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Sample records for hand motion classifier

  1. Use of a machine learning algorithm to classify expertise: analysis of hand motion patterns during a simulated surgical task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Robert A

    2014-08-01

    To test the hypothesis that machine learning algorithms increase the predictive power to classify surgical expertise using surgeons' hand motion patterns. In 2012 at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 14 surgical attendings and 10 first- and second-year surgical residents each performed two bench model venous anastomoses. During the simulated tasks, the participants wore an inertial measurement unit on the dorsum of their dominant (right) hand to capture their hand motion patterns. The pattern from each bench model task performed was preprocessed into a symbolic time series and labeled as expert (attending) or novice (resident). The labeled hand motion patterns were processed and used to train a Support Vector Machine (SVM) classification algorithm. The trained algorithm was then tested for discriminative/predictive power against unlabeled (blinded) hand motion patterns from tasks not used in the training. The Lempel-Ziv (LZ) complexity metric was also measured from each hand motion pattern, with an optimal threshold calculated to separately classify the patterns. The LZ metric classified unlabeled (blinded) hand motion patterns into expert and novice groups with an accuracy of 70% (sensitivity 64%, specificity 80%). The SVM algorithm had an accuracy of 83% (sensitivity 86%, specificity 80%). The results confirmed the hypothesis. The SVM algorithm increased the predictive power to classify blinded surgical hand motion patterns into expert versus novice groups. With further development, the system used in this study could become a viable tool for low-cost, objective assessment of procedural proficiency in a competency-based curriculum.

  2. Classifying multiple types of hand motions using electrocorticography during intraoperative awake craniotomy and seizure monitoring processes—case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tao; Zhang, Dingguo; Wu, Zehan; Chen, Liang; Zhu, Xiangyang

    2015-01-01

    In this work, some case studies were conducted to classify several kinds of hand motions from electrocorticography (ECoG) signals during intraoperative awake craniotomy & extraoperative seizure monitoring processes. Four subjects (P1, P2 with intractable epilepsy during seizure monitoring and P3, P4 with brain tumor during awake craniotomy) participated in the experiments. Subjects performed three types of hand motions (Grasp, Thumb-finger motion and Index-finger motion) contralateral to the motor cortex covered with ECoG electrodes. Two methods were used for signal processing. Method I: autoregressive (AR) model with burg method was applied to extract features, and additional waveform length (WL) feature has been considered, finally the linear discriminative analysis (LDA) was used as the classifier. Method II: stationary subspace analysis (SSA) was applied for data preprocessing, and the common spatial pattern (CSP) was used for feature extraction before LDA decoding process. Applying method I, the three-class accuracy of P1~P4 were 90.17, 96.00, 91.77, and 92.95% respectively. For method II, the three-class accuracy of P1~P4 were 72.00, 93.17, 95.22, and 90.36% respectively. This study verified the possibility of decoding multiple hand motion types during an awake craniotomy, which is the first step toward dexterous neuroprosthetic control during surgical implantation, in order to verify the optimal placement of electrodes. The accuracy during awake craniotomy was comparable to results during seizure monitoring. This study also indicated that ECoG was a promising approach for precise identification of eloquent cortex during awake craniotomy, and might form a promising BCI system that could benefit both patients and neurosurgeons. PMID:26483627

  3. Classifying Multiple Types of Hand Motions Using Electrocorticography During Intraoperative Awake Craniotomy & Seizure Monitoring Processes - Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao eXie

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, some case studies were conducted toclassify several kinds of hand motions from electrocorticography(ECoG signals during intraoperative awake craniotomy &extraoperative seizure monitoring processes. Four subjects (P1,P2 with intractable epilepsy during seizure monitoring and P3,P4 with brain tumor during awake craniotomy participatedin the experiments. Subjects performed three types of handmotions (Grasp, Thumb-finger motion and Index-finger motioncontralateral to the motor cortex covered with ECoG electrodes.Two methods were used for signal processing. Method I:autoregressive (AR model with burg method was applied toextract features, and additional waveform length (WL featurehas been considered, finally the linear discriminative analysis(LDA was used as the classifier. Method II: stationary subspaceanalysis (SSA was applied for data preprocessing, and thecommon spatial pattern (CSP was used for feature extractionbefore LDA decoding process. Applying method I, the threeclassaccuracy of P1□P4 were 90.17%, 96.00%, 91.77% and92.95% respectively. For method II, the three-class accuracy ofP1□P4 were 72.00%, 93.17%, 95.22% and 90.36% respectively.This study verified the possibility of decoding multiple handmotion types during an awake craniotomy, which is the firststep towards dexterous neuroprosthetic control during surgicalimplantation, in order to verify the optimal placement of electrodes.The accuracy during awake craniotomy was comparableto results during seizure monitoring. This study also indicatedthat ECoG was a promising approach for precise identificationof eloquent cortex during awake craniotomy, and might forma promising BCI system that could benefit both patients andneurosurgeons.

  4. Hand Gesture Recognition with Leap Motion

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Youchen; Liu, Shenglan; Feng, Lin; Chen, Menghui; Wu, Jie

    2017-01-01

    The recent introduction of depth cameras like Leap Motion Controller allows researchers to exploit the depth information to recognize hand gesture more robustly. This paper proposes a novel hand gesture recognition system with Leap Motion Controller. A series of features are extracted from Leap Motion tracking data, we feed these features along with HOG feature extracted from sensor images into a multi-class SVM classifier to recognize performed gesture, dimension reduction and feature weight...

  5. Localization and Recognition of Dynamic Hand Gestures Based on Hierarchy of Manifold Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorskaya, M.; Nosov, A.; Popov, A.

    2015-05-01

    Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin detector, normalized skeleton representation of one or two hands, and motion history representing by motion vectors normalized through predetermined directions (8 and 16 in our case). Each dynamic gesture is separated into a set of sub-gestures in order to predict a trajectory and remove those samples of gestures, which do not satisfy to current trajectory. The posture classifiers involve the normalized skeleton representation of palm and fingers and relative finger positions using fingertips. The min-max criterion is used for trajectory recognition, and the decision tree technique was applied for posture recognition of sub-gestures. For experiments, a dataset "Multi-modal Gesture Recognition Challenge 2013: Dataset and Results" including 393 dynamic hand-gestures was chosen. The proposed method yielded 84-91% recognition accuracy, in average, for restricted set of dynamic gestures.

  6. LOCALIZATION AND RECOGNITION OF DYNAMIC HAND GESTURES BASED ON HIERARCHY OF MANIFOLD CLASSIFIERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Favorskaya

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin detector, normalized skeleton representation of one or two hands, and motion history representing by motion vectors normalized through predetermined directions (8 and 16 in our case. Each dynamic gesture is separated into a set of sub-gestures in order to predict a trajectory and remove those samples of gestures, which do not satisfy to current trajectory. The posture classifiers involve the normalized skeleton representation of palm and fingers and relative finger positions using fingertips. The min-max criterion is used for trajectory recognition, and the decision tree technique was applied for posture recognition of sub-gestures. For experiments, a dataset “Multi-modal Gesture Recognition Challenge 2013: Dataset and Results” including 393 dynamic hand-gestures was chosen. The proposed method yielded 84–91% recognition accuracy, in average, for restricted set of dynamic gestures.

  7. Evaluating EMG Feature and Classifier Selection for Application to Partial-Hand Prosthesis Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adenike A. Adewuyi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition-based myoelectric control of upper limb prostheses has the potential to restore control of multiple degrees of freedom. Though this control method has been extensively studied in individuals with higher-level amputations, few studies have investigated its effectiveness for individuals with partial-hand amputations. Most partial-hand amputees retain a functional wrist and the ability of pattern recognition-based methods to correctly classify hand motions from different wrist positions is not well studied. In this study, focusing on partial-hand amputees, we evaluate (1 the performance of non-linear and linear pattern recognition algorithms and (2 the performance of optimal EMG feature subsets for classification of four hand motion classes in different wrist positions for 16 non-amputees and 4 amputees. Our results show that linear discriminant analysis and linear and non-linear artificial neural networks perform significantly better than the quadratic discriminant analysis for both non-amputees and partial-hand amputees. For amputees, including information from multiple wrist positions significantly decreased error (p<0.001 but no further significant decrease in error occurred when more than 4, 2, or 3 positions were included for the extrinsic (p=0.07, intrinsic (p=0.06, or combined extrinsic and intrinsic muscle EMG (p=0.08, respectively. Finally, we found that a feature set determined by selecting optimal features from each channel outperformed the commonly used time domain (p<0.001 and time domain/autoregressive feature sets (p<0.01. This method can be used as a screening filter to select the features from each channel that provide the best classification of hand postures across different wrist positions.

  8. Classifying and Analyzing 3d Cell Motion in Jammed Microgels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Tapomoy; Sawyer, W. Gregory; Angelini, Thomas

    Soft granular polyelectrolyte microgels swell in liquid cell growth media to form a continuous elastic solid that can easily transition between solid to fluid state under a low shear stress. Such Liquid-like solids (LLS) have recently been used to create 3D cellular constructs as well as to support, culture and harvest cells in 3D. Current understanding of cell migration mechanics in 3D was established from experiments performed in natural and synthetic polymer networks. Spatial variation in network structure and the transience of degradable gels limit their usefulness in quantitative cell mechanics studies. By contrast, LLS growth media approximates a homogeneous continuum, enabling tractable cell mechanics measurements to be performed in 3D. Here, we introduce a process to understand and classify cytotoxic T cell motion in 3D by studying cellular motility in LLS media. General classification of T cell motion can be achieved with a very traditional statistical approach: the cell's mean squared displacement (MSD) as a function of delay time. We will also use Langevin approaches combined with the constitutive equations of the LLS medium to predict the statistics of T cell motion. National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1352043.

  9. Sensing human hand motions for controlling dexterous robots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth A.; Churchill, Philip J.; Little, Arthur D.

    1988-01-01

    The Dexterous Hand Master (DHM) system is designed to control dexterous robot hands such as the UTAH/MIT and Stanford/JPL hands. It is the first commercially available device which makes it possible to accurately and confortably track the complex motion of the human finger joints. The DHM is adaptable to a wide variety of human hand sizes and shapes, throughout their full range of motion.

  10. LOCALIZATION AND RECOGNITION OF DYNAMIC HAND GESTURES BASED ON HIERARCHY OF MANIFOLD CLASSIFIERS

    OpenAIRE

    M. Favorskaya; A. Nosov; A. Popov

    2015-01-01

    Generally, the dynamic hand gestures are captured in continuous video sequences, and a gesture recognition system ought to extract the robust features automatically. This task involves the highly challenging spatio-temporal variations of dynamic hand gestures. The proposed method is based on two-level manifold classifiers including the trajectory classifiers in any time instants and the posture classifiers of sub-gestures in selected time instants. The trajectory classifiers contain skin dete...

  11. Hand Motion Classification Using a Multi-Channel Surface Electromyography Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Sun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOF for achieving high-dexterity motions. Identifying and replicating human hand motions are necessary to perform precise and delicate operations in many applications, such as haptic applications. Surface electromyography (sEMG sensors are a low-cost method for identifying hand motions, in addition to the conventional methods that use data gloves and vision detection. The identification of multiple hand motions is challenging because the error rate typically increases significantly with the addition of more hand motions. Thus, the current study proposes two new methods for feature extraction to solve the problem above. The first method is the extraction of the energy ratio features in the time-domain, which are robust and invariant to motion forces and speeds for the same gesture. The second method is the extraction of the concordance correlation features that describe the relationship between every two channels of the multi-channel sEMG sensor system. The concordance correlation features of a multi-channel sEMG sensor system were shown to provide a vast amount of useful information for identification. Furthermore, a new cascaded-structure classifier is also proposed, in which 11 types of hand gestures can be identified accurately using the newly defined features. Experimental results show that the success rate for the identification of the 11 gestures is significantly high.

  12. Hand motion classification using a multi-channel surface electromyography sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xueyan; Liu, Yunhui; Lv, Congyi; Sun, Dong

    2012-01-01

    The human hand has multiple degrees of freedom (DOF) for achieving high-dexterity motions. Identifying and replicating human hand motions are necessary to perform precise and delicate operations in many applications, such as haptic applications. Surface electromyography (sEMG) sensors are a low-cost method for identifying hand motions, in addition to the conventional methods that use data gloves and vision detection. The identification of multiple hand motions is challenging because the error rate typically increases significantly with the addition of more hand motions. Thus, the current study proposes two new methods for feature extraction to solve the problem above. The first method is the extraction of the energy ratio features in the time-domain, which are robust and invariant to motion forces and speeds for the same gesture. The second method is the extraction of the concordance correlation features that describe the relationship between every two channels of the multi-channel sEMG sensor system. The concordance correlation features of a multi-channel sEMG sensor system were shown to provide a vast amount of useful information for identification. Furthermore, a new cascaded-structure classifier is also proposed, in which 11 types of hand gestures can be identified accurately using the newly defined features. Experimental results show that the success rate for the identification of the 11 gestures is significantly high.

  13. Effects of Age and Gender on Hand Motion Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wing Lok Au

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Wearable and wireless motion sensor devices have facilitated the automated computation of speed, amplitude, and rhythm of hand motion tasks. The aim of this study is to determine if there are any biological influences on these kinematic parameters. Methods. 80 healthy subjects performed hand motion tasks twice for each hand, with movements measured using a wireless motion sensor device (Kinesia, Cleveland Medical Devices Inc., Cleveland, OH. Multivariate analyses were performed with age, gender, and height added into the model. Results. Older subjects performed poorer in finger tapping (FT speed (r=0.593, p<0.001, hand-grasp (HG speed (r=0.517, p<0.001, and pronation-supination (PS speed (r=0.485, p<0.001. Men performed better in FT rhythm p<0.02, HG speed p<0.02, HG amplitude p<0.02, and HG rhythm p<0.05. Taller subjects performed better in the speed and amplitude components of FT p<0.02 and HG tasks p<0.02. After multivariate analyses, only age and gender emerged as significant independent factors influencing the speed but not the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. Gender exerted an independent influence only on HG speed, with better performance in men p<0.05. Conclusions. Age, gender, and height are not independent factors influencing the amplitude and rhythm components of hand motion tasks. The speed component is affected by age and gender differences.

  14. Hand Motion-Based Remote Control Interface with Vibrotactile Feedback for Home Robots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design and implementation of a hand-held interface system for the locomotion control of home robots. A handheld controller is proposed to implement hand motion recognition and hand motion-based robot control. The handheld controller can provide a ‘connect-and-play’ service for the users to control the home robot with visual and vibrotactile feedback. Six natural hand gestures are defined for navigating the home robots. A three-axis accelerometer is used to detect the hand motions of the user. The recorded acceleration data are analysed and classified to corresponding control commands according to their characteristic curves. A vibration motor is used to provide vibrotactile feedback to the user when an improper operation is performed. The performances of the proposed hand motion-based interface and the traditional keyboard and mouse interface have been compared in robot navigation experiments. The experimental results of home robot navigation show that the success rate of the handheld controller is 13.33% higher than the PC based controller. The precision of the handheld controller is 15.4% more than that of the PC and the execution time is 24.7% less than the PC based controller. This means that the proposed hand motion-based interface is more efficient and flexible.

  15. Human motion retrieval from hand-drawn sketch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Min-Wen; Lin, Chao-Hung; Assa, Jackie; Lee, Tong-Yee

    2012-05-01

    The rapid growth of motion capture data increases the importance of motion retrieval. The majority of the existing motion retrieval approaches are based on a labor-intensive step in which the user browses and selects a desired query motion clip from the large motion clip database. In this work, a novel sketching interface for defining the query is presented. This simple approach allows users to define the required motion by sketching several motion strokes over a drawn character, which requires less effort and extends the users’ expressiveness. To support the real-time interface, a specialized encoding of the motions and the hand-drawn query is required. Here, we introduce a novel hierarchical encoding scheme based on a set of orthonormal spherical harmonic (SH) basis functions, which provides a compact representation, and avoids the CPU/processing intensive stage of temporal alignment used by previous solutions. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can well retrieve the motions, and is capable of retrieve logically and numerically similar motions, which is superior to previous approaches. The user study shows that the proposed system can be a useful tool to input motion query if the users are familiar with it. Finally, an application of generating a 3D animation from a hand-drawn comics strip is demonstrated.

  16. Laban movement analysis to classify emotions from motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewan, Swati; Agarwal, Shubham; Singh, Navjyoti

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we present the study of Laban Movement Analysis (LMA) to understand basic human emotions from nonverbal human behaviors. While there are a lot of studies on understanding behavioral patterns based on natural language processing and speech processing applications, understanding emotions or behavior from non-verbal human motion is still a very challenging and unexplored field. LMA provides a rich overview of the scope of movement possibilities. These basic elements can be used for generating movement or for describing movement. They provide an inroad to understanding movement and for developing movement efficiency and expressiveness. Each human being combines these movement factors in his/her own unique way and organizes them to create phrases and relationships which reveal personal, artistic, or cultural style. In this work, we build a motion descriptor based on a deep understanding of Laban theory. The proposed descriptor builds up on previous works and encodes experiential features by using temporal windows. We present a more conceptually elaborate formulation of Laban theory and test it in a relatively new domain of behavioral research with applications in human-machine interaction. The recognition of affective human communication may be used to provide developers with a rich source of information for creating systems that are capable of interacting well with humans. We test our algorithm on UCLIC dataset which consists of body motions of 13 non-professional actors portraying angry, fear, happy and sad emotions. We achieve an accuracy of 87.30% on this dataset.

  17. Hand based visual intent recognition algorithm for wheelchair motion

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Luhandjula, T

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes an algorithm for a visual human-machine interface that infers a person’s intention from the motion of the hand. Work in progress shows a proof of concept tested on static images. The context for which this solution is intended...

  18. A motion-planning method for dexterous hand operating a tool based on bionic analysis

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    Wei Bo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to meet the needs of robot’s operating tools for different types and sizes, the dexterous hand is studied by many scientific research institutions. However, the large number of joints in a dexterous hand leads to the difficulty of motion planning. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes a planning method abased on BPNN inspired by human hands. Firstly, this paper analyses the structure and function of the human hand and summarizes its typical strategy of operation. Secondly, based on the manual operation strategy, the tools are classified according to the shape and the operation mode of the dexterous hand is presented. Thirdly, the BPNN is used to train the humanoid operation, and then output the operation plan. Finally, the simulating experiments of grasping simple tools and operating complex tools are made by MATLAB and ADAMS. The simulation verifies the effectiveness of this method.

  19. Grounding grammatical categories: attention bias in hand space influences grammatical congruency judgment of Chinese nominal classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobben, Marit; D'Ascenzo, Stefania

    2015-01-01

    Embodied cognitive theories predict that linguistic conceptual representations are grounded and continually represented in real world, sensorimotor experiences. However, there is an on-going debate on whether this also holds for abstract concepts. Grammar is the archetype of abstract knowledge, and therefore constitutes a test case against embodied theories of language representation. Former studies have largely focussed on lexical-level embodied representations. In the present study we take the grounding-by-modality idea a step further by using reaction time (RT) data from the linguistic processing of nominal classifiers in Chinese. We take advantage of an independent body of research, which shows that attention in hand space is biased. Specifically, objects near the hand consistently yield shorter RTs as a function of readiness for action on graspable objects within reaching space, and the same biased attention inhibits attentional disengagement. We predicted that this attention bias would equally apply to the graspable object classifier but not to the big object classifier. Chinese speakers (N = 22) judged grammatical congruency of classifier-noun combinations in two conditions: graspable object classifier and big object classifier. We found that RTs for the graspable object classifier were significantly faster in congruent combinations, and significantly slower in incongruent combinations, than the big object classifier. There was no main effect on grammatical violations, but rather an interaction effect of classifier type. Thus, we demonstrate here grammatical category-specific effects pertaining to the semantic content and by extension the visual and tactile modality of acquisition underlying the acquisition of these categories. We conclude that abstract grammatical categories are subjected to the same mechanisms as general cognitive and neurophysiological processes and may therefore be grounded.

  20. Working hand syndrome: A new definition of non-classified polyneuropathy condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Gökhan

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this paper was to define an unexplained non-classified polyneuropathy condition as a new neurological disease. This new diagnosis of occupation related polyneuropathy has been named as "WORKING HAND SYNDROME (WHS)."This study collected and compared clinic and electrophysiological analyze data from healthy controls, WHS patients, carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) patients and polyneuropathy patients. The WHS patients presented to the clinic with pain, numbness, tingling, and burning sensations in their hands that increased significantly during rest and nighttime. However, there was no weakness in the muscles, and the deep tendon reflexes were normal in this disease. The patients had all been working in physically demanding jobs requiring the use of their hands/arms for at least 1 year, but no vibrating tools were used by the patients. All of the cases were men. I supposed that overload caused by an action repeated chronically by the hand/arm may impair the sensory nerves in mentioned hand/arm. In patients with these complaints, for a definitive diagnosis, similar diseases must be excluded. Nonetheless, the specific electrophysiological finding that the sural nerves are normal on the lower sides, as well as the occurrence of sensory axonal polyneuropathy in the sensory nerves without a significant effect on velocity and latency in the work-ups of the upper extremity are enough to make a diagnosis.In conclusion, WHS has been defined as a polyneuropathy and occupational disease. Patients with WHS present with pain, numbness, tingling, and burning sensations in their hands that increases significantly during rest and nighttime. They also use their arms/hands for jobs that require heavy labor. The neurological examinations of patients with WHS are normal. Only the sensory nerves in the upper extremities are affected. This article is suggested to serve as a resource for patients, health care professionals, and members of the neurology community at large.

  1. Human Hand Motion Analysis and Synthesis of Optimal Power Grasps for a Robotic Hand

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    Francesca Cordella

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Biologically inspired robotic systems can find important applications in biomedical robotics, since studying and replicating human behaviour can provide new insights into motor recovery, functional substitution and human-robot interaction. The analysis of human hand motion is essential for collecting information about human hand movements useful for generalizing reaching and grasping actions on a robotic system. This paper focuses on the definition and extraction of quantitative indicators for describing optimal hand grasping postures and replicating them on an anthropomorphic robotic hand. A motion analysis has been carried out on six healthy human subjects performing a transverse volar grasp. The extracted indicators point to invariant grasping behaviours between the involved subjects, thus providing some constraints for identifying the optimal grasping configuration. Hence, an optimization algorithm based on the Nelder-Mead simplex method has been developed for determining the optimal grasp configuration of a robotic hand, grounded on the aforementioned constraints. It is characterized by a reduced computational cost. The grasp stability has been tested by introducing a quality index that satisfies the form-closure property. The grasping strategy has been validated by means of simulation tests and experimental trials on an arm-hand robotic system. The obtained results have shown the effectiveness of the extracted indicators to reduce the non-linear optimization problem complexity and lead to the synthesis of a grasping posture able to replicate the human behaviour while ensuring grasp stability. The experimental results have also highlighted the limitations of the adopted robotic platform (mainly due to the mechanical structure to achieve the optimal grasp configuration.

  2. Using Fuzzy Gaussian Inference and Genetic Programming to Classify 3D Human Motions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khoury, Mehdi; Liu, Honghai

    This research introduces and builds on the concept of Fuzzy Gaussian Inference (FGI) (Khoury and Liu in Proceedings of UKCI, 2008 and IEEE Workshop on Robotic Intelligence in Informationally Structured Space (RiiSS 2009), 2009) as a novel way to build Fuzzy Membership Functions that map to hidden Probability Distributions underlying human motions. This method is now combined with a Genetic Programming Fuzzy rule-based system in order to classify boxing moves from natural human Motion Capture data. In this experiment, FGI alone is able to recognise seven different boxing stances simultaneously with an accuracy superior to a GMM-based classifier. Results seem to indicate that adding an evolutionary Fuzzy Inference Engine on top of FGI improves the accuracy of the classifier in a consistent way.

  3. Evaluation of classifier topologies for the real-time classification of simultaneous limb motions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Catalan, Max; Branemark, Rickard; Hakansson, Bo

    2013-01-01

    The prediction of motion intent through the decoding of myoelectric signals has the potential to improve the functionally of limb prostheses. Considerable research on individual motion classifiers has been done to exploit this idea. A drawback with the individual prediction approach, however, is its limitation to serial control, which is slow, cumbersome, and unnatural. In this work, different classifier topologies suitable for the decoding of mixed classes, and thus capable of predicting simultaneous motions, were investigated in real-time. These topologies resulted in higher offline accuracies than previously achieved, but more importantly, positive indications of their suitability for real-time systems were found. Furthermore, in order to facilitate further development, benchmarking, and cooperation, the algorithms and data generated in this study are freely available as part of BioPatRec, an open source framework for the development of advanced prosthetic control strategies.

  4. Identification of motion from multi-channel EMG signals for control of prosthetic hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geethanjali, P.; Ray, K.K.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: The authors in this paper propose an effective and efficient pattern recognition technique from four channel electromyogram (EMG) signals for control of multifunction prosthetic hand. Time domain features such as mean absolute value, number of zero crossings, number of slope sign changes and waveform length are considered for pattern recognition. The patterns are classified using simple logistic regression (SLR) technique and decision tree (DT) using J48 algorithm. In this study six specific hand and wrist motions are identified from the EMG signals obtained from ten different able-bodied. By considering relevant dominant features for pattern recognition, the processing time as well as memory space of the SLR and DT classifiers is found to be less in comparison with neural network (NN), k-nearest neighbour model 1 (kNN Model-1), k-nearest neighbour model 2 (kNN-Model-2) and linear discriminant analysis. The classification accuracy of SLR classifier is found to be 91 ± 1.9%. (author)

  5. Block-classified bidirectional motion compensation scheme for wavelet-decomposed digital video

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, S. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Mathematics and Computer Science Div.; Zhang, Y.Q. [David Sarnoff Research Center, Princeton, NJ (United States); Jabbari, B. [George Mason Univ., Fairfax, VA (United States)

    1997-08-01

    In this paper the authors introduce a block-classified bidirectional motion compensation scheme for the previously developed wavelet-based video codec, where multiresolution motion estimation is performed in the wavelet domain. The frame classification structure described in this paper is similar to that used in the MPEG standard. Specifically, the I-frames are intraframe coded, the P-frames are interpolated from a previous I- or a P-frame, and the B-frames are bidirectional interpolated frames. They apply this frame classification structure to the wavelet domain with variable block sizes and multiresolution representation. They use a symmetric bidirectional scheme for the B-frames and classify the motion blocks as intraframe, compensated either from the preceding or the following frame, or bidirectional (i.e., compensated based on which type yields the minimum energy). They also introduce the concept of F-frames, which are analogous to P-frames but are predicted from the following frame only. This improves the overall quality of the reconstruction in a group of pictures (GOP) but at the expense of extra buffering. They also study the effect of quantization of the I-frames on the reconstruction of a GOP, and they provide intuitive explanation for the results. In addition, the authors study a variety of wavelet filter-banks to be used in a multiresolution motion-compensated hierarchical video codec.

  6. Development of virtual reality exercise of hand motion assist robot for rehabilitation therapy by patient self-motion control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Satoshi; Nishimoto, Yutaka; Abe, Motoyuki; Kawasaki, Haruhisa; Ito, Satoshi; Ishigure, Yasuhiko; Mizumoto, Jun; Ojika, Takeo

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a virtual reality-enhanced hand rehabilitation support system with a symmetric master-slave motion assistant for independent rehabilitation therapies. Our aim is to provide fine motion exercise for a hand and fingers, which allows the impaired hand of a patient to be driven by his or her healthy hand on the opposite side. Since most disabilities caused by cerebral vascular accidents or bone fractures are hemiplegic, we adopted a symmetric master-slave motion assistant system in which the impaired hand is driven by the healthy hand on the opposite side. A VR environment displaying an effective exercise was created in consideration of system's characteristic. To verify the effectiveness of this system, a clinical test was executed by applying to six patients.

  7. Hand/Eye Coordination For Fine Robotic Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokshin, Anatole M.

    1992-01-01

    Fine motions of robotic manipulator controlled with help of visual feedback by new method reducing position errors by order of magnitude. Robotic vision subsystem includes five cameras: three stationary ones providing wide-angle views of workspace and two mounted on wrist of auxiliary robot arm. Stereoscopic cameras on arm give close-up views of object and end effector. Cameras measure errors between commanded and actual positions and/or provide data for mapping between visual and manipulator-joint-angle coordinates.

  8. Hand motion modeling for psychology analysis in job interview using optical flow-history motion image: OF-HMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalifa, Intissar; Ejbali, Ridha; Zaied, Mourad

    2018-04-01

    To survive the competition, companies always think about having the best employees. The selection is depended on the answers to the questions of the interviewer and the behavior of the candidate during the interview session. The study of this behavior is always based on a psychological analysis of the movements accompanying the answers and discussions. Few techniques are proposed until today to analyze automatically candidate's non verbal behavior. This paper is a part of a work psychology recognition system; it concentrates in spontaneous hand gesture which is very significant in interviews according to psychologists. We propose motion history representation of hand based on an hybrid approach that merges optical flow and history motion images. The optical flow technique is used firstly to detect hand motions in each frame of a video sequence. Secondly, we use the history motion images (HMI) to accumulate the output of the optical flow in order to have finally a good representation of the hand`s local movement in a global temporal template.

  9. To Classify Spontaneous Motion Intention of Step Size by Using Cerebral Hemoglobin Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Kai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To improve the effect of walking-assistive devices, there is a need for it to develop devices controlled by spontaneous intention of patients. In recent study, we identified spontaneous motion intention of walking step based on cerebral hemoglobin information. Twenty healthy subjects performed walking tasks in three levels of step size (small, normal and large. According to distribution features of signals’ power spectral-density, six frequency bands (0-0.18Hz with an interval of 0.03Hz for each band width divided by applying wavelet packets decomposition were mainly analyzed. Feature vectors were extracted from the difference between oxygenated hemoglobin (oxyHb and deoxygenated hemoglobin (dexoyHb in different measuring channels in the six frequency bands. Support vector machine (SVM method was utilized to classify the three levels of step sizes. Mean recognition accuracy achieved up to 83.3%. The result indicated that it is possible to identify spontaneous walking by using cerebral hemoglobin information. This is helpful for enhancing the intelligence of walking-assistive devices and motivating the active control of patients, which further is profitable for enhancing self-confidence of patients.

  10. An Enhanced Intelligent Handheld Instrument with Visual Servo Control for 2-DOF Hand Motion Error Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Naing Aye

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The intelligent handheld instrument, ITrem2, enhances manual positioning accuracy by cancelling erroneous hand movements and, at the same time, provides automatic micromanipulation functions. Visual data is acquired from a high speed monovision camera attached to the optical surgical microscope and acceleration measurements are acquired from the inertial measurement unit (IMU on board ITrem2. Tremor estimation and canceling is implemented via Band-limited Multiple Fourier Linear Combiner (BMFLC filter. The piezoelectric actuated micromanipulator in ITrem2 generates the 3D motion to compensate erroneous hand motion. Preliminary bench-top 2-DOF experiments have been conducted. The error motions simulated by a motion stage is reduced by 67% for multiple frequency oscillatory motions and 56.16% for pre-conditioned recorded physiological tremor.

  11. A video-based system for hand-driven stop-motion animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xiaoguang; Fu, Hongbo; Zheng, Hanlin; Liu, Ligang; Wang, Jue

    2013-01-01

    Stop-motion is a well-established animation technique but is often laborious and requires craft skills. A new video-based system can animate the vast majority of everyday objects in stop-motion style, more flexibly and intuitively. Animators can perform and capture motions continuously instead of breaking them into increments and shooting one still picture per increment. More important, the system permits direct hand manipulation without resorting to rigs, achieving more natural object control for beginners. The system's key component is two-phase keyframe-based capturing and processing, assisted by computer vision techniques. With this system, even amateurs can generate high-quality stop-motion animations.

  12. Hand motion segmentation against skin colour background in breast awareness applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuqin; Naguib, Raouf N G; Todman, Alison G; Amin, Saad A; Al-Omishy, Hassanein; Oikonomou, Andreas; Tucker, Nick

    2004-01-01

    Skin colour modelling and classification play significant roles in face and hand detection, recognition and tracking. A hand is an essential tool used in breast self-examination, which needs to be detected and analysed during the process of breast palpation. However, the background of a woman's moving hand is her breast that has the same or similar colour as the hand. Additionally, colour images recorded by a web camera are strongly affected by the lighting or brightness conditions. Hence, it is a challenging task to segment and track the hand against the breast without utilising any artificial markers, such as coloured nail polish. In this paper, a two-dimensional Gaussian skin colour model is employed in a particular way to identify a breast but not a hand. First, an input image is transformed to YCbCr colour space, which is less sensitive to the lighting conditions and more tolerant of skin tone. The breast, thus detected by the Gaussian skin model, is used as the baseline or framework for the hand motion. Secondly, motion cues are used to segment the hand motion against the detected baseline. Desired segmentation results have been achieved and the robustness of this algorithm is demonstrated in this paper.

  13. Comparing Machine Learning Classifiers and Linear/Logistic Regression to Explore the Relationship between Hand Dimensions and Demographic Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel-Hurtado, Oscar; Guest, Richard; Stevenage, Sarah V; Neil, Greg J; Black, Sue

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between physiological measurements from human subjects and their demographic data is important within both the biometric and forensic domains. In this paper we explore the relationship between measurements of the human hand and a range of demographic features. We assess the ability of linear regression and machine learning classifiers to predict demographics from hand features, thereby providing evidence on both the strength of relationship and the key features underpinning this relationship. Our results show that we are able to predict sex, height, weight and foot size accurately within various data-range bin sizes, with machine learning classification algorithms out-performing linear regression in most situations. In addition, we identify the features used to provide these relationships applicable across multiple applications.

  14. Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand and its flow field during sculling motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hideki; Shimada, Shohei; Miwa, Takahiro; Kudo, Shigetada; Sanders, Ross; Matsuuchi, Kazuo

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this research is to clarify the mechanism by which unsteady forces are generated during sculling by a skilled swimmer and thereby to contribute to improving propulsive techniques. We used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to acquire data on the kinematics of the hand during sculling, such as fluid forces and flow field. By investigating the correlations between these data, we expected to find a new propulsion mechanism. The experiment was performed in a flow-controlled water channel. The participant executed sculling motions to remain at a fixed position despite constant water flow. PIV was used to visualize the flow-field cross-section in the plane of hand motion. Moreover, the fluid forces acting on the hand were estimated from pressure distribution measurements performed on the hand and simultaneous three-dimensional motion analysis. By executing the sculling motion, a skilled swimmer produces large unsteady fluid forces when the leading-edge vortex occurs on the dorsal side of the hand and wake capture occurs on the palm side. By using a new approach, we observed interesting unsteady fluid phenomena similar to those of flying insects. The study indicates that it is essential for swimmers to fully exploit vortices. A better understanding of these phenomena might lead to an improvement in sculling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Entropic Movement Complexity Reflects Subjective Creativity Rankings of Visualized Hand Motion Trajectories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhen; Braun, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study we have shown that human motion trajectories can be characterized by translating continuous trajectories into symbol sequences with well-defined complexity measures. Here we test the hypothesis that the motion complexity individuals generate in their movements might be correlated to the degree of creativity assigned by a human observer to the visualized motion trajectories. We asked participants to generate 55 novel hand movement patterns in virtual reality, where each pattern had to be repeated 10 times in a row to ensure reproducibility. This allowed us to estimate a probability distribution over trajectories for each pattern. We assessed motion complexity not only by the previously proposed complexity measures on symbolic sequences, but we also propose two novel complexity measures that can be directly applied to the distributions over trajectories based on the frameworks of Gaussian Processes and Probabilistic Movement Primitives. In contrast to previous studies, these new methods allow computing complexities of individual motion patterns from very few sample trajectories. We compared the different complexity measures to how a group of independent jurors rank ordered the recorded motion trajectories according to their personal creativity judgment. We found three entropic complexity measures that correlate significantly with human creativity judgment and discuss differences between the measures. We also test whether these complexity measures correlate with individual creativity in divergent thinking tasks, but do not find any consistent correlation. Our results suggest that entropic complexity measures of hand motion may reveal domain-specific individual differences in kinesthetic creativity. PMID:26733896

  16. Integration Head Mounted Display Device and Hand Motion Gesture Device for Virtual Reality Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rengganis, Y. A.; Safrodin, M.; Sukaridhoto, S.

    2018-01-01

    Virtual Reality Laboratory (VR Lab) is an innovation for conventional learning media which show us whole learning process in laboratory. There are many tools and materials are needed by user for doing practical in it, so user could feel new learning atmosphere by using this innovation. Nowadays, technologies more sophisticated than before. So it would carry in education and it will be more effective, efficient. The Supported technologies are needed us for making VR Lab such as head mounted display device and hand motion gesture device. The integration among them will be used us for making this research. Head mounted display device for viewing 3D environment of virtual reality laboratory. Hand motion gesture device for catching user real hand and it will be visualized in virtual reality laboratory. Virtual Reality will show us, if using the newest technologies in learning process it could make more interesting and easy to understand.

  17. Smart Sensor-Based Motion Detection System for Hand Movement Training in Open Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xinyao; Byrns, Simon; Cheng, Irene; Zheng, Bin; Basu, Anup

    2017-02-01

    We introduce a smart sensor-based motion detection technique for objective measurement and assessment of surgical dexterity among users at different experience levels. The goal is to allow trainees to evaluate their performance based on a reference model shared through communication technology, e.g., the Internet, without the physical presence of an evaluating surgeon. While in the current implementation we used a Leap Motion Controller to obtain motion data for analysis, our technique can be applied to motion data captured by other smart sensors, e.g., OptiTrack. To differentiate motions captured from different participants, measurement and assessment in our approach are achieved using two strategies: (1) low level descriptive statistical analysis, and (2) Hidden Markov Model (HMM) classification. Based on our surgical knot tying task experiment, we can conclude that finger motions generated from users with different surgical dexterity, e.g., expert and novice performers, display differences in path length, number of movements and task completion time. In order to validate the discriminatory ability of HMM for classifying different movement patterns, a non-surgical task was included in our analysis. Experimental results demonstrate that our approach had 100 % accuracy in discriminating between expert and novice performances. Our proposed motion analysis technique applied to open surgical procedures is a promising step towards the development of objective computer-assisted assessment and training systems.

  18. Feasibility of an AI-Based Measure of the Hand Motions of Expert and Novice Surgeons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munenori Uemura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated whether parameters derived from hand motions of expert and novice surgeons accurately and objectively reflect laparoscopic surgical skill levels using an artificial intelligence system consisting of a three-layer chaos neural network. Sixty-seven surgeons (23 experts and 44 novices performed a laparoscopic skill assessment task while their hand motions were recorded using a magnetic tracking sensor. Eight parameters evaluated as measures of skill in a previous study were used as inputs to the neural network. Optimization of the neural network was achieved after seven trials with a training dataset of 38 surgeons, with a correct judgment ratio of 0.99. The neural network that prospectively worked with the remaining 29 surgeons had a correct judgment rate of 79% for distinguishing between expert and novice surgeons. In conclusion, our artificial intelligence system distinguished between expert and novice surgeons among surgeons with unknown skill levels.

  19. Postural stability when walking and exposed to lateral oscillatory motion: benefits from hand supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayık, Hatice Müjde; Griffin, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    While walking on a treadmill, 20 subjects experienced lateral oscillations: frequencies from 0.5 to 2 Hz and velocities from 0.05 to 0.16 m s(- 1) rms. Postural stability was indicated by ratings of 'discomfort or difficulty in walking', the movement of the centre of pressure beneath the feet and lateral forces applied to a hand support. Hand support improved postural stability with all frequencies and all velocities of oscillatory motion: the lateral velocity of the centre of pressure reduced by 30-50% when using support throughout motion, by 20-30% when instructed to use the support only when required and by 15% during normal walking without oscillation. Improvements in stability, and the forces applied to the hand support, were independent of support height when used continuously throughout motion. When support was used only when required, subjects preferred to hold it 118-134 cm above the surface supporting the feet.

  20. Effectiveness of adaptive silverware on range of motion of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan S. McDonald

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hand function is essential to a person’s self-efficacy and greatly affects quality of life. Adapted utensils with handles of increased diameters have historically been used to assist individuals with arthritis or other hand disabilities for feeding, and other related activities of daily living. To date, minimal research has examined the biomechanical effects of modified handles, or quantified the differences in ranges of motion (ROM when using a standard versus a modified handle. The aim of this study was to quantify the ranges of motion (ROM required for a healthy hand to use different adaptive spoons with electrogoniometry for the purpose of understanding the physiologic advantages that adapted spoons may provide patients with limited ROM. Methods. Hand measurements included the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP, proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP, and metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP for each finger and the interphalangeal (IP and MCP joint for the thumb. Participants were 34 females age 18–30 (mean age 20.38 ± 1.67 with no previous hand injuries or abnormalities. Participants grasped spoons with standard handles, and spoons with handle diameters of 3.18 cm (1.25 inch, and 4.45 cm (1.75 inch. ROM measurements were obtained with an electrogoniometer to record the angle at each joint for each of the spoon handle sizes. Results. A 3 × 3 × 4 repeated measures ANOVA (Spoon handle size by Joint by Finger found main effects on ROM of Joint (F(2, 33 = 318.68, Partial η2 = .95, p < .001, Spoon handle size (F(2, 33 = 598.73, Partial η2 = .97, p < .001, and Finger (F(3, 32 = 163.83, Partial η2 = .94, p < .001. As the spoon handle diameter size increased, the range of motion utilized to grasp the spoon handle decreased in all joints and all fingers (p < 0.01. Discussion. This study confirms the hypothesis that less range of motion is required to grip utensils with larger diameter handles, which in turn may reduce challenges for

  1. Modeling of hand function by mapping the motion of individual muscle voxels with MR imaging velocity tagging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drace, J.; Pele, N.; Herfkens, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on a method to correlate the three-dimensional (3D) motion of the fingers with the complex motion of the intrinsic, flexor, and extensor muscles. A better understanding of hand function is important to the medical, surgical, and rehabilitation treatment of patients with arthritic, neurogenic, and mechanical hand dysfunctions. Static, high-resolution MR volumetric imaging defines the 3D shape of each individual bone in the hands of three subjects and three patients. Single-section velocity-tagging sequences (VIGOR) are performed through the hand and forearm, while the actual 3D motion of the hand is computed from the MR model and readings of fiber-optic goniometers attached to each finger. The accuracy of the velocity tagging is also tested with a motion phantom

  2. Development of a robotic evaluation system for the ability of proprioceptive sensation in slow hand motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Yoshiyuki; Mizoe, Genki; Kawaguchi, Tomohiro

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a simple diagnostic methodology for checking the ability of proprioceptive/kinesthetic sensation by using a robotic device. The perception ability of virtual frictional forces is examined in operations of the robotic device by the hand at a uniform slow velocity along the virtual straight/circular path. Experimental results by healthy subjects demonstrate that percentage of correct answers for the designed perceptual tests changes in the motion direction as well as the arm configuration and the HFM (human force manipulability) measure. It can be supposed that the proposed methodology can be applied into the early detection of neuromuscular/neurological disorders.

  3. Atypical activation of the mirror neuron system during perception of hand motion in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Joëlle; Andersson, Frédéric; Barthélémy, Catherine; Cottier, Jean-Philippe; Destrieux, Christophe

    2010-03-12

    Disorders in the autism spectrum are characterized by deficits in social and communication skills such as imitation, pragmatic language, theory of mind, and empathy. The discovery of the "mirror neuron system" (MNS) in macaque monkeys may provide a basis from which to explain some of the behavioral dysfunctions seen in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD).We studied seven right-handed high-functioning male autistic and eight normal subjects (TD group) using functional magnetic resonance imaging during observation and execution of hand movements compared to a control condition (rest). The between group comparison of the contrast [observation versus rest] provided evidence of a bilateral greater activation of inferior frontal gyrus during observation of human motion than during rest for the ASD group than for the TD group. This hyperactivation of the pars opercularis (belonging to the MNS) during observation of human motion in autistic subjects provides strong support for the hypothesis of atypical activity of the MNS that may be at the core of the social deficits in autism. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The scaling behavior of hand motions reveals self-organization during an executive function task

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anastas, Jason R.; Stephen, Damian G.; Dixon, James A.

    2011-05-01

    Recent approaches to cognition explain cognitive phenomena in terms of interaction-dominant dynamics. In the current experiment, we extend this approach to executive function, a construct used to describe flexible, goal-oriented behavior. Participants were asked to perform a widely used executive function task, card sorting, under two conditions. In one condition, participants were given a rule with which to sort the cards. In the other condition, participants had to induce the rule from experimenter feedback. The motion of each participant’s hand was tracked during the sorting task. Detrended fluctuation analysis was performed on the inter-point time series using a windowing strategy to capture changes over each trial. For participants in the induction condition, the Hurst exponent sharply increased and then decreased. The Hurst exponents for the explicit condition did not show this pattern. Our results suggest that executive function may be understood in terms of changes in stability that arise from interaction-dominant dynamics.

  5. Identification of hand motion using background subtraction method and extraction of image binary with backpropagation neural network on skeleton model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauziah; Wibowo, E. P.; Madenda, S.; Hustinawati

    2018-03-01

    Capturing and recording motion in human is mostly done with the aim for sports, health, animation films, criminality, and robotic applications. In this study combined background subtraction and back propagation neural network. This purpose to produce, find similarity movement. The acquisition process using 8 MP resolution camera MP4 format, duration 48 seconds, 30frame/rate. video extracted produced 1444 pieces and results hand motion identification process. Phase of image processing performed is segmentation process, feature extraction, identification. Segmentation using bakground subtraction, extracted feature basically used to distinguish between one object to another object. Feature extraction performed by using motion based morfology analysis based on 7 invariant moment producing four different classes motion: no object, hand down, hand-to-side and hands-up. Identification process used to recognize of hand movement using seven inputs. Testing and training with a variety of parameters tested, it appears that architecture provides the highest accuracy in one hundred hidden neural network. The architecture is used propagate the input value of the system implementation process into the user interface. The result of the identification of the type of the human movement has been clone to produce the highest acuracy of 98.5447%. The training process is done to get the best results.

  6. Evaluation of Real-Time Hand Motion Tracking Using a Range Camera and the Mean-Shift Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, H.; Lichti, D.

    2011-09-01

    Several sensors have been tested for improving the interaction between humans and machines including traditional web cameras, special gloves, haptic devices, cameras providing stereo pairs of images and range cameras. Meanwhile, several methods are described in the literature for tracking hand motion: the Kalman filter, the mean-shift algorithm and the condensation algorithm. In this research, the combination of a range camera and the simple version of the mean-shift algorithm has been evaluated for its capability for hand motion tracking. The evaluation was assessed in terms of position accuracy of the tracking trajectory in x, y and z directions in the camera space and the time difference between image acquisition and image display. Three parameters have been analyzed regarding their influence on the tracking process: the speed of the hand movement, the distance between the camera and the hand and finally the integration time of the camera. Prior to the evaluation, the required warm-up time of the camera has been measured. This study has demonstrated the suitability of the range camera used in combination with the mean-shift algorithm for real-time hand motion tracking but for very high speed hand movement in the traverse plane with respect to the camera, the tracking accuracy is low and requires improvement.

  7. 3D hand motion trajectory prediction from EEG mu and beta bandpower.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korik, A; Sosnik, R; Siddique, N; Coyle, D

    2016-01-01

    A motion trajectory prediction (MTP) - based brain-computer interface (BCI) aims to reconstruct the three-dimensional (3D) trajectory of upper limb movement using electroencephalography (EEG). The most common MTP BCI employs a time series of bandpass-filtered EEG potentials (referred to here as the potential time-series, PTS, model) for reconstructing the trajectory of a 3D limb movement using multiple linear regression. These studies report the best accuracy when a 0.5-2Hz bandpass filter is applied to the EEG. In the present study, we show that spatiotemporal power distribution of theta (4-8Hz), mu (8-12Hz), and beta (12-28Hz) bands are more robust for movement trajectory decoding when the standard PTS approach is replaced with time-varying bandpower values of a specified EEG band, ie, with a bandpower time-series (BTS) model. A comprehensive analysis comprising of three subjects performing pointing movements with the dominant right arm toward six targets is presented. Our results show that the BTS model produces significantly higher MTP accuracy (R~0.45) compared to the standard PTS model (R~0.2). In the case of the BTS model, the highest accuracy was achieved across the three subjects typically in the mu (8-12Hz) and low-beta (12-18Hz) bands. Additionally, we highlight a limitation of the commonly used PTS model and illustrate how this model may be suboptimal for decoding motion trajectory relevant information. Although our results, showing that the mu and beta bands are prominent for MTP, are not in line with other MTP studies, they are consistent with the extensive literature on classical multiclass sensorimotor rhythm-based BCI studies (classification of limbs as opposed to motion trajectory prediction), which report the best accuracy of imagined limb movement classification using power values of mu and beta frequency bands. The methods proposed here provide a positive step toward noninvasive decoding of imagined 3D hand movements for movement-free BCIs.

  8. Clinical effectiveness of combined virtual reality and robot assisted fine hand motion rehabilitation in subacute stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianwei; Naghdy, Fazel; Naghdy, Golshah; Du, Haiping

    2017-07-01

    Robot-assisted therapy is regarded as an effective and reliable method for the delivery of highly repetitive rehabilitation training in restoring motor skills after a stroke. This study focuses on the rehabilitation of fine hand motion skills due to their vital role in performing delicate activities of daily living (ADL) tasks. The proposed rehabilitation system combines an adaptive assist-as-needed (AAN) control algorithm and a Virtual Reality (VR) based rehabilitation gaming system (RGS). The developed system is described and its effectiveness is validated through clinical trials on a group of eight subacute stroke patients for a period of six weeks. The impact of the training is verified through standard clinical evaluation methods and measuring key kinematic parameters. A comparison of the pre- and post-training results indicates that the method proposed in this study can improve fine hand motion rehabilitation training effectiveness.

  9. 3D pose estimation and motion analysis of the articulated human hand-forearm limb in an industrial production environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Markus; Barrois, Björn; Krüger, Lars; Wöhler, Christian; Sagerer, Gerhard; Kummert, Franz

    2010-09-01

    This study introduces an approach to model-based 3D pose estimation and instantaneous motion analysis of the human hand-forearm limb in the application context of safe human-robot interaction. 3D pose estimation is performed using two approaches: The Multiocular Contracting Curve Density (MOCCD) algorithm is a top-down technique based on pixel statistics around a contour model projected into the images from several cameras. The Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm is a bottom-up approach which uses a motion-attributed 3D point cloud to estimate the object pose. Due to their orthogonal properties, a fusion of these algorithms is shown to be favorable. The fusion is performed by a weighted combination of the extracted pose parameters in an iterative manner. The analysis of object motion is based on the pose estimation result and the motion-attributed 3D points belonging to the hand-forearm limb using an extended constraint-line approach which does not rely on any temporal filtering. A further refinement is obtained using the Shape Flow algorithm, a temporal extension of the MOCCD approach, which estimates the temporal pose derivative based on the current and the two preceding images, corresponding to temporal filtering with a short response time of two or at most three frames. Combining the results of the two motion estimation stages provides information about the instantaneous motion properties of the object. Experimental investigations are performed on real-world image sequences displaying several test persons performing different working actions typically occurring in an industrial production scenario. In all example scenes, the background is cluttered, and the test persons wear various kinds of clothes. For evaluation, independently obtained ground truth data are used. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. Registration-based segmentation with articulated model from multipostural magnetic resonance images for hand bone motion animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsin-Chen; Jou, I-Ming; Wang, Chien-Kuo; Su, Fong-Chin; Sun, Yung-Nien

    2010-06-01

    obtain more accurate segmentation results automatically. Moreover, realistic hand motion animations can be generated based on the bone segmentation results. The proposed method is found helpful for understanding hand bone geometries in dynamic postures that can be used in simulating 3D hand motion through multipostural MR images.

  11. Quality control of structural MRI images applied using FreeSurfer - a hands-on workflow to rate motion artifacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Luise Backhausen

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In structural magnetic resonance imaging motion artifacts are common, especially when not scanning healthy young adults. It has been shown that motion affects the analysis with automated image-processing techniques (e.g. FreeSurfer. This can bias results. Several developmental and adult studies have found reduced volume and thickness of gray matter due to motion artifacts. Thus, quality control is necessary in order to ensure an acceptable level of quality and to define exclusion criteria of images (i.e. determine participants with most severe artifacts. However, information about the quality control workflow and image exclusion procedure is largely lacking in the current literature and the existing rating systems differ. Here we propose a stringent workflow of quality control steps during and after acquisition of T1-weighted images, which enables researchers dealing with populations that are typically affected by motion artifacts to enhance data quality and maximize sample sizes. As an underlying aim we established a thorough quality control rating system for T1-weighted images and applied it to the analysis of developmental clinical data using the automated processing pipeline FreeSurfer. This hands-on workflow and quality control rating system will aid researchers in minimizing motion artifacts in the final data set, and therefore enhance the quality of structural magnetic resonance imaging studies.

  12. Modular finger and hand motion capturing system based on inertial and magnetic sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valtin Markus

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of hand posture and kinematics is increasingly important in various fields. This includes the rehabilitation of stroke survivors with restricted hand function. This paper presents a modular, ambulatory measurement system for the assement of the remaining hand function and for closed-loop controlled therapy. The device is based on inertial sensors and utilizes up to five interchangeable sensor strips to achieve modularity and to simplify the sensor attachment. We introduce the modular hardware design and describe algorithms used to calculate the joint angles. Measurements with two experimental setups demonstrate the feasibility and the potential of such a tracking device.

  13. Growing in Motion: The Circulation of Used Things on Second-hand Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Staffan Appelgren; Anna Bohlin

    2015-01-01

    From having been associated with poverty and low status, the commerce with second-hand goods in retro shops, flea markets, vintage boutiques and trade via Internet is expanding in Sweden as in many countries in the Global North. This article argues that a significant aspect of the recent interest in second-hand and reuse concerns the meaning fulness of circulation in social life. Using classic anthropological theory on how the circulation of material culture generates sociality, it focuses on...

  14. A qualitative motion analysis study of voluntary hand movement induced by music in patients with Rett syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, Tohshin; Mitani, Asako

    2009-01-01

    Patients with Rett syndrome are known to respond well to music irrespective of their physical and verbal disabilities. Therefore, the relationship between auditory rhythm and their behavior was investigated employing a two-dimensional motion analysis system. Ten female patients aged from three to 17 years were included. When music with a simple regular rhythm started, body rocking appeared automatically in a back and forth direction in all four patients who showed the same rocking motion as their stereotyped movement. Through this body rocking, voluntary movement of the hand increased gradually, and finally became sufficient to beat a tambourine. However, the induction of body rocking by music was not observed in the other six patients who did not show stereotyped body rocking in a back and forth direction. When the music stopped suddenly, voluntary movement of the hand disappeared. When the music changed from a simple regular rhythm to a continuous tone without an auditory rhythm, the periodic movement of both the hand and body prolonged. Auditory rhythm shows a close relationship with body movement and facilitates synchronized body movement. This mechanism was demonstrated to be preserved in some patients with Rett syndrome, and stimulation with music could be utilized for their rehabilitation.

  15. A qualitative motion analysis study of voluntary hand movement induced by music in patients with Rett syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tohshin Go

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Tohshin Go1, Asako Mitani21Center for Baby Science, Doshisha University, Kizugawa, Kyoto, Japan; 2Independent Music Therapist (Poco A Poco Music Room, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with Rett syndrome are known to respond well to music irrespective of their physical and verbal disabilities. Therefore, the relationship between auditory rhythm and their behavior was investigated employing a two-dimensional motion analysis system. Ten female patients aged from three to 17 years were included. When music with a simple regular rhythm started, body rocking appeared automatically in a back and forth direction in all four patients who showed the same rocking motion as their stereotyped movement. Through this body rocking, voluntary movement of the hand increased gradually, and finally became sufficient to beat a tambourine. However, the induction of body rocking by music was not observed in the other six patients who did not show stereotyped body rocking in a back and forth direction. When the music stopped suddenly, voluntary movement of the hand disappeared. When the music changed from a simple regular rhythm to a continuous tone without an auditory rhythm, the periodic movement of both the hand and body prolonged. Auditory rhythm shows a close relationship with body movement and facilitates synchronized body movement. This mechanism was demonstrated to be preserved in some patients with Rett syndrome, and stimulation with music could be utilized for their rehabilitation.Keywords: Rett syndrome, music, auditory rhythm, stereotyped movement, body rocking, voluntary movement

  16. A Hands-on Exploration of the Retrograde Motion of Mars as Seen from the Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pincelli, M. M.; Otranto, S.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a set of activities based on the use of a celestial simulator to gain insights into the retrograde motion of Mars as seen from the Earth. These activities provide a useful link between the heliocentric concepts taught in schools and those tackled in typical introductory physics courses based on classical mechanics for…

  17. Growing in Motion: The Circulation of Used Things on Second-hand Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Staffan Appelgren

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available From having been associated with poverty and low status, the commerce with second-hand goods in retro shops, flea markets, vintage boutiques and trade via Internet is expanding in Sweden as in many countries in the Global North. This article argues that a significant aspect of the recent interest in second-hand and reuse concerns the meaning fulness of circulation in social life. Using classic anthropological theory on how the circulation of material culture generates sociality, it focuses on how second-hand things are transformed by their circulation. Rather than merely having cultural biographies, second-hand things are reconfigured through their shifts between different social contexts in a process that here is understood as a form of growing. Similar to that of an organism, this growth is continuous, irreversible and dependent on forces both internal and external to it. What emerges is a category of things that combine elements of both commodities and gifts, as these have been theorized within anthropology. While first cycle commodities are purified of their sociality, the hybrid second-hand thing derives its ontological status as well as social and commercial value precisely from retaining "gift qualities", produced by its circulation.

  18. A multi-DOF robotic exoskeleton interface for hand motion assistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Jamshed; Tsagarakis, Nikos G; Caldwell, Darwin G

    2011-01-01

    This paper outlines the design and development of a robotic exoskeleton based rehabilitation system. A portable direct-driven optimized hand exoskeleton system has been proposed. The optimization procedure primarily based on matching the exoskeleton and finger workspaces guided the system design. The selection of actuators for the proposed system has emerged as a result of experiments with users of different hand sizes. Using commercial sensors, various hand parameters, e.g. maximum and average force levels have been measured. The results of these experiments have been mapped directly to the mechanical design of the system. An under-actuated optimum mechanism has been analysed followed by the design and realization of the first prototype. The system provides both position and force feedback sensory information which can improve the outcomes of a professional rehabilitation exercise.

  19. Identification of Object Dynamics Using Hand Worn Motion and Force Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henk G. Kortier

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Emerging microelectromechanical system (MEMS-based sensors become much more applicable for on-body measurement purposes lately. Especially, the development of a finger tip-sized tri-axial force sensor gives the opportunity to measure interaction forces between the human hand and environmental objects. We have developed a new prototype device that allows simultaneous 3D force and movement measurements at the finger and thumb tips. The combination of interaction forces and movements makes it possible to identify the dynamical characteristics of the object being handled by the hand. With this device attached to the hand, a subject manipulated mass and spring objects under varying conditions. We were able to identify and estimate the weight of two physical mass objects (0.44 kg: 29 . 3 % ± 18 . 9 % and 0.28 kg: 19 . 7 % ± 10 . 6 % and the spring constant of a physical spring object ( 16 . 3 % ± 12 . 6 % . The system is a first attempt to quantify the interactions of the hand with the environment and has many potential applications in rehabilitation, ergonomics and sports.

  20. Design of a compact low-power human-computer interaction equipment for hand motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xianwei; Jin, Wenguang

    2017-01-01

    Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) raises demand of convenience, endurance, responsiveness and naturalness. This paper describes a design of a compact wearable low-power HCI equipment applied to gesture recognition. System combines multi-mode sense signals: the vision sense signal and the motion sense signal, and the equipment is equipped with the depth camera and the motion sensor. The dimension (40 mm × 30 mm) and structure is compact and portable after tight integration. System is built on a module layered framework, which contributes to real-time collection (60 fps), process and transmission via synchronous confusion with asynchronous concurrent collection and wireless Blue 4.0 transmission. To minimize equipment's energy consumption, system makes use of low-power components, managing peripheral state dynamically, switching into idle mode intelligently, pulse-width modulation (PWM) of the NIR LEDs of the depth camera and algorithm optimization by the motion sensor. To test this equipment's function and performance, a gesture recognition algorithm is applied to system. As the result presents, general energy consumption could be as low as 0.5 W.

  1. Real Time Hand Motion Reconstruction System for Trans-Humeral Amputees Using EEG and EMG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobo Fernandez-Vargas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting a hand’s position using only biosignals is a complex problem that has not been completely solved. The only reliable solutions currently available require invasive surgery. The attempts using non-invasive technologies are rare, and usually have led to lower correlation values between the real and the reconstructed position than those required for real-world applications. In this study, we propose a solution for reconstructing the hand’s position in three dimensions using EEG and EMG to detect from the shoulder area. This approach would be valid for most trans-humeral amputees. In order to find the best solution, we tested four different architectures for the system based on artificial neural networks. Our results show that it is possible to reconstruct the hand’s motion trajectory with a correlation value up to 0.809 compared to a typical value in the literature of 0.6. We also demonstrated that both EEG and EMG contribute jointly to the motion reconstruction. Furthermore, we discovered that the system architectures do not change the results radically. In addition, our results suggest that different motions may have different brain activity patterns that could be detected through EEG. Finally, we suggest a method to study non-linear relations in the brain through the EEG signals, which may lead to a more accurate system.

  2. A motion-tolerant approach for monitoring SpO2 and heart rate using photoplethysmography signal with dual frame length processing and multi-classifier fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Feiyi; Yan, Yuepeng; Tang, Yongzhong; Zhang, Hao

    2017-12-01

    Monitoring pulse oxygen saturation (SpO 2 ) and heart rate (HR) using photoplethysmography (PPG) signal contaminated by a motion artifact (MA) remains a difficult problem, especially when the oximeter is not equipped with a 3-axis accelerometer for adaptive noise cancellation. In this paper, we report a pioneering investigation on the impact of altering the frame length of Molgedey and Schuster independent component analysis (ICAMS) on performance, design a multi-classifier fusion strategy for selecting the PPG correlated signal component, and propose a novel approach to extract SpO 2 and HR readings from PPG signal contaminated by strong MA interference. The algorithm comprises multiple stages, including dual frame length ICAMS, a multi-classifier-based PPG correlated component selector, line spectral analysis, tree-based HR monitoring, and post-processing. Our approach is evaluated by multi-subject tests. The root mean square error (RMSE) is calculated for each trial. Three statistical metrics are selected as performance evaluation criteria: mean RMSE, median RMSE and the standard deviation (SD) of RMSE. The experimental results demonstrate that a shorter ICAMS analysis window probably results in better performance in SpO 2 estimation. Notably, the designed multi-classifier signal component selector achieved satisfactory performance. The subject tests indicate that our algorithm outperforms other baseline methods regarding accuracy under most criteria. The proposed work can contribute to improving the performance of current pulse oximetry and personal wearable monitoring devices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM) as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM) has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility. PMID:25276860

  4. Comparative Study on Interaction of Form and Motion Processing Streams by Applying Two Different Classifiers in Mechanism for Recognition of Biological Movement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bardia Yousefi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Research on psychophysics, neurophysiology, and functional imaging shows particular representation of biological movements which contains two pathways. The visual perception of biological movements formed through the visual system called dorsal and ventral processing streams. Ventral processing stream is associated with the form information extraction; on the other hand, dorsal processing stream provides motion information. Active basic model (ABM as hierarchical representation of the human object had revealed novelty in form pathway due to applying Gabor based supervised object recognition method. It creates more biological plausibility along with similarity with original model. Fuzzy inference system is used for motion pattern information in motion pathway creating more robustness in recognition process. Besides, interaction of these paths is intriguing and many studies in various fields considered it. Here, the interaction of the pathways to get more appropriated results has been investigated. Extreme learning machine (ELM has been implied for classification unit of this model, due to having the main properties of artificial neural networks, but crosses from the difficulty of training time substantially diminished in it. Here, there will be a comparison between two different configurations, interactions using synergetic neural network and ELM, in terms of accuracy and compatibility.

  5. Work hands and feet in motion on the vertical ladder into the prosthesis disabled lower limb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Yugang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the conditions of ascent and descent on the stairs with disabilities is shown. The study involved 12 persons with lower limb prosthetic right or left foot. The purpose was to determine the specific conditions of disabled people in the process of adaptation to the complicated conditions of their life. Underlying this approach is the study of the biomechanical characteristics the movements of disabled people in special terms. The factors that influence the effectiveness of the disability movement on the stairs is shown. These include slope angle, a compensatory effort of the hands and the ability to maintain balance while moving. These studies are the basis for a meaningful solution to improve the disability movement in the complicated conditions.

  6. Motion tracking and electromyography assist the removal of mirror hand contributions to fNIRS images acquired during a finger tapping task performed by children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervey, Nathan; Khan, Bilal; Shagman, Laura; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Clegg, Nancy J.; Liu, Hanli; MacFarlane, Duncan; Alexandrakis, George

    2013-03-01

    Functional neurological imaging has been shown to be valuable in evaluating brain plasticity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). In recent studies it has been demonstrated that functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is a viable and sensitive method for imaging motor cortex activities in children with CP. However, during unilateral finger tapping tasks children with CP often exhibit mirror motions (unintended motions in the non-tapping hand), and current fNIRS image formation techniques do not account for this. Therefore, the resulting fNIRS images contain activation from intended and unintended motions. In this study, cortical activity was mapped with fNIRS on four children with CP and five controls during a finger tapping task. Finger motion and arm muscle activation were concurrently measured using motion tracking cameras and electromyography (EMG). Subject-specific regressors were created from motion capture and EMG data and used in a general linear model (GLM) analysis in an attempt to create fNIRS images representative of different motions. The analysis provided an fNIRS image representing activation due to motion and muscle activity for each hand. This method could prove to be valuable in monitoring brain plasticity in children with CP by providing more consistent images between measurements. Additionally, muscle effort versus cortical effort was compared between control and CP subjects. More cortical effort was required to produce similar muscle effort in children with CP. It is possible this metric could be a valuable diagnostic tool in determining response to treatment.

  7. On-Line Detection and Segmentation of Sports Motions Using a Wearable Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Woosuk Kim

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In sports motion analysis, observation is a prerequisite for understanding the quality of motions. This paper introduces a novel approach to detect and segment sports motions using a wearable sensor for supporting systematic observation. The main goal is, for convenient analysis, to automatically provide motion data, which are temporally classified according to the phase definition. For explicit segmentation, a motion model is defined as a sequence of sub-motions with boundary states. A sequence classifier based on deep neural networks is designed to detect sports motions from continuous sensor inputs. The evaluation on two types of motions (soccer kicking and two-handed ball throwing verifies that the proposed method is successful for the accurate detection and segmentation of sports motions. By developing a sports motion analysis system using the motion model and the sequence classifier, we show that the proposed method is useful for observation of sports motions by automatically providing relevant motion data for analysis.

  8. On-Line Detection and Segmentation of Sports Motions Using a Wearable Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Woosuk; Kim, Myunggyu

    2018-03-19

    In sports motion analysis, observation is a prerequisite for understanding the quality of motions. This paper introduces a novel approach to detect and segment sports motions using a wearable sensor for supporting systematic observation. The main goal is, for convenient analysis, to automatically provide motion data, which are temporally classified according to the phase definition. For explicit segmentation, a motion model is defined as a sequence of sub-motions with boundary states. A sequence classifier based on deep neural networks is designed to detect sports motions from continuous sensor inputs. The evaluation on two types of motions (soccer kicking and two-handed ball throwing) verifies that the proposed method is successful for the accurate detection and segmentation of sports motions. By developing a sports motion analysis system using the motion model and the sequence classifier, we show that the proposed method is useful for observation of sports motions by automatically providing relevant motion data for analysis.

  9. Cinematic Motion by Hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graca, Marina Estela

    2006-01-01

    Within Cinema, animation always had an unclear relation with live-action recording since its very beginning. We learned – helped by ASIFA (International Animated Film Association) – that we should separate one from the other and we also realized that we (still) don’t have a general theory of cinema...... that embraces both. Yet, over the last years, animation and live-action footage became completely tangled in cinematic productions. Obviously, this means that each of them is just a technical strategy supported by its own specialists and as one became dominant, the other turned out to be marginal. But what...

  10. Optimizing pattern recognition-based control for partial-hand prosthesis application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Earley, Eric J; Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J

    2014-01-01

    Partial-hand amputees often retain good residual wrist motion, which is essential for functional activities involving use of the hand. Thus, a crucial design criterion for a myoelectric, partial-hand prosthesis control scheme is that it allows the user to retain residual wrist motion. Pattern recognition (PR) of electromyographic (EMG) signals is a well-studied method of controlling myoelectric prostheses. However, wrist motion degrades a PR system's ability to correctly predict hand-grasp patterns. We studied the effects of (1) window length and number of hand-grasps, (2) static and dynamic wrist motion, and (3) EMG muscle source on the ability of a PR-based control scheme to classify functional hand-grasp patterns. Our results show that training PR classifiers with both extrinsic and intrinsic muscle EMG yields a lower error rate than training with either group by itself (pgrasps available to the classifier significantly decrease classification error (pgrasp.

  11. Modeling Attitude Dynamics in Simulink: A Study of the Rotational and Translational Motion of a Spacecraft Given Torques and Impulses Generated by RMS Hand Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauldin, Rebecca H.

    2010-01-01

    In order to study and control the attitude of a spacecraft, it is necessary to understand the natural motion of a body in orbit. Assuming a spacecraft to be a rigid body, dynamics describes the complete motion of the vehicle by the translational and rotational motion of the body. The Simulink Attitude Analysis Model applies the equations of rigid body motion to the study of a spacecraft?s attitude in orbit. Using a TCP/IP connection, Matlab reads the values of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) hand controllers and passes them to Simulink as specified torque and impulse profiles. Simulink then uses the governing kinematic and dynamic equations of a rigid body in low earth orbit (LE0) to plot the attitude response of a spacecraft for five seconds given known applied torques and impulses, and constant principal moments of inertia.

  12. A Tool for Creating Regionally Calibrated High-Resolution Land Cover Data Sets for the West African Sahel: Using Machine Learning to Scale Up Hand-Classified Maps in a Data-Sparse Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Gordon, M.; Van Gordon, S.; Min, A.; Sullivan, J.; Weiner, Z.; Tappan, G. G.

    2017-12-01

    Using support vector machine (SVM) learning and high-accuracy hand-classified maps, we have developed a publicly available land cover classification tool for the West African Sahel. Our classifier produces high-resolution and regionally calibrated land cover maps for the Sahel, representing a significant contribution to the data available for this region. Global land cover products are unreliable for the Sahel, and accurate land cover data for the region are sparse. To address this gap, the U.S. Geological Survey and the Regional Center for Agriculture, Hydrology and Meteorology (AGRHYMET) in Niger produced high-quality land cover maps for the region via hand-classification of Landsat images. This method produces highly accurate maps, but the time and labor required constrain the spatial and temporal resolution of the data products. By using these hand-classified maps alongside SVM techniques, we successfully increase the resolution of the land cover maps by 1-2 orders of magnitude, from 2km-decadal resolution to 30m-annual resolution. These high-resolution regionally calibrated land cover datasets, along with the classifier we developed to produce them, lay the foundation for major advances in studies of land surface processes in the region. These datasets will provide more accurate inputs for food security modeling, hydrologic modeling, analyses of land cover change and climate change adaptation efforts. The land cover classification tool we have developed will be publicly available for use in creating additional West Africa land cover datasets with future remote sensing data and can be adapted for use in other parts of the world.

  13. Classifying Microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommerlund, Julie

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes the coexistence of two systems for classifying organisms and species: a dominant genetic system and an older naturalist system. The former classifies species and traces their evolution on the basis of genetic characteristics, while the latter employs physiological characteris......This paper describes the coexistence of two systems for classifying organisms and species: a dominant genetic system and an older naturalist system. The former classifies species and traces their evolution on the basis of genetic characteristics, while the latter employs physiological...... characteristics. The coexistence of the classification systems does not lead to a conflict between them. Rather, the systems seem to co-exist in different configurations, through which they are complementary, contradictory and inclusive in different situations-sometimes simultaneously. The systems come...

  14. The Combined Effects of Adaptive Control and Virtual Reality on Robot-Assisted Fine Hand Motion Rehabilitation in Chronic Stroke Patients: A Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianwei; Naghdy, Fazel; Naghdy, Golshah; Du, Haiping; Todd, Catherine

    2018-01-01

    Robot-assisted therapy is regarded as an effective and reliable method for the delivery of highly repetitive training that is needed to trigger neuroplasticity following a stroke. However, the lack of fully adaptive assist-as-needed control of the robotic devices and an inadequate immersive virtual environment that can promote active participation during training are obstacles hindering the achievement of better training results with fewer training sessions required. This study thus focuses on these research gaps by combining these 2 key components into a rehabilitation system, with special attention on the rehabilitation of fine hand motion skills. The effectiveness of the proposed system is tested by conducting clinical trials on a chronic stroke patient and verified through clinical evaluation methods by measuring the key kinematic features such as active range of motion (ROM), finger strength, and velocity. By comparing the pretraining and post-training results, the study demonstrates that the proposed method can further enhance the effectiveness of fine hand motion rehabilitation training by improving finger ROM, strength, and coordination. Copyright © 2018 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Hand interception of occluded motion in humans: a test of model-based vs. on-line control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Scaleia, Barbara; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2015-09-01

    Two control schemes have been hypothesized for the manual interception of fast visual targets. In the model-free on-line control, extrapolation of target motion is based on continuous visual information, without resorting to physical models. In the model-based control, instead, a prior model of target motion predicts the future spatiotemporal trajectory. To distinguish between the two hypotheses in the case of projectile motion, we asked participants to hit a ball that rolled down an incline at 0.2 g and then fell in air at 1 g along a parabola. By varying starting position, ball velocity and trajectory differed between trials. Motion on the incline was always visible, whereas parabolic motion was either visible or occluded. We found that participants were equally successful at hitting the falling ball in both visible and occluded conditions. Moreover, in different trials the intersection points were distributed along the parabolic trajectories of the ball, indicating that subjects were able to extrapolate an extended segment of the target trajectory. Remarkably, this trend was observed even at the very first repetition of movements. These results are consistent with the hypothesis of model-based control, but not with on-line control. Indeed, ball path and speed during the occlusion could not be extrapolated solely from the kinematic information obtained during the preceding visible phase. The only way to extrapolate ball motion correctly during the occlusion was to assume that the ball would fall under gravity and air drag when hidden from view. Such an assumption had to be derived from prior experience. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Motion tracking and electromyography-assisted identification of mirror hand contributions to functional near-infrared spectroscopy images acquired during a finger-tapping task performed by children with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervey, Nathan; Khan, Bilal; Shagman, Laura; Tian, Fenghua; Delgado, Mauricio R.; Tulchin-Francis, Kirsten; Shierk, Angela; Roberts, Heather; Smith, Linsley; Reid, Dahlia; Clegg, Nancy J.; Liu, Hanli; MacFarlane, Duncan; Alexandrakis, George

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Recent studies have demonstrated functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) to be a viable and sensitive method for imaging sensorimotor cortex activity in children with cerebral palsy (CP). However, during unilateral finger tapping, children with CP often exhibit unintended motions in the nontapping hand, known as mirror motions, which confuse the interpretation of resulting fNIRS images. This work presents a method for separating some of the mirror motion contributions to fNIRS images and demonstrates its application to fNIRS data from four children with CP performing a finger-tapping task with mirror motions. Finger motion and arm muscle activity were measured simultaneously with fNIRS signals using motion tracking and electromyography (EMG), respectively. Subsequently, subject-specific regressors were created from the motion capture or EMG data and independent component analysis was combined with a general linear model to create an fNIRS image representing activation due to the tapping hand and one image representing activation due to the mirror hand. The proposed method can provide information on how mirror motions contribute to fNIRS images, and in some cases, it helps remove mirror motion contamination from the tapping hand activation images. PMID:26157980

  17. A qualitative motion analysis study of voluntary hand movement induced by music in patients with Rett syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Go, T

    2009-01-01

    Tohshin Go1, Asako Mitani21Center for Baby Science, Doshisha University, Kizugawa, Kyoto, Japan; 2Independent Music Therapist (Poco A Poco Music Room), Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Patients with Rett syndrome are known to respond well to music irrespective of their physical and verbal disabilities. Therefore, the relationship between auditory rhythm and their behavior was investigated employing a two-dimensional motion analysis system. Ten female patients aged from three to 17 years were included. W...

  18. Carbon classified?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lippert, Ingmar

    2012-01-01

    . Using an actor- network theory (ANT) framework, the aim is to investigate the actors who bring together the elements needed to classify their carbon emission sources and unpack the heterogeneous relations drawn on. Based on an ethnographic study of corporate agents of ecological modernisation over...... a period of 13 months, this paper provides an exploration of three cases of enacting classification. Drawing on ANT, we problematise the silencing of a range of possible modalities of consumption facts and point to the ontological ethics involved in such performances. In a context of global warming...

  19. Design and Construction of a Bilateral Haptic System for the Remote Assessment of the Stiffness and Range of Motion of the Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Oscari

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The use of haptic devices in the rehabilitation of impaired limbs has become rather popular, given the proven effectiveness in promoting recovery. In a standard framework, such devices are used in rehabilitation centers, where patients interact with virtual tasks, presented on a screen. To track their sessions, kinematic/dynamic parameters or performance scores are recorded. However, as Internet access is now available at almost every home and in order to reduce the hospitalization time of the patient, the idea of doing rehabilitation at home is gaining wide consent. Medical care programs can be synchronized with the home rehabilitation device; patient data can be sent to the central server that could redirect to the therapist laptop (tele-healthcare. The controversial issue is that the recorded data do not actually represent the clinical conditions of the patients according to the medical assessment scales, forcing them to frequently undergo clinical tests at the hospital. To respond to this demand, we propose the use of a bilateral master/slave haptic system that could allow the clinician, who interacts with the master, to assess remotely and in real time the clinical conditions of the patient that uses the home rehabilitation device as the slave. In this paper, we describe a proof of concept to highlight the main issues of such an application, limited to one degree of freedom, and to the measure of the stiffness and range of motion of the hand.

  20. An Analysis of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Hand Muscle EMG for Improved Pattern Recognition Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adewuyi, Adenike A; Hargrove, Levi J; Kuiken, Todd A

    2016-04-01

    Pattern recognition control combined with surface electromyography (EMG) from the extrinsic hand muscles has shown great promise for control of multiple prosthetic functions for transradial amputees. There is, however, a need to adapt this control method when implemented for partial-hand amputees, who possess both a functional wrist and information-rich residual intrinsic hand muscles. We demonstrate that combining EMG data from both intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles to classify hand grasps and finger motions allows up to 19 classes of hand grasps and individual finger motions to be decoded, with an accuracy of 96% for non-amputees and 85% for partial-hand amputees. We evaluated real-time pattern recognition control of three hand motions in seven different wrist positions. We found that a system trained with both intrinsic and extrinsic muscle EMG data, collected while statically and dynamically varying wrist position increased completion rates from 73% to 96% for partial-hand amputees and from 88% to 100% for non-amputees when compared to a system trained with only extrinsic muscle EMG data collected in a neutral wrist position. Our study shows that incorporating intrinsic muscle EMG data and wrist motion can significantly improve the robustness of pattern recognition control for application to partial-hand prosthetic control.

  1. Mobilidade articular dos dedos não lesados pós-reparo em lesão dos tendões flexores da mão Joint range of motion of uninjured fingers after repairs to flexor tendon injuries of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RB Rabelo

    2007-10-01

    were examined at the time of removing the plaster splint. Early mobilization was performed using the modified Duran method. Goniometric data were used for recording the TAM (total active motion values of the fingers on the injured and uninjured (control hands. To analyze the data, the functional index formula proposed by the American Society for Surgery of the Hand (ASSH was utilized, and for statistical calculations the mixed-effect model was selected. RESULTS: The ASSH formula for the injured fingers classified the movement as "good" in 18.33%, "fair" in 18.33% and "poor" in 63.34%. The means, in degrees, of the measurements for all the fingers were compared with each other within each group (control and injured and between the groups. A significant difference was found between control and injured groups. There was no statistical difference between the TAM of each finger on the injured hand. CONCLUSION: Independent of how many fingers on one hand had suffered tendon injuries, the uninjured fingers also presented diminished active ROM during the period immediately after removal of the immobilization.

  2. Interface Prostheses With Classifier-Feedback-Based User Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Yinfeng; Zhou, Dalin; Li, Kairu; Liu, Honghai

    2017-11-01

    It is evident that user training significantly affects performance of pattern-recognition-based myoelectric prosthetic device control. Despite plausible classification accuracy on offline datasets, online accuracy usually suffers from the changes in physiological conditions and electrode displacement. The user ability in generating consistent electromyographic (EMG) patterns can be enhanced via proper user training strategies in order to improve online performance. This study proposes a clustering-feedback strategy that provides real-time feedback to users by means of a visualized online EMG signal input as well as the centroids of the training samples, whose dimensionality is reduced to minimal number by dimension reduction. Clustering feedback provides a criterion that guides users to adjust motion gestures and muscle contraction forces intentionally. The experiment results have demonstrated that hand motion recognition accuracy increases steadily along the progress of the clustering-feedback-based user training, while conventional classifier-feedback methods, i.e., label feedback, hardly achieve any improvement. The result concludes that the use of proper classifier feedback can accelerate the process of user training, and implies prosperous future for the amputees with limited or no experience in pattern-recognition-based prosthetic device manipulation.It is evident that user training significantly affects performance of pattern-recognition-based myoelectric prosthetic device control. Despite plausible classification accuracy on offline datasets, online accuracy usually suffers from the changes in physiological conditions and electrode displacement. The user ability in generating consistent electromyographic (EMG) patterns can be enhanced via proper user training strategies in order to improve online performance. This study proposes a clustering-feedback strategy that provides real-time feedback to users by means of a visualized online EMG signal input as well

  3. A natural human hand model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Nierop, O.A.; Van der Helm, A.; Overbeeke, K.J.; Djajadiningrat, T.J.P.

    2007-01-01

    We present a skeletal linked model of the human hand that has natural motion. We show how this can be achieved by introducing a new biology-based joint axis that simulates natural joint motion and a set of constraints that reduce an estimated 150 possible motions to twelve. The model is based on

  4. Experimental Study of Real-Time Classification of 17 Voluntary Movements for Multi-Degree Myoelectric Prosthetic Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trongmun Jiralerspong

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The myoelectric prosthetic hand is a powerful tool developed to help people with upper limb loss restore the functions of a biological hand. Recognizing multiple hand motions from only a few electromyography (EMG sensors is one of the requirements for the development of prosthetic hands with high level of usability. This task is highly challenging because both classification rate and misclassification rate worsen with additional hand motions. This paper presents a signal processing technique that uses spectral features and an artificial neural network to classify 17 voluntary movements from EMG signals. The main highlight will be on the use of a small set of low-cost EMG sensor for classification of a reasonably large number of hand movements. The aim of this work is to extend the capabilities to recognize and produce multiple movements beyond what is currently feasible. This work will also show and discuss about how tailoring the number of hand motions for a specific task can help develop a more reliable prosthetic hand system. Online classification experiments have been conducted on seven male and five female participants to evaluate the validity of the proposed method. The proposed algorithm achieves an overall correct classification rate of up to 83%, thus, demonstrating the potential to classify 17 movements from 6 EMG sensors. Furthermore, classifying 9 motions using this method could achieve an accuracy of up to 92%. These results show that if the prosthetic hand is intended for a specific task, limiting the number of motions can significantly increase the performance and usability.

  5. Neural manual vs. robotic assisted mobilization to improve motion and reduce pain hypersensitivity in hand osteoarthritis: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villafañe, Jorge Hugo; Valdes, Kristin; Imperio, Grace; Borboni, Alberto; Cantero-Téllez, Raquel; Galeri, Silvia; Negrini, Stefano

    2017-05-01

    [Purpose] The aim of the present study is to detail the protocol for a randomised controlled trial (RCT) of neural manual vs. robotic assisted on pain in sensitivity as well as analyse the quantitative and qualitative movement of hand in subjects with hand osteoarthritis. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy-two patients, aged 50 to 90 years old of both genders, with a diagnosis of hand Osteoarthritis (OA), will be recruited. Two groups of 36 participants will receive an experimental intervention (neurodynamic mobilization intervention plus exercise) or a control intervention (robotic assisted passive mobilization plus exercise) for 12 sessions over 4 weeks. Assessment points will be at baseline, end of therapy, and 1 and 3 months after end of therapy. The outcomes of this intervention will be pain and determine the central pain processing mechanisms. [Result] Not applicable. [Conclusion] If there is a reduction in pain hypersensitivity in hand OA patients it can suggest that supraspinal pain-inhibitory areas, including the periaqueductal gray matter, can be stimulated by joint mobilization.

  6. Waving real hand gestures recorded by wearable motion sensors to a virtual car and driver in a mixed-reality parking game

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannach, D.; Amft, O.D.; Kunze, K.S.; Heinz, E.A.; Tröster, G.; Lukowicz, P.

    2007-01-01

    We envision to add context awareness and ambient intelligence to edutainment and computer gaming applications in general. This requires mixed-reality setups and ever-higher levels of immersive human-computer interaction. Here, we focus on the automatic recognition of natural human hand gestures

  7. Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroki Okubo; Mont Hubbard

    2018-01-01

    Shooting arm motions at release in one-hand set and jump basketball shots have been analyzed using a kinematic model. Set and jump shots are classified by the vertical velocity and acceleration of the shooter’s shooting-side shoulder at release. The two-dimensional three-segment model includes the vertical shooting-side shoulder velocity and acceleration. Numerical simulation investigates the effect of shoulder motion. Release backspin angular velocity can be described as a function of the ve...

  8. Stiff Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Stiff Hands Email to a friend * required fields ...

  9. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  10. Effect of robotic-assisted three-dimensional repetitive motion to improve hand motor function and control in children with handwriting deficits: a nonrandomized phase 2 device trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palsbo, Susan E; Hood-Szivek, Pamela

    2012-01-01

    We explored the efficacy of robotic technology in improving handwriting in children with impaired motor skills. Eighteen participants had impairments arising from cerebral palsy (CP), autism spectrum disorder (ASD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), or other disorders. The intervention was robotic-guided three-dimensional repetitive motion in 15-20 daily sessions of 25-30 min each over 4-8 wk. Fine motor control improved for the children with learning disabilities and those ages 9 or older but not for those with CP or under age 9. All children with ASD or ADHD referred for slow writing speed were able to increase speed while maintaining legibility. Three-dimensional, robot-assisted, repetitive motion training improved handwriting fluidity in children with mild to moderate fine motor deficits associated with ASD or ADHD within 10 hr of training. This dosage may not be sufficient for children with CP. Copyright © 2012 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  11. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... DESCRIPTION The bones of the hand serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist and fingers move. When ...

  12. Hand Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tennis elbow , as well as from chronic problems such as ... Tools Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist on Tennis Elbow Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist: Living with( ...

  13. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  14. Extrinsic versus intrinsic hand muscle dominance in finger flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sukaini, A; Singh, H P; Dias, J J

    2016-05-01

    This study aims to identify the patterns of dominance of extrinsic or intrinsic muscles in finger flexion during initiation of finger curl and mid-finger flexion. We recorded 82 hands of healthy individuals (18-74 years) while flexing their fingers and tracked the finger joint angles of the little finger using video motion tracking. A total of 57 hands (69.5%) were classified as extrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints. A total of 25 (30.5%) were classified as intrinsic dominant, where the finger flexion was initiated and maintained at the metacarpophalangeal joint. The distribution of age, sex, dominance, handedness and body mass index was similar in the two groups. This knowledge may allow clinicians to develop more efficient rehabilitation regimes, since intrinsic dominant individuals would not initiate extrinsic muscle contraction till later in finger flexion, and might therefore be allowed limited early active motion. For extrinsic dominant individuals, by contrast, initial contraction of extrinsic muscles would place increased stress on the tendon repair site if early motion were permitted. © The Author(s) 2016.

  15. Classifying Returns as Extreme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    I consider extreme returns for the stock and bond markets of 14 EU countries using two classification schemes: One, the univariate classification scheme from the previous literature that classifies extreme returns for each market separately, and two, a novel multivariate classification scheme tha...

  16. LCC: Light Curves Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo, Martin

    2017-08-01

    Light Curves Classifier uses data mining and machine learning to obtain and classify desired objects. This task can be accomplished by attributes of light curves or any time series, including shapes, histograms, or variograms, or by other available information about the inspected objects, such as color indices, temperatures, and abundances. After specifying features which describe the objects to be searched, the software trains on a given training sample, and can then be used for unsupervised clustering for visualizing the natural separation of the sample. The package can be also used for automatic tuning parameters of used methods (for example, number of hidden neurons or binning ratio). Trained classifiers can be used for filtering outputs from astronomical databases or data stored locally. The Light Curve Classifier can also be used for simple downloading of light curves and all available information of queried stars. It natively can connect to OgleII, OgleIII, ASAS, CoRoT, Kepler, Catalina and MACHO, and new connectors or descriptors can be implemented. In addition to direct usage of the package and command line UI, the program can be used through a web interface. Users can create jobs for ”training” methods on given objects, querying databases and filtering outputs by trained filters. Preimplemented descriptors, classifier and connectors can be picked by simple clicks and their parameters can be tuned by giving ranges of these values. All combinations are then calculated and the best one is used for creating the filter. Natural separation of the data can be visualized by unsupervised clustering.

  17. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  18. Intelligent Garbage Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Rodríguez Novelle

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available IGC (Intelligent Garbage Classifier is a system for visual classification and separation of solid waste products. Currently, an important part of the separation effort is based on manual work, from household separation to industrial waste management. Taking advantage of the technologies currently available, a system has been built that can analyze images from a camera and control a robot arm and conveyor belt to automatically separate different kinds of waste.

  19. Classifying Linear Canonical Relations

    OpenAIRE

    Lorand, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    In this Master's thesis, we consider the problem of classifying, up to conjugation by linear symplectomorphisms, linear canonical relations (lagrangian correspondences) from a finite-dimensional symplectic vector space to itself. We give an elementary introduction to the theory of linear canonical relations and present partial results toward the classification problem. This exposition should be accessible to undergraduate students with a basic familiarity with linear algebra.

  20. Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  1. Stack filter classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Just as linear models generalize the sample mean and weighted average, weighted order statistic models generalize the sample median and weighted median. This analogy can be continued informally to generalized additive modeels in the case of the mean, and Stack Filters in the case of the median. Both of these model classes have been extensively studied for signal and image processing but it is surprising to find that for pattern classification, their treatment has been significantly one sided. Generalized additive models are now a major tool in pattern classification and many different learning algorithms have been developed to fit model parameters to finite data. However Stack Filters remain largely confined to signal and image processing and learning algorithms for classification are yet to be seen. This paper is a step towards Stack Filter Classifiers and it shows that the approach is interesting from both a theoretical and a practical perspective.

  2. Hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients/materials......Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients...... dermatitis, younger age, male sex (male doctors), and working hours. Eighty nine per cent of subjects reported mild/moderate lesions. Atopic dermatitis was the only factor significantly related to severity. Sick leave was reported by 8% of subjects, and notification to the authorities by 12%. Conclusions...... or severity, but cultural differences between professions with respect to coping with the eczema were significant. Atopic dermatitis was related to increased prevalence and severity, and preventive efforts should be made for healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis....

  3. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  4. Study of recognizing multiple persons' complicated hand gestures from the video sequence acquired by a moving camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Luo; Ohya, Jun

    2010-02-01

    Recognizing hand gestures from the video sequence acquired by a dynamic camera could be a useful interface between humans and mobile robots. We develop a state based approach to extract and recognize hand gestures from moving camera images. We improved Human-Following Local Coordinate (HFLC) System, a very simple and stable method for extracting hand motion trajectories, which is obtained from the located human face, body part and hand blob changing factor. Condensation algorithm and PCA-based algorithm was performed to recognize extracted hand trajectories. In last research, this Condensation Algorithm based method only applied for one person's hand gestures. In this paper, we propose a principal component analysis (PCA) based approach to improve the recognition accuracy. For further improvement, temporal changes in the observed hand area changing factor are utilized as new image features to be stored in the database after being analyzed by PCA. Every hand gesture trajectory in the database is classified into either one hand gesture categories, two hand gesture categories, or temporal changes in hand blob changes. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method by conducting experiments on 45 kinds of sign language based Japanese and American Sign Language gestures obtained from 5 people. Our experimental recognition results show better performance is obtained by PCA based approach than the Condensation algorithm based method.

  5. Anthropomorphic Robot Hand And Teaching Glove

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Charles D., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Robotic forearm-and-hand assembly manipulates objects by performing wrist and hand motions with nearly human grasping ability and dexterity. Imitates hand motions of human operator who controls robot in real time by programming via exoskeletal "teaching glove". Telemanipulator systems based on this robotic-hand concept useful where humanlike dexterity required. Underwater, high-radiation, vacuum, hot, cold, toxic, or inhospitable environments potential application sites. Particularly suited to assisting astronauts on space station in safely executing unexpected tasks requiring greater dexterity than standard gripper.

  6. Myelopathy hand in cervical radiculopathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosono, Noboru; Mukai, Yoshihiro; Takenaka, Shota; Fuji, Takeshi; Sakaura, Hironobu; Miwa, Toshitada; Makino, Takahiro

    2010-01-01

    The so-called 'myelopathy hand', or characteristic finger paralysis, often recognized in cervical compression myelopathy, has been considered a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy. We used our original grip and release test, a 15-second test in which finger motion is captured with a digital camera, to investigate whether cervical radiculopathy has the same characteristics as myelopathy hand. Thirty patients with pure radiculopathy, id est (i.e.), who had radiating arm pain and evidence of corresponding nerve root impingement on X-ray images or MRI scans, but did not have spinal cord compression, served as the subjects. In contrast to other radiculopathies, C7 radiculopathy was manifested by a significant reduction in the number of finger motion cycles on the affected side in comparison with the unaffected side, the same as in myelopathy hand. Uncoordinated finger motion was significantly more frequent on the affected side in C6 radiculopathy than on the unaffected side. These findings contradict the conventional notion that myelopathy hand is a unique manifestation of cervical myelopathy, but some radiculopathies manifested the same kinds of finger paralysis observed in myelopathy hand. (author)

  7. Robust automated classification of first-motion polarities for focal mechanism determination with machine learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Z. E.; Meier, M. A.; Hauksson, E.

    2017-12-01

    Accurate first-motion polarities are essential for determining earthquake focal mechanisms, but are difficult to measure automatically because of picking errors and signal to noise issues. Here we develop an algorithm for reliable automated classification of first-motion polarities using machine learning algorithms. A classifier is designed to identify whether the first-motion polarity is up, down, or undefined by examining the waveform data directly. We first improve the accuracy of automatic P-wave onset picks by maximizing a weighted signal/noise ratio for a suite of candidate picks around the automatic pick. We then use the waveform amplitudes before and after the optimized pick as features for the classification. We demonstrate the method's potential by training and testing the classifier on tens of thousands of hand-made first-motion picks by the Southern California Seismic Network. The classifier assigned the same polarity as chosen by an analyst in more than 94% of the records. We show that the method is generalizable to a variety of learning algorithms, including neural networks and random forest classifiers. The method is suitable for automated processing of large seismic waveform datasets, and can potentially be used in real-time applications, e.g. for improving the source characterizations of earthquake early warning algorithms.

  8. Fingerprint prediction using classifier ensembles

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Molale, P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ); logistic discrimination (LgD), k-nearest neighbour (k-NN), artificial neural network (ANN), association rules (AR) decision tree (DT), naive Bayes classifier (NBC) and the support vector machine (SVM). The performance of several multiple classifier systems...

  9. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Thukral, Poojita; Burns, Martin K; Florescu, Ionut; Chandramouli, Rajarathnam; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements). Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic). Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies) from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies-postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  10. Hand Grasping Synergies As Biometrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramana Vinjamuri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the need for more secure identity verification systems has driven researchers to explore other sources of biometrics. This includes iris patterns, palm print, hand geometry, facial recognition, and movement patterns (hand motion, gait, and eye movements. Identity verification systems may benefit from the complexity of human movement that integrates multiple levels of control (neural, muscular, and kinematic. Using principal component analysis, we extracted spatiotemporal hand synergies (movement synergies from an object grasping dataset to explore their use as a potential biometric. These movement synergies are in the form of joint angular velocity profiles of 10 joints. We explored the effect of joint type, digit, number of objects, and grasp type. In its best configuration, movement synergies achieved an equal error rate of 8.19%. While movement synergies can be integrated into an identity verification system with motion capture ability, we also explored a camera-ready version of hand synergies—postural synergies. In this proof of concept system, postural synergies performed well, but only when specific postures were chosen. Based on these results, hand synergies show promise as a potential biometric that can be combined with other hand-based biometrics for improved security.

  11. Compact Dexterous Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovchik, Christopher Scott (Inventor); Diftler, Myron A. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A compact robotic hand includes a palm housing, a wrist section, and a forearm section. The palm housing supports a plurality of fingers and one or more movable palm members that cooperate with the fingers to grasp and/or release an object. Each flexible finger comprises a plurality of hingedly connected segments, including a proximal segment pivotally connected to the palm housing. The proximal finger segment includes at least one groove defining first and second cam surfaces for engagement with a cable. A plurality of lead screw assemblies each carried by the palm housing are supplied with power from a flexible shaft rotated by an actuator and output linear motion to a cable move a finger. The cable is secured within a respective groove and enables each finger to move between an opened and closed position. A decoupling assembly pivotally connected to a proximal finger segment enables a cable connected thereto to control movement of an intermediate and distal finger segment independent of movement of the proximal finger segment. The dexterous robotic hand closely resembles the function of a human hand yet is light weight and capable of grasping both heavy and light objects with a high degree of precision.

  12. Classified

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2011-01-01

    In the last issue of the Bulletin, we have discussed recent implications for privacy on the Internet. But privacy of personal data is just one facet of data protection. Confidentiality is another one. However, confidentiality and data protection are often perceived as not relevant in the academic environment of CERN.   But think twice! At CERN, your personal data, e-mails, medical records, financial and contractual documents, MARS forms, group meeting minutes (and of course your password!) are all considered to be sensitive, restricted or even confidential. And this is not all. Physics results, in particular when being preliminary and pending scrutiny, are sensitive, too. Just recently, an ATLAS collaborator copy/pasted the abstract of an ATLAS note onto an external public blog, despite the fact that this document was clearly marked as an "Internal Note". Such an act was not only embarrassing to the ATLAS collaboration, and had negative impact on CERN’s reputation --- i...

  13. Using hierarchical clustering methods to classify motor activities of COPD patients from wearable sensor data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reilly John J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Advances in miniature sensor technology have led to the development of wearable systems that allow one to monitor motor activities in the field. A variety of classifiers have been proposed in the past, but little has been done toward developing systematic approaches to assess the feasibility of discriminating the motor tasks of interest and to guide the choice of the classifier architecture. Methods A technique is introduced to address this problem according to a hierarchical framework and its use is demonstrated for the application of detecting motor activities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD undergoing pulmonary rehabilitation. Accelerometers were used to collect data for 10 different classes of activity. Features were extracted to capture essential properties of the data set and reduce the dimensionality of the problem at hand. Cluster measures were utilized to find natural groupings in the data set and then construct a hierarchy of the relationships between clusters to guide the process of merging clusters that are too similar to distinguish reliably. It provides a means to assess whether the benefits of merging for performance of a classifier outweigh the loss of resolution incurred through merging. Results Analysis of the COPD data set demonstrated that motor tasks related to ambulation can be reliably discriminated from tasks performed in a seated position with the legs in motion or stationary using two features derived from one accelerometer. Classifying motor tasks within the category of activities related to ambulation requires more advanced techniques. While in certain cases all the tasks could be accurately classified, in others merging clusters associated with different motor tasks was necessary. When merging clusters, it was found that the proposed method could lead to more than 12% improvement in classifier accuracy while retaining resolution of 4 tasks. Conclusion Hierarchical

  14. Classifying Sluice Occurrences in Dialogue

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baird, Austin; Hamza, Anissa; Hardt, Daniel

    2018-01-01

    perform manual annotation with acceptable inter-coder agreement. We build classifier models with Decision Trees and Naive Bayes, with accuracy of 67%. We deploy a classifier to automatically classify sluice occurrences in OpenSubtitles, resulting in a corpus with 1.7 million occurrences. This will support....... Despite this, the corpus can be of great use in research on sluicing and development of systems, and we are making the corpus freely available on request. Furthermore, we are in the process of improving the accuracy of sluice identification and annotation for the purpose of created a subsequent version...

  15. Quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuld, Maria; Petruccione, Francesco

    2018-02-09

    Quantum machine learning witnesses an increasing amount of quantum algorithms for data-driven decision making, a problem with potential applications ranging from automated image recognition to medical diagnosis. Many of those algorithms are implementations of quantum classifiers, or models for the classification of data inputs with a quantum computer. Following the success of collective decision making with ensembles in classical machine learning, this paper introduces the concept of quantum ensembles of quantum classifiers. Creating the ensemble corresponds to a state preparation routine, after which the quantum classifiers are evaluated in parallel and their combined decision is accessed by a single-qubit measurement. This framework naturally allows for exponentially large ensembles in which - similar to Bayesian learning - the individual classifiers do not have to be trained. As an example, we analyse an exponentially large quantum ensemble in which each classifier is weighed according to its performance in classifying the training data, leading to new results for quantum as well as classical machine learning.

  16. IAEA safeguards and classified materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pilat, J.F.; Eccleston, G.W.; Fearey, B.L.; Nicholas, N.J.; Tape, J.W.; Kratzer, M.

    1997-01-01

    The international community in the post-Cold War period has suggested that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) utilize its expertise in support of the arms control and disarmament process in unprecedented ways. The pledges of the US and Russian presidents to place excess defense materials, some of which are classified, under some type of international inspections raises the prospect of using IAEA safeguards approaches for monitoring classified materials. A traditional safeguards approach, based on nuclear material accountancy, would seem unavoidably to reveal classified information. However, further analysis of the IAEA's safeguards approaches is warranted in order to understand fully the scope and nature of any problems. The issues are complex and difficult, and it is expected that common technical understandings will be essential for their resolution. Accordingly, this paper examines and compares traditional safeguards item accounting of fuel at a nuclear power station (especially spent fuel) with the challenges presented by inspections of classified materials. This analysis is intended to delineate more clearly the problems as well as reveal possible approaches, techniques, and technologies that could allow the adaptation of safeguards to the unprecedented task of inspecting classified materials. It is also hoped that a discussion of these issues can advance ongoing political-technical debates on international inspections of excess classified materials

  17. Bayes classifiers for imbalanced traffic accidents datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujalli, Randa Oqab; López, Griselda; Garach, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Traffic accidents data sets are usually imbalanced, where the number of instances classified under the killed or severe injuries class (minority) is much lower than those classified under the slight injuries class (majority). This, however, supposes a challenging problem for classification algorithms and may cause obtaining a model that well cover the slight injuries instances whereas the killed or severe injuries instances are misclassified frequently. Based on traffic accidents data collected on urban and suburban roads in Jordan for three years (2009-2011); three different data balancing techniques were used: under-sampling which removes some instances of the majority class, oversampling which creates new instances of the minority class and a mix technique that combines both. In addition, different Bayes classifiers were compared for the different imbalanced and balanced data sets: Averaged One-Dependence Estimators, Weightily Average One-Dependence Estimators, and Bayesian networks in order to identify factors that affect the severity of an accident. The results indicated that using the balanced data sets, especially those created using oversampling techniques, with Bayesian networks improved classifying a traffic accident according to its severity and reduced the misclassification of killed and severe injuries instances. On the other hand, the following variables were found to contribute to the occurrence of a killed causality or a severe injury in a traffic accident: number of vehicles involved, accident pattern, number of directions, accident type, lighting, surface condition, and speed limit. This work, to the knowledge of the authors, is the first that aims at analyzing historical data records for traffic accidents occurring in Jordan and the first to apply balancing techniques to analyze injury severity of traffic accidents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Hybrid classifiers methods of data, knowledge, and classifier combination

    CERN Document Server

    Wozniak, Michal

    2014-01-01

    This book delivers a definite and compact knowledge on how hybridization can help improving the quality of computer classification systems. In order to make readers clearly realize the knowledge of hybridization, this book primarily focuses on introducing the different levels of hybridization and illuminating what problems we will face with as dealing with such projects. In the first instance the data and knowledge incorporated in hybridization were the action points, and then a still growing up area of classifier systems known as combined classifiers was considered. This book comprises the aforementioned state-of-the-art topics and the latest research results of the author and his team from Department of Systems and Computer Networks, Wroclaw University of Technology, including as classifier based on feature space splitting, one-class classification, imbalance data, and data stream classification.

  19. Classification of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Classification of hand eczema (HE) is mandatory in epidemiological and clinical studies, and also important in clinical work. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to test a recently proposed classification system of HE in clinical practice in a prospective multicentre study. METHODS: Patients were...... recruited from nine different tertiary referral centres. All patients underwent examination by specialists in dermatology and were checked using relevant allergy testing. Patients were classified into one of the six diagnostic subgroups of HE: allergic contact dermatitis, irritant contact dermatitis, atopic...... system investigated in the present study was useful, being able to give an appropriate main diagnosis for 89% of HE patients, and for another 7% when using two main diagnoses. The fact that more than half of the patients had one or more additional diagnoses illustrates that HE is a multifactorial disease....

  20. Teaching Motion with the Global Positioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budisa, Marko; Planinsic, Gorazd

    2003-01-01

    We have used the GPS receiver and a PC interface to track different types of motion. Various hands-on experiments that enlighten the physics of motion at the secondary school level are suggested (visualization of 2D and 3D motion, measuring car drag coefficient and fuel consumption). (Contains 8 figures.)

  1. 3D Bayesian contextual classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Rasmus

    2000-01-01

    We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours.......We extend a series of multivariate Bayesian 2-D contextual classifiers to 3-D by specifying a simultaneous Gaussian distribution for the feature vectors as well as a prior distribution of the class variables of a pixel and its 6 nearest 3-D neighbours....

  2. Two channel EEG thought pattern classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, D A; Nguyen, H T; Burchey, H A

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a real-time electro-encephalogram (EEG) identification system with the goal of achieving hands free control. With two EEG electrodes placed on the scalp of the user, EEG signals are amplified and digitised directly using a ProComp+ encoder and transferred to the host computer through the RS232 interface. Using a real-time multilayer neural network, the actual classification for the control of a powered wheelchair has a very fast response. It can detect changes in the user's thought pattern in 1 second. Using only two EEG electrodes at positions O(1) and C(4) the system can classify three mental commands (forward, left and right) with an accuracy of more than 79 %

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  4. Hand gesture recognition in confined spaces with partial observability and occultation constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-05-01

    Human activity detection and recognition capabilities have broad applications for military and homeland security. These tasks are very complicated, however, especially when multiple persons are performing concurrent activities in confined spaces that impose significant obstruction, occultation, and observability uncertainty. In this paper, our primary contribution is to present a dedicated taxonomy and kinematic ontology that are developed for in-vehicle group human activities (IVGA). Secondly, we describe a set of hand-observable patterns that represents certain IVGA examples. Thirdly, we propose two classifiers for hand gesture recognition and compare their performance individually and jointly. Finally, we present a variant of Hidden Markov Model for Bayesian tracking, recognition, and annotation of hand motions, which enables spatiotemporal inference to human group activity perception and understanding. To validate our approach, synthetic (graphical data from virtual environment) and real physical environment video imagery are employed to verify the performance of these hand gesture classifiers, while measuring their efficiency and effectiveness based on the proposed Hidden Markov Model for tracking and interpreting dynamic spatiotemporal IVGA scenarios.

  5. Knowledge Uncertainty and Composed Classifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klimešová, Dana; Ocelíková, E.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 2 (2007), s. 101-105 ISSN 1998-0140 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : Boosting architecture * contextual modelling * composed classifier * knowledge management, * knowledge * uncertainty Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science

  6. Correlation Dimension-Based Classifier

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina, Marcel; Jiřina jr., M.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 12 (2014), s. 2253-2263 ISSN 2168-2267 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG12020 Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : classifier * multidimensional data * correlation dimension * scaling exponent * polynomial expansion Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.469, year: 2014

  7. Kinematic Differences between Set- and Jump-Shot Motions in Basketball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroki Okubo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Shooting arm motions at release in one-hand set and jump basketball shots have been analyzed using a kinematic model. Set and jump shots are classified by the vertical velocity and acceleration of the shooter’s shooting-side shoulder at release. The two-dimensional three-segment model includes the vertical shooting-side shoulder velocity and acceleration. Numerical simulation investigates the effect of shoulder motion. Release backspin angular velocity can be described as a function of the vertical shoulder acceleration and the vertical fingertip acceleration relative to the shoulder. For proper backspin, jump shots require large vertical fingertip acceleration relative to the shoulder. The upward shoulder speed at release contributes to the vertical fingertip velocity relative to the shoulder for a given desired ball release speed, angle and backspin. On the other hand, upward shoulder motion does not contribute to the horizontal direction. As horizontal shot distance increases, upper arm angular speed also increases to produce the ball release conditions. Ball release with upward shoulder speed reduces the magnitudes of the upper arm, forearm and hand angular velocities. All these facts imply that the shooting arm motion in the jump shot is different from that of the set shot.

  8. Classified facilities for environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-02-01

    The legislation of the classified facilities governs most of the dangerous or polluting industries or fixed activities. It rests on the law of 9 July 1976 concerning facilities classified for environmental protection and its application decree of 21 September 1977. This legislation, the general texts of which appear in this volume 1, aims to prevent all the risks and the harmful effects coming from an installation (air, water or soil pollutions, wastes, even aesthetic breaches). The polluting or dangerous activities are defined in a list called nomenclature which subjects the facilities to a declaration or an authorization procedure. The authorization is delivered by the prefect at the end of an open and contradictory procedure after a public survey. In addition, the facilities can be subjected to technical regulations fixed by the Environment Minister (volume 2) or by the prefect for facilities subjected to declaration (volume 3). (A.B.)

  9. Energy-Efficient Neuromorphic Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí, Daniel; Rigotti, Mattia; Seok, Mingoo; Fusi, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Neuromorphic engineering combines the architectural and computational principles of systems neuroscience with semiconductor electronics, with the aim of building efficient and compact devices that mimic the synaptic and neural machinery of the brain. The energy consumptions promised by neuromorphic engineering are extremely low, comparable to those of the nervous system. Until now, however, the neuromorphic approach has been restricted to relatively simple circuits and specialized functions, thereby obfuscating a direct comparison of their energy consumption to that used by conventional von Neumann digital machines solving real-world tasks. Here we show that a recent technology developed by IBM can be leveraged to realize neuromorphic circuits that operate as classifiers of complex real-world stimuli. Specifically, we provide a set of general prescriptions to enable the practical implementation of neural architectures that compete with state-of-the-art classifiers. We also show that the energy consumption of these architectures, realized on the IBM chip, is typically two or more orders of magnitude lower than that of conventional digital machines implementing classifiers with comparable performance. Moreover, the spike-based dynamics display a trade-off between integration time and accuracy, which naturally translates into algorithms that can be flexibly deployed for either fast and approximate classifications, or more accurate classifications at the mere expense of longer running times and higher energy costs. This work finally proves that the neuromorphic approach can be efficiently used in real-world applications and has significant advantages over conventional digital devices when energy consumption is considered.

  10. 76 FR 34761 - Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-14

    ... MARINE MAMMAL COMMISSION Classified National Security Information [Directive 11-01] AGENCY: Marine... Commission's (MMC) policy on classified information, as directed by Information Security Oversight Office... of Executive Order 13526, ``Classified National Security Information,'' and 32 CFR part 2001...

  11. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Email to a friend * required ...

  12. Development and evaluation of a hand tracker using depth images captured from an overhead perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czarnuch, Stephen; Mihailidis, Alex

    2015-03-27

    We present the development and evaluation of a robust hand tracker based on single overhead depth images for use in the COACH, an assistive technology for people with dementia. The new hand tracker was designed to overcome limitations experienced by the COACH in previous clinical trials. We train a random decision forest classifier using ∼5000 manually labeled, unbalanced, training images. Hand positions from the classifier are translated into task actions based on proximity to environmental objects. Tracker performance is evaluated using a large set of ∼24 000 manually labeled images captured from 41 participants in a fully-functional washroom, and compared to the system's previous colour-based hand tracker. Precision and recall were 0.994 and 0.938 for the depth tracker compared to 0.981 and 0.822 for the colour tracker with the current data, and 0.989 and 0.466 in the previous study. The improved tracking performance supports integration of the depth-based tracker into the COACH toward unsupervised, real-world trials. Implications for Rehabilitation The COACH is an intelligent assistive technology that can enable people with cognitive disabilities to stay at home longer, supporting the concept of aging-in-place. Automated prompting systems, a type of intelligent assistive technology, can help to support the independent completion of activities of daily living, increasing the independence of people with cognitive disabilities while reducing the burden of care experienced by caregivers. Robust motion tracking using depth imaging supports the development of intelligent assistive technologies like the COACH. Robust motion tracking also has application to other forms of assistive technologies including gaming, human-computer interaction and automated assessments.

  13. Representative Vector Machines: A Unified Framework for Classical Classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gui, Jie; Liu, Tongliang; Tao, Dacheng; Sun, Zhenan; Tan, Tieniu

    2016-08-01

    Classifier design is a fundamental problem in pattern recognition. A variety of pattern classification methods such as the nearest neighbor (NN) classifier, support vector machine (SVM), and sparse representation-based classification (SRC) have been proposed in the literature. These typical and widely used classifiers were originally developed from different theory or application motivations and they are conventionally treated as independent and specific solutions for pattern classification. This paper proposes a novel pattern classification framework, namely, representative vector machines (or RVMs for short). The basic idea of RVMs is to assign the class label of a test example according to its nearest representative vector. The contributions of RVMs are twofold. On one hand, the proposed RVMs establish a unified framework of classical classifiers because NN, SVM, and SRC can be interpreted as the special cases of RVMs with different definitions of representative vectors. Thus, the underlying relationship among a number of classical classifiers is revealed for better understanding of pattern classification. On the other hand, novel and advanced classifiers are inspired in the framework of RVMs. For example, a robust pattern classification method called discriminant vector machine (DVM) is motivated from RVMs. Given a test example, DVM first finds its k -NNs and then performs classification based on the robust M-estimator and manifold regularization. Extensive experimental evaluations on a variety of visual recognition tasks such as face recognition (Yale and face recognition grand challenge databases), object categorization (Caltech-101 dataset), and action recognition (Action Similarity LAbeliNg) demonstrate the advantages of DVM over other classifiers.

  14. Non-linear methods for the quantification of cyclic motion

    OpenAIRE

    Quintana Duque, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Traditional methods of human motion analysis assume that fluctuations in cycles (e.g. gait motion) and repetitions (e.g. tennis shots) arise solely from noise. However, the fluctuations may have enough information to describe the properties of motion. Recently, the fluctuations in motion have been analysed based on the concepts of variability and stability, but they are not used uniformly. On the one hand, these concepts are often mixed in the existing literature, while on the other hand, the...

  15. Controller design for Robotic hand through Electroencephalogram

    OpenAIRE

    Pandelidis P.; Kiriazis N.; Orgianelis K.; Koulios N.

    2016-01-01

    - This paper deals with the designing, the construction and the control of a robotic hand via an electroencephalogram sensor. First a robotic device that is able to mimic a real human hand is constructed. A PID controller is designed in order to improve the performance of the robotic arm for grabbing objects. Furthermore, a novel design approach is presented for controlling the motion of the robotic arm using signals produced from an innovative electroencephalogram sensor that detects the con...

  16. Force and motion

    CERN Document Server

    Robertson, William C

    2002-01-01

    Intimidated by inertia? Frightened by forces? Mystified by Newton s law of motion? You re not alone and help is at hand. The stop Faking It! Series is perfect for science teachers, home-schoolers, parents wanting to help with homework all of you who need a jargon-free way to learn the background for teaching middle school physical science with confidence. With Bill Roberton as your friendly, able but somewhat irreverent guide, you will discover you CAN come to grips with the basics of force and motion. Combining easy-to-understand explanations with activities using commonly found equipment, this book will lead you through Newton s laws to the physics of space travel. The book is as entertaining as it is informative. Best of all, the author understands the needs of adults who want concrete examples, hands-on activities, clear language, diagrams and yes, a certain amount of empathy. Ideas For Use Newton's laws, and all of the other motion principles presented in this book, do a good job of helping us to underst...

  17. Exploration of Hand Grasp Patterns Elicitable Through Non-Invasive Proximal Nerve Stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Henry; Watkins, Zach; Hu, Xiaogang

    2017-11-29

    Various neurological conditions, such as stroke or spinal cord injury, result in an impaired control of the hand. One method of restoring this impairment is through functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, traditional FES techniques often lead to quick fatigue and unnatural ballistic movements. In this study, we sought to explore the capabilities of a non-invasive proximal nerve stimulation technique in eliciting various hand grasp patterns. The ulnar and median nerves proximal to the elbow joint were activated transcutanously using a programmable stimulator, and the resultant finger flexion joint angles were recorded using a motion capture system. The individual finger motions averaged across the three joints were analyzed using a cluster analysis, in order to classify the different hand grasp patterns. With low current intensity (grasp patterns including single finger movement and coordinated multi-finger movements. This study provides initial evidence on the feasibility of a proximal nerve stimulation technique in controlling a variety of finger movements and grasp patterns. Our approach could also be developed into a rehabilitative/assistive tool that can result in flexible movements of the fingers.

  18. Efficient Multi-Concept Visual Classifier Adaptation in Changing Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    sets of images, hand annotated by humans with region boundary outlines followed by label assignment. This annotation is time consuming , and...performed as a necessary but time- consuming step to train su- pervised classifiers. U nsupervised o r s elf-supervised a pproaches h ave b een used to...time- consuming labeling pro- cess. However, the lack of human supervision has limited most of this work to binary classification (e.g., traversability

  19. Natural control capabilities of robotic hands by hand amputated subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atzori, Manfredo; Gijsberts, Arjan; Caputo, Barbara; Muller, Henning

    2014-01-01

    People with transradial hand amputations who own a myoelectric prosthesis currently have some control capabilities via sEMG. However, the control systems are still limited and not natural. The Ninapro project is aiming at helping the scientific community to overcome these limits through the creation of publicly available electromyography data sources to develop and test machine learning algorithms. In this paper we describe the movement classification results gained from three subjects with an homogeneous level of amputation, and we compare them with the results of 40 intact subjects. The number of considered subjects can seem small at first sight, but it is not considering the literature of the field (which has to face the difficulty of recruiting trans-radial hand amputated subjects). The classification is performed with four different classifiers and the obtained balanced classification rates are up to 58.6% on 50 movements, which is an excellent result compared to the current literature. Successively, for each subject we find a subset of up to 9 highly independent movements, (defined as movements that can be distinguished with more than 90% accuracy), which is a deeply innovative step in literature. The natural control of a robotic hand in so many movements could lead to an immediate progress in robotic hand prosthetics and it could deeply change the quality of life of amputated subjects.

  20. Waste classifying and separation device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakiuchi, Hiroki.

    1997-01-01

    A flexible plastic bags containing solid wastes of indefinite shape is broken and the wastes are classified. The bag cutting-portion of the device has an ultrasonic-type or a heater-type cutting means, and the cutting means moves in parallel with the transferring direction of the plastic bags. A classification portion separates and discriminates the plastic bag from the contents and conducts classification while rotating a classification table. Accordingly, the plastic bag containing solids of indefinite shape can be broken and classification can be conducted efficiently and reliably. The device of the present invention has a simple structure which requires small installation space and enables easy maintenance. (T.M.)

  1. Defining and Classifying Interest Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baroni, Laura; Carroll, Brendan; Chalmers, Adam

    2014-01-01

    The interest group concept is defined in many different ways in the existing literature and a range of different classification schemes are employed. This complicates comparisons between different studies and their findings. One of the important tasks faced by interest group scholars engaged...... in large-N studies is therefore to define the concept of an interest group and to determine which classification scheme to use for different group types. After reviewing the existing literature, this article sets out to compare different approaches to defining and classifying interest groups with a sample...... in the organizational attributes of specific interest group types. As expected, our comparison of coding schemes reveals a closer link between group attributes and group type in narrower classification schemes based on group organizational characteristics than those based on a behavioral definition of lobbying....

  2. Biomechanical Reconstruction Using the Tacit Learning System: Intuitive Control of Prosthetic Hand Rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyama, Shintaro; Shimoda, Shingo; Alnajjar, Fady S K; Iwatsuki, Katsuyuki; Hoshiyama, Minoru; Tanaka, Hirotaka; Hirata, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Background: For mechanically reconstructing human biomechanical function, intuitive proportional control, and robustness to unexpected situations are required. Particularly, creating a functional hand prosthesis is a typical challenge in the reconstruction of lost biomechanical function. Nevertheless, currently available control algorithms are in the development phase. The most advanced algorithms for controlling multifunctional prosthesis are machine learning and pattern recognition of myoelectric signals. Despite the increase in computational speed, these methods cannot avoid the requirement of user consciousness and classified separation errors. "Tacit Learning System" is a simple but novel adaptive control strategy that can self-adapt its posture to environment changes. We introduced the strategy in the prosthesis rotation control to achieve compensatory reduction, as well as evaluated the system and its effects on the user. Methods: We conducted a non-randomized study involving eight prosthesis users to perform a bar relocation task with/without Tacit Learning System support. Hand piece and body motions were recorded continuously with goniometers, videos, and a motion-capture system. Findings: Reduction in the participants' upper extremity rotatory compensation motion was monitored during the relocation task in all participants. The estimated profile of total body energy consumption improved in five out of six participants. Interpretation: Our system rapidly accomplished nearly natural motion without unexpected errors. The Tacit Learning System not only adapts human motions but also enhances the human ability to adapt to the system quickly, while the system amplifies compensation generated by the residual limb. The concept can be extended to various situations for reconstructing lost functions that can be compensated.

  3. Thai Finger-Spelling Recognition Using a Cascaded Classifier Based on Histogram of Orientation Gradient Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kittasil Silanon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hand posture recognition is an essential module in applications such as human-computer interaction (HCI, games, and sign language systems, in which performance and robustness are the primary requirements. In this paper, we proposed automatic classification to recognize 21 hand postures that represent letters in Thai finger-spelling based on Histogram of Orientation Gradient (HOG feature (which is applied with more focus on the information within certain region of the image rather than each single pixel and Adaptive Boost (i.e., AdaBoost learning technique to select the best weak classifier and to construct a strong classifier that consists of several weak classifiers to be cascaded in detection architecture. We collected 21 static hand posture images from 10 subjects for testing and training in Thai letters finger-spelling. The parameters for the training process have been adjusted in three experiments, false positive rates (FPR, true positive rates (TPR, and number of training stages (N, to achieve the most suitable training model for each hand posture. All cascaded classifiers are loaded into the system simultaneously to classify different hand postures. A correlation coefficient is computed to distinguish the hand postures that are similar. The system achieves approximately 78% accuracy on average on all classifier experiments.

  4. Optimal threshold estimation for binary classifiers using game theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Ignacio Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Many bioinformatics algorithms can be understood as binary classifiers. They are usually compared using the area under the receiver operating characteristic ( ROC ) curve. On the other hand, choosing the best threshold for practical use is a complex task, due to uncertain and context-dependent skews in the abundance of positives in nature and in the yields/costs for correct/incorrect classification. We argue that considering a classifier as a player in a zero-sum game allows us to use the minimax principle from game theory to determine the optimal operating point. The proposed classifier threshold corresponds to the intersection between the ROC curve and the descending diagonal in ROC space and yields a minimax accuracy of 1-FPR. Our proposal can be readily implemented in practice, and reveals that the empirical condition for threshold estimation of "specificity equals sensitivity" maximizes robustness against uncertainties in the abundance of positives in nature and classification costs.

  5. Osteoarthritis of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Osteoarthritis Email to a friend * required fields From * ...

  6. Hands in Systemic Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... hands, being composed of many types of tissue, including blood vessels, nerves, skin and skin-related tissues, bones, and muscles/tendons/ligaments, may show changes that reflect a ...

  7. Denmark: HAND in HAND Policy Questionnaire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Hilmar Dyrborg; Nielsen, Birgitte Lund

    2018-01-01

    Som del af det internationale EU finansierede projekt Hand in Hand, der fokuserer på de såkaldte SEI-kompetencer (Social, Emotional, Intercultural), er dansk policy i relation til elevernes sociale, emotionelle og interkulturelle læring kortlagt i denne rapport. Der refereres bl.a. til "elevernes...

  8. Operator Fractional Brownian Motion and Martingale Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongshuai Dai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that martingale difference sequences are very useful in applications and theory. On the other hand, the operator fractional Brownian motion as an extension of the well-known fractional Brownian motion also plays an important role in both applications and theory. In this paper, we study the relation between them. We construct an approximation sequence of operator fractional Brownian motion based on a martingale difference sequence.

  9. Learning Motion Features for Example-Based Finger Motion Estimation for Virtual Characters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mousas, Christos; Anagnostopoulos, Christos-Nikolaos

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a methodology for estimating the motion of a character's fingers based on the use of motion features provided by a virtual character's hand. In the presented methodology, firstly, the motion data is segmented into discrete phases. Then, a number of motion features are computed for each motion segment of a character's hand. The motion features are pre-processed using restricted Boltzmann machines, and by using the different variations of semantically similar finger gestures in a support vector machine learning mechanism, the optimal weights for each feature assigned to a metric are computed. The advantages of the presented methodology in comparison to previous solutions are the following: First, we automate the computation of optimal weights that are assigned to each motion feature counted in our metric. Second, the presented methodology achieves an increase (about 17%) in correctly estimated finger gestures in comparison to a previous method.

  10. Development of five-finger robotic hand using master-slave control for hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Koki; Yamada, Hiroshi; Kato, Ryu; Seki, Tatsuya; Yokoi, Hiroshi; Mukai, Masaya

    2016-08-01

    This study aims to develop a robotic hand as a substitute for a surgeon's hand in hand-assisted laparoscopic surgery (HALS). We determined the requirements for the proposed hand from a surgeon's motions in HALS. We identified four basic behaviors: "power grasp," "precision grasp," "open hand for exclusion," and "peace sign for extending peritoneum." The proposed hand had the minimum necessary DOFs for performing these behaviors, five fingers as in a human's hand, a palm that can be folded when a surgeon inserts the hand into the abdomen, and an arm for adjusting the hand's position. We evaluated the proposed hand based on a performance test and a physician's opinions, and we confirmed that it can grasp organs.

  11. Composite Classifiers for Automatic Target Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wang, Lin-Cheng

    1998-01-01

    ...) using forward-looking infrared (FLIR) imagery. Two existing classifiers, one based on learning vector quantization and the other on modular neural networks, are used as the building blocks for our composite classifiers...

  12. Robotic hand project

    OpenAIRE

    Karaçizmeli, Cengiz; Çakır, Gökçe; Tükel, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    In this work, the mechatronic based robotic hand is controlled by the position data taken from the glove which has flex sensors mounted to capture finger bending of the human hand. The angular movement of human hand’s fingers are perceived and processed by a microcontroller, and the robotic hand is controlled by actuating servo motors. It has seen that robotic hand can simulate the movement of the human hand that put on the glove, during tests have done. This robotic hand can be used not only...

  13. Aggregation Operator Based Fuzzy Pattern Classifier Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mönks, Uwe; Larsen, Henrik Legind; Lohweg, Volker

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modular fuzzy pattern classifier design framework for intelligent automation systems, developed on the base of the established Modified Fuzzy Pattern Classifier (MFPC) and allows designing novel classifier models which are hardware-efficiently implementable....... The performances of novel classifiers using substitutes of MFPC's geometric mean aggregator are benchmarked in the scope of an image processing application against the MFPC to reveal classification improvement potentials for obtaining higher classification rates....

  14. 15 CFR 4.8 - Classified Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Classified Information. 4.8 Section 4... INFORMATION Freedom of Information Act § 4.8 Classified Information. In processing a request for information..., the information shall be reviewed to determine whether it should remain classified. Ordinarily the...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... intended to promote or encourage adherence to CDC hand hygiene recommendations. It is a component of the Clean ... also aims to address myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in ...

  18. Wash Your Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hand sanitizers might not remove harmful chemicals like pesticides and heavy metals from hands. Be cautious when ... Health Promotion Materials Fact Sheets Podcasts Posters Stickers Videos Web Features Training & Education Our Partners Publications, Data & ...

  19. Automatic denoising of functional MRI data: combining independent component analysis and hierarchical fusion of classifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salimi-Khorshidi, Gholamreza; Douaud, Gwenaëlle; Beckmann, Christian F; Glasser, Matthew F; Griffanti, Ludovica; Smith, Stephen M

    2014-04-15

    Many sources of fluctuation contribute to the fMRI signal, and this makes identifying the effects that are truly related to the underlying neuronal activity difficult. Independent component analysis (ICA) - one of the most widely used techniques for the exploratory analysis of fMRI data - has shown to be a powerful technique in identifying various sources of neuronally-related and artefactual fluctuation in fMRI data (both with the application of external stimuli and with the subject "at rest"). ICA decomposes fMRI data into patterns of activity (a set of spatial maps and their corresponding time series) that are statistically independent and add linearly to explain voxel-wise time series. Given the set of ICA components, if the components representing "signal" (brain activity) can be distinguished form the "noise" components (effects of motion, non-neuronal physiology, scanner artefacts and other nuisance sources), the latter can then be removed from the data, providing an effective cleanup of structured noise. Manual classification of components is labour intensive and requires expertise; hence, a fully automatic noise detection algorithm that can reliably detect various types of noise sources (in both task and resting fMRI) is desirable. In this paper, we introduce FIX ("FMRIB's ICA-based X-noiseifier"), which provides an automatic solution for denoising fMRI data via accurate classification of ICA components. For each ICA component FIX generates a large number of distinct spatial and temporal features, each describing a different aspect of the data (e.g., what proportion of temporal fluctuations are at high frequencies). The set of features is then fed into a multi-level classifier (built around several different classifiers). Once trained through the hand-classification of a sufficient number of training datasets, the classifier can then automatically classify new datasets. The noise components can then be subtracted from (or regressed out of) the original

  20. New frontiers in the rubber hand experiment: when a robotic hand becomes one's own.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspar, Emilie A; De Beir, Albert; Magalhaes De Saldanha Da Gama, Pedro A; Yernaux, Florence; Cleeremans, Axel; Vanderborght, Bram

    2015-09-01

    The rubber hand illusion is an experimental paradigm in which participants consider a fake hand to be part of their body. This paradigm has been used in many domains of psychology (i.e., research on pain, body ownership, agency) and is of clinical importance. The classic rubber hand paradigm nevertheless suffers from limitations, such as the absence of active motion or the reliance on approximate measurements, which makes strict experimental conditions difficult to obtain. Here, we report on the development of a novel technology-a robotic, user- and computer-controllable hand-that addresses many of the limitations associated with the classic rubber hand paradigm. Because participants can actively control the robotic hand, the device affords higher realism and authenticity. Our robotic hand has a comparatively low cost and opens up novel and innovative methods. In order to validate the robotic hand, we have carried out three experiments. The first two studies were based on previous research using the rubber hand, while the third was specific to the robotic hand. We measured both sense of agency and ownership. Overall, results show that participants experienced a "robotic hand illusion" in the baseline conditions. Furthermore, we also replicated previous results about agency and ownership.

  1. Hand hygiene strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Yazaji, Eskandar Alex

    2011-01-01

    Hand hygiene is one of the major players in preventing healthcare associated infections. However, healthcare workers compliance with hand hygiene continues to be a challenge. This article will address strategies to help improving hand hygiene compliance. Keywords: hand hygiene; healthcare associated infections; multidisciplinary program; system change; accountability; education; feedback(Published: 18 July 2011)Citation: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives 2011, 1: 72...

  2. The Application of Leap Motion in Astronaut Virtual Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qingchao, Xie; Jiangang, Chao

    2017-03-01

    With the development of computer vision, virtual reality has been applied in astronaut virtual training. As an advanced optic equipment to track hand, Leap Motion can provide precise and fluid tracking of hands. Leap Motion is suitable to be used as gesture input device in astronaut virtual training. This paper built an astronaut virtual training based Leap Motion, and established the mathematics model of hands occlusion. At last the ability of Leap Motion to handle occlusion was analysed. A virtual assembly simulation platform was developed for astronaut training, and occlusion gesture would influence the recognition process. The experimental result can guide astronaut virtual training.

  3. About Hand Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Find a hand surgeon near you. © 2009 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Definition developed by ASSH Council. Other Links CME Mission Statement and Disclaimer Policies and Technical Requirements Exhibits and Partners ASSH 822 W. Washington Blvd. ... 2018 by American Society for Surgery of the Hand × Search Tips Tip ...

  4. Guideline Implementation: Hand Hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Judith L

    2017-02-01

    Performing proper hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis is essential to reducing the rates of health care-associated infections, including surgical site infections. The updated AORN "Guideline for hand hygiene" provides guidance on hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, the wearing of fingernail polish and artificial nails, proper skin care to prevent dermatitis, the wearing of jewelry, hand hygiene product selection, and quality assurance and performance improvement considerations. This article focuses on key points of the guideline to help perioperative personnel make informed decisions about hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis. The key points address the necessity of keeping fingernails and skin healthy, not wearing jewelry on the hands or wrists in the perioperative area, properly performing hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis, and involving patients and visitors in hand hygiene initiatives. Perioperative RNs should review the complete guideline for additional information and for guidance when writing and updating policies and procedures. Copyright © 2017 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Robotic hand and fingers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salisbury, Curt Michael; Dullea, Kevin J.

    2017-06-06

    Technologies pertaining to a robotic hand are described herein. The robotic hand includes one or more fingers releasably attached to a robotic hand frame. The fingers can abduct and adduct as well as flex and tense. The fingers are releasably attached to the frame by magnets that allow for the fingers to detach from the frame when excess force is applied to the fingers.

  6. DFRFT: A Classified Review of Recent Methods with Its Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashutosh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the literature, there are various algorithms available for computing the discrete fractional Fourier transform (DFRFT. In this paper, all the existing methods are reviewed, classified into four categories, and subsequently compared to find out the best alternative from the view point of minimal computational error, computational complexity, transform features, and additional features like security. Subsequently, the correlation theorem of FRFT has been utilized to remove significantly the Doppler shift caused due to motion of receiver in the DSB-SC AM signal. Finally, the role of DFRFT has been investigated in the area of steganography.

  7. Kinesthetic information disambiguates visual motion signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Knill, David C

    2010-05-25

    Numerous studies have shown that extra-retinal signals can disambiguate motion information created by movements of the eye or head. We report a new form of cross-modal sensory integration in which the kinesthetic information generated by active hand movements essentially captures ambiguous visual motion information. Several previous studies have shown that active movement can bias observers' percepts of bi-stable stimuli; however, these effects seem to be best explained by attentional mechanisms. We show that kinesthetic information can change an otherwise stable perception of motion, providing evidence of genuine fusion between visual and kinesthetic information. The experiments take advantage of the aperture problem, in which the motion of a one-dimensional grating pattern behind an aperture, while geometrically ambiguous, appears to move stably in the grating normal direction. When actively moving the pattern, however, the observer sees the motion to be in the hand movement direction. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rubber hand illusion affects joint angle perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin V Butz

    Full Text Available The Rubber Hand Illusion (RHI is a well-established experimental paradigm. It has been shown that the RHI can affect hand location estimates, arm and hand motion towards goals, the subjective visual appearance of the own hand, and the feeling of body ownership. Several studies also indicate that the peri-hand space is partially remapped around the rubber hand. Nonetheless, the question remains if and to what extent the RHI can affect the perception of other body parts. In this study we ask if the RHI can alter the perception of the elbow joint. Participants had to adjust an angular representation on a screen according to their proprioceptive perception of their own elbow joint angle. The results show that the RHI does indeed alter the elbow joint estimation, increasing the agreement with the position and orientation of the artificial hand. Thus, the results show that the brain does not only adjust the perception of the hand in body-relative space, but it also modifies the perception of other body parts. In conclusion, we propose that the brain continuously strives to maintain a consistent internal body image and that this image can be influenced by the available sensory information sources, which are mediated and mapped onto each other by means of a postural, kinematic body model.

  9. Mechanical design and control of a new myoelectric hand prosthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peerdeman, B.; Stramigioli, Stefano; Hekman, Edsko E.G.; Brouwer, Dannis Michel; Misra, Sarthak

    2011-01-01

    The development of modern, myoelectrically controlled hand prostheses can be difficult, due to the many requirements its mechanical design and control system need to fulfill [1]. The hand should be controllable with few input signals, while being able to perform a wide range of motions. It should be

  10. An intention driven hand functions task training robotic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, K Y; Ho, S K; Pang, P K; Hu, X L; Tam, W K; Fung, K L; Wei, X J; Chen, P N; Chen, M

    2010-01-01

    A novel design of a hand functions task training robotic system was developed for the stroke rehabilitation. It detects the intention of hand opening or hand closing from the stroke person using the electromyography (EMG) signals measured from the hemiplegic side. This training system consists of an embedded controller and a robotic hand module. Each hand robot has 5 individual finger assemblies capable to drive 2 degrees of freedom (DOFs) of each finger at the same time. Powered by the linear actuator, the finger assembly achieves 55 degree range of motion (ROM) at the metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joint and 65 degree range of motion (ROM) at the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joint. Each finger assembly can also be adjusted to fit for different finger length. With this task training system, stroke subject can open and close their impaired hand using their own intention to carry out some of the daily living tasks.

  11. [Study on an Exoskeleton Hand Function Training Device].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Zhang, Ying; Li, Jicai; Yi, Jinhua; Yu, Hongliu; He, Rongrong

    2016-02-01

    Based on the structure and motion bionic principle of the normal adult fingers, biological characteristics of human hands were analyzed, and a wearable exoskeleton hand function training device for the rehabilitation of stroke patients or patients with hand trauma was designed. This device includes the exoskeleton mechanical structure and the electromyography (EMG) control system. With adjustable mechanism, the device was capable to fit different finger lengths, and by capturing the EMG of the users' contralateral limb, the motion state of the exoskeleton hand was controlled. Then driven by the device, the user's fingers conducting adduction/abduction rehabilitation training was carried out. Finally, the mechanical properties and training effect of the exoskeleton hand were verified through mechanism simulation and the experiments on the experimental prototype of the wearable exoskeleton hand function training device.

  12. Study of hand signs in Judeo-Christian art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Ashwin N; Chung, Kevin C

    2008-09-01

    Hand gestures play a crucial role in religious art. An examination of Judeo-Christian art finds an ecclesiastical language that is concealed in metaphors and expressed by unique hand gestures. Many of these hand signs convey messages that are not familiar to most people admiring these paintings. Investigating the history and classifying some of the predominant hand signs found in Judeo-Christian art might serve to stimulate discussion concerning the many nuances of symbolic art. This presentation examines the meaning behind 8 common hand signs in Judeo-Christian art.

  13. Bayesian Classifier for Medical Data from Doppler Unit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Málek

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, hand-held ultrasonic Doppler units (probes are often used for noninvasive screening of atherosclerosis in the arteries of the lower limbs. The mean velocity of blood flow in time and blood pressures are measured on several positions on each lower limb. By listening to the acoustic signal generated by the device or by reading the signal displayed on screen, a specialist can detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD.This project aims to design software that will be able to analyze data from such a device and classify it into several diagnostic classes. At the Department of Functional Diagnostics at the Regional Hospital in Liberec a database of several hundreds signals was collected. In cooperation with the specialist, the signals were manually classified into four classes. For each class, selected signal features were extracted and then used for training a Bayesian classifier. Another set of signals was used for evaluating and optimizing the parameters of the classifier. Slightly above 84 % of successfully recognized diagnostic states, was recently achieved on the test data. 

  14. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R. [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Martin, Sarah E. [Department of Pathology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen [Department of Pediatrics, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Lin, Julian [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Tsung, Andrew J. [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Illinois Neurological Institute, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Velpula, Kiran K., E-mail: velpula@uic.edu [Department of Cancer Biology and Pharmacology, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States); Department of Neurosurgery, University of Illinois College of Medicine at Peoria, Peoria, IL 61656 (United States)

    2016-08-19

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. - Highlights: • Hand1 expression is downregulated in Medulloblastoma. • Hand1 over expression reduce

  15. Hand1 overexpression inhibits medulloblastoma metastasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asuthkar, Swapna; Guda, Maheedhara R.; Martin, Sarah E.; Antony, Reuben; Fernandez, Karen; Lin, Julian; Tsung, Andrew J.; Velpula, Kiran K.

    2016-01-01

    Medulloblastoma (MB) is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor. Current treatment includes surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. However, ongoing treatment in patients is further classified according to the presence or absence of metastasis. Since metastatic medulloblastoma are refractory to current treatments, there is need to identify novel biomarkers that could be used to reduce metastatic potential, and more importantly be targeted therapeutically. Previously, we showed that ionizing radiation-induced uPAR overexpression is associated with increased accumulation of β-catenin in the nucleus. We further demonstrated that uPAR protein act as cytoplasmic sequestration factor for a novel basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, Hand1. Among the histological subtypes classical and desmoplastic subtypes account for the majority while large cell/anaplastic variant is most commonly associated with metastatic disease. In this present study using immunohistochemical approach and patient data mining for the first time, we demonstrated that Hand1 expression is observed to be downregulated in all the subtypes of medulloblastoma. Previously we showed that Hand1 overexpression regulated medulloblastoma angiogenesis and here we investigated the role of Hand1 in the context of Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT). Moreover, UW228 and D283 cells overexpressing Hand1 demonstrated decreased-expression of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, β-catenin and SOX2); metastatic marker (SMA); and increased expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin). Strikingly, human pluripotent stem cell antibody array showed that Hand1 overexpression resulted in substantial decrease in pluripotency markers (Nanog, Oct3/4, Otx2, Flk1) suggesting that Hand1 expression may be essential to attenuate the EMT and our findings underscore a novel role for Hand1 in medulloblastoma metastasis. - Highlights: • Hand1 expression is downregulated in Medulloblastoma. • Hand1 over expression reduce

  16. Error minimizing algorithms for nearest eighbor classifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, Reid B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hush, Don [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Zimmer, G. Beate [TEXAS A& M

    2011-01-03

    Stack Filters define a large class of discrete nonlinear filter first introd uced in image and signal processing for noise removal. In recent years we have suggested their application to classification problems, and investigated their relationship to other types of discrete classifiers such as Decision Trees. In this paper we focus on a continuous domain version of Stack Filter Classifiers which we call Ordered Hypothesis Machines (OHM), and investigate their relationship to Nearest Neighbor classifiers. We show that OHM classifiers provide a novel framework in which to train Nearest Neighbor type classifiers by minimizing empirical error based loss functions. We use the framework to investigate a new cost sensitive loss function that allows us to train a Nearest Neighbor type classifier for low false alarm rate applications. We report results on both synthetic data and real-world image data.

  17. The Avocado Hand

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rahmani, G

    2017-11-01

    Accidental self-inflicted knife injuries to digits are a common cause of tendon and nerve injury requiring hand surgery. There has been an apparent increase in avocado related hand injuries. Classically, the patients hold the avocado in their non-dominant hand while using a knife to cut\\/peel the fruit with their dominant hand. The mechanism of injury is usually a stabbing injury to the non-dominant hand as the knife slips past the stone, through the soft avocado fruit. Despite their apparent increased incidence, we could not find any cases in the literature which describe the “avocado hand”. We present a case of a 32-year-old woman who sustained a significant hand injury while preparing an avocado. She required exploration and repair of a digital nerve under regional anaesthesia and has since made a full recovery.

  18. TREATMENT OF FRACTURES TO THE HAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina Colombo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to discuss the treatment of fractures to the hand given the importance of this organ in terms of functional anatomy. After classifying the various types of fractures, surgery and rehabilitation options for all types are discussed. Particular emphasis is placed on therapy for the most frequently seen lesions such as fractures to the scaphoid, the fifth metacarpal and the base of the first metacarpal. The importance of the use of prophylaxis against stiffness and treatment for oedema, which are commonly seen in fractures to the hand, is also highlighted.

  19. Hand eczema classification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diepgen, T L; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Brandao, F M

    2008-01-01

    of the disease is rarely evidence based, and a classification system for different subdiagnoses of hand eczema is not agreed upon. Randomized controlled trials investigating the treatment of hand eczema are called for. For this, as well as for clinical purposes, a generally accepted classification system...... A classification system for hand eczema is proposed. Conclusions It is suggested that this classification be used in clinical work and in clinical trials....

  20. Controller design for Robotic hand through Electroencephalogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandelidis P.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available - This paper deals with the designing, the construction and the control of a robotic hand via an electroencephalogram sensor. First a robotic device that is able to mimic a real human hand is constructed. A PID controller is designed in order to improve the performance of the robotic arm for grabbing objects. Furthermore, a novel design approach is presented for controlling the motion of the robotic arm using signals produced from an innovative electroencephalogram sensor that detects the concentration of the brain

  1. Coordination of hand shape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesyna, Colin; Pundi, Krishna; Flanders, Martha

    2011-03-09

    The neural control of hand movement involves coordination of the sensory, motor, and memory systems. Recent studies have documented the motor coordinates for hand shape, but less is known about the corresponding patterns of somatosensory activity. To initiate this line of investigation, the present study characterized the sense of hand shape by evaluating the influence of differences in the amount of grasping or twisting force, and differences in forearm orientation. Human subjects were asked to use the left hand to report the perceived shape of the right hand. In the first experiment, six commonly grasped items were arranged on the table in front of the subject: bottle, doorknob, egg, notebook, carton, and pan. With eyes closed, subjects used the right hand to lightly touch, forcefully support, or imagine holding each object, while 15 joint angles were measured in each hand with a pair of wired gloves. The forces introduced by supporting or twisting did not influence the perceptual report of hand shape, but for most objects, the report was distorted in a consistent manner by differences in forearm orientation. Subjects appeared to adjust the intrinsic joint angles of the left hand, as well as the left wrist posture, so as to maintain the imagined object in its proper spatial orientation. In a second experiment, this result was largely replicated with unfamiliar objects. Thus, somatosensory and motor information appear to be coordinated in an object-based, spatial-coordinate system, sensitive to orientation relative to gravitational forces, but invariant to grasp forcefulness.

  2. Development of the bedridden person support system using hand gesture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichimura, Kouhei; Magatani, Kazushige

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to support the bedridden and physically handicapped person who live independently. In this study, we developed Electric appliances control system that can be used on the bed. The subject can control Electric appliances using hand motion. Infrared sensors of a Kinect are used for the hand motion detection. Our developed system was tested with some normal subjects and results of the experiment were evaluated. In this experiment, all subjects laid on the bed and tried to control our system. As results, most of subjects were able to control our developed system perfectly. However, motion tracking of some subject's hand was reset forcibly. It was difficult for these subjects to make the system recognize his opened hand. From these results, we think if this problem will be improved our support system will be useful for the bedridden and physically handicapped persons.

  3. Hierarchical mixtures of naive Bayes classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiering, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    Naive Bayes classifiers tend to perform very well on a large number of problem domains, although their representation power is quite limited compared to more sophisticated machine learning algorithms. In this pa- per we study combining multiple naive Bayes classifiers by using the hierar- chical

  4. Comparing classifiers for pronunciation error detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Strik, H.; Truong, K.; Wet, F. de; Cucchiarini, C.

    2007-01-01

    Providing feedback on pronunciation errors in computer assisted language learning systems requires that pronunciation errors be detected automatically. In the present study we compare four types of classifiers that can be used for this purpose: two acoustic-phonetic classifiers (one of which employs

  5. Feature extraction for dynamic integration of classifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pechenizkiy, M.; Tsymbal, A.; Puuronen, S.; Patterson, D.W.

    2007-01-01

    Recent research has shown the integration of multiple classifiers to be one of the most important directions in machine learning and data mining. In this paper, we present an algorithm for the dynamic integration of classifiers in the space of extracted features (FEDIC). It is based on the technique

  6. Deconvolution When Classifying Noisy Data Involving Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, we consider the problem of classifying spatial data distorted by a linear transformation or convolution and contaminated by additive random noise. In this setting, we show that classifier performance can be improved if we carefully invert the data before the classifier is applied. However, the inverse transformation is not constructed so as to recover the original signal, and in fact, we show that taking the latter approach is generally inadvisable. We introduce a fully data-driven procedure based on cross-validation, and use several classifiers to illustrate numerical properties of our approach. Theoretical arguments are given in support of our claims. Our procedure is applied to data generated by light detection and ranging (Lidar) technology, where we improve on earlier approaches to classifying aerosols. This article has supplementary materials online.

  7. Deconvolution When Classifying Noisy Data Involving Transformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Raymond; Delaigle, Aurore; Hall, Peter

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, we consider the problem of classifying spatial data distorted by a linear transformation or convolution and contaminated by additive random noise. In this setting, we show that classifier performance can be improved if we carefully invert the data before the classifier is applied. However, the inverse transformation is not constructed so as to recover the original signal, and in fact, we show that taking the latter approach is generally inadvisable. We introduce a fully data-driven procedure based on cross-validation, and use several classifiers to illustrate numerical properties of our approach. Theoretical arguments are given in support of our claims. Our procedure is applied to data generated by light detection and ranging (Lidar) technology, where we improve on earlier approaches to classifying aerosols. This article has supplementary materials online.

  8. Deconvolution When Classifying Noisy Data Involving Transformations

    KAUST Repository

    Carroll, Raymond; Delaigle, Aurore; Hall, Peter

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, we consider the problem of classifying spatial data distorted by a linear transformation or convolution and contaminated by additive random noise. In this setting, we show that classifier performance can be improved if we carefully invert the data before the classifier is applied. However, the inverse transformation is not constructed so as to recover the original signal, and in fact, we show that taking the latter approach is generally inadvisable. We introduce a fully data-driven procedure based on cross-validation, and use several classifiers to illustrate numerical properties of our approach. Theoretical arguments are given in support of our claims. Our procedure is applied to data generated by light detection and ranging (Lidar) technology, where we improve on earlier approaches to classifying aerosols. This article has supplementary materials online.

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 089,212 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,032 views ...

  10. Mind the hand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidsen, Jacob; Christiansen, Ellen Tove

    2014-01-01

    Apart from touching the screen, what is the role of the hands for children collaborating around touchscreens? Based on embodied and multimodal interaction analysis of 8- and 9-year old pairs collaborating around touchscreens, we conclude that children use their hands to constrain and control acce...

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 024 views 2:58 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 2,805 views 3:13 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,574 views ...

  12. HAND INJURIES IN VOLLEYBALL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    BHAIRO, NH; NIJSTEN, MWN; VANDALEN, KC; TENDUIS, HJ

    We studied the long-term sequelae of hand injuries as a result of playing volleyball. In a retrospective study, 226 patients with injuries of the hand who were seen over a 5-year period at our Trauma Department, were investigated. Females accounted for 66 % of all injuries. The mean age was 26

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,760 ... 536,963 views 1:46 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,574 views ...

  14. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 74,478 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,292 views 5:46 Hand Washing Technique - ...

  15. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 029 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 081,511 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,194 views ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,362 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 views 5:46 Hand Washing Technique - ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 086,746 views 4:50 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,802 views ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 453 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 ... 28,656 views 3:40 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,480 views ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 362 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 412,404 ... 219,427 views 1:27 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 25,194 views ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 03. R Mayer 371,490 views 4:03 The psychological trick behind getting people to say yes - Duration: 8:06. PBS NewsHour 606,671 views 8:06 Should You Really Wash Your Hands? - Duration: 4:51. Gross Science 57,828 views 4:51 Healthcare Worker Hand ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ... 28,656 views 3:40 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,032 views ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 5 Moments of Hand Hygiene - Duration: 1:53. Salem Health 13,972 views 1:53 Hand Hygiene ... Mode: Off History Help Loading... Loading... Loading... About Press Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & ...

  3. "Puffy hand syndrome".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouk, Mickaël; Vidon, Claire; Deveza, Elise; Verhoeven, Frank; Pelletier, Fabien; Prati, Clément; Wendling, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    Intravenous drug addiction is responsible for many complications, especially cutaneous and infectious. There is a syndrome, rarely observed in rheumatology, resulting in "puffy hands": the puffy hand syndrome. We report two cases of this condition from our rheumatologic consultation. Our two patients had intravenous drug addiction. They presented with an edema of the hands, bilateral, painless, no pitting, occurring in one of our patient during heroin intoxication, and in the other 2 years after stopping injections. In our two patients, additional investigations (biological, radiological, ultrasound) were unremarkable, which helped us, in the context, to put the diagnosis of puffy hand syndrome. The pathophysiology, still unclear, is based in part on a lymphatic toxicity of drugs and their excipients. There is no etiological treatment but elastic compression by night has improved edema of the hands in one of our patients. Copyright © 2016 Société française de rhumatologie. Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. On the acquisition of classifiers in 5 – 6 year-old Deaf children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hammer; J. Nijen Twilhaar; L. Pieters - van Noord; A. Veeninga; E. van Loon

    2015-01-01

    Posterpresentatie op Conferentie. Introduction: Classifiers are handshapes (sometimes combined with a specific orientation) that, when combined with the other parameters of movement and location form a ‘verb of motion or location’. There is a limited body of research available on the acquisition

  5. Logarithmic learning for generalized classifier neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozyildirim, Buse Melis; Avci, Mutlu

    2014-12-01

    Generalized classifier neural network is introduced as an efficient classifier among the others. Unless the initial smoothing parameter value is close to the optimal one, generalized classifier neural network suffers from convergence problem and requires quite a long time to converge. In this work, to overcome this problem, a logarithmic learning approach is proposed. The proposed method uses logarithmic cost function instead of squared error. Minimization of this cost function reduces the number of iterations used for reaching the minima. The proposed method is tested on 15 different data sets and performance of logarithmic learning generalized classifier neural network is compared with that of standard one. Thanks to operation range of radial basis function included by generalized classifier neural network, proposed logarithmic approach and its derivative has continuous values. This makes it possible to adopt the advantage of logarithmic fast convergence by the proposed learning method. Due to fast convergence ability of logarithmic cost function, training time is maximally decreased to 99.2%. In addition to decrease in training time, classification performance may also be improved till 60%. According to the test results, while the proposed method provides a solution for time requirement problem of generalized classifier neural network, it may also improve the classification accuracy. The proposed method can be considered as an efficient way for reducing the time requirement problem of generalized classifier neural network. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. A new approach to hand-based authentication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amayeh, G.; Bebis, G.; Erol, A.; Nicolescu, M.

    2007-04-01

    Hand-based authentication is a key biometric technology with a wide range of potential applications both in industry and government. Traditionally, hand-based authentication is performed by extracting information from the whole hand. To account for hand and finger motion, guidance pegs are employed to fix the position and orientation of the hand. In this paper, we consider a component-based approach to hand-based verification. Our objective is to investigate the discrimination power of different parts of the hand in order to develop a simpler, faster, and possibly more accurate and robust verification system. Specifically, we propose a new approach which decomposes the hand in different regions, corresponding to the fingers and the back of the palm, and performs verification using information from certain parts of the hand only. Our approach operates on 2D images acquired by placing the hand on a flat lighting table. Using a part-based representation of the hand allows the system to compensate for hand and finger motion without using any guidance pegs. To decompose the hand in different regions, we use a robust methodology based on morphological operators which does not require detecting any landmark points on the hand. To capture the geometry of the back of the palm and the fingers in suffcient detail, we employ high-order Zernike moments which are computed using an effcient methodology. The proposed approach has been evaluated on a database of 100 subjects with 10 images per subject, illustrating promising performance. Comparisons with related approaches using the whole hand for verification illustrate the superiority of the proposed approach. Moreover, qualitative comparisons with state-of-the-art approaches indicate that the proposed approach has comparable or better performance.

  7. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C. Berger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect—an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  8. Auditory Motion Elicits a Visual Motion Aftereffect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christopher C; Ehrsson, H Henrik

    2016-01-01

    The visual motion aftereffect is a visual illusion in which exposure to continuous motion in one direction leads to a subsequent illusion of visual motion in the opposite direction. Previous findings have been mixed with regard to whether this visual illusion can be induced cross-modally by auditory stimuli. Based on research on multisensory perception demonstrating the profound influence auditory perception can have on the interpretation and perceived motion of visual stimuli, we hypothesized that exposure to auditory stimuli with strong directional motion cues should induce a visual motion aftereffect. Here, we demonstrate that horizontally moving auditory stimuli induced a significant visual motion aftereffect-an effect that was driven primarily by a change in visual motion perception following exposure to leftward moving auditory stimuli. This finding is consistent with the notion that visual and auditory motion perception rely on at least partially overlapping neural substrates.

  9. Auditory motion capturing ambiguous visual motion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjen eAlink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, it is demonstrated that moving sounds have an effect on the direction in which one sees visual stimuli move. During the main experiment sounds were presented consecutively at four speaker locations inducing left- or rightwards auditory apparent motion. On the path of auditory apparent motion, visual apparent motion stimuli were presented with a high degree of directional ambiguity. The main outcome of this experiment is that our participants perceived visual apparent motion stimuli that were ambiguous (equally likely to be perceived as moving left- or rightwards more often as moving in the same direction than in the opposite direction of auditory apparent motion. During the control experiment we replicated this finding and found no effect of sound motion direction on eye movements. This indicates that auditory motion can capture our visual motion percept when visual motion direction is insufficiently determinate without affecting eye movements.

  10. Avoiding unfavorable results in postburn contracture hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Sameek

    2013-01-01

    Deformities of the hands are a fairly common sequel of burn especially in the developing world. This is because of high incidence of burns, limited access to standard treatment and rehabilitation. The best outcome of a burnt hand is when deformities are prevented from developing. A good functional result is possible when due consideration is paid to hands during resuscitation, excisional surgery, reconstructive surgery and physiotherapy. The post-burns deformities of hand develop due direct thermal damage or secondary to intrinsic minus position due to oedema or vascular insufficiency. During the acute phase the concerns are, maintenance circulation minimize oedema prevent unphysiological positioning and wound closure with autogenous tissue as soon as possible. The rehabilitation program during the acute phase starts from day one and goes on till the hand has healed and has regained full range of motion. Full blown hand contractures are challenging to correct and become more difficult as time passes. Long-standing cases often land up with attenuation of extensor apparatus leading to swan neck and boutonniere deformity, muscle shortening and bony ankylosis. The major and most common pitfall after contracture release is relapse. The treatment protocol of contracture is solely directed towards countering this tendency. This article aims to guide a surgeon in obtaining optimal hand function and avoid pit falls at different stages of management of hand burns. The reasons of an unfavourable outcome of a burnt hand are possible lack of optimal care in the acute phase, while planning and performing reconstructive procedure and during aftercare and rehabilitation. PMID:24501479

  11. A CLASSIFIER SYSTEM USING SMOOTH GRAPH COLORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JORGE FLORES CRUZ

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Unsupervised classifiers allow clustering methods with less or no human intervention. Therefore it is desirable to group the set of items with less data processing. This paper proposes an unsupervised classifier system using the model of soft graph coloring. This method was tested with some classic instances in the literature and the results obtained were compared with classifications made with human intervention, yielding as good or better results than supervised classifiers, sometimes providing alternative classifications that considers additional information that humans did not considered.

  12. High dimensional classifiers in the imbalanced case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak, Britta Anker; Jensen, Jens Ledet

    We consider the binary classification problem in the imbalanced case where the number of samples from the two groups differ. The classification problem is considered in the high dimensional case where the number of variables is much larger than the number of samples, and where the imbalance leads...... to a bias in the classification. A theoretical analysis of the independence classifier reveals the origin of the bias and based on this we suggest two new classifiers that can handle any imbalance ratio. The analytical results are supplemented by a simulation study, where the suggested classifiers in some...

  13. (In)Visible Hand(s)

    OpenAIRE

    Predrag Zima

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the author discusses the regulatory role of the state and legal norms, in market economy, especially in so-called transition countries. Legal policy, and other questions of the state and free market economy are here closely connected, because the state must ensure with legal norms that economic processes are not interrupted: only the state can establish the legal basis for a market economy. The free market’s invisible hand is acting in questions such as: what is to be produced,...

  14. Prevention of hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Maja H; Ebbehøj, Niels E; Vejlstrup, Søren Grove

    2018-01-01

    Objective Occupational hand eczema has adverse health and socioeconomic impacts for the afflicted individuals and society. Prevention and treatment strategies are needed. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of an educational intervention on sickness absence, quality of life and severity...... of hand eczema. Methods PREVEX (PreVention of EXema) is an individually randomized, parallel-group superiority trial investigating the pros and cons of one-time, 2-hour, group-based education in skin-protective behavior versus treatment as usual among patients with newly notified occupational hand eczema...

  15. Magnetotherapy in hand osteoarthritis: a pilot trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanat, Elvan; Alp, Alev; Yurtkuran, Merih

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of magnetotherapy in the treatment of hand osteoarthritis (HO). In this randomized controlled single-blind follow-up study, patients with HO were randomly assigned into 2 groups (G1 and G2). The subjects in G1 (n=25) received 25Hz, 450 pulse/s, 5-80G, magnetotherapy of totally 10 days and 20 min/day combined with active range of motion/strengthening exercises for the hand. G2 (n=25) received sham-magnetotherapy for 20 min/day for the same duration combined with the same hand exercises. Outcome measures were pain and joint stiffness evaluation, handgrip and pinchgrip strength (HPS), Duruöz and Auscan Hand Osteoarthritis Indexes (DAOI) and Short Form-36 Health Questionnaire (SF-36) administered at baseline, immediately after treatment and at the follow up. When the groups were compared with each other, improvement observed in SF-36 Pain (p<0.001), SF-36 Social Function (p=0.030), SF-36 Vitality (p=0.002), SF-36 General Health (p=0.001), Pain at rest (p<0.001), Pain at motion (p<0.001), Joint stiffness (p<0.001), DAOI (p<0.001) were in favor of G1. Changes in pain, function and quality of life scores showed significant advantage in favor of the applied electromagnetic intervention in patients with HO. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Factors associated with combined hand and foot eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agner, T; Aalto-Korte, K; Andersen, K E

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: As for hand eczema, the aetiology of foot eczema is multifactorial and not very well understood. The aim of the present study was to identify factors associated with foot eczema in a cohort of hand eczema patients being classified into different subgroups. METHODS: Associations between...... foot and hand eczema were studied in a cross-sectional design in a cohort of hand eczema patients. Consecutive patients were recruited from nine different European Centres during the period October 2011-September 2012. Data on demographic factors, presence of foot eczema, hand eczema duration...... and severity, and whether the hand eczema was work-related or not were available, as well as patch-test results. RESULTS: Of a total of 427 hand eczema patients identified, information on foot eczema was available in 419 patients who were included in the present study. A total of 125 patients (29.8%) had...

  17. Finger tips detection for two handed gesture recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuyan, M. K.; Kar, Mithun Kumar; Neog, Debanga Raj

    2011-10-01

    In this paper, a novel algorithm is proposed for fingertips detection in view of two-handed static hand pose recognition. In our method, finger tips of both hands are detected after detecting hand regions by skin color-based segmentation. At first, the face is removed in the image by using Haar classifier and subsequently, the regions corresponding to the gesturing hands are isolated by a region labeling technique. Next, the key geometric features characterizing gesturing hands are extracted for two hands. Finally, for all possible/allowable finger movements, a probabilistic model is developed for pose recognition. Proposed method can be employed in a variety of applications like sign language recognition and human-robot-interactions etc.

  18. Arabic Handwriting Recognition Using Neural Network Classifier

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    pc

    2018-03-05

    Mar 5, 2018 ... an OCR using Neural Network classifier preceded by a set of preprocessing .... Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), which we adopt in this research, consist of ... advantage and disadvantages of each technique. In [9],. Khemiri ...

  19. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha

    2013-11-25

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  20. Classifiers based on optimal decision rules

    KAUST Repository

    Amin, Talha M.; Chikalov, Igor; Moshkov, Mikhail; Zielosko, Beata

    2013-01-01

    Based on dynamic programming approach we design algorithms for sequential optimization of exact and approximate decision rules relative to the length and coverage [3, 4]. In this paper, we use optimal rules to construct classifiers, and study two questions: (i) which rules are better from the point of view of classification-exact or approximate; and (ii) which order of optimization gives better results of classifier work: length, length+coverage, coverage, or coverage+length. Experimental results show that, on average, classifiers based on exact rules are better than classifiers based on approximate rules, and sequential optimization (length+coverage or coverage+length) is better than the ordinary optimization (length or coverage).

  1. Combining multiple classifiers for age classification

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors compare several different classifier combination methods on a single task, namely speaker age classification. This task is well suited to combination strategies, since significantly different feature classes are employed. Support vector...

  2. Neural Network Classifiers for Local Wind Prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretzschmar, Ralf; Eckert, Pierre; Cattani, Daniel; Eggimann, Fritz

    2004-05-01

    This paper evaluates the quality of neural network classifiers for wind speed and wind gust prediction with prediction lead times between +1 and +24 h. The predictions were realized based on local time series and model data. The selection of appropriate input features was initiated by time series analysis and completed by empirical comparison of neural network classifiers trained on several choices of input features. The selected input features involved day time, yearday, features from a single wind observation device at the site of interest, and features derived from model data. The quality of the resulting classifiers was benchmarked against persistence for two different sites in Switzerland. The neural network classifiers exhibited superior quality when compared with persistence judged on a specific performance measure, hit and false-alarm rates.

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... myths and misperceptions about hand hygiene and empower patients to play a role in their care by ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 65K ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed Unsubscribe 66K ...

  6. Tropical Diabetic Hand Syndrome

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015 Annals of Medical and Health Sciences Research | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow. 473. Introduction ... diabetes.[2,3] Tropical diabetic hand syndrome is a terminology .... the importance of seeking medical attention immediately.

  7. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... now. Please try again later. Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended ... 36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 views 5:46 ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www.cdc.gov/handhygiene/campa... . Comments on this ... are allowed in accordance with our comment policy: http://www.cdc.gov/SocialMedia/Tools/... This video can ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... empower patients to play a role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean ... It's in your hands - prevent sepsis in health care' A 5 May 2018 advocacy message from WHO - ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... why Close Clean Hands Count Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Loading... Unsubscribe from Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)? Cancel Unsubscribe Working... Subscribe Subscribed ...

  11. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... Wash your Hands - it just makes sense. - Duration: 1:36. Seema Marwaha 404,414 views 1:36 ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Washing Video from CDC called "Put Your Hands Together" - Duration: 3:40. Patrick Boshell 27,834 views ... Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to add this to Watch Later ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Published on May 5, 2017 This video for healthcare providers is intended to promote or encourage adherence ... role in their care by asking or reminding healthcare providers to clean their hands. See: https://www. ...

  14. Motion control report

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    Please note this is a short discount publication. In today's manufacturing environment, Motion Control plays a major role in virtually every project.The Motion Control Report provides a comprehensive overview of the technology of Motion Control:* Design Considerations* Technologies* Methods to Control Motion* Examples of Motion Control in Systems* A Detailed Vendors List

  15. Hand Gesture Recognition Using Ultrasonic Waves

    KAUST Repository

    AlSharif, Mohammed Hussain

    2016-04-01

    Gesturing is a natural way of communication between people and is used in our everyday conversations. Hand gesture recognition systems are used in many applications in a wide variety of fields, such as mobile phone applications, smart TVs, video gaming, etc. With the advances in human-computer interaction technology, gesture recognition is becoming an active research area. There are two types of devices to detect gestures; contact based devices and contactless devices. Using ultrasonic waves for determining gestures is one of the ways that is employed in contactless devices. Hand gesture recognition utilizing ultrasonic waves will be the focus of this thesis work. This thesis presents a new method for detecting and classifying a predefined set of hand gestures using a single ultrasonic transmitter and a single ultrasonic receiver. This method uses a linear frequency modulated ultrasonic signal. The ultrasonic signal is designed to meet the project requirements such as the update rate, the range of detection, etc. Also, it needs to overcome hardware limitations such as the limited output power, transmitter, and receiver bandwidth, etc. The method can be adapted to other hardware setups. Gestures are identified based on two main features; range estimation of the moving hand and received signal strength (RSS). These two factors are estimated using two simple methods; channel impulse response (CIR) and cross correlation (CC) of the reflected ultrasonic signal from the gesturing hand. A customized simple hardware setup was used to classify a set of hand gestures with high accuracy. The detection and classification were done using methods of low computational cost. This makes the proposed method to have a great potential for the implementation in many devices including laptops and mobile phones. The predefined set of gestures can be used for many control applications.

  16. Consistency Analysis of Nearest Subspace Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yi

    2015-01-01

    The Nearest subspace classifier (NSS) finds an estimation of the underlying subspace within each class and assigns data points to the class that corresponds to its nearest subspace. This paper mainly studies how well NSS can be generalized to new samples. It is proved that NSS is strongly consistent under certain assumptions. For completeness, NSS is evaluated through experiments on various simulated and real data sets, in comparison with some other linear model based classifiers. It is also ...

  17. Extracting attempted hand movements from EEGs in people with complete hand paralysis following stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abirami eMuralidharan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the feasibility of using electroencephalograms (EEGs to rapidly detect the intent to open one’s hand in individuals with complete hand paralysis following a subcortical ischemic stroke. If detectable, this motor planning activity could be used in real time to trigger a motorized hand exoskeleton or an electrical stimulation device that opens/closes the hand. While EEG-triggered movement-assist devices could restore function, they may also promote recovery by reinforcing the use of remaining cortical circuits. EEGs were recorded while participants were cued to either relax or attempt to extend their fingers. Linear discriminant analysis was used to detect onset of finger extension from the EEGs in a leave-one-trial-out cross-validation process. In each testing trial, the classifier was applied in pseudo real time starting from an initial hand-relaxed phase, through movement planning, and into the initial attempted finger extension phase (finger extension phase estimated from typical time-to-movement-onset measured in the unaffected hand. The classifiers detected attempted finger-extension at a significantly higher rate during both motor planning and early attempted execution compared to rest. To reduce inappropriate triggering of a movement-assist device during rest, the classification threshold could be adjusted to require more certainty about one’s intent to move before triggering a device. Additionally, a device could be set to activate only after multiple time samples in a row were classified as finger extension events. These options resulted in some sessions with no false triggers while the person was resting, but moderate-to-high true trigger rates during attempted movements.

  18. Hands of early primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Doug M; Yapuncich, Gabriel S; Chester, Stephen G B; Bloch, Jonathan I; Godinot, Marc

    2013-12-01

    Questions surrounding the origin and early evolution of primates continue to be the subject of debate. Though anatomy of the skull and inferred dietary shifts are often the focus, detailed studies of postcrania and inferred locomotor capabilities can also provide crucial data that advance understanding of transitions in early primate evolution. In particular, the hand skeleton includes characteristics thought to reflect foraging, locomotion, and posture. Here we review what is known about the early evolution of primate hands from a comparative perspective that incorporates data from the fossil record. Additionally, we provide new comparative data and documentation of skeletal morphology for Paleogene plesiadapiforms, notharctines, cercamoniines, adapines, and omomyiforms. Finally, we discuss implications of these data for understanding locomotor transitions during the origin and early evolutionary history of primates. Known plesiadapiform species cannot be differentiated from extant primates based on either intrinsic hand proportions or hand-to-body size proportions. Nonetheless, the presence of claws and a different metacarpophalangeal [corrected] joint form in plesiadapiforms indicate different grasping mechanics. Notharctines and cercamoniines have intrinsic hand proportions with extremely elongated proximal phalanges and digit rays relative to metacarpals, resembling tarsiers and galagos. But their hand-to-body size proportions are typical of many extant primates (unlike those of tarsiers, and possibly Teilhardina, which have extremely large hands). Non-adapine adapiforms and omomyids exhibit additional carpal features suggesting more limited dorsiflexion, greater ulnar deviation, and a more habitually divergent pollex than observed plesiadapiforms. Together, features differentiating adapiforms and omomyiforms from plesiadapiforms indicate increased reliance on vertical prehensile-clinging and grasp-leaping, possibly in combination with predatory behaviors in

  19. Augmented robotic device for EVA hand manoeuvres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matheson, Eloise; Brooker, Graham

    2012-12-01

    During extravehicular activities (EVAs), pressurised space suits can lead to difficulties in performing hand manoeuvres and fatigue. This is often the cause of EVAs being terminated early, or taking longer to complete. Assistive robotic gloves can be used to augment the natural motion of a human hand, meaning work can be carried out more efficiently with less stress to the astronaut. Lightweight and low profile solutions must be found in order for the assistive robotic glove to be easily integrated with a space suit pressure garment. Pneumatic muscle actuators combined with force sensors are one such solution. These actuators are extremely light, yet can output high forces using pressurised gases as the actuation drive. Their movement is omnidirectional, so when combined with a flexible exoskeleton that itself provides a degree of freedom of movement, individual fingers can be controlled during flexion and extension. This setup allows actuators and other hardware to be stored remotely on the user's body, resulting in the least possible mass being supported by the hand. Two prototype gloves have been developed at the University of Sydney; prototype I using a fibreglass exoskeleton to provide flexion force, and prototype II using torsion springs to achieve the same result. The gloves have been designed to increase the ease of human movements, rather than to add unnatural ability to the hand. A state space control algorithm has been developed to ensure that human initiated movements are recognised, and calibration methods have been implemented to accommodate the different characteristics of each wearer's hands. For this calibration technique, it was necessary to take into account the natural tremors of the human hand which may have otherwise initiated unexpected control signals. Prototype I was able to actuate the user's hand in 1 degree of freedom (DOF) from full flexion to partial extension, and prototype II actuated a user's finger in 2 DOF with forces achieved

  20. Development of a prototype over-actuated biomimetic prosthetic hand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew R Williams

    Full Text Available The loss of a hand can greatly affect quality of life. A prosthetic device that can mimic normal hand function is very important to physical and mental recuperation after hand amputation, but the currently available prosthetics do not fully meet the needs of the amputee community. Most prosthetic hands are not dexterous enough to grasp a variety of shaped objects, and those that are tend to be heavy, leading to discomfort while wearing the device. In order to attempt to better simulate human hand function, a dexterous hand was developed that uses an over-actuated mechanism to form grasp shape using intrinsic joint mounted motors in addition to a finger tendon to produce large flexion force for a tight grip. This novel actuation method allows the hand to use small actuators for grip shape formation, and the tendon to produce high grip strength. The hand was capable of producing fingertip flexion force suitable for most activities of daily living. In addition, it was able to produce a range of grasp shapes with natural, independent finger motion, and appearance similar to that of a human hand. The hand also had a mass distribution more similar to a natural forearm and hand compared to contemporary prosthetics due to the more proximal location of the heavier components of the system. This paper describes the design of the hand and controller, as well as the test results.

  1. Confining model with composite left-handed and unconfined right-handed particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordi, F.; Gatto, R.; Dominici, D.; Florence Univ.

    1982-01-01

    We present a fermionic composite model in which left-handed quarks and leptons transform as bound states of three elementary fermions confined under a subcolor gauge group whereas their right-handed partners are unconfined singlets. All the elementary fermions, confined or unconfined, are classified into a single spinor representation. A mass-mechanism, originating from the breaking of the spinor representation, gives masses to the quarks and leptons, originally massless from the anomaly conditions. A natural mechanism arises for the neutrino mass matrix. (orig.)

  2. Hand eczema: An update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chembolli Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Eczema, the commonest disorders afflicting the hands, is also the commonest occupational skin disease (OSD. In the dermatology outpatient departments, only the severe cases are diagnosed since patients rarely report with early hand dermatitis. Mild forms are picked up only during occupational screening. Hand eczema (HE can evolve into a chronic condition with persistent disease even after avoiding contact with the incriminated allergen / irritant. The important risk factors for hand eczema are atopy (especially the presence of dermatitis, wet work, and contact allergy. The higher prevalence in women as compared to men in most studies is related to environmental factors and is mainly applicable to younger women in their twenties. Preventive measures play a very important role in therapy as they enable the affected individuals to retain their employment and livelihood. This article reviews established preventive and therapeutic options and newer drugs like alitretinoin in hand eczema with a mention on the etiology and morphology. Identifying the etiological factors is of paramount importance as avoiding or minimizing these factors play an important role in treatment.

  3. Basic Hand Gestures Classification Based on Surface Electromyography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksander Palkowski

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an innovative classification system for hand gestures using 2-channel surface electromyography analysis. The system developed uses the Support Vector Machine classifier, for which the kernel function and parameter optimisation are conducted additionally by the Cuckoo Search swarm algorithm. The system developed is compared with standard Support Vector Machine classifiers with various kernel functions. The average classification rate of 98.12% has been achieved for the proposed method.

  4. Hand Hygiene: When and How

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hand Hygiene When and How August 2009 How to handrub? How to handwash? RUB HANDS FOR HAND HYGIENE! WASH HANDS WHEN VISIBLY SOILED Duration of the ... its use. When? YOUR 5 MOMENTS FOR HAND HYGIENE 1 BEFORETOUCHINGA PATIENT 2 B P ECFLOER R ...

  5. Reinforcement Learning Based Artificial Immune Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Karakose

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the widely used methods for classification that is a decision-making process is artificial immune systems. Artificial immune systems based on natural immunity system can be successfully applied for classification, optimization, recognition, and learning in real-world problems. In this study, a reinforcement learning based artificial immune classifier is proposed as a new approach. This approach uses reinforcement learning to find better antibody with immune operators. The proposed new approach has many contributions according to other methods in the literature such as effectiveness, less memory cell, high accuracy, speed, and data adaptability. The performance of the proposed approach is demonstrated by simulation and experimental results using real data in Matlab and FPGA. Some benchmark data and remote image data are used for experimental results. The comparative results with supervised/unsupervised based artificial immune system, negative selection classifier, and resource limited artificial immune classifier are given to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed new method.

  6. Recognizing the Operating Hand and the Hand-Changing Process for User Interface Adjustment on Smartphones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hansong; Huang, He; Huang, Liusheng; Sun, Yu-E

    2016-08-20

    As the size of smartphone touchscreens has become larger and larger in recent years, operability with a single hand is getting worse, especially for female users. We envision that user experience can be significantly improved if smartphones are able to recognize the current operating hand, detect the hand-changing process and then adjust the user interfaces subsequently. In this paper, we proposed, implemented and evaluated two novel systems. The first one leverages the user-generated touchscreen traces to recognize the current operating hand, and the second one utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope data of all kinds of activities in the user's daily life to detect the hand-changing process. These two systems are based on two supervised classifiers constructed from a series of refined touchscreen trace, accelerometer and gyroscope features. As opposed to existing solutions that all require users to select the current operating hand or confirm the hand-changing process manually, our systems follow much more convenient and practical methods and allow users to change the operating hand frequently without any harm to the user experience. We conduct extensive experiments on Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphones, and the evaluation results demonstrate that our proposed systems can recognize the current operating hand and detect the hand-changing process with 94.1% and 93.9% precision and 94.1% and 93.7% True Positive Rates (TPR) respectively, when deciding with a single touchscreen trace or accelerometer-gyroscope data segment, and the False Positive Rates (FPR) are as low as 2.6% and 0.7% accordingly. These two systems can either work completely independently and achieve pretty high accuracies or work jointly to further improve the recognition accuracy.

  7. Recognizing the Operating Hand and the Hand-Changing Process for User Interface Adjustment on Smartphones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hansong Guo

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available As the size of smartphone touchscreens has become larger and larger in recent years, operability with a single hand is getting worse, especially for female users. We envision that user experience can be significantly improved if smartphones are able to recognize the current operating hand, detect the hand-changing process and then adjust the user interfaces subsequently. In this paper, we proposed, implemented and evaluated two novel systems. The first one leverages the user-generated touchscreen traces to recognize the current operating hand, and the second one utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope data of all kinds of activities in the user’s daily life to detect the hand-changing process. These two systems are based on two supervised classifiers constructed from a series of refined touchscreen trace, accelerometer and gyroscope features. As opposed to existing solutions that all require users to select the current operating hand or confirm the hand-changing process manually, our systems follow much more convenient and practical methods and allow users to change the operating hand frequently without any harm to the user experience. We conduct extensive experiments on Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphones, and the evaluation results demonstrate that our proposed systems can recognize the current operating hand and detect the hand-changing process with 94.1% and 93.9% precision and 94.1% and 93.7% True Positive Rates (TPR respectively, when deciding with a single touchscreen trace or accelerometer-gyroscope data segment, and the False Positive Rates (FPR are as low as 2.6% and 0.7% accordingly. These two systems can either work completely independently and achieve pretty high accuracies or work jointly to further improve the recognition accuracy.

  8. Classifier Fusion With Contextual Reliability Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhunga; Pan, Quan; Dezert, Jean; Han, Jun-Wei; He, You

    2018-05-01

    Classifier fusion is an efficient strategy to improve the classification performance for the complex pattern recognition problem. In practice, the multiple classifiers to combine can have different reliabilities and the proper reliability evaluation plays an important role in the fusion process for getting the best classification performance. We propose a new method for classifier fusion with contextual reliability evaluation (CF-CRE) based on inner reliability and relative reliability concepts. The inner reliability, represented by a matrix, characterizes the probability of the object belonging to one class when it is classified to another class. The elements of this matrix are estimated from the -nearest neighbors of the object. A cautious discounting rule is developed under belief functions framework to revise the classification result according to the inner reliability. The relative reliability is evaluated based on a new incompatibility measure which allows to reduce the level of conflict between the classifiers by applying the classical evidence discounting rule to each classifier before their combination. The inner reliability and relative reliability capture different aspects of the classification reliability. The discounted classification results are combined with Dempster-Shafer's rule for the final class decision making support. The performance of CF-CRE have been evaluated and compared with those of main classical fusion methods using real data sets. The experimental results show that CF-CRE can produce substantially higher accuracy than other fusion methods in general. Moreover, CF-CRE is robust to the changes of the number of nearest neighbors chosen for estimating the reliability matrix, which is appealing for the applications.

  9. Re-interpreting Prominences Classified as Tornadoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sara F.; Venkataramanasastry, Aparna

    2015-04-01

    Some papers in the recent literature identify tornado prominences with barbs of quiescent prominences while papers in the much older historic literature include a second category of tornado prominence that does not correspond to a barb of a quiescent prominence. The latter are described as prominence mass rotating around a nearly vertical axis prior to its eruption and the rotation was verified by spectral measurements. From H alpha Doppler-shifted mass motions recorded at Helio Research or the Dutch Open Telescope, we illustrate how the apparent tornado-like motions, identified with barbs, are illusions in our mind’s eye resulting from poorly resolved counterstreaming threads of mass in the barbs of quiescent prominences. In contrast, we confirm the second category of rotational motion in prominences shortly before and during eruption. In addition, we identify this second category as part of the late phase of a phenomenon called the roll effect in erupting prominences. In these cases, the eruption begins with the sideways rolling of the top of a prominence. As the eruption proceeds the rolling motion propagates down one leg or both legs of the prominence depending on whether the eruption is asymmetric or symmetric respectively. As an asymmetric eruption continues, the longer lasting leg becomes nearly vertical and its rotational motion also continues. If only this phase of the eruption was observed, as in some historic cases, it was called a tornado prominence. However, when we now observe entire eruptions in time-lapse sequences, the similarity to terrestrial tornadoes is lost. We conclude that neither prominence barbs, that give the illusion of rotation, nor the cases of true rotational motion, in the legs of erupting prominences, are usefully described as tornado prominences when the complete prominence structure or complete erupting event is observed.

  10. Classifying sows' activity types from acceleration patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cornou, Cecile; Lundbye-Christensen, Søren

    2008-01-01

    An automated method of classifying sow activity using acceleration measurements would allow the individual sow's behavior to be monitored throughout the reproductive cycle; applications for detecting behaviors characteristic of estrus and farrowing or to monitor illness and welfare can be foreseen....... This article suggests a method of classifying five types of activity exhibited by group-housed sows. The method involves the measurement of acceleration in three dimensions. The five activities are: feeding, walking, rooting, lying laterally and lying sternally. Four time series of acceleration (the three...

  11. Data characteristics that determine classifier performance

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van der Walt, Christiaan M

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available available at [11]. The kNN uses a LinearNN nearest neighbour search algorithm with an Euclidean distance metric [8]. The optimal k value is determined by performing 10-fold cross-validation. An optimal k value between 1 and 10 is used for Experiments 1... classifiers. 10-fold cross-validation is used to evaluate and compare the performance of the classifiers on the different data sets. 3.1. Artificial data generation Multivariate Gaussian distributions are used to generate artificial data sets. We use d...

  12. A Customizable Text Classifier for Text Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun-liang Zhang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Text mining deals with complex and unstructured texts. Usually a particular collection of texts that is specified to one or more domains is necessary. We have developed a customizable text classifier for users to mine the collection automatically. It derives from the sentence category of the HNC theory and corresponding techniques. It can start with a few texts, and it can adjust automatically or be adjusted by user. The user can also control the number of domains chosen and decide the standard with which to choose the texts based on demand and abundance of materials. The performance of the classifier varies with the user's choice.

  13. A survey of decision tree classifier methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safavian, S. R.; Landgrebe, David

    1991-01-01

    Decision tree classifiers (DTCs) are used successfully in many diverse areas such as radar signal classification, character recognition, remote sensing, medical diagnosis, expert systems, and speech recognition. Perhaps the most important feature of DTCs is their capability to break down a complex decision-making process into a collection of simpler decisions, thus providing a solution which is often easier to interpret. A survey of current methods is presented for DTC designs and the various existing issues. After considering potential advantages of DTCs over single-state classifiers, subjects of tree structure design, feature selection at each internal node, and decision and search strategies are discussed.

  14. Design of a wearable hand exoskeleton for exercising flexion/extension of the fingers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Inseong; Lee, Jeongsoo; Park, Yeongyu; Bae, Joonbum

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, design of a wearable hand exoskeleton system for exercising flexion/extension of the fingers, is proposed. The exoskeleton was designed with a simple and wearable structure to aid finger motions in 1 degree of freedom (DOF). A hand grasping experiment by fully-abled people was performed to investigate general hand flexion/extension motions and the polynomial curve of general hand motions was obtained. To customize the hand exoskeleton for the user, the polynomial curve was adjusted to the joint range of motion (ROM) of the user and the optimal design of the exoskeleton structure was obtained using the optimization algorithm. A prototype divided into two parts (one part for the thumb, the other for rest fingers) was actuated by only two linear motors for compact size and light weight.

  15. Neural-Network Control Of Prosthetic And Robotic Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, Theresa M.

    1991-01-01

    Electronic neural networks proposed for use in controlling robotic and prosthetic hands and exoskeletal or glovelike electromechanical devices aiding intact but nonfunctional hands. Specific to patient, who activates grasping motion by voice command, by mechanical switch, or by myoelectric impulse. Patient retains higher-level control, while lower-level control provided by neural network analogous to that of miniature brain. During training, patient teaches miniature brain to perform specialized, anthropomorphic movements unique to himself or herself.

  16. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CDC) 97,825 views 5:12 CDC Flu Education Video - Duration: 10:26. Nicole Shelton 213 views ... Infection Control Video - Duration: 20:55. Paramedical Services Education Page 4,735 views 20:55 Hand Washing ...

  17. Hand Eczema: Treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Tamara Theresia; Agner, Tove

    2017-01-01

    Hand eczema is a common disease, it affects young people, is often work-related, and the burden of the disease is significant for the individual as well as for society. Factors to be considered when choosing a treatment strategy are, among others, whether the eczema is acute or chronic, the sever...

  18. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 824 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 409,492 ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 786 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,702 ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 414 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 869 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  2. Wash Your Hands

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-03-08

    This video shows kids how to properly wash their hands, one of the most important steps we can take to avoid getting sick and spreading germs to others.  Created: 3/8/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 3/8/2010.

  3. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 224,180 views 1:27 The five moments ...

  4. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 460 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 75,362 views 3:10 Wash ' ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 219,427 views 1:27 Hand ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 74,478 views 3:10 Wash your Hands - ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 215,487 views 1:27 Infection Control Video - ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 741 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  8. Matching hand radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauffman, J.A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Bernelot Moens, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    Biometric verification and identification methods of medical images can be used to find possible inconsistencies in patient records. Such methods may also be useful for forensic research. In this work we present a method for identifying patients by their hand radiographs. We use active appearance

  9. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 72,885 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 views 5:46 'It's in your ...

  10. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 029 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,974 ...

  11. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 78,256 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... message from WHO - Duration: 10:07. World Health Organization 9,045 views 10:07 A very serious ...

  12. Hands-On Calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutherland, Melissa

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss manipulatives and hands-on investigations for Calculus involving volume, arc length, and surface area to motivate and develop formulae which can then be verified using techniques of integration. Pre-service teachers in calculus courses using these activities experience a classroom in which active learning is encouraged and…

  13. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 78,256 views 3:10 Wash ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 230,361 views 1:27 Hand ...

  14. Hands-on Humidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankiewicz, Philip R.

    1992-01-01

    Presents five hands-on activities that allow students to detect, measure, reduce, and eliminate moisture. Students make a humidity detector and a hygrometer, examine the effects of moisture on different substances, calculate the percent of water in a given food, and examine the absorption potential of different desiccants. (MDH)

  15. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 396 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  16. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 094 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,974 ...

  17. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... starting stop Loading... Watch Queue Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with ... ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try it free Find out why Close Clean Hands Count ...

  18. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 69,414 views 3:10 Hand Washing ... Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson Health 408,436 views 5:46 83 videos Play ...

  19. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  20. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 585 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 413,097 ...

  1. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 14. Lake Health 14,415 views 3:14 Safety Demo: The Importance of Hand Washing - Duration: 2: ... Copyright Creators Advertise Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign ...

  2. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... action today; no cure tomorrow - Duration: 3:10. World Health Organization 72,319 views 3:10 Wash 'Em - Hand ... handwash? With soap and water - Duration: 1:27. World Health Organization 205,878 views 1:27 Germ Smart - Wash ...

  3. Hands On Earth Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisgarber, Sherry L.; Van Doren, Lisa; Hackathorn, Merrianne; Hannibal, Joseph T.; Hansgen, Richard

    This publication is a collection of 13 hands-on activities that focus on earth science-related activities and involve students in learning about growing crystals, tectonics, fossils, rock and minerals, modeling Ohio geology, geologic time, determining true north, and constructing scale-models of the Earth-moon system. Each activity contains…

  4. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 384 views 1:19 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson ...

  5. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 285 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  6. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Gorin 243,451 views 2:57 Hand Hygiene Dance - Duration: 3:15. mohd hafiz 34,146 views ... Language: English Location: United States Restricted Mode: Off History Help Loading... Loading... Loading... About Press Copyright Creators ...

  7. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. Working... Not now Try ... Wash your Hands - it just makes sense. - Duration: 1:36. Seema Marwaha 400,493 views 1:36 ...

  8. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 033 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 410,052 ...

  9. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Thomas Jefferson University & Jefferson Health 408,436 views 5: ... Prevention (CDC) 97,277 views 5:12 Loading more suggestions... Show more Language: English Location: United States ...

  10. Hands-On Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathews, Catherine E.; Monroe, Louise Nelson

    2004-01-01

    A professional school and university collaboration enables elementary students and their teachers to explore hydrology concepts and realize the beneficial functions of wetlands. Hands-on experiences involve young students in determining water quality at field sites after laying the groundwork with activities related to the hydrologic cycle,…

  11. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... Queue __count__/__total__ It’s YouTube. Uninterrupted. Loading... Want music and videos with zero ads? Get YouTube Red. ... 043 views 1:36 Wash 'Em - Hand Hygiene Music Video - Duration: 5:46. Jefferson Health 411,292 ...

  12. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... News 581,131 views 18:49 Just Good Music 24/7 ● Classic Live Radio classics. 1,406 ... 611,013 views 1:46 Hand hygiene FULL music video - Duration: 2:33. AlfredHealthTV 26,798 views ...

  13. Clean Hands Count

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    Full Text Available ... 52 Hand Sanitizers and Soaps Put to the Test - Duration: 2:26. ABC News 42,006 views ... Developers +YouTube Terms Privacy Policy & Safety Send feedback Test new features Loading... Working... Sign in to add ...

  14. Robot hands and extravehicular activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Beth

    1987-01-01

    Extravehicular activity (EVA) is crucial to the success of both current and future space operations. As space operations have evolved in complexity so has the demand placed on the EVA crewman. In addition, some NASA requirements for human capabilities at remote or hazardous sites were identified. One of the keys to performing useful EVA tasks is the ability to manipulate objects accurately, quickly and without early or excessive fatigue. The current suit employs a glove which enables the crewman to perform grasping tasks, use tools, turn switches, and perform other tasks for short periods of time. However, the glove's bulk and resistance to motion ultimately causes fatigue. Due to this limitation it may not be possible to meet the productivity requirements that will be placed on the EVA crewman of the future with the current or developmental Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) hardware. In addition, this hardware will not meet the requirements for remote or hazardous operations. In an effort to develop ways for improving crew productivity, a contract was awarded to develop a prototype anthromorphic robotic hand (ARH) for use with an extravehicular space suit. The first step in this program was to perform a a design study which investigated the basic technology required for the development of an ARH to enhance crew performance and productivity. The design study phase of the contract and some additional development work is summarized.

  15. Motion in radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korreman, Stine Sofia

    2012-01-01

    This review considers the management of motion in photon radiation therapy. An overview is given of magnitudes and variability of motion of various structures and organs, and how the motion affects images by producing artifacts and blurring. Imaging of motion is described, including 4DCT and 4DPE...

  16. Generating Concise Rules for Human Motion Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukai, Tomohiko; Wakisaka, Ken-Ichi; Kuriyama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for retrieving human motion data with concise retrieval rules based on the spatio-temporal features of motion appearance. Our method first converts motion clip into a form of clausal language that represents geometrical relations between body parts and their temporal relationship. A retrieval rule is then learned from the set of manually classified examples using inductive logic programming (ILP). ILP automatically discovers the essential rule in the same clausal form with a user-defined hypothesis-testing procedure. All motions are indexed using this clausal language, and the desired clips are retrieved by subsequence matching using the rule. Such rule-based retrieval offers reasonable performance and the rule can be intuitively edited in the same language form. Consequently, our method enables efficient and flexible search from a large dataset with simple query language.

  17. 75 FR 37253 - Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-28

    ... ``Secret.'' (3) Each interior page of a classified document shall be marked at the top and bottom either... ``(TS)'' for Top Secret, ``(S)'' for Secret, and ``(C)'' for Confidential will be used. (2) Portions... from the informational text. (1) Conspicuously place the overall classification at the top and bottom...

  18. 75 FR 707 - Classified National Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... classified at one of the following three levels: (1) ``Top Secret'' shall be applied to information, the... exercise this authority. (2) ``Top Secret'' original classification authority may be delegated only by the... official has been delegated ``Top Secret'' original classification authority by the agency head. (4) Each...

  19. Neural Network Classifier Based on Growing Hyperspheres

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jiřina Jr., Marcel; Jiřina, Marcel

    2000-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 3 (2000), s. 417-428 ISSN 1210-0552. [Neural Network World 2000. Prague, 09.07.2000-12.07.2000] Grant - others:MŠMT ČR(CZ) VS96047; MPO(CZ) RP-4210 Institutional research plan: AV0Z1030915 Keywords : neural network * classifier * hyperspheres * big -dimensional data Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  20. Histogram deconvolution - An aid to automated classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorre, J. J.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that N-dimensional histograms are convolved by the addition of noise in the picture domain. Three methods are described which provide the ability to deconvolve such noise-affected histograms. The purpose of the deconvolution is to provide automated classifiers with a higher quality N-dimensional histogram from which to obtain classification statistics.

  1. Classifying web pages with visual features

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, V.; van Someren, M.; Lupascu, T.; Filipe, J.; Cordeiro, J.

    2010-01-01

    To automatically classify and process web pages, current systems use the textual content of those pages, including both the displayed content and the underlying (HTML) code. However, a very important feature of a web page is its visual appearance. In this paper, we show that using generic visual

  2. Hand VR Exergame for Occupational Health Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Saskia; Uribe-Quevedo, Alvaro; Kapralos, Bill

    2016-01-01

    The widespread use and ubiquity of mobile computing technologies such as smartphones, tablets, laptops and portable gaming consoles has led to an increase in musculoskeletal disorders due to overuse, bad posture, repetitive movements, fixed postures and physical de-conditioning caused by low muscular demands while using (and over-using) these devices. In this paper we present the development of a hand motion-based virtual reality-based exergame for occupational health purposes that allows the user to perform simple exercises using a cost-effective non-invasive motion capture device to help overcome and prevent some of the muskoloskeletal problems associated with the over-use of keyboards and mobile devices.

  3. Classifying features in CT imagery: accuracy for some single- and multiple-species classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt; Jing He; A. Lynn Abbott

    1998-01-01

    Our current approach to automatically label features in CT images of hardwood logs classifies each pixel of an image individually. These feature classifiers use a back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) and feature vectors that include a small, local neighborhood of pixels and the distance of the target pixel to the center of the log. Initially, this type of...

  4. Machine Learning Methods for Classifying Human Physical Activity from On-Body Accelerometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannini, Andrea; Sabatini, Angelo Maria

    2010-01-01

    The use of on-body wearable sensors is widespread in several academic and industrial domains. Of great interest are their applications in ambulatory monitoring and pervasive computing systems; here, some quantitative analysis of human motion and its automatic classification are the main computational tasks to be pursued. In this paper, we discuss how human physical activity can be classified using on-body accelerometers, with a major emphasis devoted to the computational algorithms employed for this purpose. In particular, we motivate our current interest for classifiers based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs). An example is illustrated and discussed by analysing a dataset of accelerometer time series. PMID:22205862

  5. A pneumatic muscle hand therapy device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koeneman, E J; Schultz, R S; Wolf, S L; Herring, D E; Koeneman, J B

    2004-01-01

    Intensive repetitive therapy improves function and quality of life for stroke patients. Intense therapies to overcome upper extremity impairment are beneficial, however, they are expensive because, in part, they rely on individualized interaction between the patient and rehabilitation specialist. The development of a pneumatic muscle driven hand therapy device, the Mentortrade mark, reinforces the need for volitional activation of joint movement while concurrently offering knowledge of results about range of motion, muscle activity or resistance to movement. The device is well tolerated and has received favorable comments from stroke survivors, their caregivers, and therapists.

  6. Complex Human Activity Recognition Using Smartphone and Wrist-Worn Motion Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoaib, Muhammad; Bosch, Stephan; Incel, Ozlem Durmaz; Scholten, Hans; Havinga, Paul J M

    2016-03-24

    The position of on-body motion sensors plays an important role in human activity recognition. Most often, mobile phone sensors at the trouser pocket or an equivalent position are used for this purpose. However, this position is not suitable for recognizing activities that involve hand gestures, such as smoking, eating, drinking coffee and giving a talk. To recognize such activities, wrist-worn motion sensors are used. However, these two positions are mainly used in isolation. To use richer context information, we evaluate three motion sensors (accelerometer, gyroscope and linear acceleration sensor) at both wrist and pocket positions. Using three classifiers, we show that the combination of these two positions outperforms the wrist position alone, mainly at smaller segmentation windows. Another problem is that less-repetitive activities, such as smoking, eating, giving a talk and drinking coffee, cannot be recognized easily at smaller segmentation windows unlike repetitive activities, like walking, jogging and biking. For this purpose, we evaluate the effect of seven window sizes (2-30 s) on thirteen activities and show how increasing window size affects these various activities in different ways. We also propose various optimizations to further improve the recognition of these activities. For reproducibility, we make our dataset publicly available.

  7. Motion Transplantation Techniques: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Basten, Ben; Egges, Arjan

    2012-01-01

    During the past decade, researchers have developed several techniques for transplanting motions. These techniques transplant a partial auxiliary motion, possibly defined for a small set of degrees of freedom, on a base motion. Motion transplantation improves motion databases' expressiveness and

  8. Disassembly and Sanitization of Classified Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stockham, Dwight J.; Saad, Max P.

    2008-01-01

    The Disassembly Sanitization Operation (DSO) process was implemented to support weapon disassembly and disposition by using recycling and waste minimization measures. This process was initiated by treaty agreements and reconfigurations within both the DOD and DOE Complexes. The DOE is faced with disassembling and disposing of a huge inventory of retired weapons, components, training equipment, spare parts, weapon maintenance equipment, and associated material. In addition, regulations have caused a dramatic increase in the need for information required to support the handling and disposition of these parts and materials. In the past, huge inventories of classified weapon components were required to have long-term storage at Sandia and at many other locations throughout the DoE Complex. These materials are placed in onsite storage unit due to classification issues and they may also contain radiological and/or hazardous components. Since no disposal options exist for this material, the only choice was long-term storage. Long-term storage is costly and somewhat problematic, requiring a secured storage area, monitoring, auditing, and presenting the potential for loss or theft of the material. Overall recycling rates for materials sent through the DSO process have enabled 70 to 80% of these components to be recycled. These components are made of high quality materials and once this material has been sanitized, the demand for the component metals for recycling efforts is very high. The DSO process for NGPF, classified components established the credibility of this technique for addressing the long-term storage requirements of the classified weapons component inventory. The success of this application has generated interest from other Sandia organizations and other locations throughout the complex. Other organizations are requesting the help of the DSO team and the DSO is responding to these requests by expanding its scope to include Work-for- Other projects. For example

  9. SOPHIA: Soft Orthotic Physiotherapy Hand Interactive Aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alistair C. McConnell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the design, fabrication, and initial testing of a Soft Orthotic Physiotherapy Hand Interactive Aid (SOPHIA for stroke rehabilitation. SOPHIA consists of (1 a soft robotic exoskeleton, (2 a microcontroller-based control system driven by a brain–machine interface (BMI, and (3 a sensorized glove for passive rehabilitation. In contrast to other rehabilitation devices, SOPHIA is the first modular prototype of a rehabilitation system that is capable of three tasks: aiding extension based assistive rehabilitation, monitoring patient exercises, and guiding passive rehabilitation. Our results show that this prototype of the device is capable of helping healthy subjects to open their hand. Finger extension is triggered by a command from the BMI, while using a variety of sensors to ensure a safe motion. All data gathered from the device will be used to guide further improvements to the prototype, aiming at developing specifications for the next generation device, which could be used in future clinical trials.

  10. Arthritis of the hand - Rheumatoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Rheumatoid Arthritis Email to a friend * required fields ...

  11. Analysis and Visualization of 3D Motion Data for UPDRS Rating of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neltje E. Piro

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Remote monitoring of Parkinson’s Disease (PD patients with inertia sensors is a relevant method for a better assessment of symptoms. We present a new approach for symptom quantification based on motion data: the automatic Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS classification in combination with an animated 3D avatar giving the neurologist the impression of having the patient live in front of him. In this study we compared the UPDRS ratings of the pronation-supination task derived from: (a an examination based on video recordings as a clinical reference; (b an automatically classified UPDRS; and (c a UPDRS rating from the assessment of the animated 3D avatar. Data were recorded using Magnetic, Angular Rate, Gravity (MARG sensors with 15 subjects performing a pronation-supination movement of the hand. After preprocessing, the data were classified with a J48 classifier and animated as a 3D avatar. Video recording of the movements, as well as the 3D avatar, were examined by movement disorder specialists and rated by UPDRS. The mean agreement between the ratings based on video and (b the automatically classified UPDRS is 0.48 and with (c the 3D avatar it is 0.47. The 3D avatar is similarly suitable for assessing the UPDRS as video recordings for the examined task and will be further developed by the research team.

  12. An in-situ trainable gesture classifier

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Diepen, A.; Cox, M.G.H.; de Vries, A.; Duivesteijn, W.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Fletcher, G.H.L.

    2017-01-01

    Gesture recognition, i.e., the recognition of pre-defined gestures by arm or hand movements, enables a natural extension of the way we currently interact with devices (Horsley, 2016). Commercially available gesture recognition systems are usually pre-trained: the developers specify a set of

  13. Comparing cosmic web classifiers using information theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leclercq, Florent; Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin; Jasche, Jens

    2016-01-01

    We introduce a decision scheme for optimally choosing a classifier, which segments the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters). Our framework, based on information theory, accounts for the design aims of different classes of possible applications: (i) parameter inference, (ii) model selection, and (iii) prediction of new observations. As an illustration, we use cosmographic maps of web-types in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the relative performance of the classifiers T-WEB, DIVA and ORIGAMI for: (i) analyzing the morphology of the cosmic web, (ii) discriminating dark energy models, and (iii) predicting galaxy colors. Our study substantiates a data-supported connection between cosmic web analysis and information theory, and paves the path towards principled design of analysis procedures for the next generation of galaxy surveys. We have made the cosmic web maps, galaxy catalog, and analysis scripts used in this work publicly available.

  14. Design of Robust Neural Network Classifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan; Andersen, Lars Nonboe; Hintz-Madsen, Mads

    1998-01-01

    This paper addresses a new framework for designing robust neural network classifiers. The network is optimized using the maximum a posteriori technique, i.e., the cost function is the sum of the log-likelihood and a regularization term (prior). In order to perform robust classification, we present...... a modified likelihood function which incorporates the potential risk of outliers in the data. This leads to the introduction of a new parameter, the outlier probability. Designing the neural classifier involves optimization of network weights as well as outlier probability and regularization parameters. We...... suggest to adapt the outlier probability and regularisation parameters by minimizing the error on a validation set, and a simple gradient descent scheme is derived. In addition, the framework allows for constructing a simple outlier detector. Experiments with artificial data demonstrate the potential...

  15. Comparing cosmic web classifiers using information theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leclercq, Florent [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation (ICG), University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Lavaux, Guilhem; Wandelt, Benjamin [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris (IAP), UMR 7095, CNRS – UPMC Université Paris 6, Sorbonne Universités, 98bis boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Jasche, Jens, E-mail: florent.leclercq@polytechnique.org, E-mail: lavaux@iap.fr, E-mail: j.jasche@tum.de, E-mail: wandelt@iap.fr [Excellence Cluster Universe, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany)

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a decision scheme for optimally choosing a classifier, which segments the cosmic web into different structure types (voids, sheets, filaments, and clusters). Our framework, based on information theory, accounts for the design aims of different classes of possible applications: (i) parameter inference, (ii) model selection, and (iii) prediction of new observations. As an illustration, we use cosmographic maps of web-types in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey to assess the relative performance of the classifiers T-WEB, DIVA and ORIGAMI for: (i) analyzing the morphology of the cosmic web, (ii) discriminating dark energy models, and (iii) predicting galaxy colors. Our study substantiates a data-supported connection between cosmic web analysis and information theory, and paves the path towards principled design of analysis procedures for the next generation of galaxy surveys. We have made the cosmic web maps, galaxy catalog, and analysis scripts used in this work publicly available.

  16. Detection of Fundus Lesions Using Classifier Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagayoshi, Hiroto; Hiramatsu, Yoshitaka; Sako, Hiroshi; Himaga, Mitsutoshi; Kato, Satoshi

    A system for detecting fundus lesions caused by diabetic retinopathy from fundus images is being developed. The system can screen the images in advance in order to reduce the inspection workload on doctors. One of the difficulties that must be addressed in completing this system is how to remove false positives (which tend to arise near blood vessels) without decreasing the detection rate of lesions in other areas. To overcome this difficulty, we developed classifier selection according to the position of a candidate lesion, and we introduced new features that can distinguish true lesions from false positives. A system incorporating classifier selection and these new features was tested in experiments using 55 fundus images with some lesions and 223 images without lesions. The results of the experiments confirm the effectiveness of the proposed system, namely, degrees of sensitivity and specificity of 98% and 81%, respectively.

  17. Classifying objects in LWIR imagery via CNNs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodger, Iain; Connor, Barry; Robertson, Neil M.

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the presented work is to demonstrate enhanced target recognition and improved false alarm rates for a mid to long range detection system, utilising a Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) sensor. By exploiting high quality thermal image data and recent techniques in machine learning, the system can provide automatic target recognition capabilities. A Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) is trained and the classifier achieves an overall accuracy of > 95% for 6 object classes related to land defence. While the highly accurate CNN struggles to recognise long range target classes, due to low signal quality, robust target discrimination is achieved for challenging candidates. The overall performance of the methodology presented is assessed using human ground truth information, generating classifier evaluation metrics for thermal image sequences.

  18. Equation of motion for the axial gravitational superfield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogievetsky, V.; Sokatchev, E.

    1980-01-01

    Transformation properties of the axial supergravitational field variants are investigated. The equation of motion for the axial gravitational superfield is derived by direct variation of the N = 1 supergravity action. The left-hand side of this equation is a component of the torsion tensor, and the right-hand side is the supercurrent. The question about the cosmological term in supergravity is discussed

  19. Learning for VMM + WTA Embedded Classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-31

    Learning for VMM + WTA Embedded Classifiers Jennifer Hasler and Sahil Shah Electrical and Computer Engineering Georgia Institute of Technology...enabling correct classification of each novel acoustic signal (generator, idle car, and idle truck ). The classification structure requires, after...measured on our SoC FPAA IC. The test input is composed of signals from urban environment for 3 objects (generator, idle car, and idle truck

  20. A Bayesian classifier for symbol recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Barrat , Sabine; Tabbone , Salvatore; Nourrissier , Patrick

    2007-01-01

    URL : http://www.buyans.com/POL/UploadedFile/134_9977.pdf; International audience; We present in this paper an original adaptation of Bayesian networks to symbol recognition problem. More precisely, a descriptor combination method, which enables to improve significantly the recognition rate compared to the recognition rates obtained by each descriptor, is presented. In this perspective, we use a simple Bayesian classifier, called naive Bayes. In fact, probabilistic graphical models, more spec...

  1. Optimization of short amino acid sequences classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcz, Aleksy; Szymański, Zbigniew

    This article describes processing methods used for short amino acid sequences classification. The data processed are 9-symbols string representations of amino acid sequences, divided into 49 data sets - each one containing samples labeled as reacting or not with given enzyme. The goal of the classification is to determine for a single enzyme, whether an amino acid sequence would react with it or not. Each data set is processed separately. Feature selection is performed to reduce the number of dimensions for each data set. The method used for feature selection consists of two phases. During the first phase, significant positions are selected using Classification and Regression Trees. Afterwards, symbols appearing at the selected positions are substituted with numeric values of amino acid properties taken from the AAindex database. In the second phase the new set of features is reduced using a correlation-based ranking formula and Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization. Finally, the preprocessed data is used for training LS-SVM classifiers. SPDE, an evolutionary algorithm, is used to obtain optimal hyperparameters for the LS-SVM classifier, such as error penalty parameter C and kernel-specific hyperparameters. A simple score penalty is used to adapt the SPDE algorithm to the task of selecting classifiers with best performance measures values.

  2. SVM classifier on chip for melanoma detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afifi, Shereen; GholamHosseini, Hamid; Sinha, Roopak

    2017-07-01

    Support Vector Machine (SVM) is a common classifier used for efficient classification with high accuracy. SVM shows high accuracy for classifying melanoma (skin cancer) clinical images within computer-aided diagnosis systems used by skin cancer specialists to detect melanoma early and save lives. We aim to develop a medical low-cost handheld device that runs a real-time embedded SVM-based diagnosis system for use in primary care for early detection of melanoma. In this paper, an optimized SVM classifier is implemented onto a recent FPGA platform using the latest design methodology to be embedded into the proposed device for realizing online efficient melanoma detection on a single system on chip/device. The hardware implementation results demonstrate a high classification accuracy of 97.9% and a significant acceleration factor of 26 from equivalent software implementation on an embedded processor, with 34% of resources utilization and 2 watts for power consumption. Consequently, the implemented system meets crucial embedded systems constraints of high performance and low cost, resources utilization and power consumption, while achieving high classification accuracy.

  3. Control System Design of the YWZ Multi-Fingered Dexterous Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzhen Yang

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The manipulation abilities of a multi-fingered dexterous hand, such as motion in real-time, flexibility, grasp stability etc., are largely dependent on its control system. This paper developed a control system for the YWZ dexterous hand, which had five fingers and twenty degrees of freedom (DOFs. All of the finger joints of the YWZ dexterous handwere active joints driven by twenty micro-stepper motors respectively. The main contribution of this paper was that we were able to use stepper motor control to actuate the hand's fingers, thus, increasing the hands feasibility. Based the actuators of the YWZ dexterous hand, we firstly developed an integrated circuit board (ICB, which was the communication hardware between the personal computer (PC and the YWZ dexterous hand. The ICB included a centre controller, twenty driver chips, a USB port and other electrical parts. Then, a communication procedure between the PC and the ICB was developed to send the control commands to actuate the YWZ dexterous hand. Experiment results showed that under this control system, the motion of the YWZ dexterous hand was real-time; both the motion accuracy and the motion stability of the YWZ dexterous hand were reliable. Compared with other types of actuators related to dexterous hands, such as pneumatic servo cylinder, DC servo motor, shape memory alloy etc., experiment results verified that the stepper motors as actuators for the dexterous handswere effective, economical, controllable and stable.

  4. Real-time and wearable functional electrical stimulation system for volitional hand motor function control using the electromyography bridge method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-peng Wang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary participation of hemiplegic patients is crucial for functional electrical stimulation therapy. A wearable functional electrical stimulation system has been proposed for real-time volitional hand motor function control using the electromyography bridge method. Through a series of novel design concepts, including the integration of a detecting circuit and an analog-to-digital converter, a miniaturized functional electrical stimulation circuit technique, a low-power super-regeneration chip for wireless receiving, and two wearable armbands, a prototype system has been established with reduced size, power, and overall cost. Based on wrist joint torque reproduction and classification experiments performed on six healthy subjects, the optimized surface electromyography thresholds and trained logistic regression classifier parameters were statistically chosen to establish wrist and hand motion control with high accuracy. Test results showed that wrist flexion/extension, hand grasp, and finger extension could be reproduced with high accuracy and low latency. This system can build a bridge of information transmission between healthy limbs and paralyzed limbs, effectively improve voluntary participation of hemiplegic patients, and elevate efficiency of rehabilitation training.

  5. Fully embedded myoelectric control for a wearable robotic hand orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryser, Franziska; Butzer, Tobias; Held, Jeremia P; Lambercy, Olivier; Gassert, Roger

    2017-07-01

    To prevent learned non-use of the affected hand in chronic stroke survivors, rehabilitative training should be continued after discharge from the hospital. Robotic hand orthoses are a promising approach for home rehabilitation. When combined with intuitive control based on electromyography, the therapy outcome can be improved. However, such systems often require extensive cabling, experience in electrode placement and connection to external computers. This paper presents the framework for a stand-alone, fully wearable and real-time myoelectric intention detection system based on the Myo armband. The hard and software for real-time gesture classification were developed and combined with a routine to train and customize the classifier, leading to a unique ease of use. The system including training of the classifier can be set up within less than one minute. Results demonstrated that: (1) the proposed algorithm can classify five gestures with an accuracy of 98%, (2) the final system can online classify three gestures with an accuracy of 94.3% and, in a preliminary test, (3) classify three gestures from data acquired from mildly to severely impaired stroke survivors with an accuracy of over 78.8%. These results highlight the potential of the presented system for electromyography-based intention detection for stroke survivors and, with the integration of the system into a robotic hand orthosis, the potential for a wearable platform for all day robot-assisted home rehabilitation.

  6. Natural-pose hand detection in low-resolution images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyan Bo Bo1

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Robust real-time hand detection and tracking in video sequences would enable many applications in areas as diverse ashuman-computer interaction, robotics, security and surveillance, and sign language-based systems. In this paper, we introducea new approach for detecting human hands that works on single, cluttered, low-resolution images. Our prototype system, whichis primarily intended for security applications in which the images are noisy and low-resolution, is able to detect hands as smallas 2424 pixels in cluttered scenes. The system uses grayscale appearance information to classify image sub-windows as eithercontaining or not containing a human hand very rapidly at the cost of a high false positive rate. To improve on the false positiverate of the main classifier without affecting its detection rate, we introduce a post-processor system that utilizes the geometricproperties of skin color blobs. When we test our detector on a test image set containing 106 hands, 92 of those hands aredetected (86.8% detection rate, with an average false positive rate of 1.19 false positive detections per image. The rapiddetection speed, the high detection rate of 86.8%, and the low false positive rate together ensure that our system is useable asthe main detector in a diverse variety of applications requiring robust hand detection and tracking in low-resolution, clutteredscenes.

  7. Motion Component Supported Boosted Classifier for CAR Detection in Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuermer, S.; Leitloff, J.; Reinartz, P.; Stilla, U.

    2011-04-01

    Research of automatic vehicle detection in aerial images has been done with a lot of innovation and constantly rising success for years. However information was mostly taken from a single image only. Our aim is using the additional information which is offered by the temporal component, precisely the difference of the previous and the consecutive image. On closer viewing the moving objects are mainly vehicles and therefore we provide a method which is able to limit the search space of the detector to changed areas. The actual detector is generated of HoG features which are composed and linearly weighted by AdaBoost. Finally the method is tested on a motorway section including an exit and congested traffic near Munich, Germany.

  8. Performance Comparison Between FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Carbone, Giuseppe; Rossi, Cesare; Savino, Sergio

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes two robotic hands that have been\\ud developed at University Federico II of Naples and at the\\ud University of Cassino. FEDERICA Hand and LARM Hand\\ud are described in terms of design and operational features.\\ud In particular, careful attention is paid to the differences\\ud between the above-mentioned hands in terms of transmission\\ud systems. FEDERICA Hand uses tendons and pulleys\\ud to drive phalanxes, while LARM Hand uses cross four-bar\\ud linkages. Results of experime...

  9. Second-hand signals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergenholtz, Carsten

    2014-01-01

    Studies of signaling theory have traditionally focused on the dyadic link between the sender and receiver of the signal. Within a science‐based perspective this framing has led scholars to investigate how patents and publications of firms function as signals. I explore another important type...... used by various agents in their search for and assessment of products and firms. I conclude by arguing how this second‐hand nature of signals goes beyond a simple dyadic focus on senders and receivers of signals, and thus elucidates the more complex interrelations of the various types of agents...

  10. Hand grip strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Henrik; Gaist, David; Petersen, Hans Christian

    2002-01-01

    in life is a major problem in terms of prevalence, morbidity, functional limitations, and quality of life. It is therefore of interest to find a phenotype reflecting physical functioning which has a relatively high heritability and which can be measured in large samples. Hand grip strength is known......-55%). A powerful design to detect genes associated with a phenotype is obtained using the extreme discordant and concordant sib pairs, of whom 28 and 77 dizygotic twin pairs, respectively, were found in this study. Hence grip strength is a suitable phenotype for identifying genetic variants of importance to mid...

  11. The hand and wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wood, M.B.; Berquist, T.H.

    1985-01-01

    Trauma is the most common etiologic factor leading to disability in the hand and wrist. Judicious radiographic evaluation is required for accurate assessment in practically all but the most minor of such injuries. Frequently serial radiographic evaluation is essential for directing the course of treatment and for following the healing process. A meaningful radiographic evaluation requires a comprehensive knowledge of the normal radiographic anatomy, an overview of the spectrum of pathology, and an awareness of the usual mechanisms of injury, appropriate treatment options, and relevant array of complications

  12. Robust Framework to Combine Diverse Classifiers Assigning Distributed Confidence to Individual Classifiers at Class Level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehzad Khalid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We have presented a classification framework that combines multiple heterogeneous classifiers in the presence of class label noise. An extension of m-Mediods based modeling is presented that generates model of various classes whilst identifying and filtering noisy training data. This noise free data is further used to learn model for other classifiers such as GMM and SVM. A weight learning method is then introduced to learn weights on each class for different classifiers to construct an ensemble. For this purpose, we applied genetic algorithm to search for an optimal weight vector on which classifier ensemble is expected to give the best accuracy. The proposed approach is evaluated on variety of real life datasets. It is also compared with existing standard ensemble techniques such as Adaboost, Bagging, and Random Subspace Methods. Experimental results show the superiority of proposed ensemble method as compared to its competitors, especially in the presence of class label noise and imbalance classes.

  13. User-Independent Motion State Recognition Using Smartphone Sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Fuqiang; Kealy, Allison; Khoshelham, Kourosh; Shang, Jianga

    2015-12-04

    The recognition of locomotion activities (e.g., walking, running, still) is important for a wide range of applications like indoor positioning, navigation, location-based services, and health monitoring. Recently, there has been a growing interest in activity recognition using accelerometer data. However, when utilizing only acceleration-based features, it is difficult to differentiate varying vertical motion states from horizontal motion states especially when conducting user-independent classification. In this paper, we also make use of the newly emerging barometer built in modern smartphones, and propose a novel feature called pressure derivative from the barometer readings for user motion state recognition, which is proven to be effective for distinguishing vertical motion states and does not depend on specific users' data. Seven types of motion states are defined and six commonly-used classifiers are compared. In addition, we utilize the motion state history and the characteristics of people's motion to improve the classification accuracies of those classifiers. Experimental results show that by using the historical information and human's motion characteristics, we can achieve user-independent motion state classification with an accuracy of up to 90.7%. In addition, we analyze the influence of the window size and smartphone pose on the accuracy.

  14. User-Independent Motion State Recognition Using Smartphone Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuqiang Gu

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The recognition of locomotion activities (e.g., walking, running, still is important for a wide range of applications like indoor positioning, navigation, location-based services, and health monitoring. Recently, there has been a growing interest in activity recognition using accelerometer data. However, when utilizing only acceleration-based features, it is difficult to differentiate varying vertical motion states from horizontal motion states especially when conducting user-independent classification. In this paper, we also make use of the newly emerging barometer built in modern smartphones, and propose a novel feature called pressure derivative from the barometer readings for user motion state recognition, which is proven to be effective for distinguishing vertical motion states and does not depend on specific users’ data. Seven types of motion states are defined and six commonly-used classifiers are compared. In addition, we utilize the motion state history and the characteristics of people’s motion to improve the classification accuracies of those classifiers. Experimental results show that by using the historical information and human’s motion characteristics, we can achieve user-independent motion state classification with an accuracy of up to 90.7%. In addition, we analyze the influence of the window size and smartphone pose on the accuracy.

  15. Human motion sensing and recognition a fuzzy qualitative approach

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Honghai; Ji, Xiaofei; Chan, Chee Seng; Khoury, Mehdi

    2017-01-01

    This book introduces readers to the latest exciting advances in human motion sensing and recognition, from the theoretical development of fuzzy approaches to their applications. The topics covered include human motion recognition in 2D and 3D, hand motion analysis with contact sensors, and vision-based view-invariant motion recognition, especially from the perspective of Fuzzy Qualitative techniques. With the rapid development of technologies in microelectronics, computers, networks, and robotics over the last decade, increasing attention has been focused on human motion sensing and recognition in many emerging and active disciplines where human motions need to be automatically tracked, analyzed or understood, such as smart surveillance, intelligent human-computer interaction, robot motion learning, and interactive gaming. Current challenges mainly stem from the dynamic environment, data multi-modality, uncertain sensory information, and real-time issues. These techniques are shown to effectively address the ...

  16. Back to basics: hand hygiene and surgical hand antisepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spruce, Lisa

    2013-11-01

    Health care-associated infections (HAIs) are a significant issue in the United States and throughout the world, but following proper hand hygiene practices is the most effective and least expensive way to prevent HAIs. Hand hygiene is inexpensive and protects patients and health care personnel alike. The four general types of hand hygiene that should be performed in the perioperative environment are washing hands that are visibly soiled, hand hygiene using alcohol-based products, surgical hand scrubs, and surgical hand scrubs using an alcohol-based surgical hand rub product. Barriers to proper hand hygiene may include not thinking about it, forgetting, skin irritation, a lack of role models, or a lack of a safety culture. One strategy for improving hand hygiene practices is monitoring hand hygiene as part of a quality improvement project, but the most important aspect for perioperative team members is to set an example for other team members by following proper hand hygiene practices and reminding each other to perform hand hygiene. Copyright © 2013 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Protection of Classified Information: The Legal Framework

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Elsea, Jennifer K

    2006-01-01

    Recent incidents involving leaks of classified information have heightened interest in the legal framework that governs security classification, access to classified information, and penalties for improper disclosure...

  18. Space Suit Glove Pressure Garment Metacarpal Joint and Robotic Hand Analysis, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Spacesuit glove pressure garments have been a design challenge for NASA since the inception of spacesuits. The human hand demands a complex range of motions, a close...

  19. Deep learning-based artificial vision for grasp classification in myoelectric hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaei, Ghazal; Alameer, Ali; Degenaar, Patrick; Morgan, Graham; Nazarpour, Kianoush

    2017-06-01

    Objective. Computer vision-based assistive technology solutions can revolutionise the quality of care for people with sensorimotor disorders. The goal of this work was to enable trans-radial amputees to use a simple, yet efficient, computer vision system to grasp and move common household objects with a two-channel myoelectric prosthetic hand. Approach. We developed a deep learning-based artificial vision system to augment the grasp functionality of a commercial prosthesis. Our main conceptual novelty is that we classify objects with regards to the grasp pattern without explicitly identifying them or measuring their dimensions. A convolutional neural network (CNN) structure was trained with images of over 500 graspable objects. For each object, 72 images, at {{5}\\circ} intervals, were available. Objects were categorised into four grasp classes, namely: pinch, tripod, palmar wrist neutral and palmar wrist pronated. The CNN setting was first tuned and tested offline and then in realtime with objects or object views that were not included in the training set. Main results. The classification accuracy in the offline tests reached 85 % for the seen and 75 % for the novel objects; reflecting the generalisability of grasp classification. We then implemented the proposed framework in realtime on a standard laptop computer and achieved an overall score of 84 % in classifying a set of novel as well as seen but randomly-rotated objects. Finally, the system was tested with two trans-radial amputee volunteers controlling an i-limb UltraTM prosthetic hand and a motion controlTM prosthetic wrist; augmented with a webcam. After training, subjects successfully picked up and moved the target objects with an overall success of up to 88 % . In addition, we show that with training, subjects’ performance improved in terms of time required to accomplish a block of 24 trials despite a decreasing level of visual feedback. Significance. The proposed design constitutes a substantial

  20. Attention and apparent motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, T; Treisman, A

    1994-01-01

    Two dissociations between short- and long-range motion in visual search are reported. Previous research has shown parallel processing for short-range motion and apparently serial processing for long-range motion. This finding has been replicated and it has also been found that search for short-range targets can be impaired both by using bicontrast stimuli, and by prior adaptation to the target direction of motion. Neither factor impaired search in long-range motion displays. Adaptation actually facilitated search with long-range displays, which is attributed to response-level effects. A feature-integration account of apparent motion is proposed. In this theory, short-range motion depends on specialized motion feature detectors operating in parallel across the display, but subject to selective adaptation, whereas attention is needed to link successive elements when they appear at greater separations, or across opposite contrasts.

  1. Golf hand prosthesis performance of transradial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carey, Stephanie L; Wernke, Matthew M; Lura, Derek J; Kahle, Jason T; Dubey, Rajiv V; Highsmith, M Jason

    2015-06-01

    Typical upper limb prostheses may limit sports participation; therefore, specialized terminal devices are often needed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the ability of transradial amputees to play golf using a specialized terminal device. Club head speed, X-factor, and elbow motion of two individuals with transradial amputations using an Eagle Golf terminal device were compared to a non-amputee during a golf swing. Measurements were collected pre/post training with various stances and grips. Both prosthesis users preferred a right-handed stance initially; however, after training, one preferred a left-handed stance. The amputees had slower club head speeds and a lower X-factor compared to the non-amputee golfer, but increased their individual elbow motion on the prosthetic side after training. Amputees enjoyed using the device, and it may provide kinematic benefits indicated by the increase in elbow flexion on the prosthetic side. The transradial amputees were able to swing a golf club with sufficient repetition, form, and velocity to play golf recreationally. Increased elbow flexion on the prosthetic side suggests a potential benefit from using the Eagle Golf terminal device. Participating in recreational sports can increase amputees' health and quality of life. © The International Society for Prosthetics and Orthotics 2014.

  2. Classifying smoking urges via machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumortier, Antoine; Beckjord, Ellen; Shiffman, Saul; Sejdić, Ervin

    2016-12-01

    Smoking is the largest preventable cause of death and diseases in the developed world, and advances in modern electronics and machine learning can help us deliver real-time intervention to smokers in novel ways. In this paper, we examine different machine learning approaches to use situational features associated with having or not having urges to smoke during a quit attempt in order to accurately classify high-urge states. To test our machine learning approaches, specifically, Bayes, discriminant analysis and decision tree learning methods, we used a dataset collected from over 300 participants who had initiated a quit attempt. The three classification approaches are evaluated observing sensitivity, specificity, accuracy and precision. The outcome of the analysis showed that algorithms based on feature selection make it possible to obtain high classification rates with only a few features selected from the entire dataset. The classification tree method outperformed the naive Bayes and discriminant analysis methods, with an accuracy of the classifications up to 86%. These numbers suggest that machine learning may be a suitable approach to deal with smoking cessation matters, and to predict smoking urges, outlining a potential use for mobile health applications. In conclusion, machine learning classifiers can help identify smoking situations, and the search for the best features and classifier parameters significantly improves the algorithms' performance. In addition, this study also supports the usefulness of new technologies in improving the effect of smoking cessation interventions, the management of time and patients by therapists, and thus the optimization of available health care resources. Future studies should focus on providing more adaptive and personalized support to people who really need it, in a minimum amount of time by developing novel expert systems capable of delivering real-time interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights

  3. Classifying spaces of degenerating polarized Hodge structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kato, Kazuya

    2009-01-01

    In 1970, Phillip Griffiths envisioned that points at infinity could be added to the classifying space D of polarized Hodge structures. In this book, Kazuya Kato and Sampei Usui realize this dream by creating a logarithmic Hodge theory. They use the logarithmic structures begun by Fontaine-Illusie to revive nilpotent orbits as a logarithmic Hodge structure. The book focuses on two principal topics. First, Kato and Usui construct the fine moduli space of polarized logarithmic Hodge structures with additional structures. Even for a Hermitian symmetric domain D, the present theory is a refinem

  4. Gearbox Condition Monitoring Using Advanced Classifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Večeř

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available New efficient and reliable methods for gearbox diagnostics are needed in automotive industry because of growing demand for production quality. This paper presents the application of two different classifiers for gearbox diagnostics – Kohonen Neural Networks and the Adaptive-Network-based Fuzzy Interface System (ANFIS. Two different practical applications are presented. In the first application, the tested gearboxes are separated into two classes according to their condition indicators. In the second example, ANFIS is applied to label the tested gearboxes with a Quality Index according to the condition indicators. In both applications, the condition indicators were computed from the vibration of the gearbox housing. 

  5. Cubical sets as a classifying topos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spitters, Bas

    Coquand’s cubical set model for homotopy type theory provides the basis for a computational interpretation of the univalence axiom and some higher inductive types, as implemented in the cubical proof assistant. We show that the underlying cube category is the opposite of the Lawvere theory of De...... Morgan algebras. The topos of cubical sets itself classifies the theory of ‘free De Morgan algebras’. This provides us with a topos with an internal ‘interval’. Using this interval we construct a model of type theory following van den Berg and Garner. We are currently investigating the precise relation...

  6. Double Ramp Loss Based Reject Option Classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-22

    of convex (DC) functions. To minimize it, we use DC programming approach [1]. The proposed method has following advantages: (1) the proposed loss LDR ...space constraints. We see that LDR does not put any restriction on ρ for it to be an upper bound of L0−d−1. 2.2 Risk Formulation Using LDR Let S = {(xn...classifier learnt using LDR based approach (C = 100, μ = 1, d = .2). Filled circles and triangles represent the support vectors. 4 Experimental Results We show

  7. Objects in Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    One thing scientists study is how objects move. A famous scientist named Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727) spent a lot of time observing objects in motion and came up with three laws that describe how things move. This explanation only deals with the first of his three laws of motion. Newton's First Law of Motion says that moving objects will continue…

  8. Motion compensated digital tomosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Reijden, Anneke; van Herk, Marcel; Sonke, Jan-Jakob

    2013-01-01

    Digital tomosynthesis (DTS) is a limited angle image reconstruction method for cone beam projections that offers patient surveillance capabilities during VMAT based SBRT delivery. Motion compensation (MC) has the potential to mitigate motion artifacts caused by respiratory motion, such as blur. The

  9. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-11-07

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques.

  10. Human-inspired feedback synergies for environmental interaction with a dexterous robotic hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kent, Benjamin A; Engeberg, Erik D

    2014-01-01

    Effortless control of the human hand is mediated by the physical and neural couplings inherent in the structure of the hand. This concept was explored for environmental interaction tasks with the human hand, and a novel human-inspired feedback synergy (HFS) controller was developed for a robotic hand which synchronized position and force feedback signals to mimic observed human hand motions. This was achieved by first recording the finger joint motion profiles of human test subjects, where it was observed that the subjects would extend their fingers to maintain a natural hand posture when interacting with different surfaces. The resulting human joint angle data were used as inspiration to develop the HFS controller for the anthropomorphic robotic hand, which incorporated finger abduction and force feedback in the control laws for finger extension. Experimental results showed that by projecting a broader view of the tasks at hand to each specific joint, the HFS controller produced hand motion profiles that closely mimic the observed human responses and allowed the robotic manipulator to interact with the surfaces while maintaining a natural hand posture. Additionally, the HFS controller enabled the robotic hand to autonomously traverse vertical step discontinuities without prior knowledge of the environment, visual feedback, or traditional trajectory planning techniques. (paper)

  11. Hand Matters: Left-Hand Gestures Enhance Metaphor Explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyriou, Paraskevi; Mohr, Christine; Kita, Sotaro

    2017-01-01

    Research suggests that speech-accompanying gestures influence cognitive processes, but it is not clear whether the gestural benefit is specific to the gesturing hand. Two experiments tested the "(right/left) hand-specificity" hypothesis for self-oriented functions of gestures: gestures with a particular hand enhance cognitive processes…

  12. Classifying Coding DNA with Nucleotide Statistics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Carels

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available In this report, we compared the success rate of classification of coding sequences (CDS vs. introns by Codon Structure Factor (CSF and by a method that we called Universal Feature Method (UFM. UFM is based on the scoring of purine bias (Rrr and stop codon frequency. We show that the success rate of CDS/intron classification by UFM is higher than by CSF. UFM classifies ORFs as coding or non-coding through a score based on (i the stop codon distribution, (ii the product of purine probabilities in the three positions of nucleotide triplets, (iii the product of Cytosine (C, Guanine (G, and Adenine (A probabilities in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd positions of triplets, respectively, (iv the probabilities of G in 1st and 2nd position of triplets and (v the distance of their GC3 vs. GC2 levels to the regression line of the universal correlation. More than 80% of CDSs (true positives of Homo sapiens (>250 bp, Drosophila melanogaster (>250 bp and Arabidopsis thaliana (>200 bp are successfully classified with a false positive rate lower or equal to 5%. The method releases coding sequences in their coding strand and coding frame, which allows their automatic translation into protein sequences with 95% confidence. The method is a natural consequence of the compositional bias of nucleotides in coding sequences.

  13. A systematic comparison of supervised classifiers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Raphael Amancio

    Full Text Available Pattern recognition has been employed in a myriad of industrial, commercial and academic applications. Many techniques have been devised to tackle such a diversity of applications. Despite the long tradition of pattern recognition research, there is no technique that yields the best classification in all scenarios. Therefore, as many techniques as possible should be considered in high accuracy applications. Typical related works either focus on the performance of a given algorithm or compare various classification methods. In many occasions, however, researchers who are not experts in the field of machine learning have to deal with practical classification tasks without an in-depth knowledge about the underlying parameters. Actually, the adequate choice of classifiers and parameters in such practical circumstances constitutes a long-standing problem and is one of the subjects of the current paper. We carried out a performance study of nine well-known classifiers implemented in the Weka framework and compared the influence of the parameter configurations on the accuracy. The default configuration of parameters in Weka was found to provide near optimal performance for most cases, not including methods such as the support vector machine (SVM. In addition, the k-nearest neighbor method frequently allowed the best accuracy. In certain conditions, it was possible to improve the quality of SVM by more than 20% with respect to their default parameter configuration.

  14. STATISTICAL TOOLS FOR CLASSIFYING GALAXY GROUP DYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Annie; Parker, Laura C.; Harris, William E.; Wilman, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The dynamical state of galaxy groups at intermediate redshifts can provide information about the growth of structure in the universe. We examine three goodness-of-fit tests, the Anderson-Darling (A-D), Kolmogorov, and χ 2 tests, in order to determine which statistical tool is best able to distinguish between groups that are relaxed and those that are dynamically complex. We perform Monte Carlo simulations of these three tests and show that the χ 2 test is profoundly unreliable for groups with fewer than 30 members. Power studies of the Kolmogorov and A-D tests are conducted to test their robustness for various sample sizes. We then apply these tests to a sample of the second Canadian Network for Observational Cosmology Redshift Survey (CNOC2) galaxy groups and find that the A-D test is far more reliable and powerful at detecting real departures from an underlying Gaussian distribution than the more commonly used χ 2 and Kolmogorov tests. We use this statistic to classify a sample of the CNOC2 groups and find that 34 of 106 groups are inconsistent with an underlying Gaussian velocity distribution, and thus do not appear relaxed. In addition, we compute velocity dispersion profiles (VDPs) for all groups with more than 20 members and compare the overall features of the Gaussian and non-Gaussian groups, finding that the VDPs of the non-Gaussian groups are distinct from those classified as Gaussian.

  15. Mercury⊕: An evidential reasoning image classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peddle, Derek R.

    1995-12-01

    MERCURY⊕ is a multisource evidential reasoning classification software system based on the Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence. The design and implementation of this software package is described for improving the classification and analysis of multisource digital image data necessary for addressing advanced environmental and geoscience applications. In the remote-sensing context, the approach provides a more appropriate framework for classifying modern, multisource, and ancillary data sets which may contain a large number of disparate variables with different statistical properties, scales of measurement, and levels of error which cannot be handled using conventional Bayesian approaches. The software uses a nonparametric, supervised approach to classification, and provides a more objective and flexible interface to the evidential reasoning framework using a frequency-based method for computing support values from training data. The MERCURY⊕ software package has been implemented efficiently in the C programming language, with extensive use made of dynamic memory allocation procedures and compound linked list and hash-table data structures to optimize the storage and retrieval of evidence in a Knowledge Look-up Table. The software is complete with a full user interface and runs under Unix, Ultrix, VAX/VMS, MS-DOS, and Apple Macintosh operating system. An example of classifying alpine land cover and permafrost active layer depth in northern Canada is presented to illustrate the use and application of these ideas.

  16. Wide Awake Hand Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lied, Line; Borchgrevink, Grethe E; Finsen, Vilhjalmur

    2017-09-01

    "Wide awake hand surgery", where surgery is performed in local anaesthesia with adrenaline, without sedation or a tourniquet, has become widespread in some countries. It has a number of potential advantages and we wished to evaluate it among our patients. All 122 patients treated by this method during one year were evaluated by the surgeons and the patients on a numerical scale from 0 (best/least) to 10 (worst/most). Theatre time was compared to that recorded for a year when regional or general anaesthesia had been used. The patients' mean score for the general care they had received was 0.1 (SD 0.6), for pain during lidocaine injection 2.4 (SD 2.2), for pain during surgery 0.9 (SD 1.5), and for other discomfort during surgery 0.5 (SD 1.4). Eight reported that they would want general anaesthesia if they were to be operated again. The surgeons' mean evaluation of bleeding during surgery was 1.6 (SD 1.8), oedema during surgery 0.4 (SD 1.1), general disadvantages with the method 1.0 (SD 1.6) and general advantages 6.5 (SD 4.3). The estimation of advantages was 9.9 (DS 0.5) for tendon suture. 28 patients needed intra-operative additional anaesthesia. The proportion was lower among trained hand surgeons and fell significantly during the study period. Non-surgical theatre time was 46 (SD 15) minutes during the study period and 55 (SD 22) minutes during the regional/general period (p theatre.

  17. Rheumatoid arthritis and hand surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peretz, Anne Sofie Rosenborg; Madsen, Ole Rintek; Brogren, Elisabeth

    2017-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis results in characteristic deformities of the hand. Medical treatment has undergone a remarkable development. However, not all patients achieve remission or tolerate the treatment. Patients who suffer from deformities and persistent synovitis may be candidates for hand surgery...

  18. Rolling Shutter Motion Deblurring

    KAUST Repository

    Su, Shuochen

    2015-06-07

    Although motion blur and rolling shutter deformations are closely coupled artifacts in images taken with CMOS image sensors, the two phenomena have so far mostly been treated separately, with deblurring algorithms being unable to handle rolling shutter wobble, and rolling shutter algorithms being incapable of dealing with motion blur. We propose an approach that delivers sharp and undis torted output given a single rolling shutter motion blurred image. The key to achieving this is a global modeling of the camera motion trajectory, which enables each scanline of the image to be deblurred with the corresponding motion segment. We show the results of the proposed framework through experiments on synthetic and real data.

  19. Smoothing Motion Estimates for Radar Motion Compensation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerry, Armin W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Simple motion models for complex motion environments are often not adequate for keeping radar data coherent. Eve n perfect motion samples appli ed to imperfect models may lead to interim calculations e xhibiting errors that lead to degraded processing results. Herein we discuss a specific i ssue involving calculating motion for groups of pulses, with measurements only available at pulse-group boundaries. - 4 - Acknowledgements This report was funded by General A tomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI) Mission Systems under Cooperative Re search and Development Agre ement (CRADA) SC08/01749 between Sandia National Laboratories and GA-ASI. General Atomics Aeronautical Systems, Inc. (GA-ASI), an affilia te of privately-held General Atomics, is a leading manufacturer of Remotely Piloted Aircraft (RPA) systems, radars, and electro-optic and rel ated mission systems, includin g the Predator(r)/Gray Eagle(r)-series and Lynx(r) Multi-mode Radar.

  20. Curves from Motion, Motion from Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    De linearum curvarum cum lineis rectis comparatione dissertatio geometrica - an appendix to a treatise by de Lalouv~re (this was the only publication... correct solution to the problem of motion in the gravity of a permeable rotating Earth, considered by Torricelli (see §3). If the Earth is a homogeneous...in 1686, which contains the correct solution as part of a remarkably comprehensive theory of orbital motions under centripetal forces. It is a

  1. 36 CFR 1256.46 - National security-classified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false National security-classified... Restrictions § 1256.46 National security-classified information. In accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(b)(1), NARA... properly classified under the provisions of the pertinent Executive Order on Classified National Security...

  2. One-Step Dynamic Classifier Ensemble Model for Customer Value Segmentation with Missing Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Xiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific customer value segmentation (CVS is the base of efficient customer relationship management, and customer credit scoring, fraud detection, and churn prediction all belong to CVS. In real CVS, the customer data usually include lots of missing values, which may affect the performance of CVS model greatly. This study proposes a one-step dynamic classifier ensemble model for missing values (ODCEM model. On the one hand, ODCEM integrates the preprocess of missing values and the classification modeling into one step; on the other hand, it utilizes multiple classifiers ensemble technology in constructing the classification models. The empirical results in credit scoring dataset “German” from UCI and the real customer churn prediction dataset “China churn” show that the ODCEM outperforms four commonly used “two-step” models and the ensemble based model LMF and can provide better decision support for market managers.

  3. Structural motion engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Connor, Jerome

    2014-01-01

    This innovative volume provides a systematic treatment of the basic concepts and computational procedures for structural motion design and engineering for civil installations. The authors illustrate the application of motion control to a wide spectrum of buildings through many examples. Topics covered include optimal stiffness distributions for building-type structures, the role of damping in controlling motion, tuned mass dampers, base isolation systems, linear control, and nonlinear control. The book's primary objective is the satisfaction of motion-related design requirements, such as restrictions on displacement and acceleration. The book is ideal for practicing engineers and graduate students. This book also: ·         Broadens practitioners' understanding of structural motion control, the enabling technology for motion-based design ·         Provides readers the tools to satisfy requirements of modern, ultra-high strength materials that lack corresponding stiffness, where the motion re...

  4. Management of Atopic Hand Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Overgaard, Anne-Sofie; Zachariae, Claus; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2017-01-01

    This article provides an overview of clinical aspects of hand eczema in patients with atopic dermatitis. Hand eczema can be a part of atopic dermatitis itself or a comorbidity, for example, as irritant or allergic contact dermatitis. When managing hand eczema, it is important to first categorize...

  5. Hand Washing: Do's and Dont's

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hands frequently can help limit the transfer of bacteria, viruses and other microbes. Always wash your hands before: Preparing food or eating Treating wounds or caring for a sick person Inserting or removing contact lenses Always wash your hands after: Preparing food Using ...

  6. Hand aperture patterns in prehension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bongers, Raoul M; Zaal, Frank T J M; Jeannerod, Marc

    2012-06-01

    Although variations in the standard prehensile pattern can be found in the literature, these alternative patterns have never been studied systematically. This was the goal of the current paper. Ten participants picked up objects with a pincer grip. Objects (3, 5, or 7cm in diameter) were placed at 30, 60, 90, or 120cm from the hands' starting location. Usually the hand was opened gradually to a maximum immediately followed by hand closing, called the standard hand opening pattern. In the alternative opening patterns the hand opening was bumpy, or the hand aperture stayed at a plateau before closing started. Two participants in particular delayed the start of grasping with respect to start of reaching, with the delay time increasing with object distance. For larger object distances and smaller object sizes, the bumpy and plateau hand opening patterns were used more often. We tentatively concluded that the alternative hand opening patterns extended the hand opening phase, to arrive at the appropriate hand aperture at the appropriate time to close the hand for grasping the object. Variations in hand opening patterns deserve attention because this might lead to new insights into the coordination of reaching and grasping. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Action Recognition in Semi-synthetic Images using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    This technical report describes an action recognition approach based on motion primitives. A few characteristic time instances are found in a sequence containing an action and the action is classified from these instances. The characteristic instances are defined solely on the human motion, hence...... motion primitives. The motion primitives are extracted by double difference images and represented by four features. In each frame the primitive, if any, that best explains the observed data is identified. This leads to a discrete recognition problem since a video sequence will be converted into a string...... containing a sequence of symbols, each representing a primitive. After pruning the string a probabilistic Edit Distance classifier is applied to identify which action best describes the pruned string. The method is evaluated on five one-arm gestures. A test is performed with semi-synthetic input data...

  8. Motion Primitives for Action Recognition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2007-01-01

    the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize......The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognition rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  9. Action Recognition using Motion Primitives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moeslund, Thomas B.; Fihl, Preben; Holte, Michael Boelstoft

    the actions as a sequence of temporal isolated instances, denoted primitives. These primitives are each defined by four features extracted from motion images. The primitives are recognized in each frame based on a trained classifier resulting in a sequence of primitives. From this sequence we recognize......The number of potential applications has made automatic recognition of human actions a very active research area. Different approaches have been followed based on trajectories through some state space. In this paper we also model an action as a trajectory through a state space, but we represent...... different temporal actions using a probabilistic Edit Distance method. The method is tested on different actions with and without noise and the results show recognizing rates of 88.7% and 85.5%, respectively....

  10. Dry Friction: Motions - Map and Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motchongom-Tingue, M.; Kenfack-Jiotsa, A.; Tsobgni-Fozap, D.C.; Kofane, T.C.

    2009-12-01

    We consider a simple model of spring-mass block placed over a constant velocity v of a rolling plate. The map of the dynamic is presented in the (v,r) space where r accounts for the possible variation of the periodic shape profile of the rolling carpet. In order to characterize each type of motion, we found that evaluating the area of the phase space trajectories is more relevant than attempting on one hand, to solve analytically the asymptotic behavior or on the other hand, to obtain an equivalent of the entropy and the free energy. (author)

  11. Classifying Drivers' Cognitive Load Using EEG Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barua, Shaibal; Ahmed, Mobyen Uddin; Begum, Shahina

    2017-01-01

    A growing traffic safety issue is the effect of cognitive loading activities on traffic safety and driving performance. To monitor drivers' mental state, understanding cognitive load is important since while driving, performing cognitively loading secondary tasks, for example talking on the phone, can affect the performance in the primary task, i.e. driving. Electroencephalography (EEG) is one of the reliable measures of cognitive load that can detect the changes in instantaneous load and effect of cognitively loading secondary task. In this driving simulator study, 1-back task is carried out while the driver performs three different simulated driving scenarios. This paper presents an EEG based approach to classify a drivers' level of cognitive load using Case-Based Reasoning (CBR). The results show that for each individual scenario as well as using data combined from the different scenarios, CBR based system achieved approximately over 70% of classification accuracy.

  12. Classifying prion and prion-like phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbi, Djamel; Harrison, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    The universe of prion and prion-like phenomena has expanded significantly in the past several years. Here, we overview the challenges in classifying this data informatically, given that terms such as "prion-like", "prion-related" or "prion-forming" do not have a stable meaning in the scientific literature. We examine the spectrum of proteins that have been described in the literature as forming prions, and discuss how "prion" can have a range of meaning, with a strict definition being for demonstration of infection with in vitro-derived recombinant prions. We suggest that although prion/prion-like phenomena can largely be apportioned into a small number of broad groups dependent on the type of transmissibility evidence for them, as new phenomena are discovered in the coming years, a detailed ontological approach might be necessary that allows for subtle definition of different "flavors" of prion / prion-like phenomena.

  13. Hybrid Neuro-Fuzzy Classifier Based On Nefclass Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Gliwa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents hybrid neuro-fuzzy classifier, based on NEFCLASS model, which wasmodified. The presented classifier was compared to popular classifiers – neural networks andk-nearest neighbours. Efficiency of modifications in classifier was compared with methodsused in original model NEFCLASS (learning methods. Accuracy of classifier was testedusing 3 datasets from UCI Machine Learning Repository: iris, wine and breast cancer wisconsin.Moreover, influence of ensemble classification methods on classification accuracy waspresented.

  14. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riello, Marianna; Rusconi, Elena

    2011-01-01

    A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line (MNL). In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e., palm down) and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e., palm up) posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right MNL, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the spatial-numerical association of response codes (SNARC) effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects, like the SNARC, that have been typically attributed to the mapping of numbers on a left

  15. Unimanual SNARC Effect: Hand Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna eRiello

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A structural representation of the hand embedding information about the identity and relative position of fingers is necessary to counting routines. It may also support associations between numbers and allocentric spatial codes that predictably interact with other known numerical spatial representations, such as the mental number line. In this study, 48 Western participants whose typical counting routine proceeded from thumb-to-little on both hands performed magnitude and parity binary judgments. Response keys were pressed either with the right index and middle fingers or with the left index and middle fingers in separate blocks. 24 participants responded with either hands in prone posture (i.e. palm down and 24 participants responded with either hands in supine (i.e. palm up posture. When hands were in prone posture, the counting direction of the left hand conflicted with the direction of the left-right mental number line, whereas the counting direction of the right hand was consistent with it. When hands were in supine posture, the opposite was true. If systematic associations existed between relative number magnitude and an allocentric spatial representation of the finger series within each hand, as predicted on the basis of counting habits, interactions would be expected between hand posture and a unimanual version of the Spatial-Numerical Association of Response Codes (SNARC effect. Data revealed that with hands in prone posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the right hand, and with hands in supine posture a unimanual SNARC effect was present for the left hand. We propose that a posture-invariant body structural representation of the finger series provides a relevant frame of reference, a within-hand directional vector, that is associated to simple number processing. Such frame of reference can significantly interact with stimulus-response correspondence effects that have been attributed to the mapping of numbers on a mental

  16. Classifying Transition Behaviour in Postural Activity Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James BRUSEY

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A few accelerometers positioned on different parts of the body can be used to accurately classify steady state behaviour, such as walking, running, or sitting. Such systems are usually built using supervised learning approaches. Transitions between postures are, however, difficult to deal with using posture classification systems proposed to date, since there is no label set for intermediary postures and also the exact point at which the transition occurs can sometimes be hard to pinpoint. The usual bypass when using supervised learning to train such systems is to discard a section of the dataset around each transition. This leads to poorer classification performance when the systems are deployed out of the laboratory and used on-line, particularly if the regimes monitored involve fast paced activity changes. Time-based filtering that takes advantage of sequential patterns is a potential mechanism to improve posture classification accuracy in such real-life applications. Also, such filtering should reduce the number of event messages needed to be sent across a wireless network to track posture remotely, hence extending the system’s life. To support time-based filtering, understanding transitions, which are the major event generators in a classification system, is a key. This work examines three approaches to post-process the output of a posture classifier using time-based filtering: a naïve voting scheme, an exponentially weighted voting scheme, and a Bayes filter. Best performance is obtained from the exponentially weighted voting scheme although it is suspected that a more sophisticated treatment of the Bayes filter might yield better results.

  17. The right inhibition? Callosal correlates of hand performance in healthy children and adolescents callosal correlates of hand performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurth, Florian; Mayer, Emeran A; Toga, Arthur W; Thompson, Paul M; Luders, Eileen

    2013-09-01

    Numerous studies suggest that interhemispheric inhibition-relayed via the corpus callosum-plays an important role in unilateral hand motions. Interestingly, transcallosal inhibition appears to be indicative of a strong laterality effect, where generally the dominant hemisphere exerts inhibition on the nondominant one. These effects have been largely identified through functional studies in adult populations, but links between motor performance and callosal structure (especially during sensitive periods of neurodevelopment) remain largely unknown. We therefore investigated correlations between Purdue Pegboard performance (a test of motor function) and local callosal thickness in 170 right-handed children and adolescents (mean age: 11.5 ± 3.4 years; range, 6-17 years). Better task performance with the right (dominant) hand was associated with greater callosal thickness in isthmus and posterior midbody. Task performance using both hands yielded smaller and less significant correlations in the same regions, while task performance using the left (nondominant) hand showed no significant correlations with callosal thickness. There were no significant interactions with age and sex. These links between motor performance and callosal structure may constitute the neural correlate of interhemispheric inhibition, which is thought to be necessary for fast and complex unilateral motions and to be biased towards the dominant hand. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc., a Wiley company.

  18. Just-in-time adaptive classifiers-part II: designing the classifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alippi, Cesare; Roveri, Manuel

    2008-12-01

    Aging effects, environmental changes, thermal drifts, and soft and hard faults affect physical systems by changing their nature and behavior over time. To cope with a process evolution adaptive solutions must be envisaged to track its dynamics; in this direction, adaptive classifiers are generally designed by assuming the stationary hypothesis for the process generating the data with very few results addressing nonstationary environments. This paper proposes a methodology based on k-nearest neighbor (NN) classifiers for designing adaptive classification systems able to react to changing conditions just-in-time (JIT), i.e., exactly when it is needed. k-NN classifiers have been selected for their computational-free training phase, the possibility to easily estimate the model complexity k and keep under control the computational complexity of the classifier through suitable data reduction mechanisms. A JIT classifier requires a temporal detection of a (possible) process deviation (aspect tackled in a companion paper) followed by an adaptive management of the knowledge base (KB) of the classifier to cope with the process change. The novelty of the proposed approach resides in the general framework supporting the real-time update of the KB of the classification system in response to novel information coming from the process both in stationary conditions (accuracy improvement) and in nonstationary ones (process tracking) and in providing a suitable estimate of k. It is shown that the classification system grants consistency once the change targets the process generating the data in a new stationary state, as it is the case in many real applications.

  19. Unreal Interactive Puppet Game Development Using Leap Motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, An-Pin; Huang, Fay; Jhu, Jing-Siang

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposed a novel puppet play method utilizing recent technology. An interactive puppet game has been developed based on the theme of a famous Chinese classical novel. This project was implemented using Unreal Engine, which is a leading software of integrated tools for developers to design and build games. On the other hand, Leap Motion Controller is a sensor device for recognizing hand movements and gestures. It is commonly used in systems which require close-range finger-based user interaction. In order to manipulate puppets’ movements, the developed program employs the Leap Motion SDK, which provides a friendly way to add motion-controlled 3D hands to an Unreal game. The novelty of our project is to replace 3D model of rigged hands by two 3D humanoid rigged characters. The challenges of this task are two folds. First, the skeleton structure of a human hand and a humanoid character (i.e., puppets) are totally different. Making the puppets to follow the hand poses of the user and yet ensuring reasonable puppets’ movements has not been discussed in the literatures nor in the developer forums. Second, there are only a limited number of built-in recognizable hand gestures. More recognizable hand gestures need to be created for the interactive game. This paper reports the proposed solutions to these challenges.

  20. Utility of electronic hand hygiene counting devices for measuring physicians' hand hygiene adherence applied to outpatient settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arai, Akie; Tanabe, Masaki; Nakamura, Akiko; Yamasaki, Daisuke; Muraki, Yuichi; Kaneko, Toshihiro; Kadowaki, Ayako; Ito, Masaaki

    2016-12-01

    Our objectives were to evaluate the utility of electronic hand hygiene counting devices in outpatient settings and the impact of results feedback on physicians' hand hygiene behaviors. We installed 130 electronic hand hygiene counting devices in our redesigned outpatient department. We remotely monitored physicians' hand hygiene practices during outpatient examinations and calculated the adherence rate as follows: number of hand hygiene counts divided by the number of outpatients examined multiplied by 100. Physician individual adherence rates were also classified into 4 categories. Two hundred and eighty physicians from 28 clinical departments were monitored for 3 months. The overall hand hygiene adherence rate was 10.7% at baseline, which improved significantly after feedback to 18.2% in the third month. Of the clinical departments, 78.6% demonstrated significant improvement in hand hygiene compliance. The change in the percentage of physicians in each category before and after feedback were as follows: very low (84.3% to 72.1%), low (8.6% to 14.3%), moderate (2.9% to 8.9%), and high (4.3% to 4.6%), from the first to third month, respectively. Based on category assessment, 17.1% of physicians were classified as responders. Physicians' adherence to hand hygiene practices during outpatient examinations was successfully monitored remotely using electronic counting devices. Audit and feedback of adherence data may have a positive impact on physicians' hand hygiene compliance. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Hand Rehabilitation Learning System With an Exoskeleton Robotic Glove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhou; Ben-Tzvi, Pinhas; Danoff, Jerome

    2016-12-01

    This paper presents a hand rehabilitation learning system, the SAFE Glove, a device that can be utilized to enhance the rehabilitation of subjects with disabilities. This system is able to learn fingertip motion and force for grasping different objects and then record and analyze the common movements of hand function including grip and release patterns. The glove is then able to reproduce these movement patterns in playback fashion to assist a weakened hand to accomplish these movements, or to modulate the assistive level based on the user's or therapist's intent for the purpose of hand rehabilitation therapy. Preliminary data have been collected from healthy hands. To demonstrate the glove's ability to manipulate the hand, the glove has been fitted on a wooden hand and the grasping of various objects was performed. To further prove that hands can be safely driven by this haptic mechanism, force sensor readings placed between each finger and the mechanism are plotted. These experimental results demonstrate the potential of the proposed system in rehabilitation therapy.

  2. Robotically enhanced rubber hand illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arata, Jumpei; Hattori, Masashi; Ichikawa, Shohei; Sakaguchi, Masamichi

    2014-01-01

    The rubber hand illusion is a well-known multisensory illusion. In brief, watching a rubber hand being stroked by a paintbrush while one's own unseen hand is synchronously stroked causes the rubber hand to be attributed to one's own body and to "feel like it's my hand." The rubber hand illusion is thought to be triggered by the synchronized tactile stimulation of both the subject's hand and the fake hand. To extend the conventional rubber hand illusion, we introduce robotic technology in the form of a master-slave telemanipulator. The developed one degree-of-freedom master-slave system consists of an exoskeleton master equipped with an optical encoder that is worn on the subject's index finger and a motor-actuated index finger on the rubber hand, which allows the subject to perform unilateral telemanipulation. The moving rubber hand illusion has been studied by several researchers in the past with mechanically connected rigs between the subject's body and the fake limb. The robotic instruments let us investigate the moving rubber hand illusion with less constraints, thus behaving closer to the classic rubber hand illusion. In addition, the temporal delay between the body and the fake limb can be precisely manipulated. The experimental results revealed that the robotic instruments significantly enhance the rubber hand illusion. The time delay is significantly correlated with the effect of the multisensory illusion, and the effect significantly decreased at time delays over 100 ms. These findings can potentially contribute to the investigations of neural mechanisms in the field of neuroscience and of master-slave systems in the field of robotics.

  3. Advanced Myoelectric Control for Robotic Hand-Assisted Training: Outcome from a Stroke Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhiyuan; Tong, Kai-Yu; Shin, Henry; Li, Sheng; Zhou, Ping

    2017-01-01

    A hand exoskeleton driven by myoelectric pattern recognition was designed for stroke rehabilitation. It detects and recognizes the user's motion intent based on electromyography (EMG) signals, and then helps the user to accomplish hand motions in real time. The hand exoskeleton can perform six kinds of motions, including the whole hand closing/opening, tripod pinch/opening, and the "gun" sign/opening. A 52-year-old woman, 8 months after stroke, made 20× 2-h visits over 10 weeks to participate in robot-assisted hand training. Though she was unable to move her fingers on her right hand before the training, EMG activities could be detected on her right forearm. In each visit, she took 4× 10-min robot-assisted training sessions, in which she repeated the aforementioned six motion patterns assisted by our intent-driven hand exoskeleton. After the training, her grip force increased from 1.5 to 2.7 kg, her pinch force increased from 1.5 to 2.5 kg, her score of Box and Block test increased from 3 to 7, her score of Fugl-Meyer (Part C) increased from 0 to 7, and her hand function increased from Stage 1 to Stage 2 in Chedoke-McMaster assessment. The results demonstrate the feasibility of robot-assisted training driven by myoelectric pattern recognition after stroke.

  4. The thermodynamic cycle of an entropy-driven stepper motor walking hand-over-hand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zabicki, Michal; Ebeling, Werner; Gudowska-Nowak, Ewa

    2010-01-01

    Graphical abstract: We develop a new model of an entropy-driven stepper motor walking hand-over-hand, coupled to the energy reservoir of ATP. - Abstract: We develop a model of a kinesin motor based on an entropy-driven spring between the two heads of the stepper. The stepper is coupled to the energy depot which is reservoir of ATP. A Langevin equation for the motion of the two legs in a ratchet potential is analyzed by performing numerical simulations. It is documented that the model motor is able to work against a load force with an efficiency of about 10-30%. At a critical load force the motor stops to operate.

  5. Executed Movement Using EEG Signals through a Naive Bayes Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Machado

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Recent years have witnessed a rapid development of brain-computer interface (BCI technology. An independent BCI is a communication system for controlling a device by human intension, e.g., a computer, a wheelchair or a neuroprosthes is, not depending on the brain’s normal output pathways of peripheral nerves and muscles, but on detectable signals that represent responsive or intentional brain activities. This paper presents a comparative study of the usage of the linear discriminant analysis (LDA and the naive Bayes (NB classifiers on describing both right- and left-hand movement through electroencephalographic signal (EEG acquisition. For the analysis, we considered the following input features: the energy of the segments of a band pass-filtered signal with the frequency band in sensorimotor rhythms and the components of the spectral energy obtained through the Welch method. We also used the common spatial pattern (CSP filter, so as to increase the discriminatory activity among movement classes. By using the database generated by this experiment, we obtained hit rates up to 70%. The results are compatible with previous studies.

  6. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline; Wæhrens, Eva Elisabet Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...... as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established...

  7. Hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokker, Louise; Terwee, Caroline B; Wæhrens, Eva Ejlersen

    2016-01-01

    as well as those items from the Patient Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) Physical Function (PF) item bank that are relevant to patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Selection will be based on consensus among reviewers. Content validity of selected items will be established......INTRODUCTION: There is no consensus about what constitutes the most appropriate patient-reported outcome measurement (PROM) instrument for measuring physical function in patients with rheumatic hand conditions. Existing instruments lack psychometric testing and vary in feasibility...... and their psychometric qualities. We aim to develop a PROM instrument to assess hand-related physical function in rheumatic hand conditions. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: We will perform a systematic search to identify existing PROMs to rheumatic hand conditions, and select items relevant for hand-related physical function...

  8. An Efficient Solution for Hand Gesture Recognition from Video Sequence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRODAN, R.-C.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a system of hand gesture recognition by image processing for human robot interaction. The recognition and interpretation of the hand postures acquired through a video camera allow the control of the robotic arm activity: motion - translation and rotation in 3D - and tightening/releasing the clamp. A gesture dictionary was defined and heuristic algorithms for recognition were developed and tested. The system can be used for academic and industrial purposes, especially for those activities where the movements of the robotic arm were not previously scheduled, for training the robot easier than using a remote control. Besides the gesture dictionary, the novelty of the paper consists in a new technique for detecting the relative positions of the fingers in order to recognize the various hand postures, and in the achievement of a robust system for controlling robots by postures of the hands.

  9. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play

  10. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play.

  11. Hip strength and range of motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosler, Andrea B.; Crossley, Kay M.; Thorborg, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the normal profiles for hip strength and range of motion (ROM) in a professional football league in Qatar, and examine the effect of leg dominance, age, past history of injury, and ethnicity on these profiles. Design Cross-sectional cohort study. Methods Participants...... values are documented for hip strength and range of motion that can be used as reference profiles in the clinical assessment, screening, and management of professional football players. Leg dominance, recent past injury history and ethnicity do not need to be accounted for when using these profiles...... included 394 asymptomatic, male professional football players, aged 18–40 years. Strength was measured using a hand held dynamometer with an eccentric test in side-lying for hip adduction and abduction, and the squeeze test in supine with 45° hip flexion. Range of motion measures included: hip internal...

  12. Motion and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Infeld, Leopold

    1960-01-01

    Motion and Relativity focuses on the methodologies, solutions, and approaches involved in the study of motion and relativity, including the general relativity theory, gravitation, and approximation.The publication first offers information on notation and gravitational interaction and the general theory of motion. Discussions focus on the notation of the general relativity theory, field values on the world-lines, general statement of the physical problem, Newton's theory of gravitation, and forms for the equation of motion of the second kind. The text then takes a look at the approximation meth

  13. Brain Image Motion Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Rasmus Ramsbøl; Benjaminsen, Claus; Larsen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    The application of motion tracking is wide, including: industrial production lines, motion interaction in gaming, computer-aided surgery and motion correction in medical brain imaging. Several devices for motion tracking exist using a variety of different methodologies. In order to use such devices...... offset and tracking noise in medical brain imaging. The data are generated from a phantom mounted on a rotary stage and have been collected using a Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph for positron emission tomography. During acquisition the phantom was tracked with our latest tracking prototype...

  14. Classifying Adverse Events in the Dental Office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalenderian, Elsbeth; Obadan-Udoh, Enihomo; Maramaldi, Peter; Etolue, Jini; Yansane, Alfa; Stewart, Denice; White, Joel; Vaderhobli, Ram; Kent, Karla; Hebballi, Nutan B; Delattre, Veronique; Kahn, Maria; Tokede, Oluwabunmi; Ramoni, Rachel B; Walji, Muhammad F

    2017-06-30

    Dentists strive to provide safe and effective oral healthcare. However, some patients may encounter an adverse event (AE) defined as "unnecessary harm due to dental treatment." In this research, we propose and evaluate two systems for categorizing the type and severity of AEs encountered at the dental office. Several existing medical AE type and severity classification systems were reviewed and adapted for dentistry. Using data collected in previous work, two initial dental AE type and severity classification systems were developed. Eight independent reviewers performed focused chart reviews, and AEs identified were used to evaluate and modify these newly developed classifications. A total of 958 charts were independently reviewed. Among the reviewed charts, 118 prospective AEs were found and 101 (85.6%) were verified as AEs through a consensus process. At the end of the study, a final AE type classification comprising 12 categories, and an AE severity classification comprising 7 categories emerged. Pain and infection were the most common AE types representing 73% of the cases reviewed (56% and 17%, respectively) and 88% were found to cause temporary, moderate to severe harm to the patient. Adverse events found during the chart review process were successfully classified using the novel dental AE type and severity classifications. Understanding the type of AEs and their severity are important steps if we are to learn from and prevent patient harm in the dental office.

  15. Is it important to classify ischaemic stroke?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Iqbal, M

    2012-02-01

    Thirty-five percent of all ischemic events remain classified as cryptogenic. This study was conducted to ascertain the accuracy of diagnosis of ischaemic stroke based on information given in the medical notes. It was tested by applying the clinical information to the (TOAST) criteria. Hundred and five patients presented with acute stroke between Jan-Jun 2007. Data was collected on 90 patients. Male to female ratio was 39:51 with age range of 47-93 years. Sixty (67%) patients had total\\/partial anterior circulation stroke; 5 (5.6%) had a lacunar stroke and in 25 (28%) the mechanism of stroke could not be identified. Four (4.4%) patients with small vessel disease were anticoagulated; 5 (5.6%) with atrial fibrillation received antiplatelet therapy and 2 (2.2%) patients with atrial fibrillation underwent CEA. This study revealed deficiencies in the clinical assessment of patients and treatment was not tailored to the mechanism of stroke in some patients.

  16. Stress fracture development classified by bone scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwas, S.T.; Elkanovich, R.; Frank, G.; Aharonson, Z.

    1985-01-01

    There is no consensus on classifying stress fractures (SF) appearing on bone scans. The authors present a system of classification based on grading the severity and development of bone lesions by visual inspection, according to three main scintigraphic criteria: focality and size, intensity of uptake compare to adjacent bone, and local medular extension. Four grades of development (I-IV) were ranked, ranging from ill defined slightly increased cortical uptake to well defined regions with markedly increased uptake extending transversely bicortically. 310 male subjects aged 19-2, suffering several weeks from leg pains occurring during intensive physical training underwent bone scans of the pelvis and lower extremities using Tc-99-m-MDP. 76% of the scans were positive with 354 lesions, of which 88% were in th4e mild (I-II) grades and 12% in the moderate (III) and severe (IV) grades. Post-treatment scans were obtained in 65 cases having 78 lesions during 1- to 6-month intervals. Complete resolution was found after 1-2 months in 36% of the mild lesions but in only 12% of the moderate and severe ones, and after 3-6 months in 55% of the mild lesions and 15% of the severe ones. 75% of the moderate and severe lesions showed residual uptake in various stages throughout the follow-up period. Early recognition and treatment of mild SF lesions in this study prevented protracted disability and progression of the lesions and facilitated complete healing

  17. A Study on Immersion and Presence of a Portable Hand Haptic System for Immersive Virtual Reality

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Mingyu; Jeon, Changyu; Kim, Jinmo

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a portable hand haptic system using Leap Motion as a haptic interface that can be used in various virtual reality (VR) applications. The proposed hand haptic system was designed as an Arduino-based sensor architecture to enable a variety of tactile senses at low cost, and is also equipped with a portable wristband. As a haptic system designed for tactile feedback, the proposed system first identifies the left and right hands and then sends tactile senses (vibration and hea...

  18. Motion control, motion sickness, and the postural dynamics of mobile devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoffregen, Thomas A; Chen, Yi-Chou; Koslucher, Frank C

    2014-04-01

    Drivers are less likely than passengers to experience motion sickness, an effect that is important for any theoretical account of motion sickness etiology. We asked whether different types of control would affect the incidence of motion sickness, and whether any such effects would be related to participants' control of their own bodies. Participants played a video game on a tablet computer. In the Touch condition, the device was stationary and participants controlled the game exclusively through fingertip inputs via the device's touch screen. In the Tilt condition, participants held the device in their hands and moved the device to control some game functions. Results revealed that the incidence of motion sickness was greater in the Touch condition than in the Tilt condition. During game play, movement of the head and torso differed as a function of the type of game control. Before the onset of subjective symptoms of motion sickness, movement of the head and torso differed between participants who later reported motion sickness and those that did not. We discuss implications of these results for theories of motion sickness etiology.

  19. fMRI-compatible rehabilitation hand device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzika Aria

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI has been widely used in studying human brain functions and neurorehabilitation. In order to develop complex and well-controlled fMRI paradigms, interfaces that can precisely control and measure output force and kinematics of the movements in human subjects are needed. Optimized state-of-the-art fMRI methods, combined with magnetic resonance (MR compatible robotic devices for rehabilitation, can assist therapists to quantify, monitor, and improve physical rehabilitation. To achieve this goal, robotic or mechatronic devices with actuators and sensors need to be introduced into an MR environment. The common standard mechanical parts can not be used in MR environment and MR compatibility has been a tough hurdle for device developers. Methods This paper presents the design, fabrication and preliminary testing of a novel, one degree of freedom, MR compatible, computer controlled, variable resistance hand device that may be used in brain MR imaging during hand grip rehabilitation. We named the device MR_CHIROD (Magnetic Resonance Compatible Smart Hand Interfaced Rehabilitation Device. A novel feature of the device is the use of Electro-Rheological Fluids (ERFs to achieve tunable and controllable resistive force generation. ERFs are fluids that experience dramatic changes in rheological properties, such as viscosity or yield stress, in the presence of an electric field. The device consists of four major subsystems: a an ERF based resistive element; b a gearbox; c two handles and d two sensors, one optical encoder and one force sensor, to measure the patient induced motion and force. The smart hand device is designed to resist up to 50% of the maximum level of gripping force of a human hand and be controlled in real time. Results Laboratory tests of the device indicate that it was able to meet its design objective to resist up to approximately 50% of the maximum handgrip force. The detailed

  20. Localized motion in random matrix decomposition of complex financial systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiong-Fei; Zheng, Bo; Ren, Fei; Qiu, Tian

    2017-04-01

    With the random matrix theory, we decompose the multi-dimensional time series of complex financial systems into a set of orthogonal eigenmode functions, which are classified into the market mode, sector mode, and random mode. In particular, the localized motion generated by the business sectors, plays an important role in financial systems. Both the business sectors and their impact on the stock market are identified from the localized motion. We clarify that the localized motion induces different characteristics of the time correlations for the stock-market index and individual stocks. With a variation of a two-factor model, we reproduce the return-volatility correlations of the eigenmodes.

  1. Markerless Kinect-Based Hand Tracking for Robot Teleoperation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guanglong Du

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a real-time remote robot teleoperation method using markerless Kinect-based hand tracking. Using this tracking algorithm, the positions of index finger and thumb in 3D can be estimated by processing depth images from Kinect. The hand pose is used as a model to specify the pose of a real-time remote robot's end-effector. This method provides a way to send a whole task to a remote robot instead of sending limited motion commands like gesture-based approaches and this method has been tested in pick-and-place tasks.

  2. Radiographic findings in wrists and hands of patients with leprosy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreto, A.; Montero, F.; Garcia Frasquet, A.; Carpintero, P.

    1998-01-01

    Leprosy, like other neuropathic disorders, can involve the skeleton, affecting both bone and joints, especially those segments that have to withstand weight. To asses the osteoarticular involvement of the wrist and hand in 58 patients with leprosy. The radiographic images of wrist and hand of 58 patients with Hansen's disease were reviewed. The entire spectrum of specific and nonspecific bone lesions described in the literature is presented. Despite the fact that the upper limbs do not have to withstand the weight that the feet and ankles do, radiographic images show that gripping and other common motions can also produce lesions compatible with those of neuropathic arthropathy. (Author) 20 refs

  3. Multi-fingered robotic hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, Carl F. (Inventor); Salisbury, Kenneth, Jr. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A robotic hand is presented having a plurality of fingers, each having a plurality of joints pivotally connected one to the other. Actuators are connected at one end to an actuating and control mechanism mounted remotely from the hand and at the other end to the joints of the fingers for manipulating the fingers and passing externally of the robot manipulating arm in between the hand and the actuating and control mechanism. The fingers include pulleys to route the actuators within the fingers. Cable tension sensing structure mounted on a portion of the hand are disclosed, as is covering of the tip of each finger with a resilient and pliable friction enhancing surface.

  4. An Approach for Pattern Recognition of EEG Applied in Prosthetic Hand Drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Dong Zhang

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For controlling the prosthetic hand by only electroencephalogram (EEG, it has become the hot spot in robotics research to set up a direct communication and control channel between human brain and prosthetic hand. In this paper, the EEG signal is analyzed based on multi-complicated hand activities. And then, two methods of EEG pattern recognition are investigated, a neural prosthesis hand system driven by BCI is set up, which can complete four kinds of actions (arm’s free state, arm movement, hand crawl, hand open. Through several times of off-line and on-line experiments, the result shows that the neural prosthesis hand system driven by BCI is reasonable and feasible, the C-support vector classifiers-based method is better than BP neural network on the EEG pattern recognition for multi-complicated hand activities.

  5. Hand gesture recognition by analysis of codons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramachandra, Poornima; Shrikhande, Neelima

    2007-09-01

    The problem of recognizing gestures from images using computers can be approached by closely understanding how the human brain tackles it. A full fledged gesture recognition system will substitute mouse and keyboards completely. Humans can recognize most gestures by looking at the characteristic external shape or the silhouette of the fingers. Many previous techniques to recognize gestures dealt with motion and geometric features of hands. In this thesis gestures are recognized by the Codon-list pattern extracted from the object contour. All edges of an image are described in terms of sequence of Codons. The Codons are defined in terms of the relationship between maxima, minima and zeros of curvature encountered as one traverses the boundary of the object. We have concentrated on a catalog of 24 gesture images from the American Sign Language alphabet (Letter J and Z are ignored as they are represented using motion) [2]. The query image given as an input to the system is analyzed and tested against the Codon-lists, which are shape descriptors for external parts of a hand gesture. We have used the Weighted Frequency Indexing Transform (WFIT) approach which is used in DNA sequence matching for matching the Codon-lists. The matching algorithm consists of two steps: 1) the query sequences are converted to short sequences and are assigned weights and, 2) all the sequences of query gestures are pruned into match and mismatch subsequences by the frequency indexing tree based on the weights of the subsequences. The Codon sequences with the most weight are used to determine the most precise match. Once a match is found, the identified gesture and corresponding interpretation are shown as output.

  6. 41 CFR 105-62.102 - Authority to originally classify.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... originally classify. (a) Top secret, secret, and confidential. The authority to originally classify information as Top Secret, Secret, or Confidential may be exercised only by the Administrator and is delegable...

  7. Naive Bayesian classifiers for multinomial features: a theoretical analysis

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Dyk, E

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The authors investigate the use of naive Bayesian classifiers for multinomial feature spaces and derive error estimates for these classifiers. The error analysis is done by developing a mathematical model to estimate the probability density...

  8. Ensemble of classifiers based network intrusion detection system performance bound

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkuzangwe, Nenekazi NP

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a performance bound of a network intrusion detection system (NIDS) that uses an ensemble of classifiers. Currently researchers rely on implementing the ensemble of classifiers based NIDS before they can determine the performance...

  9. The Importance of Spatiotemporal Information in Biological Motion Perception: White Noise Presented with a Step-like Motion Activates the Biological Motion Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callan, Akiko; Callan, Daniel; Ando, Hiroshi

    2017-02-01

    Humans can easily recognize the motion of living creatures using only a handful of point-lights that describe the motion of the main joints (biological motion perception). This special ability to perceive the motion of animate objects signifies the importance of the spatiotemporal information in perceiving biological motion. The posterior STS (pSTS) and posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) region have been established by many functional neuroimaging studies as a locus for biological motion perception. Because listening to a walking human also activates the pSTS/pMTG region, the region has been proposed to be supramodal in nature. In this study, we investigated whether the spatiotemporal information from simple auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate this biological motion area. We compared spatially moving white noise, having a running-like tempo that was consistent with biological motion, with stationary white noise. The moving-minus-stationary contrast showed significant differences in activation of the pSTS/pMTG region. Our results suggest that the spatiotemporal information of the auditory stimuli is sufficient to activate the biological motion area.

  10. The human hand as an inspiration for robot hand development

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    “The Human Hand as an Inspiration for Robot Hand Development” presents an edited collection of authoritative contributions in the area of robot hands. The results described in the volume are expected to lead to more robust, dependable, and inexpensive distributed systems such as those endowed with complex and advanced sensing, actuation, computation, and communication capabilities. The twenty-four chapters discuss the field of robotic grasping and manipulation viewed in light of the human hand’s capabilities and push the state-of-the-art in robot hand design and control. Topics discussed include human hand biomechanics, neural control, sensory feedback and perception, and robotic grasp and manipulation. This book will be useful for researchers from diverse areas such as robotics, biomechanics, neuroscience, and anthropologists.

  11. A synergy-driven approach to a myoelectric hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, S B; Ajoudani, A; Catalano, M; Grioli, G; Bicchi, A

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the Pisa/IIT SoftHand with myoelectric control as a synergy-driven approach for a prosthetic hand. Commercially available myoelectric hands are more expensive, heavier, and less robust than their body-powered counterparts; however, they can offer greater freedom of motion and a more aesthetically pleasing appearance. The Pisa/IIT SoftHand is built on the motor control principle of synergies through which the immense complexity of the hand is simplified into distinct motor patterns. As the SoftHand grasps, it follows a synergistic path with built-in flexibility to allow grasping of a wide variety of objects with a single motor. Here we test, as a proof-of-concept, 4 myoelectric controllers: a standard controller in which the EMG signal is used only as a position reference, an impedance controller that determines both position and stiffness references from the EMG input, a standard controller with vibrotactile force feedback, and finally a combined vibrotactile-impedance (VI) controller. Four healthy subjects tested the control algorithms by grasping various objects. All controllers were sufficient for basic grasping, however the impedance and vibrotactile controllers reduced the physical and cognitive load on the user, while the combined VI mode was the easiest to use of the four. While these results need to be validated with amputees, they suggest a low-cost, robust hand employing hardware-based synergies is a viable alternative to traditional myoelectric prostheses.

  12. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-01-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in "The Physics Teacher" ("TPT"); however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not…

  13. Temporal logic motion planning

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Seotsanyana, M

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a critical review on temporal logic motion planning is presented. The review paper aims to address the following problems: (a) In a realistic situation, the motion planning problem is carried out in real-time, in a dynamic, uncertain...

  14. Aristotle, Motion, and Rhetoric.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, Jane

    Aristotle rejects a world vision of changing reality as neither useful nor beneficial to human life, and instead he reaffirms both change and eternal reality, fuses motion and rest, and ends up with "well-behaved" changes. This concept of motion is foundational to his world view, and from it emerges his theory of knowledge, philosophy of…

  15. Fast Most Similar Neighbor (MSN) classifiers for Mixed Data

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Rodríguez, Selene

    2010-01-01

    The k nearest neighbor (k-NN) classifier has been extensively used in Pattern Recognition because of its simplicity and its good performance. However, in large datasets applications, the exhaustive k-NN classifier becomes impractical. Therefore, many fast k-NN classifiers have been developed; most of them rely on metric properties (usually the triangle inequality) to reduce the number of prototype comparisons. Hence, the existing fast k-NN classifiers are applicable only when the comparison f...

  16. Multimodal fusion of polynomial classifiers for automatic person recgonition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broun, Charles C.; Zhang, Xiaozheng

    2001-03-01

    With the prevalence of the information age, privacy and personalization are forefront in today's society. As such, biometrics are viewed as essential components of current evolving technological systems. Consumers demand unobtrusive and non-invasive approaches. In our previous work, we have demonstrated a speaker verification system that meets these criteria. However, there are additional constraints for fielded systems. The required recognition transactions are often performed in adverse environments and across diverse populations, necessitating robust solutions. There are two significant problem areas in current generation speaker verification systems. The first is the difficulty in acquiring clean audio signals in all environments without encumbering the user with a head- mounted close-talking microphone. Second, unimodal biometric systems do not work with a significant percentage of the population. To combat these issues, multimodal techniques are being investigated to improve system robustness to environmental conditions, as well as improve overall accuracy across the population. We propose a multi modal approach that builds on our current state-of-the-art speaker verification technology. In order to maintain the transparent nature of the speech interface, we focus on optical sensing technology to provide the additional modality-giving us an audio-visual person recognition system. For the audio domain, we use our existing speaker verification system. For the visual domain, we focus on lip motion. This is chosen, rather than static face or iris recognition, because it provides dynamic information about the individual. In addition, the lip dynamics can aid speech recognition to provide liveness testing. The visual processing method makes use of both color and edge information, combined within Markov random field MRF framework, to localize the lips. Geometric features are extracted and input to a polynomial classifier for the person recognition process. A late

  17. Stochastic ground motion simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaeian, Sanaz; Xiaodan, Sun; Beer, Michael; Kougioumtzoglou, Ioannis A.; Patelli, Edoardo; Siu-Kui Au, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    Strong earthquake ground motion records are fundamental in engineering applications. Ground motion time series are used in response-history dynamic analysis of structural or geotechnical systems. In such analysis, the validity of predicted responses depends on the validity of the input excitations. Ground motion records are also used to develop ground motion prediction equations(GMPEs) for intensity measures such as spectral accelerations that are used in response-spectrum dynamic analysis. Despite the thousands of available strong ground motion records, there remains a shortage of records for large-magnitude earthquakes at short distances or in specific regions, as well as records that sample specific combinations of source, path, and site characteristics.

  18. Frame by frame stop motion non-traditional approaches to stop motion animation

    CERN Document Server

    Gasek, Tom

    2011-01-01

    In a world that is dominated by computer images, alternative stop motion techniques like pixilation, time-lapse photography and down-shooting techniques combined with new technologies offer a new, tangible and exciting approach to animation. With over 25 years professional experience, industry veteran, Tom Gasek presents a comprehensive guide to stop motion animation without the focus on puppetry or model animation. With tips, tricks and hands-on exercises, Frame by Frame will help both experienced and novice filmmakers get the most effective results from this underutilized branch of animation

  19. Leap Motion controller application in augmented reality technology

    OpenAIRE

    Artemčiukas, Edgaras; Sakalauskas, Leonidas

    2014-01-01

    In this work the analysis of interaction techniques, devices and its’ possibilities were accomplished. It was determined that the problem, which many researchers tries to solve – more natural interaction between users and computers. Interaction system in augmented reality environment using Leap Motion controller was developed. To achieve this goal augmented reality NyARToolkit and Leap Motion controller libraries were used. Solution ensures extensive information about hand, finger...

  20. Three data partitioning strategies for building local classifiers (Chapter 14)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zliobaite, I.; Okun, O.; Valentini, G.; Re, M.

    2011-01-01

    Divide-and-conquer approach has been recognized in multiple classifier systems aiming to utilize local expertise of individual classifiers. In this study we experimentally investigate three strategies for building local classifiers that are based on different routines of sampling data for training.

  1. Recognition of pornographic web pages by classifying texts and images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Weiming; Wu, Ou; Chen, Zhouyao; Fu, Zhouyu; Maybank, Steve

    2007-06-01

    With the rapid development of the World Wide Web, people benefit more and more from the sharing of information. However, Web pages with obscene, harmful, or illegal content can be easily accessed. It is important to recognize such unsuitable, offensive, or pornographic Web pages. In this paper, a novel framework for recognizing pornographic Web pages is described. A C4.5 decision tree is used to divide Web pages, according to content representations, into continuous text pages, discrete text pages, and image pages. These three categories of Web pages are handled, respectively, by a continuous text classifier, a discrete text classifier, and an algorithm that fuses the results from the image classifier and the discrete text classifier. In the continuous text classifier, statistical and semantic features are used to recognize pornographic texts. In the discrete text classifier, the naive Bayes rule is used to calculate the probability that a discrete text is pornographic. In the image classifier, the object's contour-based features are extracted to recognize pornographic images. In the text and image fusion algorithm, the Bayes theory is used to combine the recognition results from images and texts. Experimental results demonstrate that the continuous text classifier outperforms the traditional keyword-statistics-based classifier, the contour-based image classifier outperforms the traditional skin-region-based image classifier, the results obtained by our fusion algorithm outperform those by either of the individual classifiers, and our framework can be adapted to different categories of Web pages.

  2. 32 CFR 2400.28 - Dissemination of classified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Dissemination of classified information. 2400.28... SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.28 Dissemination of classified information. Heads of OSTP offices... originating official may prescribe specific restrictions on dissemination of classified information when...

  3. Using Motion Tracking to Detect Spontaneous Movements in Infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Mikkel Damgaard; Herskind, Anna; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2015-01-01

    We study the characteristics of infants’ spontaneous movements, based on data obtained from a markerless motion tracking system. From the pose data, the set of features are generated from the raw joint-angles of the infants and different classifiers are trained and evaluated using annotated data...

  4. Peat classified as slowly renewable biomass fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    thousands of years. The report states also that peat should be classified as biomass fuel instead of biofuels, such as wood, or fossil fuels such as coal. According to the report peat is a renewable biomass fuel like biofuels, but due to slow accumulation it should be considered as slowly renewable fuel. The report estimates that bonding of carbon in both virgin and forest drained peatlands are so high that it can compensate the emissions formed in combustion of energy peat

  5. Hand function and quality of life before and after fasciectomy for Dupuytren contracture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engstrand, Christina; Krevers, Barbro; Nylander, Göran; Kvist, Joanna

    2014-07-01

    To describe changes in joint motion, sensibility, and scar pliability and to investigate the patients' expectations, self-reported recovery, and satisfaction with hand function, disability, and quality of life after surgery and hand therapy for Dupuytren disease. This prospective cohort study collected measurements before surgery and 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery and hand therapy. Ninety patients with total active extension deficits of 60° or more from Dupuytren contracture were included. Outcomes measures were range of motion; sensibility; scar pliability; self-reported outcomes on expectations, recovery, and satisfaction with hand function; Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand scores; safety and social issues of hand function; physical activity habits; and quality of life with the Euroqol. The extension deficit decreased, and there was a transient decrease in active finger flexion during the first year after surgery. Sensibility remained unaffected. Generally, patients with surgery on multiple fingers had worse scar pliability. The majority of the patients had their expectations met, and at 6 months, 32% considered hand function as fully recovered, and 73% were satisfied with their hand function. Fear of hurting the hand and worry about not trusting the hand function were of greatest concern among safety and social issues. The Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score and the Euroqol improved over time. After surgery and hand therapy, disability decreased independent of single or multiple operated fingers. The total active finger extension improved enough for the patients to reach a functional range of motion despite an impairment of active finger flexion still present 12 months after treatment. Therapeutic IV. Copyright © 2014 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Giant lipomas of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gokce Yildiran

    2015-04-01

    Conclusion: Giant lipomas of the hand are very rare and may cause compressions and other complications. Thus, they require a careful preoperative evaluation in order to make a proper differential diagnosis. [Hand Microsurg 2015; 4(1.000: 8-11

  7. Canadian hand dermatitis management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynde, Charles; Guenther, Lyn; Diepgen, Thomas L

    2010-01-01

    Hand dermatitis (HD) is one of the most common skin conditions; however, it is not a homogeneous disease entity. The severity of HD may range from very mild cases to severe chronic forms, which may result in prolonged disability and, occasionally, refractory HD. Chronic hand dermatitis (CHD...

  8. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.

  9. Effect of hand sanitizer location on hand hygiene compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cure, Laila; Van Enk, Richard

    2015-09-01

    Hand hygiene is the most important intervention to prevent infection in hospitals. Health care workers should clean their hands at least before and after contact with patients. Hand sanitizer dispensers are important to support hand hygiene because they can be made available throughout hospital units. The aim of this study was to determine whether the usability of sanitizer dispensers correlates with compliance of staff in using the sanitizer in a hospital. This study took place in a Midwest, 404-bed, private, nonprofit community hospital with 15 inpatient care units in addition to several ambulatory units. The usability and standardization of sanitizers in 12 participating inpatient units were evaluated. The hospital measured compliance of staff with hand hygiene as part of their quality improvement program. Data from 2010-2012 were analyzed to measure the relationship between compliance and usability using mixed-effects logistic regression models. The total usability score (P = .0046), visibility (P = .003), and accessibility of the sanitizer on entrance to the patient room (P = .00055) were statistically associated with higher observed compliance rates. Standardization alone showed no significant impact on observed compliance (P = .37). Hand hygiene compliance can be influenced by visibility and accessibility of dispensers. The sanitizer location should be part of multifaceted interventions to improve hand hygiene. Copyright © 2015 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Degloving injuries of the hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Krishnamoorthy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Avulsion of skin from the hand or fingers is an injury that has a dramatic presentation. The entire musculo-skeletal unit of the finger is intact, and the patient can often move the parts of his naked hand quite normally. The challenge for the reconstructive surgeon lies in resurfacing the hand or finger with a good quality pliable sensate skin cover while preserving the movements and function of the hand. Traditionally, skin grafting has been the standard method of reconstruction in such injuries. However, skin grafting does have many disadvantages, too. This article deals with the features of such injuries, management protocols and other reconstructive options available in the armamentarium of the hand surgeon.

  11. 3D Printed Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizarro, Yaritzmar Rosario; Schuler, Jason M.; Lippitt, Thomas C.

    2013-01-01

    Dexterous robotic hands are changing the way robots and humans interact and use common tools. Unfortunately, the complexity of the joints and actuations drive up the manufacturing cost. Some cutting edge and commercially available rapid prototyping machines now have the ability to print multiple materials and even combine these materials in the same job. A 3D model of a robotic hand was designed using Creo Parametric 2.0. Combining "hard" and "soft" materials, the model was printed on the Object Connex350 3D printer with the purpose of resembling as much as possible the human appearance and mobility of a real hand while needing no assembly. After printing the prototype, strings where installed as actuators to test mobility. Based on printing materials, the manufacturing cost of the hand was $167, significantly lower than other robotic hands without the actuators since they have more complex assembly processes.

  12. The hand of Homo naledi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Deane, Andrew S.; Tocheri, Matthew W.; Orr, Caley M.; Schmid, Peter; Hawks, John; Berger, Lee R.; Churchill, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    A nearly complete right hand of an adult hominin was recovered from the Rising Star cave system, South Africa. Based on associated hominin material, the bones of this hand are attributed to Homo naledi. This hand reveals a long, robust thumb and derived wrist morphology that is shared with Neandertals and modern humans, and considered adaptive for intensified manual manipulation. However, the finger bones are longer and more curved than in most australopiths, indicating frequent use of the hand during life for strong grasping during locomotor climbing and suspension. These markedly curved digits in combination with an otherwise human-like wrist and palm indicate a significant degree of climbing, despite the derived nature of many aspects of the hand and other regions of the postcranial skeleton in H. naledi. PMID:26441219

  13. Recognizing the Operating Hand and the Hand-Changing Process for User Interface Adjustment on Smartphones †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hansong; Huang, He; Huang, Liusheng; Sun, Yu-E

    2016-01-01

    As the size of smartphone touchscreens has become larger and larger in recent years, operability with a single hand is getting worse, especially for female users. We envision that user experience can be significantly improved if smartphones are able to recognize the current operating hand, detect the hand-changing process and then adjust the user interfaces subsequently. In this paper, we proposed, implemented and evaluated two novel systems. The first one leverages the user-generated touchscreen traces to recognize the current operating hand, and the second one utilizes the accelerometer and gyroscope data of all kinds of activities in the user’s daily life to detect the hand-changing process. These two systems are based on two supervised classifiers constructed from a series of refined touchscreen trace, accelerometer and gyroscope features. As opposed to existing solutions that all require users to select the current operating hand or confirm the hand-changing process manually, our systems follow much more convenient and practical methods and allow users to change the operating hand frequently without any harm to the user experience. We conduct extensive experiments on Samsung Galaxy S4 smartphones, and the evaluation results demonstrate that our proposed systems can recognize the current operating hand and detect the hand-changing process with 94.1% and 93.9% precision and 94.1% and 93.7% True Positive Rates (TPR) respectively, when deciding with a single touchscreen trace or accelerometer-gyroscope data segment, and the False Positive Rates (FPR) are as low as 2.6% and 0.7% accordingly. These two systems can either work completely independently and achieve pretty high accuracies or work jointly to further improve the recognition accuracy. PMID:27556461

  14. The future of robotics in hand surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liverneaux, P; Nectoux, E; Taleb, C

    2009-10-01

    Robotics has spread over many surgical fields over the last decade: orthopaedic, cardiovascular, urologic, gynaecologic surgery and various other types of surgery. There are five different types of robots: passive, semiactive and active robots, telemanipulators and simulators. Hand surgery is at a crossroad between orthopaedic surgery, plastic surgery and microsurgery; it has to deal with fixing all sorts of tissues from bone to soft tissues. To our knowledge, there is not any paper focusing on potential clinical applications in this realm, even though robotics could be helpful for hand surgery. One must point out the numerous works on bone tissue with regard to passive robots (such as fluoroscopic navigation as an ancillary for percutaneous screwing in the scaphoid bone). Telemanipulators, especially in microsurgery, can improve surgical motion by suppressing physiological tremor thanks to movement demultiplication (experimental vascular and nervous sutures previously published). To date, the robotic technology has not yet become simple-to-use, cheap and flawless but in the future, it will probably be of great technical help, and even allow remote-controlled surgery overseas.

  15. Leap Motion Device Used to Control a Real Anthropomorphic Gripper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Staretu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents for the first time the use of the Leap Motion device to control an anthropomorphic gripper with five fingers. First, a description of the Leap Motion device is presented, highlighting its main functional characteristics, followed by testing of its use for capturing the movements of a human hand's fingers in different configurations. Next, the HandCommander soft module and the Interface Controller application are described. The HandCommander is a software module created to facilitate interaction between a human hand and the GraspIT virtual environment, and the Interface Controller application is required to send motion data to the virtual environment and to test the communication protocol. For the test, a prototype of an anthropomorphic gripper with five fingers was made, including a proper hardware system of command and control, which is briefly presented in this paper. Following the creation of the prototype, the command system performance test was conducted under real conditions, evaluating the recognition efficiency of the objects to be gripped and the efficiency of the command and control strategies for the gripping process. The gripping test is exemplified by the gripping of an object, such as a screw spanner. It was found that the command system, both in terms of capturing human hand gestures with the Leap Motion device and effective object gripping, is operational. Suggestive figures are presented as examples.

  16. Real-Time Hand Posture Recognition Using a Range Camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahamy, Herve

    The basic goal of human computer interaction is to improve the interaction between users and computers by making computers more usable and receptive to the user's needs. Within this context, the use of hand postures in replacement of traditional devices such as keyboards, mice and joysticks is being explored by many researchers. The goal is to interpret human postures via mathematical algorithms. Hand posture recognition has gained popularity in recent years, and could become the future tool for humans to interact with computers or virtual environments. An exhaustive description of the frequently used methods available in literature for hand posture recognition is provided. It focuses on the different types of sensors and data used, the segmentation and tracking methods, the features used to represent the hand postures as well as the classifiers considered in the recognition process. Those methods are usually presented as highly robust with a recognition rate close to 100%. However, a couple of critical points necessary for a successful real-time hand posture recognition system require major improvement. Those points include the features used to represent the hand segment, the number of postures simultaneously recognizable, the invariance of the features with respect to rotation, translation and scale and also the behavior of the classifiers against non-perfect hand segments for example segments including part of the arm or missing part of the palm. A 3D time-of-flight camera named SR4000 has been chosen to develop a new methodology because of its capability to provide in real-time and at high frame rate 3D information on the scene imaged. This sensor has been described and evaluated for its capability for capturing in real-time a moving hand. A new recognition method that uses the 3D information provided by the range camera to recognize hand postures has been proposed. The different steps of this methodology including the segmentation, the tracking, the hand

  17. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luna-Aviles, A; Diaz Pineda, A [Tecnologico de Estudios Superiores de Coacalco. Av. 16 de Septiembre 54, Col. Cabecera Municipal. C.P. 55700 (Mexico); Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G [Instituto Politecnico Nacional. ESIME-SEPI. Unidad Profesional ' Adolfo Lopez Mateos' Edificio 5, 30 Piso, Colonia Lindavista. Gustavo A. Madero. 07738 Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Durodola, J F [School of Technology, Oxford Brookes University, Headington Campus, Gipsy Lane, Oxford OX3 0BP (United Kingdom); Beltran Fernandez, J A, E-mail: alelunaav@hotmail.com, E-mail: luishector56@hotmail.com, E-mail: jdurodola@brookes.ac.uk

    2011-07-19

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200x20x5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm x 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm x 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  18. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna-Avilés, A.; Hernández-Gómez, L. H.; Durodola, J. F.; Urriolagoitia-Calderón, G.; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G.; Beltrán Fernández, J. A.; Díaz Pineda, A.

    2011-07-01

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200×20×5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm × 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm × 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  19. Locating and classifying defects using an hybrid data base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna-Aviles, A; Diaz Pineda, A; Hernandez-Gomez, L H; Urriolagoitia-Calderon, G; Urriolagoitia-Sosa, G; Durodola, J F; Beltran Fernandez, J A

    2011-01-01

    A computational inverse technique was used in the localization and classification of defects. Postulated voids of two different sizes (2 mm and 4 mm diameter) were introduced in PMMA bars with and without a notch. The bar dimensions are 200x20x5 mm. One half of them were plain and the other half has a notch (3 mm x 4 mm) which is close to the defect area (19 mm x 16 mm).This analysis was done with an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and its optimization was done with an Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Procedure (ANFIS). A hybrid data base was developed with numerical and experimental results. Synthetic data was generated with the finite element method using SOLID95 element of ANSYS code. A parametric analysis was carried out. Only one defect in such bars was taken into account and the first five natural frequencies were calculated. 460 cases were evaluated. Half of them were plain and the other half has a notch. All the input data was classified in two groups. Each one has 230 cases and corresponds to one of the two sort of voids mentioned above. On the other hand, experimental analysis was carried on with PMMA specimens of the same size. The first two natural frequencies of 40 cases were obtained with one void. The other three frequencies were obtained numerically. 20 of these bars were plain and the others have a notch. These experimental results were introduced in the synthetic data base. 400 cases were taken randomly and, with this information, the ANN was trained with the backpropagation algorithm. The accuracy of the results was tested with the 100 cases that were left. In the next stage of this work, the ANN output was optimized with ANFIS. Previous papers showed that localization and classification of defects was reduced as notches were introduced in such bars. In the case of this paper, improved results were obtained when a hybrid data base was used.

  20. Classifying supersymmetric solutions in 3D maximal supergravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Boer, Jan; Mayerson, Daniel R.; Shigemori, Masaki

    2014-12-01

    String theory contains various extended objects. Among those, objects of codimension two (such as the D7-brane) are particularly interesting. Codimension-two objects carry non-Abelian charges which are elements of a discrete U-duality group and they may not admit a simple spacetime description, in which case they are known as exotic branes. A complete classification of consistent codimension-two objects in string theory is missing, even if we demand that they preserve some supersymmetry. As a step toward such a classification, we study the supersymmetric solutions of 3D maximal supergravity, which can be regarded as an approximate description of the geometry near codimension-two objects. We present a complete classification of the types of supersymmetric solutions that exist in this theory. We found that this problem reduces to that of classifying nilpotent orbits associated with the U-duality group, for which various mathematical results are known. We show that the only allowed supersymmetric configurations are 1/2, 1/4, 1/8, and 1/16 BPS, and determine the nilpotent orbits that they correspond to. One example of 1/16 BPS configurations is a generalization of the MSW system, where momentum runs along the intersection of seven M5-branes. On the other hand, it turns out exceedingly difficult to translate this classification into a simple criterion for supersymmetry in terms of the non-Abelian (monodromy) charges of the objects. For example, it can happen that a supersymmetric solution exists locally but cannot be extended all the way to the location of the object. To illustrate the various issues that arise in constructing supersymmetric solutions, we present a number of explicit examples.

  1. Low-cost design and fabrication of an anthropomorphic robotic hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junaid, Ali Bin; Tahir, Sanan; Rasheed, Tahir; Ahmed, Sharjeel; Sohail, Mehreen; Afzal, Muhammad Raheel; Ali, Muzaffar; Kim, Yoonsoo

    2014-10-01

    Human hand signifies a magnificent and challenging example for scientists and engineers trying to replicate its complex structure and functionality. This paper proposes a bio-mechatronic approach for the design of an anthropomorphic artificial hand capable of performing basic human hand motions with fundamental gripping functionality. The dexterity of the artificial hand is exhibited by imitating the natural motion of the human fingers. Imitation is produced according to the data acquired from the flex sensors attached to the human fingers. In order to have proper gripping, closed-loop control is implemented using the tactile sensors. Feedback for the closed-loop control is provided by force sensing resistors (FSRs), attached on the fingertips of the robotic hand. These sensors also enable handling of fragile objects. The mathematical model is derived using forward kinematics and also simulated on MATLAB to ascertain the position of robotic fingers in 3D space.

  2. An evaluation of data-driven motion estimation in comparison to the usage of external-surrogates in cardiac SPECT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, Joyeeta Mitra; Johnson, Karen L; Pretorius, P Hendrik; King, Michael A; Hutton, Brian F

    2013-01-01

    Motion estimation methods in single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can be classified into methods which depend on just the emission data (data-driven), or those that use some other source of information such as an external surrogate. The surrogate-based methods estimate the motion exhibited externally which may not correlate exactly with the movement of organs inside the body. The accuracy of data-driven strategies on the other hand is affected by the type and timing of motion occurrence during acquisition, the source distribution, and various degrading factors such as attenuation, scatter, and system spatial resolution. The goal of this paper is to investigate the performance of two data-driven motion estimation schemes based on the rigid-body registration of projections of motion-transformed source distributions to the acquired projection data for cardiac SPECT studies. Comparison is also made of six intensity based registration metrics to an external surrogate-based method. In the data-driven schemes, a partially reconstructed heart is used as the initial source distribution. The partially-reconstructed heart has inaccuracies due to limited angle artifacts resulting from using only a part of the SPECT projections acquired while the patient maintained the same pose. The performance of different cost functions in quantifying consistency with the SPECT projection data in the data-driven schemes was compared for clinically realistic patient motion occurring as discrete pose changes, one or two times during acquisition. The six intensity-based metrics studied were mean-squared difference, mutual information, normalized mutual information (NMI), pattern intensity (PI), normalized cross-correlation and entropy of the difference. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the performance is reported using Monte-Carlo simulations of a realistic heart phantom including degradation factors such as attenuation, scatter and system spatial resolution. Further the

  3. Hand in Hand - SEI Programmes for School Staff

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Birgitte Lund; Réol, Lise Andersen; Laursen, Hilmar Dyrborg

    2017-01-01

    This catalogue of research in the field of SEI programmes for the school staff’s and teachers’ SEI competencies is based on a review performed by the main researchers Birgitte Lund Nielsen, Lise Andersen Réol and Hilmar Dyrborg Laursen, VIA University College, Denmark, but discussed by the entire...... team of Hand in Hand partner countries and researchers. The aim was to identify the central aspects and elements concerning successful implementation, and school staff’s development of professional competencies in the specific field of supporting students’ social, emotional and intercultural (SEI......) competencies. Abstract: Framed by the EU-project Hand in Hand focusing on Social, Emotional and Intercultural (SEI) competencies among students and school staff, the paper discusses implementation and professional competencies based on a research review. The following five topics were identified: 1...

  4. The Marble-Hand Illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senna, Irene; Maravita, Angelo; Bolognini, Nadia; Parise, Cesare V

    2014-01-01

    Our body is made of flesh and bones. We know it, and in our daily lives all the senses constantly provide converging information about this simple, factual truth. But is this always the case? Here we report a surprising bodily illusion demonstrating that humans rapidly update their assumptions about the material qualities of their body, based on their recent multisensory perceptual experience. To induce a misperception of the material properties of the hand, we repeatedly gently hit participants' hand with a small hammer, while progressively replacing the natural sound of the hammer against the skin with the sound of a hammer hitting a piece of marble. After five minutes, the hand started feeling stiffer, heavier, harder, less sensitive, unnatural, and showed enhanced Galvanic skin response (GSR) to threatening stimuli. Notably, such a change in skin conductivity positively correlated with changes in perceived hand stiffness. Conversely, when hammer hits and impact sounds were temporally uncorrelated, participants did not spontaneously report any changes in the perceived properties of the hand, nor did they show any modulation in GSR. In two further experiments, we ruled out that mere audio-tactile synchrony is the causal factor triggering the illusion, further demonstrating the key role of material information conveyed by impact sounds in modulating the perceived material properties of the hand. This novel bodily illusion, the 'Marble-Hand Illusion', demonstrates that the perceived material of our body, surely the most stable attribute of our bodily self, can be quickly updated through multisensory integration.

  5. Muscle Synergy-Driven Robust Motion Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, Kyuengbo; Iwamoto, Masami; Kakei, Shinji; Kimpara, Hideyuki

    2018-04-01

    Humans are able to robustly maintain desired motion and posture under dynamically changing circumstances, including novel conditions. To accomplish this, the brain needs to optimize the synergistic control between muscles against external dynamic factors. However, previous related studies have usually simplified the control of multiple muscles using two opposing muscles, which are minimum actuators to simulate linear feedback control. As a result, they have been unable to analyze how muscle synergy contributes to motion control robustness in a biological system. To address this issue, we considered a new muscle synergy concept used to optimize the synergy between muscle units against external dynamic conditions, including novel conditions. We propose that two main muscle control policies synergistically control muscle units to maintain the desired motion against external dynamic conditions. Our assumption is based on biological evidence regarding the control of multiple muscles via the corticospinal tract. One of the policies is the group control policy (GCP), which is used to control muscle group units classified based on functional similarities in joint control. This policy is used to effectively resist external dynamic circumstances, such as disturbances. The individual control policy (ICP) assists the GCP in precisely controlling motion by controlling individual muscle units. To validate this hypothesis, we simulated the reinforcement of the synergistic actions of the two control policies during the reinforcement learning of feedback motion control. Using this learning paradigm, the two control policies were synergistically combined to result in robust feedback control under novel transient and sustained disturbances that did not involve learning. Further, by comparing our data to experimental data generated by human subjects under the same conditions as those of the simulation, we showed that the proposed synergy concept may be used to analyze muscle synergy

  6. THE ALLWISE MOTION SURVEY, PART 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Kellogg, Kendra; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cutri, Roc M.; Conrow, Tim; Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Greco, Jennifer; Mace, Gregory N.; Wright, Edward L.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Martin, Emily C.; McLean, Ian S.; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sheppard, Scott S.; Lansbury, George B.

    2016-01-01

    We use the AllWISE Data Release to continue our search for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )-detected motions. In this paper, we publish another 27,846 motion objects, bringing the total number to 48,000 when objects found during our original AllWISE motion survey are included. We use this list, along with the lists of confirmed WISE -based motion objects from the recent papers by Luhman and by Schneider et al., and candidate motion objects from the recent paper by Gagné et al., to search for widely separated, common-proper-motion systems. We identify 1039 such candidate systems. All 48,000 objects are further analyzed using color–color and color–mag plots to provide possible characterizations prior to spectroscopic follow-up. We present spectra of 172 of these, supplemented with new spectra of 23 comparison objects from the literature, and provide classifications and physical interpretations of interesting sources. Highlights include: (1) the identification of three G/K dwarfs that can be used as standard candles to study clumpiness and grain size in nearby molecular clouds because these objects are currently moving behind the clouds, (2) the confirmation/discovery of several M, L, and T dwarfs and one white dwarf whose spectrophotometric distance estimates place them 5–20 pc from the Sun, (3) the suggestion that the Na i “D” line be used as a diagnostic tool for interpreting and classifying metal-poor late-M and L dwarfs, (4) the recognition of a triple system including a carbon dwarf and late-M subdwarf, for which model fits of the late-M subdwarf (giving [Fe/H] ≈ −1.0) provide a measured metallicity for the carbon star, and (5) a possible 24 pc distant K5 dwarf + peculiar red L5 system with an apparent physical separation of 0.1 pc.

  7. THE ALLWISE MOTION SURVEY, PART 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, J. Davy; Kellogg, Kendra; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Gelino, Christopher R.; Schurr, Steven D.; Cutri, Roc M.; Conrow, Tim [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schneider, Adam C.; Cushing, Michael C.; Greco, Jennifer [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MS 111, University of Toledo, 2801 W. Bancroft Street, Toledo, OH 43606-3328 (United States); Mace, Gregory N. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wright, Edward L.; Logsdon, Sarah E.; Martin, Emily C.; McLean, Ian S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, 430 Portola Plaza, Box 951547, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Faherty, Jacqueline K.; Sheppard, Scott S. [Department of Terrestrial Magnetism, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015 (United States); Lansbury, George B., E-mail: davy@ipac.caltech.edu [Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)

    2016-06-01

    We use the AllWISE Data Release to continue our search for Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer ( WISE )-detected motions. In this paper, we publish another 27,846 motion objects, bringing the total number to 48,000 when objects found during our original AllWISE motion survey are included. We use this list, along with the lists of confirmed WISE -based motion objects from the recent papers by Luhman and by Schneider et al., and candidate motion objects from the recent paper by Gagné et al., to search for widely separated, common-proper-motion systems. We identify 1039 such candidate systems. All 48,000 objects are further analyzed using color–color and color–mag plots to provide possible characterizations prior to spectroscopic follow-up. We present spectra of 172 of these, supplemented with new spectra of 23 comparison objects from the literature, and provide classifications and physical interpretations of interesting sources. Highlights include: (1) the identification of three G/K dwarfs that can be used as standard candles to study clumpiness and grain size in nearby molecular clouds because these objects are currently moving behind the clouds, (2) the confirmation/discovery of several M, L, and T dwarfs and one white dwarf whose spectrophotometric distance estimates place them 5–20 pc from the Sun, (3) the suggestion that the Na i “D” line be used as a diagnostic tool for interpreting and classifying metal-poor late-M and L dwarfs, (4) the recognition of a triple system including a carbon dwarf and late-M subdwarf, for which model fits of the late-M subdwarf (giving [Fe/H] ≈ −1.0) provide a measured metallicity for the carbon star, and (5) a possible 24 pc distant K5 dwarf + peculiar red L5 system with an apparent physical separation of 0.1 pc.

  8. A novel gripper design for multi hand tools grasping under tight clearance constraints and external torque effect

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqura, Mohammad; Shamma, Jeff S.

    2017-01-01

    A robotic multi tool gripper design and implementation is presented in this paper. The proposed design targets applications where an actuation task is performed using a wide selection of standard hand tools. The manipulation motion is assumed

  9. Toying with Motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galus, Pamela J.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a variety of activities that support the development of an understanding of Newton's laws of motion. Activities use toy cars, mobile roads, and a seat-of-nails. Includes a scoring rubric. (DDR)

  10. Projectile Motion Hoop Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Connor; Dunn, Amy; Armstrong, Zachary; Adams, Wendy K.

    2018-04-01

    Projectile motion is a common phenomenon that is used in introductory physics courses to help students understand motion in two dimensions. Authors have shared a range of ideas for teaching this concept and the associated kinematics in The Physics Teacher; however, the "Hoop Challenge" is a new setup not before described in TPT. In this article an experiment is illustrated to explore projectile motion in a fun and challenging manner that has been used with both high school and university students. With a few simple materials, students have a vested interest in being able to calculate the height of the projectile at a given distance from its launch site. They also have an exciting visual demonstration of projectile motion when the lab is over.

  11. Travelers' Health: Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sickness, especially when pregnant, menstruating, or on hormones. Race/ethnicity—Asians may be more susceptible to motion ... it, sitting in the front seat of a car or bus, sitting over the wing of an ...

  12. Dizziness and Motion Sickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that extends into the inner ear can completely destroy both the hearing and equilibrium function of that ... motion sickness: •Do not read while traveling •Avoid sitting in the rear seat •Do not sit in ...

  13. Motion Sickness: First Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... com. Accessed July 29, 2017. Priesol AJ. Motion sickness. https://www.uptodate.com/content/search. Accessed July 29, 2017. Brunette GW, et al. CDC Health Information for International Travel 2018. New York, N. ...

  14. Viability of Controlling Prosthetic Hand Utilizing Electroencephalograph (EEG) Dataset Signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskon, Azizi; A/L Thanakodi, Suresh; Raihan Mazlan, Mohd; Mohd Haziq Azhar, Satria; Nooraya Mohd Tawil, Siti

    2016-11-01

    This project presents the development of an artificial hand controlled by Electroencephalograph (EEG) signal datasets for the prosthetic application. The EEG signal datasets were used as to improvise the way to control the prosthetic hand compared to the Electromyograph (EMG). The EMG has disadvantages to a person, who has not used the muscle for a long time and also to person with degenerative issues due to age factor. Thus, the EEG datasets found to be an alternative for EMG. The datasets used in this work were taken from Brain Computer Interface (BCI) Project. The datasets were already classified for open, close and combined movement operations. It served the purpose as an input to control the prosthetic hand by using an Interface system between Microsoft Visual Studio and Arduino. The obtained results reveal the prosthetic hand to be more efficient and faster in response to the EEG datasets with an additional LiPo (Lithium Polymer) battery attached to the prosthetic. Some limitations were also identified in terms of the hand movements, weight of the prosthetic, and the suggestions to improve were concluded in this paper. Overall, the objective of this paper were achieved when the prosthetic hand found to be feasible in operation utilizing the EEG datasets.

  15. Ground reaction force characteristics of Tai Chi push hand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yao-Ting; Chang, Jia-Hao; Huang, Chen-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Push Hand is an advanced training technique for the Yang-style old frame 108 forms Tai Chi Chuan. It is performed by two practitioners. To clarify how people use forces during Push Hand training, it is important to review the ground reaction force (GRF). Here, we quantify the characteristics of the GRF during Push Hand training. Kinematic data and GRF data from 10 Tai Chi Chuan practitioners (29.9 ± 7.87 years) were synchronously recorded using a three-dimensional motion analysis system (200 frames · s(-1)) and three-dimensional force plates (1000 Hz). The resultant GRF for both feet for the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were compared to body weight using a paired-samples t-test. The differences in the resultant GRF between the 0%, 50% and 100% phases of attack and defence were tested by one-way repeated-measures ANOVA. The significance level was set to 0.05. The total resultant GRF was almost equal to the participant's body weight in push hand. This result was consistent throughout the entire push hand process. Our results revealed that the GRF was comparable to the body weight, implying that practitioners do not push or resist their opponents during the push hand process.

  16. Consistency of hand preference: predictions to intelligence and school achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, D W; Gottfried, A; Bathurst, K

    1991-05-01

    Gottfried and Bathurst (1983) reported that hand preference consistency measured over time during infancy and early childhood predicts intellectual precocity for females, but not for males. In the present study longitudinal assessments of children previously classified by Gottfried and Bathurst as consistent or nonconsistent in cross-time hand preference were conducted during middle childhood (ages 5 to 9). Findings show that (a) early measurement of hand preference consistency for females predicts school-age intellectual precocity, (b) the locus of the difference between consistent vs. nonconsistent females is in verbal intelligence, and (c) the precocity of the consistent females was also revealed on tests of school achievement, particularly tests of reading and mathematics.

  17. [Hand eczema. The clinical classification of the roles of exogenous and endogenous factors in each type].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamiya, Y

    1994-08-01

    Hand eczema is one of the most common dermatological disorders. Although it is a general term referring to eczematous dermatitis of the hands, it actually covers a wide range of diseases. The classification of hand eczema is controversial even now, as definitions of individual diseases have not yet been established. It is well-known that exogenous factors, such as chemicals or water, are associated with the occurrence of hand eczema. In this study, we focused on endogenous factors, especially personal or family history of atopy as a causative factor in hand eczema. According to exogenous and endogenous factors, we classified hand eczema into three types: atopic dermatitis, contact dermatitis and dysidrosis. This classification is useful because it makes the definition of each disease clear. Skin-humidity and sebum measurement are simple and rapid methods of determining personal atopy, skin condition and the effect of treatment on hand eczema patients.

  18. Visual Motion Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-08-15

    displace- ment limit for motion in random dots," Vision Res., 24, 293-300. Pantie , A. & K. Turano (1986) "Direct comparisons of apparent motions...Hicks & AJ, Pantie (1978) "Apparent movement of successively generated subjec. uve figures," Perception, 7, 371-383. Ramachandran. V.S. & S.M. Anstis...thanks think deaf girl until world uncle flag home talk finish short thee our screwdiver sonry flower wrCstlir~g plan week wait accident guilty tree

  19. Coupled transverse motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teng, L.C.

    1989-01-01

    The magnetic field in an accelerator or a storage ring is usually so designed that the horizontal (x) and the vertical (y) motions of an ion are uncoupled. However, because of imperfections in construction and alignment, some small coupling is unavoidable. In this lecture, we discuss in a general way what is known about the behaviors of coupled motions in two degrees-of-freedom. 11 refs., 6 figs

  20. Noninvasive assessment of right ventricular wall motion by radionuclide cardioangiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Tsunehiko; Uehara, Toshiisa; Naito, Hiroaki; Hayashida, Kohei; Kozuka, Takahiro

    1981-01-01

    Radionuclide cardioangiography is a useful method to evaluate the left ventricular wall motion in various heart diseases. It has been also attempted to assess the right ventricular wall motion simultaneously by radionuclide method. In this study, using the combination of first-pass (RAO 30 0 ) and multi-gate (LAO 40 0 ) method, the site of right vetricle was classified in five. (1 inflow, 2 sinus, 3 outflow, 4 septal, 5 lateral) and the degree of wall motion was classified in four stages (dyskinesis, akinesis, hypokinesis, normal) according to the AHA committee report. These methods were applied clinically to forty-eight patients with various heart diseases. In the cases with right ventricular pressure or volume overload such as COLD, pulmonary infarction, the right ventricle was dilated and the wall motion was reduced in all portions. Especially, in the cases with right ventricular infarction, the right ventricular wall motion was reduced in the infarcted area. The findings of radionuclide method were in good agreement with those of contrast right ventriculography or echocardiography. In conclusion, radionuclide cardioangiography is a useful and noninvasive method to assess not only the left but also the right ventricular wall motion. (author)

  1. Full-motion video analysis for improved gender classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flora, Jeffrey B.; Lochtefeld, Darrell F.; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2014-06-01

    The ability of computer systems to perform gender classification using the dynamic motion of the human subject has important applications in medicine, human factors, and human-computer interface systems. Previous works in motion analysis have used data from sensors (including gyroscopes, accelerometers, and force plates), radar signatures, and video. However, full-motion video, motion capture, range data provides a higher resolution time and spatial dataset for the analysis of dynamic motion. Works using motion capture data have been limited by small datasets in a controlled environment. In this paper, we explore machine learning techniques to a new dataset that has a larger number of subjects. Additionally, these subjects move unrestricted through a capture volume, representing a more realistic, less controlled environment. We conclude that existing linear classification methods are insufficient for the gender classification for larger dataset captured in relatively uncontrolled environment. A method based on a nonlinear support vector machine classifier is proposed to obtain gender classification for the larger dataset. In experimental testing with a dataset consisting of 98 trials (49 subjects, 2 trials per subject), classification rates using leave-one-out cross-validation are improved from 73% using linear discriminant analysis to 88% using the nonlinear support vector machine classifier.

  2. Hands and Heads : Recording and classifi cation of congenital anomalies of the upper limb and common oral clefts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J.M. Luijsterburg (Antonius J.M.)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractThe birth of a child is a tremendous event for the newborn, its parents, and surroundings. Usually, the pregnancy and labour are uneventful and the baby is healthy. The parents are utmost delighted. Shortly, the baby is laid on the chest of the mother for bonding between mother and

  3. Hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bemelman, W. A.; de Wit, L. T.; Busch, O. R.; Gouma, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Laparoscopic splenectomy is performed routinely in patients with small and moderately enlarged spleens at specialized centers. Large spleens are difficult to handle laparoscopically and hand-assisted laparoscopic splenectomy might facilitate the procedure through enhanced vascular control, easier

  4. Animal Bites of the Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Animal Bites Email to a friend * required fields From * ... key to prevent problems from a bite. CAUSES Animal Bites Millions of animal bites occur in the ...

  5. Hand and foot contamination monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakati, R.K.; Kaptral, R.S.; Ananthkrishnan, T.S.; Pansare, M.G.

    1989-01-01

    In order to make quick measurements of beta and gamma contaminations on hands and feet of personnel working in radioactive environments, hand and foot contamination monitors are widely used. This paper describes such a monitor system designed with Intel 8085 based microcomputer. The monitoring and warning system is designed to perform measurement of activity spread over surface of hands and soles of shoes or feet. Even though the system has many features to aid testing and maintainance operation, it is easy to use for unskilled persons. In order to check the contamination, the person stands on platform and inserts both his hands into detector assemblies thereby actuating the sensing switches. After a preset interval, annunciation of clean or contaminated status is declared by the system. (author)

  6. PLAY HANDS PROTECTIVE GLOVES: TECHNICAL NOTE ON DESIGN AND CONCEPT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston-Hicks, Michele; Lura, Derek J; Highsmith, M Jason

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral Palsy (CP) is the leading cause of childhood motor disability, with a global incidence of 1.6 to 2.5/1,000 live births. Approximately 23% of children with CP are dependent upon assistive technologies. Some children with developmental disabilities have self-injurious behaviors such as finger biting but also have therapeutic needs. The purpose of this technical note is to describe design considerations for a protective glove and finger covering that maintains finger dexterity for children who exhibit finger and hand chewing (dermatophagia) and require therapeutic range of motion and may benefit from sensory stimulation resulting from constant contact between glove and skin. Protecting Little and Adolescent Youth (PLAY) Hands are protective gloves for children with developmental disorders such as CP who injure themselves by biting their hands due to pain or sensory issues. PLAY Hands will be cosmetically appealing gloves that provide therapeutic warmth, tactile sensory feedback, range of motion for donning/ doffing, and protection to maximize function and quality of life for families of children with developmental disorders. The technology is either a per-finger protective orthosis or an entire glove solution designed from durable 3D-printed biodegradable/bioabsorbable materials such as thermoplastics. PLAY Hands represent a series of protective hand wear interventions in the areas of self-mutilating behavior, kinematics, and sensation. They will be made available in a range of protective iterations from single- or multi-digit finger orthoses to a basic glove design to a more structurally robust and protective iteration. To improve the quality of life for patients and caregivers, they are conceptualized to be cosmetically appealing, protective, and therapeutic.

  7. Clean-up progress at the SNL/NM Classified Waste Landfill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavin, P.J.; Galloway, R.B.

    1999-01-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico (SNL/NM)Environmental Restoration Project is currently excavating the Classified Waste Landfill in Technical Area II, a disposal area for weapon components for approximately 40 years until it closed in 1987. Many different types of classified parts were disposed in unlined trenches and pits throughout the course of the landfill's history. A percentage of the parts contain explosives and/or radioactive components or contamination. The excavation has progressed backward chronologically from the last trenches filled through to the earlier pits. Excavation commenced in March 1998, and approximately 75 percent of the site (as defined by geophysical anomalies) has been completed as of November 1999. The material excavated consists primarily of classified weapon assemblies and related components, so disposition must include demilitarization and sanitization. This has resulted in substantial waste minimization and cost avoidance for the project as upwards of 90 percent of the classified materials are being demilitarized and recycled. The project is using field screening and lab analysis in conjunction with preliminary and in-process risk assessments to characterize soil and make waste determinations in a timely a fashion as possible. Challenges in waste management have prompted the adoption of innovative solutions. The hand-picked crew (both management and field staff) and the ability to quickly adapt to changing conditions has ensured the success of the project. The current schedule is to complete excavation in July 2000, with follow-on verification sampling, demilitarization, and waste management activities following

  8. The Plastic Surgery Hand Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvestre, Jason; Levin, L Scott; Serletti, Joseph M; Chang, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Designing an effective hand rotation for plastic surgery residents is difficult. The authors address this limitation by elucidating the critical components of the hand curriculum during plastic surgery residency. Hand questions on the Plastic Surgery In-Service Training Exam for six consecutive years (2008 to 2013) were characterized by presence of imaging, vignette setting, question taxonomy, answer domain, anatomy, and topic. Answer references were quantified by source and year of publication. Two hundred sixty-six questions were related to hand surgery (22.7 percent of all questions; 44.3 per year) and 61 were accompanied by an image (22.9 percent). Vignettes tended to be clinic- (50.0 percent) and emergency room-based (35.3 percent) (p < 0.001). Questions required decision-making (60.5 percent) over interpretation (25.9 percent) and recall skills (13.5 percent) (p < 0.001). Answers focused on interventions (57.5 percent) over anatomy/pathology (25.2 percent) and diagnoses (17.3 percent) (p < 0.001). Nearly half of the questions focused on the digits. The highest yield topics were trauma (35.3 percent), reconstruction (24.4 percent), and aesthetic and functional problems (14.2 percent). The Journal of Hand Surgery (American volume) (20.5 percent) and Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery (18.0 percent) were the most-cited journals, and the median publication lag was 7 years. Green's Operative Hand Surgery was the most-referenced textbook (41.8 percent). These results will enable trainees to study hand surgery topics with greater efficiency. Faculty can use these results to ensure that tested topics are covered during residency training. Thus, a benchmark is established to improve didactic, clinical, and operative experiences in hand surgery.

  9. Hand, Foot, and Mouth Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-08-08

    Hand, foot, and mouth disease is a contagious illness that mainly affects children under five. In this podcast, Dr. Eileen Schneider talks about the symptoms of hand, foot, and mouth disease, how it spreads, and ways to help protect yourself and your children from getting infected with the virus.  Created: 8/8/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 8/8/2013.

  10. Hands-on physics displays for undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akerlof, Carl W.

    2014-07-01

    Initiated by Frank Oppenheimer in 1969, the Exploratorium in San Francisco has been the model for hands-on science museums throughout the world. The key idea has been to bring people with all levels of scientific background in contact with interesting and attractive exhibits that require the active participation of the visitor. Unfortunately, many science museums are now forced to cater primarily to very young audiences, often 8 years old or less, with predictable constraints on the intellectual depth of their exhibits. To counter this trend, the author has constructed several hands-on displays for the University of Michigan Physics Department that demonstrate: (1) magnetic levitation of pyrolytic graphite, (2) the varied magnetic induction effects in aluminum, copper and air, (3) chaotic motion of a double pendulum, (4) conservation of energy and momentum in a steel ball magnetic accelerator, (5) the diffraction pattern of red and green laser pointer beams created by CDs and DVDs, (6) a magnetic analog of the refraction of light at a dielectric boundary and (7) optical rotation of light in an aqueous fructose solution. Each of these exhibits can be constructed for something like $1000 or less and are robust enough to withstand unsupervised public use. The dynamic behavior of these exhibits will be shown in accompanying video sequences. The following story has a history that goes back quite a few years. In the late 70's, I was spending time at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center accompanied by my family that included our two grade school children. Needless to say, we much enjoyed weekend excursions to all sorts of interesting sites in the Bay Area, especially the Exploratorium, an unusual science museum created by Frank Oppenheimer that opened in 1969. The notion that exhibits would be designed specifically for "hands-on" interactions was at that time quite revolutionary. This idea captivated a number of people everywhere including a friend in Ann Arbor, Cynthia

  11. A Supervised Multiclass Classifier for an Autocoding System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukako Toko

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Classification is often required in various contexts, including in the field of official statistics. In the previous study, we have developed a multiclass classifier that can classify short text descriptions with high accuracy. The algorithm borrows the concept of the naïve Bayes classifier and is so simple that its structure is easily understandable. The proposed classifier has the following two advantages. First, the processing times for both learning and classifying are extremely practical. Second, the proposed classifier yields high-accuracy results for a large portion of a dataset. We have previously developed an autocoding system for the Family Income and Expenditure Survey in Japan that has a better performing classifier. While the original system was developed in Perl in order to improve the efficiency of the coding process of short Japanese texts, the proposed system is implemented in the R programming language in order to explore versatility and is modified to make the system easily applicable to English text descriptions, in consideration of the increasing number of R users in the field of official statistics. We are planning to publish the proposed classifier as an R-package. The proposed classifier would be generally applicable to other classification tasks including coding activities in the field of official statistics, and it would contribute greatly to improving their efficiency.

  12. Simulated earthquake ground motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanmarcke, E.H.; Gasparini, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    The paper reviews current methods for generating synthetic earthquake ground motions. Emphasis is on the special requirements demanded of procedures to generate motions for use in nuclear power plant seismic response analysis. Specifically, very close agreement is usually sought between the response spectra of the simulated motions and prescribed, smooth design response spectra. The features and capabilities of the computer program SIMQKE, which has been widely used in power plant seismic work are described. Problems and pitfalls associated with the use of synthetic ground motions in seismic safety assessment are also pointed out. The limitations and paucity of recorded accelerograms together with the widespread use of time-history dynamic analysis for obtaining structural and secondary systems' response have motivated the development of earthquake simulation capabilities. A common model for synthesizing earthquakes is that of superposing sinusoidal components with random phase angles. The input parameters for such a model are, then, the amplitudes and phase angles of the contributing sinusoids as well as the characteristics of the variation of motion intensity with time, especially the duration of the motion. The amplitudes are determined from estimates of the Fourier spectrum or the spectral density function of the ground motion. These amplitudes may be assumed to be varying in time or constant for the duration of the earthquake. In the nuclear industry, the common procedure is to specify a set of smooth response spectra for use in aseismic design. This development and the need for time histories have generated much practical interest in synthesizing earthquakes whose response spectra 'match', or are compatible with a set of specified smooth response spectra

  13. Humanlike robot hands controlled by brain activity arouse illusion of ownership in operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alimardani, Maryam; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Operators of a pair of robotic hands report ownership for those hands when they hold image of a grasp motion and watch the robot perform it. We present a novel body ownership illusion that is induced by merely watching and controlling robot's motions through a brain machine interface. In past studies, body ownership illusions were induced by correlation of such sensory inputs as vision, touch and proprioception. However, in the presented illusion none of the mentioned sensations are integrated except vision. Our results show that during BMI-operation of robotic hands, the interaction between motor commands and visual feedback of the intended motions is adequate to incorporate the non-body limbs into one's own body. Our discussion focuses on the role of proprioceptive information in the mechanism of agency-driven illusions. We believe that our findings will contribute to improvement of tele-presence systems in which operators incorporate BMI-operated robots into their body representations.

  14. Work, development and waste classifi cation: changes in the past half century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Dimarco

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decades in almost the whole Latin America a new social actor has arisen: the organizations of urban classifi ers of residues. The present article analyzes this recent phenomenon taking it as a social fact that condenses two deep structural transformations that they have sealed to the Latin-American continent throughout last half century: on the one hand, the changes in the world of the work (in the labor market and in the form about which there is thought what is the “decent” work; on the other hand, the transformations in the form in which the question of the development is thought about these countries from the emergence of the environmental question and the theories of the sustainable development.

  15. Multisensory perception of spatial orientation and self-motion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Winkel, K.N.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this project was to improve our insight in how the brain combines information from different sensory systems (e.g. vestibular and visual system) into an integrated percept of self-motion and spatial orientation. Based on evidence from other research in different areas, such as hand-eye

  16. Augmenting traditional instruments with a motion capture system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Götzen, Amalia De; Vidolin, Alvise; Bernardini, Nicola

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes some composition works where the real instruments have been augmented through a motion capture system (Phasespace). While playing his instrument in the traditional way, the player is also controlling some other sound effects by moving his hands: the instrument becomes totally...

  17. Nudging to improve hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caris, M G; Labuschagne, H A; Dekker, M; Kramer, M H H; van Agtmael, M A; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C M J E

    2018-04-01

    Hand hygiene is paramount to prevent healthcare-associated infections, but improving compliance is challenging. When healthcare workers seldom encounter healthcare-associated infections, they will consider the odds of causing infections through poor hand hygiene negligible. Cognitive biases such as these may induce non-compliance. Nudging, 'a friendly push to encourage desired behaviour', could provide an easily implemented, inexpensive measure to address cognitive biases and thus support hand hygiene interventions. To investigate whether behavioural nudges, displayed as posters, can increase the use of alcohol-based hand rub. We developed nudges based on a systematic review of previously described cognitive biases, and tested these through a cross-sectional survey among the target audience. We then conducted a controlled before-after trial on two hospital wards, to assess the effect of these nudges on the use of alcohol-based hand rub, measured with electronic dispensers. Poisson regression analyses adjusted for workload showed that nudges displayed next to dispensers increased their overall use on one ward [poster 1: relative risk: 1.6 (95% confidence interval: 1.2-2.2); poster 2: 1.7 (1.2-2.5)] and during doctor's rounds on both wards [poster 1: ward A: 1.7 (1.1-2.6); ward B: 2.2 (1.3-3.8)]. Use of dispensers without adjacent nudges did not increase. Nudges based on cognitive biases that play a role in hand hygiene, and displayed as posters, could provide an easy, inexpensive measure to increase use of alcohol-based hand rub. When applying nudges to change behaviour, it is important to identify the right nudge for the right audience. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Development and pilot testing of HEXORR: Hand EXOskeleton Rehabilitation Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Godfrey Sasha B

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following acute therapeutic interventions, the majority of stroke survivors are left with a poorly functioning hemiparetic hand. Rehabilitation robotics has shown promise in providing patients with intensive therapy leading to functional gains. Because of the hand's crucial role in performing activities of daily living, attention to hand therapy has recently increased. Methods This paper introduces a newly developed Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR. This device has been designed to provide full range of motion (ROM for all of the hand's digits. The thumb actuator allows for variable thumb plane of motion to incorporate different degrees of extension/flexion and abduction/adduction. Compensation algorithms have been developed to improve the exoskeleton's backdrivability by counteracting gravity, stiction and kinetic friction. We have also designed a force assistance mode that provides extension assistance based on each individual's needs. A pilot study was conducted on 9 unimpaired and 5 chronic stroke subjects to investigate the device's ability to allow physiologically accurate hand movements throughout the full ROM. The study also tested the efficacy of the force assistance mode with the goal of increasing stroke subjects' active ROM while still requiring active extension torque on the part of the subject. Results For 12 of the hand digits'15 joints in neurologically normal subjects, there were no significant ROM differences (P > 0.05 between active movements performed inside and outside of HEXORR. Interjoint coordination was examined in the 1st and 3rd digits, and no differences were found between inside and outside of the device (P > 0.05. Stroke subjects were capable of performing free hand movements inside of the exoskeleton and the force assistance mode was successful in increasing active ROM by 43 ± 5% (P Conclusions Our pilot study shows that this device is capable of moving the hand's digits through

  19. Development and pilot testing of HEXORR: Hand EXOskeleton Rehabilitation Robot

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Background Following acute therapeutic interventions, the majority of stroke survivors are left with a poorly functioning hemiparetic hand. Rehabilitation robotics has shown promise in providing patients with intensive therapy leading to functional gains. Because of the hand's crucial role in performing activities of daily living, attention to hand therapy has recently increased. Methods This paper introduces a newly developed Hand Exoskeleton Rehabilitation Robot (HEXORR). This device has been designed to provide full range of motion (ROM) for all of the hand's digits. The thumb actuator allows for variable thumb plane of motion to incorporate different degrees of extension/flexion and abduction/adduction. Compensation algorithms have been developed to improve the exoskeleton's backdrivability by counteracting gravity, stiction and kinetic friction. We have also designed a force assistance mode that provides extension assistance based on each individual's needs. A pilot study was conducted on 9 unimpaired and 5 chronic stroke subjects to investigate the device's ability to allow physiologically accurate hand movements throughout the full ROM. The study also tested the efficacy of the force assistance mode with the goal of increasing stroke subjects' active ROM while still requiring active extension torque on the part of the subject. Results For 12 of the hand digits'15 joints in neurologically normal subjects, there were no significant ROM differences (P > 0.05) between active movements performed inside and outside of HEXORR. Interjoint coordination was examined in the 1st and 3rd digits, and no differences were found between inside and outside of the device (P > 0.05). Stroke subjects were capable of performing free hand movements inside of the exoskeleton and the force assistance mode was successful in increasing active ROM by 43 ± 5% (P < 0.001) and 24 ± 6% (P = 0.041) for the fingers and thumb, respectively. Conclusions Our pilot study shows that this device

  20. Arm Motion Recognition and Exercise Coaching System for Remote Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Arm motion recognition and its related applications have become a promising human computer interaction modal due to the rapid integration of numerical sensors in modern mobile-phones. We implement a mobile-phone-based arm motion recognition and exercise coaching system that can help people carrying mobile-phones to do body exercising anywhere at any time, especially for the persons that have very limited spare time and are constantly traveling across cities. We first design improved k-means algorithm to cluster the collecting 3-axis acceleration and gyroscope data of person actions into basic motions. A learning method based on Hidden Markov Model is then designed to classify and recognize continuous arm motions of both learners and coaches, which also measures the action similarities between the persons. We implement the system on MIUI 2S mobile-phone and evaluate the system performance and its accuracy of recognition.

  1. Wearable Sensor Networks for Motion Capture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Arsenault

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This work presents the development of a full body sensor-based motion tracking system that functions through wearable inertial sensors. The system is comprised of a total of ten wearable sensors and maps the player's motions to an on-screen character in real-time. A hierarchical skeletal model was implemented that allows players to navigate and interact with the virtual world without the need of a hand-held controller. To demonstrate the capabilities of the system, a simple virtual reality game was created. As a wearable system, the ability for the users to engage in activities while not being tied to a camera system, or being forced indoors presents a significant opportunity for mobile entertainment, augmented reality and interactive systems that use the body as a significant form of input. This paper outlines the key developments necessary to implement such a system.

  2. Interactive motion tracing for Rowing Training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dai, Zheng

    2011-01-01

    This paper studies motion tracking and team coordination for the training of rowers. The design research is drawn upon the division of contribution between the designers input and the user input in a design process. We built a training system that can record and show the action of a rower’s hand....... Designer proposed solutions for both a fundamental problem and a very advanced problem. Users guided the design direction, and spoke what they expected or what they disliked. As the result, our design provided a real-time recording tool for rowers and coaches to discuss and analyze the motion. The coach...... can correct the path immediately and save the corrected path for the rower to try to imitate and train. The members in a rowing team train with the same path from to coordinate and synchronize their actions for the best performance. The training system was developed through a user-centered design...

  3. Wavelet transform and real-time learning method for myoelectric signal in motion discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Haihua; Chen Xinhao; Chen Yaguang

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the applicability of the Wavelet transform for analyzing an EMG signal and discriminating motion classes. In many previous works, researchers have dealt with steady EMG and have proposed suitable analyzing methods for the EMG, for example FFT and STFT. Therefore, it is difficult for the previous approaches to discriminate motions from the EMG in the different phases of muscle activity, i.e., pre-activity, in activity, postactivity phases, as well as the period of motion transition from one to another. In this paper, we introduce the Wavelet transform using the Coiflet mother wavelet into our real-time EMG prosthetic hand controller for discriminating motions from steady and unsteady EMG. A preliminary experiment to discriminate three hand motions from four channel EMG in the initial pre-activity and in activity phase is carried out to show the effectiveness of the approach. However, future research efforts are necessary to discriminate more motions much precisely

  4. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users : A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke G. M.; Buurke, Jaap H.; de Vries, Wiebe; Van der Woude, Lucas H. V.; Rietman, Johan S.

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an

  5. Effect of power-assisted hand-rim wheelchair propulsion on shoulder load in experienced wheelchair users: A pilot study with an instrumented wheelchair

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kloosterman, Marieke; Buurke, Jaap; de Vries, W.; de Vries, W.; van der Woude, L.H.V.; Rietman, Johan Swanik

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to compare hand-rim and power-assisted hand-rim propulsion on potential risk factors for shoulder overuse injuries: intensity and repetition of shoulder loading and force generation in the extremes of shoulder motion. Eleven experienced hand-rim wheelchair users propelled an

  6. Hand infections: a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tolga Türker

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Hand infections are common, usually resulting from an untreated injury. In this retrospective study, we report on hand infection cases needing surgical drainage in order to assess patient demographics, causation of infection, clinical course, and clinical management.Methods. Medical records of patients presenting with hand infections, excluding post-surgical infections, treated with incision and debridement over a one-year period were reviewed. Patient demographics; past medical history; infection site(s and causation; intervals between onset of infection, hospital admission, surgical intervention and days of hospitalization; gram stains and cultures; choice of antibiotics; complications; and outcomes were reviewed.Results. Most infections were caused by laceration and the most common site of infection was the palm or dorsum of the hand. Mean length of hospitalization was 6 days. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, beta-hemolytic Streptococcus and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus were the most commonly cultured microorganisms. Cephalosporins, clindamycin, amoxicillin/clavulanate, penicillin, vancomycin, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole were major antibiotic choices. Amputations and contracture were the primary complications.Conclusions. Surgery along with medical management were key to treatment and most soft tissue infections resolved without further complications. With prompt and appropriate care, most hand infection patients can achieve full resolution of their infection.

  7. All about Motion & Balance. Physical Science for Children[TM]. Schlessinger Science Library. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    Walking on a balance beam or riding a bike both require motion and balance. This program will reveal how unbalanced forces create motion, while balanced forces keep things still. Students also learn how concepts like velocity, acceleration, and momentum fit into this puzzle. A unique hands-on activity combined with vivid imagery and graphics…

  8. Why is joint range of motion limited in patients with cerebral palsy?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bruin, M.; Smeulders, M. J. C.; Kreulen, M.

    2013-01-01

    Patients with spastic cerebral palsy of the upper limb typically present with various problems including an impaired range of motion that affects the positioning of the upper extremity. This impaired range of motion often develops into contractures that further limit functioning of the spastic hand

  9. Deformable motion reconstruction for scanned proton beam therapy using on-line x-ray imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Ye; Knopf, A; Tanner, Colby; Boye, Dirk; Lomax, Antony J.

    2013-01-01

    Organ motion is a major problem for any dynamic radiotherapy delivery technique, and is particularly so for spot scanned proton therapy. On the other hand, the use of narrow, magnetically deflected proton pencil beams is potentially an ideal delivery technique for tracking tumour motion on-line. At

  10. Ground motion predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loux, P C [Environmental Research Corporation, Alexandria, VA (United States)

    1969-07-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  11. Method through motion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steijn, Arthur

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary scenography often consists of video-projected motion graphics. The field is lacking in academic methods and rigour: descriptions and models relevant for the creation as well as in the analysis of existing works. In order to understand the phenomenon of motion graphics in a scenographic...... construction as a support to working systematically practice-led research project. The design model is being developed through design laboratories and workshops with students and professionals who provide feedback that lead to incremental improvements. Working with this model construction-as-method reveals...... context, I have been conducting a practice-led research project. Central to the project is construction of a design model describing sets of procedures, concepts and terminology relevant for design and studies of motion graphics in spatial contexts. The focus of this paper is the role of model...

  12. Ground motion predictions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loux, P.C.

    1969-01-01

    Nuclear generated ground motion is defined and then related to the physical parameters that cause it. Techniques employed for prediction of ground motion peak amplitude, frequency spectra and response spectra are explored, with initial emphasis on the analysis of data collected at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). NTS postshot measurements are compared with pre-shot predictions. Applicability of these techniques to new areas, for example, Plowshare sites, must be questioned. Fortunately, the Atomic Energy Commission is sponsoring complementary studies to improve prediction capabilities primarily in new locations outside the NTS region. Some of these are discussed in the light of anomalous seismic behavior, and comparisons are given showing theoretical versus experimental results. In conclusion, current ground motion prediction techniques are applied to events off the NTS. Predictions are compared with measurements for the event Faultless and for the Plowshare events, Gasbuggy, Cabriolet, and Buggy I. (author)

  13. 18 CFR 3a.12 - Authority to classify official information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... efficient administration. (b) The authority to classify information or material originally as Top Secret is... classify information or material originally as Secret is exercised only by: (1) Officials who have Top... information or material originally as Confidential is exercised by officials who have Top Secret or Secret...

  14. Using Neural Networks to Classify Digitized Images of Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goderya, S. N.; McGuire, P. C.

    2000-12-01

    Automated classification of Galaxies into Hubble types is of paramount importance to study the large scale structure of the Universe, particularly as survey projects like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey complete their data acquisition of one million galaxies. At present it is not possible to find robust and efficient artificial intelligence based galaxy classifiers. In this study we will summarize progress made in the development of automated galaxy classifiers using neural networks as machine learning tools. We explore the Bayesian linear algorithm, the higher order probabilistic network, the multilayer perceptron neural network and Support Vector Machine Classifier. The performance of any machine classifier is dependant on the quality of the parameters that characterize the different groups of galaxies. Our effort is to develop geometric and invariant moment based parameters as input to the machine classifiers instead of the raw pixel data. Such an approach reduces the dimensionality of the classifier considerably, and removes the effects of scaling and rotation, and makes it easier to solve for the unknown parameters in the galaxy classifier. To judge the quality of training and classification we develop the concept of Mathews coefficients for the galaxy classification community. Mathews coefficients are single numbers that quantify classifier performance even with unequal prior probabilities of the classes.

  15. Fisher classifier and its probability of error estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittineni, C. B.

    1979-01-01

    Computationally efficient expressions are derived for estimating the probability of error using the leave-one-out method. The optimal threshold for the classification of patterns projected onto Fisher's direction is derived. A simple generalization of the Fisher classifier to multiple classes is presented. Computational expressions are developed for estimating the probability of error of the multiclass Fisher classifier.

  16. Performance of classification confidence measures in dynamic classifier systems

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štefka, D.; Holeňa, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 4 (2013), s. 299-319 ISSN 1210-0552 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-17187S Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : classifier combining * dynamic classifier systems * classification confidence Subject RIV: IN - Informatics, Computer Science Impact factor: 0.412, year: 2013

  17. 32 CFR 2400.30 - Reproduction of classified information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Reproduction of classified information. 2400.30... SECURITY PROGRAM Safeguarding § 2400.30 Reproduction of classified information. Documents or portions of... the originator or higher authority. Any stated prohibition against reproduction shall be strictly...

  18. Classifying spaces with virtually cyclic stabilizers for linear groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Degrijse, Dieter Dries; Köhl, Ralf; Petrosyan, Nansen

    2015-01-01

    We show that every discrete subgroup of GL(n, ℝ) admits a finite-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers. Applying our methods to SL(3, ℤ), we obtain a four-dimensional classifying space with virtually cyclic stabilizers and a decomposition of the algebraic K-theory of its...

  19. Dynamic integration of classifiers in the space of principal components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsymbal, A.; Pechenizkiy, M.; Puuronen, S.; Patterson, D.W.; Kalinichenko, L.A.; Manthey, R.; Thalheim, B.; Wloka, U.

    2003-01-01

    Recent research has shown the integration of multiple classifiers to be one of the most important directions in machine learning and data mining. It was shown that, for an ensemble to be successful, it should consist of accurate and diverse base classifiers. However, it is also important that the

  20. Hand-Based Biometric Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bebis, George (Inventor); Amayeh, Gholamreza (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Hand-based biometric analysis systems and techniques are described which provide robust hand-based identification and verification. An image of a hand is obtained, which is then segmented into a palm region and separate finger regions. Acquisition of the image is performed without requiring particular orientation or placement restrictions. Segmentation is performed without the use of reference points on the images. Each segment is analyzed by calculating a set of Zernike moment descriptors for the segment. The feature parameters thus obtained are then fused and compared to stored sets of descriptors in enrollment templates to arrive at an identity decision. By using Zernike moments, and through additional manipulation, the biometric analysis is invariant to rotation, scale, or translation or an in put image. Additionally, the analysis utilizes re-use of commonly-seen terms in Zernike calculations to achieve additional efficiencies over traditional Zernike moment calculation.