altruism, while negative parental styles are predictors of assertiveness, conversation, and social confidence. Regarding general social skills, variables that offered the best probable model were positive monitoring, lax discipline, moral behavior, and physical abuse (the higher the general social skill, the lesser the abusive parenting styles. As a conclusion, it seems that different social skills are related to positive and negative parenting styles, reinforcing the idea of a social skill as an attribute of behavior.

  13. Did a skillful prediction of sea surface temperatures help or hinder forecasting of the 2012 Midwestern US drought?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kam, Jonghun; Sheffield, Justin; Yuan, Xing; Wood, Eric F

    2014-01-01

    The latest drought to hit the Midwestern (MW) US region, in 2012, was driven by the least summer precipitation for the last three decades with $20 billion in agriculture losses. For 2012, the summer forecast skill for Pacific and Atlantic sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and low MW precipitation is remarkably good for some National Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) models, but this is not generally repeated for other drought years, with some models predicting extreme wet anomalies, despite skill in predicting Pacific and Atlantic SST anomalies. In order to diagnose the origins of the limited skill of the NMME models, we use singular value decomposition (SVD) for global SSTs and continental US (CONUS) precipitation from observational data and NMME hindcasts (1982–2012). Observational data indicate that there is an insignificant coupling between global SSTs and MW precipitation during summer over the last 30 years. However, the NMME climate forecast models show strong coupling and therefore predicted the 2012 drought fortuitously for the wrong reason (a strong pan-Pacific El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO)-like pattern). The observational data indicate that the strength of ENSO teleconnections with CONUS precipitation has weakened and the precipitation footprint has shifted over the past decades, suggesting that the transient nature of teleconnections may play a role in poor model skill. (paper)

  14. Predicting Growth in Word Level Reading Skills in Children With Developmental Dyslexia Using an Object Rhyming Functional Neuroimaging Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Emily A; Ring, Jeremiah; Black, Jeffrey; Lyon, G Reid; Odegard, Timothy N

    2016-04-01

    An object rhyming task that does not require text reading and is suitable for younger children was used to predict gains in word level reading skills following an intensive 2-year reading intervention for children with developmental dyslexia. The task evoked activation in bilateral inferior frontal regions. Growth in untimed pseudoword reading was associated with increased pre-intervention activation of the left inferior frontal gyrus, and growth in timed word reading was associated with pre-intervention activation of the left and right inferior frontal gyri. These analyses help identify pre-intervention factors that facilitate reading skill improvements in children with developmental dyslexia.

  15. Do soft skills predict surgical performance?: a single-center randomized controlled trial evaluating predictors of skill acquisition in virtual reality laparoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschuw, K; Schlosser, K; Kupietz, E; Slater, E P; Weyers, P; Hassan, I

    2011-03-01

    Virtual reality (VR) training in minimal invasive surgery (MIS) is feasible in surgical residency and beneficial for the performance of MIS by surgical trainees. Research on stress-coping of surgical trainees indicates the additional impact of soft skills on VR performance in the surgical curriculum. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of structured VR training and soft skills on VR performance of trainees. The study was designed as a single-center randomized controlled trial. Fifty first-year surgical residents with limited experience in MIS ("camera navigation" in laparoscopic cholecystectomy only) were randomized for either 3 months of VR training or no training. Basic VR performance and defined soft skills (self-efficacy, stress-coping, and motivation) were assessed prior to randomization using basic modules of the VR simulator LapSim(®) and standardized psychological questionnaires. Three months after randomization VR performance was reassessed. Outcome measurement was based on the results derived from the most complex of the basic VR modules ("diathermy cutting") as the primary end point. A correlation analysis of the VR end-point performance and the psychological scores was done in both groups. Structured VR training enhanced VR performance of surgical trainees. An additional correlation to high motivational states (P 0.05). Low self-efficacy and negative stress-coping strategies seem to predict poor VR performance. However, structured training along with high motivational states is likely to balance out this impairment.

  16. Ingestive Skill Difficulties are Frequent Among Acutely-Hospitalized Frail Elderly Patients, and Predict Hospital Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina; Lambert, Heather; Faber, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Purpose : To examine the relationship between ingestive skill performance while eating and drinking and frailty status in acutely-hospitalized elderly patients and to examine whether there is a relationship between the proportion of ingestive skill difficulties and Length of Hospital Stay (LOS) a...

  17. Predicting First-Year Achievement by Pedagogy and Skill Development in the First Weeks at University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torenbeek, M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Hofman, W. H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Central in this study is the relationship between the pedagogical approach and generic skill development in the first 10 weeks at university, students' perception of the fit between secondary and university education and first-year achievement. Information regarding the pedagogical approach and generic skill development was gathered through…

  18. Stiff Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Stiff Hands Email to a friend * required fields ...

  19. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  20. The importance of job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill for predicting role breadth and job performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgeson, Frederick P; Delaney-Klinger, Kelly; Hemingway, Monica A

    2005-03-01

    Role theory suggests and empirical research has found that there is considerable variation in how broadly individuals define their jobs. We investigated the theoretically meaningful yet infrequently studied relationships between incumbent job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, role breadth, and job performance. Using multiple data sources and multiple measurement occasions in a field setting, we found that job autonomy, cognitive ability, and job-related skill were positively related to role breadth, accounting for 23% of the variance in role breadth. In addition, role breadth was positively related to job performance and was found to mediate the relationship between job autonomy, cognitive ability, job-related skill, and job performance. These results add to our understanding of the factors that predict role breadth, as well as having implications for how job aspects and individual characteristics are translated into performance outcomes and the treatment of variability in incumbent reports of job tasks.

  1. When do self-discrepancies predict negative emotions? Exploring formal operational thought and abstract reasoning skills as moderators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Erin N; Holmberg, Nicole J; Lovejoy, M Christine; Pittman, Laura D

    2014-01-01

    Individual differences in higher-order cognitive abilities may be an important piece to understanding how and when self-discrepancies lead to negative emotions. In the current study, three measures of reasoning abilities were considered as potential moderators of the relationship between self-discrepancies and depression and anxiety symptoms. Participants (N = 162) completed measures assessing self-discrepancies, depression and anxiety symptoms, and were administered measures examining formal operational thought, and verbal and non-verbal abstract reasoning skills. Both formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning were significant moderators of the relationship between actual:ideal discrepancies and depressive symptoms. Discrepancies predicted depressive symptoms for individuals with higher levels of formal operational thought and verbal abstract reasoning skills, but not for those with lower levels. The discussion focuses on the need to consider advanced reasoning skills when examining self-discrepancies.

  2. Greater emotional arousal predicts poorer long-term memory of communication skills in couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baucom, Brian R; Weusthoff, Sarah; Atkins, David C; Hahlweg, Kurt

    2012-06-01

    Many studies have examined the importance of learning skills in behaviorally based couple interventions but none have examined predictors of long-term memory for skills. Associations between emotional arousal and long-term recall of communication skills delivered to couples during a behaviorally based relationship distress prevention program were examined in a sample of 49 German couples. Fundamental frequency (f(0)), a vocal measure of encoded emotional arousal, was measured during pre-treatment couple conflict. Higher levels of f(0) were linked to fewer skills remembered 11 years after completing the program, and women remembered more skills than men. Implications of results for behaviorally based couple interventions are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Verification of the skill of numerical weather prediction models in forecasting rainfall from U.S. landfalling tropical cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luitel, Beda; Villarini, Gabriele; Vecchi, Gabriel A.

    2018-01-01

    The goal of this study is the evaluation of the skill of five state-of-the-art numerical weather prediction (NWP) systems [European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), UK Met Office (UKMO), National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), China Meteorological Administration (CMA), and Canadian Meteorological Center (CMC)] in forecasting rainfall from North Atlantic tropical cyclones (TCs). Analyses focus on 15 North Atlantic TCs that made landfall along the U.S. coast over the 2007-2012 period. As reference data we use gridded rainfall provided by the Climate Prediction Center (CPC). We consider forecast lead-times up to five days. To benchmark the skill of these models, we consider rainfall estimates from one radar-based (Stage IV) and four satellite-based [Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission - Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA, both real-time and research version); Precipitation Estimation from Remotely Sensed Information using Artificial Neural Networks (PERSIANN); the CPC MORPHing Technique (CMORPH)] rainfall products. Daily and storm total rainfall fields from each of these remote sensing products are compared to the reference data to obtain information about the range of errors we can expect from "observational data." The skill of the NWP models is quantified: (1) by visual examination of the distribution of the errors in storm total rainfall for the different lead-times, and numerical examination of the first three moments of the error distribution; (2) relative to climatology at the daily scale. Considering these skill metrics, we conclude that the NWP models can provide skillful forecasts of TC rainfall with lead-times up to 48 h, without a consistently best or worst NWP model.

  4. Preschool speech intelligibility and vocabulary skills predict long-term speech and language outcomes following cochlear implantation in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Irina; Kronenberger, William G; Beer, Jessica; Henning, Shirley C; Colson, Bethany G; Pisoni, David B

    2014-07-01

    Speech and language measures during grade school predict adolescent speech-language outcomes in children who receive cochlear implants (CIs), but no research has examined whether speech and language functioning at even younger ages is predictive of long-term outcomes in this population. The purpose of this study was to examine whether early preschool measures of speech and language performance predict speech-language functioning in long-term users of CIs. Early measures of speech intelligibility and receptive vocabulary (obtained during preschool ages of 3-6 years) in a sample of 35 prelingually deaf, early-implanted children predicted speech perception, language, and verbal working memory skills up to 18 years later. Age of onset of deafness and age at implantation added additional variance to preschool speech intelligibility in predicting some long-term outcome scores, but the relationship between preschool speech-language skills and later speech-language outcomes was not significantly attenuated by the addition of these hearing history variables. These findings suggest that speech and language development during the preschool years is predictive of long-term speech and language functioning in early-implanted, prelingually deaf children. As a result, measures of speech-language functioning at preschool ages can be used to identify and adjust interventions for very young CI users who may be at long-term risk for suboptimal speech and language outcomes.

  5. Understanding the Home Math Environment and Its Role in Predicting Parent Report of Children’s Math Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganley, Colleen M.; Purpura, David J.

    2016-01-01

    There is a growing literature concerning the role of the home math environment in children’s math development. In this study, we examined the relation between these constructs by specifically addressing three goals. The first goal was to identify the measurement structure of the home math environment through a series of confirmatory factor analyses. The second goal was to examine the role of the home math environment in predicting parent report of children’s math skills. The third goal was to test a series of potential alternative explanations for the relation between the home math environment and parent report of children’s skills, specifically the direct and indirect role of household income, parent math anxiety, and parent math ability as measured by their approximate number system performance. A final sample of 339 parents of children aged 3 through 8 drawn from Mechanical Turk answered a questionnaire online. The best fitting model of the home math environment was a bifactor model with a general factor representing the general home math environment, and three specific factors representing the direct numeracy environment, the indirect numeracy environment, and the spatial environment. When examining the association of the home math environment factors to parent report of child skills, the general home math environment factor and the spatial environment were the only significant predictors. Parents who reported doing more general math activities in the home reported having children with higher math skills, whereas parents who reported doing more spatial activities reported having children with lower math skills. PMID:28005925

  6. Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills

    OpenAIRE

    Verster, Joris C.; Roth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Rationale There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined. Objective The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic. Methods Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a ...

  7. Parents’ Emotion-Related Beliefs, Behaviors, and Skills Predict Children's Recognition of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are able to recognize others’ emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents’ own emotion-related beliefs, behaviors, and skills. We examined parents’ beliefs about the value of emotion and guidance of children's emotion, parents’ emotion labeling and teaching behaviors, and parents’ skill in recognizing children's emotions in relation to their school-aged children's emotion recognition skills. Sixty-nine parent-child dyads completed questionnaires, participated in dyadic laboratory tasks, and identified their own emotions and emotions felt by the other participant from videotaped segments. Regression analyses indicate that parents’ beliefs, behaviors, and skills together account for 37% of the variance in child emotion recognition ability, even after controlling for parent and child expressive clarity. The findings suggest the importance of the family milieu in the development of children's emotion recognition skill in middle childhood, and add to accumulating evidence suggesting important age-related shifts in the relation between parental emotion socialization and child emotional development. PMID:26005393

  8. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Suzanne; Kassis, Karyn; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Mahan, John D; Shell, Richard

    2015-01-01

    While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI) has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Our objectives were to determine: 1) performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP) setting; and 2) the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Forty first-year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol). Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI) as a measure of EI. Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  9. Does emotional intelligence predict breaking bad news skills in pediatric interns? A pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Reed

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: While both patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as an area of great challenge, the factors underlying this often complex task remain largely unknown. Emotional intelligence (EI has been positively correlated with good general communication skills and successful leadership, but there is no literature relating EI to the delivery of bad news. Purpose: Our objectives were to determine: 1 performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news in a standardized patient (SP setting; and 2 the role of EI in these assessments. Our hypothesis was that pediatric trainees with higher EI would demonstrate more advanced skills in this communication task. Methods: Forty first- year residents participated. Skill in bad news delivery was assessed via SP encounters using a previously published assessment tool (GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol. Residents completed the Emotional and Social Competency Inventory (ESCI as a measure of EI. Results: Residents scored poorly on bad news delivery skills but scored well on EI. Intraclass correlation coefficients indicated moderate to substantial inter-rater reliability among raters using the delivering bad news assessment tool. However, no correlation was found between bad news delivery performance and EI. Conclusions: We concluded that first-year pediatric residents have inadequate skills in the delivery of bad news. In addition, our data suggest that higher EI alone is not sufficient to effectively deliver death news and more robust skill training is necessary for residents to gain competence and acquire mastery in this important communication domain.

  10. Prediction of injuries caused by explosive events: A case study of a hand grenade incident in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Whyte, TN

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available An M26 hand grenade was accidentally detonated by a group of eight children, six of whom were killed, in the Mthatha area of South Africa. The M26 grenade is designed to produce casualties through the high velocity fragments that it expels. However...

  11. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... DESCRIPTION The bones of the hand serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist and fingers move. When ...

  12. Decadal prediction skill in the ocean with surface nudging in the IPSL-CM5A-LR climate model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, Juliette; García-Serrano, Javier; Swingedouw, Didier; Germe, Agathe; Nguyen, Sébastien; Ortega, Pablo; Guilyardi, Eric; Ray, Sulagna

    2016-08-01

    Two decadal prediction ensembles, based on the same climate model (IPSL-CM5A-LR) and the same surface nudging initialization strategy are analyzed and compared with a focus on upper-ocean variables in different regions of the globe. One ensemble consists of 3-member hindcasts launched every year since 1961 while the other ensemble benefits from 9 members but with start dates only every 5 years. Analysis includes anomaly correlation coefficients and root mean square errors computed against several reanalysis and gridded observational fields, as well as against the nudged simulation used to produce the hindcasts initial conditions. The last skill measure gives an upper limit of the predictability horizon one can expect in the forecast system, while the comparison with different datasets highlights uncertainty when assessing the actual skill. Results provide a potential prediction skill (verification against the nudged simulation) beyond the linear trend of the order of 10 years ahead at the global scale, but essentially associated with non-linear radiative forcings, in particular from volcanoes. At regional scale, we obtain 1 year in the tropical band, 10 years at midlatitudes in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, and 5 years at tropical latitudes in the North Atlantic, for both sea surface temperature (SST) and upper-ocean heat content. Actual prediction skill (verified against observational or reanalysis data) is overall more limited and less robust. Even so, large actual skill is found in the extratropical North Atlantic for SST and in the tropical to subtropical North Pacific for upper-ocean heat content. Results are analyzed with respect to the specific dynamics of the model and the way it is influenced by the nudging. The interplay between initialization and internal modes of variability is also analyzed for sea surface salinity. The study illustrates the importance of two key ingredients both necessary for the success of future coordinated decadal

  13. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, Brian; Guy, Stephen J

    2015-01-01

    Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.

  14. A Method for Using Player Tracking Data in Basketball to Learn Player Skills and Predict Team Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Skinner

    Full Text Available Player tracking data represents a revolutionary new data source for basketball analysis, in which essentially every aspect of a player's performance is tracked and can be analyzed numerically. We suggest a way by which this data set, when coupled with a network-style model of the offense that relates players' skills to the team's success at running different plays, can be used to automatically learn players' skills and predict the performance of untested 5-man lineups in a way that accounts for the interaction between players' respective skill sets. After developing a general analysis procedure, we present as an example a specific implementation of our method using a simplified network model. While player tracking data is not yet available in the public domain, we evaluate our model using simulated data and show that player skills can be accurately inferred by a simple statistical inference scheme. Finally, we use the model to analyze games from the 2011 playoff series between the Memphis Grizzlies and the Oklahoma City Thunder and we show that, even with a very limited data set, the model can consistently describe a player's interactions with a given lineup based only on his performance with a different lineup.

  15. Regional differences in brain volume predict the acquisition of skill in a complex real-time strategy videogame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W; Erickson, Kirk I; Boot, Walter R; Kramer, Arthur F

    2011-08-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also be useful in predicting the acquisition of skill in complex tasks, such as strategy-based video games. Twenty older adults were trained for over 20 h to play Rise of Nations, a complex real-time strategy game. These adults showed substantial improvements over the training period in game performance. MRI scans obtained prior to training revealed that the volume of a number of brain regions, which have been previously associated with subsets of the trained skills, predicted a substantial amount of variance in learning on the complex game. Thus, regional differences in brain volume can predict learning in complex tasks that entail the use of a variety of perceptual, cognitive and motor processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. ‘Lets join hands and jump\\ud together’: Readiness and\\ud implementation of skill mix change\\ud in general practice

    OpenAIRE

    Topping, Annie; Nkosana- Nyawata, Idah; Featherstone, Valerie A.; Stephenson, John

    2013-01-01

    Background: The last 10 years has seen major\\ud changes in the ways general practices deliver\\ud UK primary care services. In a context of skill\\ud shortages, cost containment, policy reform,\\ud quality improvement and increasing volume of\\ud interventions delivered in primary care, new ways\\ud of working are becoming the norm. Skill mix, such\\ud the introduction of advanced nurse practitioners\\ud (ANPs) and health care assistants (HCAs), has\\ud fundamentally re-engineered the primary care\\ud...

  17. The Effectiveness of Hands-on Health Informatics Skills Exercises in the Multidisciplinary Smart Home Healthcare and Health Informatics Training Laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapci, A H; Sapci, H A

    2017-10-01

    This article aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of newly established innovative smart home healthcare and health informatics laboratories, and a novel laboratory course that focuses on experiential health informatics training, and determine students' self-confidence to operate wireless home health monitoring devices before and after the hands-on laboratory course. Two web-based pretraining and posttraining questionnaires were sent to 64 students who received hands-on training with wireless remote patient monitoring devices in smart home healthcare and health informatics laboratories. All 64 students completed the pretraining survey (100% response rate), and 49 students completed the posttraining survey (76% response rate). The quantitative data analysis showed that 95% of students had an interest in taking more hands-on laboratory courses. Sixty-seven percent of students had no prior experience with medical image, physiological data acquisition, storage, and transmission protocols. After the hands-on training session, 75.51% of students expressed improved confidence about training patients to measure blood pressure monitor using wireless devices. Ninety percent of students preferred to use a similar experiential approach in their future learning experience. Additionally, the qualitative data analysis demonstrated that students were expecting to have more courses with hands-on exercises and integration of technology-enabled delivery and patient monitoring concepts into the curriculum. This study demonstrated that the multidisciplinary smart home healthcare and health informatics training laboratories and the hands-on exercises improved students' technology adoption rates and their self-confidence in using wireless patient monitoring devices. Schattauer GmbH Stuttgart.

  18. Use of Social Emotional Learning Skills to Predict Future Academic Success and Progress toward Graduation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Alan; Solberg, V. Scott; de Baca, Christine; Gore, Taryn Hargrove

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the degree to which a range of social emotional learning skills--academic self-efficacy, academic motivation, social connections, importance of school, and managing psychological and emotional distress and academic stress--could be used as an indicator of future academic outcomes. Using a sample of 4,797 from a large urban…

  19. The Predictive Power of Preschool Children's Social Behaviors on Their Play Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ergin, Büsra; Ergin, Esra

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research study is to investigate children's play skills in terms of social behaviours (physical aggression, relational aggression, positive social behaviors, and depressive feelings). The participants in this study consisted of 300 children between 60 and 72 months studying at preschool education institutions. The research data…

  20. Fine Motor Skill Predicts Expressive Language in Infant Siblings of Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeBarton, Eve Sauer; Iverson, Jana M.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether fine motor and expressive language skills are related in the later-born siblings of children with autism (heightened-risk, HR infants) who are at increased risk for language delays. We observed 34 HR infants longitudinally from 12 to 36 months. We used parent report and standardized observation measures to assess fine motor…

  1. Connectivity-Based Parcellation of the Amygdala Predicts Social Skills in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rausch, Annika; Zhang, Wei; Beckmann, Christian F.; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Groen, Wouter B.; Haak, Koen V.

    2018-01-01

    Amygdala dysfunction plays a role in the social impairments in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), but it is unclear which of its subregions are abnormal in ASD. This study compared the volume and functional connectivity (FC) strength of three FC-defined amygdala subregions between ASD and controls, and assessed their relation to social skills in…

  2. Predicting Early Reading Skills from Pre-Reading Measures of Dorsal Stream Functioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevan, Alison; Pammer, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    It is well documented that good reading skills may be dependent upon adequate dorsal stream processing. However, the degree to which dorsal stream deficits play a causal role in reading failure has not been established. This study used coherent motion and visual frequency doubling to examine whether dorsal stream sensitivity measured before the…

  3. Predicting first-year achievement by pedagogy and skill development in the first weeks at university

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Torenbeek, M.; Jansen, E. P. W. A.; Hofman, W. H. A.

    2011-01-01

    Central in this study is the relationship between the pedagogical approach and generic skill development in the first 10 weeks at university, students' perception of the fit between secondary and university education and first-year achievement. Information regarding the pedagogical approach and

  4. The Utility of the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) in Predicting Reading Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echols, Julie M. Young

    2010-01-01

    Reading proficiency is the goal of many local and national reading initiatives. A key component of these initiatives is accurate and reliable reading assessment. In this high-stakes testing arena, the Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS) has emerged as a preferred measure for identification of students at risk for reading…

  5. The Role of PS Ability and RC Skill in Predicting Growth Trajectories of Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vista, Alvin

    2016-01-01

    There are relatively few studies in Australia and South-East Asian region that combine investigating models of math growth trajectories with predictors such as reasoning ability and reading comprehension skills. Math achievement is one of the major components of overall academic achievement and it is important to determine what factors (especially…

  6. Working memory and fine motor skills predict early numeracy performance of children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Rooijen, Maaike; Verhoeven, Ludo; Steenbergen, Bert

    2016-01-01

    Early numeracy is an important precursor for arithmetic performance, academic proficiency, and work success. Besides their apparent motor difficulties, children with cerebral palsy (CP) often show additional cognitive disturbances. In this study, we examine whether working memory, non-verbal intelligence, linguistic skills, counting and fine motor skills are positively related to the early numeracy performance of 6-year-old children with CP. A total of 56 children (M = 6.0, SD = 0.61, 37 boys) from Dutch special education schools participated in this cross-sectional study. Of the total group, 81% of the children have the spastic type of CP (33% unilateral and 66% bilateral), 9% have been diagnosed as having diskinetic CP, 8% have been diagnosed as having spastic and diskinetic CP and 2% have been diagnosed as having a combination of diskinetic and atactic CP. The children completed standardized tests assessing early numeracy performance, working memory, non-verbal intelligence, sentence understanding and fine motor skills. In addition, an experimental task was administered to examine their basic counting performance. Structural equation modeling showed that working memory and fine motor skills were significantly related to the early numeracy performance of the children (β = .79 and p working memory and early numeracy (β = .57, p working memory for early numeracy performance in children with CP and they warrant further research into the efficacy of intervention programs aimed at working memory training.

  7. Vitamin D status predicts hand-grip strength in young adult women living in Auckland, New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Hurst, P R; Conlon, C; Foskett, A

    2013-07-01

    The identification of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) in skeletal muscle tissue and research in muscle strength and development in VDR-null mice confirms a role for vitamin D in muscle function. The relationship between muscle strength and vitamin D status has been explored to some degree in older populations with regard to fall prevention, but there has been very little research in younger adults. This cross-sectional study considered the predictors of muscle strength in 137 young women (19-29 years) living in New Zealand. The following measurements were taken in the latter months of winter: plasma 25OHD, dominant (HGD) and non-dominant hand-grip (HGND) strength (hand-grip dynamometer), counter measure jump, and recreational physical activity (RPA) assessed from a recent physical activity questionnaire (RPAQ). Dietary intake was measured with a four-day food diary, and body composition using air displacement plethysmography. This was a relatively inactive group of women; total RPA ranged from 0 to 3.93h per week, mean (SD) 0.86(0.74) h, approximately 50% comprised outdoor activities. Mean 25OHD was 54(28)nmol/l, HGD and HGND were significantly different (t=6.049, pstrength as the dependent variable (Model R(2)=0.11, p=0.001 non-dominant, R(2)=0.13, pstrength and serum 25OHD, and when each were adjusted to remove this association, 25OHD accounted for 4.3% of HGND and 4.5% of HGD. These results suggest that vitamin D status does have a small but significant association with hand-grip strength in this group of young women. Further investigation in this age group with a randomised controlled trial is justified. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Vitamin D Workshop'. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hand Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tennis elbow , as well as from chronic problems such as ... Tools Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist on Tennis Elbow Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist: Living with( ...

  9. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  10. Predicting Treatment Success in Social Skills Training for Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorders: The UCLA Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Chih; Laugeson, Elizabeth A.; Gantman, Alexander; Ellingsen, Ruth; Frankel, Fred; Dillon, Ashley R.

    2014-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the predictors of positive social skills outcomes from the University of California, Los Angeles Program for the Education and Enrichment of Relational Skills, an evidence-based parent-assisted social skills program for high-functioning middle school and high school adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. The…

  11. Predictive value of social skills in living together at primary school. Analysis in a cultural diversity context

    OpenAIRE

    Lucia Herrera Torres; Iván Bravo Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Coexistence at school stands out as one of the main goals in today’s education (Carretero, 2008; Ortega, 2007). The aim of this study developed within a cultural diversity context is to identify the specific dimensions of social skills through which the different elements favouring or hindering coexistence at school can be predicted. A total of 546 students (52% of them males, and 48% females) from the first year in each Primary Education cycle (1st, 3rd and 5th year, respectively) of two pub...

  12. Can skills assessment on a virtual reality trainer predict a surgical trainee's talent in laparoscopic surgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, R; Gantert, W A; Scheidegger, D; Oertli, D

    2006-08-01

    A number of studies have investigated several aspects of feasibility and validity of performance assessments with virtual reality surgical simulators. However, the validity of performance assessments is limited by the reliability of such measurements, and some issues of reliability still need to be addressed. This study aimed to evaluate the hypothesis that test subjects show logarithmic performance curves on repetitive trials for a component task of laparoscopic cholecystectomy on a virtual reality simulator, and that interindividual differences in performance after considerable training are significant. According to kinesiologic theory, logarithmic performance curves are expected and an individual's learning capacity for a specific task can be extrapolated, allowing quantification of a person's innate ability to develop task-specific skills. In this study, 20 medical students at the University of Basel Medical School performed five trials of a standardized task on the LS 500 virtual reality simulator for laparoscopic surgery. Task completion time, number of errors, economy of instrument movements, and maximum speed of instrument movements were measured. The hypothesis was confirmed by the fact that the performance curves for some of the simulator measurements were very close to logarithmic curves, and there were significant interindividual differences in performance at the end of the repetitive trials. Assessment of perceptual motor skills and the innate ability of an individual with no prior experience in laparoscopic surgery to develop such skills using the LS 500 VR surgical simulator is feasible and reliable.

  13. Infant Hand Preference and the Development of Cognitive Abilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Frederick Michel

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hand preference develops in the first two postnatal years with nearly half of infants exhibiting a consistent early preference for acquiring objects. Others exhibit a more variable developmental trajectory but by the end of their second postnatal year, most exhibit a consistent hand preference for role-differentiated bimanual manipulation. According to some forms of embodiment theory, these differences in hand use patterns should influence the way children interact with their environments, which, in turn, should affect the structure and function of brain development. Such early differences in brain development should result in different trajectories of psychological development. We present evidence that children with consistent early hand preferences exhibit advanced patterns of cognitive development as compared to children who develop a hand preference later. Differences in the developmental trajectory of hand preference are predictive of developmental differences in language, object management skills, and tool-use skills. As predicted by Cassasanto’s body-specificity hypothesis, infants with different hand preferences proceed along different developmental pathways of cognitive functioning.

  14. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  15. The Relationships between Self-Regulated Learning Skills, Causal Attributions and Academic Success of Trainee Teachers Preparing to Teach Gifted Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leana-Tascilar, Marilena Z.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the self-regulated learning skills and causal attributions of trainee teachers preparing to teach gifted pupils, and also to study the predictive relationships between these skills and attributions, on one hand, and academic success, on the other hand. The research was conducted on 123 students attending…

  16. Predicting the hand, foot, and mouth disease incidence using search engine query data and climate variables: an ecological study in Guangdong, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhicheng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Wangjian; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Hao, Yuantao

    2017-10-06

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused a substantial burden in China, especially in Guangdong Province. Based on the enhanced surveillance system, we aimed to explore whether the addition of temperate and search engine query data improves the risk prediction of HFMD. Ecological study. Information on the confirmed cases of HFMD, climate parameters and search engine query logs was collected. A total of 1.36 million HFMD cases were identified from the surveillance system during 2011-2014. Analyses were conducted at aggregate level and no confidential information was involved. A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model with external variables (ARIMAX) was used to predict the HFMD incidence from 2011 to 2014, taking into account temperature and search engine query data (Baidu Index, BDI). Statistics of goodness-of-fit and precision of prediction were used to compare models (1) based on surveillance data only, and with the addition of (2) temperature, (3) BDI, and (4) both temperature and BDI. A high correlation between HFMD incidence and BDI ( r =0.794, pengine query data significantly improved the prediction of HFMD. Further studies are warranted to examine whether including search engine query data also improves the prediction of other infectious diseases in other settings. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  17. Seasonal prediction for Southern Africa: Maximising the skill from forecast systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available /system development started in early 1990s ? SAWS, UCT, UP, Wits (statistical forecast systems) ? South African Long-Lead Forecast Forum ? SARCOF started in 1997 ? consensus through discussions ? Late 1990s ? started to use AGCMs and post-processing ? At SAWS... Reg1 Reg2 Reg3 Reg4 Reg5 Reg6 Reg7 Reg8 Regions RO C ar ea s Below-Normal Near-Normal Above-Normal Operational Forecast Skill From CONSENSUS discussions Verification over 7 years of consensus forecast production New objective multi...

  18. Predicting the incidence of hand, foot and mouth disease in Sichuan province, China using the ARIMA model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, L; Luan, R S; Yin, F; Zhu, X P; Lü, Q

    2016-01-01

    Hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD) is an infectious disease caused by enteroviruses, which usually occurs in children aged ARIMA) model to forecast HFMD incidence in Sichuan province, China. HFMD infection data from January 2010 to June 2014 were used to fit the ARIMA model. The coefficient of determination (R 2), normalized Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) and mean absolute percentage of error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the goodness-of-fit of the constructed models. The fitted ARIMA model was applied to forecast the incidence of HMFD from April to June 2014. The goodness-of-fit test generated the optimum general multiplicative seasonal ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model (R 2 = 0·692, MAPE = 15·982, BIC = 5·265), which also showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model (P = 0·893). The forecast incidence values of the ARIMA (1,0,1) × (0,1,0)12 model from July to December 2014 were 4103-9987, which were proximate forecasts. The ARIMA model could be applied to forecast HMFD incidence trend and provide support for HMFD prevention and control. Further observations should be carried out continually into the time sequence, and the parameters of the models could be adjusted because HMFD incidence will not be absolutely stationary in the future.

  19. Die Sprache der Hande zu den Handen sprechen (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

  20. Building Predictive Human Performance Models of Skill Acquisition in a Data Entry Task

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fu, Wai-Tat; Gonzalez, Cleotilde; Healy, Alice F; Kole, James A; Bourne, Jr., Lyle E

    2006-01-01

    .... Since data entry is a central component in most human-machine interaction, a predictive model of performance will provide useful information that informs interface design and effectiveness of training...

  1. Perceptual Speed and Psychomotor Ability Predict Laparoscopic Skill Acquisition on a Simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H.; Miedema, Heleen A. T.; Broeders, Ivo A. M. J.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon's cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon's learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical

  2. Spatial working memory and attention skills are predicted by maternal stress during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plamondon, André; Akbari, Emis; Atkinson, Leslie; Steiner, Meir; Meaney, Michael J; Fleming, Alison S

    2015-01-01

    Experimental evidence in rodents shows that maternal stress during pregnancy (MSDP) negatively impacts spatial learning and memory in the offspring. We aim to investigate the association between MSDP (i.e., life events) and spatial working memory, as well as attention skills (attention shifting and attention focusing), in humans. The moderating roles of child sex, maternal anxiety during pregnancy and postnatal care are also investigated. Participants were 236 mother-child dyads that were followed from the second trimester of pregnancy until 4 years postpartum. Measurements included questionnaires and independent observations. MSDP was negatively associated with attention shifting at 18 months when concurrent maternal anxiety was low. MSDP was associated with poorer spatial working memory at 4 years of age, but only for boys who experienced poorer postnatal care. Consistent with results observed in rodents, MSDP was found to be associated with spatial working memory and attention skills. These results point to postnatal care and maternal anxiety during pregnancy as potential targets for interventions that aim to buffer children from the detrimental effects of MSDP. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrophysiological measures of attention during speech perception predict metalinguistic skills in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lori Astheimer

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Event-related potential (ERP evidence demonstrates that preschool-aged children selectively attend to informative moments such as word onsets during speech perception. Although this observation indicates a role for attention in language processing, it is unclear whether this type of attention is part of basic speech perception mechanisms, higher-level language skills, or general cognitive abilities. The current study examined these possibilities by measuring ERPs from 5-year-old children listening to a narrative containing attention probes presented before, during, and after word onsets as well as at random control times. Children also completed behavioral tests assessing verbal and nonverbal skills. Probes presented after word onsets elicited a more negative ERP response beginning around 100 ms after probe onset than control probes, indicating increased attention to word-initial segments. Crucially, the magnitude of this difference was correlated with performance on verbal tasks, but showed no relationship to nonverbal measures. More specifically, ERP attention effects were most strongly correlated with performance on a complex metalinguistic task involving grammaticality judgments. These results demonstrate that effective allocation of attention during speech perception supports higher-level, controlled language processing in children by allowing them to focus on relevant information at individual word and complex sentence levels.

  4. Predicting the outbreak of hand, foot, and mouth disease in Nanjing, China: a time-series model based on weather variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Sijun; Chen, Jiaping; Wang, Jianming; Wu, Zhuchao; Wu, Weihua; Xu, Zhiwei; Hu, Wenbiao; Xu, Fei; Tong, Shilu; Shen, Hongbing

    2017-10-01

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) is a significant public health issue in China and an accurate prediction of epidemic can improve the effectiveness of HFMD control. This study aims to develop a weather-based forecasting model for HFMD using the information on climatic variables and HFMD surveillance in Nanjing, China. Daily data on HFMD cases and meteorological variables between 2010 and 2015 were acquired from the Nanjing Center for Disease Control and Prevention, and China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, respectively. A multivariate seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (SARIMA) model was developed and validated by dividing HFMD infection data into two datasets: the data from 2010 to 2013 were used to construct a model and those from 2014 to 2015 were used to validate it. Moreover, we used weekly prediction for the data between 1 January 2014 and 31 December 2015 and leave-1-week-out prediction was used to validate the performance of model prediction. SARIMA (2,0,0)52 associated with the average temperature at lag of 1 week appeared to be the best model (R 2 = 0.936, BIC = 8.465), which also showed non-significant autocorrelations in the residuals of the model. In the validation of the constructed model, the predicted values matched the observed values reasonably well between 2014 and 2015. There was a high agreement rate between the predicted values and the observed values (sensitivity 80%, specificity 96.63%). This study suggests that the SARIMA model with average temperature could be used as an important tool for early detection and prediction of HFMD outbreaks in Nanjing, China.

  5. Predicting psychopharmacological drug effects on actual driving performance (SDLP) from psychometric tests measuring driving-related skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    There are various methods to examine driving ability. Comparisons between these methods and their relationship with actual on-road driving is often not determined. The objective of this study was to determine whether laboratory tests measuring driving-related skills could adequately predict on-the-road driving performance during normal traffic. Ninety-six healthy volunteers performed a standardized on-the-road driving test. Subjects were instructed to drive with a constant speed and steady lateral position within the right traffic lane. Standard deviation of lateral position (SDLP), i.e., the weaving of the car, was determined. The subjects also performed a psychometric test battery including the DSST, Sternberg memory scanning test, a tracking test, and a divided attention test. Difference scores from placebo for parameters of the psychometric tests and SDLP were computed and correlated with each other. A stepwise linear regression analysis determined the predictive validity of the laboratory test battery to SDLP. Stepwise regression analyses revealed that the combination of five parameters, hard tracking, tracking and reaction time of the divided attention test, and reaction time and percentage of errors of the Sternberg memory scanning test, together had a predictive validity of 33.4%. The psychometric tests in this test battery showed insufficient predictive validity to replace the on-the-road driving test during normal traffic.

  6. Predicting Motor Skills from Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire Scores, Language Ability, and Other Features of New Zealand Children Entering Primary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargisson, Rebecca J.; Powell, Cheniel; Stanley, Peter; de Candole, Rosalind

    2014-01-01

    The motor and language skills, emotional and behavioural problems of 245 children were measured at school entry. Fine motor scores were significantly predicted by hyperactivity, phonetic awareness, prosocial behaviour, and the presence of medical problems. Gross motor scores were significantly predicted by the presence of medical problems. The…

  7. Predicting the hand, foot, and mouth disease incidence using search engine query data and climate variables: an ecological study in Guangdong, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Zhicheng; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Wangjian; Zhang, Dingmei; Yu, Shicheng; Hao, Yuantao

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD) has caused a substantial burden in China, especially in Guangdong Province. Based on the enhanced surveillance system, we aimed to explore whether the addition of temperate and search engine query data improves the risk prediction of HFMD. Design Ecological study. Setting and participants Information on the confirmed cases of HFMD, climate parameters and search engine query logs was collected. A total of 1.36 million HFMD cases were identified from the surveillance system during 2011–2014. Analyses were conducted at aggregate level and no confidential information was involved. Outcome measures A seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) model with external variables (ARIMAX) was used to predict the HFMD incidence from 2011 to 2014, taking into account temperature and search engine query data (Baidu Index, BDI). Statistics of goodness-of-fit and precision of prediction were used to compare models (1) based on surveillance data only, and with the addition of (2) temperature, (3) BDI, and (4) both temperature and BDI. Results A high correlation between HFMD incidence and BDI (r=0.794, pmodel. Compared with the model based on surveillance data only, the ARIMAX model including BDI reached the best goodness-of-fit with an Akaike information criterion (AIC) value of −345.332, whereas the model including both BDI and temperature had the most accurate prediction in terms of the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) of 101.745%. Conclusions An ARIMAX model incorporating search engine query data significantly improved the prediction of HFMD. Further studies are warranted to examine whether including search engine query data also improves the prediction of other infectious diseases in other settings. PMID:28988169

  8. Perceptual speed and psychomotor ability predict laparoscopic skill acquisition on a simulator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenier, Marleen; Groenier, Klaas H; Miedema, Helene A.T.; Broeders, Ivo Adriaan Maria Johannes

    2015-01-01

    Objective Performing minimally invasive surgery puts high demands on a surgeon’s cognitive and psychomotor abilities. Assessment of these abilities can be used to predict a surgeon’s learning curve, to create individualized training programs, and ultimately in selection programs for surgical

  9. Predicting clinical outcome using brain activation associated with set-shifting and central coherence skills in Anorexia Nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Amy S; Lock, James; Datta, Nandini; Beenhaker, Judy; Kesler, Shelli R; Reiss, Allan L

    2014-10-01

    Patients with Anorexia Nervosa (AN) have neuropsychological deficits in Set-Shifting (SS) and central coherence (CC) consistent with an inflexible thinking style and overly detailed processing style, respectively. This study investigates brain activation during SS and CC tasks in patients with AN and tests whether this activation is a biomarker that predicts response to treatment. FMRI data were collected from 21 females with AN while performing an SS task (the Wisconsin Card Sort) and a CC task (embedded figures), and used to predict outcome following 16 weeks of treatment (either 16 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy or 8 weeks cognitive remediation therapy followed by 8 weeks of cognitive behavioral therapy). Significant activation during the SS task included bilateral dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and left anterior middle frontal gyrus. Higher scores on the neuropsychological test of SS (measured outside the scanner at baseline) were correlated with greater DLPFC and VLPFC/insula activation. Improvements in SS following treatment were significantly predicted by a combination of low VLPFC/insula and high anterior middle frontal activation (R squared = .68, p = .001). For the CC task, visual and parietal cortical areas were activated, but were not significantly correlated with neuropsychological measures of CC and did not predict outcome. Cognitive flexibility requires the support of several prefrontal cortex resources. As previous studies suggest that the VLPFC is important for selecting context-appropriate responses, patients who have difficulties with this skill may benefit the most from cognitive therapy with or without cognitive remediation therapy. The ability to sustain inhibition of an unwanted response, subserved by the anterior middle frontal gyrus, is a cognitive feature that predicts favorable outcome to cognitive treatment. CC deficits may not be an effective predictor of clinical outcome. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All

  10. Disruption to functional networks in neonates with perinatal brain injury predicts motor skills at 8 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linke, Annika C; Wild, Conor; Zubiaurre-Elorza, Leire; Herzmann, Charlotte; Duffy, Hester; Han, Victor K; Lee, David S C; Cusack, Rhodri

    2018-01-01

    Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging (fcMRI) of neonates with perinatal brain injury could improve prediction of motor impairment before symptoms manifest, and establish how early brain organization relates to subsequent development. This cohort study is the first to describe and quantitatively assess functional brain networks and their relation to later motor skills in neonates with a diverse range of perinatal brain injuries. Infants ( n  = 65, included in final analyses: n  = 53) were recruited from the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) and were stratified based on their age at birth (premature vs. term), and on whether neuropathology was diagnosed from structural MRI. Functional brain networks and a measure of disruption to functional connectivity were obtained from 14 min of fcMRI acquired during natural sleep at term-equivalent age. Disruption to connectivity of the somatomotor and frontoparietal executive networks predicted motor impairment at 4 and 8 months. This disruption in functional connectivity was not found to be driven by differences between clinical groups, or by any of the specific measures we captured to describe the clinical course. fcMRI was predictive over and above other clinical measures available at discharge from the NICU, including structural MRI. Motor learning was affected by disruption to somatomotor networks, but also frontoparietal executive networks, which supports the functional importance of these networks in early development. Disruption to these two networks might be best addressed by distinct intervention strategies.

  11. Predictive value of social skills in living together at primary school. Analysis in a cultural diversity context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Herrera Torres

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Coexistence at school stands out as one of the main goals in today’s education (Carretero, 2008; Ortega, 2007. The aim of this study developed within a cultural diversity context is to identify the specific dimensions of social skills through which the different elements favouring or hindering coexistence at school can be predicted. A total of 546 students (52% of them males, and 48% females from the first year in each Primary Education cycle (1st, 3rd and 5th year, respectively of two public schools in Melilla took part in the research. The Behaviour Assessment System for Children (BASC and an adapted version for Primary Education of the Coexistence at School Questionnaire for Students were the data-collection instruments used. According to the main results, while the clinical maladjustment dimension of BASC predicts negative coexistence situations, personal adjustment appears as the dimension which best predicts positive coexistence situations, conducting classroom behaviours (both anti-social and pro-social ones, as well as the implementation of conflict resolution strategies (both successful and failed ones. In this respect, self-esteem within the personal adjustment dimension plays an important role regarding coexistence at school. Both the need to develop preventive programmes at schools and the consideration of the different socio-familiar variables which may be mediating this process are discussed.

  12. Reduced memory specificity predicts the acquisition of problem solving skills in psychoeducation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Tom; Van den Bergh, Omer; Van Audenhove, Chantal; Raes, Filip; Hermans, Dirk

    2013-03-01

    Research has shown that overgeneral autobiographical memory (OGM) is a valid predictor for the course of depression. It is not known, however, whether OGM also moderates information uptake and consolidation in a psychoeducation program to prevent stress, anxiety and depression. The present study was designed to investigate whether the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT; Williams, & Broadbent, 1986) is a valid predictor for the actual unfolding of skills learned through psychoeducation. The questionnaire included primarily the AMT and the Stress Anxiety Depression Means-Ends Problem Solving Questionnaire (SAD-MEPS). It was filled in prior to and after the psychoeducational course by 23 participants. Correlations were calculated for the AMT at baseline and the differences between the pre and post measurements on the SAD-MEPS. Significant correlations were observed between the number of specific responses and the changes in the number of relevant means (r = .49, p < .01). The sample size was rather small, but several checks were able to reduce the chance of spurious findings. These findings may have important implications for the guidance to and the setup of psychoeducational interventions. Suggestions include screening and memory specificity training prior to course commencement. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  14. Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  15. Predicting meat quality traits of ovine m. semimembranosus, both fresh and following freezing and thawing, using a hand held Raman spectroscopic device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Stephanie M; Schmidt, Heinar; van de Ven, Remy; Wynn, Peter; Hopkins, David L

    2015-10-01

    Complementary studies were conducted to determine the potential for a Raman spectroscopic hand held device to predict meat quality traits of fresh lamb m. semimembranosus (topside) after ageing and freezing/thawing. Spectra were collected from 80 fresh muscles at 24h and 5d PM, another 80 muscles were measured at 24h, 5d and following freezing/thawing. Shear force, cooking loss, sarcomere length, colour, particle size, collagen content, pH24, pHu, purge and thaw loss were also measured. Results indicated a potential to predict pHu (R(2)cv=0.59), pH24 (R(2)cv=0.48) and purge (R(2)cv=0.42) using spectra collected 24h PM. L* could be predicted using spectra collected 24h (R(2)cv=0.33) or 5d PM (R(2)cv=0.33). This suggests that Raman spectroscopy is suited to identifying carcases which deviate from the normal metabolic processes and related meat quality traits. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Seasonal rainfall prediction skill over South Africa: one- versus two-tiered forecasting systems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, WA

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available - able (e.g., Klopper et al. 1998; Landman and Goddard 2002; Reason and Rouault 2005, Tennant and Hewitson 2002). This knowledge led to the development of objective operational seasonal forecasting systems for South Africa, but only as recently... as the 1990s (e.g., Jury 1996; Jury et al. 1999; Landman and Mason 1999; Mason 1998). Although the prediction problem over southern Africa was also addressed by modelers from outside the region (e.g., Barnston et al. 1996), the South African...

  17. Poor fine-motor and visuospatial skills predict persistence of pediatric-onset obsessive-compulsive disorder into adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H; Sukhodolsky, Denis G; Dombrowski, Philip A; Panza, Kaitlyn E; Craiglow, Brittany G; Landeros-Weisenberger, Angeli; Leckman, James F; Peterson, Bradley S; Schultz, Robert T

    2011-09-01

    Half of pediatric-onset OCD cases remit by adulthood. Studies have demonstrated that initial response to pharmacotherapy, age of onset, prominent hoarding symptoms, and the presence of comorbid tic disorders are associated with long-term outcome. Our goal was to examine the association between childhood performance on neuropsychological testing and persistence of OCD into adulthood. Twenty-four children with OCD were followed for an average of 7.5 years into early adulthood. Neuropsychological performance in childhood (childhood performance on the Purdue pegboard task and the block design subscale of WISC-III was associated with persistence of OCD symptoms into adulthood. IQ, VMI, and nonverbal memory performance did not predict significantly the persistence of OCD. These results suggest that visuospatial and fine-motor skill deficits are predictive of poor long-term outcome in pediatric-onset OCD. Future longitudinal studies are needed to chart the course of these deficits relative to the course of symptoms in OCD and to determine whether the association of these neuropsychiatric deficits with long-term outcome is specific to pediatric-onset OCD or generalizes to other psychiatric disorders. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry © 2011 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.

  18. Verbal Prompting, Hand-over-Hand Instruction, and Passive Observation in Teaching Children with Developmental Disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, G. B.; Fairhall, J. L.; Raven, K. A.; Davey, V. A.

    1998-01-01

    A study involving six children (ages 5-13) with mental retardation found that overall passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling in teaching skills, and that passive modeling was significantly more effective than hand-over-hand modeling with response-contingent verbal prompting. (Author/CR)

  19. Enhancing Noah Land Surface Model Prediction Skill over Indian Subcontinent by Assimilating SMOPS Blended Soil Moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhilesh S. Nair

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, soil moisture assimilation is conducted over the Indian subcontinent, using the Noah Land Surface Model (LSM and the Soil Moisture Operational Products System (SMOPS observations by utilizing the Ensemble Kalman Filter. The study is conducted in two stages involving assimilation of soil moisture and simulation of brightness temperature (Tb using radiative transfer scheme. The results of data assimilation in the form of simulated Surface Soil Moisture (SSM maps are evaluated for the Indian summer monsoonal months of June, July, August, September (JJAS using the Land Parameter Retrieval Model (LPRM AMSR-E soil moisture as reference. Results of comparative analysis using the Global land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS SSM is also discussed over India. Data assimilation using SMOPS soil moisture shows improved prediction over the Indian subcontinent, with an average correlation of 0.96 and average root mean square difference (RMSD of 0.0303 m3/m3. The results are promising in comparison with the GLDAS SSM, which has an average correlation of 0.93 and average RMSD of 0.0481 m3/m3. In the second stage of the study, the assimilated soil moisture is used to simulate X-band brightness temperature (Tb at an incidence angle of 55° using the Community Microwave Emission Model (CMEM Radiative transfer Model (RTM. This is aimed to study the sensitivity of the parameterization scheme on Tb simulation over the Indian subcontinent. The result of Tb simulation shows that the CMEM parameterization scheme strongly influences the simulated top of atmosphere (TOA brightness temperature. Furthermore, the Tb simulations from Wang dielectric model and Kirdyashev vegetation model shows better similarity with the actual AMSR-E Tb over the study region.

  20. Sustainable medical research by effective and comprehensive medical skills: overcoming the frontiers by predictive, preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2014-01-01

    Clinical research and practice require affordable objectives, sustainable tools, rewarding training strategies and meaningful collaboration. Our unit delivers courses on project design and management promoting ideas, useful skills, teaching and exploring implementation of networks and existing collaborations. We investigated the effectiveness of a sustainable approach of comprehensive diagnosis and care and its usefulness within concrete models of research project teaching methodology. The model of predictive, preventive and personalized medicine (PPPM) of adolescent hypertension, developed since 1976 and still active, was displayed. This is a paradigm of comprehensive PPPM aimed at the management of a recognized, but actually neglected, societal and clinical problem. The second model was addressed to the analysis of performance of an outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit and its relationship with the emergency department. Part of the patients, 4,057 cancer patients presenting at the emergency care, were addressed to the outpatient diagnostic and therapy unit for further assessment, treatment and follow-up. The stay in DH was 6.3 ± 2.1 non-consecutive days, with shortage of costs, vs. in-hospital stays. Research planning courses, based on these models, ensued in an increase of competitive project submission and successful funding. Active promotion of interdisciplinary knowledge and skills is warranted. Misleading messages and information are detrimental not only to healthy and sick people but, equally, to all health professionals: efforts for basing on evidence by research any statement are needed. The actual pre-requisite of personalized medicine is the coherent and articulated promotion of the professional quality of staff. Health professionals should and can be skilled in sustainable non-invasive diagnostic procedures, in non-pharmacological intervention, in translational research (from epidemiology to personalized therapy) and in timely dissemination of

  1. Analysis of the regional MiKlip decadal prediction system over Europe: skill, added value of regionalization, and ensemble size dependeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reyers, Mark; Moemken, Julia; Pinto, Joaquim; Feldmann, Hendrik; Kottmeier, Christoph; MiKlip Module-C Team

    2017-04-01

    Decadal climate predictions can provide a useful basis for decision making support systems for the public and private sectors. Several generations of decadal hindcasts and predictions have been generated throughout the German research program MiKlip. Together with the global climate predictions computed with MPI-ESM, the regional climate model (RCM) COSMO-CLM is used for regional downscaling by MiKlip Module-C. The RCMs provide climate information on spatial and temporal scales closer to the needs of potential users. In this study, two downscaled hindcast generations are analysed (named b0 and b1). The respective global generations are both initialized by nudging them towards different reanalysis anomaly fields. An ensemble of five starting years (1961, 1971, 1981, 1991, and 2001), each comprising ten ensemble members, is used for both generations in order to quantify the regional decadal prediction skill for precipitation and near-surface temperature and wind speed over Europe. All datasets (including hindcasts, observations, reanalysis, and historical MPI-ESM runs) are pre-processed in an analogue manner by (i) removing the long-term trend and (ii) re-gridding to a common grid. Our analysis shows that there is potential for skillful decadal predictions over Europe in the regional MiKlip ensemble, but the skill is not systematic and depends on the PRUDENCE region and the variable. Further, the differences between the two hindcast generations are mostly small. As we used detrended time series, the predictive skill found in our study can probably attributed to reasonable predictions of anomalies which are associated with the natural climate variability. In a sensitivity study, it is shown that the results may strongly change when the long-term trend is kept in the datasets, as here the skill of predicting the long-term trend (e.g. for temperature) also plays a major role. The regionalization of the global ensemble provides an added value for decadal predictions for

  2. Selecting Future Teachers: The Predictive Validity of Communication Skills, Personality and Academic Achievement in the Admission Process at an Asian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard J. Holmes

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the relationship between communication skills, personality factors and performance in secondary school and academic success in Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL programme in a Malaysian university. It was found that three specific skills: fluency, clarity and language use were modestly predictive of success over the first six semesters of the degree programme but that personality traits and general and educational knowledge were not. Performance on the Malaysian secondary school examination, especially in maths, also predicted academic success. It was also found that the qualities assessed at the interview were barely detectable by lecturers a little more than two years later although communicative skills were somewhat more so than the others. The findings suggest that when students are studying in the medium of a second language, communicative competence and prior academic achievement, possibly reflective of underlying general intelligence are important factors contributing to academic success.

  3. Hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients/materials......Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients...... dermatitis, younger age, male sex (male doctors), and working hours. Eighty nine per cent of subjects reported mild/moderate lesions. Atopic dermatitis was the only factor significantly related to severity. Sick leave was reported by 8% of subjects, and notification to the authorities by 12%. Conclusions...... or severity, but cultural differences between professions with respect to coping with the eczema were significant. Atopic dermatitis was related to increased prevalence and severity, and preventive efforts should be made for healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis....

  4. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  5. An operational hydrological ensemble prediction system for the city of Zurich (Switzerland: skill, case studies and scenarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Addor

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The Sihl River flows through Zurich, Switzerland's most populated city, for which it represents the largest flood threat. To anticipate extreme discharge events and provide decision support in case of flood risk, a hydrometeorological ensemble prediction system (HEPS was launched operationally in 2008. This model chain relies on limited-area atmospheric forecasts provided by the deterministic model COSMO-7 and the probabilistic model COSMO-LEPS. These atmospheric forecasts are used to force a semi-distributed hydrological model (PREVAH, coupled to a hydraulic model (FLORIS. The resulting hydrological forecasts are eventually communicated to the stakeholders involved in the Sihl discharge management. This fully operational setting provides a real framework with which to compare the potential of deterministic and probabilistic discharge forecasts for flood mitigation.

    To study the suitability of HEPS for small-scale basins and to quantify the added-value conveyed by the probability information, a reforecast was made for the period June 2007 to December 2009 for the Sihl catchment (336 km2. Several metrics support the conclusion that the performance gain can be of up to 2 days lead time for the catchment considered. Brier skill scores show that overall COSMO-LEPS-based hydrological forecasts outperforms their COSMO-7-based counterparts for all the lead times and event intensities considered. The small size of the Sihl catchment does not prevent skillful discharge forecasts, but makes them particularly dependent on correct precipitation forecasts, as shown by comparisons with a reference run driven by observed meteorological parameters. Our evaluation stresses that the capacity of the model to provide confident and reliable mid-term probability forecasts for high discharges is limited. The two most intense events of the study period are investigated utilising a novel graphical representation of probability forecasts, and are used

  6. Examining the Predictive Relations between Two Aspects of Self-Regulation and Growth in Preschool Children’s Early Literacy Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonigan, Christopher J.; Allan, Darcey M.; Phillips, Beth M.

    2016-01-01

    There is strong evidence that self-regulatory processes are linked to early academic skills both concurrently and longitudinally. The majority of extant longitudinal studies, however, have been conducted using autoregressive techniques that may not accurately model change across time. The purpose of this study was to examine the unique associations between two components of self-regulation, attention and executive functioning (EF), and growth in early literacy skills over the preschool year using latent-growth-curve analysis. The sample included 1,082 preschool children (M-age = 55.0 months, SD = 3.73). Children completed measures of vocabulary, syntax, phonological awareness, print knowledge, cognitive ability, and self-regulation, and children’s classroom teachers completed a behavior rating measure. To examine the independent relations of the self-regulatory skills and cognitive ability with children’s initial early literacy skills and growth across the preschool year, growth models in which the intercept and slope were simultaneously regressed on each of the predictor variables were examined. Because of the significant relation between intercept and slope for most outcomes, slope was regressed on intercept in the models to allow a determination of direct and indirect effects of the predictors on growth in children’s language and literacy skills across the preschool year. In general, both teacher-rated inattention and directly measured EF were uniquely associated with initial skills level; however, only teacher-rated inattention uniquely predicted growth in early literacy skills. These findings suggest that teacher-ratings of inattention may measure an aspect of self-regulation that is particularly associated with the acquisition of academic skills in early childhood. PMID:27854463

  7. Skill of real-time operational forecasts with the APCC multi-model ensemble prediction system during the period 2008-2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Young-Mi; Kryjov, Vladimir N.; Oh, Sang Myeong; Lee, Hyun-Ju

    2017-12-01

    This paper assesses the real-time 1-month lead forecasts of 3-month (seasonal) mean temperature and precipitation on a monthly basis issued by the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation Climate Center (APCC) for 2008-2015 (8 years, 96 forecasts). It shows the current level of the APCC operational multi-model prediction system performance. The skill of the APCC forecasts strongly depends on seasons and regions that it is higher for the tropics and boreal winter than for the extratropics and boreal summer due to direct effects and remote teleconnections from boundary forcings. There is a negative relationship between the forecast skill and its interseasonal variability for both variables and the forecast skill for precipitation is more seasonally and regionally dependent than that for temperature. The APCC operational probabilistic forecasts during this period show a cold bias (underforecasting of above-normal temperature and overforecasting of below-normal temperature) underestimating a long-term warming trend. A wet bias is evident for precipitation, particularly in the extratropical regions. The skill of both temperature and precipitation forecasts strongly depends upon the ENSO strength. Particularly, the highest forecast skill noted in 2015/2016 boreal winter is associated with the strong forcing of an extreme El Nino event. Meanwhile, the relatively low skill is associated with the transition and/or continuous ENSO-neutral phases of 2012-2014. As a result the skill of real-time forecast for boreal winter season is higher than that of hindcast. However, on average, the level of forecast skill during the period 2008-2015 is similar to that of hindcast.

  8. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poole, Janet L; Sadek, Joseph; Haaland, Kathleen Y

    2009-10-01

    Poole JL, Sadek J, Haaland KY. Ipsilateral deficits in 1-handed shoe tying after left or right hemisphere stroke. To examine 1-handed shoe tying performance and whether cognitive deficits more associated with left or right hemisphere damage differentially affect it after unilateral stroke. Observational cohort comparing ipsilesional shoe tying, spatial and language skills, and limb praxis. Primary care Veterans Affairs and private medical center. Not applicable. Volunteer right-handed sample of adults with left or right hemisphere damage and healthy demographically matched adults. The number of correct trials and the total time to complete 10 trials tying a shoe using the 1-handed method. Both stroke groups had fewer correct trials and were significantly slower tying the shoe than the control group. Spatial skills predicted accuracy and speed after right hemisphere damage. After left hemisphere damage, accuracy was predicted by spatial skills and limb praxis, while speed was predicted by limb praxis only. Ipsilesional shoe tying is similarly impaired after left or right hemisphere damage, but for different reasons. Spatial deficits had a greater influence after right hemisphere damage, and limb apraxia had a greater influence after left hemisphere damage. Language deficits did not affect performance, indicating that aphasia does not preclude using this therapy approach. These results suggest that rehabilitation professionals should consider assessment of limb apraxia and ipsilesional skill training in the performance of everyday tasks.

  9. Predictive Power of Attention and Reading Readiness Variables on Auditory Reasoning and Processing Skills of Six-Year-Old Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbay, Filiz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present research was to describe the relation of six-year-old children's attention and reading readiness skills (general knowledge, word comprehension, sentences, and matching) with their auditory reasoning and processing skills. This was a quantitative study based on scanning model. Research sampling consisted of 204 kindergarten…

  10. Linking Complex Problem Solving and General Mental Ability to Career Advancement: Does a Transversal Skill Reveal Incremental Predictive Validity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainert, Jakob; Kretzschmar, André; Neubert, Jonas C.; Greiff, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Transversal skills, such as complex problem solving (CPS) are viewed as central twenty-first-century skills. Recent empirical findings have already supported the importance of CPS for early academic advancement. We wanted to determine whether CPS could also contribute to the understanding of career advancement later in life. Towards this end, we…

  11. Hand-held indirect calorimeter offers advantages compared with prediction equations, in a group of overweight women, to determine resting energy expenditures and estimated total energy expenditures during research screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Karen E; Kim, Hyunsook; Behall, Kay M; Conway, Joan M

    2009-05-01

    To compare standardized prediction equations to a hand-held indirect calorimeter in estimating resting energy and total energy requirements in overweight women. Resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured by hand-held indirect calorimeter and calculated by prediction equations Harris-Benedict, Mifflin-St Jeor, World Health Organization/Food and Agriculture Organization/United Nations University (WHO), and Dietary Reference Intakes (DRI). Physical activity level, assessed by questionnaire, was used to estimate total energy expenditure (TEE). Subjects (n=39) were female nonsmokers older than 25 years of age with body mass index more than 25. Repeated measures analysis of variance, Bland-Altman plot, and fitted regression line of difference. A difference within +/-10% of two methods indicated agreement. Significant proportional bias was present between hand-held indirect calorimeter and prediction equations for REE and TEE (Pvalues and underestimated at higher values. Mean differences (+/-standard error) for REE and TEE between hand-held indirect calorimeter and Harris-Benedict were -5.98+/-46.7 kcal/day (P=0.90) and 21.40+/-75.7 kcal/day (P=0.78); between hand-held indirect calorimeter and Mifflin-St Jeor were 69.93+/-46.7 kcal/day (P=0.14) and 116.44+/-75.9 kcal/day (P=0.13); between hand-held indirect calorimeter and WHO were -22.03+/-48.4 kcal/day (P=0.65) and -15.8+/-77.9 kcal/day (P=0.84); and between hand-held indirect calorimeter and DRI were 39.65+/-47.4 kcal/day (P=0.41) and 56.36+/-85.5 kcal/day (P=0.51). Less than 50% of predictive equation values were within +/-10% of hand-held indirect calorimeter values, indicating poor agreement. A significant discrepancy between predicted and measured energy expenditure was observed. Further evaluation of hand-held indirect calorimeter research screening is needed.

  12. The Effect of a Laboratory Approach Based on Predict-Observation-Explain (POE Strategy on the Development of Students’ Science Process Skills and Views about Nature of Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadir Bilen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of a laboratory instruction prepared based on “Predict-Observation-Explain” (POE strategy compared to a verification laboratory approach on the development of pre-service science teachers’ science skill processes and their views of nature of sceince in a general biology laboratory course. The participants of this study consisted of 122 pre-service teachers who took the General Biology Laboratory at the department of science education at Pamukkale University during the fall semester of 2007-2008 academic year. Data was collected through Science Process Skills Test (SPST and Nature of Science Questionnaire. Results indicated that there was a statistically significant difference between the verification laboratory approach and the laboratory approach based on the POE strategy on the development of students’ science process skills [F=10.41, p

  13. Independent walking as a major skill for the development of anticipatory postural control: evidence from adjustments to predictable perturbations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabien Cignetti

    Full Text Available Although there is suggestive evidence that a link exists between independent walking and the ability to establish anticipatory strategy to stabilize posture, the extent to which this skill facilitates the development of anticipatory postural control remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the role of independent walking on the infants' ability to anticipate predictable external perturbations. Non-walking infants, walking infants and adults were sitting on a platform that produced continuous rotation in the frontal plane. Surface electromyography (EMG of neck and lower back muscles and the positions of markers located on the platform, the upper body and the head were recorded. Results from cross-correlation analysis between rectified and filtered EMGs and platform movement indicated that although muscle activation already occurred before platform movement in non-walking infants, only walking infants demonstrated an adult-like ability for anticipation. Moreover, results from further cross-correlation analysis between segmental angular displacement and platform movement together with measures of balance control at the end-points of rotation of the platform evidenced two sorts of behaviour. The adults behaved as a non-rigid non-inverted pendulum, rather stabilizing head in space, while both the walking and non-walking infants followed the platform, behaving as a rigid inverted pendulum. These results suggest that the acquisition of independent walking plays a role in the development of anticipatory postural control, likely improving the internal model for the sensorimotor control of posture. However, despite such improvement, integrating the dynamics of an external object, here the platform, within the model to maintain balance still remains challenging in infants.

  14. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marianna; Rusconi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line (MNL). In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e., palm down) and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e., palm up) posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right MNL, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects, like the SNARC, that have been typically attributed to the mapping of numbers on a left

  15. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eRiello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line. In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e. palm down and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e. palm up posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right mental number line, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects that have been attributed to the mapping of numbers on a mental

  16. Predicting Condom Use Using the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) Model: A Multivariate Latent Growth Curve Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senn, Theresa E.; Scott-Sheldon, Lori A. J.; Vanable, Peter A.; Carey, Michael P.

    2011-01-01

    Background The Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills (IMB) model often guides sexual risk reduction programs even though no studies have examined covariation in the theory’s constructs in a dynamic fashion with longitudinal data. Purpose Using new developments in latent growth modeling, we explore how changes in information, motivation, and behavioral skills over 9 months relate to changes in condom use among STD clinic patients. Methods Participants (N = 1281, 50% female, 66% African American) completed measures of IMB constructs at three time points. We used parallel process latent growth modeling to examine associations among intercepts and slopes of IMB constructs. Results Initial levels of motivation, behavioral skills, and condom use were all positively associated, with behavioral skills partially mediating associations between motivation and condom use. Changes over time in behavioral skills positively related to changes in condom use. Conclusions Results support the key role of behavioral skills in sexual risk reduction, suggesting these skills should be targeted in HIV prevention interventions. PMID:21638196

  17. Do the early development of gestures and receptive and expressive language predict language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Lind, A; Matomäki, J; Haataja, L; Lapinleimu, H; Lehtonen, L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear what the predictive value of very early development of gestures and language is on later language ability in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight ≤1500g) children. The aim of the present study was to analyse the predictive value of early gestures and a receptive lexicon measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3, as well as the predictive value of receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0 for language skills at 5;0 in VLBW children. The subjects were 29 VLBW children and 28 full-term children whose language development has been followed intensively between the ages of 0;9 and 2;0 using the Finnish version of the MacArthur Developmental Inventory and the Reynell Developmental Language Scales (RDLS III). At 5;0, five selected verbal subtests of the Nepsy II test and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) were used to assess children's language skills. For the first time in VLBW children, the development of gestures measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3 was shown to correlate significantly and positively with language skills at 5;0. In addition, both receptive and expressive language ability measured at 2;0 correlated significantly and positively with later language skills in both groups. Moreover, according to the hierarchical regression analysis, the receptive language score of the RDLS III at 2;0 was a clear and significant predictor for language skills at 5;0 in both groups. The findings particularly underline the role of early receptive language as a significant predictor for later language ability in VLBW children. The results provide evidence for a continuity between early language development and later language skills. After reading this article, readers will understand the associations between the very early (≤2 years of age) development of gestures and language (i.e. early receptive lexicon, expressive lexicon at 2;0, receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0) and the language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born

  18. Application of a serial extended forecast experiment using the ECMWF model to interpret the predictive skill of tropical intraseasonal variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agudelo, P.A.; Hoyos, C.D.; Webster, P.J.; Curry, J.A. [Georgia Institute of Technology, School of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2009-05-15

    The extended-range forecast skill of the ECMWF operational forecast model is evaluated during tropical intraseasonal oscillation (ISO) events in the Indo-West Pacific warm pool. The experiment consists of ensemble extended serial forecasts including winter and summer ISO cases. The forecasts are compared with the ERA-40 analyses. The analysis focuses on understanding the origin of forecast errors by studying the vertical structure of relevant dynamical and moist convective features associated with the ISO. The useful forecast time scale for circulation anomalies is in average 13 days during winter compared to 7-8 days during summer. The forecast skill is not stationary and presents evidence of a flow-dependent nature, with states of the coupled system corresponding to long-lived convective envelopes associated with the ISO for which the skill is always low regardless of the starting date of the forecast. The model is not able to forecast skillfully the generation of specific humidity anomalies and results indicate that the convective processes in the model are associated with the erosion of the ISO forecast skill in the model. Circulation-associated anomalies are forecast better than moist convective associated anomalies. The model tends to generate a more stable atmosphere, limiting the model's capability to reproduce deep convective events, resulting in smaller humidity and circulation anomalies in the forecasts compared to those in ERA-40. (orig.)

  19. Does the ability to express different emotions predict different indices of physical health? A skill-based study of physical symptoms and heart rate variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuck, Natalie L; Adams, Kathryn S; Consedine, Nathan S

    2017-09-01

    of contribution What is already known on this subject The tendency to outwardly express felt emotion generally predicts better health, whereas expressive suppression typically predicts worse health outcomes. Most work has been based on trait assessments; however, the ability to regulate the expression of felt emotion can be objectively assessed using performance-based tests. Prior work in mental health suggests that the ability to flexibly up- and downregulate the expression of emotion predicts better outcomes. What does this study add The first evidence that the ability to flexibly regulate expressions predicts indices of health. Skill in both expressing and suppressing facial expressions predicts better reported health. Skills with different emotions differentially predict symptom interference and cardiac vagal tone. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.

  20. Prolonged disengagement from distractors near the hands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel B Vatterott

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Because items near our hands are often more important than items far from our hands, the brain processes visual items near our hands differently than items far from our hands. Multiple experiments have attributed this processing difference to spatial attention, but the exact mechanism behind how spatial attention near our hands changes is still under investigation. The current experiments sought to differentiate between two of the proposed mechanisms: a prioritization of the space near the hands and a prolonged disengagement of spatial attention near the hands. To differentiate between these two accounts, we used the additional singleton paradigm in which observers searched for a shape singleton among homogenously shaped distractors. On half the trials, one of the distractors was a different color. Both the prioritization and disengagement accounts predict differently colored distractors near the hands will slow target responses more than differently colored distractors far from the hands, but the prioritization account also predicts faster responses to targets near the hands than far from the hands. The disengagement account does not make this prediction, because attention does not need to be disengaged when the target appears near the hand. We found support for the disengagement account: Salient distractors near the hands slowed responses more than those far from the hands, yet observers did not respond faster to targets near the hands.

  1. Behavior, nutrition and lifestyle in a comprehensive health and disease paradigm: skills and knowledge for a predictive, preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trovato, Guglielmo M

    2012-03-22

    Health and disease of individuals and of populations are the result of three groups of risk factors: genetics, environment and behavior. Assessment, interventions and tailored changes are possible with integrated approaches more effective if respectful of individuals and different cultures. Assessment tools and integrated interventional strategies are available, but widespread knowledge, skills and competence of well trained individual Medical Doctors still lack. Mediterranean diet is an appropriate reference paradigm because encompasses consistent research background, affordable sustainability, widespread comprehensibility and attractiveness inside a cultural framework of competences and skills in which the Medical Doctors can personally manage the need of prediction (early diagnosis), prevention (intervention on healthy persons) and tailored therapy and follow-up for patients. This profile is flexible and adjustable according to specific needs and preferences due to different economic and ethno-cultural milieus. It can enhanced through on-site/e-learning Continuous Medical Education (CME), by training and using friendly and affordable equipments.

  2. Parents' Emotion-Related Beliefs, Behaviours, and Skills Predict Children's Recognition of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Vanessa L.; Halberstadt, Amy G.; Lozada, Fantasy T.; Craig, Ashley B.

    2015-01-01

    Children who are able to recognize others' emotions are successful in a variety of socioemotional domains, yet we know little about how school-aged children's abilities develop, particularly in the family context. We hypothesized that children develop emotion recognition skill as a function of parents' own emotion-related beliefs,…

  3. How Personal, Behavioral, and Environmental Factors Predict Working in STEMM vs Non-STEMM Middle-Skill Careers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannady, Matthew A.; Moore, Debra; Votruba-Drzal, Elizabeth; Greenwald, Eric; Stites, Regie; Schunn, Christian D.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Much of science, technology, engineering, mathematics, and medical (STEMM) education policy and research centers around developing the upper levels of the STEMM workforce sector. However, there are many positions in this workforce, "middle-skill careers," that are largely responsible for executing the innovations and are…

  4. The Prediction of Task and Contextual Performance by Political Skill: A Meta-Analysis and Moderator Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bing, Mark N.; Davison, H. Kristl; Minor, Inneka; Novicevic, Milorad M.; Frink, Dwight D.

    2011-01-01

    Political skill is a relatively newly articulated construct. Despite its novelty, it has been investigated in a variety of contexts, showing promise not only as a descriptor of several organizational phenomena, but also as a predictor of job performance. Given this status, it seems appropriate to review the empirical literature to this point for…

  5. Appreciation and Life Satisfaction: Does Appreciation Uniquely Predict Life Satisfaction above Gender, Coping Skills, Self-Esteem, and Positive Affectivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halle, Joshua Solomon

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether appreciation explains variance in life satisfaction after controlling for gender, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and coping skills. Two hundred ninety-eight undergraduates went to the informed consent page of the online survey composed of the Appreciation Scale, the Satisfaction With…

  6. Does training novices to criteria and does rapid acquisition of skills on laparoscopic simulators have predictive validity or are we just playing video games?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogle, Nancy J; Widmann, Warren D; Ude, Aku O; Hardy, Mark A; Fowler, Dennis L

    2008-01-01

    To determine whether LapSim training (version 3.0; Surgical Science Ltd, Göteborg, Sweden) to criteria for novice PGY1 surgical residents had predictive validity for improvement in the performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In all, 21 PGY1 residents performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies in pigs after minimal training; their performance was evaluated by skilled laparoscopic surgeons using the validated tool GOALS (global operative assessment of laparoscopic operative skills: depth perception, bimanual dexterity, efficiency, tissue handling, and overall competence). From the group, 10 residents trained to competency on the LapSim Basic Skills Programs (camera navigation, instrument navigation, coordination, grasping, lifting and grasping, cutting, and clip applying). All 21 PGY1 residents again performed laparoscopic cholecystectomies on pigs; their performance was again evaluated by skilled laparoscopic surgeons using GOALS. Additionally, we studied the rate of learning to determine whether the slow or fast learners on the LapSim performed equivalently when performing actual cholecystectomies in pigs. Finally, 6 categorical residents were tracked, and their clinical performance on all of the laparoscopic cholecystectomies in which they were "surgeon, junior" was prospectively evaluated using the GOALS criteria. We found a statistical improvement of depth perception in the operative performance of cholecystectomies in pigs in the group trained on the LapSim. In the other 4 domains, a trend toward improvement was observed. No correlation between being a fast learner and the ultimate skill was demonstrated in the clinical performance of laparoscopic cholecystectomies. We did find that the fast learners on LapSim all were past or current video game players ("gamers"); however, that background did not translate into better clinical performance. Using current criteria, we doubt that the time and effort spent training novice PGY1 Surgical Residents on the basic

  7. Hand-it-on”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieckmann, Gerhard Peter; Graae Zeltner, Louise; Helsø, Anne-Mette

    2016-01-01

    Non-technical skills (NTS) are an integral part of the abilities healthcare professionals need to optimally care for patients. Integrating NTS into the already complex tasks of healthcare can be a challenge for clinicians. Integrating NTS into simulation-based training increases the demands...... and where they can apply them in their work. It complements existing approaches to teaching NTS by limiting the complexity of the game and by removing medical content, allowing learners to concentrate on NTS. Hand-it-on is relevant for groups and teams working across the range of different healthcare...... and the replication of Hand-it-on by many simulation teams support its value....

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  9. Incremental Validity of Biographical Data in the Prediction of En Route Air Traffic Control Specialist Technical Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Previous research demonstrated that an empirically-keyed, response-option scored biographical data (biodata) : scale predicted supervisory ratings of air traffic control specialist (ATCS) job performance (Dean & Broach, : 2011). This research f...

  10. Hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlyne eArnould

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Brain lesions may disturb hand functioning in children with cerebral palsy (CP, making it difficult or even impossible for them to perform several manual activities. Most conventional treatments for hand dysfunction in CP assume that reducing the hand dysfunctions will improve the capacity to manage activities (i.e., manual ability, MA. The aim of this study was to investigate the directional relationships (direct and indirect pathways through which hand skills influence MA in children with CP. A total of 136 children with CP (mean age: 10 years; range: 6–16 years; 35 quadriplegics, 24 diplegics, 77 hemiplegics were assessed. Six hand skills were measured on both hands: touch-pressure detection (Semmes-Weinstein aesthesiometer, stereognosis (Manual Form Perception Test, proprioception (passive mobilization of the metacarpophalangeal joints, grip strength (Jamar dynamometer, gross manual dexterity (Box and Block Test, and fine finger dexterity (Purdue Pegboard Test. MA was measured with the ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire. Correlation coefficients were used to determine the linear associations between observed variables. A path analysis of structural equation modeling was applied to test different models of causal relationships among the observed variables. Purely sensory impairments did seem not to play a significant role in the capacity to perform manual activities. According to path analysis, gross manual dexterity in both hands and stereognosis in the dominant hand were directly related to MA, whereas grip strength was indirectly related to MA through its relationship with gross manual dexterity. However, one-third of the variance in MA measures could not be explained by hand skills. It can be concluded that MA is not simply the integration of hand skills in daily activities and should be treated per se, supporting activity-based interventions.

  11. Lifelong Learning for the Hand Surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkinson, Joshua M; Chung, Kevin C

    2015-09-01

    Hand surgeons are faced with the impossible task of mastering a rapidly expanding pool of knowledge and surgical techniques. Dedication to lifelong learning is, therefore, an essential component of delivering the best, most up-to-date care for patients. Board certification, participation in continuing medical education and maintenance of certification activities, and attendance at national meetings are essential mechanisms by which hand surgeons may foster the acquisition of essential knowledge and clinical skills, This article highlights the history, current status, and emerging needs in continuing medical education for the hand surgeon. Copyright © 2015 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of visual skills in sedentary and active work environments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    motor skills. Visual-motor skills encompass three essential ocular motor skills, namely focusing, eye-hand coordination and tracking. The aspects of the visual perceptual process include visual memory and visualization. This study aims to ...

  13. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Email to a friend * required ...

  14. The Plastic Surgery Hand Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Levin, L Scott; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Designing an effective hand rotation for plastic surgery residents is difficult. The authors address this limitation by elucidating the critical components of the hand curriculum during plastic surgery residency. Hand questions on the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam for six consecutive years (2008 to 2013) were characterized by presence of imaging, vignette setting, question taxonomy, answer domain, anatomy, and topic. Answer references were quantified by source and year of publication. Two hundred sixty-six questions were related to hand surgery (22.7 percent of all questions; 44.3 per year) and 61 were accompanied by an image (22.9 percent). Vignettes tended to be clinic- (50.0 percent) and emergency room-based (35.3 percent) (p < 0.001). Questions required decision-making (60.5 percent) over interpretation (25.9 percent) and recall skills (13.5 percent) (p < 0.001). Answers focused on interventions (57.5 percent) over anatomy/pathology (25.2 percent) and diagnoses (17.3 percent) (p < 0.001). Nearly half of the questions focused on the digits. The highest yield topics were trauma (35.3 percent), reconstruction (24.4 percent), and aesthetic and functional problems (14.2 percent). The Journal of Hand Surgery (American volume) (20.5 percent) and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (18.0 percent) were the most-cited journals, and the median publication lag was 7 years. Green's Operative Hand Surgery was the most-referenced textbook (41.8 percent). These results will enable trainees to study hand surgery topics with greater efficiency. Faculty can use these results to ensure that tested topics are covered during residency training. Thus, a benchmark is established to improve didactic, clinical, and operative experiences in hand surgery.

  15. Who takes precautionary action in the face of the new H1N1 influenza? Prediction of who collects a free hand sanitizer using a health behavior model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tabea Reuter

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In order to fight the spread of the novel H1N1 influenza, health authorities worldwide called for a change in hygiene behavior. Within a longitudinal study, we examined who collected a free bottle of hand sanitizer towards the end of the first swine flu pandemic wave in December 2009. METHODS: 629 participants took part in a longitudinal study assessing perceived likelihood and severity of an H1N1 infection, and H1N1 influenza related negative affect (i.e., feelings of threat, concern, and worry at T1 (October 2009, week 43-44 and T2 (December 2009, week 51-52. Importantly, all participants received a voucher for a bottle of hand sanitizer at T2 which could be redeemed in a university office newly established for this occasion at T3 (ranging between 1-4 days after T2. RESULTS: Both a sequential longitudinal model (M2 as well as a change score model (M3 showed that greater perceived likelihood and severity at T1 (M2 or changes in perceived likelihood and severity between T1 and T2 (M3 did not directly drive protective behavior (T3, but showed a significant indirect impact on behavior through H1N1 influenza related negative affect. Specifically, increases in perceived likelihood (β = .12, severity (β = .24 and their interaction (β = .13 were associated with a more pronounced change in negative affect (M3. The more threatened, concerned and worried people felt (T2, the more likely they were to redeem the voucher at T3 (OR = 1.20. CONCLUSIONS: Affective components need to be considered in health behavior models. Perceived likelihood and severity of an influenza infection represent necessary but not sufficient self-referential knowledge for paving the way for preventive behaviors.

  16. Who takes precautionary action in the face of the new H1N1 influenza? Prediction of who collects a free hand sanitizer using a health behavior model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuter, Tabea; Renner, Britta

    2011-01-01

    In order to fight the spread of the novel H1N1 influenza, health authorities worldwide called for a change in hygiene behavior. Within a longitudinal study, we examined who collected a free bottle of hand sanitizer towards the end of the first swine flu pandemic wave in December 2009. 629 participants took part in a longitudinal study assessing perceived likelihood and severity of an H1N1 infection, and H1N1 influenza related negative affect (i.e., feelings of threat, concern, and worry) at T1 (October 2009, week 43-44) and T2 (December 2009, week 51-52). Importantly, all participants received a voucher for a bottle of hand sanitizer at T2 which could be redeemed in a university office newly established for this occasion at T3 (ranging between 1-4 days after T2). Both a sequential longitudinal model (M2) as well as a change score model (M3) showed that greater perceived likelihood and severity at T1 (M2) or changes in perceived likelihood and severity between T1 and T2 (M3) did not directly drive protective behavior (T3), but showed a significant indirect impact on behavior through H1N1 influenza related negative affect. Specifically, increases in perceived likelihood (β = .12), severity (β = .24) and their interaction (β = .13) were associated with a more pronounced change in negative affect (M3). The more threatened, concerned and worried people felt (T2), the more likely they were to redeem the voucher at T3 (OR = 1.20). Affective components need to be considered in health behavior models. Perceived likelihood and severity of an influenza infection represent necessary but not sufficient self-referential knowledge for paving the way for preventive behaviors.

  17. Fine-Motor Skill Deficits in Childhood Predict Adulthood Tic Severity and Global Psychosocial Functioning in Tourette's Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloch, Michael H.; Sukhodolsky, Denis G.; Leckman, James F.; Schultz, Robert T.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Most children with Tourette's syndrome (TS) experience a significant decline in tic symptoms during adolescence. Currently no clinical measures have been identified that can predict whose tic symptoms will persist into adulthood. Patients with TS have deficits on neuropsychological tests involving fine-motor coordination and…

  18. Regional Differences in Brain Volume Predict the Acquisition of Skill in a Complex Real-Time Strategy Videogame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Chandramallika; Voss, Michelle W.; Erickson, Kirk I.; Boot, Walter R.; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies have found that differences in brain volume among older adults predict performance in laboratory tasks of executive control, memory, and motor learning. In the present study we asked whether regional differences in brain volume as assessed by the application of a voxel-based morphometry technique on high resolution MRI would also…

  19. Analysis of Academic Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress Skills Predictive Power on Academic Procrastination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandemir, Mehmet; Ilhan, Tahsin; Ozpolat, Ahmed Ragip; Palanci, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to analyze the predictive power level of academic self-efficacy, self-esteem and coping with stress on academic procrastination behavior. Relational screening model is used in the research whose research group is made of 374 students in Kirikkale University, Education Faculty in Turkey. Students in the research group…

  20. Assessing the Impact of Surface and Upper-Air Observations on the Forecast Skill of the ACCESS Numerical Weather Prediction Model over Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergei Soldatenko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of the Australian Bureau of Meteorology’s in situ observations (land and sea surface observations, upper air observations by radiosondes, pilot balloons, wind profilers, and aircraft observations on the short-term forecast skill provided by the ACCESS (Australian Community Climate and Earth-System Simulator global numerical weather prediction (NWP system is evaluated using an adjoint-based method. This technique makes use of the adjoint perturbation forecast model utilized within the 4D-Var assimilation system, and is able to calculate the individual impact of each assimilated observation in a cycling NWP system. The results obtained show that synoptic observations account for about 60% of the 24-h forecast error reduction, with the remainder accounted for by aircraft (12.8%, radiosondes (10.5%, wind profilers (3.9%, pilot balloons (2.8%, buoys (1.7% and ships (1.2%. In contrast, the largest impact per observation is from buoys and aircraft. Overall, all observation types have a positive impact on the 24-h forecast skill. Such results help to support the decision-making process regarding the evolution of the observing network, particularly at the national level. Consequently, this 4D-Var-based approach has great potential as a tool to assist the design and running of an efficient and effective observing network.

  1. Decadal prediction skill in the ocean with surface nudging in the IPSL-CM5A-LR climate model

    OpenAIRE

    Mignot , Juliette; García-Serrano , Javier; Swingedouw , Didier; Germe , Agathe; Nguyen , Sébastien; Ortega , Pablo; Guilyardi , Éric; Ray , Sulagna

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Two decadal prediction ensembles, based on the same climate model (IPSL-CM5A-LR) and the same surface nudging initialization strategy are analyzed and compared with a focus on upper-ocean variables in different regions of the globe. One ensemble consists of 3-member hindcasts launched every year since 1961 while the other ensemble benefits from 9 members but with start dates only every 5 years. Analysis includes anomaly correlation coefficients and root mean square err...

  2. Additional Key Factors Mediating the Use of a Mobile Technology Tool Designed to Develop Social and Life Skills in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Evaluation of the 2nd HANDS Prototype

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintz, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Of late there has been growing interest in the potential of technology to support children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) with social and life skills. There has also been a burgeoning interest in the potential use of mobile technology in the classroom and in the use of such technology to support children with ASD. Building on these…

  3. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * ...

  4. Hands in Systemic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... hands, being composed of many types of tissue, including blood vessels, nerves, skin and skin-related tissues, bones, and muscles/tendons/ligaments, may show changes that reflect a ...

  5. Denmark: HAND in HAND Policy Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Hilmar Dyrborg; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2018-01-01

    Som del af det internationale EU finansierede projekt Hand in Hand, der fokuserer på de såkaldte SEI-kompetencer (Social, Emotional, Intercultural), er dansk policy i relation til elevernes sociale, emotionelle og interkulturelle læring kortlagt i denne rapport. Der refereres bl.a. til "elevernes...

  6. Functional Anatomy of Writing with the Dominant Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najee-ullah, Muslimah ‘Ali; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    While writing performed by any body part is similar in style, indicating a common program, writing with the dominant hand is particularly skilled. We hypothesized that this skill utilizes a special motor network supplementing the motor equivalence areas. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 13 normal subjects, we studied nine conditions: writing, zigzagging and tapping, each with the right hand, left hand and right foot. We identified brain regions activated with the right (dominant) hand writing task, exceeding the activation common to right-hand use and the writing program, both identified without right-hand writing itself. Right-hand writing significantly differed from the other tasks. First, we observed stronger activations in the left dorsal prefrontal cortex, left intraparietal sulcus and right cerebellum. Second, the left anterior putamen was required to initiate all the tested tasks, but only showed sustained activation during the right-hand writing condition. Lastly, an exploratory analysis showed clusters in the left ventral premotor cortex and inferior and superior parietal cortices were only significantly active for right-hand writing. The increased activation with right-hand writing cannot be ascribed to increased effort, since this is a well-practiced task much easier to perform than some of the other tasks studied. Because parietal-premotor connections code for particular skills, it would seem that the parietal and premotor regions, together with basal ganglia-sustained activation likely underlie the special skill of handwriting with the dominant hand. PMID:23844132

  7. Functional anatomy of writing with the dominant hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horovitz, Silvina G; Gallea, Cecile; Najee-Ullah, Muslimah 'ali; Hallett, Mark

    2013-01-01

    While writing performed by any body part is similar in style, indicating a common program, writing with the dominant hand is particularly skilled. We hypothesized that this skill utilizes a special motor network supplementing the motor equivalence areas. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 13 normal subjects, we studied nine conditions: writing, zigzagging and tapping, each with the right hand, left hand and right foot. We identified brain regions activated with the right (dominant) hand writing task, exceeding the activation common to right-hand use and the writing program, both identified without right-hand writing itself. Right-hand writing significantly differed from the other tasks. First, we observed stronger activations in the left dorsal prefrontal cortex, left intraparietal sulcus and right cerebellum. Second, the left anterior putamen was required to initiate all the tested tasks, but only showed sustained activation during the right-hand writing condition. Lastly, an exploratory analysis showed clusters in the left ventral premotor cortex and inferior and superior parietal cortices were only significantly active for right-hand writing. The increased activation with right-hand writing cannot be ascribed to increased effort, since this is a well-practiced task much easier to perform than some of the other tasks studied. Because parietal-premotor connections code for particular skills, it would seem that the parietal and premotor regions, together with basal ganglia-sustained activation likely underlie the special skill of handwriting with the dominant hand.

  8. ‘‘Lend a Hand’’ Project Helps Students: Improved Spatial Visualization Skills Through Engaging in Hands-On 3-D Printed Prosthetics Project During a 9th Grade Engineering Course

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Shaunna; Talley, Kimberly

    2018-01-01

    Research shows that high spatial ability is linked to success and persistence in STEM. Empirical investigations often report a gender gap in favor of male students. The purpose of this research study was to assess changes to 9th grade engineering students’ spatial visualization skills through engagement in a nine-week collaborative 3-D printed prosthetics project embedded within their existing ‘‘Beginning Concepts of Engineering’’ course curriculum. Using concurrent mixed methods, this study ...

  9. Using a Bayesian Network to Predict L5/S1 Spinal Compression Force from Posture, Hand Load, Anthropometry, and Disc Injury Status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard E. Hughes

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Stochastic biomechanical modeling has become a useful tool most commonly implemented using Monte Carlo simulation, advanced mean value theorem, or Markov chain modeling. Bayesian networks are a novel method for probabilistic modeling in artificial intelligence, risk modeling, and machine learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the suitability of Bayesian networks for biomechanical modeling using a static biomechanical model of spinal forces during lifting. A 20-node Bayesian network model was used to implement a well-established static two-dimensional biomechanical model for predicting L5/S1 compression and shear forces. The model was also implemented as a Monte Carlo simulation in MATLAB. Mean L5/S1 spinal compression force estimates differed by 0.8%, and shear force estimates were the same. The model was extended to incorporate evidence about disc injury, which can modify the prior probability estimates to provide posterior probability estimates of spinal compression force. An example showed that changing disc injury status from false to true increased the estimate of mean L5/S1 compression force by 14.7%. This work shows that Bayesian networks can be used to implement a whole-body biomechanical model used in occupational biomechanics and incorporate disc injury.

  10. Robotic hand project

    OpenAIRE

    Karaçizmeli, Cengiz; Çakır, Gökçe; Tükel, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the mechatronic based robotic hand is controlled by the position data taken from the glove which has flex sensors mounted to capture finger bending of the human hand. The angular movement of human hand’s fingers are perceived and processed by a microcontroller, and the robotic hand is controlled by actuating servo motors. It has seen that robotic hand can simulate the movement of the human hand that put on the glove, during tests have done. This robotic hand can be used not only...

  11. Young children's non-numerical ordering ability at the start of formal education longitudinally predicts their symbolic number skills and academic achievement in maths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Patrick A; Morsanyi, Kinga; McCormack, Teresa

    2018-01-25

    Ordinality is a fundamental feature of numbers and recent studies have highlighted the role that number ordering abilities play in mathematical development (e.g., Lyons et al., ), as well as mature mathematical performance (e.g., Lyons & Beilock, ). The current study tested the novel hypothesis that non-numerical ordering ability, as measured by the ordering of familiar sequences of events, also plays an important role in maths development. Ninety children were tested in their first school year and 87 were followed up at the end of their second school year, to test the hypothesis that ordinal processing, including the ordering of non-numerical materials, would be related to their maths skills both cross-sectionally and longitudinally. The results confirmed this hypothesis. Ordinal processing measures were significantly related to maths both cross-sectionally and longitudinally, and children's non-numerical ordering ability in their first year of school (as measured by order judgements for everyday events and the parents' report of their child's everyday ordering ability) was the strongest longitudinal predictor of maths one year later, when compared to several measures that are traditionally considered to be important predictors of early maths development. Children's everyday ordering ability, as reported by parents, also significantly predicted growth in formal maths ability between Year 1 and Year 2, although this was not the case for the event ordering task. The present study provides strong evidence that domain-general ordering abilities play an important role in the development of children's maths skills at the beginning of formal education. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Leadership Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchison, Cathleen; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Lists skills identified by the Leadership Development Task Force as being critical skills for a leader. Discussion focuses on information managing skills, including problem solving, decision making, setting goals and objectives; project management; and people managing skills, including interpersonal communications, conflict management, motivation,…

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  16. Wash Your Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand sanitizers might not remove harmful chemicals like pesticides and heavy metals from hands. Be cautious when ... Health Promotion Materials Fact Sheets Podcasts Posters Stickers Videos Web Features Training & Education Our Partners Publications, Data & ...

  17. Hablar el Lenguaje de las Manos Hacia las Manos (Talking the Language of the Hands to the Hands). DB-LINK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Barbara

    This paper examines the importance of hands for the person who is deafblind, reviews hand development, and identifies specific teaching skills that facilitate hand development and expressiveness in persons who are deafblind. It notes that the hands of a deafblind individual serve not only as tools but also as sense organs (to compensate for their…

  18. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  19. Does Parental Educational Level Predict Drop-Out from Upper Secondary School for 16- to 24-Year-Olds when Basic Skills Are Accounted For? A Cross Country Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundetrae, Kjersti

    2011-01-01

    Drop-out from upper secondary school is considered a widespread problem, closely connected with youth unemployment. The aim of the current study was to examine whether parents' level of education predicted drop-out for 16-24-year-olds when accounting for basic skills. For this purpose, data from the Norwegian (n = 996) and American (n = 641)…

  20. About Hand Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a hand surgeon near you. © 2009 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Definition developed by ASSH Council. Other Links CME Mission Statement and Disclaimer Policies and Technical Requirements Exhibits and Partners ASSH 822 W. Washington Blvd. ... 2018 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip ...

  1. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Robotic hand and fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  3. Soft skills and Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, technical university graduates are expected to acquire a set of not only hard skills but soft ones as well, which are in the first instance communication skills that can be developed through active and interactive methods during in-class learning. The issue related to communicative skills development is being discussed in different countries throughout the world. This problem is faced by university graduates from Europe, the US and Russia, and in the East. The learning process exploits a variety of electronic platforms, which, on the one hand, significantly increase the pool of students, but, on the other hand, hinder the development of communicative skills. This poses the question about blended learning which combines active and interactive teaching methods with e-learning. Consider a good example of these two types of combined student activity obtained using interactive methods in the Moodle course “Professional training in English” designed for the Bachelor's Degree Programs, Tomsk Polytechnic University (Tomsk, Russia. This paper considers the main types of tasks used in the e-course. It is shown that the teacher’s first aim is to be not a scientific knowledge translator, but to foster a creative educational environment by selecting an optimal teaching strategy through modern educational technology; an e-course is a good teaching aid to build hard and soft skills.

  4. The Avocado Hand

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rahmani, G

    2017-11-01

    Accidental self-inflicted knife injuries to digits are a common cause of tendon and nerve injury requiring hand surgery. There has been an apparent increase in avocado related hand injuries. Classically, the patients hold the avocado in their non-dominant hand while using a knife to cut\\/peel the fruit with their dominant hand. The mechanism of injury is usually a stabbing injury to the non-dominant hand as the knife slips past the stone, through the soft avocado fruit. Despite their apparent increased incidence, we could not find any cases in the literature which describe the “avocado hand”. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman who sustained a significant hand injury while preparing an avocado. She required exploration and repair of a digital nerve under regional anaesthesia and has since made a full recovery.

  5. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  6. Coordination of hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-09

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness.

  7. Chapter 04: Bloodless wood specimen preparation for hand lens observation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alex Wiedenhoeft

    2011-01-01

    The single most difficult physical skill involved in wood identification is producing a smoothly prepared surface for observing anatomical features. This skill must be practiced patiently; it takes time to become proficient at this task. Producing a cleanly cut surface is also the only appreciably dangerous aspect of wood identification with a hand lens; the tools used...

  8. Interpersonal Skills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barakat NG

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTIONInterpersonal skills are becoming more and more a necessity in the medical profession. The expectation from health care professionals is beyond just knowledge of the medical facts. To practice medicine effectively, doctors need to develop interpersonal skills in communication, leadership, management, teaching and time management. All of these are vital tools and are becoming increasingly essential subjects in teaching both undergraduate students and postgraduate doctors. However, a degree of self-motivation and personal initiative is needed to develop these skills. In this article, I will give an overview on interpersonal skills and will be follow this by a series of articles, in future issues, dealing with these skills.

  9. Personality, political skill, and job performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blickle, G.; Meurs, J.A.; Zettler, Ingo

    2008-01-01

    constructs of agreeableness and conscientiousness with political skill predict job performance. Our results supported our hypothesis for the agreeableness-political skill interaction. Additionally, after correcting for the unreliability and restricted range of conscientiousness, we found that its interaction...... with political skill also significantly predicted job performance, although not precisely as hypothesized. Implications of the results and directions for future research are provided....

  10. Hard evidence on soft skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim

    2012-08-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills -personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  11. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 089,212 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,032 views ...

  12. Mind the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2014-01-01

    Apart from touching the screen, what is the role of the hands for children collaborating around touchscreens? Based on embodied and multimodal interaction analysis of 8- and 9-year old pairs collaborating around touchscreens, we conclude that children use their hands to constrain and control acce...

  13. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 024 views 2:58 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 2,805 views 3:13 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,574 views ...

  14. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  15. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,760 ... 536,963 views 1:46 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,574 views ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 74,478 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,292 views 5:46 Hand Washing Technique - ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 029 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 081,511 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,194 views ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,362 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 views 5:46 Hand Washing Technique - ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 086,746 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,802 views ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 453 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 ... 28,656 views 3:40 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,480 views ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 362 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 219,427 views 1:27 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,194 views ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 03. R Mayer 371,490 views 4:03 The psychological trick behind getting people to say yes - Duration: 8:06. PBS NewsHour 606,671 views 8:06 Should You Really Wash Your Hands? - Duration: 4:51. Gross Science 57,828 views 4:51 Healthcare Worker Hand ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 28,656 views 3:40 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,032 views ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 5 Moments of Hand Hygiene - Duration: 1:53. Salem Health 13,972 views 1:53 Hand Hygiene ... Mode: Off History Help Loading... Loading... Loading... About Press Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & ...

  5. "Puffy hand syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouk, Mickaël; Vidon, Claire; Deveza, Elise; Verhoeven, Frank; Pelletier, Fabien; Prati, Clément; Wendling, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous drug addiction is responsible for many complications, especially cutaneous and infectious. There is a syndrome, rarely observed in rheumatology, resulting in "puffy hands": the puffy hand syndrome. We report two cases of this condition from our rheumatologic consultation. Our two patients had intravenous drug addiction. They presented with an edema of the hands, bilateral, painless, no pitting, occurring in one of our patient during heroin intoxication, and in the other 2 years after stopping injections. In our two patients, additional investigations (biological, radiological, ultrasound) were unremarkable, which helped us, in the context, to put the diagnosis of puffy hand syndrome. The pathophysiology, still unclear, is based in part on a lymphatic toxicity of drugs and their excipients. There is no etiological treatment but elastic compression by night has improved edema of the hands in one of our patients. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Choices of Pre-Service Science Teachers Laboratory Environments: Hands-on or Hands-off?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapici, Hasan Ozgur; Akcay, Hakan

    2018-01-01

    Learning in laboratories for students is not only crucial for conceptual understanding, but also contributes to gaining scientific reasoning skills. Following fast developments in technology, online laboratory environments have been improved considerably and nowadays form an attractive alternative for hands-on laboratories. The study was done in…

  7. (In)Visible Hand(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Zima

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the regulatory role of the state and legal norms, in market economy, especially in so-called transition countries. Legal policy, and other questions of the state and free market economy are here closely connected, because the state must ensure with legal norms that economic processes are not interrupted: only the state can establish the legal basis for a market economy. The free market’s invisible hand is acting in questions such as: what is to be produced,...

  8. Prevention of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove

    2018-01-01

    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity...... of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema...

  9. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in their care by ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign ...

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  12. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 473. Introduction ... diabetes.[2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology .... the importance of seeking medical attention immediately.

  13. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... now. Please try again later. Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended ... 36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 views 5:46 ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... It's in your hands - prevent sepsis in health care' A 5 May 2018 advocacy message from WHO - ...

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    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... Wash your Hands - it just makes sense. - Duration: 1:36. Seema Marwaha 404,414 views 1:36 ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Washing Video from CDC called "Put Your Hands Together" - Duration: 3:40. Patrick Boshell 27,834 views ... Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to add this to Watch Later ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

  20. Social skills as precursors of cannabis use in young adolescents: a TRAILS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith-Lendering, Merel F H; Huijbregts, Stephan C J; Huizink, Anja C; Ormel, Hans; Verhulst, Frank C; Vollebergh, Wilma A M; Swaab, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    Social skills (cooperation, assertion, and self-control) were assessed by teachers for a longitudinal cohort of (pre)adolescents, with measurements at average ages 11.1 (baseline) and 16.3 years (follow-up). Prospective associations with participants' self-reported use of cannabis, (age of) onset of cannabis use, and frequency of use at follow-up were examined using multinomial logistic regression analyses. Teacher-reported social skills predicted different aspects of cannabis use independent of better known factors such as presence of externalizing behavior and use of other substances. The direction of associations depended on the type of social skill. Good cooperation skills during early adolescence were associated with a reduced risk of lifetime cannabis use and a reduced risk of using cannabis on a regular basis. On the other hand, assertion at age 11 increased the risk of lifetime cannabis use and of using cannabis on an experimental basis.

  1. Is Farm Management Skill Persistent?

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Xin; Paulson, Nicholas

    2014-01-01

    Farm management skills can affect farm managers' performance. In this article, farm management performance is analyzed based on yearly Illinois Farm Business Farm Management (FBFM) panel data across 6,760 farms from 1996 through 2011. Two out-of-sample measures of skill are used to analyze the ability of farm managers that consistently perform well over yearly and longer time horizons. Persistence tests show management skills are consistent and predictable. Results also suggest that the most ...

  2. STRESS COPING SKILLS IN ADDICTS

    OpenAIRE

    A EBRAHIMI; SG MOOSAVI; R SAMOOEIE; A ,HASAN ZADEH

    2002-01-01

    Introduction. Stress coping skills is one of the most important factors in prediction of addictive behavior. The purpose of this study was to determine this pattern and to compare them with those of non-addicts. Methods. One hundred subjects with substance dependency and 100 non-addict subjects were selected. Both groups were matched on the basis of their socioeconomic state. Stress coping skills of study participants were examined using CS-R scale. Results. Stress coping skills in ...

  3. The Effect of Communication Skills and Interpersonal Problem Solving Skills on Social Self-Efficacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erozkan, Atilgan

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine communication skills, interpersonal problem solving skills, and social self-efficacy perception of adolescents and the predictive role of communication skills and interpersonal problem solving skills on social self-efficacy. This study is a quantitative and relational study aimed at examining the…

  4. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  5. "I can do it": does confidence and perceived ability in learning new ICT skills predict pre-service health professionals' attitude towards engaging in e-healthcare?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Mary K; Nguyen, Melanie; Lowe, Robyn; Nagarajan, Srivalli V; Lincoln, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    There are many factors affecting health professionals' willingness to engage in e-health. One of these factors is whether health professionals perceive themselves to be able to learn new skills, and have the confidence in mastering these new Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills. This study examined how health students' confidence and perceived ability for learning new ICT skills affect their attitude towards engaging in e-health. A survey was conducted to explore students' attitude towards using e-health and their perceived self-efficacy and confidence to learn new ICT skills. Multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between confidence and self-efficacy, and attitude towards engaging in e-health controlling for participants' age, gender, and prior IT learning experience. The three scales measuring attitude, confidence and self-efficacy showed good internal consistency with respective Cronbach's Alpha scores of 0.835, 0.761 and 0.762. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant relationship between confidence, self-efficacy and prior IT learning experiences with attitude towards e-health after adjusting for the effect of each other (F3,350=17.20,p<0.001). Self-efficacy and confidence in learning new ICT skills together with previous ICT training either at or outside their university studies are significant factors associated with students' attitude towards using e-health. Enhancing students' level of self-efficacy in learning new ICT skills may be the key to the success of implementation of e-health initiatives.

  6. Hand eczema: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eczema, the commonest disorders afflicting the hands, is also the commonest occupational skin disease (OSD. In the dermatology outpatient departments, only the severe cases are diagnosed since patients rarely report with early hand dermatitis. Mild forms are picked up only during occupational screening. Hand eczema (HE can evolve into a chronic condition with persistent disease even after avoiding contact with the incriminated allergen / irritant. The important risk factors for hand eczema are atopy (especially the presence of dermatitis, wet work, and contact allergy. The higher prevalence in women as compared to men in most studies is related to environmental factors and is mainly applicable to younger women in their twenties. Preventive measures play a very important role in therapy as they enable the affected individuals to retain their employment and livelihood. This article reviews established preventive and therapeutic options and newer drugs like alitretinoin in hand eczema with a mention on the etiology and morphology. Identifying the etiological factors is of paramount importance as avoiding or minimizing these factors play an important role in treatment.

  7. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  8. Do the Duration and Frequency of Physical Education Predict Academic Achievement, Self-Concept, Social Skills, Food Consumption, and Body Mass Index?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simms, Kathryn; Bock, Sara; Hackett, Lewis

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Prior research on the efficacy of physical education has been conducted in a piecemeal fashion. More specifically, studies typically test a single benefit hypothesized to be associated with physical education (e.g. body mass index [BMI]) while excluding others (e.g. social skills) and not controlling for important confounds (e.g. diet).…

  9. Does Preschool Physical Activity and Electronic Media Use Predict Later Social and Emotional Skills at 6 to 8 Years? A Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, Jo; Hesketh, Kylie

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about the associations of preschoolers' health behaviors with their later psychosocial wellbeing. This study investigates the association of 3- to 5-year-old children's physical activity and electronic media use with their later social-emotional skills (6-8 years). Data were collected in 2008-2009 and 2011-2012 for the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years (HAPPY) Study in metropolitan Melbourne. Participants were a random subsample (n = 108) of the 567 children at follow-up. Physical activity was objectively measured using ActiGraph GT1M accelerometers; electronic media use (television viewing, sedentary electronic games and active electronic games) was parent proxy-reported. Social and emotional skills were child-reported using the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory-Youth Version. Regression analyses controlled for sex, clustering by center of recruitment, and accelerometer wear time (for physical activity analyses). Sedentary electronic games were positively associated with intrapersonal and stress management skills and total emotional quotient. Computer/internet use was inversely associated with interpersonal, and positively associated with stress management, skills. Findings suggest that physical activity is not associated with children's psychosocial health while some types of electronic media use are. Future research should investigate the contexts in which preschoolers participate in these behaviors and potential causal mechanisms of associations.

  10. Skills core

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, Laura

    Constantly changing technology and increasing competition mean that private companies are aggressively seeking new employees with high levels of technological literacy, good judgment, and communication and team-building skills. Industry also needs workers educated in science, math, engineering, and technology. But which of these skills are most important? Researchers at Indian River Community College at Fort Pierce, Fla., will attempt to answer that question with an NSF grant of nearly $1 million.

  11. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... CDC) 97,825 views 5:12 CDC Flu Education Video - Duration: 10:26. Nicole Shelton 213 views ... Infection Control Video - Duration: 20:55. Paramedical Services Education Page 4,735 views 20:55 Hand Washing ...

  12. Hand Eczema: Treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Tamara Theresia; Agner, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Hand eczema is a common disease, it affects young people, is often work-related, and the burden of the disease is significant for the individual as well as for society. Factors to be considered when choosing a treatment strategy are, among others, whether the eczema is acute or chronic, the sever...

  13. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 786 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 414 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 869 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  17. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  18. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 224,180 views 1:27 The five moments ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 460 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,362 views 3:10 Wash ' ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 219,427 views 1:27 Hand ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 74,478 views 3:10 Wash your Hands - ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 215,487 views 1:27 Infection Control Video - ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 741 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  3. Matching hand radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biometric verification and identification methods of medical images can be used to find possible inconsistencies in patient records. Such methods may also be useful for forensic research. In this work we present a method for identifying patients by their hand radiographs. We use active appearance

  4. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 72,885 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 views 5:46 'It's in your ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 029 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,974 ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 78,256 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... message from WHO - Duration: 10:07. World Health Organization 9,045 views 10:07 A very serious ...

  7. Hands-On Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss manipulatives and hands-on investigations for Calculus involving volume, arc length, and surface area to motivate and develop formulae which can then be verified using techniques of integration. Pre-service teachers in calculus courses using these activities experience a classroom in which active learning is encouraged and…

  8. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 78,256 views 3:10 Wash ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 230,361 views 1:27 Hand ...

  9. Hands-on Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  10. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 396 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  11. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 094 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,974 ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 69,414 views 3:10 Hand Washing ... Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson Health 408,436 views 5:46 83 videos Play ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 14. Lake Health 14,415 views 3:14 Safety Demo: The Importance of Hand Washing - Duration: 2: ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 72,319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 205,878 views 1:27 Germ Smart - Wash ...

  18. Hands On Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 384 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 285 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Gorin 243,451 views 2:57 Hand Hygiene Dance - Duration: 3:15. mohd hafiz 34,146 views ... Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History Help Loading... Loading... Loading... About Press Copyright Creators ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try ... Wash your Hands - it just makes sense. - Duration: 1:36. Seema Marwaha 400,493 views 1:36 ...

  3. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 033 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson Health 408,436 views 5: ... Prevention (CDC) 97,277 views 5:12 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States ...

  5. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  6. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 043 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,292 ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... News 581,131 views 18:49 Just Good Music 24/7 ● Classic Live Radio classics. 1,406 ... 611,013 views 1:46 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,798 views ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 52 Hand Sanitizers and Soaps Put to the Test - Duration: 2:26. ABC News 42,006 views ... Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to add ...

  9. The hot hand belief and framing effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMahon, Clare; Köppen, Jörn; Raab, Markus

    2014-09-01

    Recent evidence of the hot hand in sport-where success breeds success in a positive recency of successful shots, for instance-indicates that this pattern does not actually exist. Yet the belief persists. We used 2 studies to explore the effects of framing on the hot hand belief in sport. We looked at the effect of sport experience and task on the perception of baseball pitch behavior as well as the hot hand belief and free-throw behavior in basketball. Study 1 asked participants to designate outcomes with different alternation rates as the result of baseball pitches or coin tosses. Study 2 examined basketball free-throw behavior and measured predicted success before each shot as well as general belief in the hot hand pattern. The results of Study 1 illustrate that experience and stimulus alternation rates influence the perception of chance in human performance tasks. Study 2 shows that physically performing an act and making judgments are related. Specifically, beliefs were related to overall performance, with more successful shooters showing greater belief in the hot hand and greater predicted success for upcoming shots. Both of these studies highlight that the hot hand belief is influenced by framing, which leads to instability and situational contingencies. We show the specific effects of framing using accumulated experience of the individual with the sport and knowledge of its structure and specific experience with sport actions (basketball shots) prior to judgments.

  10. Differential neural substrates of working memory and cognitive skill learning in healthy young volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun

    2005-01-01

    It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 ± 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning

  11. Skill Learning for Intelligent Robot by Perception-Action Integration: A View from Hierarchical Temporal Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinzheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Skill learning autonomously through interactions with the environment is a crucial ability for intelligent robot. A perception-action integration or sensorimotor cycle, as an important issue in imitation learning, is a natural mechanism without the complex program process. Recently, neurocomputing model and developmental intelligence method are considered as a new trend for implementing the robot skill learning. In this paper, based on research of the human brain neocortex model, we present a skill learning method by perception-action integration strategy from the perspective of hierarchical temporal memory (HTM theory. The sequential sensor data representing a certain skill from a RGB-D camera are received and then encoded as a sequence of Sparse Distributed Representation (SDR vectors. The sequential SDR vectors are treated as the inputs of the perception-action HTM. The HTM learns sequences of SDRs and makes predictions of what the next input SDR will be. It stores the transitions of the current perceived sensor data and next predicted actions. We evaluated the performance of this proposed framework for learning the shaking hands skill on a humanoid NAO robot. The experimental results manifest that the skill learning method designed in this paper is promising.

  12. Differential neural substrates of working memory and cognitive skill learning in healthy young volunteers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Sang Soo; Lee, Eun Ju; Yoon, Eun Jin; Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Sang Eun [Seoul National Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    It is known that different neural circuits are involved in working memory and cognitive skill learning that represent explicit and implicit memory functions, respectively. In the present study, we investigated the metabolic correlates of working memory and cognitive skill learning with correlation analysis of FDG PET images. Fourteen right-handed healthy subjects (age, 24 {+-} 2 yr; 5 males and 9 females) underwent brain FDG PET and neuropsychological testing. Two-back task and weather prediction task were used for the evaluation of working memory and cognitive skill learning, respectively, Correlation between regional glucose metabolism and cognitive task performance was examined using SPM99. A significant positive correlation between 2-back task performance and regional glucose metabolism was found in the prefrontal regions and superior temporal gyri bilaterally. In the first term of weather prediction task the task performance correlated positively with glucose metabolism in the bilateral prefrontal areas, left middle temporal and posterior cingulate gyri, and left thalamus. In the second and third terms of the task, the correlation found in the prefrontal areas, superior temporal and anterior cingulate gyri bilaterally, right insula, left parahippocampal gyrus, and right caudate nucleus. We identified the neural substrates that are related with performance of working memory and cognitive skill learning. These results indicate that brain regions associated with the explicit memory system are recruited in early periods of cognitive skill learning, but additional brain regions including caudate nucleus are involved in late periods of cognitive skill learning.

  13. Social Emotional Learning Skills and Educational Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelik, Ismail

    2013-01-01

    The basic aim of this research is to examine the predicting role of social emotional learning skills in educational stress. The participants were 238 adolescents at high school. In this study, the Social Emotional Learning Skills Scale and the Educational Stress Scale were used. The relationships between social emotional learning skills and…

  14. Exploring the predictive ability of two new complementary instruments for assessing effective therapeutic communication skills of dental and dental hygiene students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönwetter, Dieter J; Emmons Wener, Mickey; Mazurat, Nita; Yakiwchuk, Ben

    2012-10-01

    Research on the development of effective therapeutic communication skills for oral health providers is slowly evolving. One of the initial steps in this research is to identify and address gaps in the work of previous researchers. Ultimately, the educational goal of competence in communications skills development is to provide improved patient care including improved patient satisfaction. This article is the third in a series describing the development of and findings from the new complementary Patient Communication Assessment Instrument (PCAI) and Student Communication Assessment Instrument (SCAI). The aim of the study reported here was to look at the relationship between communication skills and patient and student clinician gender interactions, sociodemographic factors (e.g., age, income), and changes in these interactions with length of treatment. A total of 410 patient assessments (PCAI) and 410 matching student self-assessments (SCAI) were used for further data analysis. Patients of female student clinicians, female patients, patients of a higher and the lowest income range, and older patients reported statistically significant higher student communication scores. The PCAI identified that certain groups of patients consistently report higher scores than other groups, whereas the SCAI identified differences between male and female student clinicians. The results have implications for educational protocols, communication strategies, and the need for continued research regarding sociodemographic factors and their relationship to patient satisfaction.

  15. Glass Foreign Body Hand Radiograph

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Ehsani-Nia, DO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 27-year-old female sustained an injury to her left hand after she tripped and fell on a vase. She presented to the emergency department (ED complaining of pain over the laceration. Upon examination, patient presented with multiple small abrasions of the medial aspect of the left 5thdigit that are minimally tender. Additionally, she has one 0.5cm linear laceration of the medial aspect of the 5thmetacarpal with severe tenderness in the area and palpable underlying foreign body. Significant findings: Left hand plain radiography demonstrated a subcutaneous foreign body medial to the 5thmetacarpal that is radiopaque, trapezoidal in shape, and measures approximately 11mm x 3mm. Discussion: Laceration repairs are amongst the most common procedures in the emergency department; however, consideration for foreign body is often underdiagnosed. Imaging is performed in only about 11% of all traumatic wounds in the ED.1 Of those injuries relating to the hand that are subsequently imaged, about 15% are found to have a foreign body.2,3 Additionally, it is estimated that foreign bodies are present in 7% to 8.7% of all wounds caused by glass objects.4,5 Glass is among the most common foreign bodies in lacerations, and fortunately they are radiopaque and relatively well visualized radiographically. It has been demonstrated that 2mm glass foreign bodies have a 99% detection rate with radiography, and 1mm glass foreign bodies an 83% detection rate.6 Patient perception of foreign body has a positive predictive value of 31%, making it a poor source in influencing clinical decision-making to obtain wound radiographs.3 Clinicians should have a high suspicion for foreign body in lacerations, particularly those caused by glass, and utilize close physical examination and imaging for evaluation. Topics: Radiography, glass, foreign body, trauma

  16. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  17. Accuracy of outcome anticipation, but not gaze behavior, differs against left- and right-handed penalties in team-handball goalkeeping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian eLoffing

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Low perceptual familiarity with relatively rarer left-handed as opposed to more common right-handed individuals may result in athletes’ poorer ability to anticipate the former’s action intentions. Part of such left-right asymmetry in visual anticipation could be due to an inefficient gaze strategy during confrontation with left-handed individuals. To exemplify, observers may not mirror their gaze when viewing left- vs. right-handed actions but preferentially fixate on an opponent’s right body side, irrespective of an opponent’s handedness, owing to the predominant exposure to right-handed actions. So far empirical verification of such assumption, however, is lacking. Here we report on an experiment where team-handball goalkeepers’ and non-goalkeepers’ gaze behavior was recorded while they predicted throw direction of left- and right-handed seven-meter penalties shown as videos on a computer monitor. As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties. However, there was no indication of differences in gaze measures (i.e., number of fixations, overall and final fixation duration, time-course of horizontal or vertical fixation deviation as a function of skill group or the penalty-takers’ handedness. Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals’ action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior. Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers’ differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

  18. Accuracy of Outcome Anticipation, But Not Gaze Behavior, Differs Against Left- and Right-Handed Penalties in Team-Handball Goalkeeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Low perceptual familiarity with relatively rarer left-handed as opposed to more common right-handed individuals may result in athletes' poorer ability to anticipate the former's action intentions. Part of such left-right asymmetry in visual anticipation could be due to an inefficient gaze strategy during confrontation with left-handed individuals. To exemplify, observers may not mirror their gaze when viewing left- vs. right-handed actions but preferentially fixate on an opponent's right body side, irrespective of an opponent's handedness, owing to the predominant exposure to right-handed actions. So far empirical verification of such assumption, however, is lacking. Here we report on an experiment where team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' gaze behavior was recorded while they predicted throw direction of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties shown as videos on a computer monitor. As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties. However, there was no indication of differences in gaze measures (i.e., number of fixations, overall and final fixation duration, time-course of horizontal or vertical fixation deviation) as a function of skill group or the penalty-takers' handedness. Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior. Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements. PMID:26648887

  19. Accuracy of Outcome Anticipation, But Not Gaze Behavior, Differs Against Left- and Right-Handed Penalties in Team-Handball Goalkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffing, Florian; Sölter, Florian; Hagemann, Norbert; Strauss, Bernd

    2015-01-01

    Low perceptual familiarity with relatively rarer left-handed as opposed to more common right-handed individuals may result in athletes' poorer ability to anticipate the former's action intentions. Part of such left-right asymmetry in visual anticipation could be due to an inefficient gaze strategy during confrontation with left-handed individuals. To exemplify, observers may not mirror their gaze when viewing left- vs. right-handed actions but preferentially fixate on an opponent's right body side, irrespective of an opponent's handedness, owing to the predominant exposure to right-handed actions. So far empirical verification of such assumption, however, is lacking. Here we report on an experiment where team-handball goalkeepers' and non-goalkeepers' gaze behavior was recorded while they predicted throw direction of left- and right-handed 7-m penalties shown as videos on a computer monitor. As expected, goalkeepers were considerably more accurate than non-goalkeepers and prediction was better against right- than left-handed penalties. However, there was no indication of differences in gaze measures (i.e., number of fixations, overall and final fixation duration, time-course of horizontal or vertical fixation deviation) as a function of skill group or the penalty-takers' handedness. Findings suggest that inferior anticipation of left-handed compared to right-handed individuals' action intentions may not be associated with misalignment in gaze behavior. Rather, albeit looking similarly, accuracy differences could be due to observers' differential ability of picking up and interpreting the visual information provided by left- vs. right-handed movements.

  20. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields ...

  1. Performance Comparison Between FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two robotic hands that have been\\ud developed at University Federico II of Naples and at the\\ud University of Cassino. FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand\\ud are described in terms of design and operational features.\\ud In particular, careful attention is paid to the differences\\ud between the above-mentioned hands in terms of transmission\\ud systems. FEDERICA Hand uses tendons and pulleys\\ud to drive phalanxes, while LARM Hand uses cross four-bar\\ud linkages. Results of experime...

  2. Promoting skill building and confidence in freshman nursing students with a "Skills-a-Thon".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Susan T; Vignato, Julie A; Moore, Joan L; Madden, Carol A

    2009-08-01

    Freshman nursing students returning for their second semester after summer break benefited by reviewing previously learned clinical skills presented in a Skills-a-Thon. Skills stations were established and facilitated by faculty and senior students. Senior students were first trained in mentoring and specific steps in skills competencies. Freshman students demonstrated skills in various mock clinical situations including catheter insertion, sterile dressings, medications, and physical assessment. The strategy reinforced learning and provided an opportunity for students to experience risk-free skills performance among peers. Freshman students gained proficiency and appreciated guidance by senior students without the pressures of testing. Seniors benefited from a condensed version of the program to review their own skills prior to the event. Responses were positive, with students reporting improved performance and confidence with hands-on application in a non-threatening environment. Nursing faculty observed improvement in skill performance and competence, and plan to offer future events. Copyright 2009, SLACK Incorporated.

  3. Evaluation of TRIGRS (transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis)'s predictive skill for hurricane-triggered landslides: A case study in Macon County, North Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Z.; Hong, Y.; Kirschbaum, D.; Adler, R.F.; Gourley, J.J.; Wooten, R.

    2011-01-01

    The key to advancing the predictability of rainfall-triggered landslides is to use physically based slope-stability models that simulate the transient dynamical response of the subsurface moisture to spatiotemporal variability of rainfall in complex terrains. TRIGRS (transient rainfall infiltration and grid-based regional slope-stability analysis) is a USGS landslide prediction model, coded in Fortran, that accounts for the influences of hydrology, topography, and soil physics on slope stability. In this study, we quantitatively evaluate the spatiotemporal predictability of a Matlab version of TRIGRS (MaTRIGRS) in the Blue Ridge Mountains of Macon County, North Carolina where Hurricanes Ivan triggered widespread landslides in the 2004 hurricane season. High resolution digital elevation model (DEM) data (6-m LiDAR), USGS STATSGO soil database, and NOAA/NWS combined radar and gauge precipitation are used as inputs to the model. A local landslide inventory database from North Carolina Geological Survey is used to evaluate the MaTRIGRS' predictive skill for the landslide locations and timing, identifying predictions within a 120-m radius of observed landslides over the 30-h period of Hurricane Ivan's passage in September 2004. Results show that within a radius of 24 m from the landslide location about 67% of the landslide, observations could be successfully predicted but with a high false alarm ratio (90%). If the radius of observation is extended to 120 m, 98% of the landslides are detected with an 18% false alarm ratio. This study shows that MaTRIGRS demonstrates acceptable spatiotemporal predictive skill for landslide occurrences within a 120-m radius in space and a hurricane-event-duration (h) in time, offering the potential to serve as a landslide warning system in areas where accurate rainfall forecasts and detailed field data are available. The validation can be further improved with additional landslide information including the exact time of failure for each

  4. Second-hand signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies of signaling theory have traditionally focused on the dyadic link between the sender and receiver of the signal. Within a science‐based perspective this framing has led scholars to investigate how patents and publications of firms function as signals. I explore another important type...... used by various agents in their search for and assessment of products and firms. I conclude by arguing how this second‐hand nature of signals goes beyond a simple dyadic focus on senders and receivers of signals, and thus elucidates the more complex interrelations of the various types of agents...

  5. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  6. The hand and wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.B.; Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Trauma is the most common etiologic factor leading to disability in the hand and wrist. Judicious radiographic evaluation is required for accurate assessment in practically all but the most minor of such injuries. Frequently serial radiographic evaluation is essential for directing the course of treatment and for following the healing process. A meaningful radiographic evaluation requires a comprehensive knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy, an overview of the spectrum of pathology, and an awareness of the usual mechanisms of injury, appropriate treatment options, and relevant array of complications

  7. Bayley-III motor scale and neurological examination at 2 years do not predict motor skills at 4.5 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burakevych, Nataliia; Mckinlay, Christopher Joel Dorman; Alsweiler, Jane Marie; Wouldes, Trecia Ann; Harding, Jane Elizabeth

    2017-02-01

    To determine whether Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (3rd edition) (Bayley-III) motor scores and neurological examination at 2 years corrected age predict motor difficulties at 4.5 years corrected age. A prospective cohort study of children born at risk of neonatal hypoglycaemia in Waikato Hospital, Hamilton, New Zealand. Assessment at 2 years was performed using the Bayley-III motor scale and neurological examination, and at 4.5 years using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (2nd edition) (MABC-2). Of 333 children, 8 (2%) had Bayley-III motor scores below 85, and 50 (15%) had minor deficits on neurological assessment at 2 years; 89 (27%) scored less than or equal to the 15th centile, and 54 (16%) less than or equal to the 5th centile on MABC-2 at 4.5 years. Motor score, fine and gross motor subtest scores, and neurological assessments at 2 years were poorly predictive of motor difficulties at 4.5 years, explaining 0 to 7% of variance in MABC-2 scores. A Bayley-III motor score below 85 predicted MABC-2 scores less than or equal to the 15th centile with a positive predictive value of 30% and a negative predictive value of 74% (7% sensitivity and 94% specificity). Bayley-III motor scale and neurological examination at 2 years were poorly predictive of motor difficulties at 4.5 years. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  8. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Barriers and Solutions to Fieldwork Education in Hand Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Nathan; Sample, Shelby; Murphy, Malachi; Austin, Brittany; Glass, Jillian

    2017-08-09

    Survey. Fieldwork education is a vital component of training the next generation of CHTs. Barriers and solutions to fieldwork rotations in hand therapy are examined, as well as proposed solutions, including recommendations for student preparation. This descriptive study examined barriers for certified hand therapist clinicians to accept students for clinical rotations and clinicians' preferences for student preparation before a rotation in a hand setting. A survey was developed, peer reviewed, and distributed using the electronic mailing list of the Hand Therapy Certification Commission via SurveyMonkey. Aggregate responses were analyzed to identify trends including barriers to student clinical rotations and recommendations for students to prepare for hand rotations. A total of 2080 participants responded to the survey, representing a 37% response rate. Common logistical barriers were identified for accepting students such as limited clinical time and space. Many clinicians (32% agree and 8% strongly agree) also felt that the students lack the clinical knowledge to be successful. Areas of knowledge, skill set, and experience were surveyed for development before a clinical rotation in a hand setting. Most respondents (74%) reported increased likelihood of accepting a student with the recommended preparation. Novel qualitative responses to improve clinical experiences are presented as well. Student preparation before a clinical rotation in a hand setting appears to be a significant barrier based on the survey results. Areas of recommended knowledge, skill set, and experience may serve to guide both formal and informal methods of student preparation before a hand-specific clinical rotation to facilitate knowledge translation from experienced certified hand therapists to the next generation. Although logistical barriers may be difficult to overcome, hand-specific preparation based on clinician' recommendations may facilitate student acceptance and success in hand

  10. Hand Matters: Left-Hand Gestures Enhance Metaphor Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Paraskevi; Mohr, Christine; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that speech-accompanying gestures influence cognitive processes, but it is not clear whether the gestural benefit is specific to the gesturing hand. Two experiments tested the "(right/left) hand-specificity" hypothesis for self-oriented functions of gestures: gestures with a particular hand enhance cognitive processes…

  11. Forecasting Skill

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-01

    for the third and fourth day precipitation forecasts. A marked improvement was shown for the consensus 24 hour precipitation forecast, and small... Zuckerberg (1980) found a small long term skill increase in forecasts of heavy snow events for nine eastern cities. Other National Weather Service...and maximum temperature) are each awarded marks 2, 1, or 0 according to whether the forecast is correct, 8 - *- -**■*- ———"—- - -■ t0m 1 MM—IB I

  12. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were...... recruited from nine different tertiary referral centres. All patients underwent examination by specialists in dermatology and were checked using relevant allergy testing. Patients were classified into one of the six diagnostic subgroups of HE: allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, atopic...... system investigated in the present study was useful, being able to give an appropriate main diagnosis for 89% of HE patients, and for another 7% when using two main diagnoses. The fact that more than half of the patients had one or more additional diagnoses illustrates that HE is a multifactorial disease....

  13. FOCUS ON HAND WASHING Yakubu Tahir Maigari Departm

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HP

    2014-10-24

    Oct 24, 2014 ... Management and Social Sciences, Federal University Kashere,. Gombe State ... Peace can also be maintained with fellow human beings through ... talent and skill to build a mighty ship with which he and his people took .... One important aspect of Islamic rituals where washing of hands is prominent is ...

  14. Google Earth for Landowners: Insights from Hands-on Workshops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huff, Tristan

    2014-01-01

    Google Earth is an accessible, user-friendly GIS that can help landowners in their management planning. I offered hands-on Google Earth workshops to landowners to teach skills, including mapmaking, length and area measurement, and database management. Workshop participants were surveyed at least 6 months following workshop completion, and learning…

  15. Differences in Cortical Representation and Structural Connectivity of Hands and Feet between Professional Handball Players and Ballet Dancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Jessica; Topka, Marlene Sofie; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM) representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA) of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular. PMID:27247805

  16. Differences in Cortical Representation and Structural Connectivity of Hands and Feet between Professional Handball Players and Ballet Dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Jessica; Topka, Marlene Sofie; Hänggi, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM) representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA) of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular.

  17. Differences in Cortical Representation and Structural Connectivity of Hands and Feet between Professional Handball Players and Ballet Dancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Meier

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is known that intensive training and expertise are associated with functional and structural neuroadaptations. Most studies, however, compared experts with nonexperts; hence it is, specifically for sports, unclear whether the neuroplastic adaptations reported are sport-specific or sport-general. Here we aimed at investigating sport-specific adaptations in professional handball players and ballet dancers by focusing on the primary motor and somatosensory grey matter (GM representation of hands and feet using voxel-based morphometry as well as on fractional anisotropy (FA of the corticospinal tract by means of diffusion tensor imaging-based fibre tractography. As predicted, GM volume was increased in hand areas of handball players, whereas ballet dancers showed increased GM volume in foot areas. Compared to handball players, ballet dancers showed decreased FA in both fibres connecting the foot and hand areas, but they showed lower FA in fibres connecting the foot compared to their hand areas, whereas handball players showed lower FA in fibres connecting the hand compared to their foot areas. Our results suggest that structural adaptations are sport-specific and are manifested in brain regions associated with the neural processing of sport-specific skills. We believe this enriches the plasticity research in general and extends our knowledge of sport expertise in particular.

  18. Wide Awake Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Line; Borchgrevink, Grethe E; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2017-09-01

    "Wide awake hand surgery", where surgery is performed in local anaesthesia with adrenaline, without sedation or a tourniquet, has become widespread in some countries. It has a number of potential advantages and we wished to evaluate it among our patients. All 122 patients treated by this method during one year were evaluated by the surgeons and the patients on a numerical scale from 0 (best/least) to 10 (worst/most). Theatre time was compared to that recorded for a year when regional or general anaesthesia had been used. The patients' mean score for the general care they had received was 0.1 (SD 0.6), for pain during lidocaine injection 2.4 (SD 2.2), for pain during surgery 0.9 (SD 1.5), and for other discomfort during surgery 0.5 (SD 1.4). Eight reported that they would want general anaesthesia if they were to be operated again. The surgeons' mean evaluation of bleeding during surgery was 1.6 (SD 1.8), oedema during surgery 0.4 (SD 1.1), general disadvantages with the method 1.0 (SD 1.6) and general advantages 6.5 (SD 4.3). The estimation of advantages was 9.9 (DS 0.5) for tendon suture. 28 patients needed intra-operative additional anaesthesia. The proportion was lower among trained hand surgeons and fell significantly during the study period. Non-surgical theatre time was 46 (SD 15) minutes during the study period and 55 (SD 22) minutes during the regional/general period (p theatre.

  19. Rheumatoid arthritis and hand surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretz, Anne Sofie Rosenborg; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Brogren, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis results in characteristic deformities of the hand. Medical treatment has undergone a remarkable development. However, not all patients achieve remission or tolerate the treatment. Patients who suffer from deformities and persistent synovitis may be candidates for hand surgery...

  20. Do Skilled Elementary Teachers Hold Scientific Conceptions and Can They Accurately Predict the Type and Source of Students' Preconceptions of Electric Circuits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jing-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Holding scientific conceptions and having the ability to accurately predict students' preconceptions are a prerequisite for science teachers to design appropriate constructivist-oriented learning experiences. This study explored the types and sources of students' preconceptions of electric circuits. First, 438 grade 3 (9 years old) students were…

  1. Essential hand surgery procedures for mastery by graduating plastic surgery residents: a survey of program directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, Shelley S; Fischer, Lauren H; Lee, Gordon K; Friedrich, Jeffrey B; Hentz, Vincent R

    2013-12-01

    This study was designed to establish the essential hand surgery procedures that should be mastered by graduating plastic surgery residents. This framework can then be used as a guideline for developing Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill to teach technical skills in hand surgery. Ten expert hand surgeons were surveyed regarding the essential hand surgery procedures that should be mastered by graduating plastic surgery residents. The top 10 procedures from this survey were then used to survey all 89 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education-approved plastic surgery program directors. There was a 69 percent response rate to the program director survey (n = 61). The top nine hand surgery procedures included open carpal tunnel release, open A1 pulley release, digital nerve repair with microscope, closed reduction and percutaneous pinning of metacarpal fracture, excision of dorsal or volar ganglion, zone II flexor tendon repair with multistrand technique, incision and drainage of the flexor tendon sheath for flexor tenosynovitis, flexor tendon sheath steroid injection, and open cubital tunnel release. Surgical educators need to develop objective methods to teach and document technical skill. The Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill is a valid method for accomplishing this task. There has been no consensus regarding which hand surgery procedures should be mastered by graduating plastic surgery residents. The authors have identified nine procedures that are overwhelmingly supported by plastic surgery program directors. These nine procedures can be used as a guideline for developing Objective Structured Assessment of Technical Skill to teach and document technical skills in hand surgery.

  2. Management of Atopic Hand Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, Anne-Sofie; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of clinical aspects of hand eczema in patients with atopic dermatitis. Hand eczema can be a part of atopic dermatitis itself or a comorbidity, for example, as irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. When managing hand eczema, it is important to first categorize...

  3. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands frequently can help limit the transfer of bacteria, viruses and other microbes. Always wash your hands before: Preparing food or eating Treating wounds or caring for a sick person Inserting or removing contact lenses Always wash your hands after: Preparing food Using ...

  4. Hand aperture patterns in prehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Raoul M; Zaal, Frank T J M; Jeannerod, Marc

    2012-06-01

    Although variations in the standard prehensile pattern can be found in the literature, these alternative patterns have never been studied systematically. This was the goal of the current paper. Ten participants picked up objects with a pincer grip. Objects (3, 5, or 7cm in diameter) were placed at 30, 60, 90, or 120cm from the hands' starting location. Usually the hand was opened gradually to a maximum immediately followed by hand closing, called the standard hand opening pattern. In the alternative opening patterns the hand opening was bumpy, or the hand aperture stayed at a plateau before closing started. Two participants in particular delayed the start of grasping with respect to start of reaching, with the delay time increasing with object distance. For larger object distances and smaller object sizes, the bumpy and plateau hand opening patterns were used more often. We tentatively concluded that the alternative hand opening patterns extended the hand opening phase, to arrive at the appropriate hand aperture at the appropriate time to close the hand for grasping the object. Variations in hand opening patterns deserve attention because this might lead to new insights into the coordination of reaching and grasping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Especial Skills in Experienced Archers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabavinik, Mahdi; Abaszadeh, Ali; Mehranmanesh, Mehrab; Rosenbaum, David A

    2017-09-05

    Especial skills are skills that are distinctive by virtue of massive practice within the narrow contexts in which they are expressed. In the first demonstration of especial skills, Keetch, Schmidt, Lee, and Young (2005) showed that experienced basketball players are better at shooting baskets from the foul line, where they had massive amounts of practice, than would expected from their success at other locations closer to or farther from the basket. Similar results were obtained for baseball throwing. The authors asked whether especial skills hold in archery, a sport requiring less movement. If the emergence of especial skills depends on large-scale movement, one would expect archery to escape so-called especialism. But if the emergence of especial skills reflects a more general tendency for highly specific learning, experienced archers should show especial skills. The authors obtained evidence consistent with the latter prediction. The expert archers did much better at their most highly practiced distance than would be expected by looking at the overall function relating shooting score to distance. We offer a mathematical model to account for this result. The findings attest to the generality of the especial skills phenomenon.

  6. Communication training: Skills and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveugele, Myriam

    2015-10-01

    As communication is a central part of every interpersonal meeting within healthcare and research reveals several benefits of effective communication, we need to teach students and practitioners how to communicate with patients and with colleagues. This paper reflects on what and how to teach. In the previous century two major changes occurred: clinical relationship between doctor and patient became important and patients became partners in care. Clinicians experienced that outcome and especially compliance was influenced by the relational aspect and in particular by the communicative skills of the physician. This paper reflects on teaching and defines problems. It gives some implications for the future. Although communication skills training is reinforced in most curricula all over the word, huge implementation problems arise; most of the time a coherent framework is lacking, training is limited in time, not integrated in the curriculum and scarcely contextualized, often no formal training nor teaching strategies are defined. Moreover evidence on communication skills training is scarce or contradictory. Knowing when, what, how can be seen as an essential part of skills training. But students need to be taught to reflect on every behavior during every medical consultation. Three major implications can be helpful to overcome the problems in communication training. First research and education on healthcare issues need to go hand in hand. Second, students as well as healthcare professionals need a toolkit of basic skills to give them the opportunity not only to tackle basic and serious problems, but to incorporate these skills and to be able to use them in a personal and creative way. Third, personal reflection on own communicative actions and dealing with interdisciplinary topics is a core business of medical communication and training. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  8. Design of Piano -playing Robotic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jen-Chang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Unlike the market slowdown of industrial robots, service & entertainment robots have been highly regarded by most robotics reseach and market research agencies. In this study we developed a music playing robot (which can also work as a service robot for public performance. The research is mainly focused on the mechanical and electrical control of piano-playing robot, the exploration of correlations among music theory, rhythm and piano keys, and eventually the research on playing skill of keyboard instrument. The piano-playing robot is capable of control linear motor, servo-motor and pneumatic devices in accordance with the notes and rhythm in order to drive the mechanical structure to proper positions for pressing the keys and generating music. The devices used for this robot are mainly crucial components produced by HIWIN Technology Corp. The design of robotic hand is based on the direction of anthropomorphic hand such that five fingers will be used for playing piano. The finger actuations include actions of finger rotation, finger pressing, and finger lifting; time required for these 3 stages must meet the requirement of rhythm. The purpose of entertainment robot can be achieved by playing electric piano with robotic hand, and we hope this research can contribute to the development of domestic entertainment music playing robots.

  9. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...... as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established...

  10. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline B; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established......INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...

  11. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play

  12. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play.

  13. Optimal skill distribution under convex skill costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tin Cheuk Leung

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies optimal distribution of skills in an optimal income tax framework with convex skill constraints. The problem is cast as a social planning problem where a redistributive planner chooses how to distribute a given amount of aggregate skills across people. We find that optimal skill distribution is either perfectly equal or perfectly unequal, but an interior level of skill inequality is never optimal.

  14. Is Hand Selection Modulated by Cognitive-perceptual Load?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Jiali; Wilkinson, Krista; Sainburg, Robert L

    2018-01-15

    Previous studies proposed that selecting which hand to use for a reaching task appears to be modulated by a factor described as "task difficulty". However, what features of a task might contribute to greater or lesser "difficulty" in the context of hand selection decisions has yet to be determined. There has been evidence that biomechanical and kinematic factors such as movement smoothness and work can predict patterns of selection across the workspace, suggesting a role of predictive cost analysis in hand-selection. We hypothesize that this type of prediction for hand-selection should recruit substantial cognitive resources and thus should be influenced by cognitive-perceptual loading. We test this hypothesis by assessing the role of cognitive-perceptual loading on hand selection decisions, using a visual search task that presents different levels of difficulty (cognitive-perceptual load), as established in previous studies on overall response time and efficiency of visual search. Although the data are necessarily preliminary due to small sample size, our data suggested an influence of cognitive-perceptual load on hand selection, such that the dominant hand was selected more frequently as cognitive load increased. Interestingly, cognitive-perceptual loading also increased cross-midline reaches with both hands. Because crossing midline is more costly in terms of kinematic and kinetic factors, our findings suggest that cognitive processes are normally engaged to avoid costly actions, and that the choice not-to-cross midline requires cognitive resources. Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  16. Sequence for the Training of Eye-Hand Coordination Needed for the Organization of Handwriting Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trester, Mary Fran

    1971-01-01

    Suggested is a sequence of 11 class activities, progressing from gross to fine motor skills, to assist the development of skills required to perform handwriting tasks successfully, for use particularly with children who lack fine motor control and eye-hand coordination. (KW)

  17. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  18. Lecturing skills as predictors of tutoring skills in a problem-based medical curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassab, Salah Eldin; Hassan, Nahla; Abu-Hijleh, Marwan F; Sequeira, Reginald P

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment of tutors to work in problem-based learning (PBL) programs is challenging, especially in that most of them are graduated from discipline-based programs. Therefore, this study aims at examining whether lecturing skills of faculty could predict their PBL tutoring skills. This study included evaluation of faculty (n=69) who participated in both tutoring and lecturing within particular PBL units at the College of Medicine and Medical Sciences (CMMS), Arabian Gulf University, Bahrain. Each faculty was evaluated by medical students (n=45±8 for lecturing and 8±2 for PBL tutoring) using structured evaluation forms based on a Likert-type scale (poor to excellent). The prediction of tutoring skills using lecturing skills was statistically analyzed using stepwise linear regression. Among the parameters used to judge lecturing skills, the most important predictor for tutoring skills was subject matter mastery in the lecture by explaining difficult concepts and responding effectively to students' questions. Subject matter mastery in the lecture positively predicted five tutoring skills and accounted for 25% of the variance in overall effectiveness of the PBL tutors (F=22.39, P=0.000). Other important predictors for tutoring skills were providing a relaxed class atmosphere and effective use of audiovisual aids in the lecture. Predicting the tutoring skills based on lecturing skills could have implications for recruiting tutors in PBL medical programs and for tutor training initiatives.

  19. Evaluation of kinesthetic sense and hand function in women with breast cancer-related lymphedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karadibak, Didem; Yavuzsen, Tugba

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study evaluated the functional ability and kinesthetic sense of the hands of women with breast cancer-related lymphedema. [Subjects and Methods] Fifty-seven women experiencing lymphedema after breast surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy were included. The patients were divided into two groups: women with hand edema (HE+, n = 29) and without hand edema (HE-, n = 28) after breast cancer treatment. Arm edema severity, hand size, functional mobility and kinesthetic sense of the hand, and daily living skills were evaluated. [Results] The mean age of the patients was 55.8 years. In both groups, functional mobility, kinesthetic sense, and daily living skills decreased significantly with increasing edema severity. However, there was no significant difference between groups with respect to functional mobility or daily living skills. The kinesthetic sense of the hand was better in the HE- group than the HE+ group. There was a significant negative relationship between the severity of edema and hand function. [Conclusion] Breast cancer-related lymphedema can negatively impact women's functional mobility and kinesthetic sense of the hands as well as daily living skills.

  20. Shape Memory Polymers: A Joint Chemical and Materials Engineering Hands-On Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seif, Mujan; Beck, Matthew

    2018-01-01

    Hands-on experiences are excellent tools for increasing retention of first year engineering students. They also encourage interdisciplinary collaboration, a critical skill for modern engineers. In this paper, we describe and evaluate a joint Chemical and Materials Engineering hands-on lab that explores cross-linking and glass transition in…

  1. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  2. Canadian hand dermatitis management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynde, Charles; Guenther, Lyn; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Hand dermatitis (HD) is one of the most common skin conditions; however, it is not a homogeneous disease entity. The severity of HD may range from very mild cases to severe chronic forms, which may result in prolonged disability and, occasionally, refractory HD. Chronic hand dermatitis (CHD...

  3. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.

  4. I. SPATIAL SKILLS, THEIR DEVELOPMENT, AND THEIR LINKS TO MATHEMATICS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdine, Brian N; Golinkoff, Roberta Michnick; Hirsh-Pasek, Kathy; Newcombe, Nora S

    2017-03-01

    Understanding the development of spatial skills is important for promoting school readiness and improving overall success in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) fields (e.g., Wai, Lubinski, Benbow, & Steiger, 2010). Children use their spatial skills to understand the world, including visualizing how objects fit together, and can practice them via spatial assembly activities (e.g., puzzles or blocks). These skills are incorporated into measures of overall intelligence and have been linked to success in subjects like mathematics (Mix & Cheng, 2012) and science (Pallrand & Seeber, 1984; Pribyl & Bodner, 1987). This monograph sought to answer four questions about early spatial skill development: 1) Can we reliably measure spatial skills in 3- and 4-year-olds?; 2) Do spatial skills measured at 3 predict spatial skills at age 5?; 3) Do preschool spatial skills predict mathematics skills at age 5?; and 4) What factors contribute to individual differences in preschool spatial skills (e.g., SES, gender, fine-motor skills, vocabulary, and executive function)? Longitudinal data generated from a new spatial skill test for 3-year-old children, called the TOSA (Test of Spatial Assembly), show that it is a reliable and valid measure of early spatial skills that provides strong prediction to spatial skills measured with established tests at age 5. New data using this measure finds links between early spatial skill and mathematics, language, and executive function skills. Analyses suggest that preschool spatial experiences may play a central role in children's mathematical skills around the time of school entry. Executive function skills provide an additional unique contribution to predicting mathematical performance. In addition, individual differences, specifically socioeconomic status, are related to spatial and mathematical skill. We conclude by exploring ways of providing rich early spatial experiences to children. © 2017 The Society for Research in Child

  5. Effect of hand sanitizer location on hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important intervention to prevent infection in hospitals. Health care workers should clean their hands at least before and after contact with patients. Hand sanitizer dispensers are important to support hand hygiene because they can be made available throughout hospital units. The aim of this study was to determine whether the usability of sanitizer dispensers correlates with compliance of staff in using the sanitizer in a hospital. This study took place in a Midwest, 404-bed, private, nonprofit community hospital with 15 inpatient care units in addition to several ambulatory units. The usability and standardization of sanitizers in 12 participating inpatient units were evaluated. The hospital measured compliance of staff with hand hygiene as part of their quality improvement program. Data from 2010-2012 were analyzed to measure the relationship between compliance and usability using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The total usability score (P = .0046), visibility (P = .003), and accessibility of the sanitizer on entrance to the patient room (P = .00055) were statistically associated with higher observed compliance rates. Standardization alone showed no significant impact on observed compliance (P = .37). Hand hygiene compliance can be influenced by visibility and accessibility of dispensers. The sanitizer location should be part of multifaceted interventions to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Discovering SQL A Hands-On Guide for Beginners

    CERN Document Server

    Kriegel, Alex

    2011-01-01

    Teaching the SQL skills that businesses demand when hiring programmers If you're a SQL beginner, you don't just want to learn SQL basics, you also want to get some practical SQL skills you can use in the job market. This book gives you both. Covering the basics through intermediate topics with clear explanations, hands-on exercises, and helpful solutions, this book is the perfect introduction to SQL. Topics include both the current SQL:2008 standards, the upcoming SQL:2011 standards, and also how to use SQL against current releases of the most popular commercial SQL databases, such as Oracle,

  7. Degloving injuries of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion of skin from the hand or fingers is an injury that has a dramatic presentation. The entire musculo-skeletal unit of the finger is intact, and the patient can often move the parts of his naked hand quite normally. The challenge for the reconstructive surgeon lies in resurfacing the hand or finger with a good quality pliable sensate skin cover while preserving the movements and function of the hand. Traditionally, skin grafting has been the standard method of reconstruction in such injuries. However, skin grafting does have many disadvantages, too. This article deals with the features of such injuries, management protocols and other reconstructive options available in the armamentarium of the hand surgeon.

  8. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  9. The hand of Homo naledi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  10. Helping Preschoolers Prepare for Writing: Developing Fine Motor Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, J. Michelle; Fortenberry, Callie

    2011-01-01

    Early childhood is the most intensive period for the development of physical skills. Writing progress depends largely on the development of fine motor skills involving small muscle movements of the hand. Young children need to participate in a variety of developmentally appropriate activities intentionally designed to promote fine motor control.…

  11. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Student Core Curriculum ACS/ASE Medical Student Simulation-Based Surgical Skills Curriculum Cancer Education Cancer Education ... Home Skills Kit supports patients with educational and simulation materials to learn and practice the skills needed ...

  12. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Overview The skills kit contains: A booklet with information on the operation, home skills such as emptying and changing a pouch, problem solving, and home management. A DVD with demonstration of each skill Stoma ...

  13. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Careers at ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... American College of Surgeons Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills ...

  14. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACS Careers at ACS About ACS Career Types Working at ACS ... Education Patients and Family Skills Programs Ostomy Home Skills Program Ostomy Home Skills Program Adult Ostomy ...

  15. Hand in Hand - SEI Programmes for School Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Réol, Lise Andersen; Laursen, Hilmar Dyrborg

    2017-01-01

    This catalogue of research in the field of SEI programmes for the school staff’s and teachers’ SEI competencies is based on a review performed by the main researchers Birgitte Lund Nielsen, Lise Andersen Réol and Hilmar Dyrborg Laursen, VIA University College, Denmark, but discussed by the entire...... team of Hand in Hand partner countries and researchers. The aim was to identify the central aspects and elements concerning successful implementation, and school staff’s development of professional competencies in the specific field of supporting students’ social, emotional and intercultural (SEI......) competencies. Abstract: Framed by the EU-project Hand in Hand focusing on Social, Emotional and Intercultural (SEI) competencies among students and school staff, the paper discusses implementation and professional competencies based on a research review. The following five topics were identified: 1...

  16. The Marble-Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR) to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the 'Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration.

  17. Using Video Games to Develop Communication Skills in Higher Education

    OpenAIRE

    Barr, Matthew

    2016-01-01

    Employers are increasingly concerned that university graduates possess the transferable skills – sometimes termed ‘graduate attributes’ (Barrie, 2006) – necessary to succeed in the workplace. Prominent among these skills are those which relate to communication; however, not all higher education courses are designed explicitly to teach or develop such skills. Many commercial video games, on the other hand, require players to communicate in order to succeed, particularly in an era of increasing...

  18. Ostomy Home Skills Program

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Surgical Skills for Exposure in Trauma Advanced Trauma Life Support Advanced Trauma Operative Management Basic Endovascular Skills for Trauma Disaster Management and Emergency ...

  19. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W. A.; de Wit, L. T.; Busch, O. R.; Gouma, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy is performed routinely in patients with small and moderately enlarged spleens at specialized centers. Large spleens are difficult to handle laparoscopically and hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy might facilitate the procedure through enhanced vascular control, easier

  20. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Animal Bites Email to a friend * required fields From * ... key to prevent problems from a bite. CAUSES Animal Bites Millions of animal bites occur in the ...