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Sample records for hand liberal moral

  1. Liberating Moral Reflection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horell, Harold D.

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that if we are to foster life-giving and liberating moral reflection, we must first liberate moral reflection from distortions; specifically, from the distorting effects of moral insensitivity, destructive moral relativism, and confusions resulting from a failure to understand the dynamics of moral reflection. The author proposes…

  2. Infidelity and the Possibility of a Liberal Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2017-01-01

    This paper argues that according to the influential version of legal moralism presented by Moore infidelity should all-things-considered be criminalized. This is interesting because criminalizing infidelity is bound to be highly controversial and because Moore’s legal moralism is a prime example...... of a self-consciously liberal legal moralism, which aims to yield legislative implications that are quite similar to liberalism, while maintaining that morality as such should be legally enforced. Moore tries to make his theory yield such implications, first by claiming that the scope of our moral...... obligations is much more limited than legal moralists have traditionally claimed, and second by allowing for the possibility that the goodness of legally enforcing morality is often outweighed by the badness of limiting citizens’ morally valuable autonomy and spending scarce resources on enforcement. If Moore...

  3. Shifting liberal and conservative attitudes using moral foundations theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Martin V; Fiske, Susan T; Downing, Emily L; Trail, Thomas E

    2014-12-01

    People's social and political opinions are grounded in their moral concerns about right and wrong. We examine whether five moral foundations--harm, fairness, ingroup, authority, and purity--can influence political attitudes of liberals and conservatives across a variety of issues. Framing issues using moral foundations may change political attitudes in at least two possible ways: (a) Entrenching: Relevant moral foundations will strengthen existing political attitudes when framing pro-attitudinal issues (e.g., conservatives exposed to a free-market economic stance) and (b) Persuasion: Mere presence of relevant moral foundations may also alter political attitudes in counter-attitudinal directions (e.g., conservatives exposed to an economic regulation stance). Studies 1 and 2 support the entrenching hypothesis. Relevant moral foundation-based frames bolstered political attitudes for conservatives (Study 1) and liberals (Study 2). Only Study 2 partially supports the persuasion hypothesis. Conservative-relevant moral frames of liberal issues increased conservatives' liberal attitudes. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  4. The Unifying Moral Dyad: Liberals and Conservatives Share the Same Harm-Based Moral Template.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Chelsea; Gray, Kurt

    2015-08-01

    Do moral disagreements regarding specific issues (e.g., patriotism, chastity) reflect deep cognitive differences (i.e., distinct cognitive mechanisms) between liberals and conservatives? Dyadic morality suggests that the answer is "no." Despite moral diversity, we reveal that moral cognition--in both liberals and conservatives--is rooted in a harm-based template. A dyadic template suggests that harm should be central within moral cognition, an idea tested--and confirmed--through six specific hypotheses. Studies suggest that moral judgment occurs via dyadic comparison, in which counter-normative acts are compared with a prototype of harm. Dyadic comparison explains why harm is the most accessible and important of moral content, why harm organizes--and overlaps with--diverse moral content, and why harm best translates across moral content. Dyadic morality suggests that various moral content (e.g., loyalty, purity) are varieties of perceived harm and that past research has substantially exaggerated moral differences between liberals and conservatives. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  5. Problems of Dirty Hands as a Species of Moral Conflicts

    OpenAIRE

    Kramer, Matthew Henry

    2018-01-01

    Every problem of dirty hands is a moral conflict, but not every moral conflict is a problem of dirty hands. Every problem of dirty hands involves the prospect of evil conduct–conduct which will be evil if undertaken at all or which would be evil if undertaken in the absence of a searing moral dilemma–whereas not every moral conflict involves the prospect of evil conduct. To support and clarify the claims in the preceding two sentences, this paper will need to elucidate the nature of moral con...

  6. What Is Common about Common Schooling? Rational Autonomy and Moral Agency in Liberal Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Hanan

    2007-01-01

    In this essay I critique two influential accounts of rational autonomy in common schooling that conceive liberalism as an ideal form of life, and I offer an alternative approach to democratic education that views liberal theory as concerned with coexistence among rival ways of living. This view places moral agency, not rational autonomy, at the…

  7. Is Moral Philosophy an Educationally Worthwhile Activity? Toward a Liberal Democratic Theory of Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This paper looks at the case of moral philosophy in order to assess the extent to which and ways in which teacher education should respond to the liberal principle of justification. This principle states that moral and political decisions made by citizens with special kinds of influence and other coercive powers should be accountable to other…

  8. Adult-child sex and the limits of liberal sexual morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malón, Agustin

    2015-05-01

    This article is a critical review of the most common arguments in the specialized literature about the moral status of sexual relationships between adults and prepubescent children. The intent is to reveal how the usual ethical analysis of these experiences, done from a general sexual morality, with a Kantian and utilitarian basis, very clearly shows us the limits and contradictions of contemporary liberal morality regarding sexual matters. It leaves open the possibility that, under certain circumstances, these relationships may be morally admissible. Some shortcomings and contradictions in these liberal arguments suggest that it would be of interest to refer to other authors and ideas to value adult-child sex, approaches that are based on a specific sexual morality concerning the issue of sexual virtues and a more complex conception of human sexual desire. Some of the scientific implications of these moral issues are also discussed.

  9. Political Obligation, Dirty Hands and Torture; A Moral Evaluation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Political Obligation, Dirty Hands and Torture; A Moral Evaluation. H van Erp. Abstract. The example of a political leader who has to decide whether he would allow the torture of a suspect in order to get information about a ticking bomb has become notorious in ethical discussions concerning the tension between moral ...

  10. Contingency, Irony and Morality: A Critical Review of Rorty’s Notion of the Liberal Utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wehan Murray Coombs

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces Richard Rorty’s notion of the liberal ironist and his vision of a liberal utopia and explores the implications of these for philosophical questions concerning morality, as well as morality in general. Rorty’s assertions of the contingency of language, society and self are explored. Under the contingency of language, the figure of the ironist is defined, and Rorty’s conception of vocabularies is discussed. Under the contingency of society, Rorty’s definition of liberalism, his opposition of literary culture to materialist and metaphysical culture, and his notions concerning utopian politics are discussed. Under the contingency of self, Rorty’s critique of Kantian and his appropriations of Deweyan and Freudian conceptions of morality are presented. Other key factors discussed are Rorty’s theory of the separation of the private and public spheres of life and his ideas concerning cruelty and human solidarity. In this way, a critical analysis of Rorty’s proposed balance between private, ironic doubt and public, liberal social hope is presented and assessed in terms of its merit as a system of thought suited to the needs of post-metaphysical, liberal societies.

  11. Moral responsibility and the problem of many hands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van de I.R.; Royakkers, L.M.M.; Zwart, S.D.

    2015-01-01

    When many people are involved in an activity, it is often difficult, if not impossible, to pinpoint who is morally responsible for what, a phenomenon known as the 'problem of many hands.' This term is increasingly used to describe problems with attributing individual responsibility in collective

  12. Compassionate liberals and polite conservatives: associations of agreeableness with political ideology and moral values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; DeYoung, Colin G; Xiaowen Xu; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-05-01

    Political conservatism has been characterized by resistance to change and acceptance of inequality, with liberalism characterized by the polar opposite of these values. Political attitudes are heritable and may be influenced by basic personality traits. In previous research, conservatism (vs. liberalism) has been associated positively with Conscientiousness and negatively with Openness-Intellect, consistent with the association of conservatism with resistance to change. Less clear, however, are the personality traits relating to egalitarianism. In two studies, using a personality model that divides each of the Big Five into two aspects, the present research found that one aspect of Agreeableness (Compassion) was associated with liberalism and egalitarianism, whereas the other (Politeness) was associated with conservatism and traditionalism. In addition, conservatism and moral traditionalism were positively associated with the Orderliness aspect of Conscientiousness and negatively with Openness-Intellect. These findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of personality's relation to political attitudes and values.

  13. Liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Pabst, Adrian

    2013-01-01

    Until the global economic crisis struck in 2008, liberalism was the dominant ideology of our time and undoubtedly the most influential political philosophy of the last 300 years or so. Its origins, evolution and meaning are deeply contested by liberal and non-liberal thinkers alike. Many contemporary historians and political philosophers claim that liberal thought first emerged in the late sixteenth or early seventeenth century and evolved into a distinct philosophical tradition during the Ag...

  14. NOTE ABOUT THE MORALS CONCEIVED IN DIRTY HANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Pereira da Silva

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Sartre’s philosophy and the existentialism were very important to the thought in the last century. Besides being a philosopher, Sartre was also a great writer and, in his play, Dirty hands, one can see many of his ideas. Tthis paper indicates the moral question, thus, the problem of liberty, presented in this Sartre’s specific work. Tthe matter of Dirty hands, when the characters are inside of the “border-situation”, is the liberty of choice. is the moment of affirmation of liberty, to Sartre. Iin this paper it is not the objective to contest Sartre’s concepts, as the one about “border-situation” or the other about liberty, because the purpose is only to show as Sartre use them in the play Dirty hands.

  15. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica

    2016-02-01

    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Hate Won, but Love Will Have the Final Word: Critical Pedagogy, Liberation Theology, and the Moral Imperative of Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirylo, James D

    2017-01-01

    In the context of the recent presidential election in the United States, this article examines the place of critical pedagogy and liberation theology and its positionality in impacting the moral imperative of resisting a climate of hate and intolerance. Particularly drawing from the work of Peter McLaren, Gustavo Gutiérrez, Paulo Freire and…

  17. Governing the moral economy: animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-07-01

    The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a 'moral economy' is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Governing the moral economy: Animal engineering, ethics and the liberal government of science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Alison; Salter, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The preferred Western model for science governance has come to involve attending to the perspectives of the public. In practice, however, this model has been criticised for failing to promote democracy along participatory lines. We argue that contemporary approaches to science policy making demonstrate less the failure of democracy and more the success of liberal modes of government in adapting to meet new governance challenges. Using a case study of recent UK policy debates on scientific work mixing human and animal biological material, we show first how a ‘moral economy’ is brought into being as a regulatory domain and second how this domain is governed to align cultural with scientific values. We suggest that it is through these practices that the state assures its aspirations for enhancing individual and collective prosperity through technological advance are met. PMID:22507952

  19. Moral Education and Education in Altruism: Two Replies to Michael Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John

    2016-01-01

    This article is a critical discussion of two recent papers by Michael Hand on moral education. The first is his "Towards a Theory of Moral Education", published in the "Journal of Philosophy of Education" in 2014 (Volume 48, Issue 4). The second is a chapter called "Beyond Moral Education?" in an edited book of new…

  20. Self-interest, Sympathy and the Invisible Hand : From Adam Smith to Market Liberalism

    OpenAIRE

    Avner Offer

    2012-01-01

    Adam Smith rejected Mandeville's invisible-hand doctrine of 'private vices, publick benefits'. In The Theory of Moral Sentiments his model of the 'impartial spectator' is driven not by sympathy for other people, but by their approbation. The innate capacity for sympathy makes approbation credible. Approbation needs to be authenticated, and in Smith's model authentication relies on innate virtue, which is not realistic. An alternative model of 'regard' makes use of signalling and is more pragm...

  1. Liberating reason from the passions: overriding intuitionist moral judgments through emotion reappraisal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb; Antonenko, Olga; John, Oliver P

    2012-07-01

    A classic problem in moral psychology concerns whether and when moral judgments are driven by intuition versus deliberate reasoning. In this investigation, we explored the role of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that involves construing an emotion-eliciting situation in a way that diminishes the intensity of the emotional experience. We hypothesized that although emotional reactions evoke initial moral intuitions, reappraisal weakens the influence of these intuitions, leading to more deliberative moral judgments. Three studies of moral judgments in emotionally evocative, disgust-eliciting moral dilemmas supported our hypothesis. A greater tendency to reappraise was related to fewer intuition-based judgments (Study 1). Content analysis of open-ended descriptions of moral-reasoning processes revealed that reappraisal was associated with longer time spent in deliberation and with fewer intuitionist moral judgments (Study 2). Finally, in comparison with participants who simply watched an emotion-inducing film, participants who had been instructed to reappraise their reactions while watching the film subsequently reported less intense emotional reactions to moral dilemmas, and these dampened reactions led, in turn, to fewer intuitionist moral judgments (Study 3).

  2. Liberalization, Moral Hazard in Banking, and Prudential Regulation: Are Capital Requirements Enough?

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin C. Murdock; Thomas F. Hellmann; Joseph E. Stiglitz

    2000-01-01

    In a dynamic model of moral hazard, competition can undermine prudent bank behavior. While capital-requirement regulation can induce prudent behavior, the policy yields Pareto-inefficient outcomes. Capital requirements reduce gambling incentives by putting bank equity at risk. However, they also have a perverse effect of harming banks' franchise values, thus encouraging gambling. Pareto-efficient outcomes can be achieved by adding deposit-rate controls as a regulatory instrument, since they f...

  3. Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuklenk, Udo; Smalling, Ricardo

    2017-04-01

    We describe a number of conscientious objection cases in a liberal Western democracy. These cases strongly suggest that the typical conscientious objector does not object to unreasonable, controversial professional services-involving torture, for instance-but to the provision of professional services that are both uncontroversially legal and that patients are entitled to receive. We analyse the conflict between these patients' access rights and the conscientious objection accommodation demanded by monopoly providers of such healthcare services. It is implausible that professionals who voluntarily join a profession should be endowed with a legal claim not to provide services that are within the scope of the profession's practice and that society expects them to provide. We discuss common counterarguments to this view and reject all of them. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  4. The Complexities of Moral Education in a Liberal, Pluralistic Society: The Cases of Socrates, Mrs. Pettit, and Adolf Eichmann.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beatty, Joseph

    1985-01-01

    The cases of three individuals charged with corrupting the young are considered in a discussion of the teacher's role in the moral education of youth. Focus is on Socrates, a Los Angeles teacher fired because of membership in a sexually-oriented club, and a Nazi war criminal. (MSE)

  5. Response to: 'Why medical professionals have no moral claim to conscientious objection accommodation in liberal democracies' by Schuklenk and Smalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glick, Shimon M; Jotkowitz, Alan

    2017-04-01

    The recent essay by Schuklenk and Smalling opposing respect for physicians' conscientious objections to providing patients with medical services that are legally permitted in liberal democracies is based on several erroneous assumptions. Acting in this manner would have serious harmful effects on the ethos of medicine and of bioethics. A much more nuanced and balanced position is critical in order to respect physicians' conscience with minimal damage to patients' rights. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  6. Retrospectives: Ethics and the Invisible Hand

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Evensky

    1993-01-01

    As modern economists, we use Adam Smith's "invisible hand" metaphor confident that we all know what it means in our discourse: it reflects our admiration for the elegant and smooth functioning of the market system as a coordinator of autonomous individual choices in an interdependent world. But in Adam Smith's moral philosophy, the invisible hand has a much broader responsibility: if individuals are to enjoy the fruits of a classical liberal society, the invisible hand must not only coordinat...

  7. The Problem of Dirty Hands: The Moral Dilemma of Public Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-04-21

    ridden? Once this question is asked, a " slippery slope " seems to take effect in which the absoluteness of a *1 R.M. Hare, "Rules of " and Moral...but what of less clear dis- tinctions? Euthanasia , for instance, most often becomes an issue in cases where the choices seem to be between allowing a

  8. "Trade policy, not morals or health policy": the US Trade Representative, tobacco companies and market liberalization in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Ross; Collin, Jeff

    2012-08-01

    The enforced opening of Thailand's cigarette market to imports in 1990 has become a cause celebre in debates about the social and health impacts of trade agreements. At the instigation of leading US-based cigarette manufacturers, the US Trade Representative (USTR) threatened trade sanctions against Thailand to compel the government to liberalize its domestic cigarette market. Thailand's challenge to the USTR led to referral to General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) arbitration. While GATT ruled in favour of the USTR on market access, it also found that Thailand could subsequently enact non-discriminatory tobacco control regulation without contravening the GATT agreement. This paper contributes to existing literature via its analysis of tobacco industry documents that highlight not only USTR responsiveness to lobbying from tobacco corporations, raising concerns about the drivers of globalization and the limited protection afforded to public health concerns in trade agreements. Significantly, the documents also indicate that USTR support of the tobacco industry was not unconditional, being subject to wider pressures of global trade negotiations. Such qualification notwithstanding, however,,ongoing governmental willingness to advance the international interests of tobacco corporations remains a concern from a public health perspective, particularly given the failure of the US to ratify the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control.

  9. Morality in everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Wisneski, Daniel C; Brandt, Mark J; Skitka, Linda J

    2014-09-12

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent and manifold. Liberals and conservatives emphasized somewhat different moral dimensions. Religious and nonreligious participants did not differ in the likelihood or quality of committed moral and immoral acts. Being the target of moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on happiness, whereas committing moral or immoral deeds had the strongest impact on sense of purpose. Analyses of daily dynamics revealed evidence for both moral contagion and moral licensing. In sum, morality science may benefit from a closer look at the antecedents, dynamics, and consequences of everyday moral experience. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  10. In Defence of Personal Autonomy as a Fundamental Educational Aim in Liberal Democracies: A Response to Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aviram, Aharon; Assor, Avi

    2010-01-01

    This paper responds to Michael Hand's argument in "Against autonomy as an educational aim" ("Oxford Review of Education", 32, 535-550), refutes it and identifies two faults at its foundation. Through this criticism, the paper makes a substantiated case, both theoretical and empirical, for endorsing the value of education for…

  11. Common morality and moral reform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, K A

    2009-01-01

    The idea of moral reform requires that morality be more than a description of what people do value, for there has to be some measure against which to assess progress. Otherwise, any change is not reform, but simply difference. Therefore, I discuss moral reform in relation to two prescriptive approaches to common morality, which I distinguish as the foundational and the pragmatic. A foundational approach to common morality (e.g., Bernard Gert's) suggests that there is no reform of morality, but of beliefs, values, customs, and practices so as to conform with an unchanging, foundational morality. If, however, there were revision in its foundation (e.g., in rationality), then reform in morality itself would be possible. On a pragmatic view, on the other hand, common morality is relative to human flourishing, and its justification consists in its effectiveness in promoting flourishing. Morality is dependent on what in fact does promote human flourishing and therefore, could be reformed. However, a pragmatic approach, which appears more open to the possibility of moral reform, would need a more robust account of norms by which reform is measured.

  12. Social and moral norm differences among Portuguese 1st and 6th year medical students towards their intention to comply with hand hygiene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberto, Magda S; Mearns, Kathryn; Silva, Silvia A

    2012-01-01

    This study examines social and moral norms towards the intention to comply with hand hygiene among Portuguese medical students from 1st and 6th years (N = 175; 121 from the 1st year, 54 from the 6th year). The study extended the theory of planned behaviour theoretical principles and hypothesised that both subjective and moral norms will be the best predictors of 1st and 6th year medical students' intention to comply with hand hygiene; however, these predictors ability to explain intention variance will change according to medical students' school year. Results indicated that the subjective norm, whose referent focuses on professors, is a relevant predictor of 1st year medical students' intention, while the subjective norm that emphasises the relevance of colleagues predicts the intentions of medical students from the 6th year. In terms of the moral norm, 6th year students' intention is better predicted by a norm that interferes with compliance; whereas intentions from 1st year students are better predicted by a norm that favours compliance. Implications of the findings highlight the importance of role models and mentors as key factors in teaching hand hygiene in medical undergraduate curricula.

  13. Liberalism, Liberal Egalitarianism or Communitarianism?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner Facundo Fantoni

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Three philosophies have different proposals and pathways in the ethical field of the study and the solution of problems relating to justice: liberalism, liberal egalitarianism and communitarianism. His representatives are called respectively liberal, liberal-egalitarian and communitarian. In this paper, we intend to evaluate each of these philosophical lines, presenting their strengths and weaknesses, and to demonstrate that liberalism must be rejected  at  the  expense  of  liberal  egalitarianism  and  of  communitarianism.  These philosophies have more plausible ways of problem solving than the liberal way. Accordingly, the liberal egalitarianism and communitarianism not necessarily repel. On the contrary, they can be applied jointly, which will be demonstrated in this paper. This hypothesis is developed and confirmed in this paper through the survey and study of the relevant doctrine.

  14. Motivation and morality: Insights into political ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2014-06-01

    Our past work linking motivation and morality provides a basis for understanding differences in political ideology and positions across the political spectrum. Conservatism is rooted in avoidance-based proscriptive morality, whereas liberalism is rooted in approach-based prescriptive morality. Two distinct, binding, group moralities reflect these different regulatory systems and emphasize social coordination through Social Order versus social cooperation through Social Justice.

  15. González de la Vega, René. (2017. Tolerance and Modern Liberalism. From Paradox to Aretaic Moral Ideal. Maryland, United States of America: Lexington. 231 pp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Lariguet

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In political and moral philosophy we are used to an uninterrupted succession of texts, heirs of the liberal traditions (headed by John Rawls, communitarians (led by the likes of Michael Sandel, Charles Taylor, etc., analytical Marxists (authors like Gerald Cohen, Jon Elster, etc..Besides the names mentioned above, there is a succession of texts that tend to give rise to a sense of routine and, as a result, of lethargy. It is the feeling that political and moral philosophy has reached a plateau within a set of accepted doctrines. Doctrines which, to paraphrase Thomas Kuhn, make up a kind of “normal science” of philosophical theory.But from time to time, the routine drowsiness is sharply interrupted. This happens when works of philosophy show up to question prevailing theories in political philosophy. Such is the case of the work I propose to review herein. It is the work of Mexican philosopher René González de la Vega, whose text on political philosophy features philosophical rigour, originality and depth...

  16. Desert, Liberalism and Justice in Democratic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Olafur Pall

    2012-01-01

    Liberal democratic education, as advocated in recent accounts of citizenship education or civic education, is often seen as incompatible with moral education or character education rooted in specific views regarding the virtues. This contrast relies on well established philosophical differences between liberal views of justice and democracy, on…

  17. From Folk Morality to Moral Philosophy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Peikani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available According to our terminology, the mechanism people follow in moral judgments, which is far from the sayings and rules of moral philosophers, is folk morality. Above all, people in moral judgments regard human moral capacity and do not expect full morality of any one. People suppose that perfect moral life is an ideal which is beyond human abilities. This hidden presupposition forms the foundation of human moral behavior. On the other hand, it seems that the moral systems originating from moral philosophy have been constructed a priori and, assuming a perfect man, they expect people to become such a person. It seems that it is necessary for moral philosophers to change their way and begin speculation with respect to people’s moral capacities. In this paper, we argue that minimal ethical speculation increases the level of morality in society. The basis of this turn is new progresses and findings in the field of psychology and the connection between psychology and moral philosophy a connection which will be more and more important for moral philosophers parallel to scientific progresses. Of course, this is an immature idea and therefore confronts with some critiques.

  18. Reconsideration of Rorty's View of the Liberal Ironist and Its Implications for Postmodern Civic Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Duck-Joo

    2004-01-01

    There have been persistent criticisms of Rorty's "liberal ironist" as the postmodern picture of the educated in the liberal utopia. While the modernist (Enlightenment) liberal Thomas McCarthy, who believes in universal rationality as the basis of public morality, criticizes Rorty's view of the liberal ironist for fostering the poverty of public…

  19. Postmodern liberalism

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    Kuljanin Branimir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern liberalism is fundamentally different from the classical to the extent to which the post(countermodern is different from the modern. A shift occurred in the late sixties, at the time of the student movement and the 'Prague Spring'. In the late eighties and early nineties, they promised a life in freedom and entry into the 'European Home', into the 'family of European peoples'. Socialist countries of the Eastern Europe entered the era of 'transition', peaceful movement towards capitalism. Yesterday's Marxists and communists became liberals over night. Nowadays, when the whole world is in a deep crisis, including the lauded West, it is high time to consider where we are going and where we are. What is modern liberalism, an ideology governing the minds in our region for more than twenty years, is an issue we will discuss in this paper.

  20. Individual Moral Judgment and Cultural Ideologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narvaez, Darcia; Getz, Irene; Rest, James R.; Thoma, Stephen J.

    1999-01-01

    Two studies examined how moral judgment and cultural ideology combine to predict moral thinking in members of a conservative church and a liberal church, and in a secular sample of university undergraduates. Found that a combination of religious ideology, political identity, and moral judgment predicted the church members' opinions on human-rights…

  1. Moral Emotions and Morals

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    Rocío Orsi Portalo

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available My aim in this paper is to explore the ambivalent role played by the so called moral emotions in moral thinking, overall when the concept of responsibility is concerned. In the first part of this paper I show how moral emotions such as guilt and shame can appear in circumstances that are not under the agent’s control, and therefore the agent could be though of free or responsibility for them. By contrast, in the second part of this essay I put how the absence of moral emotions, or their twisted development, makes as well the flourishing of individual morality impossible.

  2. THEORETICAL ASPECTS OF FINANCIAL LIBERALIZATION PROCESS

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    Ciupac-Ulici Maria-Lenuta

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Financial liberalization process and its implications on financial emerging markets have been multidisciplinary research since 1970. Reform of financial liberalization is a complex and long phenomena. This implies that the impact of this reform on financial markets should not be immediate, but rather gradually during a long time period. It is also important to note that liberalization does not occur in the same way on all financial markets. Each country, according to his specification regarding the economic climate and the specificity of financial markets, has differently set its progress of liberalization process. It is generally accepted that the process of financial liberalization is not composed of a single event, but a series of events. The idea is that market reform is a gradual process where the data identified above only refers to the most significant events. Regarding the effect of liberalization reform on emerging markets has been shown; on the one hand, that liberalization helps to reduce the cost of capital, helps to integrate the emerging markets in the global market, enhances economic growth and allows emerging markets to become more mature. On the other hand, financial liberalization process has a very ambiguous and inconclusive impact on informational efficiency and volatility in emerging markets. Launching liberalization reforms provided an analytical framework for studies that attempt to investigate the effectiveness of emerging markets and empirical links between liberalization and efficiency. The first reason is that with liberalization, the authors believe that emerging markets have become more speculative and more competitive. So there is a chance to see if the weak form market efficiency is verified. The second reason is that the authors explore the relationship between liberalization and efficiency. Researchers and regulators seek an answer to the fundamental question: financial liberalization helps the stock market

  3. Moral intuitions, moral expertise, and moral reasoning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Musschenga, A.W.

    2009-01-01

    In this article I examine the consequences of the dominance of intuitive thinking in moral judging and deciding for the role of moral reasoning in moral education. I argue that evidence for the reliability of moral intuitions is lacking. We cannot determine when we can trust our intuitive moral

  4. Does trade liberalization effect energy consumption?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghani, Gairuzazmi M.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of trade liberalization on the environment can be directly linked to energy consumption, because energy consumption and production are the underlying cause of most pollutants that harm the environment. The descriptive statistics show that average annual growth of energy consumption per capita after trade liberalization varies among countries; hence it is a possibility that the effect of trade liberalization is conditional on factors other than liberalization per se. The regression results show that trade liberalization per se does not affect the growth of energy consumption of the developing countries analyzed, but its interaction with capital per labor reduces the growth of energy consumption as capital per labor increases. However, the effect is only significant after a certain minimum threshold level capital per labor is reached. On the other hand, economic growth increases energy consumption and its effect is not conditioned on trade liberalization. These two different effects mean that, with regards to energy consumption, countries at a higher level of economic development are more likely to reap the benefit of liberalization relative to less developed countries. - Research highlights: ► This paper examines the effect of trade liberalization on energy consumption. ► Developed countries are more likely to reap the benefit of trade liberalization. ► Growth of energy consumption after trade liberalization varies among countries. ► Interaction of capital per labor with liberalization reduces energy consumption.

  5. Negative freedom and the liberal paradoxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hees, M.V.B.P.M

    In their game-theoretic formulations, the liberal paradoxes of Amartya Sm and Alan Gibbard show a tension between freedom on the one hand, and Pareto optimality and stability on the other. This article examines what happens to the liberal paradoxes if a negative conception of freedom is used. Given

  6. Legitimacy and consensus in Rawls' political liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, E.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I analyze the theory of legitimacy at the core of John Rawls’ political liberalism. Rawls argues that a political system is well grounded when it is stable. This notion of stability embodies both pragmatic and moral elements, each of which constitutes a key desideratum of Rawlsian

  7. Quasi-realism and the moral problem

    OpenAIRE

    Carlsson, Andreas Brekke

    2007-01-01

    Moral judgments have two characteristic features. On the one hand they aim at objectivity. We normally think there are correct answers to be found on moral matters, and we think that is possible for our moral judgments to be mistaken. In this respect moral judgments behave as ordinary beliefs. On the other hand moral judgements are essentially practical. They are action guiding and closely connected to motivation. In this respect they behave as desires. If we combine these two features with a...

  8. The pitfalls of qualified moral veganism. A critique of Jan Deckers' holistic health approach to animal ethics

    OpenAIRE

    Paez, Eze

    2017-01-01

    I critically examine Jan Deckers' position in Animal (De)liberation, where he defends two main views. The first is "qualified moral veganism": Most humans have a duty to abstain from consuming animal products, even if there are circumstances in which doing so is justified. The author argues, on the one hand, from a pan-sentientist view that attributes sentience to all elementary entities and their compounds. Thus, all living things (such as animals and plants) have a capacity for positive and...

  9. Liberalism, authority, and bioethics commissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDougall, D Robert

    2013-12-01

    Bioethicists working on national ethics commissions frequently think of themselves as advisors to the government, but distance themselves from any claims to actual authority. Governments however may find it beneficial to appear to defer to the authority of these commissions when designing laws and policies, and might appoint such commissions for exactly this reason. Where does the authority for setting laws and policies come from? This question is best answered from within a normative political philosophy. This paper explains the locus of moral authority as understood within one family of normative political theories--liberal political theories--and argues that most major "liberal" commentators have understood both the source and scope of ethics commissions' authority in a manner at odds with liberalism, rightly interpreted. The author argues that reexamining the implications of liberalism for bioethics commissions would mean changing what are considered valid criticisms of such commissions and also changing the content of national bioethics commission mandates. The author concludes that bioethicists who participate in such commissions ought to carefully examine their own views about the normative limits of governmental authority because such limits have important implications for the contribution that bioethicists can legitimately make to government commissions.

  10. Teaching Morally and Teaching Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Gary D.; Osguthorpe, Richard D.; Sanger, Matthew N.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the authors introduce what they believe is an important distinction between teaching morality and teaching morally. In P-12 schools, the moral education debate often focuses on character education programs or other moral curricula. Such programs and curricula are championed as a means of teaching morality and transmitting moral…

  11. Smith’s invisible hand: controversy is needed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Di Mario

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Smith’s metaphor of the invisible hand, commonly attributed to The Wealth of Nations, is described in the Theory of Moral Sentiments. It is a ‘deception’ fed to the lower classes. Private initiative depends upon the presence of privileged classes in a conservative rather than liberal state. Only thus can the ‘invisible hand’ improve the nation’s ‘wealth.’ Hence, the economic mainstream cannot easily claim Adam Smith as their ancestor. Nor can the Marxists associate him to the misdeeds of the mainstream. A Smithian ancestry is more plausible for Neoliberals.

  12. Moral Pluralism and Sex Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corngold, Josh

    2013-01-01

    How should common schools in a liberal pluralist society approach sex education in the face of deep disagreement about sexual morality? Should they eschew sex education altogether? Should they narrow its focus to facts about biology, reproduction, and disease prevention? Should they, in addition to providing a broad palette of information about…

  13. Nietos Morales

    OpenAIRE

    Arriaga

    2015-01-01

    1 Toma en 2 revelados O.I. V. DE GARCIA- Carlota R. 80 años MORALES- Pedro J. 12 años MORALES- Francisco de S. 10 años 6mes. MORALES- Beatriz 09 años Morales- Antonio 07 años MORALES- Manuel 04 años 6mes. MORALES- José 01 año

  14. Liberal power Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, W.M.

    2017-01-01

    The European Union is best understood as a liberal power – as an actor that is composed of liberal democracies whose interests, identities and institutions motivate and constrain its policy. The conceptualization of the EU as a liberal power helps to overcome three shortcomings of alternative

  15. Moral sensitivity and moral distress in Iranian critical care nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borhani, Fariba; Abbaszadeh, Abbas; Mohamadi, Elham; Ghasemi, Erfan; Hoseinabad-Farahani, Mohammad Javad

    2017-06-01

    Moral sensitivity is the foremost prerequisite to ethical performance; a review of literature shows that nurses are sometimes not sensitive enough for a variety of reasons. Moral distress is a frequent phenomenon in nursing, which may result in paradoxes in care, dealing with patients and rendering high-quality care. This may, in turn, hinder the meeting of care objectives, thus affecting social healthcare standards. The present research was conducted to determine the relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress of nurses in intensive care units. This study is a descriptive-correlation research. Lutzen's moral sensitivity questionnaire and Corley Moral Distress Questionnaire were used to gather data. Participants and research context: A total of 153 qualified nurses working in the hospitals affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences were selected for this study. Subjects were selected by census method. Ethical considerations: After explaining the objectives of the study, all the participants completed and signed the written consent form. To conduct the study, permission was obtained from the selected hospitals. Nurses' average moral sensitivity grade was 68.6 ± 7.8, which shows a moderate level of moral sensitivity. On the other hand, nurses also experienced a moderate level of moral distress (44.8 ± 16.6). Moreover, there was no meaningful statistical relationship between moral sensitivity and moral distress (p = 0.26). Although the nurses' moral sensitivity and moral distress were expected to be high in the intensive care units, it was moderate. This finding is consistent with the results of some studies and contradicts with others. As moral sensitivity is a crucial factor in care, it is suggested that necessary training be provided to develop moral sensitivity in nurses in education and practical environments. Furthermore, removing factors that contribute to moral distress may help decrease it in nurses.

  16. Understanding the Role of Dispositional and Situational Threat Sensitivity in Our Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Jennifer Cole; Baril, Galen L.

    2013-01-01

    Previous research has identified different moral judgments in liberals and conservatives. While both care about harm/fairness ("individualizing" foundations), conservatives emphasize in-group/authority/purity ("binding" foundations) more than liberals. Thus, some argue that conservatives have a more complex morality. We suggest…

  17. Moral Cognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schleim, Stephan; Clausen, Jens; Levy, Neil

    2015-01-01

    Research on moral cognition is a growing and heavily multidisciplinary field. This section contains chapters addressing foundational psychological, neuroscientific, and philosophical issues of research on moral decision-making. Further- more, beyond summarizing the state of the art of their

  18. Parenting and Politics: Exploring Early Moral Bases of Political Orientation

    OpenAIRE

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C.; Sheikh, Sana

    2014-01-01

    Based on Lakoff’s (2002) Strict Father and Nurturant Parent metaphors for political conservatism and liberalism respectively, two studies explored parenting styles, political ideology, and the moral orientations that might link the two. Restrictive parenting (by both mother and father) predicted political conservatism, and this path was mediated by a strong Social Order orientation (Study 1) reflecting, more broadly, an inhibition-based proscriptive morality (Study 2). Political liberalism wa...

  19. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  20. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium contract. On the one hand, an optimistic or overconfident agent disproportionately values success-contingent payments...

  1. Moral knowledge and moral factuality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ron Wilburn

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1677-2954.2008v7n1p69For naturalistic and non-intuitionistic moral realists, moral knowledge is more problematic than ordinary and scientific factual knowledge. For without special faculties of moral discernment, how could we ever detect moral facts and properties? Physical facts and properties may be accessible to perceptual recognition. But how could moral facts and properties ever be similarly accessible? To address this challenge, we need a meta-ethical account that does two things. First, it must explain how the discernment of moral facts and properties ultimately consists only of the detection of appropriate physical items. Second, it must explain why, despite this fact, moral perception seems so very puzzling. In this paper I endeavor to provide such an account. It is largely because of the relational nature of moral properties, and the corresponding externalistically determined normative content of moral property terms, I argue, that our epistemic access to moral knowledge appears mysterious. The metaphysics of moral factuality does a lot to explain the seeming elusiveness of moral knowledge, and in ways that are surprisingly mundane.

  2. DILEMAS MORALES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Realpe Quintero

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Antes del siglo XX la tradición filosófica moral ha reconocido la existencia de los conflictos morales pero ha rechazado la posibilidad de los auténticos dilemas morales. Para poder entender por qué hoy el tema de los dilemas morales ha reclamado para sí tanta atención, es importante ponernos de acuerdo en la definición de algunos conceptos. Un conflicto moral es una situación en la que un(a agente se ve confrontado(a con dos obligaciones morales que le instan a actuar. Un dilema moral es una situación extrema de conflicto moral en la que nuestro(a agente no puede seguir un curso de acción que sea conforme con sus dos obligaciones en conflicto. Para que un conflicto moral tenga el carácter de ser un auténtico dilema moral (genuine moral dilemma y no simplemente un aparente dilema moral (apparent moral di- DILEMAS MORALES SANDRA REALPE Licenciada en Filosofía, Univalle, Maestría en Filosofía, Univalle, Diplomado en Psicología Aplicada, Universidad de Londres, Diplomado en Etica de los Negocios Universidad de Colorado, profesora Universidad Icesi, Facultad de Derecho y Humanidades. E-mail: sandrarealpe@hotmail.com lemma, ninguna de las obligaciones en conflicto es en efecto más fuerte o logra invalidar a la otra obligación. A raíz de un artículo escrito en 1962 por E. J. Lemmon, titulado precisamente “Dilemas morales” (Moral Dilemmas, se abrió un debate entre los filósofos anglosajones contemporáneos acerca de la existencia o no de los auténticos dilemas morales. Informar sobre este debate reciente, esclarecer los argumentos de sus principales protagonistas, y hacer presente en nuestro medio un novedoso debate que es importante para reflexionar sobre un buen número de problemas morales, son nuestros principales propósitos en el presente ensayo. ...

  3. Liberal Learning and the World: A Banker's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callander, Robert J.

    1986-01-01

    To address today's global banking issues requires the values and habits of mind that result from liberal education: integrity, critical thinking, moral values, historical consciousness, and ethical development. America's educational and business institutions are mutually dependent and require commitment on both parts. (MSE)

  4. Liberal Education and Citizenship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquith, Stephen L.

    1991-01-01

    Discusses theories of liberal education as based on meritocratic and aristocratic assumptions. Describes liberal education as a social equalizer that at the some time hopes to produce an educated elite for expert policymaking. Stresses conflict between these assumptions. Argues that citizens should see public good as their own good and not see…

  5. Essays on financial liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumann, Silke

    2015-01-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of financial liberalization on economic growth, income inequality and financial instability. Chapter 1 describes aim and scope of the thesis. Chapter 2 provides a meta-analysis of the literature on financial liberalization and economic growth. It is found that

  6. Liberal nationalism on immigration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lægaard, Sune

    2009-01-01

    Liberal nationalists such as David Miller and Will Kymlicka have claimed that liberal principles have implausible implications with regard to the issue of immigration. They hold that nationality should play a normative role in this regard, and that this is necessary in order to justify restrictions...... on immigration. The present chapter discusses the envisaged role for considerations of nationality with regard to admission and residence, and examines the actual implications of arguments advanced by liberal nationalists as to why nationality should play this role. It is argued that the connection between...... nationality and immigration on liberal nationalist premises is not as straightforward as one might expect, and that the addition of considerations of nationality to liberal principles makes no practical difference with regard to reasons for restricting immigration or criteria of selection among applicants...

  7. Moral Hindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischhut, Nadine; Meder, Björn; Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2017-03-01

    How are judgments in moral dilemmas affected by uncertainty, as opposed to certainty? We tested the predictions of a consequentialist and deontological account using a hindsight paradigm. The key result is a hindsight effect in moral judgment. Participants in foresight, for whom the occurrence of negative side effects was uncertain, judged actions to be morally more permissible than participants in hindsight, who knew that negative side effects occurred. Conversely, when hindsight participants knew that no negative side effects occurred, they judged actions to be more permissible than participants in foresight. The second finding was a classical hindsight effect in probability estimates and a systematic relation between moral judgments and probability estimates. Importantly, while the hindsight effect in probability estimates was always present, a corresponding hindsight effect in moral judgments was only observed among "consequentialist" participants who indicated a cost-benefit trade-off as most important for their moral evaluation.

  8. Moral vindications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Victor

    2017-10-01

    Psychologists and neuroscientists have recently been unearthing the unconscious processes that give rise to moral intuitions and emotions. According to skeptics like Joshua Greene, what has been found casts doubt on many of our moral beliefs. However, a new approach in moral psychology develops a learning-theoretic framework that has been successfully applied in a number of other domains. This framework suggests that model-based learning shapes intuitions and emotions. Model-based learning explains how moral thought and feeling are attuned to local material and social conditions. Philosophers can draw on these explanations, in some cases, in order to vindicate episodes of moral change. Explanations can support justifications by showing that they are not mere rationalizations. In addition, philosophical justifications are a fertile source for empirical hypotheses about the rational learning mechanisms that shape moral intuitions and emotions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Moral virtues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg Spielthenner

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Although much has been published on virtues in recent years, there is still considerable uncertainty in philosophy (and even more among philosophical laymen about the concept of a virtue and especially about moral virtues. In this article, I will try to clarify these notions. In particular, I want to answer the question: When are virtues moral virtues? Clearly, not every practical virtue is a moral virtue. Why was the courage of the Nazi soldiers in the second world war not a moral virtue, but yet is presumably one if included among the cardinal virtues? To clarify this question, this article will deal with the concept of a virtue but I will also investigate the notion of virtues being of a moral nature. To this end, I propose and explain (I a definition of moral virtues and clarify this definition further in section (II, by explaining why I did not include qualities, which others have considered as essential.

  10. Slaves immersed in a liberal ideology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Leslie Kim

    2012-01-01

    Paradigm debates have been featured in the nursing literature for over four decades. There are at least two opposing paradigms specific to nursing that have remained central in these debates. Advocates of the unitary perspective (or simultaneity paradigm) consider their theories to be more philosophically advanced and contemporary alternatives when compared to the older more traditional ideas characteristic of models they describe as originating from the totality paradigm. In the context of these debates, I focus on some theoretical positions embedded in the unitary perspective, noting their limitations with respect to integrating the individual and social mandates of nursing; nurses are responsible not only for individual health-related needs, but also for the health of the collective. I explore two hypotheses that may explain the powers of endurance of the unitary perspective. Paley, who outlines the origins of nurses' 'slave morality', inspires the first hypothesis. The second hypothesis speaks to the location of nursing knowledge development in the context of liberal ideology. In this work, I outline key conceptualizations of the unitary perspective in order to clearly illustrate the limitations of the unitary perspective for nurses' social mandate. Then, I explore how slave morality and liberal ideological assumptions might both work to sustain the unitary perspective. A paradigm for nursing must have utility in addressing both the health-related needs of individuals, and for addressing the health of the collective. To this end, I advance suggestions in three areas: first, to transform nurses' slave morality to more honest and noble aspirations; second, to examine liberal ideological premises; and third, to end paradigm debate by resituating elements of the unitary perspective to the level of mid-range theory, where it could be most effective for research and practice with specific populations. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  11. Revisiting Liberal Democratic Universalism: A Critical Rhetoric of the Liberal Democratic World Order

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rose Joy E. Smith

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Liberal democracy has become the predominant political regime in the 21st century even in countries that have little or no history of ‘democratic structures and practices’. However, it seems as though setting up a functional, stable, and viable democratic state is harder than overthrowing autocratic rulers. This rhetorical criticism explores gridlocks that hamper the development of universal liberal democratic values by emphasizing the Western hegemonic status of defining what liberal democracy is. It is pertinent to look into this dominant role considering that it is through these values that actions, policies, and other values are to be construed and judged. This paper aims to (1 highlight the role of moral cosmopolitanism as the initial step of Western hegemony, (2 identify the paradox of defining liberal democracy as universal but treating it as a particular, and (3 discuss the ironies of democratic imperialism and its hindrance to self-determination. This paper hopes to shed some light in the importance of various interpretations, definitions, and adaptations of liberal democratic values depending on the context of the society incorporating, its culture, its values, and its identity, in order to find a more comprehensive definition of democracy.

  12. Morality, Moral Luck and Responsibility. Fortune's Web

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Fogh

    2011-01-01

    Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)......Anmeldelse af Nafsika Athanassoulis bog: Morality, Moral Lock and Responsibility (Palgrave MacMillian 2010)...

  13. Moral emotions and moral behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tangney, June Price; Stuewig, Jeff; Mashek, Debra J

    2007-01-01

    Moral emotions represent a key element of our human moral apparatus, influencing the link between moral standards and moral behavior. This chapter reviews current theory and research on moral emotions. We first focus on a triad of negatively valenced "self-conscious" emotions-shame, guilt, and embarrassment. As in previous decades, much research remains focused on shame and guilt. We review current thinking on the distinction between shame and guilt, and the relative advantages and disadvantages of these two moral emotions. Several new areas of research are highlighted: research on the domain-specific phenomenon of body shame, styles of coping with shame, psychobiological aspects of shame, the link between childhood abuse and later proneness to shame, and the phenomena of vicarious or "collective" experiences of shame and guilt. In recent years, the concept of moral emotions has been expanded to include several positive emotions-elevation, gratitude, and the sometimes morally relevant experience of pride. Finally, we discuss briefly a morally relevant emotional process-other-oriented empathy.

  14. MORALE Assignment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carienvt

    some aspects of military life are so ingrained in military culture that the ... Military and political leaders around the world regard high morale of the armed .... expensive modern centralised practices borrowed from contemporary business will ..... psychological plan for the management of morale of SANDF soldiers during an.

  15. Liberalism and African Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sindima, Harvey

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the effect of liberalism on the African understanding of education, community, and religion. Describes ways in which the European intrusion, that is, colonial governments, schools, and churches, undermined traditional African life and thought. (DM)

  16. The Paradoxes of Liberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame

    2011-01-01

    Jakob Vestergaard has produced one of the most telling analyses of the international financial architecture by deploying a broadly Foucauldian framework that invokes a novel description of neo-liberal governance, one organized around discipline, conditional exceptions and the pursuit of a ‘proper...... economy’. This review both welcomes but challenges some of Vestergaard's analysis. In so doing it explores further the paradoxes of liberalism and the fate of sovereignty in the current international context....

  17. Decentralized energy supply on the liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pauli, H.

    1999-01-01

    Starting in 2001, the electricity market is to be progressively liberalized. The process will be completed by the year 2006. What role will decentralized power generation using combined cycle power plants play on a liberalized market ? The background conditions are essentially favourable: both the new energy act, which has been in force since 1 January 1999, and the planned energy levy suggest that this technology will become increasingly widespread. In addition, the price trend for combined cycle plants components together with low energy costs are having a favourable impact. On the other hand, great uncertainty is being created by the process of liberalization and the current flood of investments in power generation. However, electricity supply is unlikely to be in surplus for long in a context of sustained economic growth. (author)

  18. Moral Communities and Moral Leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, David W

    2015-01-01

    The American College of Dentists is embarking on a multiyear project to improve ethics in dentistry. Early indications are that the focus will be on actual moral behavior rather than theory, that we will include organizations as ethical units, and that we will focus on building moral leadership. There is little evidence that the "telling individuals how to behave" approach to ethics is having the hoped-for effect. As a profession, dentistry is based on shared trust. The public level of trust in practitioners is acceptable, but could be improved, and will need to be strengthened to reduce the risk of increasing regulation. While feedback from the way dentists and patients view ethics is generally reassuring, dentists are often at odds with patients and their colleagues over how the profesion manages itself. Individuals are an inconsistent mix of good and bad behavior, and it may be more helpful to make small improvements in the habits of all dentists than to try to take a few certifiably dishonest ones off the street. A computer simulation model of dentistry as a moral community suggests that the profession will always have the proportion of bad actors it will tolerate, that moral leadership is a difficult posture to maintain, that massive interventions to correct imbalances through education or other means will be wasted unless the system as a whole is modified, and that most dentists see no compelling benefit in changing the ethical climate of the profession because they are doing just fine. Considering organiza-tions as loci of moral behavior reveals questionable practices that otherwise remain undetected, including moral distress, fragmentation, fictitious dentists, moral fading, decoupling, responsibility shifting, and moral priming. What is most needed is not phillosophy or principles, but moral leadership.

  19. Morale Hazard

    OpenAIRE

    Hanming Fang; Giuseppe Moscarini

    2003-01-01

    We interpret workers' confidence in their own skills as their morale, and investigate the implication of worker overconfidence on the firm's optimal wage-setting policies. In our model, wage contracts both provide incentives and affect worker morale, by revealing private information of the firm about worker skills. We provide conditions for the non-differentiation wage policy to be profit-maximizing. In numerical examples, worker overconfidence is a necessary condition for the firm to prefer ...

  20. The dual moral self: moral centrality and internal moral motivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krettenauer, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the relationship between two aspects of the moral self, moral centrality and internal moral motivation, was analyzed. It is argued that these 2 aspects are conceptually distinct but nonetheless empirically related. Based on a cross-sectional study of 205 adolescents (M age = 14.83 years, SD = 2.21 years) it was found that moral centrality and internal moral motivation, even though substantially correlated, interacted in predicting moral emotion expectancies. Even though moral centrality was unrelated to adolescents' age it predicted a longitudinal increase in internal moral motivation over a 1-year interval. Overall, the findings call for a differentiation of moral centrality and internal moral motivation as 2 distinct but interrelated aspects of moral self-development that follow different developmental trajectories and are differentially related to age. At the same time, the study points out that adolescence may be less important for the development of the moral self than commonly assumed.

  1. Emotion shapes the diffusion of moralized content in social networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wills, Julian A.; Jost, John T.; Tucker, Joshua A.; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2017-01-01

    Political debate concerning moralized issues is increasingly common in online social networks. However, moral psychology has yet to incorporate the study of social networks to investigate processes by which some moral ideas spread more rapidly or broadly than others. Here, we show that the expression of moral emotion is key for the spread of moral and political ideas in online social networks, a process we call “moral contagion.” Using a large sample of social media communications about three polarizing moral/political issues (n = 563,312), we observed that the presence of moral-emotional words in messages increased their diffusion by a factor of 20% for each additional word. Furthermore, we found that moral contagion was bounded by group membership; moral-emotional language increased diffusion more strongly within liberal and conservative networks, and less between them. Our results highlight the importance of emotion in the social transmission of moral ideas and also demonstrate the utility of social network methods for studying morality. These findings offer insights into how people are exposed to moral and political ideas through social networks, thus expanding models of social influence and group polarization as people become increasingly immersed in social media networks. PMID:28652356

  2. Emotion shapes the diffusion of moralized content in social networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, William J; Wills, Julian A; Jost, John T; Tucker, Joshua A; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2017-07-11

    Political debate concerning moralized issues is increasingly common in online social networks. However, moral psychology has yet to incorporate the study of social networks to investigate processes by which some moral ideas spread more rapidly or broadly than others. Here, we show that the expression of moral emotion is key for the spread of moral and political ideas in online social networks, a process we call "moral contagion." Using a large sample of social media communications about three polarizing moral/political issues ( n = 563,312), we observed that the presence of moral-emotional words in messages increased their diffusion by a factor of 20% for each additional word. Furthermore, we found that moral contagion was bounded by group membership; moral-emotional language increased diffusion more strongly within liberal and conservative networks, and less between them. Our results highlight the importance of emotion in the social transmission of moral ideas and also demonstrate the utility of social network methods for studying morality. These findings offer insights into how people are exposed to moral and political ideas through social networks, thus expanding models of social influence and group polarization as people become increasingly immersed in social media networks.

  3. Liberalism, Liberalization and Their Impacts of Muslim Education (Special Case of Indonesian Intellectuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Fahmy Zarkasyi

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at elucidating the liberalization of Muslim world and its impact on education. For  that  purpose  the  author  traces  at  the  outset  the  origin  and  the  basic  concept  of liberalism, which  is of  postmodern Western worldview, including  the concept of  religious liberalism. The impact of  liberalism in general is as wider as the meaning of  liberalism in Western sense of the words. However,  this paper  confines only on  the study of  their  impact  on Muslim education with special emphasis on national education policy and on religious thought which in turn would affect curriculum development. Liberalization of religious thought appears, inter alia, through the introduction  of  the  doctrine  of  relativity  of  truth,  religious  pluralism,  gender  equality  and deconstruction  of  shari’ah  and  the  likes. All  those  religious  discourse  conceptually  hinder  the development of  curriculum and  the teaching strategy of  moral  inculcation  to the students.

  4. Where in the brain is morality? Everywhere and maybe nowhere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Liane; Dungan, James

    2012-01-01

    The neuroscience of morality has focused on how morality works and where it is in the brain. In tackling these questions, researchers have taken both domain-specific and domain-general approaches-searching for neural substrates and systems dedicated to moral cognition versus characterizing the contributions of domain-general processes. Where in the brain is morality? On one hand, morality is made up of complex cognitive processes, deployed across many domains and housed all over the brain. On the other hand, no neural substrate or system that uniquely supports moral cognition has been found. In this review, we will discuss early assumptions of domain-specificity in moral neuroscience as well as subsequent investigations of domain-general contributions, taking emotion and social cognition (i.e., theory of mind) as case studies. Finally, we will consider possible cognitive accounts of a domain-specific morality: Does uniquely moral cognition exist?

  5. Exporting EU Liberalism Eastwards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn M. Tesser

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available There is much more to liberalism in the post communist context than has been acknowledged. A sizeable effort has indeed emerged to transplant a relatively coherent liberal ideology to the region, one exported not merely through the conditionality of international financial institutions, but also through the conditionality and socialization of organizations like the NATO, OSCE, EU, and the Council of Europe. ‘EU liberalism’ includes the ‘standard’ liberal emphasis on individual rights, the rule of law, constitutional democracy, freedom, and market economics as well as support for minority rights, and a seemingly schizophrenic emphasis on economic integration that involves, first bringing down borders for the free movement of people, goods, capital, and services between member states, and second, market regulation to diminish the social downsides of capitalism. This paper outlines EU liberalism’s emergence and its application to Central and East European countries.

  6. Individual moral development and moral progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is

  7. Individual Moral Development and Moral Progress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2017-01-01

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is

  8. Morality and politics: Comparing alternate theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Andrew; Vaisey, Stephen

    2015-09-01

    Debates about the American "culture wars" have led scholars to develop several theories relating morality to political attitudes and behaviors. However, researchers have not adequately compared these theories, nor have they examined the overall contribution of morality to explaining political variation. This study uses nationally representative data to compare the utility of 19 moral constructs from four research traditions - associated with the work of Hunter, Lakoff, Haidt, and Schwartz - for predicting political orientation (liberalism/conservatism). Results indicate that morality explains a third of the variation in political orientation - more than basic demographic and religious predictors - but that no one theory provides a fully adequate explanation of this phenomenon. Instead, political orientation is best predicted by selected moral constructs that are unique to each of the four traditions, and by two moral constructs that crosscut them. Future work should investigate how these moral constructs can be synthesized to create a more comprehensive theory of morality and politics. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Problem of Rational Moral Enlistment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillson, John

    2017-01-01

    How can one bring children to recognize the requirements of morality without resorting only to non-rational means of persuasion (i.e. what rational ground can be offered to children for their moral enlistment)? Michael Hand has recently defended a foundationalist approach to answering this question and John White has responded by (a) criticizing…

  10. Liberalism Lost in Translation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Philipsen, Lise

    2013-01-01

    undermine its liberal pretences. This is revealed in everyday practices of peacebuilding, where the concepts of accountability and ownership are reworked and given new meanings. In this process of re-signification, “accountability” becomes accountability towards the donors, and “ownership” a guise...

  11. States of Liberation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sen, Somdeep

    in the context of the Palestinian quest for liberation. Based on ethnographic fieldwork in the Gaza Strip, the West Bank, Israel and Egypt, this dissertation argues that resistance and governance serve as means of emboldening the signature of Palestinian existence – as a cause and as a people. Hamas’ resistance...

  12. LIBER 2010 / Mihkel Volt

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Volt, Mihkel

    2010-01-01

    LIBER-i 2010. aasta konverentsi pealkirjaks oli "Taasavastades raamatukogu - uue infokeskkonna väljakutsed". Århusis toimunud konverentsil käsitleti nii teadusraamatukogu rolli e-teaduses ja e-õppes, teavikute massilist digiteerimist ja kollektsioonide säilitamist kui ka "taasavastatud raamatukogu" juhtimist, arutleti nende teemade kombineerimisvõimaluste üle

  13. Millian Liberal Feminism Today.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tulloch, Gail

    1989-01-01

    It is proposed that John Stuart Mill's principles on liberal feminism are still relevant and have not yet been fully implemented. A Millian account of equality of opportunity and discrimination is developed, and current measures in the field of sexual equality are critiqued. (Author/MSE)

  14. Parenting and Politics: Exploring Early Moral Bases of Political Orientation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Janoff-Bulman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on Lakoff’s (2002 Strict Father and Nurturant Parent metaphors for political conservatism and liberalism respectively, two studies explored parenting styles, political ideology, and the moral orientations that might link the two. Restrictive parenting (by both mother and father predicted political conservatism, and this path was mediated by a strong Social Order orientation (Study 1 reflecting, more broadly, an inhibition-based proscriptive morality (Study 2. Political liberalism was associated with a Social Justice orientation, but was not predicted by nurturant parenting in either study. Study 1 included mothers’ reports of their own parenting, and these were correlated with the students’ responses. Findings support a restrictive moral underpinning for conservatism, but raise questions about the assumed unique association between parental nurturance and political liberalism, which is addressed in the discussion.

  15. Individual moral development and moral progress

    OpenAIRE

    Schinkel, Anders; de Ruyter, Doret J.

    2017-01-01

    At first glance, one of the most obvious places to look for moral progress is in individuals, in particular in moral development from childhood to adulthood. In fact, that moral progress is possible is a foundational assumption of moral education. Beyond the general agreement that moral progress is not only possible but even a common feature of human development things become blurry, however. For what do we mean by ‘progress’? And what constitutes moral progress? Does the idea of individual m...

  16. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronnie Janoff-Bulman

    Full Text Available Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  17. Social Justice and Social Order: Binding Moralities across the Political Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Carnes, Nate C

    2016-01-01

    Two studies explored the relationship between political ideology and endorsement of a range of moral principles. Political liberals and conservatives did not differ on intrapersonal or interpersonal moralities, which require self-regulation. However differences emerged on collective moralities, which involve social regulation. Contrary to Moral Foundations Theory, both liberals and conservatives endorsed a group-focused binding morality, specifically Social Justice and Social Order respectively. Libertarians were the group without a binding morality. Although Social Justice and Social Order appear conflictual, analyses based on earlier cross-cultural work on societal tightness-looseness suggest that countries actually benefit in terms of economic success and societal well-being when these group-based moralities co-exist and serve as counterweights in social regulation.

  18. "The State of the Debate": A Media Analysis of the Debates on Liberalization and Citizenship Education in France, Sweden, and England, 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cote, Isabelle; Sundstrom, Malena Rosen; Sannerstedt, Anders

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, many liberal democracies have experienced a tension between the education system's expressed requirement to foster citizenship norms and the liberal (sub-)ideal of norm neutrality. This dilemma has been accentuated by, on the one hand, increased ethnical and cultural diversity and, on the other hand, liberalization of…

  19. Hobbes, Liberalism, and Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquith, Stephen L.

    The connection between liberal political philosophy and political education is discussed with particular emphasis on the philosophy of Thomas Hobbes. The purpose of the essay is to explain how liberal citizens become committed to a distinctively liberal conception of the common good. Part 1 discusses Hobbes' theory that rationally determining…

  20. Learning from moral inconsistency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Richmond

    2017-10-01

    Moral inconsistency is an understudied phenomenon in cognitive moral psychology and deserves in depth empirical study. Moral inconsistency, as understood here, is not formal inconsistency but inconsistency in moral emotion and belief in response to particular cases. It occurs when persons treat cases as morally different that are really morally the same, even from their moral perspective. Learning to recognize and avoid such moral inconsistency in non-trivial but is a form of moral learning that complements and enhances other psychological and social mechanisms through which persons learn how to apply shared moral norms when their applications are uncertain and threaten to lapse into moral inconsistency. The same psychological process also can function to revise current moral norms when their straightforward applications are morally inconsistent with more basic moral commitments. Through this moral learning and related kinds, people can learn how to identify issues of moral priority when moral norms conflict and, when necessary, how to revise their moral norms. The recent revolution in dominant moral norms around gay sex and gay marriage in Europe and North America provides a possible illustration. When coupled with other modes of moral learning in the context of ambiguous but deeply rooted moral norms, such as those of sanctity and authority, reflection on moral inconsistency can help to justify this large-scale moral change, even among those who find gay sex, by its nature, morally repugnant. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Can Kant Have an Account of Moral Education?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Kate A.

    2009-01-01

    There is an apparent tension between Immanuel Kant's model of moral agency and his often-neglected philosophy of moral education. On the one hand, Kant's account of moral knowledge and decision-making seems to be one that can be self-taught. Kant's famous categorical imperative and related "fact of reason" argument suggest that we learn the…

  2. Liberal Neutrality : Constructivist, not foundationalist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendell Horne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In defending the principle of neutrality, liberals have often appealed to a more general moral principle that forbids coercing persons in the name of reasons those persons themselves cannot reasonably be expected to share. Yet liberals have struggled to articulate a non-arbitrary, non-dogmatic distinction between the reasons that persons can reasonably be expected to share and those they cannot. The reason for this, I argue, is that what it means to “share a reason” is itself obscure. In this paper I articulate two different conceptions of what it is to share a reason; I call these conceptions “foundationalist” and “constructivist.” On the foundationalist view, two people “share” a reason just in the sense that the same reason applies to each of them independently. On this view, I argue, debates about the reasons we share collapse into debates about the reasons we have, moving us no closer to an adequate defense of neutrality. On the constructivist view, by contrast, “sharing reasons” is understood as a kind of activity, and the reasons we must share are just those reasons that make this activity possible. I argue that the constructivist conception of sharing reasons yields a better defense of the principle of neutrality. À travers leur défense du principe de neutralité, les libéraux ont souvent interpellé un principe moral plus général qui interdit de contraindre des personnes pour des raisons dont on ne peut raisonnablement attendre que ces personnes elles-mêmes les partagent. Les libéraux éprouvent cependant de la difficulté à articuler une distinction non-arbitraire et non-dogmatique entre les raisons dont on peut raisonnablement attendre que les personnes les partagent et celles dont on ne le peut pas. Je soutiens dans cet article que cette difficulté provient du fait que «partager une raison » est une notion obscure. Pour illustrer cela, je me pencherai sur deux conceptions distinctes de ce que veut dire

  3. On Moral Luck and Nonideal Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinnery, Ann

    2015-01-01

    In contrast to the Kantian principle that we are morally accountable only for those actions over which we have control, Bernard Williams, Thomas Nagel, and others have argued that luck plays a significant role in the moral life. Put briefly, moral luck is at play when we are appropriately praised or blamed for our moral actions despite the fact…

  4. The Foundations of Common Moral life: Some Conservative Perspectives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Søren Hviid

    2010-01-01

    One cannot fail to notice an abundance of liberal approaches trying to formulate the conditions of how to create a common moral life in the face of deep value pluralism. What is more or less missing is a principled and theoretically informed modern conservative approach. The purpose of this paper...... is to remedy this lack of a conservative voice in this conversation of trying to draw the contours of how to create a common moral life....

  5. The role of emotion in moral agency: some meta-ethical issues in the moral psychology of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rietti, Sophie

    2003-01-01

    This thesis aims to elucidate an apparent paradox about the role of emotion in moral agency. A number of lines of concern suggest emotion may have serious negative impact on moral agency. On the other hand, there are considerations that suggest emotion also plays a crucial role in motivating, informing and even constituting moral agency. Significantly, there is a strong connection between participant reactive attitudes and ascription of moral status as agent or subject. Nonemot...

  6. BRAIN, EMOTION, AND MORAL JUDGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fransisca Ting

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The dual process theory posits that people relies on their emotion (especially negative emotions when they are faced with personal moral dilemmas, such as pushing a person off a footbridge in order to stop a trolley that would otherwise kill five people. In an fMRI investigation, the medial frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus are more activated in considering a personal moral dilemma, leading them to make a characteristically deontological judgment. On the other hand, people are less emotionally engaged in non‐personal moral dilemmas, leading them to be more consequentialist in their judgment. Empathy is argued to be a salient moral emotion that could alter one’s moral judgment in moral dilemmas. Specifically, when judging about the permissibility of a person’s proposed action, the subjects will judge those they empathize with less harshly, and when they themselves have to make the decision, they will tend to save the party they empathize with across dilemmas.

  7. Moral Reasoning in College Students: Effects of Two General Education Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Sherry L.; Seybert, Jeffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Two different approaches to the undergraduate general education and liberal arts curricula were studied in terms of moral reasoning for 188 college students. Results reveal more advanced levels of moral reasoning for students in the integrated curriculum organized around decision making than for those in the traditional curriculum. (SLD)

  8. The pitfalls of qualified moral veganism. A critique of Jan Deckers' holistic health approach to animal ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Eze

    2017-10-01

    I critically examine Jan Deckers' position in Animal (De)liberation, where he defends two main views. The first is "qualified moral veganism": Most humans have a duty to abstain from consuming animal products, even if there are circumstances in which doing so is justified. The author argues, on the one hand, from a pan-sentientist view that attributes sentience to all elementary entities and their compounds. Thus, all living things (such as animals and plants) have a capacity for positive and negative experiences. On the other hand, he develops a consequentialist view that assigns moral agents the unconditional duty to promote their own "holistic health." This is partly constituted by the agent's "moral health," that is, her acting in a morally justified way. On Deckers' view, moral agents must care for the health of all living entities, give greater weight to the interests of organisms to which they are more closely biologically related, and respect the integrity of nature. Diets containing animal products have a very high negative health impact, because of how they affect the environment, human food security, and the well-being of nonhuman animals. In addition, even though plants are sentient, they are likely less so than animals, and their interests must be given less weight. Therefore, most humans should shift to a vegan diet. Deckers' second proposal is that a qualified ban on the consumption of animal products should be enacted. After discarding other alternative strategies, Deckers defends its feasibility relying on data obtained via a series of surveys. Though the argument partly succeeds in developing a coherent account accommodating the author's intuitions, I conclude that his ontological and normative frameworks remain too underdeveloped, his appeal to biological relatedness has implausible implications, and the methodology he uses in defence of his political position is problematic. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Moral Development in Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Daniel; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Themes in the papers in this special issue of the "JRA" on moral development are identified. We discuss the intersection of moral development research with policy concerns, the distinctive qualities of moral life in adolescence that warrant investigation, the multiple connotations of "moral", the methods typical of moral development research, and…

  10. À propos de The Practice of Liberal Pluralism de William Galston : un dialogue avec l’auteur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Merrill

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The publication of "The Practice of Liberal Pluralism" by Willam Galston has appeared as an event of first importance regarding contemporary theory about the relation between pluralism and liberalism. William Galston’s theory has had a visible evolution: in "Liberal Purposes", the main object is a critique of neutralism and a defence of perfectionist liberalism, whereas "Liberal Pluralism" main concern was to draw the limits of state intervention. This evolution is the object of numerous questions in the following discussion. "The Practice of Liberal Pluralism" operates an interesting synthesis on this point. Galston defines himself as a liberal pluralist such as Berlin, but although he acknowledges that conflict between values can be tragic, he minimizes this aspect in the following discussions, and considers the possibility of having prima facie duties (cf. the discussion on his rejection of moral particularism. One of the main arguments for the defence of value pluralism is its capacity to explain the complexity of the moral universe (cf. the discussion on pluralism and regret. Galston endorses a political pluralism, which means that the sources of authority are multiple. Galston’s liberalism is very tolerant regarding non-liberal communitarian practices, although this tolerance is based on the defence of an exit right, which is a fundamental notion in his theory. In the following discussion, Galston proposes how to understand this right of exit in an adequate manner (cf. the questions regarding expressive liberty, exit rights and autonomy.

  11. Political liberalism and religious claims

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either ‘liberal’ or ‘fundamentalist’ and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation. PMID:28344375

  12. Liberalization of energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    During the last decade, the supply of electricity has been liberalized in the Nordic countries - first in Norway in 1991 and most recently in Iceland in 2003. After the liberalization process the consumers can freely choose the end-use supplier that offers the most attractive prices and conditions of supply. This development has opened up new opportunities for the consumer, but has also created new problems. The amount of kWh consumed and the composition of the electricity price determines the extent to which a consumer can influence annual expenses by being active on the market. After liberalization the consumer price is composed of: The market price for electricity; Transmission tariffs; Consumer and energy taxes. Only the market price can be influenced by an active consumer. Most consumer problems are a result of the system with indirect metering that was introduced to make it costless for small consumers to change supplier. An individual consumer's consumption is calculated according to the average consumption profile for all small consumers in the local distribution area and not according to her actual consumption. As metering is only taking place with intervals of one to several years many consumers have received invoices with large additional payments. Complaints are also common against distribution companies that have taken too long time to transfer the necessary information to the suppliers or have done it wrongly. The right solution would be to introduce intelligent meters that, in addition, could provide the consumers with new opportunities to monitor their electricity consumption. Such initiatives are now taking place in all four countries but it will take some years to provide intelligent meters to all consumers. Liberalization has caused an increasing number of consumer complaints. However, it has become less transparent to whom the complaint should be directed. When is it the distribution company and when the end-use supplier? This problem continues

  13. Financial Liberalization and Financial Fragility

    OpenAIRE

    Enrica Detragiache; Asli Demirgüç-Kunt

    1998-01-01

    The authors study the empirical relationship between banking crises and financial liberalization using a panel of data for 53 countries for 1980-95. They find that banking crises are more likely to occur in liberalized financial systems. But financial liberalization's impact on a fragile banking sector is weaker where the institutional environment is strong--especially where there is respect for the rule of law, a low level of corruption, and good contract enforcement. They examine evidence o...

  14. The problem of morality in the Manichaean cosmological and soteriologic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Roberto Nunes Costa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Manicheism is founded in two world originating ontological principles: Good or Light, presented by the sun and Evil or Darkness, personinified in the matter. From this ontological dualism proceeds the idea which man is not responsible to the evil he practices according to, but this-one (evil is to be blamed to his bad nature, in other words evil is inherent to his corporal nature. Hence, strictly speaking, there is no real evil in manicheism, but only natural evil. However, paradoxally, manicheism refers to a duty Moral, which through the man good part (the soul must struggle in order to be liberated from matter´s bonds (the boddy, through an ascetical rigorous life, materialized in three commandments observance, the to called three seals: mouth, hands and breast seals.

  15. The liberal illusion of uniqueness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Chadly; West, Tessa V; Schmitt, Peter G

    2014-01-01

    In two studies, we demonstrated that liberals underestimate their similarity to other liberals (i.e., display truly false uniqueness), whereas moderates and conservatives overestimate their similarity to other moderates and conservatives (i.e., display truly false consensus; Studies 1 and 2). We further demonstrated that a fundamental difference between liberals and conservatives in the motivation to feel unique explains this ideological distinction in the accuracy of estimating similarity (Study 2). Implications of the accuracy of consensus estimates for mobilizing liberal and conservative political movements are discussed.

  16. Liberal Internationalism: Theory, History, Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Stuenkel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While liberalism keeps adapting to circumstances, its underlying dynamic is the same: Liberalism, Jahn, argues, is a political project that aims to establish individual freedom through private property and to protect and extend this freedom through government by consent - yet, it pursues this goal through the privatization and expropriation of common property and hence requires the production and reproduction of unequal power relations domestically and internationally. Liberalism is thus, in essence, made viable through power politics, with the mere difference that is uses liberal rhetoric as a fig leaf to conceal the ultimate goal: To provide a justification for American hegemony.

  17. The Imperative of Virtue in the Age of Global Technology and Globalized Mass Culture: A Liberal-Humanist Response to the Heideggerian Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalsky, Borys M.

    2011-01-01

    How has the globalization of technology contributed to the globalization of the war against the Enlightenment liberal humanism of Western civilization--in particular, to the globalization of the war between religion and science--and with what problematic moral, cultural, and spiritual consequences? Liberal-humanist and Heideggerian perspectives on…

  18. Is moral bioenhancement dangerous?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drake, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    In a recent response to Persson and Savulescu's Unfit for the Future, Nicholas Agar argues that moral bioenhancement is dangerous. His grounds for this are that normal moral judgement should be privileged because it involves a balance of moral subcapacities; moral bioenhancement, Agar argues, involves the enhancement of only particular moral subcapacities, and thus upsets the balance inherent in normal moral judgement. Mistaken moral judgements, he says, are likely to result. I argue that Agar's argument fails for two reasons. First, having strength in a particular moral subcapacity does not necessarily entail a worsening of moral judgement; it can involve strength in a particular aspect of morality. Second, normal moral judgement is not sufficiently likely to be correct to be the standard by which moral judgements are measured. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  19. Liberal Values at a Time of Neo-Liberalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Critical responses to changes in UK higher education have emerged from various quarters. This article suggests that some of these responses are collusive with neo-liberalism and that a greater attention might be paid to the possibilities of the word "liberal" and to the more democratic implications of certain US initiatives.

  20. High Faculty Morale: What Exemplary Colleges Do Right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, R. Eugene; Austin, Ann E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between faculty morale/satisfaction and various dimensions of the organizational culture of liberal arts colleges was examined, with focus on ten colleges. The power of organizational culture is made evident and reinforced through symbolic events and structures. (MLW)

  1. Classical Ethics, Jefferson's Christian Epicureanism, and American Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, Peter Augustine

    1991-01-01

    Outlines Thomas Jefferson's views of classic philosophical writers and various interpretations of their views on morality and epicureanism. Explains why teaching ancient and medieval political philosophy is necessary as an ethical supplement to U.S. political thought. States liberal democracy depends on the tension between reason and revelation.…

  2. Transcending the Nature of Refinement: The Policy Development on Liberal Arts Education in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, You Guo; Guo, Hong

    2017-01-01

    Liberal arts education is based on a philosophy that uses an interdisciplinary curriculum to cultivate critical thinking, creativity, moral reasoning, analytical skills, and a sense of social responsibility. As China continues to invest in higher education, faculty, administrators and policy makers are aware that a narrow focus on professional and…

  3. On Shermer on morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Christian B

    2016-11-01

    This is my critical commentary on Michael Shermer's paper "Morality is real, objective, and natural." Shermer and I agree that morality is both real and objective. Here I raise serious reservations about both Shermer's account of where morality comes from and his account of what morality tells us to do. His approach to the foundations of morality would allow some very disturbing behaviors to count as moral, and his approach to what morality says does not provide the action guidance we need from a moral theory. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  4. Moralization Through Moral Shock: Exploring Emotional Antecedents to Moral Conviction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisneski, Daniel C; Skitka, Linda J

    2017-02-01

    The current research tested whether exposure to disgusting images increases moral conviction and whether this happens in the presence of incidental disgust cues versus disgust cues relevant to the target of moralization. Across two studies, we exposed participants to one of the four sets of disgusting versus control images to test the moralization of abortion attitudes: pictures of aborted fetuses, animal abuse, non-harm related disgusting images, harm related disgusting images, or neutral pictures, at either sub- or supraliminal levels of awareness. Moral conviction about abortion increased (compared with control) only for participants exposed to abortion-related images at speeds slow enough to allow conscious awareness. Study 2 replicated this finding, and found that the relationship between attitudinally relevant disgust and moral conviction was mediated by disgust, and not anger or harm appraisals. Findings are discussed in terms of their relevance for intuitionist theories of morality and moral theories that emphasize harm.

  5. From metaphysical to political: Does political culture make Rawls's principle of tolerance morally relativistic?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vranić Bojan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze Rawls's conception of political (public culture, exploring whether his principle of tolerance (Political Liberalism falls in moral relativism. The analysis consists of three sections. Firstly, the author introduces different critical accounts on Rawls's theory and identifies where they go wrong. Secondly, the author delineates the intellectual tradition of social liberalism from which sprang Rawls's conception, showing that he significantly alters the key ideas of dominant liberal justice of the Western world. In the final section of the paper it is argued that Rawls's idea of political culture is a cornerstone of just society and the spring of tolerance, providing arguments in favor of the idea that Rawls's conception of political liberalism is not morally relativistic but it is, however, in line with liberal pluralism.

  6. Contesting 'Patriotic History': Zimbabwe's liberation war history and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Remarkably, the article observes that the exclusively women authored anthology on liberation war history offers an inventory of a gender based trajectory of memory, thus ... On the other hand, the sidelined demographic categories contest narrow 'patriotic history' by engineering counter discursive historical accounts.

  7. Influence of the cortical midline structures on moral emotion and motivation in moral decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hyemin; Chen, Jingyuan; Jeong, Changwoo; Glover, Gary H

    2016-04-01

    The present study aims to examine the relationship between the cortical midline structures (CMS), which have been regarded to be associated with selfhood, and moral decision making processes at the neural level. Traditional moral psychological studies have suggested the role of moral self as the moderator of moral cognition, so activity of moral self would present at the neural level. The present study examined the interaction between the CMS and other moral-related regions by conducting psycho-physiological interaction analysis of functional images acquired while 16 subjects were solving moral dilemmas. Furthermore, we performed Granger causality analysis to demonstrate the direction of influences between activities in the regions in moral decision-making. We first demonstrate there are significant positive interactions between two central CMS seed regions-i.e., the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)-and brain regions associated with moral functioning including the cerebellum, brainstem, midbrain, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex and anterior insula (AI); on the other hand, the posterior insula (PI) showed significant negative interaction with the seed regions. Second, several significant Granger causality was found from CMS to insula regions particularly under the moral-personal condition. Furthermore, significant dominant influence from the AI to PI was reported. Moral psychological implications of these findings are discussed. The present study demonstrated the significant interaction and influence between the CMS and morality-related regions while subject were solving moral dilemmas. Given that, activity in the CMS is significantly involved in human moral functioning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Was Montesquieu a Liberal Republican?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Dijn, A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper sets out to criticize Thomas Pangle's and Paul Rahe's reading of The Spirit of the Laws as a contribution to liberal republicanism, arguing instead that Montesquieu's text is better understood as a defense of liberal monarchism. Pangle's and Rahe's interpretation of The Spirit of the Laws

  9. Speech Communication and Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Bert E.

    1979-01-01

    Argues for the continuation of liberal education over career-oriented programs. Defines liberal education as one that develops abilities that transcend occupational concerns, and that enables individuals to cope with shifts in values, vocations, careers, and the environment. Argues that speech communication makes a significant contribution to…

  10. Marxism, Liberalism, and Educational Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margonis, Frank

    1993-01-01

    Examines educational theory, Marxism, and liberalism, discussing Kenneth Strike's "Liberal Justice and the Marxist Critique of Education" and Daniel Liston's "Capitalist Schools: Explanation and Ethics in Radical Studies of Schooling." Suggests that both authors are too hasty in abandoning Marxism and that Marxism is the…

  11. Moral Motivation, Moral Judgment, and Antisocial Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Jeff; Bock, Tonia; Narvaez, Darcia

    2013-01-01

    The link between judgment and action is weak throughout psychology, including moral psychology. That is, people often do not act in accordance with their reasoning. Might moral judgment development be better viewed as a capacity that inhibits "immoral" behavior? One model that helps account for the moral judgment-action gap is Rest's…

  12. Liberalism and Public Health Ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajczi, Alex

    2016-02-01

    Many public health dilemmas involve a tension between the promotion of health and the rights of individuals. This article suggests that we should resolve the tension using our familiar liberal principles of government. The article considers the common objections that (i) liberalism is incompatible with standard public health interventions such as anti-smoking measures or intervention in food markets; (2) there are special reasons for hard paternalism in public health; and (3) liberalism is incompatible with proper protection of the community good. The article argues that we should examine these critiques in a larger methodological framework by first acknowledging that the right theory of public health ethics is the one we arrive at in reflective equilibrium. Once we examine the arguments for and against liberalism in that light, we can see the weaknesses in the objections and the strength of the case for liberalism in public health. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Refining moral agency: Insights from moral psychology and moral philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milliken, Aimee

    2018-01-01

    Research in moral psychology has recently raised questions about the impact of context and the environment on the way the human mind works. In a 2012 call to action, Paley wrote: "If some of the conclusions arrived at by moral psychologists are true, they are directly relevant to the way nurses think about moral problems, and present serious challenges to favoured concepts in nursing ethics, such as the ethics of care, virtue, and the unity of the person" (p. 80). He urges nurse ethicists and scholars to evaluate the impact these findings may have for moral theory. In this paper, I review some of Paley's (Nursing Philosophy, 13, 2012, 80) critique, focusing on the argument that theories of nursing ethics have failed to account for the role of context; both in terms of its impact on the way nurses make moral judgements and in terms of the environment's influence on the way the mind works. I then examine nursing literature on moral agency, and focus on the role of the environment and context play within existing theory. I argue that theories of moral agency have often accounted for the role of context on the way nurses make decisions; however, less attention has been paid to its impact on the mind. With this background, I use insights from the fields of moral philosophy and moral psychology to refine the conceptualization of nurse moral agency in a way that is reflective of current cognitive, philosophical and nursing practice-based science. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Moral Education in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Jeffrey F.

    1988-01-01

    Reports the attitudes of 80 Taiwanese teachers of morality about moral education in the face of drastic social change and modernization. Discusses the content and nature of traditional Chinese morality, the effects of contemporary culture on children's moral development, and teaching methods. Contains 18 references. (SV)

  15. Moral motivation within groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Romy van der

    2013-01-01

    Morality is of particular importance to people: People want to be considered moral and want to belong to moral groups. Consequently, morality judgments have the potential to motivate individuals to behave in ways that are considered to be ‘good’. In the current dissertation, I examined the impact of

  16. Morality in everyday life

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hofmann, W.; Wisneski, D.C.; Brandt, M.J.; Skitka, L.J.

    2014-01-01

    The science of morality has drawn heavily on well-controlled but artificial laboratory settings. To study everyday morality, we repeatedly assessed moral or immoral acts and experiences in a large (N = 1252) sample using ecological momentary assessment. Moral experiences were surprisingly frequent

  17. Educating Moral Emotions or Moral Selves: A False Dichotomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2010-01-01

    In the post-Kohlbergian era of moral education, a "moral gap" has been identified between moral cognition and moral action. Contemporary moral psychologists lock horns over how this gap might be bridged. The two main contenders for such bridge-building are moral emotions and moral selves. I explore these two options from an Aristotelian…

  18. Defining Legal Moralism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thaysen, Jens Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses how legal moralism should be defined. It is argued that legal moralism should be defined as the position that “For any X, it is always a pro tanto reason for justifiably imposing legal regulation on X that X is morally wrong (where “morally wrong” is not conceptually equivalent...... to “harmful”)”. Furthermore, a distinction between six types of legal moralism is made. The six types are grouped according to whether they are concerned with the enforcement of positive or critical morality, and whether they are concerned with criminalising, legally restricting, or refraining from legally...... protecting morally wrong behaviour. This is interesting because not all types of legal moralism are equally vulnerable to the different critiques of legal moralism that have been put forth. Indeed, I show that some interesting types of legal moralism have not been criticised at all....

  19. Foundations for Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Velleman, J. David

    2015-01-01

    In this new edition of Foundations for Moral Relativism, a distinguished moral philosopher tames a bugbear of current debate about cultural difference. J. David Velleman shows that different communities can indeed be subject to incompatible moralities, because their local mores are rationally binding. At the same time, he explains why the mores of different communities, even when incompatible, are still variations on the same moral themes. The book thus maps out a universe of many moral world...

  20. Stiff Hands

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Stiff Hands Email to a friend * required fields ...

  1. Hand Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Infections Email to a friend * required fields ...

  2. Justicia, cuidado y el planteamiento de una moral comunitaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Frisancho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available La teoría de Kohlberg es la más clara aproximación, desde la psicología, al concepto de una moral comunitaria, principalmente con su propuesta educativa de las Comunidades Justas. El presente artículo, sin embargo, pone en cuestión la coherencia de esta propuesta dentro del marco deontológico liberal de la teoría Kohlbergiana. En este sentido, este artículo revisa el concepto de comunidad que mantienen la teoría de Kohlberg y las teorías críticas a ésta -principalmente la teoría del cuidado- las que partiendo de premisas filosóficas distintas y entendiendo el concepto de comunidad de modo diferente, sugieren la necesidad de una ética comunitaria para el desarrollo de una verdadera identidad moral. Kohlberg's theory of moral development is the most accurate approach, within psychology, to the concept of a communitarian morality, essentially with the Just Community approach to moral education. This article, however, asks about the coherence of this approach within the liberal deontological framework of the Kohlbergian theory. The article reviews the concept of community hold by Kohlberg's theory and the caring perspective, theories that eventhough assume different philosophical premises and a different concept of community, call for a communitarian ethics for the development of a real moral self.

  3. A Multilevel Examination of the Influence of Institutional Type on the Moral Reasoning Development of First-Year Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayhew, Matthew J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of institutional type on the moral reasoning development of 1,469 first-year students. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to account for students nested within institutions. Moral reasoning gains were related to, but not dependent upon, institutional type, with students at liberal arts…

  4. Sociological concept of morale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjanović Miloš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The author first discusses the overall unity of the total normative regulation, from which it is separated in the late Roman empire the right, but only in the new century and the morale. There are analyzed the relationship between the moral and ethical reflection and Weber's distinction between pure ethics will (Gesinnungsethik and ethics of responsibility (Verantwortungsethik. The morale is determined by the good as the highest value, as a specific form of social norms but also as a kind of human behavior. These three definitions can be combined in an integrative approach. There are examined the dimensions of moral statements, subjective and objective side of morality, as well as the difference between morale and morality. A general notion of morale can not be defined in substantive but only in formal way . The formal definition is a constituent of general as well as of sociological concept of morale and it is related to morality as a social phenomenon. Its essence is to define the morale by specific norms, the characteristics of the internal and external mandatory (with the pricks of conscience as the most distinctive moral sanction and control exercised by the formal not institutionalized or diffuse society , and in consideration of morality as a social process (actions of people associated moral norms . The basic types of social moral process - being, education, functioning and changing of morale are described. There are briefly analyzed the influence of society to the morale and social function of morale, with special emphasis on the relationship between law and morale.

  5. Politisk liberalism och skolans religionsundervisning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Rosenquist

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available POLITICAL LIBERALISM AND RELIGIOUS EDUCATION. Based on John Rawls’ latertheory of political liberalism, this article critically analyses what religiouseducation could mean in times of increasing societal pluralism and a world-wide revival of religion. Important elements of political liberalism – such asthe notions of reasonable persons and public reason – are elaborated onand related to religious individuals and perspectives. It is argued that polit-ical liberalism supports mandatory religious education, but of a certainkind. Schools have an obligation to provide students with knowledge aboutreligions, and to foster a spirit of tolerance and respect for the demands ofpublic reason. But they cannot legitimately give students the impression thatall religions are equally true or false. This makes for a problematic situation:how is it possible to teach students about religion without crossing the lineand teaching religious relativism? If it is not possible, then political liberalismseems to be more controversial than Rawls would admit.

  6. The poverty of liberal economics

    OpenAIRE

    Brady, David

    2003-01-01

    Liberal economic precepts have long been a foundation for the social science of poverty and continue to profoundly influence public policy. Liberal economics contends that poverty is dependent on the harmonious progress of economic growth, free market capitalism, worker productivity, and the supply and demand of labor. This paper traces its origins from classical economics and its influence throughout contemporary social science, public policy and conventional wisdom. Next, I evaluate the lib...

  7. Which Companies Benefit form Liberalization?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baghdasaryan, Delia; la Cour, Lisbeth; Schneider, Cédric

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical research shows that competition has positive effects on productivity, for companies that are initially efficient, but not for unproductive firms. Our empirical analysis on a panel data of Czech companies, years 1995–2004, confirms this result. In addition, our analysis shows that when...... economic reforms affect both domestic and foreign competition, controlling for domestic competition is crucial when assessing the impact of trade liberalization. Otherwise, the effect of trade liberalization on firm productivity is upward biased....

  8. The Connection between Beauty and Morality in Kant's aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali salmani

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract At first glance it seems that Kant distinguishes beauty from morality because while analyzing the matter of beauty according to quality, he explicitly separates pleasure of beauty from pleasure of agreeable and pleasure of good; and believes that the pleasure of the beauty is neither to satisfy our physical desires nor to achieve a moral purpose. On the other hand, Kant speaks of a connection between beauty and morality in some sections of his critique of judgment. This essay intends to study the mentioned sections and clarifies how one can distinguish beauty from morality and simultaneously believes in the connection between beauty and morality. Following this, we are going to discuss why Kant deems such a connection necessary. Examining this matter, we will find out that morality and aesthetics can be indirectly related to each other. Kant's most major concern with regard to the connection between beauty and morality is the connection between feelings and foredoom.

  9. Does classical liberalism imply democracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ellerman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a fault line running through classical liberalism as to whether or not democratic self-governance is a necessary part of a liberal social order. The democratic and non-democratic strains of classical liberalism are both present today—particularly in the United States. Many contemporary libertarians and neo-Austrian economists represent the non-democratic strain in their promotion of non-democratic sovereign city-states (start-up cities or charter cities. We will take the late James M. Buchanan as a representative of the democratic strain of classical liberalism. Since the fundamental norm of classical liberalism is consent, we must start with the intellectual history of the voluntary slavery contract, the coverture marriage contract, and the voluntary non-democratic constitution (or pactum subjectionis. Next we recover the theory of inalienable rights that descends from the Reformation doctrine of the inalienability of conscience through the Enlightenment (e.g. Spinoza and Hutcheson in the abolitionist and democratic movements. Consent-based governments divide into those based on the subjects’ alienation of power to a sovereign and those based on the citizens’ delegation of power to representatives. Inalienable rights theory rules out that alienation in favor of delegation, so the citizens remain the ultimate principals and the form of government is democratic. Thus the argument concludes in agreement with Buchanan that the classical liberal endorsement of sovereign individuals acting in the marketplace generalizes to the joint action of individuals as the principals in their own organizations.

  10. Liberal theory of passive citizenship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salatić Stevan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this seminar paper I will focus on the analysis of liberal theory of citizenship. The focus of the study will be on the liberal-communitarian dispute in the theory of citizenship, with main ideas of the most important representatives of liberal discourse in the field of citizenship also being discussed. I will look more closely at the ideas of T.H. Marshall, as the most significant writer of liberal orthodoxy in the second half of the twentieth century, his contribution to liberal theory of passive citizenship, but I will also deal with the ideas of his biggest critics, both from the aspect of liberalism and from the aspect of communitarianism, including Anthony Giddens, Claus Offe, Michael Mann, Barrington Moore and Brian Turner. The emphasis will be on Marshall's term 'conquest of citizenship', as well as on the derivation of various theories of state from the obtained rights achieved through the expansion of the concept of citizenship. Finally, I will say something about modern obstacles to theories of passive citizenship derived from the communitarian school.

  11. Ethical Liberalism, Education and the "New Right."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olssen, Mark

    2000-01-01

    Examines the philosophical tradition of ethical liberalism from its emergence as a coherent response to 19th century classical liberal individualism through contemporary formulations. Pursues origins in John Stuart Mills's writings and assesses ethical liberalism's relevance for understanding current neo-liberal policy restructuring in education.…

  12. The Psychology of the Politics of Rape: Political Ideology, Moral Foundations, and Attitudes Toward Rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Hilz, Emily N

    2018-04-01

    Previous research has found that conservatives and liberals emphasize different moral foundations. The purpose of these two studies was to investigate whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape among U.S. college students. In Study 1, moral foundations fully mediated the relationship between political ideology and rape myth acceptance. Study 2 generally replicated the results of Study 1, with binding foundations demonstrating the most consistent mediating effects. These results suggest that individual differences in moral decision-making may explain the relationship between political ideology and attitudes toward rape.

  13. Brogaard's Moral Contextualism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Binderup, Lars Grassme

    2008-01-01

    Brogaard's non-indexical version of moral contextualism has two related problems. It is unable to account for the function of truth-governed assertoric moral discourse, since it leaves two (semantically clearheaded) disputants without any incentive to resolve seemingly contradictory moral claims....... The moral contextualist could explain why people do feel such an incentive by ascribing false beliefs about the semantic workings of their own language. But, secondly, this leaves Brogaard's moral contextualism looking weaker than a Mackie-style invariantist error theory about morals. The latter is equally...

  14. The Moral Vacuum in Teacher Education Research and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanger, Matthew; Osguthorpe, Richard

    2013-01-01

    This chapter examines the gap between the widespread acknowledgment that teaching is a moral endeavor, on the one hand, and the lack of explicit, systematic teacher education research and practice to support preparing teachers for the moral aspects of teaching. After providing an initial description of the aforementioned gap, the chapter surveys…

  15. Hand Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy ... DESCRIPTION The bones of the hand serve as a framework. This framework supports the muscles that make the wrist and fingers move. When ...

  16. Moral Education as Intercultural Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisancho, Susana; Delgado, Guillermo Enrique

    2018-01-01

    In a diverse country such as Peru, moral education should reflect social, cultural, political and spiritual dilemmas of both indigenous and non-indigenous peoples and their communities. To promote understanding and respect amongst people from different sociocultural backgrounds, moral education should encourage a dialogue between indigenous values…

  17. Moral Appearances: Emotions, Robots, and Human Morality.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Can we build ‘moral robots’? If morality depends on emotions, the answer seems negative. Current robots do not meet standard necessary conditions for having emotions: they lack consciousness, mental states, and feelings. Moreover, it is not even clear how we might ever establish whether robots

  18. Objectivity And Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Magni, Sergio Filippo

    2017-01-01

    The relativity of morals has usually been taken as an argument against the objectivity of ethics. However, a more careful analysis can show that there are forms of moral objectivism which have relativistic implications, and that moral relativism can be compatible with the objectivity of ethics. Such an objectivity is not always in contrast to moral relativism and it is possible to be relativists without having to give up the claim of objectivity in ethics

  19. Reactions to morally motivated deviance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cramwinckel, F.M.; Van den Bos, K.; Van Dijk, E.

    2015-01-01

    People value morality in themselves and others. They want to be moral and good individuals, associate themselves with others who share their moral values, and belong to moral groups. As an ironic consequence of the importance of morality, people sometimes respond negatively to morally motivated

  20. Morale and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    account for valuation of highly technical skill sets and variation among job descriptions. 9 Once morale can be effectively measured and linked to...morale progression through phases (arrival, engagement, acceptance, and reentry), which have corresponding peaks and valleys for morale and, by

  1. Moral Education and Caring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2010-01-01

    Michael Slote's very interesting work on moral sentimentalism and moral education raises some important questions on the meaning of empathy, the limitations of "inductions", and the development of moral education from the perspective of care ethics. These questions are addressed in this commentary. (Contains 5 notes.)

  2. Moral Education in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Shafiqua

    1980-01-01

    This report describes formal and informal methods of moral education operative in Pakistan. The nation's Islamic environment is explained; school policy, objectives, and practices are outlined; and informal moral education efforts through the mass media are noted. Problems in moral education in Pakistan and proposals for the future are discussed.…

  3. Mapping the Moral Domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Jesse; Nosek, Brian A.; Haidt, Jonathan; Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Ditto, Peter H.

    2010-01-01

    The moral domain is broader than the empathy and justice concerns assessed by existing measures of moral competence, and it is not just a subset of the values assessed by value inventories. To fill the need for reliable and theoretically-grounded measurement of the full range of moral concerns, we developed the Moral Foundations Questionnaire (MFQ) based on a theoretical model of five universally available (but variably developed) sets of moral intuitions: Harm/care, Fairness/reciprocity, Ingroup/loyalty, Authority/respect, and Purity/sanctity. We present evidence for the internal and external validity of the scale and the model, and in doing so present new findings about morality: 1. Comparative model fitting of confirmatory factor analyses provides empirical justification for a five-factor structure of moral concerns. 2. Convergent/discriminant validity evidence suggests that moral concerns predict personality features and social group attitudes not previously considered morally relevant. 3. We establish pragmatic validity of the measure in providing new knowledge and research opportunities concerning demographic and cultural differences in moral intuitions. These analyses provide evidence for the usefulness of Moral Foundations Theory in simultaneously increasing the scope and sharpening the resolution of psychological views of morality. PMID:21244182

  4. Sentimentalist Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slote, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Care ethics, and moral sentimentalism more generally, have not developed a picture of moral education that is comparable in scope or depth to the rationalist/Kantian/Rawlsian account of moral education that has been offered by Lawrence Kohlberg. But it is possible to do so if one borrows from the work of Martin Hoffman and makes systematic use of…

  5. Mathematics for the liberal arts

    CERN Document Server

    Bindner, Donald; Hemmeter, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Presents a clear bridge between mathematics and the liberal arts Mathematics for the Liberal Arts provides a comprehensible and precise introduction to modern mathematics intertwined with the history of mathematical discoveries. The book discusses mathematical ideas in the context of the unfolding story of human thought and highlights the application of mathematics in everyday life. Divided into two parts, Mathematics for the Liberal Arts first traces the history of mathematics from the ancient world to the Middle Ages, then moves on to the Renaissance and finishes with the development of modern mathematics. In the second part, the book explores major topics of calculus and number theory, including problem-solving techniques and real-world applications. This book emphasizes learning through doing, presents a practical approach, and features: A detailed explanation of why mathematical principles are true and how the mathematical processes workNumerous figures and diagrams as well as hundreds of worked example...

  6. FITS Liberator: Image processing software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg Christensen, Lars; Nielsen, Lars Holm; Nielsen, Kaspar K.; Johansen, Teis; Hurt, Robert; de Martin, David

    2012-06-01

    The ESA/ESO/NASA FITS Liberator makes it possible to process and edit astronomical science data in the FITS format to produce stunning images of the universe. Formerly a plugin for Adobe Photoshop, the current version of FITS Liberator is a stand-alone application and no longer requires Photoshop. This image processing software makes it possible to create color images using raw observations from a range of telescopes; the FITS Liberator continues to support the FITS and PDS formats, preferred by astronomers and planetary scientists respectively, which enables data to be processed from a wide range of telescopes and planetary probes, including ESO's Very Large Telescope, the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope, ESA's XMM-Newton Telescope and Cassini-Huygens or Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter.

  7. Denmark between liberalism and nationalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents; Mouritsen, Per

    2013-01-01

    What explains the restrictive turn towards immigrants in European countries like Denmark? Are countries returning to nationalism, or are they following a general European trend towards a perfectionist, even ‘repressive’ liberalism that seeks to create ‘liberal people’ out of immigrants? Recent...... developments in Danish policies of integration and citizenship, education and anti-discrimination suggest a combination of these two diagnoses. The current Danish ‘integration philosophy’ leaves behind a previous concern with private choice and equal rights and opportunities to emphasize other historical...

  8. Religion, morality, evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Paul

    2012-01-01

    How did religion evolve? What effect does religion have on our moral beliefs and moral actions? These questions are related, as some scholars propose that religion has evolved to enhance altruistic behavior toward members of one's group. I review here data from survey studies (both within and across countries), priming experiments, and correlational studies of the effects of religion on racial prejudice. I conclude that religion has powerfully good moral effects and powerfully bad moral effects, but these are due to aspects of religion that are shared by other human practices. There is surprisingly little evidence for a moral effect of specifically religious beliefs.

  9. Hand Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from conditions such as carpal tunnel syndrome and tennis elbow , as well as from chronic problems such as ... Tools Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist on Tennis Elbow Advice from a Certified Hand Therapist: Living with( ...

  10. La vrai morale se moque de la morale: questões éticas em Pascal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telma de Souza Birchal

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Em Pascal encontramos um duplo registro da questão moral: por um lado, o autor dos Pensées dirige uma dura crítica aos ideais morais da filosofia, especialmente aos do estoicismo; por outro, ele afirma uma "verdadeira moral" que "zomba da moral". A análise desse duplo registro será feita a partir de quatro contextos encontrados nos Pensamentos: 1- O contexto epistemológico da diferença entre espírito geométrico e espírito de finesse, ao qual se remetem os termos correlatos "moral do espírito" e "moral do julgamento"; 2- O contexto antropológico da "desproporção do homem" e da virtude como meio-termo; 3- O contexto antropológico - teológico da miséria e da grandeza do homem 4- O contexto metafísico-teológico da teoria das "três ordens de coisas". A "verdadeira moral" constitui-se, afinal, por dois movimentos: no primeiro, a moral pascaliana é simplesmente naturalista e compartilha do espírito mecanicista do seu século. Em seu segundo movimento, ela é teológica e constitui-se essencialmente como uma hermenêutica do desejo.We find in Pascal a double approach to the moral issue. On the one hand the author of the Pensées strongly criticizes the moral ideals of philosophy, in particular those of Stoicism but, on the other, he claims that there is a "true morals" which "mocks of morals". We here analyze this double approach from the point of view of four contexts exhibited in the Pensées: 1- The epistemological context that distinguishes the "esprit de géométrie" and the "esprit de finesse" which points, respectively, to a "moral of the ' esprit'" and to a "moral of judgment". 2- The anthropological context of the "disproportion of men" and of virtue as mean 3- The anthropological-theological context of the misery and greatness of man. 4- The metaphysical-theological context of the theory of the "three orders of things". The "true morals" is construed in two movements. In the first, Pascal's morals is naturalistic and

  11. Hand Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is ... Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons Anatomy The upper extremity is ...

  12. On the Adaptive Value of Moralized Revulsion from an Evolutionist Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Natalia Zavadivker

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The article addresses the role played by “moralized revulsion”, understood as the emotional disgust we feel against individuals and social practices that we deem to be the object of moral evaluation, from an evolutionist perspective. The first part provides a general analysis of the emotion of revulsion and its triggers. Then, the paper discusses two opposing positions regarding the reliability and instrumental value of revulsion in promoting “adequate” moral judgments and inciting to moral action. It then proposes a reinterpretation of the problem from an evolutionist perspective, attempting to correlate the diverse value judgments promoted by moralized revulsion with different adaptive strategies. Finally, it correlates those strategies with liberal and conservative moral positions.

  13. From species ethics to social concerns: Habermas's critique of "liberal eugenics" evaluated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Árnason, Vilhjálmur

    2014-10-01

    Three arguments of Habermas against "liberal eugenics" -- the arguments from consent, responsibility, and instrumentalization -- are critically evaluated and explicated in the light of his discourse ethics and social theory. It is argued that these arguments move partly at a too deep level and are in part too individualistic and psychological to sufficiently counter the liberal position that he sets out to criticize. This is also due to limitations that prevent discourse ethics from connecting effectively to the moral and political domains, e.g., through a discussion of justice. In spite of these weaknesses, Habermas's thesis is of major relevance and brings up neglected issues in the discussion about eugenic reproductive practices. This relevance has not been duly recognized in bioethics, largely because of the depth of his speculations of philosophical anthropology. It is argued that Habermas's notion of the colonization of the lifeworld could provide the analytical tool needed to build that bridge to the moral and political domain.

  14. Financial Liberalization and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bumann, S.; Hermes, N.; Lensink, B.W.

    2013-01-01

    This study provides a systematic analysis of the empirical literature on the relationship between financial liberalization and economic growth by conducting a meta-analysis, based on 441 t-statistics reported in 60 empirical studies. We focus on explaining the heterogeneity of results in our sample

  15. Economic Liberalization and Political Violence

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The liberal promise has permeated international discourses and practices. In the ... Actually, many of the core principles of neoliberalism were specifically conceived of as ...... Di John, J. (2006) “The Political Economy of Taxation and Tax Reform in ...... Malaysia. Ireland. Guatemala. New Zealand. Italy. Honduras. Philippines.

  16. Mobile Technology and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossing, Jonathan P.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author offers reflections on the impact of mobile technology for liberal education. These reflections are based on his own experience of incorporating iPads in his communication courses during the 2010-2011 academic year. As a member of an interdisciplinary faculty learning community on the use of mobile tablets, he explored…

  17. The Conservative Challenge to Liberalism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Claassen, R.J.G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reconstructs the political–theoretical triangle between liberalism, communitarianism and conservatism. It shows how these three positions are related to each other and to what extent they are actually incompatible. The substantive outcome is the following thesis: the conservative position

  18. Augustine and the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Erik

    2013-01-01

    In an early dialogue, "On Order", Augustine sets out a program for thinking about thinking. Through such reflections, students attain self-knowledge and prepare for philosophical inquiry. The liberal arts are useful for this project, insofar as they provide opportunities for thinking, yet they are not ultimately necessary. I suggest that "On…

  19. Pragmatic Liberalism and President Obama

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haroon A. Khan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This research seeks to examine the foreign policy of President Obama with special reference to Bangladesh from the point of pragmatic liberalism. Pragmatism means understanding the realities of the situation and making decisions based on thorough research of these realities. Pragmatism opposes strict adherence to ideological beliefs in pursuing foreign policy. President Obama came into power amid one of the most volatile and dangerous times in the history of the United States occupied with two foreign wars, and inherited an economy on the brink of collapse. The key features of Obama’s pragmatic liberalism in foreign policy are to promote liberal ideas as long as it does not threaten the national security interests, emphasize diplomacy in solving the conflicts, foster humanitarian issues, develop alliances and multilateral agreements, uphold the major national interests, and strengthen national security defined in terms of economic well-being. The article will analyze U.S. foreign policy toward Bangladesh based on pragmatic liberalism of President Obama.

  20. [Hand osteoarthritis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šenolt, Ladislav

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is a common chronic disorder causing pain and limitation of mobility of affected joints. The prevalence of hand OA increases with age and more often affects females. Clinical signs obviously do not correlate with radiographic findings - symptomatic hand OA affects approximately 26 % of adult subjects, but radiographic changes can be found in up to two thirds of females and half of males older than 55 years.Disease course differ among individual patients. Hand OA is a heterogeneous disease. Nodal hand OA is the most common subtype affecting interphalangeal joints, thumb base OA affects first carpometacarpal joint. Erosive OA represents a specific subtype of hand OA, which is associated with joint inflammation, more pain, functional limitation and erosive findings on radiographs.Treatment of OA is limited. Analgesics and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are the only agents reducing symptoms. New insights into the pathogenesis of disease should contribute to the development of novel effective treatment of hand OA.

  1. Liberalization and regulation. European lessons and Colombian trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Ignacio Bernal Forero

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews the consequences of liberalization and regulation processes on services of general interest in Europe, in the context of economic integration. It highlights the differences observed between network utilities like telecommunications, electricity and gas, on the one hand, and drinking water or services of a social nature, on the other hand. The article analyzes why the latter have enjoyed a rather special status when it comes to applying the rules of competition, and it discusses the legal treatment given by the European Commission to the public subsidies which these services receive. Finally, certain parallels have been drawn with public utilities in Colombia since the 1990s.

  2. Economic and Social Political Ideology and Homophobia: The Mediating Role of Binding and Individualizing Moral Foundations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Michael D; Öz, Haluk C M; Marsden, Arthur D

    2018-05-01

    Previous research has linked conservative political ideology with homophobia. Political ideology has also been linked to differences in moral decision-making, with research suggesting that conservatives and liberals may use different values in their moral decision-making processes. Moral foundations theory is a model of moral decision-making that proposes that individuals emphasize different domains in moral decision-making. Conservatives tend to emphasize binding foundations, while liberals tend to emphasize individualizing foundations. Utilizing large, ethnically diverse college samples, the purpose of these two cross-sectional studies (Study 1 N = 492; Study 2 N = 861) was to explore whether moral foundations mediate the relationship between political ideology and homophobia. These studies explored economic and social political ideology separately and utilized a two-factor model of moral foundations theory (individualizing and binding foundations). Results of both studies found that conservative economic and social political ideology was positively associated with homophobia. Study 1 found that both conservative economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through binding foundations. Study 2 found that both economic and social political ideology had an indirect effect on homophobia through both binding and individualizing foundations. Overall, the results were consistent with the notion that moral foundations may explain the relationship between political ideology and homophobia.

  3. Moral education through literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantić Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines a variety of perspectives on the role of literature in moral education. These proceed from general considerations to more specific issues that remain contested to the present day, such as distinction between individual and social morality. Others bring any literature under suspicion in the post-structuralist era, such as the cultural relativity of morality, distinctions between aesthetic and moral dimensions of literary works, and between moral awareness and behavior. The discussion is illustrated through considerations of the place of literature in English moral education from the Victorians to the present day. The discussion of dilemmas that policy makers and educators face today focuses on three dilemmas that often serve to question a possibility of justifying the morally educative power of literature: cultural relativism in literature and ideology (and its implications for the canon, the distinction between an aesthetic and moral power of literature, and finally, the doubts about the transferability of moral awareness acquired through literature to actual moral conduct. .

  4. Moral Action as Social Capital, Moral Thought as Cultural Capital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Min Ju; Glassman, Michael

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores the idea that moral thought/reasoning and moral actions are actually two separate phenomena that have little relationship to each other. The idea that moral thinking does or can control moral action creates a difficult dualism between our knowledge about morality and our everyday actions. These differences run parallel to the…

  5. Multiculturalism and the Mission of Liberal Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez; Salkever, Katya

    This paper examines attempts at four prototypical undergraduate liberal arts colleges to build community based on liberal educational principles and values, and investigates liberal education's ability to meet the challenges of multiculturalism. Data for the study was derived from a content analysis of archival materials from the four colleges,…

  6. Computer Science and the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Christine

    2010-01-01

    Computer science and the liberal arts have much to offer each other. Yet liberal arts colleges, in particular, have been slow to recognize the opportunity that the study of computer science provides for achieving the goals of a liberal education. After the precipitous drop in computer science enrollments during the first decade of this century,…

  7. How Liberal is Nepal's Liberal Grade Promotion Policy?

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Dhiraj

    2016-01-01

    This paper estimates the magnitude of liberal grade promotion in public schools in Nepal by comparing the pass rate in internally administered exams with the pass rate in the district-exam whose scores determine grade transition. The pass rate in the year-end exam is three and a half times as high as the pass rate in the internal exams. The difference is not explained by an increase in stu...

  8. Explaining Moral Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Magda; Wiegmann, Alex

    2017-03-01

    In this review we make a simple theoretical argument which is that for theory development, computational modeling, and general frameworks for understanding moral psychology researchers should build on domain-general principles from reasoning, judgment, and decision-making research. Our approach is radical with respect to typical models that exist in moral psychology that tend to propose complex innate moral grammars and even evolutionarily guided moral principles. In support of our argument we show that by using a simple value-based decision model we can capture a range of core moral behaviors. Crucially, the argument we propose is that moral situations per se do not require anything specialized or different from other situations in which we have to make decisions, inferences, and judgments in order to figure out how to act.

  9. Moral realism in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Steven D

    2014-04-01

    For more than 15 years Professor Per Nortvedt has been arguing the case for moral realism in nursing and the health-care context more generally. His arguments focus on the clinical contexts of nursing and medicine and are supplemented by a series of persuasive examples. Following a description of moral realism, and the kinds of considerations that support it, criticisms of it are developed that seem persuasive. It is argued that our moral responses are explained by our beliefs as opposed to moral realities. In particular, two key arguments presented by Nortvedt are challenged: the so-called argument from convergence and the argument from clinical sensitivity. Both of these key planks in the case for moral realism are rejected, and an alternative 'social conditioning' account briefly sketched, which, it is claimed, has the same explanatory power as Nortvedt's thesis but does not rest on an appeal to independently existing moral properties. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Morale in the market

    OpenAIRE

    Ognedal, Tone

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing interest in morale as a potential substitute for sanctions, encouraged by exerimental evidence that people's morale affect their economic decisions. I show that while morale may be a substitute for sanctions for each citizen, it is not a substitute in the market. In a model where employed and self-employed differ in their opportunities for tax evasion, I demonstrate that a higher fraction of tax compliant citizens may reduce social surplus and tax revenues. In contrast to s...

  11. Liberal intolerance in European education debates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Tore Vincents

    2017-01-01

    The reaction against non-western immigrants and especially Muslims has been analysed both in terms of an exclusionary civic nationalism and in terms of an assertive liberalism. Similar to exclusionary civic nationalism, assertive liberalism purports to defend liberal democratic principles...... by subdividing it into four categories of liberal intolerance and demonstrates this by analysing six national debates on the accommodation of cultural and religious diversity in education. The analysis indicates that the nature of liberal intolerance understood as the combination of the four categories...

  12. Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context, Moral Orientation and Self- Esteem: Impacting the Moral Development of ... The purpose of this study was to compare moral orientation and a measure of self-esteem with the degree of consideration ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  13. Charisma and Moral Reasoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Flanigan

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Charisma is morally problematic insofar as it replaces followers’ capacity to engage in genuine moral reasoning. When followers defer to charismatic leaders and act in ways that are morally wrong they are not only blameworthy for wrongdoing but for failing in their deliberative obligations. Even when followers defer to charismatic leaders and do the right thing, their action is less praiseworthy to the extent that it was the result of charisma rather than moral deliberation. Therefore, effective charismatic leadership reliably undermines the praiseworthiness and amplifies the blameworthiness of follower’s actions.

  14. Christianity, development, and women's liberation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, B

    1999-03-01

    This paper explores the relationship between Christianity, development, and women's liberation. The article examines the opportunities and constraints, which exist for women in the tradition of mainstream Christianity regarding their sexuality and family life. These concepts were investigated within the community level, the church itself, convent life, in the economy, and at wider national and international levels. Subordination of women through religion is the result of imposing social codes regarding women's roles, behavior, and relationships with men. However, equality can be achieved if the forms and substance of religious practice is reexamined and changed with liberation of women in mind. There is also a need to address the cultural and spiritual imperialism brought about by religion.

  15. Trade liberalization and gender inequality

    OpenAIRE

    Pieters, Janneke

    2015-01-01

    Women consistently work less in the labor market and earn lower wages than men. While economic empowerment of women is an important objective in itself, women's economic activity also matters as a condition for sustained economic growth. The political debate on the labor market impacts of international trade typically differentiates workers by their educational attainment or skills. Gender is a further dimension in which the impacts of trade liberalization can differ. In a globalizing world i...

  16. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington; Arik Levinson; Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements.' The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a ...

  17. Trade Liberalization and Pollution Havens

    OpenAIRE

    Josh Ederington, Arik Levinson, and Jenny Minier

    2004-01-01

    U.S. Presidential Executive Order 13141 commits the United States to a "careful assessment and consideration of the environmental impacts of trade agreements." The most direct mechanism through which trade liberalization would affect environmental quality in the U.S. is through changes in the composition of industries. Freer trade means greater specialization, increasing the concentration of polluting industries in some countries and decreasing it in others. Indeed, in this paper we predict a...

  18. Trade Liberalization and Organizational Change

    OpenAIRE

    Paola Conconi; Patrick Legros; Andrew F. Newman

    2008-01-01

    We embed a simple incomplete-contracts model of organization design in a standard two-country perfectly-competitive trade model to examine how the liberalization of product and factor markets affects the ownership structure of firms. In our model, managers decide whether or not to integrate their firms, trading off the pecuniary benefits of coordinating production decisions with the private benefits of operating in their preferred ways. The price of output is a crucial determinant of this cho...

  19. Testing Moral Foundation Theory: Are Specific Moral Emotions Elicited by Specific Moral Transgressions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Helen; Hess, Ursula

    2018-01-01

    Moral foundation theory posits that specific moral transgressions elicit specific moral emotions. To test this claim, participants (N = 195) were asked to rate their emotions in response to moral violation vignettes. We found that compassion and disgust were associated with care and purity respectively as predicted by moral foundation theory.…

  20. Natureza e imaginação: o deus da ecologia no horizonte moral do ambientalismo

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Isabel Cristina de Moura; Steil, Carlos Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Este artigo discute as expectativas de felicidade e elevação moral atribuídas à natureza, no contexto secular contemporâneo, e suas implicações para as práticas educativas ambientais que se baseiam no contato direto com ambientes naturais. Situa a gênese do valor moral da natureza pristina (wilderness) no ideário conservacionista norte-americano do século XIX e argumenta que o sujeito conservacionista-moral do wilderness, associado ao contexto democrático-liberal do século XIX, corrobora, na ...

  1. Schopenhauer's Moral Pessimism: Origin, Meaning and Reach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dax Moraes

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available “Moral pessimism” is an expression by which one may understand Schopenhauer’s thesis about immutability of character so far as it declares impossible each and every kind of moral enhancement, remaining only attainable some behavior adaptation based on natural egoism. This is otherwise a kind of result of epistemological problems raised by Kantian critique of reason that Schopenhauer carried to its limits. On the other hand, “moral pessimism” is to be faced not as a “practical” problem, but as a metaphysical one and its empirical consequences can be better considered as one may call “anthropological pessimism” once by this expression we mean not only a judgment about human nature alone but individual sufferings facing a world that menaces individual interests.

  2. Moral Philosophy in a Social Scientific Age: A Proposal to Reintegrate the Undergraduate Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuttler, Fred W.

    2012-01-01

    American higher education has been in almost perpetual crisis for several generations, with students experiencing fragmentation and loss of coherence across the curriculum. Most liberal arts colleges in the 19th century had a required senior course in "moral philosophy" to integrate the curriculum and prepare students for future leadership, but…

  3. Cultivating Political Morality for Deliberative Citizens--Rawls and Callan Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Cheuk-Hang

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I will argue that the implementation of deliberative democracy needs to be supplemented by a specific political morality in order to cultivate free and equal citizens in exercising public reason for achieving a cooperative and inclusive liberal society. This cultivation of personality is literally an educational project with a…

  4. Moral (or ethical education in Slovakia and its theoretical basis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gluchman Vasil

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds.

  5. Robotic Hand

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    The Omni-Hand was developed by Ross-Hime Designs, Inc. for Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) under a Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contract. The multiple digit hand has an opposable thumb and a flexible wrist. Electric muscles called Minnacs power wrist joints and the interchangeable digits. Two hands have been delivered to NASA for evaluation for potential use on space missions and the unit is commercially available for applications like hazardous materials handling and manufacturing automation. Previous SBIR contracts resulted in the Omni-Wrist and Omni-Wrist II robotic systems, which are commercially available for spray painting, sealing, ultrasonic testing, as well as other uses.

  6. A cybernetic theory of morality and moral autonomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, J

    2001-04-01

    Human morality may be thought of as a negative feedback control system in which moral rules are reference values, and moral disapproval, blame, and punishment are forms of negative feedback given for violations of the moral rules. In such a system, if moral agents held each other accountable, moral norms would be enforced effectively. However, even a properly functioning social negative feedback system could not explain acts in which individual agents uphold moral rules in the face of contrary social pressure. Dr. Frances Kelsey, who withheld FDA approval for thalidomide against intense social pressure, is an example of the degree of individual moral autonomy possible in a hostile environment. Such extreme moral autonomy is possible only if there is internal, psychological negative feedback, in addition to external, social feedback. Such a cybernetic model of morality and moral autonomy is consistent with certain aspects of classical ethical theories.

  7. Jealousy and Moral Maturity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathes, Eugene W.; Deuger, Donna J.

    Jealousy may be perceived as either good or bad depending upon the moral maturity of the individual. To investigate this conclusion, a study was conducted testing two hypothesis: a positive relationship exists between conventional moral reasoning (reference to norms and laws) and the endorsement and level of jealousy; and a negative relationship…

  8. Moral og videnproduktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Birgitte

    Research report concerning moral and ethical problems inherent in the consulting engineers' profession. Based upon 25 in-depth interviews in 11 firms, the report is contributing to the understanding of the concepts and meaning of moral and ethics in a world of technical rationality. The objectivity...

  9. Emotion and moral judgment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avramova, Y.R.; Inbar, Y.

    2013-01-01

    Research in psychology and cognitive science has consistently demonstrated the importance of emotion in a wide range of everyday judgments, including moral judgment. Most current accounts of moral judgment hold that emotion plays an important role, but the nature and extent of this role are still

  10. Moral Life and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2016-01-01

    Nel Noddings, Lee Jacks Professor of Education, Emerita, at Stanford University, agrees with Professors Lapsley and Woodbury that moral aims are central to education. She has argued that the main aim of education is to produce better people--better in "all aspects of a complete life: moral, physical, social, vocational, aesthetic,…

  11. The Breakdown of Morale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Vikander (Nick)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis paper studies how morale in teams can break down. It interprets high morale as team members working together productively, either because of a sense of fairness or because of implicit incentives from repeated interactions. Team members learn that lay-offs will occur at a fixed

  12. Moral distress and moral conflict in clinical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourie, Carina

    2015-02-01

    Much research is currently being conducted on health care practitioners' experiences of moral distress, especially the experience of nurses. What moral distress is, however, is not always clearly delineated and there is some debate as to how it should be defined. This article aims to help to clarify moral distress. My methodology consists primarily of a conceptual analysis, with especial focus on Andrew Jameton's influential description of moral distress. I will identify and aim to resolve two sources of confusion about moral distress: (1) the compound nature of a narrow definition of distress which stipulates a particular cause, i.e. moral constraint, and (2) the distinction drawn between moral dilemma (or, more accurately, moral conflict) and moral distress, which implies that the two are mutually exclusive. In light of these concerns, I argue that the definition of moral distress should be revised so that moral constraint should not be a necessary condition of moral distress, and that moral conflict should be included as a potential cause of distress. Ultimately, I claim that moral distress should be understood as a specific psychological response to morally challenging situations such as those of moral constraint or moral conflict, or both. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Moral Education in Japan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesgaard, Marie Højlund

    ‘religion’ is not a subject in schools. So, how do the Japanese go about the business of teaching values and morality? Using the Japanese example, this volume looks at moral education from the basic point of view of universal and common human values, with due attention given to culture-specific traits...... in the legal frame work (the Fundamental Law on Education was revised in 2006) and the ministerial guidelines and policies (new curriculum guidelines have been issued after the law change, and new proposals for strengthening the position of moral education come on a regular basis) have reflected the increased......What is a ‘good’ person and how do we educate ‘good’ persons? This question of morality is central to any society and its government and educational system including the Japanese. In many societies it has been customary to teach about morality from a religious standpoint, but not so in Japan, where...

  14. Executive functions in morality, religion, and paranormal beliefs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wain, Omar; Spinella, Marcello

    2007-01-01

    Moral, religious, and paranormal beliefs share some degree of overlap and play important roles in guiding peoples' behavior. Although partly cultural phenomena, they also have neurobiological components based on functional neuroimaging studies and research in clinical populations. Because all three show relationships to prefrontal system functioning, the current study examined whether they related to executive functions as measured by the Executive Function Inventory in a community sample. As in previous research, religious beliefs related positively to both moral attitudes and paranormal beliefs. Moral attitudes, however, did not relate to paranormal beliefs. Paranormal beliefs related inversely to impulse control and organization, whereas small positive correlations occurred between traditional religious beliefs, impulse control, and empathy. Moral attitudes, on the other hand, showed consistent positive correlations with all executive functions measured, independent of demographic influences. These findings concordantly support that prefrontal systems play a role in morality, religion, and paranormal beliefs.

  15. A theoretical argumentation on the consequences of moral stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronqvist, Agneta; Nyström, Maria

    2007-05-01

    Intensive care units are characterized by heavy workloads, increasing work complexity and ethical concerns related to life-and-death decisions. In the present study, it is assumed that there is a relationship between moral stress, support and competence for nurses in intensive care units. To analyse and describe the theoretical relationship between moral stress and support on the one hand and competence on the other, in the context of intensive care. A form of qualitative secondary analysis based on the findings from three original studies. In the analytic process a theory on professional competence was used. The findings suggest that imbalance due to moral stress between different competences hinders the development of collectively shared caring competence. Moral stress cannot be totally eliminated in the intensive care unit. But moral stress is not only a problem. It can also become a driving force to stimulate competence.

  16. Experiencing Physical Pain Leads to More Sympathetic Moral Judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Qianguo; Zhu, Yi; Luo, Wen-bo

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that observing another’s pain can evoke other-oriented emotions, which instigate empathic concern for another’s needs. It is not clear whether experiencing first-hand physical pain may also evoke other-oriented emotion and thus influence people’s moral judgment. Based on the embodied simulation literature and neuroimaging evidence, the present research tested the idea that participants who experienced physical pain would be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 1 showed that ice-induced physical pain facilitated higher self-assessments of empathy, which motivated participants to be more sympathetic in their moral judgments. Study 2 confirmed findings in study 1 and also showed that State Perspective Taking subscale of the State Empathy Scale mediated the effects of physical pain on moral judgment. These results provide support for embodied view of morality and for the view that pain can serve a positive psychosocial function. PMID:26465603

  17. Evaluation and perceived results of moral case deliberation: A mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, Rien M J P A; van Zadelhoff, Ezra; van Loo, Ger; Widdershoven, Guy A M; Molewijk, Bert A C

    2015-12-01

    Moral case deliberation is increasingly becoming part of various Dutch healthcare organizations. Although some evaluation studies of moral case deliberation have been carried out, research into the results of moral case deliberation within aged care is scarce. How did participants evaluate moral case deliberation? What has moral case deliberation brought to them? What has moral case deliberation contributed to care practice? Should moral case deliberation be further implemented and, if so, how? Quantitative analysis of a questionnaire study among participants of moral case deliberation, both caregivers and team leaders. Qualitative analysis of written answers to open questions, interview study and focus group meetings among caregivers and team leaders. Caregivers and team leaders in a large organization for aged care in the Netherlands. A total of 61 moral case deliberation sessions, carried out on 16 care locations belonging to the organization, were evaluated and perceived results were assessed. Participants gave informed consent and anonymity was guaranteed. In the Netherlands, the law does not prescribe independent ethical review by an Institutional Review Board for this kind of research among healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation was evaluated positively by the participants. Content and atmosphere of moral case deliberation received high scores, while organizational issues regarding the moral case deliberation sessions scored lower and merit further attention. Respondents indicated that moral case deliberation has the potential to contribute to care practice as relationships among team members improve, more openness is experienced and more understanding for different perspectives is fostered. If moral case deliberation is to be successfully implemented, top-down approaches should go hand in hand with bottom-up approaches. The relevance of moral case deliberation for care practice received wide acknowledgement from the respondents. It can contribute

  18. Liberal values and political stabilization in Serbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavićević Đorđe M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper is an expanded version of the project proposal 'Liberal values and political stabilization in Serbia'. The idea of the proposal is to explore the possibilities of acceptance and stabilization of liberal patterns of distribution of social goods in transitional countries, keeping in mind peculiarities of the Serbian case. Liberalization of these countries is usually an uneasy and uncertain process. There are two kind paradoxes of liberalization. The first concerns the necessity of political incentives for depoliticization of several social spheres. The second is related to possible self-destructive performances of liberal institutions in the process of transition. The stabilization of liberal-democracy in transitional countries is dependent on the capacity of institutions to build within themselves the mechanisms for alleviating these uneasiness. Two of them I find especially important: the system of social responsibilities and public reason.

  19. Cultural Conceptions of Morality: Examining Laypeople's Associations of Moral Character

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vauclair, Christin-Melanie; Wilson, Marc; Fischer, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    Whether moral conceptions are universal or culture-specific is controversial in moral psychology. One option is to refrain from imposing theoretical constraints and to ask laypeople from different cultures how "they" conceptualize morality. Our article adopts this approach by examining laypeople's associations of moral character in…

  20. Moral Psychology and the Problem of Moral Criteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, Patrick

    2011-01-01

    This article is intended as an initial investigation into the foundations of moral psychology. I primarily examine a recent work in moral education, Daniel Lapsley's and Darcia Narvaez"s "Character education", whose authors seem to assume at points that criteria for discerning moral actions and moral traits can be derived apart from ethics or…

  1. Children's Moral Emotions and Moral Cognition: Towards an Integrative Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malti, Tina; Latzko, Brigitte

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents a brief introduction to the developmental and educational literature linking children's moral emotions to cognitive moral development. A central premise of the chapter is that an integrative developmental perspective on moral emotions and moral cognition provides an important conceptual framework for understanding children's…

  2. The Moral Development of Moral Philosophers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunzl, Martin

    1977-01-01

    Lawrence Kohlberg thinks that Utilitarianism and Rawls' theory of justice are formal elaborations of different stages in the psychological development of moral reasoning. Also that there are psychological reasons to favor the stage of reasoning of which he thinks Rawls' theory is an elaboration. Attempts to show that Kohlberg has confused ethics…

  3. Cultural Effects of Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Steven M. Suranovic; Robert Winthrop

    2005-01-01

    We incorporate culture into a standard trade model in two distinct ways. In the ¡°cultural affinity from work¡± model, workers receive a non- pecuniary cultural benefit from work in a particular industry. In the ¡°cultural externality¡± model, consumers of a product receive utility from other consumer¡¯s consumption of a domestic good. We show that resistance to change due to cultural concerns can reduce the national benefits from trade liberalization. Complete movements to free trade will ha...

  4. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arries, E

    2005-08-01

    Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and non-malificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision-making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  5. Virtue ethics: an approach to moral dilemmas in nursing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Arries

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Nurses are increasingly confronted with situations of moral difficulty, such as not to feed terminally ill patients, whistle blowing, or participation in termination of pregnancy. Most of these moral dilemmas are often analyzed using the principle-based approach which applies the four moral principles of justice, autonomy, beneficence, and nonmalificence. In some instances, consequentialism is considered, but these frameworks have their limitations. Their limitations has to do with a consideration for the interpersonal nature of clinical nursing practice on the one hand, and is not always clear on how to judge which consequences are best on the other hand. When principles are in conflict it is not always easy to decide which principle should dominate. Furthermore, these frameworks do not take into account the importance of the interpersonal and emotional element of human experience. On the contrary, decision making about moral issues in healthcare demands that nurses exercise rational control over emotions. This clearly focuses the attention on the nurse as moral agent and in particular their character. In this article I argue that virtue ethics as an approach, which focus of the character of a person, might provide a more holistic analysis of moral dilemmas in nursing and might facilitate more flexible and creative solutions when combined with other theories of moral decision-making. Advancing this argument, firstly, I provide the central features of virtue ethics. Secondly I describe a story in which a moral dilemma is evident. Lastly I apply virtue ethics as an approach to this moral dilemma and in particular focusing on the virtues inherent in the nurse as moral agent in the story.

  6. National Versus International Mergers and Trade Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Yildiz, Halis Murat

    2003-01-01

    This paper uses an endogenous merger formation approach in a concentrated international oligopoly to examine the effects of trade liberalization on the nature of merger incentives (national vs. international). The effects of unilateral trade liberalization on a country’s industry structure are found to be depending on the other country’s trade policy regime. If the other country practices free trade, unilateral liberalization by a country yields international mergers whereas if it practices a...

  7. Agricultural Liberalization in the Doha Round

    OpenAIRE

    Messerlin , Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The analysis of agricultural liberalization reveals very large potential gains for both developed and developing countries that will come especially from own-country liberalization as well as from inter-country trade, significant benefits that may be realized by the poorest developing countries, and limited benefits from existing preferential agricultural arrangements. An ideal program for agricultural liberalization in the Doha Round would involve substantial reductions in the high tariffs t...

  8. Moral Philosophy, Moral Expertise, and the Argument from Disagreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Ben

    2016-03-01

    Several recent articles have weighed in on the question of whether moral philosophers can be counted as moral experts. One argument denying this has been rejected by both sides of the debate. According to this argument, the extent of disagreement in modern moral philosophy prevents moral philosophers from being classified as moral experts. Call this the Argument From Disagreement (AD). In this article, I defend a version of AD. Insofar as practical issues in moral philosophy are characterized by disagreement between moral philosophers who are more or less equally well credentialed on the issue, non-philosophers have no good reasons to defer to their views. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Religion and morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, Ryan; Whitehouse, Harvey

    2015-03-01

    The relationship between religion and morality has long been hotly debated. Does religion make us more moral? Is it necessary for morality? Do moral inclinations emerge independently of religious intuitions? These debates, which nowadays rumble on in scientific journals as well as in public life, have frequently been marred by a series of conceptual confusions and limitations. Many scientific investigations have failed to decompose "religion" and "morality" into theoretically grounded elements; have adopted parochial conceptions of key concepts-in particular, sanitized conceptions of "prosocial" behavior; and have neglected to consider the complex interplay between cognition and culture. We argue that to make progress, the categories "religion" and "morality" must be fractionated into a set of biologically and psychologically cogent traits, revealing the cognitive foundations that shape and constrain relevant cultural variants. We adopt this fractionating strategy, setting out an encompassing evolutionary framework within which to situate and evaluate relevant evidence. Our goals are twofold: to produce a detailed picture of the current state of the field, and to provide a road map for future research on the relationship between religion and morality. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved.

  10. Revisiting Folk Moral Realism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pölzler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Moral realists believe that there are objective moral truths. According to one of the most prominent arguments in favour of this view, ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming, and we have therefore prima facie reason to believe that realism is true. Some proponents of this argument have claimed that the hypothesis that ordinary people experience morality as realist-seeming is supported by psychological research on folk metaethics. While most recent research has been thought to contradict this claim, four prominent earlier studies (by Goodwin and Darley, Wainryb et al., Nichols, and Nichols and Folds-Bennett) indeed seem to suggest a tendency towards realism. My aim in this paper is to provide a detailed internal critique of these four studies. I argue that, once interpreted properly, all of them turn out in line with recent research. They suggest that most ordinary people experience morality as "pluralist-" rather than realist-seeming, i.e., that ordinary people have the intuition that realism is true with regard to some moral issues, but variants of anti-realism are true with regard to others. This result means that moral realism may be less well justified than commonly assumed.

  11. Humanness and (im)morality in group relations

    OpenAIRE

    Henriques, Ana Patrícia Matos

    2017-01-01

    Tese de Doutoramento em Psicologia na área de especialidade - Psicologia Social Morality is a valued dimension within and between groups (Ellemers, Pagliaro, & Barreto, 2013; Leach, Bilali, & Pagliaro, 2015), that has been consistently pointed out as part of what makes us uniquely human (Demoulin et al., 2004; Leyens et al., 2000; Haslam, 2006). On the other hand, the extent to which we see others as fully human also impacts on other’s moral status (Bastian, Laham, Wilson, Haslam, & Koval,...

  12. A Christian identity for the liberal state?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppke, Christian

    2013-12-01

    It seems to be impossible for the liberal state to embrace a Christian identity, because 'liberalism' is exactly a device for separating state and religion. Discussing the implications of a recent decision of the European Court of Human Rights, Lautsi v. Italy (2011), I argue that this is not necessarily so. If paired with a liberal commitment to pluralism, a Christian identity might even be more inclusive of minority religions than a narrowly 'liberal' state identity, which has been the dominant response in Western Europe to the challenge of immigrant diversity, especially that of Muslim origins. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2013.

  13. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  14. Inverting the moral economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olwig, Mette Fog; Noe, Christine; Kangalawe, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Governments, donors and investors often promote land acquisitions for forest plantations as global climate change mitigation via carbon sequestration. Investors’ forestry thereby becomes part of a global moral economy imaginary. Using examples from Tanzania we critically examine the global moral...... economy’s narrative foundation, which presents trees as axiomatically ‘green’, ‘idle’ land as waste and economic investments as benefiting the relevant communities. In this way the traditional supposition of the moral economy as invoked by the economic underclass to maintain the basis of their subsistence...

  15. Spontaneous Development of Moral Concepts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegal, M.

    1975-01-01

    Moral competence is more difficult to attain than scientific competence. Since language comprehension plays a central role in conceptual development, and moral language is difficult to learn, there is a common deficiency in moral conceptual development. This suggests a theory of non-spontaneous solutions to moral problems. (Author/MS)

  16. Relativistic Absolutism in Moral Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, W. Paul

    1982-01-01

    Discusses Emile Durkheim's "Moral Education: A Study in the Theory and Application of the Sociology of Education," which holds that morally healthy societies may vary in culture and organization but must possess absolute rules of moral behavior. Compares this moral theory with current theory and practice of American educators. (MJL)

  17. Kant's Account of Moral Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesinger, Johannes

    2012-01-01

    While Kant's pedagogical lectures present an account of moral education, his theory of freedom and morality seems to leave no room for the possibility of an education for freedom and morality. In this paper, it is first shown that Kant's moral philosophy and his educational philosophy are developed within different theoretical paradigms: whereas…

  18. Moral Beliefs and Cognitive Homogeneity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevia Dolcini

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The Emotional Perception Model of moral judgment intends to account for experientialism about morality and moral reasoning. In explaining how moral beliefs are formed and applied in practical reasoning, the model attempts to overcome the mismatch between reason and action/desire: morality isn’t about reason for actions, yet moral beliefs, if caused by desires, may play a motivational role in (moral agency. The account allows for two kinds of moral beliefs: genuine moral beliefs, which enjoy a relation to desire, and motivationally inert moral beliefs acquired in ways other than experience. Such etiology-based dichotomy of concepts, I will argue, leads to the undesirable view of cognition as a non-homogeneous phenomenon. Moreover, the distinction between moral beliefs and moral beliefs would entail a further dichotomy encompassing the domain of moral agency: one and the same action might possibly be either genuine moral, or not moral, if acted by individuals lacking the capacity for moral feelings, such as psychopaths.

  19. Felt Moral Obligation and the Moral Judgement-Moral Action Gap: Toward a Phenomenology of Moral Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Richard N.; Gantt, Edwin E.

    2012-01-01

    The step-off point for this article is the problem of the "moral judgement-moral action gap" as found in contemporary literature of moral education and moral development. We argue that this gap, and the conceptual problems encountered by attempts to bridge it, reflects the effect of a different, deeper and more problematic conceptual gap: the…

  20. Improving moral judgments: philosophical considerations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalis, A.

    2010-01-01

    In contemporary moral psychology, an often-heard claim is that knowing how we make moral judgments can help us make better moral judgments. Discussions about moral development and improvement are often framed in terms of the question of which mental processes have a better chance of leading to good

  1. Who Engages with Moral Beauty?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diessner, Rhett; Iyer, Ravi; Smith, Meghan M.; Haidt, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    Aristotle considered moral beauty to be the "telos" of the human virtues. Displays of moral beauty have been shown to elicit the moral emotion of elevation and cause a desire to become a better person and to engage in prosocial behavior. Study 1 ("N" = 5380) shows engagement with moral beauty is related to several psychological…

  2. Michael Oakeshott´s Work as a Liberal-Conserv ative Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep Baqués

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As is the case with other thinkers linked to what can be broadly defined as conservatism, it is arguable whether Michael Oakeshott was just a conservative, or whether he was also a liberal. He often rejected this last label. He also tried to avoid the classic debate between the left/right wing divide, conferring instead a mantle of neutrality on his work. This analysis shows, on the one hand, that Oakeshott´s work is ideologically orientated and, on the other hand, that it contains a substantial liberal component. In fact, he offered a liberal-conservative synthesis in which the free market appears to be not only the best, but the only feasible outcome in the proposed scenario of political prudence. I will fi rst connect Oakeshott with the main traditions of thought, then analyse the theoretical implications of his position, and finally explore the consequences derived from all this for everyday political practice.

  3. Bullying and defending behavior: The role of explicit and implicit moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzoli, Tiziana; Gini, Gianluca; Thornberg, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Research on bullying has highlighted the role of morality in explaining the different behavior of students during bullying episodes. However, the research has been limited to the analysis of explicit measures of moral characteristics and moral reasoning, whereas implicit measures have yet to be fully considered. To overcome this limitation, this study investigated the association between bullying and defending, on one hand, and both explicit (moral disengagement, self-importance of moral values) and implicit (immediate affect toward moral stimuli [IAMS]) moral components, on the other hand. Young adolescents (N=279, mean age=11years, 9months, 44.4% girls) completed a series of self-report scales and individually performed a computer task investigating the IAMS. Two hierarchical regressions (bootstrapping method) were performed. Results showed that moral disengagement was associated with bullying and defending behavior at high levels of IAMS, however not when IAMS was low. In contrast, self-importance of moral values was not significantly associated to the two behaviors when IAMS was high whereas both associations were significant at low levels of IAMS. These results significantly expand previous knowledge about the role of morality in bullying and defending behavior. In particular, they highlight the role of the interaction between explicit and implicit moral dimensions in predicting bullying and defending behaviors. Copyright © 2016 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Epistemology of Moral Bioenhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crutchfield, Parker

    2016-07-01

    Moral bioenhancement is the potential practice of manipulating individuals' moral behaviors by biological means in order to help resolve pressing moral issues such as climate change and terrorism. This practice has obvious ethical implications, and these implications have been and continue to be discussed in the bioethics literature. What have not been discussed are the epistemological implications of moral bioenhancement. This article details some of these implications of engaging in moral bioenhancement. The argument begins by making the distinction between moral bioenhancement that manipulates the contents of mental states (e.g. beliefs) and that which manipulates other, non-representational states (e.g. motivations). Either way, I argue, the enhanced moral psychology will fail to conform to epistemic norms, and the only way to resolve this failure and allow the moral bioenhancement to be effective in addressing the targeted moral issues is to make the moral bioenhancement covert. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The "L-Word": A Short History of Liberalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Terence; Dagger, Richard

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that, in order to understand the current debate over liberalism, a historical perspective on the subject is necessary. Traces the history of liberalism from its inception in the Reformation to the present conflict between neoclassical liberalism and welfare liberalism. Focuses on the major theorists of liberalism. (RW)

  6. Hand eczema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibler, K.S.; Jemec, G.B.E.; Flyvholm, M.-A.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients/materials......Background. Healthcare workers are at increased risk of developing hand eczema. Objectives. To investigate the prevalence and severity of self-reported hand eczema, and to relate the findings to demographic data, occupation, medical speciality, wards, shifts, and working hours. Patients...... dermatitis, younger age, male sex (male doctors), and working hours. Eighty nine per cent of subjects reported mild/moderate lesions. Atopic dermatitis was the only factor significantly related to severity. Sick leave was reported by 8% of subjects, and notification to the authorities by 12%. Conclusions...... or severity, but cultural differences between professions with respect to coping with the eczema were significant. Atopic dermatitis was related to increased prevalence and severity, and preventive efforts should be made for healthcare workers with atopic dermatitis....

  7. Hand Osteoblastoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Farzan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Osteoblastoma is one of the rarest primary bone tumors. Although, small bones of the hands and feet are the third most common location for this tumor, the hand involvement is very rare and few case observations were published in the English-language literature. Materials and Methods: In this study, we report five cases of benign osteoblastoma of the hand, 3 in metacarpals and two in phalanxes. The clinical feature is not specific. The severe nocturnal, salicylate-responsive pain is not present in patients with osteoblastoma. The pain is dull, persistent and less localized. The clinical course is usually long and there is often symptoms for months before medical attention are sought. Swelling is a more persistent finding in osteoblastoma of the hand that we found in all of our patients. The radiologic findings are indistinctive, so preoperative diagnosis based on X-ray appearance is difficult. In all of our 5 cases, we fail to consider osteoblastoma as primary diagnosis. Pathologically, osteoblastoma consisting of a well-vascularized connective tissue stroma in which there is active production of osteoid and primitive woven bone. Treatment depends on the stage and localization of the tumor. Curettage and bone grafting is sufficient in stage 1 or stage 2, but in stage 3 wide resection is necessary for prevention of recurrence. Osteosarcoma is the most important differential diagnosis that may lead to inappropriate operation.

  8. Moral Hazard in Pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunnquell, Donald; Michaelson, Christopher M

    2016-07-01

    "Moral hazard" is a term familiar in economics and business ethics that illuminates why rational parties sometimes choose decisions with bad moral outcomes without necessarily intending to behave selfishly or immorally. The term is not generally used in medical ethics. Decision makers such as parents and physicians generally do not use the concept or the word in evaluating ethical dilemmas. They may not even be aware of the precise nature of the moral hazard problem they are experiencing, beyond a general concern for the patient's seemingly excessive burden. This article brings the language and logic of moral hazard to pediatrics. The concept reminds us that decision makers in this context are often not the primary party affected by their decisions. It appraises the full scope of risk at issue when decision makers decide on behalf of others and leads us to separate, respect, and prioritize the interests of affected parties.

  9. Before Ethics and Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, James W.

    1972-01-01

    The effects of sensory deprivation in humans is discussed as well as the need for developing a moral education curriculum designed to rear children in an affectional environment of positive reinforcements. (JB)

  10. Moral psychology (ethics).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreou, Chrisoula

    2010-07-01

    This article examines a selection of currently lively debates in the quickly evolving, interdisciplinary field of moral psychology. Topics discussed include the possibility of amoralism, the nature of rationality, the (ir)rationality of emotions and intuitions, the psychology of cooperation and of (rational) commitment, weakness of will, free will, and the assignment of moral responsibility. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Retracing liberalism and remaking nature: designer children, research embryos, and featherless chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Dov

    2010-05-01

    Liberal theory seeks to achieve toleration, civil peace, and mutual respect in pluralistic societies by making public policy without reference to arguments arising from within formative ideals about what gives value to human life. Does it make sense to set aside such conceptions of the good when it comes to controversies about stem cell research and the genetic engineering of people or animals? Whether it is reasonable to bracket our world-views in such cases depends on how we answer the moral questions that the use of these biotechnologies presuppose. I argue that the moral language of liberal justice - of rights and duties, interests and opportunities, freedom and consent, equality and fairness - cannot speak to these underlying concerns about what the human embryo is, why the natural lottery matters to us, and whether 'animal nature' is worth preserving. I conclude that liberal theory is incapable of furnishing a coherent or desirable account to govern the way we use our emerging powers of biotechnology.

  12. Neural basis of moral verdict and moral deliberation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borg, Jana Schaich; Sinnott-Armstrong, Walter; Calhoun, Vince D.; Kiehl, Kent A.

    2011-01-01

    How people judge something to be morally right or wrong is a fundamental question of both the sciences and the humanities. Here we aim to identify the neural processes that underlie the specific conclusion that something is morally wrong. To do this, we introduce a novel distinction between “moral deliberation,” or the weighing of moral considerations, and the formation of a “moral verdict,” or the commitment to one moral conclusion. We predict and identify hemodynamic activity in the bilateral anterior insula and basal ganglia that correlates with committing to the moral verdict “this is morally wrong” as opposed to “this is morally not wrong,” a finding that is consistent with research from economic decision-making. Using comparisons of deliberation-locked vs. verdict-locked analyses, we also demonstrate that hemodynamic activity in high-level cortical regions previously implicated in morality—including the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate, and temporoparietal junction—correlates primarily with moral deliberation as opposed to moral verdicts. These findings provide new insights into what types of processes comprise the enterprise of moral judgment, and in doing so point to a framework for resolving why some clinical patients, including psychopaths, may have intact moral judgment but impaired moral behavior. PMID:21590588

  13. Political Liberalism, Linguistic Diversity and Equal Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonotti, Matteo

    2017-01-01

    This article explores the implications of John Rawls' political liberalism for linguistic diversity and language policy, by focusing on the following question: what kind(s) of equality between speakers of different languages and with different linguistic identities should the state guarantee under political liberalism? The article makes three…

  14. Liberal Education: A Literary Black Hole?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pederson, Tom

    1989-01-01

    An overview of the historical traditions presented by Bruce Kimball in his "Orators and Philosophers: A History of the Idea of Liberal Education" is presented. The significance of the structure of the Catholic and other Christian churches in perpetuating the ideal and reality of a liberal arts education is discussed. (Author/MLW)

  15. Teaching for Toleration in Pluralist Liberal Democracies

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Waarden, Betto

    2017-01-01

    This article determines which education enables the perpetuation of diverse ways of life and the liberal democracy that accommodates this diversity. Liberals like John Rawls, Stephen Macedo, and William Galston have disagreed about the scope of civic education. Based on an analysis of toleration--the primary means for maintaining a pluralist…

  16. Renewing the Spirit of the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noddings, Nel

    2013-01-01

    The spirit of the liberal arts has been undermined by overspecialization, and it has been further damaged by the increase in emphasis on the economic purpose of education. The spirit might be renewed by using the aims of the liberal arts to develop every course we teach.

  17. The Liberal Arts and the Martial Arts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Donald N.

    1984-01-01

    Liberal arts and the martial arts are compared from the perspective that courses of training in the martial arts often constitute exemplary educational programs and are worth examining closely. Program characteristics, individual characteristics fostered by them, the relationship between liberal and utilitarian learning, and the moral…

  18. Enlightening Global Communication: Liberation Philosophy and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Based on historical records the second half of the twentieth century can be marked as a point of departure for a substantial movement on the topic of liberation across the world; liberation which is contained within a contentious critical popular voice of change on the prevailing and broad political structure of the world.

  19. The Liberal Arts College and Humanist Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcilla, René V.

    2014-01-01

    What is liberal education? How do its aims differ from those of either grammar or vocational education? Does it truly deserve its own supporting institution? In response to these questions, Arcilla develops a defense of the liberal arts college. He observes that all projects of formal learning presuppose that the learner possesses answers to three…

  20. Welfare Rights in the Liberal Tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horne, Thomas A.

    1990-01-01

    Maintains that welfare rights are not incompatible with liberalism's commitment to private property and freedom. Argues that students need to be aware of liberalism's favorable historical position on welfare. Examines the positions of John Locke, Thomas Paine, and John Stuart Mills on poverty, welfare, and the role of the state. (RW)

  1. John Deweys kritik af liberal education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huggler, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with John Dewey's aversion against liberal education and his concern about a 'dual track' educational system separating liberal education and vocational education. It investigates the reason why Dewey maintains that the philosophical 'dualisms' culminate in the question on vocation....

  2. THE LIBERAL ARTS--PAST, PRESENT, FUTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    RICE, JAMES G.

    THE STERILITY OF THE LIBERAL ARTS IN MOST COLLEGES TODAY IS BECOMING MORE EVIDENT. STUDENTS ARE TURNING TO "POT," LSD, OR IMMERSIONS IN ANOTHER CULTURE IN THEIR QUESTS TO EXPAND THEIR CONSCIOUSNESS. THE STUDENT'S NEED FOR A HEIGHTENED AWARENESS AND LARGER FRAME OF REFERENCE CAN BE FULFILLED BY A STUDY OF THE LIBERAL ARTS ONLY IF THESE STUDIES ARE…

  3. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kis-Katos, Krisztina; Sparrow, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia, identifying geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers, from 1993 to 2002. The results suggest that increased exposure to trade liberalization is associated with a decrease in child work…

  4. The Morphing of America's Liberal Arts Colleges

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiMaria, Frank

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the paper, "Where Are They Now? Revisiting Breneman's Study of Liberal Arts Colleges" by Vicki L. Baker, assistant professor at Albion College and Roger G. Baldwin, professor at University of Michigan. Their paper takes a look back at David W. Breneman's study "Are We Losing Our Liberal Arts Colleges?" and it…

  5. Luther, Learning, and the Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnett, Amy Nelson

    2017-01-01

    The learning goals of a well-designed course in the liberal arts include not only the imparting of knowledge but also the development of critical thinking and disciplinary expertise. A class on Luther can help students acquire those intellectual skills associated with the discipline of history and the liberal arts more generally as they consider…

  6. Iris Murdoch, Liberal Education and Human Flourishing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, William

    2009-01-01

    Articulating the good of liberal education--what we should teach and why we should teach it--is necessary to resist the subversion of liberal education to economic or political ends and the mania for measurable skills. I argue that Iris Murdoch's philosophical writings enrich the work of contemporary Aristotelians, such as Joseph Dunne and…

  7. 49 CFR 1100.3 - Liberal construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Liberal construction. 1100.3 Section 1100.3 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) SURFACE TRANSPORTATION BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RULES OF PRACTICE GENERAL PROVISIONS § 1100.3 Liberal construction. The rules will...

  8. The Philosophical Worth of Liberal Peacebuilding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Waffaa Kharisma

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of Liberal Peacebuilding is often associated with the failure of pushing liberalisation in war-torn failed states: the practice of liberal peacebuilding as a liberal project instead of a peacebuilding effort. The essay starts with breaking down the basic premises of a liberal peacebuilding and its ideological drive. Then, it identifies and evaluates the critics and alternatives to liberal peacebuilding. The essay sees that the implementation of fixed standard peacebuilding packages in vastly different scenarios and countries is the consequence of practicing liberal peacebuilding as a liberal project. This essay argues that liberal peacebuilding is worth saving if it recognises itself as an unfinished project, and instead advocates peacebuilding efforts that are more concentrated as a (and in showing technical solution rather than an ideological impulse. As such, the essay proposes the prioritisation of maintaining stability in a post-conflict state, through concentrating on ensuring the specific case-per-case technical solutions, often which is attributed to institutional foundation to ensure the deliveries of collective aims and interests of local society.

  9. Moral repugnance, moral distress, and organ sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, James Stacey

    2015-06-01

    Many still oppose legalizing markets in human organs on the grounds that they are morally repugnant. I will argue in this paper that the repugnance felt by some persons towards sales of human organs is insufficient to justify their prohibition. Yet this rejection of the view that markets in human organs should be prohibited because some persons find them to be morally repugnant does not imply that persons' feelings of distress at the possibility of organ sales are irrational. Eduardo Rivera-Lopez argues that such instinctive distress is an appropriate response to the (rationally defensible) perception that certain kinds of arguments that are offered in favor of legalizing organ sales are "in an important sense, illegitimate." Having argued that repugnance should not ground the prohibition of markets in human organs, I will also argue that the moral distress that some feel towards certain arguments that favor such markets is not rationally defensible, either. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Minding morale of institutional markets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qureshi, S

    1996-01-01

    The definition of the term SOCIAL LIFE FEELING is offered to denote or connote a sentiment about the social world or an affect-state that comes from socializing in that world. A review of the literature in SOCIOLOGY indicates that there is an abundance of predilection among sociologists in measuring and assessing How People Feel About Society and Their Place in Society. The selection of TWELVE SOCIAL LIFE FEELING SCALES developed by Karl F. Schuessler is based on their established reliability, their ease of use, and their embodiment in covering concepts pertaining to both a person's outlook on society (cynical, pessimistic, fatalistic) and his or her frame of mind in society (demoralized, estranged, alienated). The present report is based on SLFS11 or FEELINGS OF DEMORALIZATION in Urban and Rural settings. This scale gives the subjects an opportunity to express whether they are marking time, finding it difficult to be optimistic, surmising the world as too complicated, viewing their physical condition to be good, or taking pleasure in their achievements, and so and so forth. A random sample of 398 students drawn from an urban and a rural campus was personally administered a questionnaire included in Appendix A. The data so obtained were subjected to statistical analyses through MINITAB software. High scores present a view of self as useless, helpless, aimless; low scores on the other hand, rules out such an admission of self as useless. It appears that this scale comes closest to approximating the concept of morale and its denotation of demoralization and despair. Persons of high morale have high hopes and great expectations and intend to persevere. Persons of low morale have little hope in their efforts being counted and would presumably stop trying. It is important to note that the items in this scale have principally determined the morale of older people. In this study we have attempted to find its utility in investigating undergraduate students representing the

  11. Moral status, justice, and the common morality: challenges for the principlist account of moral change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Kevin E; Sulmasy, Daniel P

    2013-09-01

    The theory of principlism elaborated by Beauchamp and Childress in Principles of Biomedical Ethics has become extremely influential in bioethics. The theory employs the idea of the common morality as a foundation for the principles of autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice. According to this account, the content of the common morality is universal and constant, while variability in morals is due to the fact that the issue of who is included within the scope of moral status evolves over time. This suggests that issues of moral status are not part of the common morality at all, and this presents a conundrum: questions of moral status seem central to any substantive account of justice, and any conception of the common morality that excludes moral status therefore seems inadequate for supporting a robust principle of justice. We argue that proponents of common morality theory are left with four options: (1) making moral status a part of the objective common morality and ignoring evidence that views about moral status do seem to vary over time and place; (2) excluding justice from the substantive content of the common morality; (3) taking common morality to be an imperfect approximation of an independently justified and universal foundationalist ethic against which the common morality is judged; or (4) weakening claims about the universality of common morality, thereby allowing the common morality to support a variety of principles of justice applicable only within particular communities that have specified the scope of moral status. We suspect that proponents of common morality theory will not view any of these options favorably, which raises questions about the ultimate contribution of that account.

  12. Regulation - renewable energies finally liberated?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blosseville, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Within the context defined by the new French policy for energy transition, notably in terms of share of renewable energies in final energy consumption, France seems to be somehow late in the development of these energies: about 1 GW of wind energy are installed each year when the expected pace would be 1,5 GW, and the photovoltaic market is shrinking. As the legal context is important, this article proposes an overview of the evolution of the French policy during the last four years which started with interesting measures. Recently, the government showed its will to liberate renewable energies from several constraints. Some legal procedures tend to slow down the development. Some advances could therefore be made, for example to make rules less complex and numerous. The different situations of the wind and biogas sectors are evoked, as well as new opportunities created by a new decree on investment planning

  13. Is equal moral consideration really compatible with unequal moral status?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, John

    2010-09-01

    The issue of moral considerability, or how much moral importance a being's interests deserve, is one of the most important in animal ethics. Some leading theorists--most notably David DeGrazia--have argued that a principle of "equal moral consideration" is compatible with "unequal moral status." Such a position would reconcile the egalitarian force of equal consideration with more stringent obligations to humans than animals. The article presents arguments that equal consideration is not compatible with unequal moral status, thereby forcing those who would justify significantly different moral protections for humans and animals to argue for unequal consideration.

  14. The Moral Dimensions of Infrastructure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epting, Shane

    2016-04-01

    Moral issues in urban planning involving technology, residents, marginalized groups, ecosystems, and future generations are complex cases, requiring solutions that go beyond the limits of contemporary moral theory. Aside from typical planning problems, there is incongruence between moral theory and some of the subjects that require moral assessment, such as urban infrastructure. Despite this incongruence, there is not a need to develop another moral theory. Instead, a supplemental measure that is compatible with existing moral positions will suffice. My primary goal in this paper is to explain the need for this supplemental measure, describe what one looks like, and show how it works with existing moral systems. The secondary goal is to show that creating a supplemental measure that provides congruency between moral systems that are designed to assess human action and non-human subjects advances the study of moral theory.

  15. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play

  16. HENRY'S "HAND OF GOD"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Kaluđerović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the author discusses the views and statements of the French football player Thierry Henry he gave after his illegal play during the playoff match between France and the Republic of Ireland to claim one of the final spots in the World Cup 2010 in South Africa. First, by controlling the ball with his hand before passing it on for the goal Henry has shown disregard for the constitutive rules of football. Then, by stating that he is "not a referee" he demonstrated that for some players rules are not inherent to football and that they can be relativized, given that for them winning is the goal of the highest ontological status. Furthermore, he has rejected the rules of sportsmanship, thus expressing his opinion that the opponents are just obstacles which have to be removed in order to achieve your goals. Henry's action has disrupted major moral values, such as justice, honesty, responsibility and beneficence. The rules of fair play have totally been ignored both in Henry's action and in the Football Association of France's unwillingness to comment on whether a replay should take place. They have ignored one of the basic principles stated in the "Declaration of the International Fair Play Committee", according to which, fair play is much more than playing to the rules of the game; it's about the attitude of the sportsperson. It's about respecting your opponent and preserving his or her physical and psychological integrity. Finally, the author believes that the rules, moral values and fair play in football are required for this game to become actually possible to play.

  17. Moral sensitivity, moral distress, and moral courage among baccalaureate Filipino nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escolar-Chua, Rowena L

    2018-06-01

    Moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage among healthcare professionals have been explored considerably in recent years. However, there is a paucity of studies exploring these topics among baccalaureate nursing students. The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between and among moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students. The research employed a descriptive-correlational design to explore the relationships between and among moral distress, moral sensitivity, and moral courage of undergraduate nursing students. Participants and research context: A total of 293 baccalaureate Filipino nursing students who have been exposed to various clinical areas participated in the study. Ethical considerations: Institutional review board approval was sought prior to the conduct of the study. Self-determination was assured and anonymity and confidentiality were guaranteed to all participants. Results indicate that a majority of the nursing students in the clinical areas encounter morally distressing situations that compromise quality patient care. However, despite the fact that they want to do what is in the best interest of their patients, their perception of being the inexperienced among the healthcare team drives the majority of them to ignore morally distressing situations to avoid conflict and confrontation. Another interesting finding is that 79.20% of the respondents hardly consider quitting the nursing profession even if they frequently encounter morally distressing situations. Analysis also shows associations between moral distress intensity and frequency ( r = 0.13, p < 0.05) and moral distress intensity and moral sensitivity ( r = 0.25, p < 0.05). The dimensions of moral courage are also related to both moral distress and moral sensitivity. Results of the study imply that moral distress is a reality among all healthcare professionals including nursing students and requires more

  18. Proscriptive versus prescriptive morality: two faces of moral regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janoff-Bulman, Ronnie; Sheikh, Sana; Hepp, Sebastian

    2009-03-01

    A distinction is made between two forms of morality on the basis of approach-avoidance differences in self-regulation. Prescriptive morality is sensitive to positive outcomes, activation-based, and focused on what we should do. Proscriptive morality is sensitive to negative outcomes, inhibition-based, and focused on what we should not do. Seven studies profile these two faces of morality, support their distinct motivational underpinnings, and provide evidence of moral asymmetry. Both are well-represented in individuals' moral repertoire and equivalent in terms of moral weight, but proscriptive morality is condemnatory and strict, whereas prescriptive morality is commendatory and not strict. More specifically, in these studies proscriptive morality was perceived as concrete, mandatory, and duty-based, whereas prescriptive morality was perceived as more abstract, discretionary, and based in duty or desire; proscriptive immorality resulted in greater blame, whereas prescriptive morality resulted in greater moral credit. Implications for broader social regulation, including cross-cultural differences and political orientation, are discussed.

  19. Karl Marx and Liberation Theology: Dialectical Materialism and Christian Spirituality in, against, and beyond Contemporary Capitalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter McLaren

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores convergences and discrepancies between liberation theology and the works of Karl Marx through the dialogue between one of the key contemporary proponents of liberation theology, Peter McLaren, and the agnostic scholar in critical pedagogy, Petar Jandrić. The paper briefly outlines liberation theology and its main convergences with the works of Karl Marx. Exposing striking similarities between the two traditions in denouncing the false God of money, it explores differences in their views towards individualism and collectivism. It rejects shallow rhetorical homologies between Marx and the Bible often found in liberation theology, and suggests a change of focus from seeking a formal or Cartesian logical consistency between Marxism and Christianity to exploring their dialectical consistency. Looking at Marxist and Christian approaches to morality, it outlines close links between historical materialism and questions of value. It concludes that the shared eschaton of Marxism and the Christianity gives meaning to human history and an opportunity to change it.

  20. THE AMBUSH OF AFRICAN PHILOSOPHY: AN EXHUMATION OF CLASSICAL LIBERAL PRINCIPLES IN THE EVOLUTION OF AFRICA SOCIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim B. Anoba

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The persistent resentment towards classical liberal principles especially individualism and free market in contemporary Africa, represents an outcome of decades of ambush against the ideology despite its clear connections with traditional African philosophy and relevance to the prosperity of modern African states. This work attempts to draw comparisons between social and economic organisation in traditional Africa and classical liberal principles. Contrary to literatures that portray the community as the real and only end in traditional African societies, elements like free trade; market economy; consensus; anarchy and limited governance negates this position. While tracing the cause of Africa’s cling to socialism and communism, this paper presents an ideological transition from pre-colonialism to nationalist and post-independent Africa. It concludes by demystifying the arguments of individualism as antithetical to African morality. It also justified the inevitability of classical liberal principles in modern Africa.

  1. State liberalism, female supervisors, and the gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maume, David J; Ruppanner, Leah

    2015-03-01

    Whereas some are concerned that the gender revolution has stalled, others note the rapid increase in women's representation in the ranks of management, and the reduction of wage inequality in larger and more active welfare states. Although these latter trends portend an attenuation of gender inequality, their effects on the gender pay gap in the U.S. are understudied due to data limitations, or to the assumption that in the U.S. pay is determined by market forces. In this study we extend research on the determinants of the gender wage gap by examining sex-of-supervisor effects on subordinates' pay, and to what degree the state's commitment to equality conditions this relationship. We pooled the 1997 and 2002 National Study of the Changing Workforce surveys to estimate hierarchical models of reporting to a female supervisor and wages, with theoretically important predictors at the individual level, and at the state of residence (an index composed of women's share of legislators, a measure of the liberal leanings of the state, and the size of the public sector relative to the labor force). We found that state effects on pay were mixed, with pay generally rising with state liberalism on the one hand. On the other hand, working for a female boss significantly reduced wages. We discussed the theoretical implications of our results, as well as the need for further study of the career effects on subordinates as women increasingly enter the ranks of management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bongrae Seok

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews Owen Flanagan’s latest book “The Geography of Morals, Varieties of Moral Possibilities” (2017. By exploring the space of moral possibility (i.e., diverse options and viewpoints of morality from different philosophical and religious traditions throughout the world, Flanagan argues that ethics is not simply a study of a priori conditions of normative rules and ideal values but a process of developing a careful understanding of varying conditions of human ecology and building practical views on living good life. The goal of this geographical exploration of the moral possibility space is surveying different traditions of morality and finding tractable ways of human flourishing. This article, by following the chapters of his book, explains his views on moral diversity and his interdisciplinary and naturalistic approach to ethics. It also discusses interactive and dynamic ways to expand the moral possibility space.

  3. Liberalism as a doctrine of public and private: Locke, Mill and Rawls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Lázaro Brito e Silva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to think the relationship between public and private space from the standpoint of John Locke, John Stuart Mill, and John Rawls, in order to show the ambivalence of the value of citizens as members of a liberal community. Since Locke, there is a principle that, in the typically English bourgeois cultural milieu, regulates social laws and behaviors, by praising the adequation of practices of the private forum to those of the public forum. Thus, the basis for thinking about legislation, ethics, and morals are established. This trend of thought culminates in significant variations which, however, always express the dualism of external / internal that is supposedly inherent to ordinary life. I will treat the basic genealogy of the liberal institutional conditions of the Western traditional democratic cultures, whose notion of citizenship is based on the relationship between public and private.

  4. Border or Horizon? Comparing the concept of "reason" in the liberal and republican traditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Mesquita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The current article analyzes the expectations of modernity's political philosophy, in its liberal and republican traditions, towards reason: its conceptualization, prerogatives and normative implications. In order to do so, we highlight the role of this human faculty in the theses of seminal authors of modernity and its conjugation the concepts of liberty and equality. Taking social contract theory for a starting point, we contrast the concept of reason in liberalism and republicanism, and after we analyze the implications of the social features of modern democracy (massive and egalitarian for the concept of the rational individual. In conclusion, it is argued that though reason is presented as the cornerstone of the political individual in modernity, locus of human autonomy and justification for its isonomy, its conceptualization varies according to the political tradition, with consequences for the legitimate limits of State action upon the citizen and for the expectations of moral progress of the population.

  5. Personal Empirical Research Regarding Development of Moral Attitude of Romanian and Flemish Teenagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blândul, Valentin Cosmin

    2011-01-01

    The adolescence represents one of the most complex and unpredictable periods of human life. A teenager could be considered mature from physical, intellectual or moral point of view, but not from emotional one, because he is like a "sponge" able to absorb a lot of information, care and love. On the other hand, moral behaviour could be…

  6. Prácticas para el desarrollo moral en universitarios

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen NUÉVALOS

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN: Este artículo presenta una investigación que ha consistido en la elaboración y puesta en práctica de un programa de educación moral. La intervención se ha orientado al desarrollo del razonamiento moral en un grupo de jóvenes universitarios, y su diseño se inspira principalmente en la teoría de Kohlberg. Prestamos una especial atención a la práctica de la educación moral.Nuestros objetivos han sido, por un lado, entrenar a los alumnos en técnicas de desarrollo moral de cara al desempeño de su futura profesión docente. Por otro, incrementar su nivel personal de reflexión y desarrollo moral. Para la evaluación del programa hemos utilizado un método cuantitativo completado con información de tipo cualitativo.ABSTRACT: This report presents an investigation that elaborates and puts a moral education programme into practice. The intervention has been directed to develop the moral reasoning in a group of university students. Its design is founded principally in Kohlberg's theory.Our goals have been, on one hand, training the students in moral development techniques for their future teaching tasks. In the other, improving their personal reflection level and their moral development. The evaluation of the programme has been made using quantitative and qualitative methods.SOMMAIRE: Cet article présente une recherche qui a consisté en l'élaboration et la mise en pratique d'un programme d'éducation morale. Le travail est orienté vers le développement du raisonnement moral chez un groupe de jeunes universitaires en s'inspirant surtout de la théorie de Kohlberg. On vise surtout la pratique de l'éducation morale.Nos buts sont, d'un côté, l'entrainement des élèves aux techniques de développement moral en vue de leur prochain métier d'enseignants, de l'autre côté, il s'agit d'accroitre leur niveau de reflexion et de développement moral. Pour l'évaluation du programme nous avons utilisé une méthode quantitative compl

  7. Moral Geography and Exploration of the Moral Possibility Space

    OpenAIRE

    Bongrae Seok

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews Owen Flanagan’s latest book “The Geography of Morals, Varieties of Moral Possibilities” (2017). By exploring the space of moral possibility (i.e., diverse options and viewpoints of morality from different philosophical and religious traditions throughout the world), Flanagan argues that ethics is not simply a study of a priori conditions of normative rules and ideal values but a process of developing a careful understanding of varying conditions of human ecology and build...

  8. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-07-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power

  9. Essays on liberalized energy markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nese, Gjermund

    2003-01-01

    This thesis consists of four essays that aim at contributing to the understanding of some of the new challenges associated by the liberalized energy markets. More specifically the essays consider investments in energy generation projects; international trade of Green Certificates, market power in a Green Certificate system, and finally the behaviour of public firms in liberalized markets. Essay 1 considers energy investment, when a choice has to be made between fossil fuel and biomass fired production technologies. A dynamic model is presented to illustrate the effect of the different degrees of input price uncertainty on the choice of technology and the timing of the investment. It is shown that when the choice of technology is irreversible, it may be optimal to postpone the investment even if it would otherwise be optimal to invest in one or both of the plant types. We provide a numerical example based on cost estimates of two different power plant types. Essay 2 presents an analytical equilibrium model for simultaneously functioning international markets for electricity and Green Certificates is formulated. The percentage requirement is perceived as the policy instrument affecting the level of green electricity in end-use consumption. In none of the cases considered does an increase in the country's percentage requirement necessarily result in an increase in the generation of green electricity in that country, but it may have a positive effect on the trading partner's generation of green electricity. Further, under quite realistic assumptions, a country maximizes its generation of green electricity by setting the percentage requirement to zero. In essay 3 an analytic equilibrium model for a simultaneously functioning electricity market and a market for Green Certificates is formulated. The major focus of the paper is the effect of market power in a Green Certificate system. One of the main results is that the certificate system faced with market power may

  10. Understanding Libertarian Morality: The Psychological Dispositions of Self-Identified Libertarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Graham, Jesse; Ditto, Peter; Haidt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Libertarians are an increasingly prominent ideological group in U.S. politics, yet they have been largely unstudied. Across 16 measures in a large web-based sample that included 11,994 self-identified libertarians, we sought to understand the moral and psychological characteristics of self-described libertarians. Based on an intuitionist view of moral judgment, we focused on the underlying affective and cognitive dispositions that accompany this unique worldview. Compared to self-identified liberals and conservatives, libertarians showed 1) stronger endorsement of individual liberty as their foremost guiding principle, and weaker endorsement of all other moral principles; 2) a relatively cerebral as opposed to emotional cognitive style; and 3) lower interdependence and social relatedness. As predicted by intuitionist theories concerning the origins of moral reasoning, libertarian values showed convergent relationships with libertarian emotional dispositions and social preferences. Our findings add to a growing recognition of the role of personality differences in the organization of political attitudes. PMID:22927928

  11. Understanding libertarian morality: the psychological dispositions of self-identified libertarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, Ravi; Koleva, Spassena; Graham, Jesse; Ditto, Peter; Haidt, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Libertarians are an increasingly prominent ideological group in U.S. politics, yet they have been largely unstudied. Across 16 measures in a large web-based sample that included 11,994 self-identified libertarians, we sought to understand the moral and psychological characteristics of self-described libertarians. Based on an intuitionist view of moral judgment, we focused on the underlying affective and cognitive dispositions that accompany this unique worldview. Compared to self-identified liberals and conservatives, libertarians showed 1) stronger endorsement of individual liberty as their foremost guiding principle, and weaker endorsement of all other moral principles; 2) a relatively cerebral as opposed to emotional cognitive style; and 3) lower interdependence and social relatedness. As predicted by intuitionist theories concerning the origins of moral reasoning, libertarian values showed convergent relationships with libertarian emotional dispositions and social preferences. Our findings add to a growing recognition of the role of personality differences in the organization of political attitudes.

  12. Operations of a TRIGA reactor at a small private liberal arts college

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Church, L.B.

    1978-01-01

    A small private liberal arts college is not a very representative place to have a TRIGA reactor. Reed is a wholly undergraduate institution with a strong emphasis in the traditional liberal arts and fundamental sciences. Many of the larger state universities provide an excellence in nuclear science which is often presented to students in a somewhat distant manner. By providing a reactor that was immediately accessible to undergraduate students it has been realized that the excitement attendant with nuclear science would be available to them in an immediate hands-on manner

  13. Machiavelli and the liberalism of fear.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    This article revisits the long-standing question of the relations between ethics and politics in Machiavelli's work, assessing its relevance to the 'liberalism of fear' in particular in the work of Judith Shklar, Bernard Williams and also John Dunn. The article considers ways in which Machiavelli has been a 'negative' resource for liberalism - for instance, as a presumed proponent of tyranny; but also ways in which even for the liberalism of fear he might be considered a 'positive' resource, above all around the issues of political necessity and prudential judgement.

  14. Machiavelli and the liberalism of fear

    OpenAIRE

    Osborne, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    This article revisits the long-standing question of the relations between ethics and politics in Machiavelli’s work, assessing its relevance to the ‘liberalism of fear’ in particular in the work of Judith Shklar, Bernard Williams and also John Dunn. The article considers ways in which Machiavelli has been a ‘negative’ resource for liberalism – for instance, as a presumed proponent of tyranny; but also ways in which even for the liberalism of fear he might be considered a ‘positive’ resource, ...

  15. From moral agents to moral factors: the structural ethics approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip A.E.; Kroes, P.; Verbeek, P.P.C.C.

    2014-01-01

    It has become a popular position in the philosophy of technology to claim that some or all technological artifacts can qualify as moral agents. This position has been developed to account for the moral role of technological artifacts in society and to help clarify the moral responsibility of

  16. What Develops in Moral Development? A Model of Moral Sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherblom, Stephen A.

    2012-01-01

    The field of moral psychology would benefit from an integrative model of what develops in moral development, contextualized within the larger scope of social science research. Moral sensibility is proposed as the best concept to embody stated aims, but the content of this concept must be more finely articulated and conceptualized as a dynamic…

  17. Selective Moral Disengagement in the Exercise of Moral Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandura, Albert

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the issue of selective moral disengagement in the exercise of moral agency. Argues that moral functioning is governed by self-reactive selfhood rather than by dispassionate abstract reasoning. Concludes that the massive threats to human welfare stem mainly from deliberate acts of principle rather than from unrestrained acts of impulse.…

  18. Popper's Third World: Moral Habits, Moral Habitat and Their Maintenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozolins, Janis Talivaldis

    2010-01-01

    If we accept Popper's idea that the human habitat is described in terms of three worlds, and that there are overlaps between these three worlds, our moral actions and values will also be subject to the same kinds of consideration as a repertoire of behaviours exhibited in a physical environment. We will develop moral habits in a moral habitat and…

  19. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B.; Ariely, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that “moral disgust” influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior. PMID:25125931

  20. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  1. Moralizing Food Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2015-01-01

    Food technologies are common on many levels in society and used by both food professionals and consumers. Food technologies are not neutral. They inform and shape the behaviour of people. This paper presents a theoretical framework for analysing the mediating role of food technology and its...... influence on food ethics. Post-phenomenology and the idea of a technologically mediated morality are central theoretical approaches. Four elements are included in the analytical framework: perception, interpretation, intentionality, and mediated morality. The framework is applied to two cases; food safety...

  2. Models of morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crockett, Molly J.

    2013-01-01

    Moral dilemmas engender conflicts between two traditions: consequentialism, which evaluates actions based on their outcomes, and deontology, which evaluates actions themselves. These strikingly resemble two distinct decision-making architectures: a model-based system that selects actions based on inferences about their consequences; and a model-free system that selects actions based on their reinforcement history. Here, I consider how these systems, along with a Pavlovian system that responds reflexively to rewards and punishments, can illuminate puzzles in moral psychology. PMID:23845564

  3. Forgiveness and moral development.

    OpenAIRE

    Satne, Paula

    2016-01-01

    Forgiveness is clearly an important aspect of our moral lives, yet surprisingly Kant, one of the most important authors in the history of Western ethics, seems to have very little to say about it. Some authors explain this omission by noting that forgiveness sits uncomfortably in Kant’s moral thought: forgiveness seems to have an ineluctably ‘elective’ aspect which makes it to a certain extent arbitrary; thus it stands in tension with Kant’s claim that agents are autonomous beings, capable of...

  4. Electricity costs in liberalized market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkans, J.; Junghans, G.

    2006-01-01

    In the liberalized electricity market the flexible demand determines the operation of power plants. Under market conditions the producers are forced to compete, and their power plants are normally loaded in order of increasing prices. The electricity costs consist of fixed and variable components, and the competition among producers simulates minimization of both the components. Considering the fixed costs (including maintenance, depreciation, capital costs and other permanent costs not depending on production) to be known, the total electricity costs in different operating conditions are based on the economic characteristics and the equipment load of a power plant. The paper describes the method for determination of electricity costs for condensing thermal power plants with permanent steam take-off for regeneration purposes and adjustable steam take-off for the needs of local heat energy consumers. The marginal costs for CHP plants are determined considering a number of different steam take-off from a turbine. At the electricity cost determination, auxiliary services also are taken into account. These can be reduced by adjusting the rotational speed of electric motors. The paper also shows how to determine the electricity costs for gas turbines, combined cycle gas turbines, and nuclear power plants. The position of hydro power plants among other PPs in the free market is also analysed. (authors)

  5. The liberalization of electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepage, H.; Boucher, M.

    2001-01-01

    Since the end of the 1980s, the electric industry is changing. Privatization, vertical disintegrations, deregulation, restructuring, market openness are models which cause the world to question the regulated model inspired from natural monopolistic theories that are emerging in many parts of the industrialized world. Why are we witnessing these changes? What makes competitiveness possible in an industry where it was always assumed that market forces could not be relied upon? How do these markets function? On what basis and with what rules? What lessons can be learned from the experiments now taking place? This document updates this complex economic process, which proved irreversible, despite badly thought out deregulation in California and other locales. The authors explain the changes that have taken place in the electricity industry in the United States since the First World War and compares experiences with deregulation in Canada, Europe and Australia. The public monopoly being exercised by Hydro-Quebec in Quebec is examined in detail and avenues for changes in the context of liberalization of electricity markets in North America are discussed. refs., figs

  6. Moral regeneration: Seedbeds for civic virtue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piet G.J. Meiring

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Taking his cue from a recent report by the US National Council on Civil Society, the author discusses a number of “seedbeds of civic virtue” that may play a role in the much needed moral regeneration of South African society. The “seedbeds” are (1 family, (2 the local community, (3 faith communities, (4 voluntary civil organizations, (5 arts and art institutions, (6 education, (7 business, labour and economic institu-tions, (8 the media, (9 government, (10 the nation. The “rainbow nation”, the author contends, has in recent times lost some of its colour, but if the different partners in the quest for moral regeneration take hands, the colours of the rainbow may return.

  7. Untangling Partnership and Domination Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Loye

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Riane Eisler’s (1987 cultural transformation theory is an effective framework for understanding many of the constructs that shape society. This article uses Eisler’s theory to explain the formation of morality and the construction of conscience. It contrasts partnership morality and domination morality, and describes the factors that shape our tendency to embrace one or the other. The article helps us understand that we have a choice, and invites us to choose partnership morality.

  8. Identity as a Source of Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Sam A.; Carlo, Gustavo

    2005-01-01

    Theory and research regarding moral motivation has focused for decades on the roles of moral reasoning and, to some extent, moral emotion. Recently, however, several models of morality have positioned identity as an additional important source of moral motivation. An individual has a moral identity to the extent that he or she has constructed his…

  9. China’s interest rate liberalization reform

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Cindy

    2014-01-01

    This Asia Focus report explains the importance of interest rate liberalization in China, reviews historical progress and current efforts made to date, and discusses the potential impact on the banking sector.

  10. Holography as a Liberal Arts Physics Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jacob Wen-kuang

    1978-01-01

    Describes a liberal arts physics course for all majors interested in holography or to satisfy the general education requirements. An outline of the course and some experience of offering it are given. (Author/GA)

  11. Is There a Moral Skill?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotz, Ignacio L.

    1989-01-01

    The nature of skill, distinguished from habit, is sketched. Moral skill is defined as the skill, born of genetically rooted talent, which masterminds subsidiary skills into moral action (action conforming to certain moral principles). Training this skill is possible, but results will be uneven because talent varies. (IAH)

  12. Moral Cognitivism | Lillehammer | Philosophical Papers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper explicates a set of criteria the joint satisfaction of which is taken to qualify moral judgements as cognitive. The paper examines evidence that some moral judgements meet these criteria, and relates the resulting conception of moral judgements to ongoing controversies about cognitivism in ethics. Philosophical ...

  13. Gender Differences in Moral Motivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunner-Winkler, Gertrud; Meyer-Nikele, Marion; Wohlrab, Doris

    2007-01-01

    Moral gender differences have been discussed in terms of Kohlbergian stages and content of orientations and taken to correspond to universal stable male and female features. The present study instead focuses on moral motivation and explains differences in terms of role expectations. We assessed moral motivation in 203 adolescents by a newly…

  14. Moral Intelligence in the Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarken, Rodney H.

    2009-01-01

    Moral intelligence is newer and less studied than the more established cognitive, emotional and social intelligences, but has great potential to improve our understanding of learning and behavior. Moral intelligence refers to the ability to apply ethical principles to personal goals, values and actions. The construct of moral intelligence consists…

  15. Philosophy, Casuistry, and Moral Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullinwider, Robert K.

    2010-01-01

    Moral educators have little to learn from the moral theories in which philosophers routinely trade. These theories--including those by Slote, Hume, and Kant--leave behind the concrete world in which the moral educator labors. As interesting as they may be, they merely devise alternative routes to the same destination--to the main general features…

  16. Theological ethics, moral philosophy, and public moral discourse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsen, Albert R

    1994-03-01

    The advent and growth of bioethics in the United States in the late 1960s and early 1970s precipitated an era of public moral discourse, that is, the deliberate attempt to analyze and formulate moral argument for use in public policy. The language for rational discussion of moral matters evolved from the parent disciplines of moral philosophy and theological ethics, as well as from the idioms of a secular, pluralistic world that was searching for policy answers to difficult bioethical questions. This article explores the basis and content of the unique contributions of both theological and philosophical ethics to the development of public moral discourse.

  17. Liberal coercion? Prostitution, human trafficking and policy

    OpenAIRE

    Cho, Seo-young

    2013-01-01

    Liberal prostitution policy aims at improving labour conditions for prostitutes and protecting victims of forced prostitution. Its policy orientation predicts that the policy choice of liberalizing prostitution is positively associated with better protection policy for trafficking victims and enhanced anti-trafficking measures. In this paper, I investigate empirically whether the legalization of prostitution improves protection policy for victims, as it is presumed. The results of my analysis...

  18. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Tuğçe Kurtiş; Glenn Adams

    2015-01-01

    This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decoloniz...

  19. Services Trade: Past Liberalization and Future Challenges

    OpenAIRE

    Gary Hufbauer; Sherry Stephenson

    2007-01-01

    Services trade has truly become an engine of world growth. Over the past two decades, international trade in services has grown faster than world merchandize trade, which in turn has grown faster than world output. A combination of policy liberalization and technological progress has facilitated trade in many previously untradable services. However, very little progress has been made towards new policy liberalization in the ongoing Doha Development Round. This article discusses trade in servi...

  20. Economic liberalization and globalization vs. India's poor

    OpenAIRE

    Oschinski, Matthias

    2003-01-01

    Today, many in the national and international NGO community perceive globalization and economic liberalization as a threat claiming that it widens inequalities and increases overall poverty. While it is true that inequality is on the rise in a rapidly globalizing world the real culprit is not globalization itself but rather a lack of economic reforms and economic liberalization. This paper aims to show that many in the international NGO community confuse cause and effect. The root cause of po...

  1. Liberalization of local public services and modalities of local action in the liberalized sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquin Tornos Mas

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years we have witnessed a process of increasing liberalization of public services, which means returning economic activities that had been excluded from the market. This process has been less at the local level, but there have also been cases of liberalization of local public services, such as funeral services. This paper examines these liberalization processes and their consequences, analyzing what powers municipalities can exercise in relation to liberalized services, which, despite their return to the market, remain services of general interest.

  2. Individual and Group Rights of Liberal Multiculturalism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesna Stanković Pejnović

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the implementation of minority members’ protection through political and civil rights. In the debates on minority members’ rights, the issue is whether the very individual rights of traditional liberalism are sufficient for minority members’ protection or if there is a need for group rights based on liberal principles of justice, equality and freedom. On these foundations, liberal multiculturalism considers that it is necessary to introduce group rights in order to be used by minority members, but as individual group members. Liberal multiculturalism’s perception of group rights is based on liberal postulates of respect for freedom and individuals’ autonomy, at the same time introducing the recognition of diversity imposed by multiculturalism in its conception of minority rights protection. The author concludes that minority rights, taking into account their internationalisation, should be regarded as a supplement to the perception of classical and contemporary liberalism, because correctly perceived individual rights conception does not neglect cultural diversities. The importance of such perception of minority protection is also visible within the framework proposed by the EU as an obligatory condition for the integration of future member states.

  3. Philosophy and Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediger, Marlow

    Philosophical thinking which has stood the test of time is summarized in this document. The rationale is that all students benefit from studies of philosophical thinking emphasizing moral standards. Thinkers included are: Plato, Aristotle, Peter Abelard, Francis Bacon, Sir Thomas More, Thomas Campanella, Thomas Hobbes, Benedict Spinoza, John…

  4. Overconfidence and Moral Hazard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Rosa, Leonidas Enrique

    In this paper, I study the effects of overconfidence on incentive contracts in a moral-hazard framework in which principal and agent knowingly hold asymmetric beliefs regarding the probability of success of their enterprise. Agent overconfidence can have conflicting effects on the equilibrium con...

  5. New wars, new morality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akkerman, T.

    2009-01-01

    Has war fundamentally changed? If so, it may be time for reconsidering accepted moral standards for waging wars and for conduct in war. The new war thesis holds that wars have fundamentally altered since the end of the Cold War. Proponents such as Kaldor and Weiss hold that wars today are intrastate

  6. Discourse and tractable morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Graaf, G.; Lütge, C.

    2013-01-01

    When managerial decisions are examined, somehow the business context must be included in the analysis. In this chapter, causalities that transcend individuals are promoted as unit of analysis in empirical moral research, namely, discourse. Studying managerial decisions in their discursive context is

  7. Moral Teaching in Geography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David M.

    1995-01-01

    Argues that geography is in a unique position to highlight and emphasize moral issues that otherwise might be neglected. Contemporary issues that naturally intersect with geographic concepts include citizenship and immigration, and the allocation of resources. Recommends examining relative concepts of justice, equality, and community. (MJP)

  8. The New Moral Darwinism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, John L.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews "Losing Ground: American Social Policy, 1950-1980" by Charles Murray. Murray believes federal social welfare programs sap the moral fiber of poor Americans by eliminating a negative incentive for them to work at low paying jobs. Criticizes Murray's position, citing the importance of positive as well as negative incentives for…

  9. Recycling as moral behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    It is argued in this paper that in the affluent, industrial societies, environmental behaviours like recycling are typically classified within ""the domain of morality"" in people's minds. Intentions regarding these types of behaviours are not ba a thorough - conscious or unconscious - calculation...

  10. Moral actor, selfish agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frimer, Jeremy A; Schaefer, Nicola K; Oakes, Harrison

    2014-05-01

    People are motivated to behave selfishly while appearing moral. This tension gives rise to 2 divergently motivated selves. The actor-the watched self-tends to be moral; the agent-the self as executor-tends to be selfish. Three studies present direct evidence of the actor's and agent's distinct motives. To recruit the self-as-actor, we asked people to rate the importance of various goals. To recruit the self-as-agent, we asked people to describe their goals verbally. In Study 1, actors claimed their goals were equally about helping the self and others (viz., moral); agents claimed their goals were primarily about helping the self (viz., selfish). This disparity was evident in both individualist and collectivist cultures, attesting to the universality of the selfish agent. Study 2 compared actors' and agents' motives to those of people role-playing highly prosocial or selfish exemplars. In content (Study 2a) and in the impressions they made on an outside observer (Study 2b), actors' motives were similar to those of the prosocial role-players, whereas agents' motives were similar to those of the selfish role-players. Study 3 accounted for the difference between the actor and agent: Participants claimed that their agent's motives were the more realistic and that their actor's motives were the more idealistic. The selfish agent/moral actor duality may account for why implicit and explicit measures of the same construct diverge, and why feeling watched brings out the better angels of human nature.

  11. Moral Hazard and Stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tumennasan, Norovsambuu

    2014-01-01

    not form. Formally, we study the team formation problem in which the agents’ efforts are not verifiable and the size of teams does not exceed quota r . We show that if the team members cannot make transfers, then moral hazard affects stability positively in a large class of games. For example, a stable...

  12. Rethinking Moral Responsibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vedder, A.H.; Johnson, D.; Moor, J.; Tavani, H.

    2000-01-01

    Questions regarding the moral responsibility of Internet access and service providers relating to possible negative aspects of information on the Internet call for a reassessment of the ways in which we think about attributing blame, guilt, and duties of reparation and compensation. They invite us

  13. ‘Between life and death’: On land, silence and liberation in the capital city

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephan F. de Beer

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article reflects on the unfinished task of liberation – as expressed in issues of land – and drawing from the work of Franz Fanon and the Durban-based social movement Abahlali baseMjondolo. It locates its reflections in four specific sites of struggle in the City of Tshwane, and against the backdrop of the mission statement of the Faculty of Theology at the University of Pretoria, as well as the Capital Cities Research Project based in the same university. Reflecting on the ‘living death’ of millions of landless people on the one hand, and the privatisation of liberation on the other, it argues that a liberating praxis of engagement remains a necessity in order to break the violent silences that perpetuate exclusion.

  14. Navigating moral distress using the moral distress map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudzinski, Denise Marie

    2016-05-01

    The plethora of literature on moral distress has substantiated and refined the concept, provided data about clinicians' (especially nurses') experiences, and offered advice for coping. Fewer scholars have explored what makes moral distress moral If we acknowledge that patient care can be distressing in the best of ethical circumstances, then differentiating distress and moral distress may refine the array of actions that are likely to ameliorate it. This article builds upon scholarship exploring the normative and conceptual dimensions of moral distress and introduces a new tool to map moral distress from emotional source to corrective actions. The Moral Distress Map has proven useful in clinical teaching and ethics-related debriefings. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. Fostering Nurses' Moral Agency and Moral Identity: The Importance of Moral Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liaschenko, Joan; Peter, Elizabeth

    2016-09-01

    It may be the case that the most challenging moral problem of the twenty-first century will be the relationship between the individual moral agent and the practices and institutions in which the moral agent is embedded. In this paper, we continue the efforts that one of us, Joan Liaschenko, first called for in 1993, that of using feminist ethics as a lens for viewing the relationship between individual nurses as moral agents and the highly complex institutions in which they do the work of nursing. Feminist ethics, with its emphasis on the inextricable relationship between ethics and politics, provides a useful lens to understand the work of nurses in context. Using Margaret Urban Walker's and Hilde Lindemann's concepts of identity, relationships, values, and moral agency, we argue that health care institutions can be moral communities and profoundly affect the work and identity and, therefore, the moral agency of all who work within those structures, including nurses. Nurses are not only shaped by these organizations but also have the power to shape them. Because moral agency is intimately connected to one's identity, moral identity work is essential for nurses to exercise their moral agency and to foster moral community in health care organizations. We first provide a brief history of nursing's morally problematic relationship with institutions and examine the impact institutional master narratives and corporatism exert today on nurses' moral identities and agency. We close by emphasizing the significance of ongoing dialogue in creating and sustaining moral communities, repairing moral identities, and strengthening moral agency. © 2016 The Hastings Center.

  16. Good, Self, and Unselfing - Reflections on Iris Murdoch"s Moral Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruokonen, Floora

    2002-01-01

    When discussing Iris Murdoch"s moral philosophy it is often easiest to start by saying what she is opposing. Such is the case also in this paper, which concerns Murdoch"s views of our identity as persons or "selves�. The good enemy against which Murdoch writes is what she calls the "current�, the "modern�, or the "liberal� view of morals. This is a view whose essential features are shared by such apparently quite different philosophers as, for example, R. M. Ha...

  17. Ethics and Morality in Software Development: A Developer's Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, James H.

    2010-01-01

    Computers and other digital devices have become ubiquitous in our lives. Almost all aspects of our lives are in part or wholly impacted by computers and the software that runs on them. Unknowingly, we are placing our livelihoods and even our lives in the hands unknown software developers. Ethical and moral decisions made during software…

  18. Otonomi Moral Keagamaan Mahasiswa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Idrus

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Secara umum tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk memahami dan menganalisis fenomena otonomi moral keagamaan mahasiswa Fakultas Tarbiyah, yang diharapkan dapat menjadi balikan bagi perumusan model ideal pendidikan moral yang sesuai dengan kaidah agama Islam. Penelitian ini menggunakan pendekatan kualitatif dengan desain studi kasus terpancang {embedded case study, dengan mengambil latar Fakultas Tarbiyah UII. Model ini diharapkan dapat memberikan gambaran makna mendalam tentang perilaku keseharian mahasiswa-mahasiswi sesuai fokus penelitian yang diajukan. Pengamatan, wawancara, rekaman audio dan rekaman visual digunakan dalam proses pengumpulan data yang melibatkan mahasiswa dan dosen. Analisis domain, taksonomik, komponensial dan tema digunakan dalam mereduksi dan mengklasifikasi data yang diperoleh u ntuk mendeskripsikan kenyataan empiris. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan perilaku kegamaan yang ditampilkan para informan cenderung tidak memiliki otonomi moral keagamaan yang baik, atau masih dalam tahapan heteronomi. Hal tersebut ditunjukkan adanya pelbagai harapan atas pelaksanaan perintah yang dilakukan, ataupun penghindaran larangan. Kedua, dalam memeluk agama tampaknya secara umum informan masih bersifat pewarisan dari para orang tuanya. Ketiga, dalam upayanya untuk membangkitkan otonomi moral keagamaan mahasiswa, dosen melakukan dengan cara himbauan, nasehat, ataupun bimbingan yang diberikan pada waktu-waktu tertentu dan tidak terjadual dalam kegiatan tatap muka di kelas. Berdasarkan pada hasil penelitian diajukan beberapa saran, yaitu: Pertama, adanya pengakuan informan bahwa agama yang dianutnya merupakan agama warisan orang tua mereka, dapat dijadikan sebagai fokus pada penelitian berikut. Kedua, dalam penelitian ini kajian otonomi moral keagamaan dilihat dari sudut pandang agama Islam. Tentunya melihat variasi agama yang ada di Indonesia, sudut pandang penelitian lanjutan dapat dilakukan melalui "kaca mata" agama-agama yang berbeda.

  19. Defining Features of Moral Sensitivity and Moral Motivation: Pathways to Moral Reasoning in Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morton, Kelly R.; Worthley, Joanna S.; Testerman, John K.; Mahoney, Marita L.

    2006-01-01

    Kohlberg's theory of moral development explores the roles of cognition and emotion but focuses primarily on cognition. Contemporary post-formal theories lead to the conclusion that skills resulting from cognitive-affective integration facilitate consistency between moral judgement and moral behaviour. Rest's four-component model of moral…

  20. KOMPETENSI MORAL DAN INTENSI WHISTLEBLOWING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harti Budi yanti

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the effect of age, gender and moral competence on whistleblowing intentions. Most of the respondents had a medium moral competence score. The older women group proved to be higher in moral competence scores than men of the same age. Age and gender do not affect whistle blowing intentions. However, moral competence strengthens the influence of age and gender on whistle blowing intentions. The results of this test provide support for human resource development practitioners to start paying attention to moral competence in addition to technical competence as the basis of consideration of recruitment, promotion and layoffs.

  1. Promoting Prosociality: Testing the Potential of Moral Elevation and Moral Outrage

    OpenAIRE

    Van de Vyver, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This thesis examines the effects of two specific moral emotions - moral elevation (experienced when witnessing a moral virtue) and moral outrage (experienced when witnessing a moral transgression) - on prosociality. While ample research has examined emotions such as sympathy and guilt, much less is known about moral elevation and moral outrage. Yet, their separate strands of research suggest that both moral elevation and moral outrage are promising emotions for promoting prosocial responses. ...

  2. From gulf to bridge: when do moral arguments facilitate political influence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Willer, Robb

    2015-12-01

    Much of contemporary American political rhetoric is characterized by liberals and conservatives advancing arguments for the morality of their respective political positions. However, research suggests such moral rhetoric is largely ineffective for persuading those who do not already hold one's position because advocates advancing these arguments fail to account for the divergent moral commitments that undergird America's political divisions. Building on this, we hypothesize that (a) political advocates spontaneously make arguments grounded in their own moral values, not the values of those targeted for persuasion, and (b) political arguments reframed to appeal to the moral values of those holding the opposing political position are typically more effective. We find support for these claims across six studies involving diverse political issues, including same-sex marriage, universal health care, military spending, and adopting English as the nation's official langauge. Mediation and moderation analyses further indicated that reframed moral appeals were persuasive because they increased the apparent agreement between the political position and the targeted individuals' moral values. © 2015 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.

  3. Moral distress in emergency nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Parsons, Robin; Rodriguez, Lori; Goyal, Deepika

    2013-11-01

    For nurses, moral distress leads to burnout, attrition, compassion fatigue, and patient avoidance. Using a quantitative, cross-sectional, and descriptive design, we assessed the frequency, intensity, and type of moral distress in 51 emergency nurses in 1 community hospital using a 21-item, self-report, Likert-type questionnaire. Results showed a total mean moral distress level of 3.18, indicative of overall low moral distress. Situations with the highest levels of moral distress were related to the competency of health care providers and following family wishes to continue life support, also known as futile care. Moral distress was the reason given by 6.6% of registered nurses for leaving a previous position, 20% said that they had considered leaving a position but did not, and 13.3% stated that they are currently considering leaving their position because of moral distress. Copyright © 2013 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Psychology as a Moral Science

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brinkmann, Svend

    What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations,...... as a Moral Science contains enough controversial ideas to spark great interest among researchers and scholars in psychology and the philosophy of science.......What does morality have to do with psychology in a value-neutral, postmodern world? According to a provocative new book, everything. Taking exception with current ideas in the mainstream (including cultural, evolutionary, and neuropsychology) as straying from the discipline’s ethical foundations......, Psychology as a Moral Science argues that psychological phenomena are inherently moral, and that psychology, as prescriptive and interventive practice, reflects specific moral principles. The book cites normative moral standards, as far back as Aristotle, that give human thoughts, feelings, and actions...

  5. Moral individualism and elective death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prado, C G

    2013-01-01

    Moral individualism (Brooks, 2011; Smith, 2011) is a contemporary interpretation of morality as entirely a matter of personal choice. It is a popular rather than theory-based interpretation and has a number of social generative sources related to present-day preoccupation with individuality and personal distinctiveness. A key generative source is popularization of postmodernism, which prioritizes self-reinvention and provides moral individualism with the appearance of intellectual legitimacy. Moral individualism is a deeply flawed misconception of morality because it abolishes moral communality. My concern in this paper is that in doing so, it seriously jeopardizes productive discussion of the moral permissibility of elective death or choosing to die in despairingly and dire circumstances. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Liberty Challenge or Dangers of Liberal Democracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Eidukienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The article analyses dialectics of a modern democracy and liberalism through the new (from the quality point of view subsistence of liberty, the priority element of democracy, in liberal democracies. The significance of such discourse is determined by the existing social inequality and its conversion into political domain. Particular attention is paid to the social issue, which was treated by Max Weber already as the reason of death of the old, fanatic German “national liberalism”, since it has not managed to belong to the German environment. Even today, it still lies in the principles of life and reality of “young” democratic post­soviet states. Conversion of a social issue into political domain disorganises the society, and it is hardly capable to socialise its norms and values in order to be obligated with regard to civic goals. In other words, the social issue significantly adjusts the pace and direction of transformation of the society. Therefore, an immature “young” liberal democracy may become “less liberal” or no longer conform to the “strict” definition of liberal democracy. Referring to the above, we conclude that social composition should become the medium of political reconstruction for “young” democracies. This does not mean, however, the change of the genetic code of liberalism. This is a striving to vest it, as an ideology, additional powers for rationalisation of democracy by delivering to it the content and the meaning, which would answer the challenges and problems of the time. Liberalism should create a new, from the quality point of view, hierarchy of values and become a new context for both political thinking and democracy. This would render new impulses to economic and public politics, meanwhile developing new premises for a new, from the quality point of view, democracy that would help to consolidate the society for the becoming of liberal democracy.  

  7. Do Liberal Arts Colleges Make Students More Liberal? Some Initial Evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, Jana M.; Weeden, Dustin D.; Pascarella, Ernest T.; Blaich, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The effect of attending college on students' political ideology has been a controversial topic for many decades. In this study, we explored the relationship between attending a liberal arts college and students' political views. Compared to their counterparts at other 4-year institutions, liberal arts college students began postsecondary education…

  8. Teachers' moral values and their interpersonal relationships with students and cultural competence

    OpenAIRE

    Pantic, Natasa; Wubbels, T.

    2012-01-01

    This study explored whether and how teachers' beliefs about moral values are reflected in the student-teacher relationships (i.e. levels of control and affiliation in teachers' and students' perceptions of this relationship), and in teachers' cultural competence. A positive association was found between teachers' paternalist beliefs and their own perceptions of control. A negative association was found between teachers' liberal beliefs and students' perceptions of affiliation. Positive associ...

  9. Common sense and the common morality in theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Patrick

    2014-06-01

    The unfinished nature of Beauchamp and Childress's account of the common morality after 34 years and seven editions raises questions about what is lacking, specifically in the way they carry out their project, more generally in the presuppositions of the classical liberal tradition on which they rely. Their wide-ranging review of ethical theories has not provided a method by which to move beyond a hypothetical approach to justification or, on a practical level regarding values conflict, beyond a questionable appeal to consensus. My major purpose in this paper is to introduce the thought of Bernard Lonergan as offering a way toward such a methodological breakthrough. In the first section, I consider Beauchamp and Childress's defense of their theory of the common morality. In the second, I relate a persisting vacillation in their argument regarding the relative importance of reason and experience to a similar tension in classical liberal theory. In the third, I consider aspects of Lonergan's generalized empirical method as a way to address problems that surface in the first two sections of the paper: (1) the structural relation of reason and experience in human action; and (2) the importance of theory for practice in terms of what Lonergan calls "common sense" and "general bias."

  10. Hong Kong Liberals Are WEIRD: Analytic Thought Increases Support for Liberal Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talhelm, Thomas

    2018-05-01

    This study tests whether liberals and conservatives within the same society think as if they were from different cultures. I tested this by measuring the cultural thought style of social liberals and conservatives in Hong Kong (Study 1). Liberals tended to think more analytically (more "WEIRD"), and conservatives tended to think more holistically (more common in East Asia). In Study 2, I trained people to think analytically or holistically before they read articles on political issues. Analytic thought caused people to form more liberal opinions, and holistic thought caused people to form more conservative opinions. The thought training affected participants' responses to a social issue, but not an economic issue or whether they identified as liberal or conservative. This study replicates a previous U.S. finding in an East Asian culture and a different political environment, suggesting that the link between politics and thought style extends beyond the United States.

  11. Trade Liberalization and Optimal Environmental Policies in Vertical Related Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Shu Lin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper establishes a symmetric two-country model with vertically related markets. In the downstream market, there is one firm in each country selling a homogeneous good, whose production generates pollution, to its home and the foreign markets a la Brander (1981. In the intermediate good market, there is also one upstream firm in each country, supplying the intermediate good only to its own country’s downstream market. The upstream firms can choose either price or quantity to maximize their profits. With this setting, the paper examines the optimal environmental policy and how it is affected by the tariff on the final good. It is found that, under free trade, the optimal final-good output with imperfect intermediate-good market will have the same output level as that with perfect intermediate-good market after imposing the optimal emission tax. The optimal environmental tax is smaller and the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the market structure in the intermediate good market is imperfect than perfect competition. On the other hand, the optimal environmental tax is necessarily higher if the upstream firm chooses price than quantity. Moreover, the optimal environmental policy is less likely to be a green strategy under trade liberalization if the upstream firms choose quantity than price to maximize their profits.

  12. Ethics and Moral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Macena Figueiredo

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Ethics and moral are terms frequently used in our every-day life; however, defining their meanings is not an easy task. If we just ask people whether there is any distinction between these terms, we will notice that it is very difficult for them to answer. This essay has the objective to present the theoretical-philosophical principles related to the conceptual inaccuracies from the analysis of the primitive root of the terms. Thus, it begins from a brief review on the etymological origin of the terms ethos and mos. The several meanings in which these terms can be employed and the concepts used are presented. At the end, there is a reflection on the comprehension of Ethics as science or as a branch of study of philosophy. Keywords: Ethics; Moral; Virtues; Social values

  13. Modeling exogenous moral norms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross A. Tippit

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers the possibility of a robust and general formulation of a model of choice for the representation of a variety of moral norms. It starts by reviewing several recent models of deontological (or rule-based norms that retain the basic elements of the economic model of choice. It briefly examines the achievements and drawbacks of each model, and while no model is identified as the most accurate or robust, the most appealing aspects of each model contribute to the construction of a tout-ensemble utility function proposed in the final section. This representation of preferences aims to incorporate the most common qualities of both consequentialist and deontological moral norms in order to represent decision making under their influence.

  14. The liberal battlefields of global business regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Macdonald

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The global justice movement has often been associated with opposition to the broad programme of ‘neoliberalism’ and associated patterns of ‘corporate globalisation’, creating a widespread impression that this movement is opposed to liberalism more broadly conceived. Our goal in this article is to challenge this widespread view. By engaging in critical interpretive analysis of the contemporary ‘corporate accountability’ movement, we argue that the corporate accountability agenda is not opposed to the core values of a liberal project. Rather, it is seeking to reconfigure the design of liberal institutions of individual rights-protection, adjusting these for new material conditions associated with economic globalisation, under which powerful corporations alongside states now pose direct and significant threats to individual rights. This activist agenda is, therefore, much less radical in its challenge to the prevailing liberal global order than it may initially appear, since it functions to buttress rather than corrode many core normative commitments underpinning the liberal political project.

  15. Environmental Morale and Motivation

    OpenAIRE

    Frey, Bruno S; Stutzer, Alois

    2006-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role of environmental morale and environmental motivation in individual behavior from the point of view of economics and psychology. It deals with the fundamental public good problem, and presents empirical (laboratory and field) evidence on how the cooperation problem can be overcome. Four different theoretical approaches are distinguished according to how individuals� underlying environmental motivation is modeled. Specifically, we look at the interaction betwee...

  16. Epidemiology and moral philosophy.

    OpenAIRE

    Westrin, C G; Nilstun, T; Smedby, B; Haglund, B

    1992-01-01

    To an increasing extent ethical controversies affect and sometimes obstruct public health work and epidemiological research. In order to improve communication between the concerned parties a model for identification and analysis of ethical conflicts in individual-based research has been worked out in co-operation between epidemiologists and moral philosophers. The model has two dimensions. One dimension specifies relevant ethical principles (as beneficence, non-maleficence, autonomy and justi...

  17. Promoting Health, Producing Moralisms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brogaard Kristensen, Dorthe; Askegaard, Søren; Hauge Jeppesen, Lene

    2010-01-01

    Based on an ethnographic study of 25 Danish consumers, the aim of this paper is threefold. Firstly, based on a critique of traditional approaches to consumer health campaigning, it argues for a more socially diversified approach for understanding consumer construction and pursuit of healthy...... behaviour. Secondly, it presents a typology of discourses that are employed by consumers in constructing their (health oriented) food consumption. Thirdly, it addresses certain social and moral dilemmas inherent in consumer health promotional campaigns....

  18. Moral satisficing: rethinking moral behavior as bounded rationality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gigerenzer, Gerd

    2010-07-01

    What is the nature of moral behavior? According to the study of bounded rationality, it results not from character traits or rational deliberation alone, but from the interplay between mind and environment. In this view, moral behavior is based on pragmatic social heuristics rather than moral rules or maximization principles. These social heuristics are not good or bad per se, but solely in relation to the environments in which they are used. This has methodological implications for the study of morality: Behavior needs to be studied in social groups as well as in isolation, in natural environments as well as in labs. It also has implications for moral policy: Only by accepting the fact that behavior is a function of both mind and environmental structures can realistic prescriptive means of achieving moral goals be developed. Copyright © 2010 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  19. Iris Murdoch's Criticism of Traditional Views of the Moral Self: An Alternative Account of "seeing" the Others

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lita

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to reconstruct Iris Murdoch's criticism of the moral self as it was developed by liberalism, romanticism, existentialism and linguistic empiricism that interpreted the moral person as entangled either in a world of essences (Kant's view or in a world of mere existence in which the interplay of both necessity and freedom is at stake. Thus what is missing from all these theories is a sufficient development of what it is to have a regard for others through aesthetic perception, which is the most important aspect of the moral self. At the difference of these conceptions Murdoch offers an alternative view, both to liberal ethics in the Kantian tradition and to contemporary ethics, as she argues that to have regard for others demands responsiveness which can also be explained in terms of aesthetic sensibility. Murdoch's ethics rests on an analogy between aesthetic sensibility and moral sensibility based upon the model of the artist's unconditional love for his characters, which she interprets as being a matter of seeing and loving others. The author's thesis is that love is the crucial point of Murdoch's conception of the moral self where the moral and aesthetical sensibility, as well cognition, intersect each other, because seeing others incorporates emotions of respect and compassion that characterize love and such seeing is cognitive love.

  20. The contstructivistic defence of the objectivity of moral standards and natural law that does not require the debate on moral realism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šljukić Slavenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of Kenneth R. Westphal’s How Hume and Kant Reconstruct Natural Law: Justifying Strict Objectivity without Debating Moral Realism is to defend the objectivity of moral standards and natural law and thus avoid the discussion about moral realism and its alternatives by interpreting Hume and Kant in a constructivistic sense. The reason behind the author’s disagreement with both: moral realism and non-realism (its alternative is our inability to properly understand and answer one of the two parts in Socrates’ question to Euthyphro: “Is the pious loved by the gods because it is pious, or is it pious because it is loved?“ Moral realists cannot provide an answer to its second part, since it is not possible to prove that moral standards are not artificial; conversely, moral non-realists cannot provide an answer to its first part, since it is not possible to avoid the relatitvity of moral standards. The author tends to solve this problem by avoiding the confrontation between moral realism and non-realism and thus choosing the constuctivistic stance that, as he argues, can be found in both Hume’s and Kant’s theories. The main point of this stance is that moral standards are indeed artificial, yet not arbitrary. He proves this by pointing out that both Hume and Kant treat the moral standards as a social fact (that is, artificial, but also as objective. Westphal points out that Hume explicitly writes about moral standards as a social fact, while showing that, at the same time, his theory of justice, which precedes all of the moral standards, is established independently of his theory of moral sentiments (potentially leading to moral relativism. In this manner, he provides the objectivity of those standards. On the other hand, Kant’s theory is interpreted as advanced, yet similar to Hume’s in its structure. The crucial similarity is that both Hume and Kant interpret the moral standards as a social fact (that is, as an

  1. Moral judgment reloaded: a moral dilemma validation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Julia F.; Flexas, Albert; Calabrese, Margareta; Gut, Nadine K.; Gomila, Antoni

    2014-01-01

    We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability, and Intention) and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats) that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan, and Danish). The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set. PMID:25071621

  2. Moral Judgment Reloaded: A Moral Dilemma validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia F. Christensen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We propose a revised set of moral dilemmas for studies on moral judgment. We selected a total of 46 moral dilemmas available in the literature and fine-tuned them in terms of four conceptual factors (Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, Evitability and Intention and methodological aspects of the dilemma formulation (word count, expression style, question formats that have been shown to influence moral judgment. Second, we obtained normative codings of arousal and valence for each dilemma showing that emotional arousal in response to moral dilemmas depends crucially on the factors Personal Force, Benefit Recipient, and Intentionality. Third, we validated the dilemma set confirming that people's moral judgment is sensitive to all four conceptual factors, and to their interactions. Results are discussed in the context of this field of research, outlining also the relevance of our RT effects for the Dual Process account of moral judgment. Finally, we suggest tentative theoretical avenues for future testing, particularly stressing the importance of the factor Intentionality in moral judgment. Additionally, due to the importance of cross-cultural studies in the quest for universals in human moral cognition, we provide the new set dilemmas in six languages (English, French, German, Spanish, Catalan and Danish. The norming values provided here refer to the Spanish dilemma set.

  3. MacIntyre's Moral Theory and Moral Relativism

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Abedi Renani

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, I seek to explain the similarity and disparity between MacIntyre’s moral theory and moral relativism. I will argue that MacIntyre’s moral theory can escape the charge of moral relativism because both his earlier social and his later metaphysical approaches appeal to some criteria, the human telos or universal human qualities respectively. The notion of telos is wider than the notion of function which is defined in social contexts. If there is a context-transcending notion of te...

  4. Predictors of Moral Disengagement in Sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, David Light; Funk, Christopher D; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2015-12-01

    Researchers have made productive use of Bandura's (1991) construct of moral disengagement (MD) to help explain why sport participants deviate from ethical ideals. In this study of intercollegiate athletes from diverse sports (N = 713), we examined MD in relation to other character-related variables: empathy, moral identity, moral attentiveness, and contesting orientations. We also examined whether moral attentiveness conforms to the pattern of "bracketed morality" found in moral reasoning (Shields & Bredemeier, 1995) and moral behavior (Kavussanu, Boardley, Sagar, & Ring, 2013). Results indicated that MD correlated positively with perceptual moral attentiveness and war contesting orientation; MD correlated negatively with empathy, moral identity, reflective moral attentiveness, and partnership contesting orientation. Results of hierarchical regression demonstrated that gender, contesting orientations, moral identity, and one form of moral attentiveness were significant predictors of MD. Finally, sport participants were found to be less morally attentive in sport than in everyday life.

  5. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare

  6. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baksi, S. [Department of Economics, University of Winnipeg, Winnipeg (Canada); Ray Chaudhuri, A. [Department of Economics, CentER, TILEC, Tilburg University, Tilburg (Netherlands)

    2008-08-15

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pollution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently small (large), bilateral tariff reduction always decreases (increases) the pollution tax, irrespective of the value of the transboundary pollution parameter. However, when the pollution damage parameter takes intermediate values, bilateral tariff reduction decreases the pollution tax if and only if the transboundary pollution parameter is sufficiently large (or even sufficiently small, in certain cases). Moreover, with pollution being transboundary, the impact of trade liberalization on welfare is non-monotonic and concave. The greater the extent to which pollution crosses borders, the more likely is trade liberalization to reduce welfare.

  7. Conservatives report, but liberals display, greater happiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcik, Sean P; Hovasapian, Arpine; Graham, Jesse; Motyl, Matt; Ditto, Peter H

    2015-03-13

    Research suggesting that political conservatives are happier than political liberals has relied exclusively on self-report measures of subjective well-being. We show that this finding is fully mediated by conservatives' self-enhancing style of self-report (study 1; N = 1433) and then describe three studies drawing from "big data" sources to assess liberal-conservative differences in happiness-related behavior (studies 2 to 4; N = 4936). Relative to conservatives, liberals more frequently used positive emotional language in their speech and smiled more intensely and genuinely in photographs. Our results were consistent across large samples of online survey takers, U.S. politicians, Twitter users, and LinkedIn users. Our findings illustrate the nuanced relationship between political ideology, self-enhancement, and happiness and illuminate the contradictory ways that happiness differences can manifest across behavior and self-reports. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  8. Deliberative Democracy between Social Liberalism and Neoliberalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Loftager, Jørn

    During the same decades as neoliberalism has expanded at the expense of social liberalism, democratic theory has witnessed a profound deliberative turn. The paper explores links be-tween these developments and presents a double argument. First, it argues for a critical oppo-sition between a current...... agenda with problems calling for effective public reasoning and the predominance of neoliberal politics and ideas of citizenship. Whereas a social liberal notion of citizenship based on equal rights is conducive to deliberative democracy, recent years’ ne-oliberalism tends to define citizenship in terms...... in neoliberal ontology (Hayek). Here there is a remarkable parallel to French solidarism and especially the social liberal think-ing of Durkheim. Danish politics will serve as an illustrative empirical, least likely, case in point....

  9. School religious education in a liberating perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Meza Rueda

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Religious education in Colombia, according to Law 115 of 1994, is an area of fundamental training. However, its purpose of promoting the religious dimension of human beings and understanding the role of religion in culture is far from being achieved, because, in practice, it is considered as an area of second order, is disjointed from the curriculum and is still working as the “religion lesson” of the past. What to do against this? Could it be another way of thinking about religious education? We estimate that, as presuppositions and motivations of both liberation theology and liberating pedagogy are still valid today, they may provide clues in this respect. Consequently, this paper not only makes a detailed reading of this reality in some official educational institutions in Colombia, but also sheds light for the school religious education (ERE to be liberating.

  10. Natural Selection and Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo abordo los intentos, relativamente recientes, de dar una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación por selección natural. Mi exposición tiene una introducción y cuatro partes: en la primera explico en qué consiste la paradoja del altruismo biológico. En la segunda expongo la solución que apela a la selección de grupos, recientemente resurgida; la solución que presuntamente aplicó Charles Darwin cuando formuló sus reflexiones biológicas sobre la moralidad humana. En la tercera expongo la solución sociobiológica, que opta por negar que la selección natural pueda explicar directamente la moralidad humana. La moralidad se presenta más bien como opuesta a la naturaleza diseñada por selección natural. En la cuarta parte desarrollo brevemente una explicación de la moralidad como adaptación que beneficia a los individuos. No opone la moralidad a la naturaleza, ni apela a la selección de grupos. Se sirve de un mecanismo de selección que opera a través de preferencias en la interacción social.Abstract:In this essay, I address recent attempts to account for morality as an adaptation due to natural selection. After a brief introduction, my exposition has four sections. I first explain the paradox of biological altruism. Second, I explain the solution to the paradox in terms of group selection. This solution was presumably applied by Darwin himself as he discussed human morality, and it has experienced a recent revival, though it remains suspicious to most biologists. In the third section I offer a socio-biological solution that opts for denying that morality can be explained by any form of natural selection. Morality is opposed to human nature as designed by natural selection. In the fourth, I argue for an explanation in terms of individual selection. It does not oppose morality to nature, and does not need the workings of group selection; rather, it operates through the agents’ psychological preferences

  11. Kantian dilemmas? Moral conflict in Kant’s ethical theory

    OpenAIRE

    Timmermann, Jens

    2013-01-01

    This paper explores the possibility of moral conflict in Kant’s ethics. An analysis of the only explicit discussion of the topic in his published writings confirms that there is no room for genuine moral dilemmas. Conflict is limited to nonconclusive ‘grounds’ of obligation. They arise only in the sphere of ethical duty and, though defeasible, ought to be construed as the result of valid arguments an agent correctly judges to apply in the situation at hand. While it is difficult to determine ...

  12. Moral judgment in episodic amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craver, Carl F; Keven, Nazim; Kwan, Donna; Kurczek, Jake; Duff, Melissa C; Rosenbaum, R Shayna

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the role of episodic thought about the past and future in moral judgment, we administered a well-established moral judgment battery to individuals with hippocampal damage and deficits in episodic thought (insert Greene et al. 2001). Healthy controls select deontological answers in high-conflict moral scenarios more frequently when they vividly imagine themselves in the scenarios than when they imagine scenarios abstractly, at some personal remove. If this bias is mediated by episodic thought, individuals with deficits in episodic thought should not exhibit this effect. We report that individuals with deficits in episodic memory and future thought make moral judgments and exhibit the biasing effect of vivid, personal imaginings on moral judgment. These results strongly suggest that the biasing effect of vivid personal imagining on moral judgment is not due to episodic thought about the past and future. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Wording effects in moral judgments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ross E. O'Hara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As the study of moral judgments grows, it becomes imperative to compare results across studies in order to create unified theories within the field. These efforts are potentially undermined, however, by variations in wording used by different researchers. The current study sought to determine whether, when, and how variations in wording influence moral judgments. Online participants responded to 15 different moral vignettes (e.g., the trolley problem using 1 of 4 adjectives: ``wrong'', ``inappropriate'', ``forbidden'', or ``blameworthy''. For half of the sample, these adjectives were preceded by the adverb ``morally''. Results indicated that people were more apt to judge an act as wrong or inappropriate than forbidden or blameworthy, and that disgusting acts were rated as more acceptable when ``morally'' was included. Although some wording differences emerged, effects sizes were small and suggest that studies of moral judgment with different wordings can legitimately be compared.

  14. Demand response in liberalized electricity markets - the Nordic case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerndal, Mette; Lund, Arne-Christian; Rud, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The liberalization of the Nordic electricity markets started with the deregulation of the Norwegian market, and the later inclusion of Sweden, Denmark and Finland in The Nord Pool area has provided a truly international marketplace, where prices are quoted for all the Nordic countries except Iceland. The structure of the Norwegian supply side was a favorable starting point for the liberalization process with many independent (hydropower) producers and, following the Energy Act of 1991, the vertical separation of competitive production on the one hand and regulated transmission / distribution one the other hand (implemented as a requirement of separation of financial accounts). Moreover, since the mid 1990s (unregulated) retail competition has provided market based price-signals to customers, even to individual households. In this paper we will focus on the potential benefits of demand flexibility in order to enhance the performance of the electricity market in attaining optimal operation and development of the electricity system. These benefits will depend on the price elasticity of the demand. However, whether it is possible to act on price changes also depends on the information provided to and from the customers. Especially for short run flexibility, this may require two way communication devises for larger customer groups, which raises questions like who is to pay for the investments needed, and who will benefit from them. Demand response also depends on the marginal signals resulting from the different contracts offered to the customers. Today this includes ''variable'' price, spot price (based on Nord Pool Elspot) and fixed price contracts. Customer flexibility depends on the possibility of substitution for instance to other fuels / alternative energy provisions. Finally, flexibility will differ between customer classes, for instance households, industry, power intensive industry etc. In this paper we investigate demand response and customer flexibility in

  15. The stormy waters of the International Criminal Court: universal fight against impunity or liberal universalization?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Kowalski

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The universalistic dimension of the International Criminal Court's (ICC nature and function is clear. Yet, this dimension must be thoroughly defined. We must ask ‘what universalism’? A rational approach to international social relations is different from an ethical one. While the rational approach may lead to universalization of localized specific moral models (e.g. the liberal Western model promoting its hegemony, the ethical approach promotes diversity through considering non-reducible differences and common human phenomena in which only a minimal common ethics is universal. This paper argues that the answer to this structural question is crucial to understand if the ICC is essentially a hegemonic tool to expand the predominant Western liberal model or rather a mechanism to fight impunity acknowledging diversity and rooted on an ethical concern. We contend that the ICC is immersed in troubled waters where it is not always possible to separate a universalizing Western liberal approach from an ethical universal approach. Nevertheless, we conclude that the Court, even if partially and at times serves as tool for hegemony, is essentially defined by the universalization of the fight against impunity through reference to a minimal common ethics.

  16. Science and the Ideals of Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, Robert N.

    This article examines the influence of mathematics and science on the formation of culture. It then examines several definitions of liberal education, including the notion that languages and fields of study constitute the substrate of articulate intelligence. Finally, it examines the linkages between science, scientific culture, liberal education, and democracy, and proposes that science cannot be taught merely as a body of facts and theories, but must be presented to students as integral with cultural studies. The use of a contextualist approach to science education is recommended.

  17. Technology mix configuration in liberalized electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Rodriguez, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper analyzes the evolution of technology mix in the electricity industry when investment choices are left to private investors. In particular, possible failures and investment biases in recent liberalized electricity markets are presented. In addition, the main regulatory mechanisms used in practice and their effects are analyzed. Finally, this paper explores the government intervention in technology choices in the Spanish electricity market from the beginning of the liberalization process. While some regulatory rules have adequacy complemented the market functioning, others have distorted the electricity price, which is the reference to signal right investments. (Author) 13 refs

  18. European municipalities and the liberalized energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-04-01

    Municipalities are directly affected by the liberalization of the energy markets. Because they all consume or even produce energy, whether it be for their own consumption or to resell it, they often distribute gas, electricity or heat, they plan urban areas and organize the energy networks on their territory, while in addition citizens expect municipalities to inform them and even protect them against the possible excesses of energy salesmen. Elected representatives administrations, local agencies, municipal companies, citizens' associations etc., all have to innovate. This supplement to Energie-Cites INFO is intended to provide you with practical information and further analyses of the liberalization process. (authors)

  19. Feminismo e estado: desafiando a democracia liberal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Aparecida Mariano

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the development of the feminism movement in Brazil focusing on its change of definition of State, as well as its conflicts with the principles of liberal democracy. The central focus of discussion is the contribution of the feminism demands, since they bring into debate the limitations of liberal democratic regimes, thus creating new democratic principles. Such reorganization is discussed upon feminism demands for public policies concerning gender issues, especially affirmative actions seeking to compensate for the disadvantages experienced by women.

  20. A new rejection of moral expertise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    There seem to be two clearly-defined camps in the debate over the problem of moral expertise. On the one hand are the "Professionals", who reject the possibility entirely, usually because of the intractable diversity of ethical beliefs. On the other hand are the "Ethicists", who criticise the Professionals for merely stipulating science as the most appropriate paradigm for discussions of expertise. While the subject matter and methodology of good ethical thinking is certainly different from that of good clinical thinking, they argue, this is no reason for rejecting the possibility of a distinctive kind of expertise in ethics, usually based on the idea of good justification. I want to argue that both are incorrect, partly because of the reasons given by one group against the other, but more importantly because both neglect what is most distinctive about ethics: that it is personal in a very specific way, without collapsing into relativism.

  1. Clean Hands Count

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... has been rented. This feature is not available right now. Please try again later. Published on May ... 34 How The Clean Hands - Safe Hands System Works - Duration: 3:38. Clean Hands-Safe Hands 5, ...

  2. KANTIAN CONSTRUCTIVISM IN MORAL THEORY

    OpenAIRE

    Rawls, John

    2005-01-01

    The author outlines the chief features of the constructivist moral conception in its Kantian variant and argues that such a moral conception had been unjustifiably looked over in relation to the traditional moral conceptions such as utilitariarism, intuitionism and perfectionism. The central idea of Kantian constructivism is linking certain notions of the person and principles of justice that should regulate basic social institutions by means of the constructivist procedure. The author’s star...

  3. The moral appropriateness of shame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ally

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article I explore the much neglected moral emotion of shame and consider the senses in which it may be regarded as morally appropriate. I argue that there is a connection between coming to terms with shame for those who feel ashamed, and judgments concerning its moral appropriateness. The elucidation of normative connections between shame, self-respect and autonomy implies the need to accept certain aspects of shame as regrettable yet, sometimes, as valuable.

  4. The argument from moral psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Milevski, Voin

    2015-01-01

    The argument from moral psychology is one of the strongest arguments that non-cognitivists use against cognitivism-the metaethical position according to which our moral judgements express beliefs. According to this argument, once we put together the Humean theory of motivation and motivational internalism, we yield the conclusion that cognitivism cannot represent the correct view about the semantic function of moral discourse. I will first attempt to show that a neurological syndrome, called ...

  5. Moral distress in nursing personnel

    OpenAIRE

    Barlem,Edison Luiz Devos; Lunardi,Valéria Lerch; Lunardi,Guilherme Lerch; Tomaschewski-Barlem,Jamila Geri; Silveira,Rosemary Silva da; Dalmolin,Graziele de Lima

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to analyze the frequency and intensity of moral distress experienced by nursing personnel in southern Brazil, covering elements of their professional practice. METHOD: a survey was undertaken in two hospitals in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, with 247 nurses. Data was collected by means of the adapted Moral Distress Scale. RESULTS: the perception of situations that lead to moral distress is enhanced in nurses and in nursing staff working in institutions with greater openness to dialogu...

  6. Progressive Taxation and Tax Morale

    OpenAIRE

    Philipp Doerrenberg; Andreas Peichl

    2010-01-01

    As the link between tax compliance and tax morale is found to be robust, finding the determinants of tax morale can help to understand and fight tax evasion. In this paper we analyze the effect of progressive taxation on tax morale in a cross-country approach - which has not been investigated before. Our theoretical analysis leads to two testable predictions. First, an individual's tax morale is higher, the more progressive the tax schedule is. Second, the impact of tax progressivity on tax m...

  7. Interprofessionals' definitions of moral resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtz, Heidi; Heinze, Katherine; Rushton, Cynda

    2018-02-01

    To describe common characteristics and themes of the concept of moral resilience as reported by interprofessional clinicians in health care. Research has provided an abundance of data on moral distress with limited research to resolve and help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress. This reveals a critical need for research on how to mitigate the negative consequences of moral distress that plague nurses and other healthcare providers. One promising direction is to build resilience as an individual strategy concurrently with interventions to build a culture of ethical practice. Qualitative descriptive methods were used to analyse descriptive definitions provided by 184 interprofessional clinicians in health care attending educational programmes in various locations as well as a small group of 23 professionals with backgrounds such as chaplaincy and nonhealthcare providers. Three primary themes and three subthemes emerged from the data. The primary themes are integrity-personal and relational, and buoyancy. The subthemes are self-regulation, self-stewardship and moral efficacy. Individual healthcare providers and healthcare systems can use this research to help negate the detrimental effects of moral distress by finding ways to develop interventions to cultivate moral resilience. Moral resilience involves not only building and fostering the individual's capacity to navigate moral adversity but also developing systems that support a culture of ethical practice for healthcare providers. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Human Trafficking and National Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. DI PIETRO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes that national morality is an important variable for explaining national anti-trafficking policy. It uses cross country regression analysis to see whether or not empirically national morality is a determinant of anti-trafficking policy. The findings of the paper are consistent with the notion that improved levels of national morality lead to better national anti-trafficking policy. National morality is found to be statistically relevant for national anti-trafficking policy when controlling for the extent of democracy, the share of the private sector in the economy, and the degree of globalization.

  9. Human morality and temperament.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Jerome

    2005-01-01

    This chapter has tried to make two points. First, the concept of morality refers to a developmental cascade of phenomena whose essential features are (a) inhibition of punished acts; (b) a representation of prohibited actions; (c) the emotions of uncertainty, empathy, shame, and guilt; (d) the semantic concepts of good and bad; (e) accepting the moral obligations of social categories; and (f) the concepts of fairness and the ideal. The inhibition of prohibited actions and the cognitive representation of prohibited behaviors, as well as the affect states that follow violations, appear by the end of the second year of life. The concepts of good and bad appear early in the third year, the experience of guilt and awareness of social categories by 4-6 years, and the notions of fairness, the ideal, and relational social categories during the school years. Second, some of the variation in the intensity and frequency of the moral emotions is attributable to the child's temperament. Eleven-year-old children who had been high-reactive infants and admitted to feelings of guilt when they violated a family standard were cortically and autonomically more aroused than the low reactives who reported equally frequent experiences of guilt. Further, high reactives who were perceived by their mothers as highly sensitive to punishment were biologically more aroused than high reactives perceived as less sensitive. Both universal developmental phenomena tied to brain maturation and temperamental variation associated with neurochemistry contribute to the complex phenomena that constitute the moral domain. The role of affect in promoting the adherence to standards remains controversial. Kant believed that people acted morally because acceptance of the categorical imperative required proper behavior-reason was the guardian of social harmony. Peirce and Dewey, by contrast, argued that anticipation of the emotions of anxiety, shame, and guilt motivated loyalty to the community's ethical

  10. Neo-liberalism, the 'Third Way' or What? Recent Social Democratic Welfare Policies in Denmark and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, C.J. van; Green-Pedersen, C.; Hemerijck, A.

    2001-01-01

    After the wave of conservative or neo-liberal governments in Europe in the 1980s, social democratic parties are back in government in most European countries. At the same time, with the 'third way' as its catch phrase, European social democracy seems to have regained the ideological upper hand. The

  11. Teacher Change in an Era of Neo-Liberal Policies: A Neoinstitutional Analysis of Teachers' Perceptions of Their Professional Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramberg, Magnus Rye

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to explore how neo-institutional theory may be applied as an analytical framework to investigate the relationships between teachers' perceptions on their professional change on the one hand, and the numerous change efforts embedded in recent neo-liberal educational policies in Norway on the other. Based on biographical…

  12. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Körner, André; Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  13. The Everyday Moral Judge – Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tscharaktschiew, Nadine; Schindler, Rose; Schulz, Katrin; Rudolph, Udo

    2016-01-01

    Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal), goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained) and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure) as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants’ descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy). Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived. PMID:27977699

  14. The Everyday Moral Judge - Autobiographical Recollections of Moral Emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Körner

    Full Text Available Moral emotions are typically elicited in everyday social interactions and regulate social behavior. Previous research in the field of attribution theory identified ought (the moral standard of a given situation or intended goal, goal-attainment (a goal can be attained vs. not attained and effort (high vs. low effort expenditure as cognitive antecedents of moral emotions. In contrast to earlier studies, mainly relying on thought experiments, we investigated autobiographical recollections of N = 312 participants by means of an online study. We analyzed a diverse range of moral emotions, i.e., admiration, anger, contempt, indignation, pride, respect, schadenfreude, and sympathy, by using a mixed-method approach. Qualitative and quantitative methods clearly corroborate the important role of ought, goal-attainment, and effort as eliciting conditions of moral emotions. Furthermore, we built categorical systems based on our participants' descriptions of real-life situations, allowing for more fine-grained distinctions between seemingly similar moral emotions. We thus identify additional prerequisites explaining more subtle differences between moral emotion clusters as they emerge from our analyses (i.e., cluster 1: admiration, pride, and respect; cluster 2: anger, contempt, and indignation; cluster 3: schadenfreude and sympathy. Results are discussed in the light of attributional theories of moral emotions, and implications for future research are derived.

  15. Executive Summary: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Cynda Hylton; Schoonover-Shoffner, Kathy; Kennedy, Maureen Shawn

    To examine practices for addressing moral distress, a collaborative project was developed by the Johns Hopkins Berman Institute of Bioethics, the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing, the American Journal of Nursing, and the Journal of Christian Nursing, along with the American Association of Critical-Care Nurses and the American Nurses Association. Its purpose was to identify strategies that individuals and systems can use to mitigate the detrimental effects of moral distress and foster moral resilience. On August 11 and 12, 2016, an invitational symposium, State of the Science: Transforming Moral Distress into Moral Resilience in Nursing, was held at the Johns Hopkins School of Nursing in Baltimore, Maryland. Forty-five nurse clinicians, researchers, ethicists, organization representatives, and other stakeholders took part. The result of the symposium was group consensus on recommendations for addressing moral distress and building moral resilience in four areas: practice, education, research, and policy. Participants and the organizations represented were energized and committed to moving this agenda forward. The full report is available online at http://journals.lww.com/ajnonline/Pages/Moral-Distress-Supplement.aspx.

  16. A moral profession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newham, Roger; Terry, Louise; Atherley, Siobhan; Hahessy, Sinead; Babenko-Mould, Yolanda; Evans, Marilyn; Ferguson, Karen; Carr, Graham; Cedar, S H

    2017-01-01

    Lack of compassion is claimed to result in poor and sometimes harmful nursing care. Developing strategies to encourage compassionate caring behaviours are important because there is evidence to suggest a connection between having a moral orientation such as compassion and resulting caring behaviour in practice. This study aimed to articulate a clearer understanding of compassionate caring via nurse educators' selection and use of published texts and film. This study employed discourse analysis. Participants and research context: A total of 41 nurse educators working in universities in the United Kingdom (n = 3), Ireland (n = 1) and Canada (n = 1) completed questionnaires on the narratives that shaped their understanding of care and compassion. The desire to understand others and how to care compassionately characterised educators' choices. Most narratives were examples of kindness and compassion. A total of 17 emphasised the importance of connecting with others as a central component of compassionate caring, 10 identified the burden of caring, 24 identified themes of abandonment and of failure to see the suffering person and 15 narratives showed a discourse of only showing compassion to those 'deserving' often understood as the suffering person doing enough to help themselves. These findings are mostly consistent with work in moral philosophy emphasising the particular or context and perception or vision as well as the necessity of emotions. The narratives themselves are used by nurse educators to help explicate examples of caring and compassion (or its lack). To feel cared about people need to feel 'visible' as though they matter. Nurses need to be alert to problems that may arise if their 'moral vision' is influenced by ideas of desert and how much the patient is doing to help himself or herself.

  17. Moral Expertise in the Clinic: Lessons Learned from Medicine and Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClimans, Leah; Slowther, Anne

    2016-08-01

    Philosophers and others have questioned whether or not expertise in morality is possible. This debate is not only theoretical, but also affects the perceived legitimacy of clinical ethicists. One argument against moral expertise is that in a pluralistic society with competing moral theories no one can claim expertise regarding what another ought morally to do. There are simply too many reasonable moral values and intuitions that affect theory choice and its application; expertise is epistemically uniform. In this article, we discuss how similar concerns have recently threatened to undermine expertise in medicine and science. In contrast, we argue that the application of values is needed to exercise medical, scientific, and moral expertise. As long as these values are made explicit, worries about a pretense to authority in the context of a liberal democracy are ill-conceived. In conclusion, we argue for an expertise that is epistemically diverse. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Group-focused morality is associated with limited conflict detection and resolution capacity: Neuroanatomical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kyle; Baumgartner, Thomas; Knoch, Daria

    2017-02-01

    Group-focused moral foundations (GMFs) - moral values that help protect the group's welfare - sharply divide conservatives from liberals and religiously devout from non-believers. However, there is little evidence about what drives this divide. Moral foundations theory and the model of motivated social cognition both associate group-focused moral foundations with differences in conflict detection and resolution capacity, but in opposing directions. Individual differences in conflict detection and resolution implicate specific neuroanatomical differences. Examining neuroanatomy thus affords an objective and non-biased opportunity to contrast these influential theories. Here, we report that increased adherence to group-focused moral foundations was strongly associated (whole-brain corrected) with reduced gray matter volume in key regions of the conflict detection and resolution system (anterior cingulate cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex). Because reduced gray matter is reliably associated with reduced neural and cognitive capacity, these findings support the idea outlined in the model of motivated social cognition that belief in group-focused moral values is associated with reduced conflict detection and resolution capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Demographic profile of states with human cloning laws: morality policy meets political economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stabile, Bonnie

    2007-03-01

    This analysis seeks to identify factors that may shape the policy stance - whether restrictive or permissive - that each state in the United States with a human cloning law in place takes toward human therapeutic cloning. The investigation also considers if cloning policy is more the product of morality politics or political economy. Results show that among states with human cloning policies in place, those with a greater biotechnological capacity, more permissive abortion laws, fewer Evangelical Protestants, and higher political liberalism rankings are more likely to have permissive cloning laws. A higher Roman Catholic population is strongly associated with permissive cloning laws, rather than restrictive cloning laws as originally supposed. Factors with morality policy and economic bases were both found to be associated with cloning policy outcomes. Results suggest that morality policies, though distinct in some ways, do share determinants with public policies based on political economy.

  20. Moral Relativism: A Philosopher's Antidote for Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jack, Henry

    1977-01-01

    The author identifies four main sources of moral relativism; defines cultural and ethical relativism, and social and personal moral relativism; and presents three arguments to refute moral relativism. (AV)

  1. Robots and Moral Agency

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Linda

    2011-01-01

      Machine ethics is a field of applied ethics that has grown rapidly in the last decade. Increasingly advanced autonomous robots have expanded the focus of machine ethics from issues regarding the ethical development and use of technology by humans to a focus on ethical dimensions of the machines themselves. This thesis contains two essays, both about robots in some sense, representing these different perspectives of machine ethics. The first essay, “Is it Morally Right to use UAVs in War?” c...

  2. Feeling cooperation, being moral

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco Díaz, Andrés de

    2014-01-01

    Is morality a pure rational abstraction or is it rooted in human nature? In this paper I argue for the second option, and I do so in several steps. I first vindicate the cognitive role of emotions. For this, I rely on two contemporary theories of emotions, Martha Nussbaum’s and Antonio Damasio’s, without forgetting the evolutionary approach to emotions. Then I defend a complex model of human behaviour that goes beyond rational choice models and includes, following Gintis, other-regarding orie...

  3. Liberal luxury: Decentering Snowden, surveillance and privilege

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piro Rexhepi

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the continued potency of veillance theories to traverse beyond the taxonomies of surveillance inside liberal democracies. It provides a commentary on the ability of sousveillance to destabilise and disrupt suer/violence by shifting its focus from the centre to the periphery, where Big Data surveillance is tantamount to sur/violence. In these peripheral political spaces, surveillance is not framed by concerns over privacy, democracy and civil society; rather, it is a matter of life and death, a technique of both biopolitical and thanatopolitical power. I argue that the universalist, and universalizing, debates over surveillance cannot be mapped through the anxieties of privileged middle classes as they would neither transcend nor make possible alternative ways of tackling the intersection of surveillance and violence so long as they are couched in the liberal concerns for democracy. I call this phenomenon “liberal luxury,” whereby debates over surveillance have over-emphasised liberal proclivities at the expense of disengaging those peripheral populations most severely affected by sur/violence.

  4. Child Labor and Trade Liberalization in Indonesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.K. Krisztina (Kis-Katos); R.A. Sparrow (Robert)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractWe examine the effects of trade liberalization on child work in Indonesia. Our estimation strategy identifies geographical differences in the effects of trade policy through district level exposure to reduction in import tariff barriers. We use a balanced panel of 261 districts, based

  5. Teaching Programming to Liberal Arts Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter Bøgh; Bennedsen, Jens; Brandorff, Steffen

    2003-01-01

    In this paper we present a new learning environment to be used in an introductory programming course for studentsthat are non-majors in computer science, more precisely formultimedia students with a liberal arts background. Media-oriented programming adds new requirements to thecraft of programmi...

  6. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  7. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization and Environmental Taxes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tariff reduction on the optimal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the

  8. Bucking Cultural Norms, Asia Tries Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    Sun Yat-sen University's East-meets-West curriculum is distinctive, but its embrace of liberal education--education across disciplines, meant to provoke broad thinking--is far from unusual. At a time when China and its East Asian neighbors are trouncing U.S. students on international exams, educators in these countries are nonetheless adopting,…

  9. World History, Liberal Arts, and Global Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Carey A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the role that world history might play in reshaping the liberal arts to better serve a twenty-first-century world that is increasingly interconnected, plural, and "globalized." While "Western civ" courses and perspectives are much less influential today than they were in the first seven decades of the…

  10. In Defense of Japanese Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Rie

    2016-01-01

    Liberal education has been a target of political discourse in many countries, and Japan is no exception. In Japanese higher education, there are three types of institutions: national public, local public, and private. In June 2015, Japan's minister of education, Hakubun Shimomura, called upon the country's national universities to take…

  11. Liberal Arts Education in Qatar: Intercultural Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostron, Magdalena

    2009-01-01

    This paper is an attempt to sketch a historical, cultural and social background of recent educational developments in Qatar, briefly review the traditions of western liberal arts education with its goals and teaching and learning methodologies, explain its benefits and their relevance to Muslim Qatari students of universities in Education City in…

  12. In Support of the Liberal Arts College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Dorothy S.

    1980-01-01

    The liberal arts college is in jeopardy. In trying to compete with the university, it has permitted external factors to disrupt its internal integrity. A brief examination of the elective system, expanded departmentalization, and the changing role of the professor are examples of such compromises. (Author/BEF)

  13. From Liberal Democracy to the Cosmopolitan Canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jon Van Til

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Liberalism is that ideology, that worldview, which values, in an ever-evolving set of intelligently intermingled thoughts:  democracy, freedom (liberty, equality (justice, fraternity (solidarity, the pursuit of happiness, pluralism (diversity, and human rights--and explores the ever-open ever-possible futures of their rediscovery and advance. The study of ways in which social movements relate to Third sector/nonprofit or voluntary organizations can be structured, if we choose, as a liberal endeavor.  That is the message I receive from Antonin Wagner’s (2012 telling of the emergence of a field that focuses its study and developmental energies on place of intermediate associational life in modern society, from Adalbert Evers’ efforts to sustain the welfare state in an era of untrammeled capitalism (2013, and from Roger Lohmann’s (1992 comprehensive vision of a social commons capable of assuring the values of liberal society. This paper sets the theory of liberal democracy in a contemporary cosmopolitan context, drawing on case material from Hungary, Northern Ireland,  and the United States.

  14. Liberating Leadership Capacity: Pathways to Educational Wisdom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Linda; Zimmerman, Diane P.; Gardner, Mary E.

    2016-01-01

    During the past quarter century, conceptions of leadership have evolved in concert with breakthrough discoveries in science and generative learning. "Liberating Leadership Capacity" captures these new ideas through the integration of the authors' earlier works in constructivist leadership and leadership capacity. What emerges is a…

  15. Exploring thought leadership, thought liberation and critical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is argued that any discussion of Africa's social and economic development has to take into account the three critical issues that remain pressing constraints for the further advancement of well-being in Africa: thought leadership, thought liberation and critical consciousness. These three 'ingredients' should anchor aspects ...

  16. Autonomy and Liberalism in a Multicultural Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, Paul

    2005-01-01

    That children should be educated to be ideal citizens, capable of making rational and informed decisions, has been proposed in cultures ranging from Ancient Greece to current societies. In particular, societies that favour liberalism preach the primacy of the individual autonomous citizen and a concomitant tolerance for others. In modern…

  17. Preference Erosion and Multilateral Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.F. François (Joseph); B. Hoekman (Bernard); M. Manchin (Miriam)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBecause of concern that OECD tariff reductions will translate into worsening export performance for the least developed countries, trade preferences have proven a stumbling block to developing country support for multilateral liberalization. We examine the actual scope for preference

  18. Decolonizing Liberation: Toward a Transnational Feminist Psychology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğçe Kurtiş

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper engages the theme of “decolonizing psychological science” in the context of a perspective on psychological theory and research—namely, feminist psychology—that shares an emphasis on broad liberation. Although conceived as a universal theory and practice of liberation, scholars across diverse sites have suggested that feminism—perhaps especially as it manifests in psychological science—is not always compatible with and at times is even contradictory to global struggles for decolonization. The liberatory impulse of feminist psychology falls short of its potential not only because of its grounding in neocolonial legacies of hegemonic feminisms, but also because of its complicity with neocolonial tendencies of hegemonic psychological science. In response to these concerns, we draw upon on perspectives of transnational feminisms and cultural psychology as tools to decolonize (feminist psychology. We then propose the possibility of a (transnational feminist psychology that takes the epistemological position of people in various marginalized majority-world settings as a resource to rethink conventional scientific wisdom and liberate “liberation”. Rather than freeing some women to better participate in global domination, a transnational feminist psychology illuminates sustainable ways of being that are consistent with broader liberation of humanity in general.

  19. Liberal Grading Improves Evaluations But Not Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasta, Ross; Sarmiento, Robert F.

    Two grading distributions--a liberal and a more stringent curve--were compared between two sections of an undergraduate psychology course. The two classes were team taught and treated as similarly as possible. Four unit exams and an optional final were administered, with one section consistently receiving a more lenient grade distribution. No…

  20. Structural Liberalism and Anti-Bullying Legislation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaught, Sabina E.

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates the legal, semantic, and material implications of Massachusetts' anti-bullying law through an analytic framework of structural liberalism. Specifically, this article asks how the law produces categories of fit and unfit subjects of the state through raced and gendered practices of individualism, paternalism, meliorism,…

  1. The Learning Sciences and Liberal Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budwig, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    This article makes the case for a new framing of liberal education based on several decades of research emerging from the learning and developmental sciences. This work suggests that general knowledge stems from acquiring both the habits of mind and repertoires of practice that develop from participation in knowledge-building communities. Such…

  2. The Composer in the Liberal Arts College

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Elliott

    2011-01-01

    This essay explores the role of music composition within the curriculum of a typical small liberal arts college and the faculty composer's role(s) in facilitating the study of composition. The relationship between composition and campus performance is discussed, particularly in light of the increased emphasis on performance in formerly all-male…

  3. Norway in a liberalized European energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aune, Finn Roar; Golombek, Rolf; Rosendahl, Knut Einar; Kittelsen, Sverre A.C.

    2000-01-01

    The authors study the short-term effects of a comprehensive liberalization of the gas and power markets in Europe. The analysis is based on a statically applied general equilibrium model which gives an overall and consistent treatment of the energy markets in Europe. The model preserves the structural features in the production, transport and consumption of gas and electricity in Europe, as well as the new competitive situation arising from the liberalization. It is found that the liberalization leads to a strong fall in the price of electricity. The fall in price reflects increased competition and that idle capacity in the power sector is used to increase the production of electricity. In comparison with the real observations in 1996 (the basis year of the model) the price to the end-user is cut in half. The liberalization also leads to a fall in the price of gas. The price fall reflects in part increased competition, in part the fact that falling prise of electricity reduces the demand for gas. However, the price reduction (in per cent) is not as great as for electricity. The model is also used to study the effects in Norway of increased gas production when the gas is either used in increased gas power production in Norway, or is exported. The main conclusion is that (1) the total emission of carbon dioxide goes down in Western Europe, (2) the reduction is greatest if the gas is burned as gas power in Norway

  4. The Double Dividend Hypothesis and Trade Liberalization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sen, P.; Smulders, J.A.

    2000-01-01

    This paper studies how simultaneously liberalizing trade and tightening environmental policy affect welfare in a second-best world. We consider a three-good two-factor small open economy. We allow for non-tradables and for market power in the export market. The government is constrained to balance

  5. Evaluating Liberal Learning: Doubts and Explorations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Thomas F.

    1982-01-01

    In current evaluation practice, the implicit philosophy of value, appraisal, and action is seen as a form of Benthamite utilitarianism. A domain of value called "educational worth" is described. Ways of detecting the presence of educational worth in liberal learning programs are identified. (MLW)

  6. Liberalism, Radicalism, and Self-Governing Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swartz, Ronald

    1978-01-01

    Contrasts Karl Popper's theory of social reform with a Marxist theory of reform. Concludes that a liberal approach to educational reform, as exemplified by A.S. Neill's self-governing school at Summerhill, is generally more satisfactory. (Author/DB)

  7. Does trade liberalization increase global pollution?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beladi, Hamid; Oladi, Reza

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we consider a simple duopoly market in which a home firm and a foreign firm use labor to produce an identical product and supply it to the home market. Firms emit pollution as a by-product of production. We show conditions under which international trade liberalization decreases (increases) the global pollution. (author)

  8. "Humanitas", Metaphysics and Modern Liberal Arts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tubbs, Nigel

    2014-01-01

    There is a new myth of the heterogeneous that is reducing the concept of humanity to a sinful enlightenment. In this article I investigate the contribution that a renewed understanding of liberal arts education might offer for the idea of a humanist education and for the concept of humanity; and this at a time when not only the concept of humanity…

  9. September 11, Neo-liberalism and Discourse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmgreen, Lise-Lotte

    2006-01-01

    of British financial news reports is analysed. This corpus covers the two-month period before and after the September-11 attacks and illustrates the extent to which economic ideology (neo-liberalism) and socio-economic change (the terrorist attacks) influence the choice of metaphor, and hence...

  10. Africa's wars of liberation : some historiographical reflections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ellis, S.; Konings, P.; Binsbergen, van W.; Hesseling, G.

    2000-01-01

    This chapter examines the ways in which scholars have considered African wars of liberation. Firstly, the author considers some of the general assumptions which have been commonly applied to African history since the middle of the twentieth century when academic historical writing on Africa began,

  11. Liberalism and democracy Liberalismo e democracia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    (Autor Claude Lefort

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this essay, the historical connections between liberalism and democracy are analyzed, based mostly on three important authors of the French liberal thought of the first half of the 19th century: Benjamin Constant (1767-1830, François Guizot (1787-1874 e Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859. Although, the Author doesn’t forget to highlight the contemporary issues which demand confronting and elucidating the chances of democracy. Keywords: French Liberalism. Democracy. Political Philosophy. Tolerance. São aqui examinadas as relações históricas entre liberalismo e democracia, com base principalmente em três importantes autores do pensamento liberal francês da primeira metade do século XIX: Benjamin Constant (1767-1830, François Guizot (1787-1874 e Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859. Contudo, o Autor não deixa de lançar luz sobre as questões contemporâneas que exigem enfrentar e elucidar as chances da democracia. Palavras-chave: Liberalismo francês. Democracia. Filosofia política. Tolerância.

  12. The strange birth of liberal Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Ingrid; Sharpe, Paul; Lampe, Markus

    2012-01-01

    into decline, in fact flourished. Key to the success of Danish agriculture was an early diversification towards dairy production. This article challenges this simple story which sees Denmark as something of a liberal paragon. Denmark's success owed much to a prudent use of trade policy which favoured dairy...

  13. Moral character in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Taya R; Panter, A T; Turan, Nazli; Morse, Lily; Kim, Yeonjeong

    2014-11-01

    Using two 3-month diary studies and a large cross-sectional survey, we identified distinguishing features of adults with low versus high levels of moral character. Adults with high levels of moral character tend to: consider the needs and interests of others and how their actions affect other people (e.g., they have high levels of Honesty-Humility, empathic concern, guilt proneness); regulate their behavior effectively, specifically with reference to behaviors that have positive short-term consequences but negative long-term consequences (e.g., they have high levels of Conscientiousness, self-control, consideration of future consequences); and value being moral (e.g., they have high levels of moral identity-internalization). Cognitive moral development, Emotionality, and social value orientation were found to be relatively undiagnostic of moral character. Studies 1 and 2 revealed that employees with low moral character committed harmful work behaviors more frequently and helpful work behaviors less frequently than did employees with high moral character, according to their own admissions and coworkers' observations. Study 3 revealed that adults with low moral character committed more delinquent behavior and had more lenient attitudes toward unethical negotiation tactics than did adults with high moral character. By showing that individual differences have consistent, meaningful effects on employees' behaviors, after controlling for demographic variables (e.g., gender, age, income) and basic attributes of the work setting (e.g., enforcement of an ethics code), our results contest situationist perspectives that deemphasize the importance of personality. Moral people can be identified by self-reports in surveys, and these self-reports predict consequential behaviors months after the initial assessment.

  14. Moral philosophy in bioethics. Etsi ethos non daretur?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessina, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    In this paper I intend to put forward some criticism of the purely procedural model of bioethics, which, in fact, leads to delegating to biopolitics and biolaw the finding of a purely pragmatic solution to the issues for which bioethics was "invented" over forty years ago. This delegating takes place after the transition from the thesis, dear to modernity, whereby in ethics reasoning should avoid any discussion regarding its foundation or ultimate justification (Etsi Deus non daretur) to the contemporary affirmation of a substantial ethical agnosticism, which, in the name of the incommensurability of morals, should construct procedures as if no sole substantial moral were possible (Etsi ethos non daretur) and act as a guarantor of ethical pluralism. These theses will be discussed and an attempt will be made to demonstrate why it is necessary to establish a link between true and good, and how this is possible only by referring to ontology. The conclusion points to the need to propose bioethics explicitly in terms of content that satisfies the presumed axiological neutrality of procedural bioethics, which however, turns out to be theoretically weak and practically unable to protect the ethical pluralism for which it would like to be the guarantor. The conclusion is that only by referring to ontology can bioethics, which is a fully fledged form of moral philosophy, act as a guarantor of pluralism within the truth and oppose the authoritarian tendencies concealed under the liberal guise of ethical agnosticism.

  15. Moral foundations, worldviews, moral absolutism and belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Luigi; Giacomantonio, Mauro; Lauriola, Marco

    2017-09-05

    In the present research, we examined whether individual differences in basic moral concerns might be related to a greater endorsement of conspiracy theories. Building on the notion that conspiracy theories often deal with super-individual relevant events in which a group perspective is central, we proposed that individual differences in moral concerns pertaining to group- and community-concerns (i.e., binding moral foundations) rather than to individual well-being (i.e., individualising moral foundations) would be positively associated with conspiracy beliefs. We further hypothesised that such relations would be totally mediated by beliefs in a dangerous world and by embracing moral absolutism. We found support for these predictions in two community samples (Ns: 319; 514). Theoretical implications were discussed. © 2017 International Union of Psychological Science.

  16. How moral disagreement may ground principled moral compromise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kappel, Klemens

    2018-01-01

    In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability, there a......In an influential article, Simon C. May forcefully argued that, properly understood, there can never be principled reasons for moral compromise (May, 2005). While there may be pragmatic reasons for compromising that involve, for instance, concern for political expediency or for stability......, there are properly speaking no principled reasons to compromise. My aim in the article is to show how principled moral compromise in the context of moral disagreements over policy options is possible. I argue that when we disagree, principled reasons favoring compromises or compromising can assume a more significant...... part of what makes a position all things considered best, and in this way disagreement can ground moral compromise....

  17. Critical Studies, the Liberal Arts, and Journalism Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parisi, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the relationship between journalism education and the liberal arts. Contends that critical, cultural, or qualitative studies provide a powerful focus for linking journalism education more firmly to the liberal arts. (SR)

  18. Issues and prospects of digitizing liberation movements' archives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    collective memory. Keywords: digitization,. NAHECS, liberation archives, digitally born, audio- visual. Introduction and background to liberation archives. Archives are generally records of .... long term preservation and access to selected archival materials ..... by International Library of African Music. (ILAM) in. Rhodes.

  19. Liberal Arts: Leadership Education in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrie, Kathy L.; Callahan, Kathleen

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on strategies and processes that integrate leadership learning across institutions. It discusses how leadership education fits a liberal education in various institutional types and operationalizes leadership and liberal arts curricula with five competencies.

  20. Legal Education, Liberal Education, and the Trivial "Artes."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimball, Bruce A.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews the influence of liberal education upon legal education, studying the historical process according to which changes of emphasis within liberal education (from rhetoric to dialectic or the reverse) have been reflected in related changes in legal education. (AYC)

  1. The Manners of Liberalism: A Question of Limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, William B.

    1982-01-01

    The argument that liberal education leads people to substitute intellectual tolerance or ambiguity for righteous indignation is criticized, with reference to Harriet Beecher Stowe's portrayal of Thomas Jefferson, his liberalism, and democratic manners. (MSE)

  2. Criminals or Patients? Towards a Tragic Conception of Moral and Legal Responsibility.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coeckelbergh, Mark

    2010-01-01

    There is a gap between, on the one hand, the tragic character of human action and, on the other hand, our moral and legal conceptions of responsibility that focus on individual agency and absolute guilt. Drawing on Kierkegaard’s understanding of tragic action and engaging with contemporary discourse

  3. A PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH ON MORAL PHILOSOPHY

    OpenAIRE

    CIPRIAN IULIAN ŞOPTICĂ

    2011-01-01

    The subject of this article concerns the what, the how and the whyof moral phenomenology. The first question we take into consideration is „What is moral phenomenology”? The second question which arises is „How to pursue moral phenomenology”? The third question is „Why pursue moral phenomenology”? We will analyze the study Moral phenomenology:foundation issues1, by which the American phenomenologist Uriah Kriegel aims three lines of research: the definition of moral phenomenology and the desc...

  4. Sweet old things: moral complexities in old age in Muriel Spark's Memento Mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    England, Suzanne E; Rust, Martha D

    2015-04-01

    Through the lens of Muriel Spark's dark comedic novel, Memento Mori, this paper explores questions of morality, mortality, and the moral choices and performances in old age and in the systems and places of care. Spark's elderly characters are complex moral actors - some virtuous and some decidedly not - who have been receiving mysterious phone calls telling them simply, "Remember you must die." We, the co-authors, are from two different disciplines, namely Renaissance and medieval literature, and social work and critical gerontology. Among the questions that interest us is the paradox of a master narrative that on the one hand exempts the old from moral criticism yet holds them to a higher moral standard - essentially positioning them as moral nonentities, and relieving the old, their caretakers, and society of moral responsibility. Another is the question of whether moral agency in old age has distinctive aspects, and whether consciousness of one's impending mortality effects moral reasoning and performance. In this paper we offer our individual readings of the ways the novel opens up conceptual space in aging theory, and conclude with our thoughts about what our collaboration suggests for continuing cross-disciplinary dialogue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. From Dominators to be Brothers: a dialogue of ecotheologie with J. Riechmann about the Animal Liberation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afonso Tadeu Murad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Jorge Riechmann is the author of extensive work devoted to philosophical reflection on ecology and sustainability. Among his significant works, we choose "Todos los animales somos hermanos" (2005. We will present an overview of the author's thinking about the relationship of humans with other animals, especially mammals. Riechmann addresses hot topics such as physio-biological-social continuous process of evolution and uniqueness of the human; the reasons to include the higher animals in the human moral community, and ethical and legal reasons of animal rights. It must be overcome speciesism, which considers only the animals as mere instruments. Although animals are not people, not moral agents, have intrinsic value. Because they feel pain and pleasure, and have a purpose for living, they deserve moral respect. They are "almost people" and have rights granted and recognized by humans. Next, we will do an exercise of ecotheology interlocution with Jorge Riechmann. We will take as reference the Encyclical Laudato Si and the work of Susin and Zampieri, Ethics and Theology of Animal Liberation.

  6. Populisms and liberal democracy – business as usual?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, Grahame Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Populism is often thought to mark a sharp break with liberal democracy. But to what extent is this the case? In this contribution the connections between populism and liberal democracy are sketched in the context of several areas where discussions about populisms have stressed their discontinuity...... in these relationships. The contribution ends with a discussion of how it might be possible to defend liberal democracy from a non-liberal position in the face of the critique from populisms....

  7. Moral issues in mentoring sessions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hunink, G.; Leeuwen, van R.; Jansen, M.; Jochemsen, H.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes the results of research that investigated whether student nurses identified the moral aspects of everyday nursing care situations and, if so, how they dealt with them. We intended to elucidate the role of mentoring situations in moral development. Student written documents

  8. Moral Reasoning in Genetics Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zande, Paul; Brekelmans, Mieke; Vermunt, Jan D.; Waarlo, Arend Jan

    2009-01-01

    Recent neuropsychological research suggests that intuition and emotion play a role in our reasoning when we are confronted with moral dilemmas. Incorporating intuition and emotion into moral reflection is a rather new idea in the educational world, where rational reasoning is preferred. To develop a teaching and learning strategy to address this…

  9. Moral judgment of alcohol addicts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Ivica

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Alcoholism could represent an important factor of crime and different forms of abuse of family members (physical and emotional exist in many alcohol-addict cases, as well as characteristics of immoral behaviour. Objective. The objective of our study was to determine the predominating forms in moral judgment of alcohol addicts, and to examine whether there was any statistically significant difference in moral judgment between alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics from general population. Methods. The sample consisted of 62 subjects, divided into a study (alcoholics and a control group (non-alcoholics from general population. The following instruments were used: social-demographic data, AUDIT, MMPI-201, cybernetic battery of IQ tests (KOG-3 and the TMR moral reasoning test. Results. Mature forms of moral judgment prevailed in both group of subjects, alcohol addicted persons and non-alcoholics. Regarding mature forms of moral judgment (driven by emotions and cognitive non-alcoholics from the general population had higher scores, but the difference was not statistically significant. Regarding socially adapted and egocentric orientation alcohol addicted persons had higher scores. However, only regarding intuitive-irrational orientation there was a statistically significant difference in the level of moral judgment (p<0.05 between alcoholics and non-alcoholics, in favour of the alcoholics. Conclusion. Moral judgment is not a category differing alcohol addicted persons from those who are not. Nevertheless, the potential destructivity of alcoholism is reflected in lower scores regarding mature orientations in moral judgment.

  10. Moral Orientation, Gender, and Salary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Roger W.

    A study examined the relationship among gender, moral orientation, and pay. Although the participants were about equal in terms of gender, 48 males and 53 females, males tended to hold higher degrees. The researcher hypothesized that salaries would be differentiated based on gender and moral orientation. Assumptions were that care-oriented males…

  11. Moral Stress in Teaching Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colnerud, Gunnel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to study whether moral stress is a phenomenon relevant to teaching practice and which may make a significant contribution to understanding why teachers repeatedly reported feeling burdened by work. Moral stress can be caused by acting in conflict with one's own conscience, e.g. when one knows the right thing to…

  12. When sanctions convey moral norms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Laetitia B.

    2018-01-01

    Sanctions not only have the instrumental function of deterring people from undesired behavior but they also have the ability to convey moral norms. As such, they may create a moral motivation not to engage in the sanctioned behavior. This is desirable as this makes the success of a sanctioning

  13. Moral values in teacher education

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veugelers, W.; Peterson, P.; Baker, E.; McGaw, B.

    2010-01-01

    Moral values are interwoven in all aspects of teaching: in the curriculum, in the school culture, and as moral examples in teachers' behavior. Working with values is an essential part of teaching. Educating students to become teachers requires the teachers to learn how values are embedded in

  14. Teaching Moral Reasoning through Gesture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin-Ryan, Leanne; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Stem-cell research. Euthanasia. Personhood. Marriage equality. School shootings. Gun control. Death penalty. Ethical dilemmas regularly spark fierce debate about the underlying moral fabric of societies. How do we prepare today's children to be fully informed and thoughtful citizens, capable of moral and ethical decisions? Current approaches…

  15. Relativism, Objectivity and Moral Judgment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partington, Geoffrey

    1979-01-01

    Reaction against the naive moral absolutism of past historical writing has frequently led to unconditional moral and cultural relativism which is equally dangerous. A viable solution is contingent relativism in historical judgments, combining explicit and examinable criteria of human values and concern for contexts of time and place. (Author/SJL)

  16. Choosy moral punishers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Clavien

    Full Text Available The punishment of social misconduct is a powerful mechanism for stabilizing high levels of cooperation among unrelated individuals. It is regularly assumed that humans have a universal disposition to punish social norm violators, which is sometimes labelled "universal structure of human morality" or "pure aversion to social betrayal". Here we present evidence that, contrary to this hypothesis, the propensity to punish a moral norm violator varies among participants with different career trajectories. In anonymous real-life conditions, future teachers punished a talented but immoral young violinist: they voted against her in an important music competition when they had been informed of her previous blatant misconduct toward fellow violin students. In contrast, future police officers and high school students did not punish. This variation among socio-professional categories indicates that the punishment of norm violators is not entirely explained by an aversion to social betrayal. We suggest that context specificity plays an important role in normative behaviour; people seem inclined to enforce social norms only in situations that are familiar, relevant for their social category, and possibly strategically advantageous.

  17. Computer Science and the Liberal Arts: A Philosophical Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Henry M.; Kelemen, Charles

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the philosophy and position of the discipline of computer science within the liberal arts, based upon a discussion of the nature of computer science and a review of the characteristics of the liberal arts. A liberal arts environment provides important opportunities for undergraduate programs, but also presents important…

  18. Economic and Political Liberalization in Tanzania and its ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    With the onset of globalization one-party state regimes were forced to liberalize politically and economically. Liberalization was seen as beneficial for it opened up both the political and economic space for all actors in the development process. Liberalization was embraced because of its perceived advantages to all sections ...

  19. Multiculturalism and the Liberal Arts College: Faculty Perceptions of Pedagogy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez; Salkever, Katya

    This is a qualitative study of faculty perceptions of the relationship between pedagogy, liberal education, and multiculturalism. The incompatibility of liberal education and multiculturalism ground this study along with the assertion that teaching and learning are central to the liberal education mission. Nineteen faculty members participated in…

  20. Mission, Multiculturalism, and the Liberal Arts College: A Qualitative Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleman, Ana M. Martinez; Salkever, Katya

    2003-01-01

    Using qualitative methods, explored how faculty, administrators, and students at a liberal arts college understand the mission of liberal education and its relationship to their institutional goals for multicultural community. Interview data suggest that the traditional liberal educational mission of this college thwarts the development of…

  1. A Liberal Account of Self-limiting Individualism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Brink, H.H.A.; Harskamp, Anton van; Musschenga, Albert W.

    2001-01-01

    In this essay I aim to show that a doctrine of self-limiting individualism is presupposed by the most influential account of liberalism today, political liberalism. My argument is that political liberalism can admit that it is based on a rather comprehensive normative ideal of individualism, without

  2. Case Studies of Liberal Arts Computer Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, D.; Brady, A.; Danyluk, A.; Adams, J.; Lawrence, A.

    2010-01-01

    Many undergraduate liberal arts institutions offer computer science majors. This article illustrates how quality computer science programs can be realized in a wide variety of liberal arts settings by describing and contrasting the actual programs at five liberal arts colleges: Williams College, Kalamazoo College, the State University of New York…

  3. Moral Punishment in Everyday Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Wilhelm; Brandt, Mark J; Wisneski, Daniel C; Rockenbach, Bettina; Skitka, Linda J

    2018-05-01

    The present research investigated event-related, contextual, demographic, and dispositional predictors of the desire to punish perpetrators of immoral deeds in daily life, as well as connections among the desire to punish, moral emotions, and momentary well-being. The desire to punish was reliably predicted by linear gradients of social closeness to both the perpetrator (negative relationship) and the victim (positive relationship). Older rather than younger adults, conservatives rather than people with other political orientations, and individuals high rather than low in moral identity desired to punish perpetrators more harshly. The desire to punish was related to state anger, disgust, and embarrassment, and these were linked to lower momentary well-being. However, the negative effect of these emotions on well-being was partially compensated by a positive indirect pathway via heightened feelings of moral self-worth. Implications of the present field data for moral punishment research and the connection between morality and well-being are discussed.

  4. Moral fictions and medical ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Franklin G; Truog, Robert D; Brock, Dan W

    2010-11-01

    Conventional medical ethics and the law draw a bright line distinguishing the permitted practice of withdrawing life-sustaining treatment from the forbidden practice of active euthanasia by means of a lethal injection. When clinicians justifiably withdraw life-sustaining treatment, they allow patients to die but do not cause, intend, or have moral responsibility for, the patient's death. In contrast, physicians unjustifiably kill patients whenever they intentionally administer a lethal dose of medication. We argue that the differential moral assessment of these two practices is based on a series of moral fictions - motivated false beliefs that erroneously characterize withdrawing life-sustaining treatment in order to bring accepted end-of-life practices in line with the prevailing moral norm that doctors must never kill patients. When these moral fictions are exposed, it becomes apparent that conventional medical ethics relating to end-of-life decisions is radically mistaken. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. The Ideal of Moral Autonomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Marquisio Aguirre

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Some elements of the ideal of moral autonomy are discussed in this paper. Such ideal is a key assumption in social practices focused on normative imputation, particularly morality and law. First, a constructivist conception of normativity is introduced, taking reasons as an essential and non-reducible element, and focused on the conceptual features of moral reasons within the normative domain. Then, an idea of moral autonomy based on the self-constitution is developed including three key features: the possibility of responding to reasons based on shared social expectations; the responsibility for certain scope of actions, according to a set of reasons available to the individual and to their maximum extent of expansion; and the need to preserve autonomy as a purpose unifying the set of autonomous actions of moral agents.

  6. The moral bioenhancement of psychopaths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccarini, Elvio; Malatesti, Luca

    2017-10-01

    We argue that the mandatory moral bioenhancement of psychopaths is justified as a prescription of social morality. Moral bioenhancement is legitimate when it is justified on the basis of the reasons of the recipients. Psychopaths expect and prefer that the agents with whom they interact do not have certain psychopathic traits. Particularly, they have reasons to require the moral bioenhancement of psychopaths with whom they must cooperate. By adopting a public reason and a Kantian argument, we conclude that we can justify to a psychopath being the recipient of mandatory moral bioenhancement because he has a reason to require the application of this prescription to other psychopaths. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. 'Let it Become the Political Religion of the Nation': Liberal Democracy as Public Morality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zoethout, C.M.

    2010-01-01

    At the beginning of the twenty-first century, European societies reflect a great diversity of different religious and philosophical convictions. In order to guarantee that our future society will be just as varied as today's, attention should not only be focused at the different religions and life

  8. Foreign direct investment and liberalization policies in Pakistan: An empirical analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rana Ejaz Ali Khan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To enhance the inflow of foreign direct investment (FDI and ultimately to increase the economic growth, the countries have implemented a variety of financial and trade liberalization policies in the last three decades. Pakistan also initiated such type of policies. This study makes an analysis of the impact of liberalization (financial and trade in Pakistan, on the inflow of FDI using the time series data of 1971–2009. The DF-GLS test is used to determine the level of integration, and autoregressive distributed lag model to examine the long-run relationship. The results indicate that liberalization indicators, like financial liberalization index and trade openness along with real interest rate, negatively affect the inflow of FDI in Pakistan. Tax revenue of product also negatively affects the FDI. On the other hand, the gross fixed capital formation, infrastructure, and inflation positively influence the FDI in Pakistan. The market size (proxied by real gross domestic product has shown insignificant effect on FDI.

  9. A Cultural Look at Moral Purity: Wiping the Face Clean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spike W. S. eLee

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Morality is associated with bodily purity in the custom of many societies. Does that imply moral purity is a universal psychological phenomenon? Empirically, it has never been examined, as all prior experimental data came from Western samples. Theoretically, we suggest the answer is not so straightforward—it depends on the kind of universality under consideration. Combining perspectives from cultural psychology and embodiment, we predict a culture-specific form of moral purification. Specifically, given East Asians’ emphasis on the face as a representation of public self-image, we hypothesize that facial purification should have particularly potent moral effects in a face culture. Data show that face-cleaning (but not hands-cleaning reduces guilt and regret most effectively against a salient East Asian cultural background. It frees East Asians from guilt-driven prosocial behavior. In the wake of their immorality, they find a face-cleaning product especially appealing and spontaneously choose to wipe their face clean. These patterns highlight both culturally variable and universal aspects of moral purification. They further suggest an organizing principle that informs the vigorous debate between embodied and amodal perspectives.

  10. Morality and Ecological Moral: contributions to the teaching practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligiane Raimundo Gomes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This research searched to investigate if the acquisition of the notion of respect to the environment, that we call “ecological moral”, is constructed during the childish development, solidarily to the construction of the morality, presupposing that the notion of respect on the ecological field is the same that found the conquest of the moral autonomy. For this investigation, it had been taken a sample of 15 participants, five by age group – form 6 to 8 years old, 10 to 11 years old and 13 to 15 years old. Through the piagetian clinical method, it was told to the children and adolescents two groups of stories: three stories were taken from Piaget’s studies about morality, focusing the conscience of rules and the notions of lie and justice, and four another hypothetical stories were created specifically to study the respect to the environment, focusing, respectively, the selective collection, the extinction of the birds, the pollution of a river and the cutting of tree. The statements of the participants were analysed according to the theoretical reference of Piaget concerning to the morality, also helped by some studious that have been amplifying the application field of Piaget’s theory. The data analysis allowed us to set up three levels for the development of the notion of respect to the environment, proving that the ecological moral has a psychogenetic dimension and there is a relation between the development of the morality and the acquisition of the ecological moral.

  11. Hand Surgery: Anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... All Topics A-Z Videos Infographics Symptom Picker Anatomy Bones Joints Muscles Nerves Vessels Tendons About Hand Surgery What is a Hand Surgeon? What is a Hand Therapist? Media Find a Hand Surgeon Home Anatomy Hand Surgery Anesthesia Email to a friend * required ...

  12. Individual Differences in Moral Development: Does Intelligence Really Affect Children's Moral Reasoning and Moral Emotions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beißert, Hanna M; Hasselhorn, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between intelligence and individual differences in children's moral development across a range of different moral transgressions. Taking up prior research that showed morality and intelligence to be related in adolescents and adults, the current study wants to test if these findings can be extended to younger children. The study was designed to address some of the shortcomings in prior research by examining young children aged between 6 years; 4 months and 8 years; 10 months, using a broad concept of moral development including emotional aspects and applying an approach that is closely connected to children's daily lives. Participants ( N = 129) completed a standardized intelligence test and were presented four moral transgression stories to assess moral development. Results demonstrated that findings from prior research with adolescents or adults cannot simply be extended to younger participants. No significant correlations of moral development and intelligence were found for any of the presented stories. This provides first evidence that - at least in middle childhood - moral developmental status seems to be independent from children's general intelligence assessed by figural inductive reasoning tests.

  13. Filsafat Moral Ibn Hazm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Tajuddin Arafat

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKajian ini menitikberatkan pada telaah atas pemikiran etik Ibn Hazm al-Andalusy dalam karyanya al-Akhlaq was-Siyar fi Mudawati-n-Nufus. Dengan menggunakan pendekatan content analysis, tujuan riset ditemukan bahwa dalam karyanya tersebut terdapat beberapa nilai-nilai filosofis yang berkaitan dengan upaya memperbaikimoralitas dan mencari cita-cita luhur manusia, yaitu kebahagiaan. Menurutnya, dalam menghadapi problematika kehidupan serta mencari kebahagiaan, manusia harus lebih menekankan pada upaya-upaya untuk menghilangkan rasa sedih dan kegalauan (thard al-hamm. Selain itu, Ibn Hazm menyatakan bahwa ada empatkebajikan utama, kebajikan lainnya sebagai dasar atas: keadilan (al-’adl, intelegensi (al-fahm, keberanian (an-najadat, dan kedermawanan (al-jud. Sebaliknya, ada empat keburukan utama, di mana seluruh keburukan lainnya didasarkan atas keempatnya, yaitu: ketidak adilan (al-ja`ur, kebodohan (al-jahl, ketakutan (aljubn,dan kekikiran (asy-syuh.Kata kunci: Filsafat Moral, Thard al-Hamm, Kebajikan Utama, Nazahat al-Nufus AbstractThis study emphasizes on Ibn Hazm Al Andalusy’s ethical thoughts in his magnum opus: al Akhlaq was Siyar fi Mudawati-n-Nufus. By using content analysis approach, it’s found that there are some philosophical points of Ibn Hazm’s ehical thoughts which looks for good morality and happiness. Ibn Hazm stated that man shall make more efforts on removing downcast, confusion, and anxiety (thard al hamm. He alsodeclared that there are four main righteousnesses (al-fadha`il: justice (al-’adl, intelligence (al-fahm, bravery (an-najadat, and generosity(al-jud.On the contrary, there are also four main adnesses; injustice (al-jaur, folly (al-jahl, fear (al-jubn, and niggardliness (asy-syuh.Keywords: Moral Philosophy, Remove Of Anxiety, Righteousness, Chastity Of Soul

  14. The problem of moral choice personality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Kadievskaya

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Article is dedicated to the comprehension of the problems of the moral selection of personality. It is substantiated, that the moral consciousness is the complex system, because of which in the society are established the specific rules of interrelations between the people.   The concepts are analyzed: morals, relativity, moral absolutism, general human values, globalization, manipulation by consciousness, spiritual­ moral training. The specific character of the moral relativity, which denies absolute nature, i.e., is established universality and compulsion of morals, emphasizing conditionality and situationality of moral n. Moral absolutism is contradicted to moral relativity. Moral absolutism corresponds to persuasion, that there are absolute standards, which can be used for the permission of questions of morals, and that the specific actions can be correct or incorrect by themselves independent of their context. The two­digit (positive and negative axiological understanding of the phenomenon of globalization, which dually influences our consciousness, spiritual peace and moral selection, is represented. Under the conditions for large­scale information manipulations the translation of moral values as information, modifies their essence. Is shown the role of spiritual­ moral training in the formation, which must be variative and voluntary, allow for the possibility of ideological selection. The moral freedom of each person is manifested in the transformation of moral requirements into the internal needs of personality, into its own persuasions.

  15. Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam

    2012-01-01

    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds—a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering—that is, interpersonal harm—even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions. PMID:22754268

  16. Mind Perception Is the Essence of Morality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Kurt; Young, Liane; Waytz, Adam

    2012-04-01

    Mind perception entails ascribing mental capacities to other entities, whereas moral judgment entails labeling entities as good or bad or actions as right or wrong. We suggest that mind perception is the essence of moral judgment. In particular, we suggest that moral judgment is rooted in a cognitive template of two perceived minds-a moral dyad of an intentional agent and a suffering moral patient. Diverse lines of research support dyadic morality. First, perceptions of mind are linked to moral judgments: dimensions of mind perception (agency and experience) map onto moral types (agents and patients), and deficits of mind perception correspond to difficulties with moral judgment. Second, not only are moral judgments sensitive to perceived agency and experience, but all moral transgressions are fundamentally understood as agency plus experienced suffering-that is, interpersonal harm-even ostensibly harmless acts such as purity violations. Third, dyadic morality uniquely accounts for the phenomena of dyadic completion (seeing agents in response to patients, and vice versa), and moral typecasting (characterizing others as either moral agents or moral patients). Discussion also explores how mind perception can unify morality across explanatory levels, how a dyadic template of morality may be developmentally acquired, and future directions.

  17. The effects of social solidarity on moral emotions and morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. ATUDOREI

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the impact of social solidarity on moral emotions such as embarrassment, shame and guilt at a social level. The effect of moral emotions on individual morality is presented. The paper emphasizes the fact that solidarity, which is generally perceived as having positive effects, may also produce social anomie. This situation is reached by a silent agreement concerning intellectual fraud which goes unpunished at a social level and can, thus, lead to deviant behaviour being considered tolerable as a result of rational reasoning which could shake social structure.

  18. The invisible hand: regulation of RHO GTPases by RHOGDIs

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Mata, Rafael; Boulter, Etienne; Burridge, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The 'invisible hand' is a term originally coined by Adam Smith in the Theory of Moral Sentiments to describe the forces of self-interest, competition, and supply and demand that regulate the resources in society. This metaphor continues to be used by economists to describe the self-regulating nature of a market economy. The same metaphor can be used to describe the RHO-specific guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitor (RHOGDI) family, which operates in the background, as an invisible hand, u...

  19. Moral Personality Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Kalin

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Learning in terms of personality growth is a life-long process, just as personality growth itself is a life-long process. Kalin presents a number of psychological theories and their impact on moral development - which is an integral part of personality growth. The paper further treats the formation and changing of beliefs, and the role of education in the two processes. Great emphasis is put on cognitive theories; Kalin explains those formulated by L. Kohlberg and J. Rest. In discussing the process of shaping and changing one's views, special emphasis is put on the environment, or rather the social group an individual belongs to, and on the influence of personality traits and experience. The paper juxtaposes the influence - strengths and weaknesses - of the psychology of persuasion and education on forming and changing one's views, taken into consideration that views consist of cognitive, emotive and conative dimensions.

  20. The rise of moral cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Joshua D

    2015-02-01

    The field of moral cognition has grown rapidly in recent years thanks in no small part to Cognition. Consistent with its interdisciplinary tradition, Cognition encouraged the growth of this field by supporting empirical research conducted by philosophers as well as research native to neighboring fields such as social psychology, evolutionary game theory, and behavioral economics. This research has been exceptionally diverse both in its content and methodology. I argue that this is because morality is unified at the functional level, but not at the cognitive level, much as vehicles are unified by shared function rather than shared mechanics. Research in moral cognition, then, has progressed by explaining the phenomena that we identify as "moral" (for high-level functional reasons) in terms of diverse cognitive components that are not specific to morality. In light of this, research on moral cognition may continue to flourish, not as the identification and characterization of distinctive moral processes, but as a testing ground for theories of high-level, integrative cognitive function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Moral Understanding in the Psychopath*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malatesti, Luca

    2010-01-01

    A pressing and difficult practical problem concerns the general issue of the right social response to offenders classified as having antisocial personality disorder. This paper approaches this general problem by focusing, from a philosophical perspective, on the still relevant but more approachable question whether psychopathic offenders are morally responsible. In particular, I investigate whether psychopaths possess moral understanding. A plausible way to approach the last question requires a satisfactory philosophical interpretation of the empirical evidence that appears to show that psychopaths fail to draw the distinction between conventional and moral norms. Specifically, I will consider a recent philosophical debate polarized between supporters of rationalist and sentimentalist accounts of moral understanding. These opponents have discussed whether the case of psychopathy offers empirical support for their account and undermine the rival view. I will argue that the available empirical data leave the outcome of this discussion indeterminate. However, this implies that both these principal theories of moral understanding, if independently motivated, would imply that psychopaths have certain deficits that might affect their moral understanding and, consequently, their moral responsibility. PMID:21151766

  2. The Misfortunes of Moral Enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, Marco Antonio

    2016-10-01

    In Unfit for the Future, Ingmar Persson and Julian Savulescu present a sophisticated argument in defense of the imperative of moral enhancement. They claim that without moral enhancement, the future of humanity is seriously compromised. The possibility of ultimate harm, caused by a dreadful terrorist attack or by a final unpreventable escalation of the present environmental crisis aggravated by the availability of cognitive enhancement, makes moral enhancement a top priority. It may be considered optimistic to think that our present moral capabilities can be successfully improved by means of moral education, moral persuasion, and fear of punishment. So, without moral enhancement, drastic restrictions on human freedom would become the only alternative to prevent those dramatic potential outcomes. In this article, I will try to show that we still have reason to be less pessimistic and that Persson & Savulescu's arguments are fortunately unconvincing. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press, on behalf of the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy Inc. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. The Evolution of Contractual Morality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Rosas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Evolutionary explanations of altruism and human cooperation, first set forth by pioneers such as Darwin, Hamilton and Trivers, suggest that biology might be capable of offering a plausible scientific explanation of the core of human morality. According to this project, morality and human cooperation arise when resourcesare scarce; they cannot be exploited by isolated individuals; and individuals cannot maintain a long-term position of domination over others in order to advance their selfish ends. An important philosophical question that arises with respect to this project has to do with the concepts of de morality and moral motivation that itpresupposes. The evolutionary project has not been clear in this respect. The article argues in favor of two theses: 1 evolutionary explanations of cooperation suggest a contractual type of morality, but they are ambiguous regarding the motivations favored by natural selection, thus reflecting, without resolving it, a traditionaldisagreement between Hobbes’s moral contractualism (selfish motivations and that of Kant (altruistic motivations; 2 in their current form, these explanations cannot resolve that disagreement, but a reflection on the role of the capacity to interpret the motivations and character of others in the evolution of morality could provide arguments in favor of Kantian contractualism.

  4. Dimensi moral dalam Pendidikan Kewarganegaraan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muchson AR

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the past times, the moral issue is a core and main face of education. The talks about education, educators, or well-educated people refer ni"'ainfy to illustration of aspect of their morality and personality. Although the paradigm of education as a inheritance of values, especialfy moral values, are considered as an old-fashioned or conseruatiie, but , such education is very relevant for the solution to improve the morality of the nation.  Subjects of Civic Education have distinctive vission, namely the formation of good citizens.  Definition of ''good citizens" shows that the moral content is essential. However it is often based on interpretation of the ruler. As a consequence, these subfects are regarded as more political  than academic and suf?jects with a weak saentificfoundation.  As a part of formal curriatium, the moral dimension in Civic Education should be abso­ lutefy developed from the content or material standards. Beside, teachers with the aTttonomy thry had could inculcate moral values, whether unitersal or contextual or cultural or local. Thus, it is possible for teachers to develop iiformal curriculum or hidden curriculum, beside the formal curriculum

  5. Liberal CSR and New Marxist Criticism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Kristian Høyer

    2014-01-01

    The term ‘corporate social responsibility’ (CSR) is considered by the new Marxist left to be a self-defeating oxymoron. In this chapter, the new Marxist challenge to CSR as a meaningful, coherent concept and practice is discussed. In the wake of the financial crisis the critique from the Marxist......-inspired left tends to replace the scepticism of the libertarian right (Friedman 1970). The legitimacy of business in society is at stake, and the critical left is well placed to debunk the integrity of business’s claim to social responsibility. To provide an overview of current Marxist inspired CSR thinking......, this chapter introduces the Hegelian inspired critique of a New Spirit of Capitalism (Chiapello 2013) as well as the critique of ideology targeted at the neo-liberal project of corporate responsibility (Žižek 2008; Fleming and Jones 2013). Subsequently, two possible liberal ‘revisions’ to the Marxist inspired...

  6. Integration models: multicultural and liberal approaches confronted

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janicki, Wojciech

    2012-01-01

    European societies have been shaped by their Christian past, upsurge of international migration, democratic rule and liberal tradition rooted in religious tolerance. Boosting globalization processes impose new challenges on European societies, striving to protect their diversity. This struggle is especially clearly visible in case of minorities trying to resist melting into mainstream culture. European countries' legal systems and cultural policies respond to these efforts in many ways. Respecting identity politics-driven group rights seems to be the most common approach, resulting in creation of a multicultural society. However, the outcome of respecting group rights may be remarkably contradictory to both individual rights growing out from liberal tradition, and to reinforced concept of integration of immigrants into host societies. The hereby paper discusses identity politics upturn in the context of both individual rights and integration of European societies.

  7. Liberalization turns energy market upside down

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lousberg, H.H.J.

    2002-01-01

    The consequences of free energy trade are discussed, i.e. the changes caused by liberalization of the energy market. The ability to purchase energy freely, thus creating competition between sources of energy, is changing the relationships between gas and electricity prices. The implications are very significant for building services contractors and energy companies and also for the selection of technical concepts. It also, of course, has implications for the environment. liberalization also gives certain customers the opportunity to consider their energy supply on an integrated basis. Who is going to supply me with energy, rather than who supplies electricity and who supplies gas? For example, the customer wants heating, cooling and electricity, and the conversion methods are not immediately relevant. This creates the possibility of offering, or outsourcing, a total 'energy' package [nl

  8. Suppliers response to liberalization in Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boon Von Ochssee, T.

    2007-03-01

    Current EU target of achieving a fully liberalized internal market today does not guarantee the availability of volumes tomorrow. Europe will have to compete with other markets, such as the US in the Atlantic Basin and perhaps the Pacific Basin in the future as far as LNG is concerned. Thus, it is against the backdrop of scarcity in a seller's market that Europe's security of supply must be perceived in the period leading up to 2010, 2020 and beyond. Nevertheless, the focus of Europe's energy concerns will lay with internal developments, primarily competition, unbundling and the ostensible development of an increased share of sustainable energy mix by 2020. Whether the European Commission's ultimate goal, a transparent and completely liberalized gas network system, will be supplied with the necessary volumes to sustain demand growth is another matter. This article seeks to shine the limelight on the external aspects of the EU energy dimension.

  9. RETHINKING LIBERAL DEMOCRACY: PRELUDE TO TOTALITARIANISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel David

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In the long course of human evolution and political experimentation, liberal democracy, especially after the events of 1989, has come to be seen as the best political system. In fact, we seemed to have reached the only system compatible with liberty, after the dreadful experiences of Communist and Nazi totalitarianism, and its twin in the economic realm - capitalism. But is liberalism really conducive to freedom? I argue that evil – or totalitarianism – arises from the combination of both the Platonic and Augustinian views: ignorance of values and the pursuit of one’s egotistic desires. Evil has an essentially private nature. In this sense, totalitarianism may arise from a utilitarian culture that sees people – or some forms of knowledge – as worthless and disposable objects.

  10. Liberalization of electricity markets and energy security

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yajima, Masayuki

    2004-01-01

    Liberalization of electricity markets begun in England in 1990 and became the trends of the times. Its effects on the energy security and atomic power generation are discussed. On the effects on energy security, change of construction of fuel of power generation, decrease of fuel feed by high efficiency of power generation, decrease of fuel stock by pressure of cost-cutting, increase of import rate of electricity, increase of power consumption with decrease of power cost, flexibility of supply contract, diversification of service, international cooperation on energy security and mutual dependence relation by international investment are discussed. On the effects of liberalization on the electricity markets, characteristics of nuclear power generation, risk of investment, effects of introduction of competition on development of the existing and new nuclear power generation, relation between development of nuclear power generation and market failure and what the government should do for development of nuclear power generation are discussed. (S.Y.)

  11. Liberalism and gender: a contextual persepctive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Escalante Beltrán

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This article contextually discusses the category of gender from a liberal perspective. The six sections of the study provide a deep criticism of the social sciences from a less rigid perspective in the handling of dichotomous and exclusionary categories such as masculine-feminine, rational-emotional, private-public, liberal-community, to mention some of the central issues raised by the various debates about gender. A comparative methodology is used to analyze authors such as Kolberg, Gilligan, Rawls and others. One of the principal conclusions reached in this study is that traditional theoretical schemes, still in use, impede achieving broader consensuses and delay the resolution of practical problems such as, in the Peruvian case, those resulting from the translation of the discourse of equity into actions and concrete daily practices that provide citizens true access to justice.

  12. Political liberalism and religious claims: Four blind spots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoeckl, Kristina

    2017-01-01

    This article gives an overview of 4 important lacunae in political liberalism and identifies, in a preliminary fashion, some trends in the literature that can come in for support in filling these blind spots, which prevent political liberalism from a correct assessment of the diverse nature of religious claims. Political liberalism operates with implicit assumptions about religious actors being either 'liberal' or 'fundamentalist' and ignores a third, in-between group, namely traditionalist religious actors and their claims. After having explained what makes traditionalist religious actors different from liberal and fundamentalist religious actors, the author develops 4 areas in which political liberalism should be pushed further theoretically in order to correctly theorize the challenge which traditional religious actors pose to liberal democracy. These 4 areas (blind spots) are: (1) the context of translation; (2) the politics of exemptions; (3) the multivocality of theology; and (4) the transnational nature of norm-contestation.

  13. Uranium trade and global liberalization of markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elagin, Yu.P.

    2003-01-01

    Present state of nuclear fuel market is reviewed. Political and economical aspects of nuclear fuel trade, traditional schemes of gain of nuclear fuel, tendencies and last innovations are treated. Price mechanisms, increase in part of traders, price indicators are discussed. Under the liberalization conditions the uranium market and common tendencies on the stages of nuclear fuel cycle as well as prospects of gain and sale of nuclear fuel, electronic trade are considered [ru

  14. How Islamism Imperils the Western Liberal Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-13

    city on a hill, a beacon of hope for the world to emulate. In this vein, American liberal democracy is the example for individual freedom and...highly flexible and adaptable religion . One can pair the idea of the religion of Islam with a host of ideologies and concepts. Islamic Modernism2...or Islamist? Since 1697, many authors, including Voltaire and Tocqueville for example, used the term Islamism to refer primarily to the religion of

  15. The electric power consumer facing the liberalization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Audigier, P.; Gaulion, R.; Lapeyre, M.

    2003-01-01

    Facing the liberalization of the electric power market, many questions appear: what are the measures taken to warrant the service quality, the supply continuity and the investments level? This inquiry aims to analyze the information on these questions. It shows the necessity of an equilibrium relation between the consumers an the suppliers, optimizing the distribution of the activities between the public and the private. (A.L.B.)

  16. Transboundary Pollution, Trade Liberalization, and Environmental Taxes

    OpenAIRE

    Baksi, S.; Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2008-01-01

    In a bilateral trade framework, we examine the impact of tari¤ reduction on the op- timal pollution tax and social welfare when pollution is transboundary. Strategic considerations lead countries to distort their pollution tax in the non-cooperative equilibrium. Trade liberalization changes the distortion, and consequently the pol- lution tax and welfare, in ways that depend on the extent to which pollution is transboundary. We find that when the pollution damage parameter is sufficiently sma...

  17. Liberal egalitarianism and the harm principle

    OpenAIRE

    Lombardi, Michele; Veneziani, Roberto

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses Rawls's celebrated difference principle, and its lexicographic extension, in societies with a finite and an infinite number of agents. A unified framework of analysis is set up, which allows one to characterise Rawlsian egalitarian principles by means of a weaker version of a new axiom - the Harm Principle - recently proposed by marven09. This is quite surprising, because the Harm principle is meant to capture a liberal requirement of noninterference and it incorporates no...

  18. Science and Religion in Liberal Democracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jønch-Clausen, Karin

    The dissertation explores the role of scientific rationality and religious reasoning in democratic law and policymaking. How does legitimate law and policymaking proceed in light of disagreements on science and religion? This question is addressed within the framework of public reason. Roughly pu...... concerning the role science and religion in political deliberation challenge the public reason framework as viable vehicle for pursuing democratic legitimacy? The dissertation discusses these and other questions related to the special role of science and religion in liberal democracy....

  19. Liberalization of the natural gas market, public interests and regulations urge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisuisse, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    Developments in the last two years showed that liberalization of the gas market comes with all kind of new and complex regulation. Examples are rules regarding supply permits, the introduction of a supplier of last resort and planning and building obligations for network operators. In the article an oversight of these rules has been given. The regulations are mainly based on public services interests, especially security of supply. It becomes clear that politicians on the one hand are in favour of liberalization, but on the other hand won't accept the accompanying risks for especially the smaller consumers. Security of supply has to be guaranteed under all circumstances. It is obvious that this layer of new rules results in an administrative burden for the parties on the market. Moreover, as a result of these rules the possibilities for real competition, which are already limited due to the special characteristics of the Gas market, have become less and less. In the mean time, the question arises whether it is still realistic to speak of liberalization. It is also doubtful whether the households will still benefit from the possibilities of freedom of choice. Within the coming months the so called second Gas directive has to be implemented. Members of Parliament should realize that, during this implementation process there is no room left to build in additional certainties for consumers [nl

  20. Liberal rationalism and medical decision-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savulescu, Julian

    1997-04-01

    I contrast Robert Veatch's recent liberal vision of medical decision-making with a more rationalist liberal model. According to Veatch, physicians are biased in their determination of what is in their patient's overall interests in favour of their medical interests. Because of the extent of this bias, we should abandon the practice of physicians offering what they guess to be the best treatment option. Patients should buddy up with physicians who share the same values -- 'deep value pairing'. The goal of choice is maximal promotion of patient values. I argue that if subjectivism about value and valuing is true, this move is plausible. However, if objectivism about value is true -- that there really are states which are good for people regardless of whether they desire to be in them -- then we should accept a more rationalist liberal alternative. According to this alternative, what is required to decide which course is best is rational dialogue between physicians and patients, both about the patient's circumstances and her values, and not the seeking out of people, physicians or others, who share the same values. Rational discussion requires that physicians be reasonable and empathic. I describe one possible account of a reasonable physician.