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Sample records for hamo sine actively

  1. Multiple source genes of HAmo SINE actively expanded and ongoing retroposition in cyprinid genomes relying on its partner LINE

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    Gan Xiaoni

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We recently characterized HAmo SINE and its partner LINE in silver carp and bighead carp based on hybridization capture of repetitive elements from digested genomic DNA in solution using a bead-probe 1. To reveal the distribution and evolutionary history of SINEs and LINEs in cyprinid genomes, we performed a multi-species search for HAmo SINE and its partner LINE using the bead-probe capture and internal-primer-SINE polymerase chain reaction (PCR techniques. Results Sixty-seven full-size and 125 internal-SINE sequences (as well as 34 full-size and 9 internal sequences previously reported in bighead carp and silver carp from 17 species of the family Cyprinidae were aligned as well as 14 new isolated HAmoL2 sequences. Four subfamilies (type I, II, III and IV, which were divided based on diagnostic nucleotides in the tRNA-unrelated region, expanded preferentially within a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae as multiple active source genes. The copy numbers of HAmo SINEs were estimated to vary from 104 to 106 in cyprinid genomes by quantitative RT-PCR. Over one hundred type IV members were identified and characterized in the primitive cyprinid Danio rerio genome but only tens of sequences were found to be similar with type I, II and III since the type IV was the oldest subfamily and its members dispersed in almost all investigated cyprinid fishes. For determining the taxonomic distribution of HAmo SINE, inter-primer SINE PCR was conducted in other non-cyprinid fishes, the results shows that HAmo SINE- related sequences may disperse in other families of order Cypriniforms but absent in other orders of bony fishes: Siluriformes, Polypteriformes, Lepidosteiformes, Acipenseriformes and Osteoglossiforms. Conclusions Depending on HAmo LINE2, multiple source genes (subfamilies of HAmo SINE actively expanded and underwent retroposition in a certain lineage or within the whole family of Cyprinidae. From this

  2. SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerov, Dmitri A; Vassetzky, Nikita S

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are mobile genetic elements that invade the genomes of many eukaryotes. Since their discovery about 30 years ago, many gaps in our understanding of the biology and function of SINEs have been filled. This review summarizes the past and recent advances in the studies of SINEs. The structure and origin of SINEs as well as the processes involved in their amplification, transcription, RNA processing, reverse transcription, and integration of a SINE copy into the genome are considered. Then we focus on the significance of SINEs for the host genomes. While these genomic parasites can be deleterious to the cell, the long-term being in the genome has made SINEs a valuable source of genetic variation providing regulatory elements for gene expression, alternative splice sites, polyadenylation signals, and even functional RNA genes. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

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    Tong, Chaobo; Guo, Baocheng; He, Shunping

    2009-01-01

    Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively), two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members), designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp fishes, which strengthened

  4. Bead-probe complex capture a couple of SINE and LINE family from genomes of two closely related species of East Asian cyprinid directly using magnetic separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Baocheng

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Short and long interspersed elements (SINEs and LINEs, respectively, two types of retroposons, are active in shaping the architecture of genomes and powerful tools for studies of phylogeny and population biology. Here we developed special protocol to apply biotin-streptavidin bead system into isolation of interspersed repeated sequences rapidly and efficiently, in which SINEs and LINEs were captured directly from digested genomic DNA by hybridization to bead-probe complex in solution instead of traditional strategy including genomic library construction and screening. Results A new couple of SINEs and LINEs that shared an almost identical 3'tail was isolated and characterized in silver carp and bighead carp of two closely related species. These SINEs (34 members, designated HAmo SINE family, were little divergent in sequence and flanked by obvious TSD indicated that HAmo SINE was very young family. The copy numbers of this family was estimated to 2 × 105 and 1.7 × 105 per haploid genome by Real-Time qPCR, respectively. The LINEs, identified as the homologs of LINE2 in other fishes, had a conserved primary sequence and secondary structures of the 3'tail region that was almost identical to that of HAmo SINE. These evidences suggest that HAmo SINEs are active and amplified recently utilizing the enzymatic machinery for retroposition of HAmoL2 through the recognition of higher-order structures of the conserved 42-tail region. We analyzed the possible structures of HAmo SINE that lead to successful amplification in genome and then deduced that HAmo SINE, SmaI SINE and FokI SINE that were similar in sequence each other, were probably generated independently and created by LINE family within the same lineage of a LINE phylogeny in the genomes of different hosts. Conclusion The presented results show the advantage of the novel method for retroposons isolation and a pair of young SINE family and its partner LINE family in two carp

  5. SINE Retrotransposition: Evaluation of Alu Activity and Recovery of De Novo Inserts.

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    Ade, Catherine; Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2016-01-01

    Mobile element activity is of great interest due to its impact on genomes. However, the types of mobile elements that inhabit any given genome are remarkably varied. Among the different varieties of mobile elements, the Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) populate many genomes, including many mammalian species. Although SINEs are parasites of Long Interspersed Elements (LINEs), SINEs have been highly successful in both the primate and rodent genomes. When comparing copy numbers in mammals, SINEs have been vastly more successful than other nonautonomous elements, such as the retropseudogenes and SVA. Interestingly, in the human genome the copy number of Alu (a primate SINE) outnumbers LINE-1 (L1) copies 2 to 1. Estimates suggest that the retrotransposition rate for Alu is tenfold higher than LINE-1 with about 1 insert in every twenty births. Furthermore, Alu-induced mutagenesis is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human retroelement insertion-induced disease. However, little is known on what contributes to these observed differences between SINEs and LINEs. The development of an assay to monitor SINE retrotransposition in culture has become an important tool for the elucidation of some of these differences. In this chapter, we present details of the SINE retrotransposition assay and the recovery of de novo inserts. We also focus on the nuances that are unique to the SINE assay.

  6. Identification of a Recently Active Mammalian SINE Derived from Ribosomal RNA

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    Longo, Mark S.; Brown, Judy D.; Zhang, Chu; O’Neill, Michael J.; O’Neill, Rachel J.

    2015-01-01

    Complex eukaryotic genomes are riddled with repeated sequences whose derivation does not coincide with phylogenetic history and thus is often unknown. Among such sequences, the capacity for transcriptional activity coupled with the adaptive use of reverse transcription can lead to a diverse group of genomic elements across taxa, otherwise known as selfish elements or mobile elements. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous mobile elements found in eukaryotic genomes, typically derived from cellular RNAs such as tRNAs, 7SL or 5S rRNA. Here, we identify and characterize a previously unknown SINE derived from the 3′-end of the large ribosomal subunit (LSU or 28S rDNA) and transcribed via RNA polymerase III. This new element, SINE28, is represented in low-copy numbers in the human reference genome assembly, wherein we have identified 27 discrete loci. Phylogenetic analysis indicates these elements have been transpositionally active within primate lineages as recently as 6 MYA while modern humans still carry transcriptionally active copies. Moreover, we have identified SINE28s in all currently available assembled mammalian genome sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons indicate that these elements are frequently rederived from the highly conserved LSU rRNA sequences in a lineage-specific manner. We propose that this element has not been previously recognized as a SINE given its high identity to the canonical LSU, and that SINE28 likely represents one of possibly many unidentified, active transposable elements within mammalian genomes. PMID:25637222

  7. Isolation and characterization of active LINE and SINEs from the eel.

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    Kajikawa, Masaki; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Tanaka, Nozomu; Okada, Norihiro

    2005-03-01

    Long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons. These elements can mobilize by the "copy-and-paste" mechanism, in which their own RNA is reverse-transcribed into complementary DNA (cDNA). LINEs and SINEs not only are components of eukaryotic genomes but also drivers of genomic evolution. Thus, studies of the amplification mechanism of LINEs and SINEs are important for understanding eukaryotic genome evolution. Here we report the characterization of one LINE family (UnaL2) and two SINE families (UnaSINE1 and UnaSINE2) from the eel (Anguilla japonica) genome. UnaL2 is approximately 3.6 kilobases (kb) and encodes only one open reading frame (ORF). UnaL2 belongs to the stringent type--thought to be a major group of LINEs--and can mobilize in HeLa cells. We also show that UnaL2 and the two UnaSINEs have similar 3' tails, and that both UnaSINE1 and UnaSINE2 can be mobilized by UnaL2 in HeLa cells. These elements are thus useful for delineating the amplification mechanism of stringent type LINEs as well as that of SINEs.

  8. Identification of an active ID-like group of SINEs in the mouse.

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    Kass, David H; Jamison, Nicole

    2007-09-01

    The mouse genome consists of five known families of SINEs: B1, B2, B4/RSINE, ID, and MIR. Using RT-PCR we identified a germ-line transcript that demonstrates 92.7% sequence identity to ID (excluding primer sequence), yet a BLAST search identified numerous matches of 100% sequence identity. We analyzed four of these elements for their presence in orthologous genes in strains and subspecies of Mus musculus as well as other species of Mus using a PCR-based assay. All four analyzed elements were identified either only in M. musculus or exclusively in both M. musculus and M. domesticus, indicative of recent integrations. In conjunction with the identification of transcripts, we present an active ID-like group of elements that is not derived from the proposed BC1 master gene of ID elements. A BLAST of the rat genome indicated that these elements were not in the rat. Therefore, this family of SINEs has recently evolved, and since it has thus far been observed mainly in M. musculus, we refer to this family as MMIDL.

  9. Selective activation of primary afferent fibers evaluated by sine-wave electrical stimulation

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    Katafuchi Toshihiko

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Transcutaneous sine-wave stimuli at frequencies of 2000, 250 and 5 Hz (Neurometer are thought to selectively activate Aβ, Aδ and C afferent fibers, respectively. However, there are few reports to test the selectivity of these stimuli at the cellular level. In the present study, we analyzed action potentials (APs generated by sine-wave stimuli applied to the dorsal root in acutely isolated rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG preparations using intracellular recordings. We also measured excitatory synaptic responses evoked by transcutaneous stimuli in substantia gelatinosa (SG neurons of the spinal dorsal horn, which receive inputs predominantly from C and Aδ fibers, using in vivo patch-clamp recordings. In behavioral studies, escape or vocalization behavior of rats was observed with both 250 and 5 Hz stimuli at intensity of ~0.8 mA (T5/ T250, whereas with 2000 Hz stimulation, much higher intensity (2.14 mA, T2000 was required. In DRG neurons, APs were generated at T5/T250 by 2000 Hz stimulation in Aβ, by 250 Hz stimulation both in Aβ and Aδ, and by 5 Hz stimulation in all three classes of DRG neurons. However, the AP frequencies elicited in Aβ and Aδ by 5 Hz stimulation were much less than those reported previously in physiological condition. With in vivo experiments large amplitude of EPSCs in SG neurons were elicited by 250 and 5 Hz stimuli at T5/ T250. These results suggest that 2000 Hz stimulation excites selectively Aβ fibers and 5 Hz stimulation activates noxious transmission mediated mainly through C fibers. Although 250 Hz stimulation activates both Aδ and Aβ fibers, tactile sensation would not be perceived when painful sensation is produced at the same time. Therefore, 250 Hz was effective stimulus frequency for activation of Aδ fibers initiating noxious sensation. Thus, the transcutaneous sine-wave stimulation can be applied to evaluate functional changes of sensory transmission by comparing thresholds with the three

  10. Genome-wide analysis of short interspersed nuclear elements SINES revealed high sequence conservation, gene association and retrotranspositional activity in wheat.

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    Ben-David, Smadar; Yaakov, Beery; Kashkush, Khalil

    2013-10-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous non-LTR retroelements that are present in most eukaryotic species. While SINEs have been intensively investigated in humans and other animal systems, they are poorly studied in plants, especially in wheat (Triticum aestivum). We used quantitative PCR of various wheat species to determine the copy number of a wheat SINE family, termed Au SINE, combined with computer-assisted analyses of the publicly available 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum. In addition, we utilized site-specific PCR on 57 Au SINE insertions, transposon methylation display and transposon display on newly formed wheat polyploids to assess retrotranspositional activity, epigenetic status and genetic rearrangements in Au SINE, respectively. We retrieved 3706 different insertions of Au SINE from the 454 pyrosequencing database of T. aestivum, and found that most of the elements are inserted in A/T-rich regions, while approximately 38% of the insertions are associated with transcribed regions, including known wheat genes. We observed typical retrotransposition of Au SINE in the second generation of a newly formed wheat allohexaploid, and massive hypermethylation in CCGG sites surrounding Au SINE in the third generation. Finally, we observed huge differences in the copy numbers in diploid Triticum and Aegilops species, and a significant increase in the copy numbers in natural wheat polyploids, but no significant increase in the copy number of Au SINE in the first four generations for two of three newly formed allopolyploid species used in this study. Our data indicate that SINEs may play a prominent role in the genomic evolution of wheat through stress-induced activation. © 2013 Ben-Gurion University The Plant Journal © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Binding of TFIIIC to sine elements controls the relocation of activity-dependent neuronal genes to transcription factories.

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    Luca Crepaldi

    Full Text Available In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs, and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes.

  12. Binding of TFIIIC to sine elements controls the relocation of activity-dependent neuronal genes to transcription factories.

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    Crepaldi, Luca; Policarpi, Cristina; Coatti, Alessandro; Sherlock, William T; Jongbloets, Bart C; Down, Thomas A; Riccio, Antonella

    2013-01-01

    In neurons, the timely and accurate expression of genes in response to synaptic activity relies on the interplay between epigenetic modifications of histones, recruitment of regulatory proteins to chromatin and changes to nuclear structure. To identify genes and regulatory elements responsive to synaptic activation in vivo, we performed a genome-wide ChIPseq analysis of acetylated histone H3 using somatosensory cortex of mice exposed to novel enriched environmental (NEE) conditions. We discovered that Short Interspersed Elements (SINEs) located distal to promoters of activity-dependent genes became acetylated following exposure to NEE and were bound by the general transcription factor TFIIIC. Importantly, under depolarizing conditions, inducible genes relocated to transcription factories (TFs), and this event was controlled by TFIIIC. Silencing of the TFIIIC subunit Gtf3c5 in non-stimulated neurons induced uncontrolled relocation to TFs and transcription of activity-dependent genes. Remarkably, in cortical neurons, silencing of Gtf3c5 mimicked the effects of chronic depolarization, inducing a dramatic increase of both dendritic length and branching. These findings reveal a novel and essential regulatory function of both SINEs and TFIIIC in mediating gene relocation and transcription. They also suggest that TFIIIC may regulate the rearrangement of nuclear architecture, allowing the coordinated expression of activity-dependent neuronal genes.

  13. Transcriptome-wide effects of inverted SINEs on gene expression and their impact on RNA polymerase II activity.

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    Tajaddod, Mansoureh; Tanzer, Andrea; Licht, Konstantin; Wolfinger, Michael T; Badelt, Stefan; Huber, Florian; Pusch, Oliver; Schopoff, Sandy; Janisiw, Michael; Hofacker, Ivo; Jantsch, Michael F

    2016-10-25

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) represent the most abundant group of non-long-terminal repeat transposable elements in mammalian genomes. In primates, Alu elements are the most prominent and homogenous representatives of SINEs. Due to their frequent insertion within or close to coding regions, SINEs have been suggested to play a crucial role during genome evolution. Moreover, Alu elements within mRNAs have also been reported to control gene expression at different levels. Here, we undertake a genome-wide analysis of insertion patterns of human Alus within transcribed portions of the genome. Multiple, nearby insertions of SINEs within one transcript are more abundant in tandem orientation than in inverted orientation. Indeed, analysis of transcriptome-wide expression levels of 15 ENCODE cell lines suggests a cis-repressive effect of inverted Alu elements on gene expression. Using reporter assays, we show that the negative effect of inverted SINEs on gene expression is independent of known sensors of double-stranded RNAs. Instead, transcriptional elongation seems impaired, leading to reduced mRNA levels. Our study suggests that there is a bias against multiple SINE insertions that can promote intramolecular base pairing within a transcript. Moreover, at a genome-wide level, mRNAs harboring inverted SINEs are less expressed than mRNAs harboring single or tandemly arranged SINEs. Finally, we demonstrate a novel mechanism by which inverted SINEs can impact on gene expression by interfering with RNA polymerase II.

  14. Biologic activity of the novel orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE) KPT-335 against canine melanoma cell lines

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    2014-01-01

    Background Exportin 1 (XPO1, also known as CRM1), is a chaperone protein responsible for the export of over 200 target proteins out of the nucleus. The expression and activity of XPO1 is upregulated in several human cancers and its expression is also linked to the development of chemotherapy resistance. Recent studies using both human and murine cancer cell lines have demonstrated that XPO1 is a relevant target for therapeutic intervention. The present study sought to characterize the biologic activity of an orally bioavailable selective inhibitor of nuclear export (SINE), KPT-335, against canine melanoma cell lines as a prelude to future clinical trials in dogs with melanoma. Results We evaluated the effects of KPT-335 on 4 canine malignant melanoma cell lines and found that KPT-335 inhibited proliferation, blocked colony formation, and induced apoptosis of treated cells at biologically relevant concentrations of drug. Additionally, KPT-335 downregulated XPO1 protein while inducing a concomitant increase in XPO1 messenger RNA. Lastly, KPT-335 treatment of cell lines upregulated the expression of both protein and mRNA for the tumor suppressor proteins p53 and p21, and promoted their nuclear localization. Conclusions KPT-335 demonstrates biologic activity against canine melanoma cell lines at physiologically relevant doses, suggesting that KPT-335 may represent a viable treatment option for dogs with malignant melanoma. PMID:25022346

  15. SINEs as driving forces in genome evolution.

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    Schmitz, J

    2012-01-01

    SINEs are short interspersed elements derived from cellular RNAs that repetitively retropose via RNA intermediates and integrate more or less randomly back into the genome. SINEs propagate almost entirely vertically within their host cells and, once established in the germline, are passed on from generation to generation. As non-autonomous elements, their reverse transcription (from RNA to cDNA) and genomic integration depends on the activity of the enzymatic machinery of autonomous retrotransposons, such as long interspersed elements (LINEs). SINEs are widely distributed in eukaryotes, but are especially effectively propagated in mammalian species. For example, more than a million Alu-SINE copies populate the human genome (approximately 13% of genomic space), and few master copies of them are still active. In the organisms where they occur, SINEs are a challenge to genomic integrity, but in the long term also can serve as beneficial building blocks for evolution, contributing to phenotypic heterogeneity and modifying gene regulatory networks. They substantially expand the genomic space and introduce structural variation to the genome. SINEs have the potential to mutate genes, to alter gene expression, and to generate new parts of genes. A balanced distribution and controlled activity of such properties is crucial to maintaining the organism's dynamic and thriving evolution. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we de...

  17. The sine-Gordon wobble

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaelbermann, G

    2004-01-01

    Nonperturbative, oscillatory, winding number 1 solutions of the sine-Gordon equation are presented and studied numerically. We call these nonperturbative shape modes wobble solitons. Perturbed sine-Gordon kinks are found to decay to wobble solitons

  18. Recombinant SINEs are formed at high frequency during induced retrotransposition in vivo.

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    Yadav, Vijay Pal; Mandal, Prabhat Kumar; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2012-05-22

    Non-long terminal repeat Retrotransposons are referred to as long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and their non-autonomous partners are short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). It is believed that an active SINE copy, upon retrotransposition, generates near identical copies of itself, which subsequently accumulate mutations resulting in sequence polymorphism. Here we show that when a retrotransposition-competent cell line of the parasitic protist Entamoeba histolytica, transfected with a marked SINE copy, is induced to retrotranspose, >20% of the newly retrotransposed copies are neither identical to the marked SINE nor to the mobilized resident SINEs. Rather they are recombinants of resident SINEs and the marked SINE. They are a consequence of retrotransposition and not DNA recombination, as they are absent in cells not expressing the retrotransposition functions. This high-frequency recombination provides a new explanation for the existence of mosaic SINEs, which may impact on genetic analysis of SINE lineages, and measurement of phylogenetic distances.

  19. Bov-B-mobilized SINEs in vertebrate genomes.

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    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2008-01-15

    Two new short retroposon families (SINEs) have been found in the genome of springhare Pedetes capensis (Rodentia). One of them, Ped-1, originated from 5S rRNA, while the other one, Ped-2, originated from tRNA-derived SINE ID. In contrast to most currently active mammalian SINEs mobilized by L1 long retrotransposon (LINE), Ped-1 and Ped-2 are mobilized by Bov-B, a LINE family of the widely distributed RTE clade. The 3' part of these SINEs originates from two sequences in the 5' and 3' regions of Bov-B. Such bipartite structure of the LINE-derived part has been revealed in all Bov-B-mobilized SINEs known to date (AfroSINE, Bov-tA, Mar-1, and Ped-1/2), which distinguishes them from other SINEs with only a 3' LINE-derived part. Structural analysis and the distribution of Bov-B LINEs and partner SINEs supports the horizontal transfer of Bov-B, while the SINEs emerged independently in lineages with this LINE.

  20. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) in plants: origin, classification, and use as phylogenetic markers.

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    Deragon, Jean-Marc; Zhang, Xiaoyu

    2006-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of dispersed mobile sequences that use RNA as an intermediate in an amplification process called retroposition. The presence-absence of a SINE at a given locus has been used as a meaningful classification criterion to evaluate phylogenetic relations among species. We review here recent developments in the characterisation of plant SINEs and their use as molecular makers to retrace phylogenetic relations among wild and cultivated Oryza and Brassica species. In Brassicaceae, further use of SINE markers is limited by our partial knowledge of endogenous SINE families (their origin and evolution histories) and by the absence of a clear classification. To solve this problem, phylogenetic relations among all known Brassicaceae SINEs were analyzed and a new classification, grouping SINEs in 15 different families, is proposed. The relative age and size of each Brassicaceae SINE family was evaluated and new phylogenetically supported subfamilies were described. We also present evidence suggesting that new potentially active SINEs recently emerged in Brassica oleracea from the shuffling of preexisting SINE portions. Finally, the comparative evolution history of SINE families present in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea revealed that SINEs were in general more active in the Brassica lineage. The importance of these new data for the use of Brassicaceae SINEs as molecular markers in future applications is discussed.

  1. 5S rRNA-derived and tRNA-derived SINEs in fruit bats.

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    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2009-05-01

    Most short retroposons (SINEs) descend from cellular tRNA of 7SL RNA. Here, four new SINEs were found in megabats (Megachiroptera) but neither in microbats nor in other mammals. Two of them, MEG-RS and MEG-RL, descend from another cellular RNA, 5S rRNA; one (MEG-T2) is a tRNA-derived SINE; and MEG-TR is a hybrid tRNA/5S rRNA SINE. Insertion locus analysis suggests that these SINEs were active in the recent fruit bat evolution. Analysis of MEG-RS and MEG-RL in comparison with other few 5S rRNA-derived SINEs demonstrates that the internal RNA polymerase III promoter is their most invariant region, while the secondary structure is more variable. The mechanisms underlying the modular structure of these and other SINEs as well as their variation are discussed. The scenario of evolution of MEG SINEs is proposed.

  2. SINEs, evolution and genome structure in the opossum.

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    Gu, Wanjun; Ray, David A; Walker, Jerilyn A; Barnes, Erin W; Gentles, Andrew J; Samollow, Paul B; Jurka, Jerzy; Batzer, Mark A; Pollock, David D

    2007-07-01

    Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons, usually between 100 and 500 base pairs (bp) in length, which are ubiquitous components of eukaryotic genomes. Their activity, distribution, and evolution can be highly informative on genomic structure and evolutionary processes. To determine recent activity, we amplified more than one hundred SINE1 loci in a panel of 43 M. domestica individuals derived from five diverse geographic locations. The SINE1 family has expanded recently enough that many loci were polymorphic, and the SINE1 insertion-based genetic distances among populations reflected geographic distance. Genome-wide comparisons of SINE1 densities and GC content revealed that high SINE1 density is associated with high GC content in a few long and many short spans. Young SINE1s, whether fixed or polymorphic, showed an unbiased GC content preference for insertion, indicating that the GC preference accumulates over long time periods, possibly in periodic bursts. SINE1 evolution is thus broadly similar to human Alu evolution, although it has an independent origin. High GC content adjacent to SINE1s is strongly correlated with bias towards higher AT to GC substitutions and lower GC to AT substitutions. This is consistent with biased gene conversion, and also indicates that like chickens, but unlike eutherian mammals, GC content heterogeneity (isochore structure) is reinforced by substitution processes in the M. domestica genome. Nevertheless, both high and low GC content regions are apparently headed towards lower GC content equilibria, possibly due to a relative shift to lower recombination rates in the recent Monodelphis ancestral lineage. Like eutherians, metatherian (marsupial) mammals have evolved high CpG substitution rates, but this is apparently a convergence in process rather than a shared ancestral state.

  3. Sauria SINEs: Novel short interspersed retroposable elements that are widespread in reptile genomes.

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    Piskurek, Oliver; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-05-01

    SINEs are short interspersed retrotransposable elements that invade new genomic sites. Their retrotransposition depends on reverse transcriptase and endonuclease activities encoded by partner LINEs (long interspersed elements). Recent genomic research has demonstrated that retroposons account for at least 40% of the human genome. Hitherto, more than 30 families of SINEs have been characterized in mammalian genomes, comprising approximately 4600 extant species; the distribution and extent of SINEs in reptilian genomes, however, are poorly documented. With more than 7400 species of lizards and snakes, Squamata constitutes the largest and most diverse group of living reptiles. We have discovered and characterized a novel SINE family, Sauria SINEs, whose members are widely distributed among genomes of lizards, snakes, and tuataras. Sauria SINEs comprise a 5' tRNA-related region, a tRNA-unrelated region, and a 3' tail region (containing short tandem repeats) derived from LINEs. We distinguished eight Sauria SINE subfamilies in genomes of four major squamate lineages and investigated their evolutionary relationships. Our data illustrate the overall efficacy of Sauria SINEs as novel retrotransposable markers for elucidation of squamate evolutionary history. We show that all Sauria SINEs share an identical 3' sequence with Bov-B LINEs and propose that they utilize the enzymatic machinery of Bov-B LINEs for their own retrotransposition. This finding, along with the ubiquity of Bov-B LINEs previously demonstrated in squamate genomes, suggests that these LINEs have been an active partner of Sauria SINEs since this SINE family was generated more than 200 million years ago.

  4. MetaSINEs: Broad Distribution of a Novel SINE Superfamily in Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Plazzi, Federico; Passamonti, Marco; Okada, Norihiro

    2016-02-12

    SINEs (short interspersed elements) are transposable elements that typically originate independently in each taxonomic clade (order/family). However, some SINE families share a highly similar central sequence and are thus categorized as a SINE superfamily. Although only four SINE superfamilies (CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, DeuSINEs, and Ceph-SINEs) have been reported so far, it is expected that new SINE superfamilies would be discovered by deep exploration of new SINEs in metazoan genomes. Here we describe 15 SINEs, among which 13 are novel, that have a similar 66-bp central region and therefore constitute a new SINE superfamily, MetaSINEs. MetaSINEs are distributed from fish to cnidarians, suggesting their common evolutionary origin at least 640 Ma. Because the 3' tails of MetaSINEs are variable, these SINEs most likely survived by changing their partner long interspersed elements for retrotransposition during evolution. Furthermore, we examined the presence of members of other SINE superfamilies in bivalve genomes and characterized eight new SINEs belonging to the CORE-SINEs, V-SINEs, and DeuSINEs, in addition to the MetaSINEs. The broad distribution of bivalve SINEs suggests that at least three SINEs originated in the common ancestor of Bivalvia. Our comparative analysis of the central domains of the SINEs revealed that, in each superfamily, only a restricted region is shared among all of its members. Because the functions of the central domains of the SINE superfamilies remain unknown, such structural information of SINE superfamilies will be useful for future experimental and comparative analyses to reveal why they have been retained in metazoan genomes during evolution. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  5. High SINE RNA Expression Correlates with Post-Transcriptional Downregulation of BRCA1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Bosco

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs are non-autonomous retrotransposons that comprise a large fraction of the human genome. SINEs are demethylated in human disease, but whether SINEs become transcriptionally induced and how the resulting transcripts may affect the expression of protein coding genes is unknown. Here, we show that downregulation of the mRNA of the tumor suppressor gene BRCA1 is associated with increased transcription of SINEs and production of sense and antisense SINE small RNAs. We find that BRCA1 mRNA is post-transcriptionally down-regulated in a Dicer and Drosha dependent manner and that expression of a SINE inverted repeat with sequence identity to a BRCA1 intron is sufficient for downregulation of BRCA1 mRNA. These observations suggest that transcriptional activation of SINEs could contribute to a novel mechanism of RNA mediated post-transcriptional silencing of human genes.

  6. The Evolution of SINEs and LINEs in the genus Chironomus (Diptera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papusheva, Ekaterina; Gruhl, Mary C; Berezikov, Eugene; Groudieva, Tatiana; Scherbik, Svetlana V; Martin, Jon; Blinov, Alexander; Bergtrom, Gerald

    2004-03-01

    Genomic DNA amplification from 51 species of the family Chironomidae shows that most contain relatives of NLRCth1 LINE and CTRT1 SINE retrotransposons first found in Chironomus thummi. More than 300 cloned PCR products were sequenced. The amplified region of the reverse transcriptase gene in the LINEs is intact and highly conserved, suggesting active elements. The SINEs are less conserved, consistent with minimal/no selection after transposition. A mitochondrial gene phylogeny resolves the Chironomus genus into six lineages (Guryev et al. 2001). LINE and SINE phylogenies resolve five of these lineages, indicating their monophyletic origin and vertical inheritance. However, both the LINE and the SINE tree topologies differ from the species phylogeny, resolving the elements into "clusters I-IV" and "cluster V" families. The data suggest a descent of all LINE and SINE subfamilies from two major families. Based on the species phylogeny, a few LINEs and a larger number of SINEs are cladisitically misplaced. Most misbranch with LINEs or SINEs from species with the same families of elements. From sequence comparisons, cladistically misplaced LINEs and several misplaced SINEs arose by convergent base substitutions. More diverged SINEs result from early transposition and some are derived from multiple source SINEs in the same species. SINEs from two species (C. dorsalis, C. pallidivittatus), expected to belong to the clusters I-IV family, branch instead with cluster V family SINEs; apparently both families predate separation of cluster V from clusters I-IV species. Correlation of the distribution of active SINEs and LINEs, as well as similar 3' sequence motifs in CTRT1 and NLRCth1, suggests coevolving retrotransposon pairs in which CTRT1 transposition depends on enzymes active during NLRCth1 LINE mobility.

  7. Sines and Cosines. Part 1 of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Applying the concept of similarities, the mathematical principles of circular motion and sine and cosine waves are presented utilizing both film footage and computer animation in this 'Project Mathematics' series video. Concepts presented include: the symmetry of sine waves; the cosine (complementary sine) and cosine waves; the use of sines and cosines on coordinate systems; the relationship they have to each other; the definitions and uses of periodic waves, square waves, sawtooth waves; the Gibbs phenomena; the use of sines and cosines as ratios; and the terminology related to sines and cosines (frequency, overtone, octave, intensity, and amplitude).

  8. The dynamic proliferation of CanSINEs mirrors the complex evolution of Feliforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive short interspersed elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons ubiquitous in mammalian genomes and are highly informative markers to identify species and phylogenetic associations. Of these, SINEs unique to the order Carnivora (CanSINEs) yield novel insights on genome evolution in domestic dogs and cats, but less is known about their role in related carnivores. In particular, genome-wide assessment of CanSINE evolution has yet to be completed across the Feliformia (cat-like) suborder of Carnivora. Within Feliformia, the cat family Felidae is composed of 37 species and numerous subspecies organized into eight monophyletic lineages that likely arose 10 million years ago. Using the Felidae family as a reference phylogeny, along with representative taxa from other families of Feliformia, the origin, proliferation and evolution of CanSINEs within the suborder were assessed. Results We identified 93 novel intergenic CanSINE loci in Feliformia. Sequence analyses separated Feliform CanSINEs into two subfamilies, each characterized by distinct RNA polymerase binding motifs and phylogenetic associations. Subfamily I CanSINEs arose early within Feliformia but are no longer under active proliferation. Subfamily II loci are more recent, exclusive to Felidae and show evidence for adaptation to extant RNA polymerase activity. Further, presence/absence distributions of CanSINE loci are largely congruent with taxonomic expectations within Feliformia and the less resolved nodes in the Felidae reference phylogeny present equally ambiguous CanSINE data. SINEs are thought to be nearly impervious to excision from the genome. However, we observed a nearly complete excision of a CanSINEs locus in puma (Puma concolor). In addition, we found that CanSINE proliferation in Felidae frequently targeted existing CanSINE loci for insertion sites, resulting in tandem arrays. Conclusions We demonstrate the existence of at least two SINE families within the Feliformia suborder, one

  9. Isotopic and enzymatic analyses of planktonic nitrogen utilisation in the vicinity of Cape Sines (Portugal) during weak upwelling activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slawyk, Gerd; Coste, Bernard; Collos, Yves; Rodier, Martine

    1997-01-01

    Using measurements of 15N uptake and activities of nitrate reductase and glutamine synthetase, the utilization of nitrogenous nutrients by microplankton in the Portuguese upwelling area was investigated. During this cruise the euphotic zone of coastal waters was in most cases bisected by a nitracline forming two layers. Total inorganic nitrogen uptake rates (NH 4+ + NO 3-) in the upper mixed and nitrate-impoverished layer ranged from 0.1 to 0.8 nM h -1 and were primarily supported by regenerated (ammonium) nitrogen (62-97%), whereas they varied between 0.9 and 10.4 nM h -1 in the deep nitrate-rich layer and were mainly driven by new (nitrate) nitrogen (52-82%). Depth profiles of Chl a-specific uptake rates for ammonium and nitrate paralleled those of absolute uptake rates, i.e. values of VNH 4+Chl were highest (up to 16.1 nmol μg -1 h -1) in nitrate-poor surface waters while values of VNO 3-Chl were maximum (up to 8.4 nmol μg -1 h -1)within the nitracline. This latter vertical ordering of planktonic nitrogen nutrition was consistent with an aged upwelling situation. However, applying several indices of cell metabolism and nutritional status, such as 15N uptake/enzyme activity, surge uptake internally controlled uptake, and V maxChl/K t ratios, we were able to demonstrate that the phytoplankton assemblages inhabiting the nutrient-impoverished upper layer still bore the signature of physically mediated nitrogen (nitrate) supply generated by active upwelling that had occurred during the week before our visit to the area. This signature was the most evident in samples from the station furthest inshore and faded with distance from shore as a result of the deepening of the nitrate isopleths (weakening of upwelling activity), which showed the same offshore trend. The appearance of nitrate-rich waters at the surface, after a strong pulse of upwelling favourable winds just before the end of the cruise, led to a five-fold increase in average (over the euphotic zone

  10. Universal precision sine bar attachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D. (Inventor)

    1989-01-01

    This invention relates to an attachment for a sine bar which can be used to perform measurements during lathe operations or other types of machining operations. The attachment can be used for setting precision angles on vises, dividing heads, rotary tables and angle plates. It can also be used in the inspection of machined parts, when close tolerances are required, and in the layout of precision hardware. The novelty of the invention is believed to reside in a specific versatile sine bar attachment for measuring a variety of angles on a number of different types of equipment.

  11. Generalized sine-Gordon solitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, C dos; Rubiera-Garcia, D

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we construct analytical self-dual soliton solutions in (1+1) dimensions for two families of models which can be seen as generalizations of the sine-Gordon system but where the kinetic term is non-canonical. For that purpose we use a projection method applied to the sine-Gordon soliton. We focus our attention on the wall and lump-like soliton solutions of these k-field models. These solutions and their potentials reduce to those of the Klein-Gordon kink and the standard lump for the case of a canonical kinetic term. As we increase the nonlinearity on the kinetic term the corresponding potentials get modified and the nature of the soliton may change, in particular, undergoing a topology modification. The procedure constructed here is shown to be a sort of generalization of the deformation method for a specific class of k-field models. (paper)

  12. Exact solutions to sine-Gordon-type equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shikuo; Fu Zuntao; Liu Shida

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, sine-Gordon-type equations, including single sine-Gordon equation, double sine-Gordon equation and triple sine-Gordon equation, are systematically solved by Jacobi elliptic function expansion method. It is shown that different transformations for these three sine-Gordon-type equations play different roles in obtaining exact solutions, some transformations may not work for a specific sine-Gordon equation, while work for other sine-Gordon equations

  13. Unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearlman, J T; Saxton, J; Hoffman, G

    1976-05-01

    A patient presented with unilateral findings of night blindness shown by impaired rod function and dark adaptation, constricted visual fields with good central acuity, a barely recordable electro-retinographic b-wave, and a unilaterally impaired electro-oculogram. There were none of the pigmentary changes usually associated with retinitis pigmentosa. The unaffected right eye was normal in all respects. Therefore the case is most probably one of unilateral retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

  14. Genome-wide mapping of infection-induced SINE RNAs reveals a role in selective mRNA export.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karijolich, John; Zhao, Yang; Alla, Ravi; Glaunsinger, Britt

    2017-06-02

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from endogenous RNA Polymerase III RNAs. Though SINE elements have undergone exaptation into gene regulatory elements, how transcribed SINE RNA impacts transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation is largely unknown. This is partly due to a lack of information regarding which of the loci have transcriptional potential. Here, we present an approach (short interspersed nuclear element sequencing, SINE-seq), which selectively profiles RNA Polymerase III-derived SINE RNA, thereby identifying transcriptionally active SINE loci. Applying SINE-seq to monitor murine B2 SINE expression during a gammaherpesvirus infection revealed transcription from 28 270 SINE loci, with ∼50% of active SINE elements residing within annotated RNA Polymerase II loci. Furthermore, B2 RNA can form intermolecular RNA-RNA interactions with complementary mRNAs, leading to nuclear retention of the targeted mRNA via a mechanism involving p54nrb. These findings illuminate a pathway for the selective regulation of mRNA export during stress via retrotransposon activation. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  15. PCR-based approach to SINE isolation: simple and complex SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, Olga R; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2005-04-11

    Highly repeated copies of short interspersed elements (SINEs) occur in eukaryotic genomes. The distribution of each SINE family is usually restricted to some genera, families, or orders. SINEs have an RNA polymerase III internal promoter, which is composed of boxes A and B. Here we propose a method for isolation of novel SINE families based on genomic DNA PCR with oligonucleotide identical to box A as a primer. Cloning of the size-heterogeneous PCR-products and sequencing of their terminal regions allow determination of SINE structure. Using this approach, two novel SINE families, Rhin-1 and Das-1, from the genomes of great horseshoe bat (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum) and nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus), respectively, were isolated and studied. The distribution of Rhin-1 is restricted to two of six bat families tested. Copies of this SINE are characterized by frequent internal insertions and significant length (200-270 bp). Das-1 being only 90 bp in length is one of the shortest SINEs known. Most of Das-1 nucleotide sequences demonstrate significant similarity to alanine tRNA which appears to be an evolutionary progenitor of this SINE. Together with three other known SINEs (ID, Vic-1, and CYN), Das-1 constitutes a group of simple SINEs. Interestingly, three SINE families of this group are alanine tRNA-derived. Most probably, this tRNA gave rise to short and simple but successful SINEs several times during mammalian evolution.

  16. Novel SINEs families in Medicago truncatula and Lotus japonicus: bioinformatic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadzalski, Marek; Sakowicz, Tomasz

    2011-07-01

    Although short interspersed elements (SINEs) were discovered nearly 30 years ago, the studies of these genomic repeats were mostly limited to animal genomes. Very little is known about SINEs in legumes--one of the most important plant families. Here we report identification, genomic distribution and molecular features of six novel SINE elements in Lotus japonicus (named LJ_SINE-1, -2, -3) and Medicago truncatula (MT_SINE-1, -2, -3), model species of legume. They possess all the structural features commonly found in short interspersed elements including RNA polymerase III promoter, polyA tail and flanking repeats. SINEs described here are present in low to moderate copy numbers from 150 to 3000. Bioinformatic analyses were used to searched public databases, we have shown that three of new SINE elements from M. truncatula seem to be characteristic of Medicago and Trifolium genera. Two SINE families have been found in L. japonicus and one is present in both M. truncatula and L. japonicus. In addition, we are discussing potential activities of the described elements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Enhancer SINEs Link Pol III to Pol II Transcription in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Policarpi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression depends on the cooperation of multiple mechanisms, including the functional interaction of promoters with distally located enhancers. Here, we show that, in cortical neurons, a subset of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs located in the proximity of activity-regulated genes bears features of enhancers. Enhancer SINEs (eSINEs recruit the Pol III cofactor complex TFIIIC in a stimulus-dependent manner and are transcribed by Pol III in response to neuronal depolarization. Characterization of an eSINE located in proximity to the Fos gene (FosRSINE1 indicated that the FosRSINE1-encoded transcript interacts with Pol II at the Fos promoter and mediates Fos relocation to Pol II factories, providing an unprecedented molecular link between Pol III and Pol II transcription. Strikingly, knockdown of the FosRSINE1 transcript induces defects of both cortical radial migration in vivo and activity-dependent dendritogenesis in vitro, demonstrating that FosRSINE1 acts as a strong enhancer of Fos expression in diverse physiological contexts. : Spatiotemporal regulation of gene expression requires the interaction between promoters and distally located enhancers. Policarpi et al. identify a subset of SINEs that functions as enhancers for activity-dependent neuronal genes. The enhancer SINE FosRSINE1 regulates Fos transcription and is necessary for both activity-dependent dendritogenesis and proper brain development. Keywords: neuroscience, epigenetics, transcription, enhancers, SINEs, neuronal activity, neuronal development

  18. Evolutionary modes of emergence of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Anja; Schmidt, Thomas; Wenke, Torsten

    2017-11-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous transposable elements which are propagated by retrotransposition and constitute an inherent part of the genome of most eukaryotic species. Knowledge of heterogeneous and highly abundant SINEs is crucial for de novo (or improvement of) annotation of whole genome sequences. We scanned Poaceae genome sequences of six important cereals (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and Brachypodium distachyon to examine the diversity and evolution of SINE populations. We comparatively analyzed the structural features, distribution, evolutionary relation and abundance of 32 SINE families and subfamilies within grasses, comprising 11 052 individual copies. The investigation of activity profiles within the Poaceae provides insights into their species-specific diversification and amplification. We found that Poaceae SINEs (PoaS) fall into two length categories: simple SINEs of up to 180 bp and dimeric SINEs larger than 240 bp. Detailed analysis at the nucleotide level revealed that multimerization of related and unrelated SINE copies is an important evolutionary mechanism of SINE formation. We conclude that PoaS families diversify by massive reshuffling between SINE families, likely caused by insertion of truncated copies, and provide a model for this evolutionary scenario. Twenty-eight of 32 PoaS families and subfamilies show significant conservation, in particular either in the 5' or 3' regions, across Poaceae species and share large sequence stretches with one or more other PoaS families. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Mass renormalization in sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Bowei; Zhang Yumei

    1991-09-01

    With a general gaussian wave functional, we investigate the mass renormalization in the sine-Gordon model. At the phase transition point, the sine-Gordon system tends to a system of massless free bosons which possesses conformal symmetry. (author). 8 refs, 1 fig

  20. Scaling in the sine-Gordon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Abraham, S.I.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that both the classical and the quantum sine-Gordon theory depend on a single scaling parameter and therefore the coupling constant cannot be freely chosen. To introduce a meaningful coupling constant it is proposed to include higher Fourier terms in the sine-Gordon potential. The two term case is exactly solvable. (Auth.)

  1. Evolutionary applications of MIRs and SINEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, F; Crawford, A; Strobeck, C; Palsboll, P; Plante, Y

    It is believed that short interspersed elements (SINEs) are irreversibly inserted into genomes. We use this concept to try to deduce the evolution of whales using sequence and hybridization studies. The observation that microsatellites are associated with SINEs lead us to screen sequences

  2. Gauge symmetry of Sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen Jian-Min; Li Kang; Sheng Zhengmao.

    1993-03-01

    We have found that the strong coupled interaction of Sine-Gordon model is related to its weak coupled interaction by the su(2) gauge transformation. We therefore develop a semi-classical approach to deal with the infrared divergence in the conventional perturbation theory of the Hamiltonian of the quantum Sine-Gordon model. (author). 10 refs

  3. Conversion Between Sine Wave and Square Wave Spatial Frequency Response of an Imaging System

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nill, Norman B

    2001-01-01

    ...), is a primary image quality metric that is commonly measured with a sine wave target. The FBI certification program for commercial fingerprint capture devices, which MITRE actively supports, has an MTF requirement...

  4. V-SINEs: A New Superfamily of Vertebrate SINEs That Are Widespread in Vertebrate Genomes and Retain a Strongly Conserved Segment within Each Repetitive Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogiwara, Ikuo; Miya, Masaki; Ohshima, Kazuhiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2002-01-01

    We have identified a new superfamily of vertebrate short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated V-SINEs, that are widespread in fishes and frogs. Each V-SINE includes a central conserved domain preceded by a 5′-end tRNA-related region and followed by a potentially recombinogenic (TG)n tract, with a 3′ tail derived from the 3′ untranslated region (UTR) of the corresponding partner long interspersed repetitive element (LINE) that encodes a functional reverse transcriptase. The central domain is strongly conserved and is even found in SINEs in the lamprey genome, suggesting that V-SINEs might be ∼550 Myr old or older in view of the timing of divergence of the lamprey lineage from the bony fish lineage. The central conserved domain might have been subject to some form of positive selection. Although the contemporary 3′ tails of V-SINEs differ from one another, it is possible that the original 3′ tail might have been replaced, via recombination, by the 3′ tails of more active partner LINEs, thereby retaining retropositional activity and the ability to survive for long periods on the evolutionary time scale. It seems plausible that V-SINEs may have some function(s) that have been maintained by the coevolution of SINEs and LINEs during the evolution of vertebrates. [The sequences reported in this paper have been deposited in the DDBJ/GenBank database under accession nos. AB072981–AB073004. Supplemental figures are available online at http://www.genome.org.] PMID:11827951

  5. Bioinformatic analysis of Entamoeba histolytica SINE1 elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Butcher Sarah A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Invasive amoebiasis, caused by infection with the human parasite Entamoeba histolytica remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in some less-developed countries. Genetically E. histolytica exhibits a number of unusual features including having approximately 20% of its genome comprised of repetitive elements. These include a number of families of SINEs - non-autonomous elements which can, however, move with the help of partner LINEs. In many eukaryotes SINE mobility has had a profound effect on gene expression; in this study we concentrated on one such element - EhSINE1, looking in particular for evidence of recent transposition. Results EhSINE1s were detected in the newly reassembled E. histolytica genome by searching with a Hidden Markov Model developed to encapsulate the key features of this element; 393 were detected. Examination of their sequences revealed that some had an internal structure showing one to four 26-27 nt repeats. Members of the different classes differ in a number of ways and in particular those with two internal repeats show the properties expected of fairly recently transposed SINEs - they are the most homogeneous in length and sequence, they have the longest (i.e. the least decayed target site duplications and are the most likely to show evidence (in a cDNA library of active transcription. Furthermore we were able to identify 15 EhSINE1s (6 pairs and one triplet which appeared to be identical or very nearly so but inserted into different sites in the genome; these provide good evidence that if mobility has now ceased it has only done so very recently. Conclusions Of the many families of repetitive elements present in the genome of E. histolytica we have examined in detail just one - EhSINE1. We have shown that there is evidence for waves of transposition at different points in the past and no evidence that mobility has entirely ceased. There are many aspects of the biology of this parasite which

  6. Short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs) are excluded from imprinted regions in the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greally, John M

    2002-01-08

    To test whether regions undergoing genomic imprinting have unique genomic characteristics, imprinted and nonimprinted human loci were compared for nucleotide and retroelement composition. Maternally and paternally expressed subgroups of imprinted genes were found to differ in terms of guanine and cytosine, CpG, and retroelement content, indicating a segregation into distinct genomic compartments. Imprinted regions have been normally permissive to L1 long interspersed transposable element retroposition during mammalian evolution but universally and significantly lack short interspersed transposable elements (SINEs). The primate-specific Alu SINEs, as well as the more ancient mammalian-wide interspersed repeat SINEs, are found at significantly low densities in imprinted regions. The latter paleogenomic signature indicates that the sequence characteristics of currently imprinted regions existed before the mammalian radiation. Transitions from imprinted to nonimprinted genomic regions in cis are characterized by a sharp inflection in SINE content, demonstrating that this genomic characteristic can help predict the presence and extent of regions undergoing imprinting. During primate evolution, SINE accumulation in imprinted regions occurred at a decreased rate compared with control loci. The constraint on SINE accumulation in imprinted regions may be mediated by an active selection process. This selection could be because of SINEs attracting and spreading methylation, as has been found at other loci. Methylation-induced silencing could lead to deleterious consequences at imprinted loci, where inactivation of one allele is already established, and expression is often essential for embryonic growth and survival.

  7. Epigenetic regulation of transcription and possible functions of mammalian short interspersed elements, SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ichiyanagi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a class of retrotransposons, which amplify their copy numbers in their host genomes by retrotransposition. More than a million copies of SINEs are present in a mammalian genome, constituting over 10% of the total genomic sequence. In contrast to the other two classes of retrotransposons, long interspersed elements (LINEs) and long terminal repeat (LTR) elements, SINEs are transcribed by RNA polymerase III. However, like LINEs and LTR elements, the SINE transcription is likely regulated by epigenetic mechanisms such as DNA methylation, at least for human Alu and mouse B1. Whereas SINEs and other transposable elements have long been thought as selfish or junk DNA, recent studies have revealed that they play functional roles at their genomic locations, for example, as distal enhancers, chromatin boundaries and binding sites of many transcription factors. These activities imply that SINE retrotransposition has shaped the regulatory network and chromatin landscape of their hosts. Whereas it is thought that the epigenetic mechanisms were originated as a host defense system against proliferation of parasitic elements, this review discusses a possibility that the same mechanisms are also used to regulate the SINE-derived functions.

  8. SINEBase: a database and tool for SINE analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vassetzky, Nikita S; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2013-01-01

    SINEBase (http://sines.eimb.ru) integrates the revisited body of knowledge about short interspersed elements (SINEs). A set of formal definitions concerning SINEs was introduced. All available sequence data were screened through these definitions and the genetic elements misidentified as SINEs were discarded. As a result, 175 SINE families have been recognized in animals, flowering plants and green algae. These families were classified by the modular structure of their nucleotide sequences and the frequencies of different patterns were evaluated. These data formed the basis for the database of SINEs. The SINEBase website can be used in two ways: first, to explore the database of SINE families, and second, to analyse candidate SINE sequences using specifically developed tools. This article presents an overview of the database and the process of SINE identification and analysis.

  9. Functional noncoding sequences derived from SINEs in the mammalian genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishihara, Hidenori; Smit, Arian F A; Okada, Norihiro

    2006-07-01

    Recent comparative analyses of mammalian sequences have revealed that a large number of nonprotein-coding genomic regions are under strong selective constraint. Here, we report that some of these loci have been derived from a newly defined family of ancient SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements). This is a surprising result, as SINEs and other transposable elements are commonly thought to be genomic parasites. We named the ancient SINE family AmnSINE1, for Amniota SINE1, because we found it to be present in mammals as well as in birds, and some copies predate the mammalian-bird split 310 million years ago (Mya). AmnSINE1 has a chimeric structure of a 5S rRNA and a tRNA-derived SINE, and is related to five tRNA-derived SINE families that we characterized here in the coelacanth, dogfish shark, hagfish, and amphioxus genomes. All of the newly described SINE families have a common central domain that is also shared by zebrafish SINE3, and we collectively name them the DeuSINE (Deuterostomia SINE) superfamily. Notably, of the approximately 1000 still identifiable copies of AmnSINE1 in the human genome, 105 correspond to loci phylogenetically highly conserved among mammalian orthologs. The conservation is strongest over the central domain. Thus, AmnSINE1 appears to be the best example of a transposable element of which a significant fraction of the copies have acquired genomic functionality.

  10. Polypteridae (Actinopterygii: Cladistia) and DANA-SINEs insertions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morescalchi, Maria Alessandra; Barucca, Marco; Stingo, Vincenzo; Capriglione, Teresa

    2010-06-01

    SINE sequences are interspersed throughout virtually all eukaryotic genomes and greatly outnumber the other repetitive elements. These sequences are of increasing interest for phylogenetic studies because of their diagnostic power for establishing common ancestry among taxa, once properly characterized. We identified and characterized a peculiar family of composite tRNA-derived short interspersed SINEs, DANA-SINEs, associated with mutational activities in Danio rerio, in a group of species belonging to one of the most basal bony fish families, the Polypteridae, in order to investigate their own inner specific phylogenetic relationships. DANA sequences were identified, sequenced and then localized, by means of fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH), in six Polypteridae species (Polypterus delhezi, P. ornatipinnis, P. palmas, P. buettikoferi P. senegalus and Erpetoichthys calabaricus) After cloning, the sequences obtained were aligned for phylogenetic analysis, comparing them with three Dipnoan lungfish species (Protopterus annectens, P. aethiopicus, Lepidosiren paradoxa), and Lethenteron reissneri (Petromyzontidae)was used as outgroup. The obtained overlapping MP, ML and NJ tree clustered together the species belonging to the two taxonomically different Osteichthyans groups: the Polypteridae, by one side, and the Protopteridae by the other, with the monotypic genus Erpetoichthys more distantly related to the Polypterus genus comprising three distinct groups: P. palmas and P. buettikoferi, P. delhezi and P. ornatipinnis and P. senegalus. In situ hybridization with DANA probes marked along the whole chromosome arms in the metaphases of all the Polypteridae species examined. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. A New Class of SINEs with snRNA Gene-Derived Heads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Kenji K

    2015-05-27

    Eukaryotic genomes are colonized by various transposons including short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 5' region (head) of the majority of SINEs is derived from one of the three types of RNA genes--7SL RNA, transfer RNA (tRNA), or 5S ribosomal RNA (rRNA)--and the internal promoter inside the head promotes the transcription of the entire SINEs. Here I report a new group of SINEs whose heads originate from either the U1 or U2 small nuclear RNA gene. These SINEs, named SINEU, are distributed among crocodilians and classified into three families. The structures of the SINEU-1 subfamilies indicate the recurrent addition of a U1- or U2-derived sequence onto the 5' end of SINEU-1 elements. SINEU-1 and SINEU-3 are ancient and shared among alligators, crocodiles, and gharials, while SINEU-2 is absent in the alligator genome. SINEU-2 is the only SINE family that was active after the split of crocodiles and gharials. All SINEU families, especially SINEU-3, are preferentially inserted into a family of Mariner DNA transposon, Mariner-N4_AMi. A group of Tx1 non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons designated Tx1-Mar also show target preference for Mariner-N4_AMi, indicating that SINEU was mobilized by Tx1-Mar. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. A plastic miniature x-ray emission spectrometer based on the cylindrical von Hamos geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattern, B. A.; Seidler, G. T.; Haave, M.; Pacold, J. I.; Gordon, R. A.; Planillo, J.; Quintana, J.; Rusthoven, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a short working distance miniature x-ray emission spectrometer (miniXES) based on the cylindrical von Hamos geometry. We describe the general design principles for the spectrometer and detail a specific implementation that covers Kβ and valence level emission from Fe. Large spatial and angular access to the sample region provides compatibility with environmental chambers, microprobe, and pump/probe measurements. The primary spectrometer structure and optic is plastic, printed using a 3-dimensional rapid-prototype machine. The spectrometer is inexpensive to construct and is portable; it can be quickly set up at any focused beamline with a tunable narrow bandwidth monochromator. The sample clearance is over 27 mm, providing compatibility with a variety of environment chambers. An overview is also given of the calibration and data processing procedures, which are implemented by a multiplatform user-friendly software package. Finally, representative measurements are presented. Background levels are below the level of the Kβ 2,5 valence emission, the weakest diagram line in the system, and photometric analysis of count rates finds that the instrument is performing at the theoretical limit.

  13. Newly discovered young CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munemasa, Maruo; Nikaido, Masato; Nishihara, Hidenori; Donnellan, Stephen; Austin, Christopher C; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-01-15

    Although recent mammalian genome projects have uncovered a large part of genomic component of various groups, several repetitive sequences still remain to be characterized and classified for particular groups. The short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs) distributed among marsupial genomes are one example. We have identified and characterized two new SINEs from marsupial genomes that belong to the CORE-SINE family, characterized by a highly conserved "CORE" domain. PCR and genomic dot blot analyses revealed that the distribution of each SINE shows distinct patterns among the marsupial genomes, implying different timing of their retroposition during the evolution of marsupials. The members of Mar3 (Marsupialia 3) SINE are distributed throughout the genomes of all marsupials, whereas the Mac1 (Macropodoidea 1) SINE is distributed specifically in the genomes of kangaroos. Sequence alignment of the Mar3 SINEs revealed that they can be further divided into four subgroups, each of which has diagnostic nucleotides. The insertion patterns of each SINE at particular genomic loci, together with the distribution patterns of each SINE, suggest that the Mar3 SINEs have intensively amplified after the radiation of diprotodontians, whereas the Mac1 SINE has amplified only slightly after the divergence of hypsiprimnodons from other macropods. By compiling the information of CORE-SINEs characterized to date, we propose a comprehensive picture of how SINE evolution occurred in the genomes of marsupials.

  14. Gravity localization in sine-Gordon braneworlds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz, W.T.; Maluf, R.V.; Sousa, L.J.S.; Almeida, C.A.S.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we study two types of five-dimensional braneworld models given by sine-Gordon potentials. In both scenarios, the thick brane is generated by a real scalar field coupled to gravity. We focus our investigation on the localization of graviton field and the behaviour of the massive spectrum. In particular, we analyse the localization of massive modes by means of a relative probability method in a Quantum Mechanics context. Initially, considering a scalar field sine-Gordon potential, we find a localized state to the graviton at zero mode. However, when we consider a double sine-Gordon potential, the brane structure is changed allowing the existence of massive resonant states. The new results show how the existence of an internal structure can aid in the emergence of massive resonant modes on the brane.

  15. Carnivore-specific SINEs (Can-SINEs): distribution, evolution, and genomic impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walters-Conte, Kathryn B; Johnson, Diana L E; Allard, Marc W; Pecon-Slattery, Jill

    2011-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are a type of class 1 transposable element (retrotransposon) with features that allow investigators to resolve evolutionary relationships between populations and species while providing insight into genome composition and function. Characterization of a Carnivora-specific SINE family, Can-SINEs, has, has aided comparative genomic studies by providing rare genomic changes, and neutral sequence variants often needed to resolve difficult evolutionary questions. In addition, Can-SINEs constitute a significant source of functional diversity with Carnivora. Publication of the whole-genome sequence of domestic dog, domestic cat, and giant panda serves as a valuable resource in comparative genomic inferences gleaned from Can-SINEs. In anticipation of forthcoming studies bolstered by new genomic data, this review describes the discovery and characterization of Can-SINE motifs as well as describes composition, distribution, and effect on genome function. As the contribution of noncoding sequences to genomic diversity becomes more apparent, SINEs and other transposable elements will play an increasingly large role in mammalian comparative genomics.

  16. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lakkhana Kanhayuwa

    Full Text Available Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  17. Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE) Sequences in the Genome of the Human Pathogenic Fungus Aspergillus fumigatus Af293.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanhayuwa, Lakkhana; Coutts, Robert H A

    2016-01-01

    Novel families of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) sequences in the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, clinical isolate Af293, were identified and categorised into tRNA-related and 5S rRNA-related SINEs. Eight predicted tRNA-related SINE families originating from different tRNAs, and nominated as AfuSINE2 sequences, contained target site duplications of short direct repeat sequences (4-14 bp) flanking the elements, an extended tRNA-unrelated region and typical features of RNA polymerase III promoter sequences. The elements ranged in size from 140-493 bp and were present in low copy number in the genome and five out of eight were actively transcribed. One putative tRNAArg-derived sequence, AfuSINE2-1a possessed a unique feature of repeated trinucleotide ACT residues at its 3'-terminus. This element was similar in sequence to the I-4_AO element found in A. oryzae and an I-1_AF long nuclear interspersed element-like sequence identified in A. fumigatus Af293. Families of 5S rRNA-related SINE sequences, nominated as AfuSINE3, were also identified and their 5'-5S rRNA-related regions show 50-65% and 60-75% similarity to respectively A. fumigatus 5S rRNAs and SINE3-1_AO found in A. oryzae. A. fumigatus Af293 contains five copies of AfuSINE3 sequences ranging in size from 259-343 bp and two out of five AfuSINE3 sequences were actively transcribed. Investigations on AfuSINE distribution in the fungal genome revealed that the elements are enriched in pericentromeric and subtelomeric regions and inserted within gene-rich regions. We also demonstrated that some, but not all, AfuSINE sequences are targeted by host RNA silencing mechanisms. Finally, we demonstrated that infection of the fungus with mycoviruses had no apparent effects on SINE activity.

  18. Electro-mechanical sine/cosine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flagge, B. (Inventor)

    1972-01-01

    An electromechanical device for generating both sine and cosine functions is described. A motor rotates a cylinder about an axis parallel to and a slight distance from the central axis of the cylinder. Two noncontacting displacement sensing devices are placed ninety degrees apart, equal distances from the axis of rotation of the cylinder and short distances above the surface of cylinder. Each of these sensing devices produces an electrical signal proportional to the distance that it is away from the cylinder. Consequently, as the cylinder is rotated the outputs from the two sensing devices are the sine and cosine functions.

  19. Sines and Cosines. Part 3 of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1994-01-01

    In this 'Project Mathematics' series video, the addition formulas of sines and cosines are explained and their real life applications are demonstrated. Both film footage and computer animation is used. Several mathematical concepts are discussed and include: Ptolemy's theorem concerned with quadrilaterals; the difference between a central angle and an inscribed angle; sines and chord lengths; special angles; subtraction formulas; and a application to simple harmonic motion. A brief history of the city Alexandria, its mathematicians, and their contribution to the field of mathematics is shown.

  20. On the supersymmetric sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruby, J.

    1977-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model as the theory of a massless scalar field in one space and one time dimension with interaction Lagrangian density proportional to cosβsub(phi) is generalized for a scalar superfield and it is shown that the solution of the supercovariant sine-Gordon equation is the ''supersoliton'', it is the superfield, which has all ordinary fields in two dimensions as a type of the soliton solution. We also obtain the massive Thirring model and the new equations of motion coupling the Fermi field and the Bose field. The notice about supersymmetric ''SLAC-BAG'' model is done

  1. Sine-Bar Attachment For Machine Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Franklin D.

    1988-01-01

    Sine-bar attachment for collets, spindles, and chucks helps machinists set up quickly for precise angular cuts that require greater precision than provided by graduations of machine tools. Machinist uses attachment to index head, carriage of milling machine or lathe relative to table or turning axis of tool. Attachment accurate to 1 minute or arc depending on length of sine bar and precision of gauge blocks in setup. Attachment installs quickly and easily on almost any type of lathe or mill. Requires no special clamps or fixtures, and eliminates many trial-and-error measurements. More stable than improvised setups and not jarred out of position readily.

  2. Modified sine bar device measures small angles with high accuracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thekaekara, M.

    1968-01-01

    Modified sine bar device measures small angles with enough accuracy to calibrate precision optical autocollimators. The sine bar is a massive bar of steel supported by two cylindrical rods at one end and one at the other.

  3. The sine-Gordon model revisited I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niccoli, G.; Teschner, J.

    2009-10-15

    We study integrable lattice regularizations of the Sine-Gordon model with the help of the Separation of Variables method of Sklyanin and the Baxter Q-operators. This allows us to characterize the spectrum (eigenvalues and eigenstates) completely in terms of polynomial solutions of the Baxter equation with certain properties. This result is analogous to the completeness of the Bethe ansatz. (orig.)

  4. Benjamin Banneker and the Law of Sines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, John F.

    2005-01-01

    Benjamin Banneker, a self-taught mathematician, surveyor and astronomer published annual almanacs containing his astronomical observations and predictions. Banneker who also used logarithms to apply the Law of Sines believed that the method used to solve a mathematical problem depends on the tools available.

  5. Oscillating and rotating sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1986-01-01

    The interaction between a 2π kink and the background or vacuum is investigated in the pure sine-Gordon system. For an oscillating background (i.e., the k=0 part of the phonon spectrum) the 2π kink oscillates, while for increasing or decreasing vacuum two phenomena have been observed, depending...

  6. SINE_scan: an efficient tool to discover short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in large-scale genomic datasets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongliang; Wang, Hao

    2017-03-01

    Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs) are transposable elements (TEs) that amplify through a copy-and-paste mode via RNA intermediates. The computational identification of new SINEs are challenging because of their weak structural signals and rapid diversification in sequences. Here we report SINE_Scan, a highly efficient program to predict SINE elements in genomic DNA sequences. SINE_Scan integrates hallmark of SINE transposition, copy number and structural signals to identify a SINE element. SINE_Scan outperforms the previously published de novo SINE discovery program. It shows high sensitivity and specificity in 19 plant and animal genome assemblies, of which sizes vary from 120 Mb to 3.5 Gb. It identifies numerous new families and substantially increases the estimation of the abundance of SINEs in these genomes. The code of SINE_Scan is freely available at http://github.com/maohlzj/SINE_Scan , implemented in PERL and supported on Linux. wangh8@fudan.edu.cn. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  7. BoS: a large and diverse family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in Brassica oleracea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyu; Wessler, Susan R

    2005-05-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are nonautonomous non-LTR retrotransposons that populate eukaryotic genomes. Numerous SINE families have been identified in animals, whereas only a few have been described in plants. Here we describe a new family of SINEs, named BoS, that is widespread in Brassicaceae and present at approximately 2000 copies in Brassica oleracea. In addition to sharing a modular structure and target site preference with previously described SINEs, BoS elements have several unusual features. First, the head regions of BoS RNAs can adopt a distinct hairpin-like secondary structure. Second, with 15 distinct subfamilies, BoS represents one of the most diverse SINE families described to date. Third, several of the subfamilies have a mosaic structure that has arisen through the exchange of sequences between existing subfamilies, possibly during retrotransposition. Analysis of BoS subfamilies indicate that they were active during various time periods through the evolution of Brassicaceae and that active elements may still reside in some Brassica species. As such, BoS elements may be a valuable tool as phylogenetic makers for resolving outstanding issues in the evolution of species in the Brassicaceae family.

  8. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of the Geomyoidea superfamily rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogolevsky, Konstantin P; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2006-05-24

    A new short interspersed element (SINE) was isolated from the genome of desert kangaroo rat (Dipodomys deserti) using single-primer PCR. This SINE consists of two monomers: the left monomer (IDL) resembles rodent ID element and other tRNAAla(CGC)-derived SINEs, whereas the right one (Geo) shows no similarity with known SINE sequences. PCR and hybridization analyses demonstrated that IDL-Geo SINE is restricted to the rodent superfamily Geomyoidea (families Geomyidea and Heteromyidea). Isolation and analysis of IDL-Geo from California pocket mouse (Chaetodipus californicus) and Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) revealed some species-specific features of this SINE family. The structure and evolution of known dimeric SINEs are discussed.

  9. CORE-SINEs: eukaryotic short interspersed retroposing elements with common sequence motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, N; Labuda, D

    1999-03-16

    A 65-bp "core" sequence is dispersed in hundreds of thousands copies in the human genome. This sequence was found to constitute the central segment of a group of short interspersed elements (SINEs), referred to as mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, that proliferated before the radiation of placental mammals. Here, we propose that the core identifies an ancient tRNA-like SINE element, which survived in different lineages such as mammals, reptiles, birds, and fish, as well as mollusks, presumably for >550 million years. This element gave rise to a number of sequence families (CORE-SINEs), including mammalian-wide interspersed repeats, whose distinct 3' ends are shared with different families of long interspersed elements (LINEs). The evolutionary success of the generic CORE-SINE element can be related to the recruitment of the internal promoter from highly transcribed host RNA as well as to its capacity to adapt to changing retropositional opportunities by sequence exchange with actively amplifying LINEs. It reinforces the notion that the very existence of SINEs depends on the cohabitation with both LINEs and the host genome.

  10. Dermatomyositis Sine Myositis with Membranoproliferative Glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Bagher Owlia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dermatomyositis (DM is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by involvement of proximal musculature and skin. We report a 52-year-old woman with a 6-year history of dermatomyositis sine myositis, who developed lower extremity edema and proteinuria. Pathological examination of renal biopsy showed membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis. She received steroid, cyclophosphamide, and mycophenolate mofetil. Over the 9 to 10 months after the beginning of treatment, the proteinuria was improved.

  11. Roughening in random sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, M.; Nattermann, T.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the spatial correlations of the optimal solutions of the random sine-Gordon equation as an example of the usefulness of a very simple ansatz relating the Fourier transforms of certain functions of the field Φ to the Fourier transform of the random fields. The dramatic change in the correlations when going from above to below two dimensions is directly attributed to the transfer from dominance of long range fluctuations of the randomness to the dominance of short range fluctuations. (orig.)

  12. Critical boundary sine-Gordon revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasselfield, M.; Lee, Taejin; Semenoff, G.W.; Stamp, P.C.E.

    2006-01-01

    We revisit the exact solution of the two space-time dimensional quantum field theory of a free massless boson with a periodic boundary interaction and self-dual period. We analyze the model by using a mapping to free fermions with a boundary mass term originally suggested in Ref. [J. Polchinski, L. Thorlacius, Phys. Rev. D 50 (1994) 622]. We find that the entire SL (2, C) family of boundary states of a single boson are boundary sine-Gordon states and we derive a simple explicit expression for the boundary state in fermion variables and as a function of sine-Gordon coupling constants. We use this expression to compute the partition function. We observe that the solution of the model has a strong-weak coupling generalization of T-duality. We then examine a class of recently discovered conformal boundary states for compact bosons with radii which are rational numbers times the self-dual radius. These have simple expression in fermion variables. We postulate sine-Gordon-like field theories with discrete gauge symmetries for which they are the appropriate boundary states

  13. On d -Dimensional Lattice (co)sine n -Algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Shao-Kui; Zhang Chun-Hong; Zhao Wei-Zhong; Ding Lu; Liu Peng

    2016-01-01

    We present the (co)sine n-algebra which is indexed by the d-dimensional integer lattice. Due to the associative operators, this generalized (co)sine n-algebra is the higher order Lie algebra for the n even case. The particular cases are the d-dimensional lattice sine 3 and cosine 5-algebras with the special parameter values. We find that the corresponding d-dimensional lattice sine 3 and cosine 5-algebras are the Nambu 3-algebra and higher order Lie algebra, respectively. The limiting case of the d-dimensional lattice (co)sine n-algebra is also discussed. Moreover we construct the super sine n-algebra, which is the super higher order Lie algebra for the n even case. (paper)

  14. Conserved domains and SINE diversity during animal evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Mantovani, Barbara

    2013-10-01

    Eukaryotic genomes harbour a number of mobile genetic elements (MGEs); moving from one genomic location to another, they are known to impact on the host genome. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are well-represented, non-autonomous retroelements and they are likely the most diversified MGEs. In some instances, sequence domains conserved across unrelated SINEs have been identified; remarkably, one of these, called Nin, has been conserved since the Radiata-Bilateria splitting. Here we report on two new domains: Inv, derived from Nin, identified in insects and in deuterostomes, and Pln, restricted to polyneopteran insects. The identification of Inv and Pln sequences allowed us to retrieve new SINEs, two in insects and one in a hemichordate. The diverse structural combination of the different domains in different SINE families, during metazoan evolution, offers a clearer view of SINE diversity and their frequent de novo emergence through module exchange, possibly underlying the high evolutionary success of SINEs. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Consommation de viande de chasse chez les Sereers du Sine (Sénégal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincke, PP.

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of game meat amongst the Sereers of Sine (Senegal. Though climatic and other factors have reduced wildlife's role in the life of Sereer villagers, hunting for food is still practised, especially by younger peuple. Thanks to a field study, this activity is examined and its future envisaged in the context of rural development.

  16. Vacuum instability in the quantum sine-gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogolyubov, N.M.; Izergin, A.G.; Korepin, V.E.

    1985-01-01

    A review is given of papers dealing with regularization of the sine-Gordon model and the construction of the integrable lattice sine-Gordon (LSG) model. The regularization by means of LSG model seems to be much more natural as it is done in terms of initial boson fields entering Hamiltonian which describes relativistic scalar field with essentially nonlinear self-interaction. Changes in physical vacuum due to regularizations of the sine-Gordon model is shown

  17. Sines and Cosines. Part 2 of 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Tom M. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines are introduced and demonstrated in this 'Project Mathematics' series video using both film footage and computer animation. This video deals primarily with the mathematical field of Trigonometry and explains how these laws were developed and their applications. One significant use is geographical and geological surveying. This includes both the triangulation method and the spirit leveling method. With these methods, it is shown how the height of the tallest mountain in the world, Mt. Everest, was determined.

  18. Deterministic tsunami hazard assessment of Sines - Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Wronna, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Tese de mestrado em Ciências Geográficas, apresentada à Universidade de Lisboa, através da Faculdade de Ciências, 2015 Neste trabalho apresenta-se uma abordagem determinística de perigo de tsunamis considerando múltiplas fontes para a cidade costeira de Sines, Portugal. Tsunamis ou maremotos são eventos extremos, energeticamente elevados mas pouco frequentes. Normalmente são geradas por um deslocamento duma grande quantidade de água seja por erupções vulcânicas, colapso de caldeiras, desli...

  19. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Maria A; Janke, Axel; Murchison, Elizabeth P; Ning, Zemin; Hallström, Björn M

    2012-05-06

    The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia), was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species' survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE) retroposons. The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b) that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus) around 14 million years ago. The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome.

  20. A SINE-derived element constitutes a unique modular enhancer for mammalian diencephalic Fgf8.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akiko Nakanishi

    Full Text Available Transposable elements, including short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs, comprise nearly half the mammalian genome. Moreover, they are a major source of conserved non-coding elements (CNEs, which play important functional roles in regulating development-related genes, such as enhancing and silencing, serving for the diversification of morphological and physiological features among species. We previously reported a novel SINE family, AmnSINE1, as part of mammalian-specific CNEs. One AmnSINE1 locus, named AS071, showed an enhancer property in the developing mouse diencephalon. Indeed, AS071 appears to recapitulate the expression of diencephalic fibroblast growth factor 8 (Fgf8. Here we established three independent lines of AS071-transgenic mice and performed detailed expression profiling of AS071-enhanced lacZ in comparison with that of Fgf8 across embryonic stages. We demonstrate that AS071 is a distal enhancer that directs Fgf8 expression in the developing diencephalon. Furthermore, enhancer assays with constructs encoding partially deleted AS071 sequence revealed a unique modular organization in which AS071 contains at least three functionally distinct sub-elements that cooperatively direct the enhancer activity in three diencephalic domains, namely the dorsal midline and the lateral wall of the diencephalon, and the ventral midline of the hypothalamus. Interestingly, the AmnSINE1-derived sub-element was found to specify the enhancer activity to the ventral midline of the hypothalamus. To our knowledge, this is the first discovery of an enhancer element that could be separated into respective sub-elements that determine regional specificity and/or the core enhancing activity. These results potentiate our understanding of the evolution of retroposon-derived cis-regulatory elements as well as the basis for future studies of the molecular mechanism underlying the determination of domain-specificity of an enhancer.

  1. Expansion of CORE-SINEs in the genome of the Tasmanian devil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilsson Maria A

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The genome of the carnivorous marsupial, the Tasmanian devil (Sarcophilus harrisii, Order: Dasyuromorphia, was sequenced in the hopes of finding a cure for or gaining a better understanding of the contagious devil facial tumor disease that is threatening the species’ survival. To better understand the Tasmanian devil genome, we screened it for transposable elements and investigated the dynamics of short interspersed element (SINE retroposons. Results The temporal history of Tasmanian devil SINEs, elucidated using a transposition in transposition analysis, indicates that WSINE1, a CORE-SINE present in around 200,000 copies, is the most recently active element. Moreover, we discovered a new subtype of WSINE1 (WSINE1b that comprises at least 90% of all Tasmanian devil WSINE1s. The frequencies of WSINE1 subtypes differ in the genomes of two of the other Australian marsupial orders. A co-segregation analysis indicated that at least 66 subfamilies of WSINE1 evolved during the evolution of Dasyuromorphia. Using a substitution rate derived from WSINE1 insertions, the ages of the subfamilies were estimated and correlated with a newly established phylogeny of Dasyuromorphia. Phylogenetic analyses and divergence time estimates of mitochondrial genome data indicate a rapid radiation of the Tasmanian devil and the closest relative the quolls (Dasyurus around 14 million years ago. Conclusions The radiation and abundance of CORE-SINEs in marsupial genomes indicates that they may be a major player in the evolution of marsupials. It is evident that the early phases of evolution of the carnivorous marsupial order Dasyuromorphia was characterized by a burst of SINE activity. A correlation between a speciation event and a major burst of retroposon activity is for the first time shown in a marsupial genome.

  2. A novel singular pattern in the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Debin

    2003-01-01

    By the scatter problem and the Backlund transformation of the sine-Gordon equation, we find a novel solution with the singularity of jumping phenomenon, which displays pattern structure similar respectively to soliton, kink, anti-kink and double pole solution with the different choice of the purely imaginary spectrum of the sine-Gordon equation

  3. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Lomdahl, P. S.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results.......The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results....

  4. Stochastically-driven coherence in a sine-Gordon chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero, L.E.; Hasmy, A.; Mata, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    We perform numerical simulations of the dynamical behavior of a sine-Gordon chain in a heat bath. The interaction with the heat bath is simulated by the Langevin formalism. The noise term is uncorrelated in both space and time. We use the Karhunen-Loeve decomposition to study the effective number of degrees of freedom as a function of temperature (i.e., of the noise dispersion). At low temperatures we find a spatially disordered regime, characterized by a high number of degrees of freedom. At a temperature of the order of the soliton rest mass we find a relatively sharp crossover to an ordered regime, characterized by a low number of degrees of freedom. The spatial structure of the modes suggests that the transition is associated to the appearance of thermally activated solitons. We also present an alternative estimate of the effective number of degrees of freedom. (orig.)

  5. Origin and evolution of SINEs in eukaryotic genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerov, D A; Vassetzky, N S

    2011-12-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are one of the two most prolific mobile genomic elements in most of the higher eukaryotes. Although their biology is still not thoroughly understood, unusual life cycle of these simple elements amplified as genomic parasites makes their evolution unique in many ways. In contrast to most genetic elements including other transposons, SINEs emerged de novo many times in evolution from available molecules (for example, tRNA). The involvement of reverse transcription in their amplification cycle, huge number of genomic copies and modular structure allow variation mechanisms in SINEs uncommon or rare in other genetic elements (module exchange between SINE families, dimerization, and so on.). Overall, SINE evolution includes their emergence, progressive optimization and counteraction to the cell's defense against mobile genetic elements.

  6. Novel SINE families from salmons validate Parahucho (Salmonidae) as a distinct genus and give evidence that SINEs can incorporate LINE-related 3'-tails of other SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveev, Vitaliy; Nishihara, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2007-08-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) constitute a group of retroposons propagating in the genome via a mechanism of reverse transcription, in which they depend on the enzymatic machinery of long retroposons (LINEs). Over 70 SINE families have been described to date from the genomes of various eukaryotes. Here, we characterize two novel SINEs from salmons (Actinopterygii: Salmonoidei). The first family, termed SlmI, was shown to be widespread among all genera of the suborder. These SINEs have a tRNA(Leu)-related promoter region at their 5'-end, a unique central conserved domain with a subfamily-specific region, and an end with RSg-1-LINE-derived 3'-terminus preceding the A/T-rich tail. The same LINE-related segment is also shared by two other salmonid SINEs: HpaI and OS-SINE1. The structural peculiarities and overall sequence identity of the SlmI 3'-terminus suggest that it has been acquired from HpaI SINEs but not directly from the partner LINE. This region plays a crucial role in the process of retrotransposition of short interspersed elements, and the case of its SINE-to-SINE transmission is the first recorded to date. Possible scenarios and potential evolutionary implications of the observed interaction between short retroposons are discussed. Apart from the above, we found a copy of the SlmI SINE in the GenBank entry for the blood fluke, Schistosoma japonicum (Trematoda: Strigeiformes) -- a trematode causing one of the most important human helminth infections, with its genome known to host other groups of salmonoid retroposons. In the present article, we suggest our views with regard to possible ways in which such an intensive horizontal transfer of salmonoid retroposons to the schistosomal genome occurs. The second novel SINE family, termed SlmII, originates from one of the SlmI subfamilies, with which it shares the same tRNA-related region, central domain, and a part of RSg-1-derived segment, but has a different 3'-tail of unidentified origin. Its distribution

  7. Ultradiscrete sine-Gordon Equation over Symmetrized Max-Plus Algebra, and Noncommutative Discrete and Ultradiscrete sine-Gordon Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenichi Kondo

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultradiscretization with negative values is a long-standing problem and several attempts have been made to solve it. Among others, we focus on the symmetrized max-plus algebra, with which we ultradiscretize the discrete sine-Gordon equation. Another ultradiscretization of the discrete sine-Gordon equation has already been proposed by previous studies, but the equation and the solutions obtained here are considered to directly correspond to the discrete counterpart. We also propose a noncommutative discrete analogue of the sine-Gordon equation, reveal its relations to other integrable systems including the noncommutative discrete KP equation, and construct multisoliton solutions by a repeated application of Darboux transformations. Moreover, we derive a noncommutative ultradiscrete analogue of the sine-Gordon equation and its 1-soliton and 2-soliton solutions, using the symmetrized max-plus algebra. As a result, we have a complete set of commutative and noncommutative versions of continuous, discrete, and ultradiscrete sine-Gordon equations.

  8. Possible involvement of SINEs in mammalian-specific brain formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takeshi; Nishihara, Hidenori; Hirakawa, Mika; Fujimura, Koji; Tanaka, Mikiko; Kokubo, Nobuhiro; Kimura-Yoshida, Chiharu; Matsuo, Isao; Sumiyama, Kenta; Saitou, Naruya; Shimogori, Tomomi; Okada, Norihiro

    2008-03-18

    Retroposons, such as short interspersed elements (SINEs) and long interspersed elements (LINEs), are the major constituents of higher vertebrate genomes. Although there are many examples of retroposons' acquiring function, none has been implicated in the morphological innovations specific to a certain taxonomic group. We previously characterized a SINE family, AmnSINE1, members of which constitute a part of conserved noncoding elements (CNEs) in mammalian genomes. We proposed that this family acquired genomic functionality or was exapted after retropositioning in a mammalian ancestor. Here we identified 53 new AmnSINE1 loci and refined 124 total loci, two of which were further analyzed. Using a mouse enhancer assay, we demonstrate that one SINE locus, AS071, 178 kbp from the gene FGF8 (fibroblast growth factor 8), is an enhancer that recapitulates FGF8 expression in two regions of the developing forebrain, namely the diencephalon and the hypothalamus. Our gain-of-function analysis revealed that FGF8 expression in the diencephalon controls patterning of thalamic nuclei, which act as a relay center of the neocortex, suggesting a role for FGF8 in mammalian-specific forebrain patterning. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the locus, AS021, 392 kbp from the gene SATB2, controls gene expression in the lateral telencephalon, which is thought to be a signaling center during development. These results suggest important roles for SINEs in the development of the mammalian neuronal network, a part of which was initiated with the exaptation of AmnSINE1 in a common mammalian ancestor.

  9. Comparative evolution history of SINEs in Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica oleracea: evidence for a high rate of SINE loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenoir, A; Pélissier, T; Bousquet-Antonelli, C; Deragon, J M

    2005-01-01

    Brassica oleracea and Arabidopsis thaliana belong to the Brassicaceae(Cruciferae) family and diverged 16 to 19 million years ago. Although the genome size of B. oleracea (approximately 600 million base pairs) is more than four times that of A. thaliana (approximately 130 million base pairs), their gene content is believed to be very similar with more than 85% sequence identity in the coding region. Therefore, this important difference in genome size is likely to reflect a different rate of non-coding DNA accumulation. Transposable elements (TEs) constitute a major fraction of non-coding DNA in plant species. A different rate in TE accumulation between two closely related species can result in significant genome size variations in a short evolutionary period. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retroposons that have invaded the genome of most eukaryote species. Several SINE families are present in B. oleracea and A. thaliana and we found that two of them (called RathE1 and RathE2) are present in both species. In this study, the tempo of evolution of RathE1 and RathE2 SINE families in both species was compared. We observed that most B. oleracea RathE2 SINEs are "young" (close to the consensus sequence) and abundant while elements from this family are more degenerated and much less abundant in A. thaliana. However, the situation is different for the RathE1 SINE family for which the youngest elements are found in A. thaliana. Surprisingly, no SINE was found to occupy the same (orthologous) genomic locus in both species suggesting that either these SINE families were not amplified at a significant rate in the common ancestor of the two species or that older elements were lost and only the recent (lineage-specific) insertions remain. To test this latter hypothesis, loci containing a recently inserted SINE in the A. thaliana col-0 ecotype were selected and characterized in several other A. thaliana ecotypes. In addition to the expected SINE containing

  10. The Perception of "Sine-Wave Speech" by Adults with Developmental Dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, Burton S.; Talcott, Joel B.; Witton, Caroline; Hogg, James D.; Richardson, Alexandra J.; Hansen, Peter C.; Stein, John F.

    2003-01-01

    "Sine-wave speech" sentences contain only four frequency-modulated sine waves, lacking many acoustic cues present in natural speech. Adults with (n=19) and without (n=14) dyslexia were asked to reproduce orally sine-wave utterances in successive trials. Results suggest comprehension of sine-wave sentences is impaired in some adults with…

  11. Bunched soliton states in weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronbech-Jensen, N.; Samuelsen, M.R.; Lomdahl, P.S.; Blackburn, J.A.

    1990-01-01

    The interaction between solitons of two weakly coupled sine-Gordon systems is considered. In particular, the stability of bunched states is investigated, and perturbation results are compared with numerical results

  12. Solutions of the finite type of Sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Guosong

    1998-01-01

    We use the technique of differential geometry to prove that the solutions of finite type of the sine-Gordon equation φ xx - φ yy = sin φ cosφ can be obtained from a system of ordinary differential equations

  13. On the Fresnel sine integral and the convolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kılıçman

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Fresnel sine integral S(x, the Fresnel cosine integral C(x, and the associated functions S+(x, S−(x, C+(x, and C−(x are defined as locally summable functions on the real line. Some convolutions and neutrix convolutions of the Fresnel sine integral and its associated functions with x+r, xr are evaluated.

  14. Virtual sine arm kinematic mount system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Z.; Randall, K.J.

    1997-01-01

    A novel kinematic mount system for a vertical focusing mirror of the soft x-ray spectroscopy beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is described. The system contains three points in a horizontal plane. Each point consists of two horizontal linear precision stages, a spherical ball bearing, and a vertical precision stage. The horizontal linear stages are aligned orthogonally and are conjoined by a spherical ball bearing, supported by the vertical linear stage at each point. The position of each confined horizontal stage is controlled by a motorized micrometer head by spring-loading the flat tip of the micrometer head onto a tooling ball fixing on the carriage of the stage. A virtual sine arm is formed by tilting the upstream horizontal stage down and the two downstream horizontal stages up by a small angle. The fine pitch motion is achieved by adjusting the upstream stage. This supporting structure is extremely steady due to a relatively large span across the supporting points and yields extremely high resolution on the pitch motion. With a one degree tilt and a microstepping motor, the authors achieved a 0.4 nanoradian resolution on the mirror pitch motion

  15. Deciphering mechanisms of drug sensitivity and resistance to Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crochiere, Marsha; Kashyap, Trinayan; Kalid, Ori; Shechter, Sharon; Klebanov, Boris; Senapedis, William; Saint-Martin, Jean-Richard; Landesman, Yosef

    2015-01-01

    Exportin 1 (XPO1) is a well-characterized nuclear export protein whose expression is up-regulated in many types of cancers and functions to transport key tumor suppressor proteins (TSPs) from the nucleus. Karyopharm Therapeutics has developed a series of small-molecule Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds, which have been shown to block XPO1 function both in vitro and in vivo. The drug candidate, selinexor (KPT-330), is currently in Phase-II/IIb clinical trials for treatment of both hematologic and solid tumors. The present study sought to decipher the mechanisms that render cells either sensitive or resistant to treatment with SINE compounds, represented by KPT-185, an early analogue of KPT-330. Using the human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cell line, resistance to SINE was acquired over a period of 10 months of constant incubation with increasing concentration of KPT-185. Cell viability was assayed by MTT. Immunofluorescence was used to compare nuclear export of TSPs. Fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS), quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and immunoblots were used to measure effects on cell cycle, gene expression, and cell death. RNA from naïve and drug treated parental and resistant cells was analyzed by Affymetrix microarrays. Treatment of HT1080 cells with gradually increasing concentrations of SINE resulted in > 100 fold decrease in sensitivity to SINE cytotoxicity. Resistant cells displayed prolonged cell cycle, reduced nuclear accumulation of TSPs, and similar changes in protein expression compared to parental cells, however the magnitude of the protein expression changes were more significant in parental cells. Microarray analyses comparing parental to resistant cells indicate that a number of key signaling pathways were altered in resistant cells including expression changes in genes involved in adhesion, apoptosis, and inflammation. While the patterns of changes in transcription following drug treatment are similar in parental

  16. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) from insectivores. Two classes of mammalian SINEs distinguished by A-rich tail structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, O R; Kramerov, D A

    2001-10-01

    Four tRNA-related SINE families were isolated from the genome of the shrew Sorex araneus (SOR element), mole Mogera robusta (TAL element), and hedgehog Mesechinus dauuricus (ERI-1 and ERI-2 elements). Each of these SINEs families is specific for a single Insectivora family: SOR, for Soricidae (shrews); TAL, for Talpidae (moles and desmans); ERI-1 and ERI-2, for Erinaceidae (hedgehogs). There is a long polypyrimidine region (TC-motif) in TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements located immediately upstream of an A-rich tail with polyadenylation signals (AATAAA) and an RNA polymerase III terminator (T(4-6)) or TCT(3-4)). Ten out of 14 analyzed mammalian tRNA-related SINE families have an A-rich tail similar to that of TAL, ERI-1, and ERI-2 elements. These elements were assigned to class T+. The other four SINEs including SOR element have no polyadenylation signal and transcription terminator in their A-rich tail and were assigned to class T-. Class T+ SINEs occur only in mammals, and most of them have a long polypyrimidine region. Possible models of retroposition of class T+ and T- SINEs are discussed.

  17. Guinea pig ID-like families of SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kass, David H; Schaetz, Brian A; Beitler, Lindsey; Bonney, Kevin M; Jamison, Nicole; Wiesner, Cathy

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies have indicated a paucity of SINEs within the genomes of the guinea pig and nutria, representatives of the Hystricognathi suborder of rodents. More recent work has shown that the guinea pig genome contains a large number of B1 elements, expanding to various levels among different rodents. In this work we utilized A-B PCR and screened GenBank with sequences from isolated clones to identify potentially uncharacterized SINEs within the guinea pig genome, and identified numerous sequences with a high degree of similarity (>92%) specific to the guinea pig. The presence of A-tails and flanking direct repeats associated with these sequences supported the identification of a full-length SINE, with a consensus sequence notably distinct from other rodent SINEs. Although most similar to the ID SINE, it clearly was not derived from the known ID master gene (BC1), hence we refer to this element as guinea pig ID-like (GPIDL). Using the consensus to screen the guinea pig genomic database (Assembly CavPor2) with Ensembl BlastView, we estimated at least 100,000 copies, which contrasts markedly to just over 100 copies of ID elements. Additionally we provided evidence of recent integrations of GPIDL as two of seven analyzed conserved GPIDL-containing loci demonstrated presence/absence variants in Cavia porcellus and C. aperea. Using intra-IDL PCR and sequence analyses we also provide evidence that GPIDL is derived from a hystricognath-specific SINE family. These results demonstrate that this SINE family continues to contribute to the dynamics of genomes of hystricognath rodents.

  18. The RNA polymerase dictates ORF1 requirement and timing of LINE and SINE retrotransposition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily N Kroutter

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Mobile elements comprise close to one half of the mass of the human genome. Only LINE-1 (L1, an autonomous non-Long Terminal Repeat (LTR retrotransposon, and its non-autonomous partners-such as the retropseudogenes, SVA, and the SINE, Alu-are currently active human retroelements. Experimental evidence shows that Alu retrotransposition depends on L1 ORF2 protein, which has led to the presumption that LINEs and SINEs share the same basic insertional mechanism. Our data demonstrate clear differences in the time required to generate insertions between marked Alu and L1 elements. In our tissue culture system, the process of L1 insertion requires close to 48 hours. In contrast to the RNA pol II-driven L1, we find that pol III transcribed elements (Alu, the rodent SINE B2, and the 7SL, U6 and hY sequences can generate inserts within 24 hours or less. Our analyses demonstrate that the observed retrotransposition timing does not dictate insertion rate and is independent of the type of reporter cassette utilized. The additional time requirement by L1 cannot be directly attributed to differences in transcription, transcript length, splicing processes, ORF2 protein production, or the ability of functional ORF2p to reach the nucleus. However, the insertion rate of a marked Alu transcript drastically drops when driven by an RNA pol II promoter (CMV and the retrotransposition timing parallels that of L1. Furthermore, the "pol II Alu transcript" behaves like the processed pseudogenes in our retrotransposition assay, requiring supplementation with L1 ORF1p in addition to ORF2p. We postulate that the observed differences in retrotransposition kinetics of these elements are dictated by the type of RNA polymerase generating the transcript. We present a model that highlights the critical differences of LINE and SINE transcripts that likely define their retrotransposition timing.

  19. L1-mediated retrotransposition of murine B1 and B2 SINEs recapitulated in cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewannieux, Marie; Heidmann, Thierry

    2005-06-03

    SINEs are short interspersed nucleotide elements with transpositional activity, present at a high copy number (up to a million) in mammalian genomes. They are 80-400 bp long, non-coding sequences which derive either from the 7SL RNA (e.g. human Alus, murine B1s) or tRNA (e.g. murine B2s) polymerase III-driven genes. We have previously demonstrated that Alus very efficiently divert the enzymatic machinery of the autonomous L1 LINE (long interspersed nucleotide element) retrotransposons to transpose at a high rate. Here we show, using an ex vivo assay for transposition, that both B1 and B2 SINEs can be mobilized by murine LINEs, with the hallmarks of a bona fide retrotransposition process, including target site duplications of varying lengths and integrations into A-rich sequences. Despite different phylogenetic origins, transposition of the tRNA-derived B2 sequences is as efficient as that of the human Alus, whereas that of B1s is 20-100-fold lower despite a similar high copy number of these elements in the mouse genome. We provide evidence, via an appropriate nucleotide substitution within the B1 sequence in a domain essential for its intracellular targeting, that the current B1 SINEs are not optimal for transposition, a feature most probably selected for the host sake in the course of evolution.

  20. A specific family of interspersed repeats (SINEs facilitates meiotic synapsis in mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Matthew E

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Errors during meiosis that affect synapsis and recombination between homologous chromosomes contribute to aneuploidy and infertility in humans. Despite the clinical relevance of these defects, we know very little about the mechanisms by which homologous chromosomes interact with one another during mammalian meiotic prophase. Further, we remain ignorant of the way in which chromosomal DNA complexes with the meiosis-specific structure that tethers homologs, the synaptonemal complex (SC, and whether specific DNA elements are necessary for this interaction. Results In the present study we utilized chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP and DNA sequencing to demonstrate that the axial elements of the mammalian SC are markedly enriched for a specific family of interspersed repeats, short interspersed elements (SINEs. Further, we refine the role of the repeats to specific sub-families of SINEs, B1 in mouse and AluY in old world monkey (Macaca mulatta. Conclusions Because B1 and AluY elements are the most actively retrotransposing SINEs in mice and rhesus monkeys, respectively, our observations imply that they may serve a dual function in axial element binding; i.e., as the anchoring point for the SC but possibly also as a suppressor/regulator of retrotransposition.

  1. Exact, multiple soliton solutions of the double sine Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burt, P.B.

    1978-01-01

    Exact, particular solutions of the double sine Gordon equation in n dimensional space are constructed. Under certain restrictions these solutions are N solitons, where N <= 2q - 1 and q is the dimensionality of space-time. The method of solution, known as the base equation technique, relates solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations to solutions of linear partial differential equations. This method is reviewed and its applicability to the double sine Gordon equation shown explicitly. The N soliton solutions have the remarkable property that they collapse to a single soliton when the wave vectors are parallel. (author)

  2. Abundant Interaction Solutions of Sine-Gordon Equation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaZhao Lü

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available With the help of computer symbolic computation software (e.g., Maple, abundant interaction solutions of sine-Gordon equation are obtained by means of a constructed Wronskian form expansion method. The method is based upon the forms and structures of Wronskian solutions of sine-Gordon equation, and the functions used in the Wronskian determinants do not satisfy linear partial differential equations. Such interaction solutions are difficultly obtained via other methods. And the method can be automatically carried out in computer.

  3. A note on the three dimensional sine--Gordon equation

    OpenAIRE

    Shariati, Ahmad

    1996-01-01

    Using a simple ansatz for the solutions of the three dimensional generalization of the sine--Gordon and Toda model introduced by Konopelchenko and Rogers, a class of solutions is found by elementary methods. It is also shown that these equations are not evolution equations in the sense that solution to the initial value problem is not unique.

  4. Nonlinear dynamics of a parametrically driven sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Kivshar, Yuri S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1993-01-01

    We consider a sine-Gordon system, driven by an ac parametric force in the presence of loss. It is demonstrated that a breather can be maintained in a steady state at half of the external frequency. In the small-amplitude limit the effect is described by an effective nonlinear Schrodinger equation...

  5. On Darboux transformation of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiq, M; Hassan, M; Saleem, U

    2006-01-01

    Darboux transformation is constructed for superfields of the super sine-Gordon equation and the superfields of the associated linear problem. The Darboux transformation is shown to be related to the super Baecklund transformation and is further used to obtain N super soliton solutions

  6. Phonons and solitons in the "thermal" sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, Mario; Jørgensen, E.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    Standard methods of stochastic processes are used to study the coupling of the sine-Gordon system with a heat reservoir. As a result we find thermal phonons with an average energy of kB T per mode. The translational mode (zero mode) is found to carry an average energy of 1 / 2kBT. This last value...

  7. Experimental Investigation of Trapped Sine-Gordon Solitons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Dueholm, B.; Kryger, B.

    1985-01-01

    We have observed for the first time a single sine-Gordon soliton trapped in an annular Josephson junction. This system offers a unique possibility to study undisturbed soliton motion. In the context of perturbation theory, the soliton may be viewed as a relativistic particle moving under a uniform...

  8. Soliton annihilation in the perturbed sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Welner, D.

    1984-01-01

    Fluxon-antifluxon annihilation in the perturbed sine-Gordon equation with loss and driving terms is investigated. For the infinite line we find a simple analytic expression for the threshold driving term corresponding to annihilation. With the application of the results to a Josephson junction...

  9. Boson-soliton scattering in the sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, M.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the author calculates the boson-soliton scattering amplitudes for various processes in the sine-Gordon model to obtain results in agreement with the prediction of no-particle production and equality of ingoing and outgoing sets of momenta. (Auth.)

  10. Quantum Hall bilayers and the chiral sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naud, J.D.; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Sondhi, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    The edge state theory of a class of symmetric double-layer quantum Hall systems with interlayer electron tunneling reduces to the sum of a free field theory and a field theory of a chiral Bose field with a self-interaction of the sine-Gordon form. We argue that the perturbative renormalization group flow of this chiral sine-Gordon theory is distinct from the standard (non-chiral) sine-Gordon theory, contrary to a previous assertion by Renn, and that the theory is manifestly sensible only at a discrete set of values of the inverse period of the cosine interaction (β-circumflex). We obtain exact solutions for the spectra and correlation functions of the chiral sine-Gordon theory at the two values of β-circumflex at which electron tunneling in bilayers is not irrelevant. Of these, the marginal case (β-circumflex 2 =4) is of greatest interest: the spectrum of the interacting theory is that of two Majorana fermions with different, dynamically generated, velocities. For the experimentally observed bilayer 331 state at filling factor 1/2, this implies the trifurcation of electrons added to the edge. We also present a method for fermionizing the theory at the discrete points (β-circumflex 2 is an element of Z + ) by the introduction of auxiliary degrees of freedom that could prove useful in other problems involving quantum Hall multi-layers

  11. Explicitly solvable complex Chebyshev approximation problems related to sine polynomials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freund, Roland

    1989-01-01

    Explicitly solvable real Chebyshev approximation problems on the unit interval are typically characterized by simple error curves. A similar principle is presented for complex approximation problems with error curves induced by sine polynomials. As an application, some new explicit formulae for complex best approximations are derived.

  12. Prediction and phylogenetic analysis of mammalian short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogozin, I B; Mayorov, V I; Lavrentieva, M V; Milanesi, L; Adkison, L R

    2000-09-01

    The presence of repetitive elements can create serious problems for sequence analysis, especially in the case of homology searches in nucleotide sequence databases. Repetitive elements should be treated carefully by using special programs and databases. In this paper, various aspects of SINE (short interspersed repetitive element) identification, analysis and evolution are discussed.

  13. Perturbation analysis of a parametrically changed sine-Gordon equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakai, S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Olsen, O. H.

    1987-01-01

    A long Josephson junction with a spatially varying inductance is a physical manifestation of a modified sine-Gordon equation with parametric perturbation. Soliton propagation in such Josephson junctions is discussed. First, for an adiabatic model where the inductance changes smoothly compared...

  14. Rotationally symmetric numerical solutions to the sine-Gordon equation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1981-01-01

    We examine numerically the properties of solutions to the spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equation given an initial profile which coincides with the one-dimensional breather solution and refer to such solutions as ring waves. Expanding ring waves either exhibit a return effect or expand towards...

  15. The Sine Method: An Alternative Height Measurement Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg; Lee E. Frelich; Robert T. Leverett; Will Blozan; Dale J. Luthringer

    2011-01-01

    Height is one of the most important dimensions of trees, but few observers are fully aware of the consequences of the misapplication of conventional height measurement techniques. A new approach, the sine method, can improve height measurement by being less sensitive to the requirements of conventional techniques (similar triangles and the tangent method). We studied...

  16. Homoclinic tubes and chaos in perturbed sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Y. Charles

    2004-01-01

    Sine-Gordon equation under a quasi-periodic perturbation or a chaotic perturbation is studied. Existence of a homoclinic tube is proved. Established are chaos associated with the homoclinic tube, and 'chaos cascade' referring to the embeddings of smaller scale chaos in larger scale chaos

  17. The sine-Gordon model in the presence of defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avan, Jean; Doikou, Anastasia

    2013-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model in the presence of dynamical integrable defects is investigated. This is an application of the algebraic formulation introduced for integrable defects in earlier works. The quantities in involution as well as the associated Lax pairs are explicitly extracted. Integrability i also shown using certain sewing constraints, which emerge as suitable continuity conditions.

  18. Ancient Exaptation of a CORE-SINE Retroposon into a Highly Conserved Mammalian Neuronal Enhancer of the Proopiomelanocortin Gene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumaschny, Viviana F; Low, Malcolm J; Rubinstein, Marcelo

    2007-01-01

    The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC) is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5′ distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE) retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution. PMID:17922573

  19. Ancient exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon into a highly conserved mammalian neuronal enhancer of the proopiomelanocortin gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Santangelo

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The proopiomelanocortin gene (POMC is expressed in the pituitary gland and the ventral hypothalamus of all jawed vertebrates, producing several bioactive peptides that function as peripheral hormones or central neuropeptides, respectively. We have recently determined that mouse and human POMC expression in the hypothalamus is conferred by the action of two 5' distal and unrelated enhancers, nPE1 and nPE2. To investigate the evolutionary origin of the neuronal enhancer nPE2, we searched available vertebrate genome databases and determined that nPE2 is a highly conserved element in placentals, marsupials, and monotremes, whereas it is absent in nonmammalian vertebrates. Following an in silico paleogenomic strategy based on genome-wide searches for paralog sequences, we discovered that opossum and wallaby nPE2 sequences are highly similar to members of the superfamily of CORE-short interspersed nucleotide element (SINE retroposons, in particular to MAR1 retroposons that are widely present in marsupial genomes. Thus, the neuronal enhancer nPE2 originated from the exaptation of a CORE-SINE retroposon in the lineage leading to mammals and remained under purifying selection in all mammalian orders for the last 170 million years. Expression studies performed in transgenic mice showed that two nonadjacent nPE2 subregions are essential to drive reporter gene expression into POMC hypothalamic neurons, providing the first functional example of an exapted enhancer derived from an ancient CORE-SINE retroposon. In addition, we found that this CORE-SINE family of retroposons is likely to still be active in American and Australian marsupial genomes and that several highly conserved exonic, intronic and intergenic sequences in the human genome originated from the exaptation of CORE-SINE retroposons. Together, our results provide clear evidence of the functional novelties that transposed elements contributed to their host genomes throughout evolution.

  20. Renormalization of the Sine-Gordon model and nonconservation of the kink current

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K.; Polonyi, J.

    1991-01-01

    The authors of this paper renormalize the (1 + 1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model by placing it on a Euclidean lattice, and study the renormalization group flow. The authors start with a compactified theory with controllable vortex activity. In the continuum limit the theory has a phase in which the kink current is anomalous, with divergence given by the vortex density. The phase structure is quite complicated. Roughly speaking, the system is normal for small coupling T. At the Kosterlitz-Thouless point T = π/2, the current can become anomalous. At the Coleman point T = 8π either the current becomes anomalous or the theory becomes trivial

  1. Development of sine/cosine coil based on cross-section modulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harada, Takahiro; Kondoh, Junji; Tsuji-Iio, Shunji; Shimada, Ryuichi

    1996-01-01

    New type sine and cosine coils whose areas of cross sections vary as sine and cosine are proposed. The measurements of current position by the new coils showed their availability. Traditional sine or cosine coil is wound with a pitch which varies as sine or cosine. However these coils have a problem of manufacturing, i.e. it is not easy to wind wire exactly with a pitch of sine or cosine. This new modulation, i.e. varying cross section, provides handy and accurate measurements of the current position. (author)

  2. Identification and insertion polymorphisms of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in Brassica genomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nouroz, F.; Naveed, M.

    2018-01-01

    The non-LTR retrotransposons (retroposons) are abundant in plant genomes including members of Brassicaceae. Of the retroposons, long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) are more copious followed by short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in sequenced eukaryotic genomes. The SINEs are short elements and ranged from 100-500 bps flanked by variable sized target site duplications, 5' tRNA region with polymerase III promoter, internal tRNA unrelated region, 3' LINEs derived region and a poly adenosine tail. Different computational approaches were used for the identification and characterization of SINEs, while PCR was used to detect the SINEs insertion polymorphisms in various Brassica genotypes. Ten previously unidentified families of SINEs were identified and characterized from Brassica genomes. The structural features of these SINEs were studied in detail, which showed typical SINE features displaying small sizes, target site duplications, head regions, internal regions (body) of variable sizes and a poly (A) tail at the 3' terminus. The elements from various families ranged from 206-558 bp, where BoSINE2 family displayed smallest SINE element (206 bp), while larger members belonged to BoSINE9 family (524-558 bp). The distribution and abundance of SINEs in various Brassica species and genotypes (40) at a particular site/locus were investigated by SINEs based PCR markers. Various SINE insertion polymorphisms were detected from different genotypes, where higher PCR bands amplified the SINE insertions, while lower bands amplified the pre-insertion sites (flanking regions). The analysis of Brassica SINEs copy numbers from 10 identified families revealed that around 860 and 1712 copies of SINEs were calculated from B. rapa and B. oleracea Whole-genome shotgun contigs (WGS) respectively. Analysis of insertion sites of Brassica SINEs revealed that the members from all 10 SINE families had shown an insertion preference in AT rich regions. The present

  3. SINE transcription by RNA polymerase III is suppressed by histone methylation but not by DNA methylation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varshney, Dhaval; Vavrova-Anderson, Jana; Oler, Andrew J.; Cowling, Victoria H.; Cairns, Bradley R.; White, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs), such as Alu, spread by retrotransposition, which requires their transcripts to be copied into DNA and then inserted into new chromosomal sites. This can lead to genetic damage through insertional mutagenesis and chromosomal rearrangements between non-allelic SINEs at distinct loci. SINE DNA is heavily methylated and this was thought to suppress its accessibility and transcription, thereby protecting against retrotransposition. Here we provide several lines of evidence that methylated SINE DNA is occupied by RNA polymerase III, including the use of high-throughput bisulphite sequencing of ChIP DNA. We find that loss of DNA methylation has little effect on accessibility of SINEs to transcription machinery or their expression in vivo. In contrast, a histone methyltransferase inhibitor selectively promotes SINE expression and occupancy by RNA polymerase III. The data suggest that methylation of histones rather than DNA plays a dominant role in suppressing SINE transcription. PMID:25798578

  4. Advanced Sine Wave Modulation of Continuous Wave Laser System for Atmospheric CO2 Differential Absorption Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F.; Lin, Bing; Nehrir, Amin R.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with ITT Exelis have been experimenting with Continuous Wave (CW) laser absorption spectrometer (LAS) as a means of performing atmospheric CO2 column measurements from space to support the Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission.Because range resolving Intensity Modulated (IM) CW lidar techniques presented here rely on matched filter correlations, autocorrelation properties without side lobes or other artifacts are highly desirable since the autocorrelation function is critical for the measurements of lidar return powers, laser path lengths, and CO2 column amounts. In this paper modulation techniques are investigated that improve autocorrelation properties. The modulation techniques investigated in this paper include sine waves modulated by maximum length (ML) sequences in various hardware configurations. A CW lidar system using sine waves modulated by ML pseudo random noise codes is described, which uses a time shifting approach to separate channels and make multiple, simultaneous online/offline differential absorption measurements. Unlike the pure ML sequence, this technique is useful in hardware that is band pass filtered as the IM sine wave carrier shifts the main power band. Both amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (PSK) modulated IM carriers are investigated that exibit perfect autocorrelation properties down to one cycle per code bit. In addition, a method is presented to bandwidth limit the ML sequence based on a Gaussian filter implemented in terms of Jacobi theta functions that does not seriously degrade the resolution or introduce side lobes as a means of reducing aliasing and IM carrier bandwidth.

  5. Sine-Gordon breather form factors and quantum field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babujian, H; Karowski, M

    2002-01-01

    Using the results of previous investigations on sine-Gordon form factors, exact expressions of all breather matrix elements are obtained for several operators: all powers of the fundamental Bose field, general exponentials of it, the energy-momentum tensor and all higher currents. Formulae for the asymptotic behaviour of bosonic form factors are presented which are motivated by Weinberg's power counting theorem in perturbation theory. It is found that the quantum sine-Gordon field equation holds, and an exact relation between the 'bare' mass and the renormalized mass is obtained. Also a quantum version of a classical relation for the trace of the energy-momentum is proved. The eigenvalue problem for all higher conserved charges is solved. All results are compared with perturbative Feynman graph expansions and full agreement is found

  6. Invariant solutions of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grundland, A M; Hariton, A J; Snobl, L

    2009-01-01

    A comprehensive symmetry analysis of the N=1 supersymmetric sine-Gordon equation is performed. Two different forms of the supersymmetric system are considered. We begin by studying a system of partial differential equations corresponding to the coefficients of the various powers of the anticommuting independent variables. Next, we consider the super-sine-Gordon equation expressed in terms of a bosonic superfield involving anticommuting independent variables. In each case, a Lie (super)algebra of symmetries is determined and a classification of all subgroups having generic orbits of codimension 1 in the space of independent variables is performed. The method of symmetry reduction is systematically applied in order to derive invariant solutions of the supersymmetric model. Several types of algebraic, hyperbolic and doubly periodic solutions are obtained in explicit form.

  7. Light-front quantization of the sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkardt, M.

    1993-01-01

    It is shown how to modify the canonical light-front quantization of the (1+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon model such that the zero-mode problem of light-front quantization is avoided. The canonical sine-Gordon Lagrangian is replaced by an effective Lagrangian which does not lead to divergences as k + =(k 0 +k 1 )/ √2 →0. After canonically quantizing the effective Lagrangian, one obtains the effective light-front Hamiltonian which agrees with the naive light-front (LF) Hamiltonian, up to one additional renormalization. The spectrum of the effective LF Hamiltonian is determined using discrete light-cone quantization and agrees with results from equal-time quantization

  8. Thermodynamic Bethe ansatz for boundary sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Taejun; Rim, Chaiho

    2003-01-01

    (R-channel) TBA is elaborated to find the effective central charge dependence on the boundary parameters for the massless boundary sine-Gordon model with the coupling constant (8π)/β 2 =1+λ with λ a positive integer. Numerical analysis of the massless boundary TBA demonstrates that at an appropriate boundary parameter range (cusp point) there exists a singularity crossing phenomena and this effect should be included in TBA to have the right behavior of the effective central charge

  9. Exact solutions to some modified sine-Gordon equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saermark, K.

    1983-01-01

    Exact, translational solutions to a number of modified sine-Gordon equations are presented. In deriving the equations and the solutions use is made of results from the theory of ordinary differential equations without moving critical points as given by Ince. It is found that kink-like solutions exist also in cases where the coefficients of the trigonometric terms are space- and time-dependent. (Auth.)

  10. Comparison of sine dwell and broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of modal tests for large complex spacecraft structural systems are outlined. The comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods, are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantage or disadvantage of each method is examined. The usefulness or shortcomings of the methods are given from a practical engineering viewpoint.

  11. On sine dwell or broadband methods for modal testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jay-Chung; Wada, Ben K.

    1987-01-01

    For large, complex spacecraft structural systems, the objectives of the modal test are outlined. Based on these objectives, the comparison criteria for the modal test methods, namely, the broadband excitation and the sine dwell methods are established. Using the Galileo spacecraft modal test and the Centaur G Prime upper stage vehicle modal test as examples, the relative advantages or disadvantages of each method are examined. The usefulness or shortcoming of the methods are given from a practicing engineer's view point.

  12. COMPETITIVENESS OF THE PORT OF SINES: THE RBV CONTRIBUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Azevedo, Susana; Ferreira, João

    2008-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to analyze the competitiveness of the main maritime Port sited in Portugal - Port of Sines. This paper is developed under the Resource-based view approach. A literature review about the Resource-based view is presented with a special highlight on the contribution of organizations owns’ resources to the competitiveness. With this paper we intend to emphasize the applicability of a management theory to a different type of organizations which only recently st...

  13. Retinal detachment and retinal holes in retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaky, K; Olk, R J; Mahl, C F; Bloom, S M

    1991-01-01

    Retinal detachment and retinal holes in two family members with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento are reported. We believe these are the first such cases reported in the literature. We describe the presenting symptoms and management, including cryotherapy, scleral buckling procedure, and sulfur hexafluoride injection (SF6), resulting in stable visual acuity in one case and retinal reattachment and improved visual acuity in the other case.

  14. Multifocal amelanotic conjunctival melanoma and acquired melanosis sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paridaens, A D; McCartney, A C; Hungerford, J L

    1992-03-01

    Clinical and histopathological features of four cases of multifocal amelanotic malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva in association with 'acquired melanosis sine pigmento' are reported. The absence of conjunctival pigmentation in this extremely rare combination of lesions prevented early diagnosis and clinical monitoring. As a result orbital exenteration was required in three cases. This multicentric non-pigmented variety of conjunctival malignant melanoma tends to present later than pigmented forms and may require exenteration of the orbit as a primary procedure.

  15. The elliptic sine-Gordon equation in a half plane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelloni, B; Pinotsis, D A

    2010-01-01

    We consider boundary value problems for the elliptic sine-Gordon equation posed in the half plane y > 0. This problem was considered in Gutshabash and Lipovskii (1994 J. Math. Sci. 68 197–201) using the classical inverse scattering transform approach. Given the limitations of this approach, the results obtained rely on a nonlinear constraint on the spectral data derived heuristically by analogy with the linearized case. We revisit the analysis of such problems using a recent generalization of the inverse scattering transform known as the Fokas method, and show that the nonlinear constraint of Gutshabash and Lipovskii (1994 J. Math. Sci. 68 197–201) is a consequence of the so-called global relation. We also show that this relation implies a stronger constraint on the spectral data, and in particular that no choice of boundary conditions can be associated with a decaying (possibly mod 2π) solution analogous to the pure soliton solutions of the usual, time-dependent sine-Gordon equation. We also briefly indicate how, in contrast to the evolutionary case, the elliptic sine-Gordon equation posed in the half plane does not admit linearisable boundary conditions

  16. [Non-LTR retrotransposons: LINEs and SINEs in plant genome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xu-Dong; Ling, Hong-Qing

    2006-06-01

    Retrotransposons are one of the drivers of genome evolution. They include LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposons, which widespread in Eukaryotagenomes, show structural similarity to retroviruses. Non-LTR retrotransposons were first discovered in animal genomes and then identified as ubiquitous components of nuclear genomes in many species across the plant kingdom. They constitute a large fraction of the repetitive DNA. Non-LTR retrotransposons are divided into LINEs (long interspersed nuclear elements) and SINEs (short interspersed nuclear elements). Transposition of non-LTR retrotransposons is rarely observed in plants indicating that most of them are inactive and/or under regulation of the host genome. Transposition is poorly understood, but experimental evidence from other genetic systems shows that LINEs are able to transpose autonomously while non-autonomous SINEs depend on the reverse transcription machinery of other retrotransposons. Phylogenic analysis shows LINEs are probably the most ancient class of retrotransposons in plant genomes, while the origin of SINEs is unknown. This review sums up the above data and wants to show readers a clear picture of non-LTR retrotransposons.

  17. An integrable noncommutative version of the sine-Gordon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grisaru, Marcus T.; Penati, Silvia

    2003-01-01

    Using the bicomplex approach we discuss an integrable noncommutative system in two-dimensional Euclidean space. It is described by an equation of motion which reduces to the ordinary sine-Gordon equation when the noncommutation parameter is removed, plus a constraint equation which is nontrivial only in the noncommutative case. The implications of this constraint, which is required by integrability but seems to reduce the space of classical solutions, remain to be understood. We show that the system has an infinite number of conserved currents and we give the general recursive relation for constructing them. For the particular cases of lower spin nontrivial currents we work out the explicit expressions and perform a direct check of their conservation. These currents reduce to the usual sine-Gordon currents in the commutative limit. We find classical 'localized' solutions to first order in the noncommutativity parameter and describe the Backlund transformations for our system. Finally, we comment on the relation of our noncommutative system to the commutative sine-Gordon system

  18. LINEs, SINEs and other retroelements: do birds of a feather flock together?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy-Engel, Astrid M

    2012-01-01

    Mobile elements account for almost half of the mass of the human genome. Only the retroelements from the non-LTR (long terminal repeat) retrotransposon family, which include the LINE-1 (L1) and its non-autonomous partners, are currently active and contributing to new insertions. Although these elements seem to share the same basic amplification mechanism, the activity and success of the different types of retroelements varies. For example, Alu-induced mutagenesis is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human disease induced by insertion of retroelements. Using copy number in mammals as an indicator, some SINEs have been vastly more successful than other retroelements, such as the retropseudogenes and even L1, likely due to differences in post-insertion selection and ability to overcome cellular controls. SINE and LINE integration can be differentially influenced by cellular factors, indicating some differences between in their amplification mechanisms. We focus on the known aspects of this group of retroelements and highlight their similarities and differences that may significantly influence their biological impact.

  19. The complex sine-Gordon model on a half line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tzamtzis, Georgios

    2003-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the complex sine-Gordon model on a half line. The model in the bulk is an integrable (1+1) dimensional field theory which is U(1) gauge invariant and comprises a generalisation of the sine-Gordon theory. It accepts soliton and breather solutions. By introducing suitably selected boundary conditions we may consider the model on a half line. Through such conditions the model can be shown to remain integrable and various aspects of the boundary theory can be examined. The first chapter serves as a brief introduction to some basic concepts of integrability and soliton solutions. As an example of an integrable system with soliton solutions, the sine-Gordon model is presented both in the bulk and on a half line. These results will serve as a useful guide for the model at hand. The introduction finishes with a brief overview of the two methods that will be used on the fourth chapter in order to obtain the quantum spectrum of the boundary complex sine-Gordon model. In the second chapter the model is properly introduced along with a brief literature review. Different realisations of the model and their connexions are discussed. The vacuum of the theory is investigated. Soliton solutions are given and a discussion on the existence of breathers follows. Finally the collapse of breather solutions to single solitons is demonstrated and the chapter concludes with a different approach to the breather problem. In the third chapter, we construct the lowest conserved currents and through them we find suitable boundary conditions that allow for their conservation in the presence of a boundary. The boundary term is added to the Lagrangian and the vacuum is reexamined in the half line case. The reflection process of solitons from the boundary is studied and the time-delay is calculated. Finally we address the existence of boundary-bound states. In the fourth chapter we study the quantum complex sine-Gordon model. We begin with a brief overview of the theory in

  20. The role of pulse shape in motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation using full-sine stimuli

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Delvendahl, Igor; Gattinger, Norbert; Berger, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    A full-sine (biphasic) pulse waveform is most commonly used for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), but little is known about how variations in duration or amplitude of distinct pulse segments influence the effectiveness of a single TMS pulse to elicit a corticomotor response. Using......) compared monophasic, half-sine, and full-sine pulses, (ii) applied two-segment pulses consisting of two identical half-sines, and (iii) manipulated amplitude, duration, and current direction of the first or second full-sine pulse half-segments. RMT was significantly higher using half-sine or monophasic...... in considerably higher RMT, whereas varying the amplitude of the half-segment inducing anterior-posterior current had a smaller effect. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that the pulse segment inducing a posterior-anterior directed current in M1 contributes most to corticospinal pathway...

  1. Recognizing the SINEs of Infection: Regulation of Retrotransposon Expression and Modulation of Host Cell Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Dunker

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Short interspersed elements (SINEs are a family of retrotransposons evolutionarily derived from cellular RNA polymerase III transcripts. Over evolutionary time, SINEs have expanded throughout the human genome and today comprise ~11% of total chromosomal DNA. While generally transcriptionally silent in healthy somatic cells, SINE expression increases during a variety of types of stresses, including DNA virus infection. The relevance of SINE expression to viral infection was largely unexplored, however, recent years have seen great progress towards defining the impact of SINE expression on viral replication and host gene expression. Here we review the origin and diversity of SINE elements and their transcriptional control, with an emphasis on how their expression impacts host cell biology during viral infection.

  2. The role of pulse shape in motor cortex transcranial magnetic stimulation using full-sine stimuli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Delvendahl

    Full Text Available A full-sine (biphasic pulse waveform is most commonly used for repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS, but little is known about how variations in duration or amplitude of distinct pulse segments influence the effectiveness of a single TMS pulse to elicit a corticomotor response. Using a novel TMS device, we systematically varied the configuration of full-sine pulses to assess the impact of configuration changes on resting motor threshold (RMT as measure of stimulation effectiveness with single-pulse TMS of the non-dominant motor hand area (M1. In young healthy volunteers, we (i compared monophasic, half-sine, and full-sine pulses, (ii applied two-segment pulses consisting of two identical half-sines, and (iii manipulated amplitude, duration, and current direction of the first or second full-sine pulse half-segments. RMT was significantly higher using half-sine or monophasic pulses compared with full-sine. Pulses combining two half-sines of identical polarity and duration were also characterized by higher RMT than full-sine stimuli resulting. For full-sine stimuli, decreasing the amplitude of the half-segment inducing posterior-anterior oriented current in M1 resulted in considerably higher RMT, whereas varying the amplitude of the half-segment inducing anterior-posterior current had a smaller effect. These findings provide direct experimental evidence that the pulse segment inducing a posterior-anterior directed current in M1 contributes most to corticospinal pathway excitation. Preferential excitation of neuronal target cells in the posterior-anterior segment or targeting of different neuronal structures by the two half-segments can explain this result. Thus, our findings help understanding the mechanisms of neural stimulation by full-sine TMS.

  3. Evolutionary history of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs in Supraprimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegs, Jan Ole; Churakov, Gennady; Jurka, Jerzy; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2007-04-01

    The evolutionary relationships of 7SL RNA-derived SINEs such as the primate Alu or the rodent B1 elements have hitherto been obscure. We established an unambiguous phylogenetic tree for Supraprimates, and derived intraordinal relationships of the 7SL RNA-derived SINEs. As well as new elements in Tupaia and primates, we also found that the purported ancestral fossil Alu monomer was restricted to Primates, and provide here the first description of a potential chimeric promoter box region in SINEs.

  4. Evidence for convergent evolution of SINE-directed Staufen-mediated mRNA decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Bronwyn A; Lavi, Eitan; Shiue, Lily; Cho, Hana; Katzman, Sol; Miyoshi, Keita; Siomi, Mikiko C; Carmel, Liran; Ares, Manuel; Maquat, Lynne E

    2018-01-30

    Primate-specific Alu short interspersed elements (SINEs) as well as rodent-specific B and ID (B/ID) SINEs can promote Staufen-mediated decay (SMD) when present in mRNA 3'-untranslated regions (3'-UTRs). The transposable nature of SINEs, their presence in long noncoding RNAs, their interactions with Staufen, and their rapid divergence in different evolutionary lineages suggest they could have generated substantial modification of posttranscriptional gene-control networks during mammalian evolution. Some of the variation in SMD regulation produced by SINE insertion might have had a similar regulatory effect in separate mammalian lineages, leading to parallel evolution of the Staufen network by independent expansion of lineage-specific SINEs. To explore this possibility, we searched for orthologous gene pairs, each carrying a species-specific 3'-UTR SINE and each regulated by SMD, by measuring changes in mRNA abundance after individual depletion of two SMD factors, Staufen1 (STAU1) and UPF1, in both human and mouse myoblasts. We identified and confirmed orthologous gene pairs with 3'-UTR SINEs that independently function in SMD control of myoblast metabolism. Expanding to other species, we demonstrated that SINE-directed SMD likely emerged in both primate and rodent lineages >20-25 million years ago. Our work reveals a mechanism for the convergent evolution of posttranscriptional gene regulatory networks in mammals by species-specific SINE transposition and SMD.

  5. A mammalian conserved element derived from SINE displays enhancer properties recapitulating Satb2 expression in early-born callosal projection neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensuke Tashiro

    Full Text Available Short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs are highly repeated sequences that account for a significant proportion of many eukaryotic genomes and are usually considered "junk DNA". However, we previously discovered that many AmnSINE1 loci are evolutionarily conserved across mammalian genomes, suggesting that they may have acquired significant functions involved in controlling mammalian-specific traits. Notably, we identified the AS021 SINE locus, located 390 kbp upstream of Satb2. Using transgenic mice, we showed that this SINE displays specific enhancer activity in the developing cerebral cortex. The transcription factor Satb2 is expressed by cortical neurons extending axons through the corpus callosum and is a determinant of callosal versus subcortical projection. Mouse mutants reveal a crucial function for Sabt2 in corpus callosum formation. In this study, we compared the enhancer activity of the AS021 locus with Satb2 expression during telencephalic development in the mouse. First, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is specifically activated in early-born Satb2(+ neurons. Second, we demonstrated that the activity of the AS021 enhancer recapitulates the expression of Satb2 at later embryonic and postnatal stages in deep-layer but not superficial-layer neurons, suggesting the possibility that the expression of Satb2 in these two subpopulations of cortical neurons is under genetically distinct transcriptional control. Third, we showed that the AS021 enhancer is activated in neurons projecting through the corpus callosum, as described for Satb2(+ neurons. Notably, AS021 drives specific expression in axons crossing through the ventral (TAG1(-/NPY(+ portion of the corpus callosum, confirming that it is active in a subpopulation of callosal neurons. These data suggest that exaptation of the AS021 SINE locus might be involved in enhancement of Satb2 expression, leading to the establishment of interhemispheric communication via the corpus callosum

  6. The Salmon Smai Family of Short Interspersed Repetitive Elements (Sines): Interspecific and Intraspecific Variation of the Insertion of Sines in the Genomes of Chum and Pink Salmon

    OpenAIRE

    Takasaki, N.; Yamaki, T.; Hamada, M.; Park, L.; Okada, N.

    1997-01-01

    The genomes of chum salmon and pink salmon contain a family of short interspersed repetitive elements (SINEs), designated the salmon SmaI family. It is restricted to these two species, a distribution that suggests that this SINE family might have been generated in their common ancestor. When insertions of the SmaI SINEs at 10 orthologous loci of these species were analyzed, however, it was found that there were no shared insertion sites between chum and pink salmon. Furthermore, at six loci w...

  7. Retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmenti. Debut with macular oedema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Mata Pérez, G; Ruiz-Moreno, O; Fernández-Pérez, S; Torrón Fernández-Blanco, C; Pablo-Júlvez, L

    2014-09-01

    A 25-year-old woman, with metamorphopsia in her left eye of one year onset. The examination revealed a bilateral cystoid macular oedema (CME) and vascular attenuation. We describe the diagnostic tests, as well as differential diagnosis and treatment response with carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. The retinitis pigmentosa sine pigment is a subtype of atypical retinitis pigmentosa characterised by the absence of pigment deposits. The night blindness is milder, and perimetric and electroretinographic impairment is lower. CME is an important cause of central vision loss, and responds to anhydrase carbonic inhibitors. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Polyadenylation of RNA transcribed from mammalian SINEs by RNA polymerase III: Complex requirements for nucleotide sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borodulina, Olga R; Golubchikova, Julia S; Ustyantsev, Ilia G; Kramerov, Dmitri A

    2016-02-01

    It is generally accepted that only transcripts synthesized by RNA polymerase II (e.g., mRNA) were subject to AAUAAA-dependent polyadenylation. However, we previously showed that RNA transcribed by RNA polymerase III (pol III) from mouse B2 SINE could be polyadenylated in an AAUAAA-dependent manner. Many species of mammalian SINEs end with the pol III transcriptional terminator (TTTTT) and contain hexamers AATAAA in their A-rich tail. Such SINEs were united into Class T(+), whereas SINEs lacking the terminator and AATAAA sequences were classified as T(-). Here we studied the structural features of SINE pol III transcripts that are necessary for their polyadenylation. Eight and six SINE families from classes T(+) and T(-), respectively, were analyzed. The replacement of AATAAA with AACAAA in T(+) SINEs abolished the RNA polyadenylation. Interestingly, insertion of the polyadenylation signal (AATAAA) and pol III transcription terminator in T(-) SINEs did not result in polyadenylation. The detailed analysis of three T(+) SINEs (B2, DIP, and VES) revealed areas important for the polyadenylation of their pol III transcripts: the polyadenylation signal and terminator in A-rich tail, β region positioned immediately downstream of the box B of pol III promoter, and τ region located upstream of the tail. In DIP and VES (but not in B2), the τ region is a polypyrimidine motif which is also characteristic of many other T(+) SINEs. Most likely, SINEs of different mammals acquired these structural features independently as a result of parallel evolution. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Golden Sine Algorithm: A Novel Math-Inspired Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TANYILDIZI, E.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Golden Sine Algorithm (Gold-SA is presented as a new metaheuristic method for solving optimization problems. Gold-SA has been developed as a new search algorithm based on population. This math-based algorithm is inspired by sine that is a trigonometric function. In the algorithm, random individuals are created as many as the number of search agents with uniform distribution for each dimension. The Gold-SA operator searches to achieve a better solution in each iteration by trying to bring the current situation closer to the target value. The solution space is narrowed by the golden section so that the areas that are supposed to give only good results are scanned instead of the whole solution space scan. In the tests performed, it is seen that Gold-SA has better results than other population based methods. In addition, Gold-SA has fewer algorithm-dependent parameters and operators than other metaheuristic methods, increasing the importance of this method by providing faster convergence of this new method.

  10. A difference tracking algorithm based on discrete sine transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, HaoPeng; Yao, Yong; Lei, HeBing; Wu, HaoKun

    2018-04-01

    Target tracking is an important field of computer vision. The template matching tracking algorithm based on squared difference matching (SSD) and standard correlation coefficient (NCC) matching is very sensitive to the gray change of image. When the brightness or gray change, the tracking algorithm will be affected by high-frequency information. Tracking accuracy is reduced, resulting in loss of tracking target. In this paper, a differential tracking algorithm based on discrete sine transform is proposed to reduce the influence of image gray or brightness change. The algorithm that combines the discrete sine transform and the difference algorithm maps the target image into a image digital sequence. The Kalman filter predicts the target position. Using the Hamming distance determines the degree of similarity between the target and the template. The window closest to the template is determined the target to be tracked. The target to be tracked updates the template. Based on the above achieve target tracking. The algorithm is tested in this paper. Compared with SSD and NCC template matching algorithms, the algorithm tracks target stably when image gray or brightness change. And the tracking speed can meet the read-time requirement.

  11. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw - SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-06

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc-snail and SCoica-mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain-Snail-is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5' end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves-extending the distribution range of this superfamily. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Mobile Element Evolution Playing Jigsaw—SINEs in Gastropod and Bivalve Mollusks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matetovici, Irina; Sajgo, Szilard; Ianc, Bianca; Ochis, Cornelia; Bulzu, Paul; Popescu, Octavian; Damert, Annette

    2016-01-01

    SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements) are widely distributed among eukaryotes. Some SINE families are organized in superfamilies characterized by a shared central domain. These central domains are conserved across species, classes, and even phyla. Here we report the identification of two novel such superfamilies in the genomes of gastropod and bivalve mollusks. The central conserved domain of the first superfamily is present in SINEs in Caenogastropoda and Vetigastropoda as well as in all four subclasses of Bivalvia. We designated the domain MESC (Romanian for MElc—snail and SCoica—mussel) because it appears to be restricted to snails and mussels. The second superfamily is restricted to Caenogastropoda. Its central conserved domain—Snail—is related to the Nin-DC domain. Furthermore, we provide evidence that a 40-bp subdomain of the SINE V-domain is conserved in SINEs in mollusks and arthropods. It is predicted to form a stable stem-loop structure that is preserved in the context of the overall SINE RNA secondary structure in invertebrates. Our analysis also recovered short retrotransposons with a Long INterspersed Element (LINE)-derived 5′ end. These share the body and/or the tail with transfer RNA (tRNA)-derived SINEs within and across species. Finally, we identified CORE SINEs in gastropods and bivalves—extending the distribution range of this superfamily. PMID:26739168

  13. Inverse PCR-based method for isolating novel SINEs from genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yawei; Chen, Liping; Guan, Lihong; He, Shunping

    2014-04-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are moderately repetitive DNA sequences in eukaryotic genomes. Although eukaryotic genomes contain numerous SINEs copy, it is very difficult and laborious to isolate and identify them by the reported methods. In this study, the inverse PCR was successfully applied to isolate SINEs from Opsariichthys bidens genome in Eastern Asian Cyprinid. A group of SINEs derived from tRNA(Ala) molecular had been identified, which were named Opsar according to Opsariichthys. SINEs characteristics were exhibited in Opsar, which contained a tRNA(Ala)-derived region at the 5' end, a tRNA-unrelated region, and AT-rich region at the 3' end. The tRNA-derived region of Opsar shared 76 % sequence similarity with tRNA(Ala) gene. This result indicated that Opsar could derive from the inactive or pseudogene of tRNA(Ala). The reliability of method was tested by obtaining C-SINE, Ct-SINE, and M-SINEs from Ctenopharyngodon idellus, Megalobrama amblycephala, and Cyprinus carpio genomes. This method is simpler than the previously reported, which successfully omitted many steps, such as preparation of probes, construction of genomic libraries, and hybridization.

  14. Semiclassical approach to the quantization of the periodic solutions of the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghika, G.; Visinescu, M.

    1978-01-01

    The periodic solutions of the sine-Gordon equation are proved to be singular. For the semiclassical quantization of the periodic solutions we calculate the fluctuations around them and we use the path integrals in the Gaussian approximation in order to obtain the bound states of the sine-Gordon field equation. (author)

  15. Diffusion in the kicked quantum rotator by random corrections to a linear and sine field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hilke, M.; Flores, J.C.

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the diffusion in momentum space, of the kicked quantum rotator, by introducing random corrections to a linear and sine external field. For the linear field we obtain a linear diffusion behavior identical to the case with zero average in the external field. But for the sine field, accelerator modes with quadratic diffusion are found for particular values of the kicking period. (orig.)

  16. LINEs Contribute to the Origins of Middle Bodies of SINEs besides 3′ Tails

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Abstract Short interspersed elements (SINEs), which are nonautonomous transposable elements, require the transposition machinery of long interspersed elements (LINEs) to mobilize. SINEs are composed of two or more independently originating parts. The 5′ region is called the “head” and is derived mainly from small RNAs, and the 3′ region (“tail”) originates from the 3′ region of LINEs and is responsible for being recognized by counterpart LINE proteins. The origin of the middle “body” of SINEs is enigmatic, although significant sequence similarities among SINEs from very diverse species have been observed. Here, a systematic analysis of the similarities among SINEs and LINEs deposited on Repbase, a comprehensive database of eukaryotic repeat sequences was performed. Three primary findings are described: 1) The 5′ regions of only two clades of LINEs, RTE and Vingi, were revealed to have contributed to the middle parts of SINEs; 2) The linkage of the 5′ and 3′ parts of LINEs can be lost due to occasional tail exchange of SINEs; and 3) The previously proposed Ceph-domain was revealed to be a fusion of a CORE-domain and a 5′ part of RTE clade of LINE. Based on these findings, a hypothesis that the 5′ parts of bipartite nonautonomous LINEs, which possess only the 5′ and 3′ regions of the original LINEs, can contribute to the undefined middle part of SINEs is proposed. PMID:29325122

  17. On a rigorously classical approach to the Sine-Gordon theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulmer, W.

    1979-01-01

    It is shown that the continuum limit of an infinite set of coupled pendula yields the Sine-Gordon theory. The extension of the model to more dimensions with respect to the propagation yields a generalized Sine-Gordon equation for vector fields, containing Proca equations as a first order approximation. (author)

  18. RUDI, a short interspersed element of the V-SINE superfamily widespread in molluscan genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luchetti, Andrea; Šatović, Eva; Mantovani, Barbara; Plohl, Miroslav

    2016-06-01

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in eukaryotic genomes. They exhibit a chimeric sequence structure consisting of a small RNA-related head, an anonymous body and an AT-rich tail. Although their turnover and de novo emergence is rapid, some SINE elements found in distantly related species retain similarity in certain core segments (or highly conserved domains, HCD). We have characterized a new SINE element named RUDI in the bivalve molluscs Ruditapes decussatus and R. philippinarum and found this element to be widely distributed in the genomes of a number of mollusc species. An unexpected structural feature of RUDI is the HCD domain type V, which was first found in non-amniote vertebrate SINEs and in the SINE from one cnidarian species. In addition to the V domain, the overall sequence conservation pattern of RUDI elements resembles that found in ancient AmnSINE (~310 Myr old) and Au SINE (~320 Myr old) families, suggesting that RUDI might be among the most ancient SINE families. Sequence conservation suggests a monophyletic origin of RUDI. Nucleotide variability and phylogenetic analyses suggest long-term vertical inheritance combined with at least one horizontal transfer event as the most parsimonious explanation for the observed taxonomic distribution.

  19. Extended sine-Gordon Equation Method and Its Application to Maccari's System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Lina; Zhang Hongqing

    2005-01-01

    An extended sine-Gordon equation method is proposed to construct exact travelling wave solutions to Maccari's equation based upon a generalized sine-Gordon equation. It is shown that more new travelling wave solutions can be found by this new method, which include bell-shaped soliton solutions, kink-shaped soliton solutions, periodic wave solution, and new travelling waves.

  20. Comparison of renormalization group schemes for sine-Gordon-type models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandori, I.; Nagy, S.; Sailer, K.; Trombettoni, A.

    2009-01-01

    The scheme dependence of the renormalization group (RG) flow has been investigated in the local potential approximation for two-dimensional periodic, sine-Gordon type field-theoretic models discussing the applicability of various functional RG methods in detail. It was shown that scheme-independent determination of such physical parameters is possible as the critical frequency (temperature) at which Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii type phase transition takes place in the sine-Gordon and the layered sine-Gordon models, and the critical ratio characterizing the Ising-type phase transition of the massive sine-Gordon model. For the latter case, the Maxwell construction represents a strong constraint on the RG flow, which results in a scheme-independent infrared value for the critical ratio. For the massive sine-Gordon model also the shrinking of the domain of the phase with spontaneously broken periodicity is shown to take place due to the quantum fluctuations.

  1. Generalized quantum sine-Gordon equation and its relation to the Thirring model in quantum field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skagerstam, B.K.

    1976-01-01

    We discuss a generalization of the conventional sine-Gordon quantum field theory by using methods recently developed by Coleman. As a result we can argue that the equivalence between the sine-Gordon theory and the massive Thirring model is unaffected if we perturb the sine-Gordon Hamiltonian by a bounded perturbation consisting of a continuous sum of sine-Gordon type interactions

  2. Differential distribution of a SINE element in the Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar genomes: Role of the LINE-encoded endonuclease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Abhishek K

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar are closely related protistan parasites but while E. histolytica can be invasive, E. dispar is completely non pathogenic. Transposable elements constitute a significant portion of the genome in these species; there being three families of LINEs and SINEs. These elements can profoundly influence the expression of neighboring genes. Thus their genomic location can have important phenotypic consequences. A genome-wide comparison of the location of these elements in the E. histolytica and E. dispar genomes has not been carried out. It is also not known whether the retrotransposition machinery works similarly in both species. The present study was undertaken to address these issues. Results Here we extracted all genomic occurrences of full-length copies of EhSINE1 in the E. histolytica genome and matched them with the homologous regions in E. dispar, and vice versa, wherever it was possible to establish synteny. We found that only about 20% of syntenic sites were occupied by SINE1 in both species. We checked whether the different genomic location in the two species was due to differences in the activity of the LINE-encoded endonuclease which is required for nicking the target site. We found that the endonucleases of both species were essentially very similar, both in their kinetic properties and in their substrate sequence specificity. Hence the differential distribution of SINEs in these species is not likely to be influenced by the endonuclease. Further we found that the physical properties of the DNA sequences adjoining the insertion sites were similar in both species. Conclusions Our data shows that the basic retrotransposition machinery is conserved in these sibling species. SINEs may indeed have occupied all of the insertion sites in the genome of the common ancestor of E. histolytica and E. dispar but these may have been subsequently lost from some locations. Alternatively, SINE

  3. The nullum crimen sine iure principle in contemporary International Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Olásolo Alonso

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the evolution and current content of the nullum crimen sine iure principle in international law. It analyses the development of the nullum crimen principle from its definition as a principle of justice at the end of Second World War, to its current definition as an individual right imposing a limitation upon States’ sovereignty. The article also explains that, nowadays, the nullum cri- men principle requires for the relevant conduct to be a crime at the time of its com- mission, according to any of the sources of criminal law in the relevant national or international legal system. No written law is necessarily required. As a result, accessibility and foreseability are the main elements of the nullum crimen principle in current international law.

  4. Rapid fabrication and characterization of sine wave targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, R.D.; Armijo, E.; Gobby, P.; Hatch, D.; Rivera, G.; Salzer, L.; Townsend, J.

    1997-01-01

    The effect of surface perturbations on Inertial Confinement Fusion target performance is currently being researched at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). These perturbations can cause hydrodynamic instabilities which in turn reduce the targets' yield. To systematically measure the growth of these instabilities requires targets to be produced which have perturbations of a known amplitude and spatial frequency. The authors have recently assembled hardware onto one of their diamond turning lathes which enables them to machine and measure these sine waves in about 15 minutes. This is a significant reduction in time from the two and one half hours required by the previous method. This paper discusses the hardware, how it works, and how well the system is working for them to produce these targets

  5. Scattering of sine-Gordon kinks on potential wells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piette, Bernard; Zakrzewski, W J

    2007-01-01

    We study the scattering properties of sine-Gordon kinks on obstructions in the form of finite size potential 'wells'. We model this by making the coefficient of the cos(ψ) - 1 term in the Lagrangian position dependent. We show that when the kinks find themselves in the well they radiate and then interact with this radiation. As a result of this energy loss, the kinks become trapped for small velocities while at higher velocities they are transmitted with a loss of energy. However, the interaction with the radiation can produce 'unexpected' reflections by the well. We present two simple models which capture the gross features of this behaviour. Both involve standing waves either at the edges of the well or in the well itself

  6. Quantum aspects of the noncommutative Sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuerkcueoglu

    2007-01-01

    In this talk, I will first present some of the quantum field theoretical aspects of the integrable noncommutative sine-Gordon model proposed in [hep-th/0406065] using standard semi-classical methods. In particular, I will discuss the fluctuations at quadratic order around the static kink solution using the background field method. I will argue that at 0(θ 2 ) the spectrum of fluctuations remains essentially the same as that of the corresponding commutative theory. A brief analysis of one-loop two-point functions will also be presented and it will be followed by some remarks on the obstacles in determining the noncommutativity corrections to the quantum mass of the kink. (author)

  7. Systemic Sclerosis Sine Scleroderma in Mexican Patients. Case Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vera-Lastra, Olga; Sauceda-Casas, Christian Alexis; Domínguez, María Del Pilar Cruz; Alvarez, Sergio Alberto Mendoza; Sepulceda-Delgado, Jesús

    2017-01-03

    Systemic sclerosis sine scleroderma (ssSSc) is a form of systemic sclerosis that is characterized by Raynaud's phenomenon (RP), visceral involvement without thickening of skin and anticentromere antibodies (ACA). We studied 10 ssSsc patients with a prevalence of 2%. The clinical signs were: RP 9/10, esophageal manifestations 8/10, pulmonary arterial hypertension 4/10, interstitial lung disease 4/10, cardiac signs 3/10 and ACA 8/10. In patients with RP, esophageal dysmotility, interstitial lung disease and pulmonary arterial hypertension should be tested for ACA in order to establish a prompt diagnosis and treatment of ssSSc. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  8. SINEs of progress: Mobile element applications to molecular ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, David A

    2007-01-01

    Mobile elements represent a unique and under-utilized set of tools for molecular ecologists. They are essentially homoplasy-free characters with the ability to be genotyped in a simple and efficient manner. Interpretation of the data generated using mobile elements can be simple compared to other genetic markers. They exist in a wide variety of taxa and are useful over a wide selection of temporal ranges within those taxa. Furthermore, their mode of evolution instills them with another advantage over other types of multilocus genotype data: the ability to determine loci applicable to a range of time spans in the history of a taxon. In this review, I discuss the application of mobile element markers, especially short interspersed elements (SINEs), to phylogenetic and population data, with an emphasis on potential applications to molecular ecology.

  9. Rocket measurements of electron density irregularities during MAC/SINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulwick, J. C.

    1989-01-01

    Four Super Arcas rockets were launched at the Andoya Rocket Range, Norway, as part of the MAC/SINE campaign to measure electron density irregularities with high spatial resolution in the cold summer polar mesosphere. They were launched as part of two salvos: the turbulent/gravity wave salvo (3 rockets) and the EISCAT/SOUSY radar salvo (one rocket). In both salvos meteorological rockets, measuring temperature and winds, were also launched and the SOUSY radar, located near the launch site, measured mesospheric turbulence. Electron density irregularities and strong gradients were measured by the rocket probes in the region of most intense backscatter observed by the radar. The electron density profiles (8 to 4 on ascent and 4 on descent) show very different characteristics in the peak scattering region and show marked spatial and temporal variability. These data are intercompared and discussed.

  10. Scattering of the double sine-Gordon kinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gani, Vakhid A.; Marjaneh, Aliakbar Moradi; Askari, Alidad; Belendryasova, Ekaterina; Saadatmand, Danial

    2018-04-01

    We study the scattering of kink and antikink of the double sine-Gordon model. There is a critical value of the initial velocity v_{{cr}} of the colliding kinks, which separates different regimes of the collision. At v_{in}>v_{cr} we observe kinks reflection, while at v_{in}

  11. The Sines industrial complex monitoring programme: A preliminary report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M P; Catarino, F M; Sérgio, C; Bento-Pereira, F

    1981-06-01

    It is anticipated that the establishment of the industrial complex at Sines, Alentejo, Portugal, will have some impact on the environment. Details of the methods used in the monitoring programme are provided. Records of the epiphytic lichen vegetation in permanent quadrats have been made and changes shown in selected sites over a three year period are discussed. Material has been collected for analysis for heavy metals and the results discussed. There is considerable variation in replicates and in interspecies values. The problem of age and bio-accumulation is mentioned. Scanning electron microscopy has shown the accumulation of particulates, as yet unidentified, the quantity varying with increase in age and surface texture. A broadly based study of the local epiphytic flora is being carried out to record the present day diversity. There appears, as yet, to be no detectable influence of the industrial complex on the epiphytic flora of the permanent quadrats.

  12. Zero temperature landscape of the random sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, A.; Bishop, A.R.; Cai, D.

    1997-01-01

    We present a preliminary summary of the zero temperature properties of the two-dimensional random sine-Gordon model of surface growth on disordered substrates. We found that the properties of this model can be accurately computed by using lattices of moderate size as the behavior of the model turns out to be independent of the size above certain length (∼ 128 x 128 lattices). Subsequently, we show that the behavior of the height difference correlation function is of (log r) 2 type up to a certain correlation length (ξ ∼ 20), which rules out predictions of log r behavior for all temperatures obtained by replica-variational techniques. Our results open the way to a better understanding of the complex landscape presented by this system, which has been the subject of very many (contradictory) analysis

  13. Multiple sine wave excitation of a hard spring oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curreri, J.R.; Bezler, P.

    1976-06-01

    The vibration testing of non-linear systems has not received much attention in the literature. Frequently, linear procedures are used in the hope that large differences between the linear and non-linear responses will not occur. This may be valid for certain small ranges of the non-linearity and for a single harmonic component excitation. However, for multi-component periodic inputs, there is very little guidance in the literature for even a qualitative evaluation of the probable response. With multi-component periodic inputs, it has been shown that sub-combination frequencies can occur in cubic non-linear systems. Under these conditions, large responses can develop. The critical nature of the development of the large response has not been discussed. This is the subject of this paper. The qualitative response of a two component sine wave applied to a hard spring oscillator is shown

  14. The Influence of LINE-1 and SINE Retrotransposons on Mammalian Genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Sandra R; Doucet, Aurélien J; Kopera, Huira C; Moldovan, John B; Garcia-Perez, José Luis; Moran, John V

    2015-04-01

    Transposable elements have had a profound impact on the structure and function of mammalian genomes. The retrotransposon Long INterspersed Element-1 (LINE-1 or L1), by virtue of its replicative mobilization mechanism, comprises ∼17% of the human genome. Although the vast majority of human LINE-1 sequences are inactive molecular fossils, an estimated 80-100 copies per individual retain the ability to mobilize by a process termed retrotransposition. Indeed, LINE-1 is the only active, autonomous retrotransposon in humans and its retrotransposition continues to generate both intra-individual and inter-individual genetic diversity. Here, we briefly review the types of transposable elements that reside in mammalian genomes. We will focus our discussion on LINE-1 retrotransposons and the non-autonomous Short INterspersed Elements (SINEs) that rely on the proteins encoded by LINE-1 for their mobilization. We review cases where LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events have resulted in genetic disease and discuss how the characterization of these mutagenic insertions led to the identification of retrotransposition-competent LINE-1s in the human and mouse genomes. We then discuss how the integration of molecular genetic, biochemical, and modern genomic technologies have yielded insight into the mechanism of LINE-1 retrotransposition, the impact of LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events on mammalian genomes, and the host cellular mechanisms that protect the genome from unabated LINE-1-mediated retrotransposition events. Throughout this review, we highlight unanswered questions in LINE-1 biology that provide exciting opportunities for future research. Clearly, much has been learned about LINE-1 and SINE biology since the publication of Mobile DNA II thirteen years ago. Future studies should continue to yield exciting discoveries about how these retrotransposons contribute to genetic diversity in mammalian genomes.

  15. Sine-Gordon mean field theory of a Coulomb gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diehl, Alexandre; Barbosa, Marcia C.; Levin, Yan

    1997-12-31

    Full text. The Coulomb gas provides a paradigm for the study of various models of critical phenomena. In particular, it is well known that the two dimensional (2 D). Coulomb gas can be directly used to study the superfluidity transition in {sup 4} He films, arrays of Josephson junctions, roughening transition, etc. Not withstanding its versatility, our full understanding of the most basic model of Coulomb gas, namely an ensemble of hard spheres carrying either positive or negative charges at their center, is still lacking. It is now well accepted that at low density the two dimensional plasma of equal number of positive and negative particles undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless (KT) metal insulator transition. This transition is of an infinite order and is characterized by a diverging Debye screening length. As the density of particles increases, the validity of the KT theory becomes questionable and the possibility of the KT transition being replaced by some kind of first order discontinuity has been speculated for a long time. In this work sine-Gordon field theory is used to investigate the phase diagram of a neutral Coulomb gas. A variational mean-field free energy is constructed and the corresponding phase diagrams in two and three dimensions are obtained. When analyzed in terms of chemical potential, the sine-Gordon theory predicts the phase diagram topologically identical to the Monte Carlo simulations and a recently developed Debye-Huckel-Bjerrum theory. In 2D, we find that the infinite-order Kosterlitz-Thouless line terminates in a tricritical point, after which the metal-insulator transition becomes first order. However, when the transformation from chemical potential to the density is made the whole insulating phase is mapped onto zero density. (author)

  16. Characterization of three novel SINE families with unusual features in Helicoverpa armigera.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianjun Wang

    Full Text Available Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5' -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3' -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3' -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3'-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer.

  17. Characterization of Three Novel SINE Families with Unusual Features in Helicoverpa armigera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianjun; Wang, Aina; Han, Zhaojun; Zhang, Zan; Li, Fei; Li, Xianchun

    2012-01-01

    Although more than 120 families of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) have been isolated from the eukaryotic genomes, little is known about SINEs in insects. Here, we characterize three novel SINEs from the cotton bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera. Two of them, HaSE1 and HaSE2, share similar 5′ -structure including a tRNA-related region immediately followed by conserved central domain. The 3′ -tail of HaSE1 is significantly similar to that of one LINE retrotransposon element, HaRTE1.1, in H. armigera genome. The 3′ -region of HaSE2 showed high identity with one mariner-like element in H. armigera. The third family, termed HaSE3, is a 5S rRNA-derived SINE and shares both body part and 3′-tail with HaSE1, thus may represent the first example of a chimera generated by recombination between 5S rRNA and tRNA-derived SINE in insect species. Further database searches revealed the presence of these SINEs in several other related insect species, but not in the silkworm, Bombyx mori, indicating a relatively narrow distribution of these SINEs in Lepidopterans. Apart from above, we found a copy of HaSE2 in the GenBank EST entry for the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii, suggesting the occurrence of horizontal transfer. PMID:22319625

  18. Distribution, Diversity, and Long-Term Retention of Grass Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongliang; Wang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Instances of highly conserved plant short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families and their enrichment near genes have been well documented, but little is known about the general patterns of such conservation and enrichment and underlying mechanisms. Here, we perform a comprehensive investigation of the structure, distribution, and evolution of SINEs in the grass family by analyzing 14 grass and 5 other flowering plant genomes using comparative genomics methods. We identify 61 SINE families composed of 29,572 copies, in which 46 families are first described. We find that comparing with other grass TEs, grass SINEs show much higher level of conservation in terms of genomic retention: The origin of at least 26% families can be traced to early grass diversification and these families are among most abundant SINE families in 86% species. We find that these families show much higher level of enrichment near protein coding genes than families of relatively recent origin (51%:28%), and that 40% of all grass SINEs are near gene and the percentage is higher than other types of grass TEs. The pattern of enrichment suggests that differential removal of SINE copies in gene-poor regions plays an important role in shaping the genomic distribution of these elements. We also identify a sequence motif located at 3' SINE end which is shared in 17 families. In short, this study provides insights into structure and evolution of SINEs in the grass family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  19. Occurrence of Can-SINEs and intron sequence evolution supports robust phylogeny of pinniped carnivores and their terrestrial relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christiane; Bleidorn, Christoph; Hartmann, Stefanie; Tiedemann, Ralph

    2009-12-15

    Investigating the dog genome we found 178965 introns with a moderate length of 200-1000 bp. A screening of these sequences against 23 different repeat libraries to find insertions of short interspersed elements (SINEs) detected 45276 SINEs. Virtually all of these SINEs (98%) belong to the tRNA-derived Can-SINE family. Can-SINEs arose about 55 million years ago before Carnivora split into two basal groups, the Caniformia (dog-like carnivores) and the Feliformia (cat-like carnivores). Genome comparisons of dog and cat recovered 506 putatively informative SINE loci for caniformian phylogeny. In this study we show how to use such genome information of model organisms to research the phylogeny of related non-model species of interest. Investigating a dataset including representatives of all major caniformian lineages, we analysed 24 randomly chosen loci for 22 taxa. All loci were amplifiable and revealed 17 parsimony-informative SINE insertions. The screening for informative SINE insertions yields a large amount of sequence information, in particular of introns, which contain reliable phylogenetic information as well. A phylogenetic analysis of intron- and SINE sequence data provided a statistically robust phylogeny which is congruent with the absence/presence pattern of our SINE markers. This phylogeny strongly supports a sistergroup relationship of Musteloidea and Pinnipedia. Within Pinnipedia, we see strong support from bootstrapping and the presence of a SINE insertion for a sistergroup relationship of the walrus with the Otariidae.

  20. Noether's theorem and Steudel's conserved currents for the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadwick, W.F.

    1980-01-01

    A version of Noether's theorem appropriate for the extended Hamilton-Cartan formalism for regular first-order Lagrangians is proposed. Steudel's derivation of an infinite collection of conserved currents for the sine-Gordon equation is presented in this context and it is demonstrated that, as a consequence of the commutativity of the sine-Gordon Baecklund transformations, the conserved charges corresponding to these currents are in involution with respect to the natural Poisson bracket provided by the formalism. Thus one obtains the formal 'complete integrability' of the sine-Gordon equation as a consequence of the properties of the Baecklund transformation. (orig.)

  1. Mössbauer spectra linearity improvement by sine velocity waveform followed by linearization process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohout, Pavel; Frank, Tomas; Pechousek, Jiri; Kouril, Lukas

    2018-05-01

    This note reports the development of a new method for linearizing the Mössbauer spectra recorded with a sine drive velocity signal. Mössbauer spectra linearity is a critical parameter to determine Mössbauer spectrometer accuracy. Measuring spectra with a sine velocity axis and consecutive linearization increases the linearity of spectra in a wider frequency range of a drive signal, as generally harmonic movement is natural for velocity transducers. The obtained data demonstrate that linearized sine spectra have lower nonlinearity and line width parameters in comparison with those measured using a traditional triangle velocity signal.

  2. Perish, then publish: Thomas Harriot and the sine law of refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishman, R S

    2000-03-01

    A talented young scientist, Thomas Harriot, wrote the first English account of the New World, "A Briefe and True Report of the New Found Land of Virginia," distinguished by its serious effort to describe and understand the American Indian. Harriot went on to make innovations in mathematics and was one of the first astronomers to use the telescope. His largely unappreciated contribution to the history of ophthalmology was the first formulation of the sine law of refraction of light, found in his unpublished papers long after his death in 1621. Willebrord Snell discovered the sine law in Holland in 1621 but also died without formally publishing it. Rene Descartes first published the sine law in 1637. The sine law of refraction became not only the prime law of all lens systems but ushered in a new world of physical laws.

  3. Generating Solutions to Discrete sine-Gordon Equation from Modified Baecklund Transformation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kou Xin; Zhang Dajun; Shi Ying; Zhao Songlin

    2011-01-01

    We modify the bilinear Baecklund transformation for the discrete sine-Gordon equation and derive variety, of solutions by freely choosing parameters from the modified Baecklund transformation. Dynamics of solutions and continuum limits are also discussed. (general)

  4. Basicity of Systems of Sines with Linear Phase in Weighted Sobolev Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. F. Salmanov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The perturbed systems of sines, which appear when solving some partial differential equations by the Fourier method, are considered in this paper. Basis properties of these systems in weighted Sobolev spaces of functions are studied.

  5. Experimental relationship between damping and stability of Sine-Gordon solitons in Josephson junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, A.; Pedersen, N.F.; Dueholm, B.

    1985-01-01

    We show some experimental results which suggest that total damping, including surface loss, plays a fundamental role in limiting the stability of high-velocity Sine-Gordon solitons in real Josephson tunnel junctions

  6. Rotationally symmetric breather-like solutions to the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsen, O.H.; Samuelsen, M.R.

    1980-01-01

    Breather-like solutions to the spherically symmetric sine-Gordon equation are examined numerically. Depending on the initial conditions they either exhibit a return effect or expand towards infinity. (orig.)

  7. Traveling Wave Solutions of ZK-BBM Equation Sine-Cosine Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadaf Bibi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Travelling wave solutions are obtained by using a relatively new technique which is called sine-cosine method for ZK-BBM equations. Solution procedure and obtained results re-confirm the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  8. Pi-kinks in a parametrically driven sine-Gordon chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kivshar, Yuri S.; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1992-01-01

    We consider the sine-Gordon chain driven by a high-frequency parametric force in the presence of loss. Using an analytical approach based on the method of averaging in fast oscillations, we predict that such a parametric force may support propagation of π kinks, which are unstable in the standard...... sine-Gordon model. The steady-state velocity of the π kinks is calculated, and the analytical results are in good agreement with direct numerical simulations....

  9. New quasi-periodic waves of the (2+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, H.C.; Lou, S.Y.

    2005-01-01

    New exact solutions of the well-known (2+1)-dimensional sine-Gordon system are studied by introducing the modified mapping relations between the cubic nonlinear Klein-Gordon and sine-Gordon equations. Two arbitrary functions are included into the Jacobi elliptic function solutions. By proper selections of the arbitrary functions, new quasi-periodic wave solutions are obtained and displayed graphically

  10. Critical properties of the double-frequency sine-Gordon model with applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrizio, M.; Gogolin, A.O.; Nersesyan, A.A.

    2000-01-01

    We study the properties of the double-frequency sine-Gordon model in the vicinity of the Ising quantum phase transition displayed by this model. Using a mapping onto a generalized lattice quantum Ashkin-Teller model, we obtain critical and nearly-off-critical correlation functions of various operators. We discuss applications of the double-sine-Gordon model to one-dimensional physical systems, like spin chains in a staggered external field and interacting electrons in a staggered potential

  11. Critical values of the Yang-Yang functional in the quantum sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, Sergei L.

    2011-01-01

    The critical values of the Yang-Yang functional corresponding to the vacuum states of the sine-Gordon QFT in the finite-volume are studied. Two major applications are discussed: (i) generalization of Fendley-Saleur-Zamolodchikov relations to arbitrary values of the sine-Gordon coupling constant, and (ii) connection problem for a certain two-parameter family of solutions of the Painleve III equation.

  12. Experimental relationship between damping and stability of sine-Gordon solitons in Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davidson, A.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Dueholm, B.

    1985-01-01

    We show some experimental results which suggest that total damping, including surface loss, plays a fundamental role in limiting the stability of high-velocity sine-Gordon solitons in real Josephson tunnel junctions.......We show some experimental results which suggest that total damping, including surface loss, plays a fundamental role in limiting the stability of high-velocity sine-Gordon solitons in real Josephson tunnel junctions....

  13. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This...

  14. Scenario based approach for multiple source Tsunami Hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Wronna; R. Omira; M. A. Baptista

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines – Portugal, one of the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seis...

  15. Quantum conserved charges in N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric sine-Gordon theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Ken-ichiro; Uematsu, Tsuneo; Yu Yangzheng

    1993-01-01

    We investigate quantum conservation laws in the N=1 and N=2 supersymmetric sine-Gordon theories. We study conserved charges at the quantum level based on perturbation theory formulated in superspace. It will turn out that there exist extra conserved charges of the vertex operator type at the quantum level and they generate a quantum group symmetry in supersymmetric sine-Gordon systems. We also discuss the implication of the quantum group symmetry on the S-matrix structure. (orig.)

  16. Exact expectation values of local fields in the quantum sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lukyanov, S.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka; Zamolodchikov, A.; Rossijskaya Akademiya Nauk, Chernogolovka

    1997-01-01

    We propose an explicit expression for vacuum expectation values left angle e iaφ right angle of the exponential fields in the sine-Gordon model. Our expression agrees both with semi-classical results in the sine-Gordon theory and with perturbative calculations in the massive Thirring model. We use this expression to make new predictions about the large-distance asymptotic form of the two-point correlation function in the XXZ spin chain. (orig.)

  17. The optimal digital filters of sine and cosine transforms for geophysical transient electromagnetic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yun-wei; Zhu, Zi-qiang; Lu, Guang-yin; Han, Bo

    2018-03-01

    The sine and cosine transforms implemented with digital filters have been used in the Transient electromagnetic methods for a few decades. Kong (2007) proposed a method of obtaining filter coefficients, which are computed in the sample domain by Hankel transform pair. However, the curve shape of Hankel transform pair changes with a parameter, which usually is set to be 1 or 3 in the process of obtaining the digital filter coefficients of sine and cosine transforms. First, this study investigates the influence of the parameter on the digital filter algorithm of sine and cosine transforms based on the digital filter algorithm of Hankel transform and the relationship between the sine, cosine function and the ±1/2 order Bessel function of the first kind. The results show that the selection of the parameter highly influences the precision of digital filter algorithm. Second, upon the optimal selection of the parameter, it is found that an optimal sampling interval s also exists to achieve the best precision of digital filter algorithm. Finally, this study proposes four groups of sine and cosine transform digital filter coefficients with different length, which may help to develop the digital filter algorithm of sine and cosine transforms, and promote its application.

  18. Phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromine fish as revealed by short interspersed elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terai, Yohey; Takezaki, Naoko; Mayer, Werner E; Tichy, Herbert; Takahata, Naoyuki; Klein, Jan; Okada, Norihiro

    2004-01-01

    Genomic DNA libraries were prepared from two endemic species of Lake Victoria haplochromine (cichlid) fish and used to isolate and characterize a set of short interspersed elements (SINEs). The distribution and sequences of the SINEs were used to infer phylogenetic relationships among East African haplochromines. The SINE-based classification divides the fish into four groups, which, in order of their divergence from a stem lineage, are the endemic Lake Tanganyika flock (group 1); fish of the nonendemic, monotypic, widely distributed genus Astatoreochromis (group 2); the endemic Lake Malawi flock (group 3); and group 4, which contains fish from widely dispersed East African localities including Lakes Victoria, Edward, George, Albert, and Rukwa, as well as many rivers. The group 4 haplochromines are characterized by a subset of polymorphic SINEs, each of which is present in some individuals and absent in others of the same population at a given locality, the same morphologically defined species, and the same mtDNA-defined haplogroup. SINE-defined group 4 contains six of the seven previously described mtDNA haplogroups. One of the polymorphic SINEs appears to be fixed in the endemic Lake Victoria flock; four others display the presence-or-absence polymorphism within the species of this flock. These findings have implications for the origin of Lake Victoria cichlids and for their founding population sizes.

  19. RNA-Mediated Gene Duplication and Retroposons: Retrogenes, LINEs, SINEs, and Sequence Specificity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    A substantial number of “retrogenes” that are derived from the mRNA of various intron-containing genes have been reported. A class of mammalian retroposons, long interspersed element-1 (LINE1, L1), has been shown to be involved in the reverse transcription of retrogenes (or processed pseudogenes) and non-autonomous short interspersed elements (SINEs). The 3′-end sequences of various SINEs originated from a corresponding LINE. As the 3′-untranslated regions of several LINEs are essential for retroposition, these LINEs presumably require “stringent” recognition of the 3′-end sequence of the RNA template. However, the 3′-ends of mammalian L1s do not exhibit any similarity to SINEs, except for the presence of 3′-poly(A) repeats. Since the 3′-poly(A) repeats of L1 and Alu SINE are critical for their retroposition, L1 probably recognizes the poly(A) repeats, thereby mobilizing not only Alu SINE but also cytosolic mRNA. Many flowering plants only harbor L1-clade LINEs and a significant number of SINEs with poly(A) repeats, but no homology to the LINEs. Moreover, processed pseudogenes have also been found in flowering plants. I propose that the ancestral L1-clade LINE in the common ancestor of green plants may have recognized a specific RNA template, with stringent recognition then becoming relaxed during the course of plant evolution. PMID:23984183

  20. Critical behavior and duality in extended Sine-Gordon theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Holman, R.

    1991-01-01

    We study the critical properties of vectorial sine-Gordon theories based on the root system of simply-laced Lie algebras. We introduce the dual operators and study the renormalization aspects of these theories. These models are identified with vectorial Coulomb gas models of electric and magnetic charges and generalized Toda field theories. We prove that these theories are consistently renormalizable for simply-laced Lie algebras, but non-renormalizable in general in the non-simply-laced case. These models provide a description for the statistical mechanics of melting in the SU(3) case. They also provide a simplified model for strings compactified on root lattices. We compute the RG beta functions to quadratic order for general simply-laced algebras and find that in general there is a Weyl singlet, self-dual fixed point. This fixed point describes a critical theory with condensates of electric and magnetic charges corresponding to tachyonic and winding modes in string language. The different phases are related by Weyl and duality symmetry. The phase structure is conjectured in the general case, and analyzed in detail for SU(3) and SO(6). We compute Zamolodchikov's c-function to cubic order in the couplings in the general case and the conformal anomaly at the self-dual fixed point for SU(N). (orig.)

  1. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) of squamate reptiles (Squam1 and Squam2): structure and phylogenetic significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grechko, Vernata V; Kosushkin, Sergei A; Borodulina, Olga R; Butaeva, Fatima G; Darevsky, Ilya S

    2011-05-15

    Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are important nuclear molecular markers of the evolution of many eukaryotes. However, the SINEs of squamate reptile genomes have been little studied. We first identified two families of SINEs, termed Squam1 and Squam2, in the DNA of meadow lizard Darevskia praticola (Lacertidae) by performing DNA hybridization and PCR. Later, the same families of retrotransposons were found using the same methods in members of another 25 lizard families (from Iguania, Scincomorpha, Gekkota, Varanoidea, and Diploglossa infraorders) and two snake families, but their abundances in these taxa varied greatly. Both SINEs were Squamata-specific and were absent from mammals, birds, crocodiles, turtles, amphibians, and fish. Squam1 possessed some characteristics common to tRNA-related SINEs from fish and mammals, while Squam2 belonged to the tRNA(Ala) group of SINEs and had a more unusual and divergent structure. Squam2-related sequences were found in several unannotated GenBank sequences of squamate reptiles. Squam1 abundance in the Polychrotidae, Agamidae, Leiolepididae, Chamaeleonidae, Scincidae, Lacertidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, Helodermatidae, and two snake families were 10(2) -10(4) times higher than those in other taxa (Corytophanidae, Iguanidae, Anguidae, Cordylidae, Gerrhosauridae, Pygopodidae, and Eublepharidae). A less dramatic degree of copy number variation was observed for Squam2 in different taxa. Several Squam1 copies from Lacertidae, Chamaeleonidae, Gekkonidae, Varanidae, and Colubridae were sequenced and found to have evident orthologous features, as well as taxa-specific autapomorphies. Squam1 from Lacertidae and Chamaeleonidae could be divided into several subgroups based on sequence differences. Possible applications of these SINEs as Squamata phylogeny markers are discussed. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc., A Wiley Company.

  2. Analyses of carnivore microsatellites and their intimate association with tRNA-derived SINEs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Giráldez, Francesc; Andrés, Olga; Domingo-Roura, Xavier; Bosch, Montserrat

    2006-10-23

    The popularity of microsatellites has greatly increased in the last decade on account of their many applications. However, little is currently understood about the factors that influence their genesis and distribution among and within species genomes. In this work, we analyzed carnivore microsatellite clones from GenBank to study their association with interspersed repeats and elucidate the role of the latter in microsatellite genesis and distribution. We constructed a comprehensive carnivore microsatellite database comprising 1236 clones from GenBank. Thirty-three species of 11 out of 12 carnivore families were represented, although two distantly related species, the domestic dog and cat, were clearly overrepresented. Of these clones, 330 contained tRNALys-derived SINEs and 357 contained other interspersed repeats. Our rough estimates of tRNA SINE copies per haploid genome were much higher than published ones. Our results also revealed a distinct juxtaposition of AG and A-rich repeats and tRNALys-derived SINEs suggesting their coevolution. Both microsatellites arose repeatedly in two regions of the interspersed repeat. Moreover, microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs showed the highest complexity and less potential instability. Our results suggest that tRNALys-derived SINEs are a significant source for microsatellite generation in carnivores, especially for AG and A-rich repeat motifs. These observations indicate two modes of microsatellite generation: the expansion and variation of pre-existing tandem repeats and the conversion of sequences with high cryptic simplicity into a repeat array; mechanisms which are not specific to tRNALys-derived SINEs. Microsatellite and interspersed repeat coevolution could also explain different distribution of repeat types among and within species genomes.Finally, due to their higher complexity and lower potential informative content of microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs, we recommend avoiding

  3. Analyses of carnivore microsatellites and their intimate association with tRNA-derived SINEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Montserrat

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The popularity of microsatellites has greatly increased in the last decade on account of their many applications. However, little is currently understood about the factors that influence their genesis and distribution among and within species genomes. In this work, we analyzed carnivore microsatellite clones from GenBank to study their association with interspersed repeats and elucidate the role of the latter in microsatellite genesis and distribution. Results We constructed a comprehensive carnivore microsatellite database comprising 1236 clones from GenBank. Thirty-three species of 11 out of 12 carnivore families were represented, although two distantly related species, the domestic dog and cat, were clearly overrepresented. Of these clones, 330 contained tRNALys-derived SINEs and 357 contained other interspersed repeats. Our rough estimates of tRNA SINE copies per haploid genome were much higher than published ones. Our results also revealed a distinct juxtaposition of AG and A-rich repeats and tRNALys-derived SINEs suggesting their coevolution. Both microsatellites arose repeatedly in two regions of the insterspersed repeat. Moreover, microsatellites associated with tRNALys-derived SINEs showed the highest complexity and less potential instability. Conclusion Our results suggest that tRNALys-derived SINEs are a significant source for microsatellite generation in carnivores, especially for AG and A-rich repeat motifs. These observations indicate two modes of microsatellite generation: the expansion and variation of pre-existing tandem repeats and the conversion of sequences with high cryptic simplicity into a repeat array; mechanisms which are not specific to tRNALys-derived SINEs. Microsatellite and interspersed repeat coevolution could also explain different distribution of repeat types among and within species genomes. Finally, due to their higher complexity and lower potential informative content of microsatellites

  4. What happens to linear properties as we move from the Klein-Gordon equation to the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovalyov, Mikhail

    2010-01-01

    In this article the sets of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation and its linearization the Klein-Gordon equation are discussed and compared. It is shown that the set of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation possesses a richer structure which partly disappears during linearization. Just like the solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation satisfy the linear superposition principle, the solutions of the sine-Gordon equation satisfy a nonlinear superposition principle.

  5. Nullum Crimen sine Lege in the International Criminal Court

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venus GHAREH BAGHI

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Principles of legality in crimes and punishments refer to the fact that an act is not considered a crime and deserves no punishment, until the legislator determines and announces thecriminal title and its penalty. In Iranian legal system, before the Islamic Revolution and also after it, the Constitution and ordinary laws have explicitly emphasized the observance of the mentionedprinciple. When there is no text or in the case of the silence or lack of law, the criminal judge is bound to issue the verdict of innocence. According to the Rome statute the court shall exercisejurisdiction over the crime of aggressions once a provision is adopted. And, according to the article 121 and 123 defending the crime and setting out, the condition under which the Court shall exercise jurisdiction with respect to crimes such as provision shall be consisted of the head of the general principle the relevant provision of the charter of the United Nations. The principle of legality is set out in article 22 to 24 of the ICC statute. These norms are derived from the customary law and the national law. Article 15, International Covenant on Civil and Political rights, states that no one shall be found guilty of any criminal offence based on an act or omission which did not constitute a criminal offence under national or international laws at the time when it was committed. Yet, in the context of prosecuting mass atrocities, genocide, crimes against humanity, and war crimes, international criminal law appears to be resigned to such a principle, if not openly including it. fact, that it may be considered the poor cousin of nullum crimen sine lege (no crime without law which has attracted far greater consideration in scholarship and jurisprudence.

  6. A generalized sine condition and performance comparison of Wolter type II and Wolter-Schwarzschild extreme ultraviolet telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    An equation similar to the Abbe sine condition is derived for a Wolter type II telescope. This equation and the sine condition are then combined to produce a so called generalized sine condition. Using the law of reflection, Fermat's principle, the generalized sine condition, and simple geometry the surface equations for a Wolter type II telescope and an equivalent Wolter-Schwarzschild telescope are calculated. The performances of the telescopes are compared in terms of rms blur circle radius at the Gaussian focal plane and at best focus.

  7. Cosine and sine operators related to orthogonal polynomial sets on the interval [-1, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appl, Thomas; Schiller, Diethard H

    2005-01-01

    The quantization of phase is still an open problem. In the approach of Susskind and Glogower, the so-called cosine and sine operators play a fundamental role. Their eigenstates in the Fock representation are related to the Chebyshev polynomials of the second kind. Here we introduce more general cosine and sine operators whose eigenfunctions in the Fock basis are related in a similar way to arbitrary orthogonal polynomial sets on the interval [-1, 1]. To each polynomial set defined in terms of a weight function there corresponds a pair of cosine and sine operators. Depending on the symmetry of the weight function, we distinguish generalized or extended operators. Their eigenstates are used to define cosine and sine representations and probability distributions. We also consider the arccosine and arcsine operators and use their eigenstates to define cosine-phase and sine-phase distributions, respectively. Specific, numerical and graphical results are given for the classical orthogonal polynomials and for particular Fock and coherent states

  8. Searching for the prototypic eye genetic network: Sine oculis is essential for eye regeneration in planarians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, D.; Gonzalez, J.; Callaerts, P.; Ikeo, K.; Gehring, W. J.; Salo, E.

    2000-01-01

    We have identified a sine oculis gene in the planarian Girardia tigrina (Platyhelminthes; Turbellaria; Tricladida). The planarian sine oculis gene (Gtso) encodes a protein with a sine oculis (Six) domain and a homeodomain that shares significant sequence similarity with so proteins assigned to the Six-2 gene family. Gtso is expressed as a single transcript in both regenerating and fully developed eyes. Whole-mount in situ hybridization studies show exclusive expression in photoreceptor cells. Loss of function of Gtso by RNA interference during planarian regeneration inhibits eye regeneration completely. Gtso is also essential for maintenance of the differentiated state of photoreceptor cells. These results, combined with the previously demonstrated expression of Pax-6 in planarian eyes, suggest that the same basic gene regulatory circuit required for eye development in Drosophila and mouse is used in the prototypic eye spots of platyhelminthes and, therefore, is truly conserved during evolution. PMID:10781056

  9. Kink-antikink interactions in a modified sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyrard, M.; Campbell, D.K.; Los Alamos National Lab., NM

    1983-01-01

    We study numerically the interactions of a kink (K) and an antikink (anti K) in a parametrically modified sine-Gordon model with potential V(PHI)=(1-r) 2 (1-cos PHI)/(1+r 2 +2r cos PHI). As the parameter r is varied from the pure sine-Gordon case (r=0) to values for which the model is not completely integrable (rnot=0), we find that a rich structure arises in the Kanti K collisions. For some regions of r(-0.20 4 model, and we show that the theory recently suggested for these collisions also applies quantitatively to the modified sine-Gordon model. In other regions of r we observe new scattering phenomena, which we present in detail numerically and discuss in a qualitative manner analytically. (orig.)

  10. Ground vibration test results of a JetStar airplane using impulsive sine excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehoe, Michael W.; Voracek, David F.

    1989-01-01

    Structural excitation is important for both ground vibration and flight flutter testing. The structural responses caused by this excitation are analyzed to determine frequency, damping, and mode shape information. Many excitation waveforms have been used throughout the years. The use of impulsive sine (sin omega t)/omega t as an excitation waveform for ground vibration testing and the advantages of using this waveform for flight flutter testing are discussed. The ground vibration test results of a modified JetStar airplane using impulsive sine as an excitation waveform are compared with the test results of the same airplane using multiple-input random excitation. The results indicated that the structure was sufficiently excited using the impulsive sine waveform. Comparisons of input force spectrums, mode shape plots, and frequency and damping values for the two methods of excitation are presented.

  11. Modified hyperbolic sine model for titanium dioxide-based memristive thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Bakar, Raudah; Syahirah Kamarozaman, Nur; Fazlida Hanim Abdullah, Wan; Herman, Sukreen Hana

    2018-03-01

    Since the emergence of memristor as the newest fundamental circuit elements, studies on memristor modeling have been evolved. To date, the developed models were based on the linear model, linear ionic drift model using different window functions, tunnelling barrier model and hyperbolic-sine function based model. Although using hyperbolic-sine function model could predict the memristor electrical properties, the model was not well fitted to the experimental data. In order to improve the performance of the hyperbolic-sine function model, the state variable equation was modified. On the one hand, the addition of window function cannot provide an improved fitting. By multiplying the Yakopcic’s state variable model to Chang’s model on the other hand resulted in the closer agreement with the TiO2 thin film experimental data. The percentage error was approximately 2.15%.

  12. Cross-Correlation-Function-Based Multipath Mitigation Method for Sine-BOC Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Chen

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS positioning accuracy indoor and urban canyons environments are greatly affected by multipath due to distortions in its autocorrelation function. In this paper, a cross-correlation function between the received sine phased Binary Offset Carrier (sine-BOC modulation signal and the local signal is studied firstly, and a new multipath mitigation method based on cross-correlation function for sine-BOC signal is proposed. This method is implemented to create a cross-correlation function by designing the modulated symbols of the local signal. The theoretical analysis and simulation results indicate that the proposed method exhibits better multipath mitigation performance compared with the traditional Double Delta Correlator (DDC techniques, especially the medium/long delay multipath signals, and it is also convenient and flexible to implement by using only one correlator, which is the case of low-cost mass-market receivers.

  13. Arbitrarily large numbers of kink internal modes in inhomogeneous sine-Gordon equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González, J.A., E-mail: jalbertgonz@yahoo.es [Department of Physics, Florida International University, Miami, FL 33199 (United States); Department of Natural Sciences, Miami Dade College, 627 SW 27th Ave., Miami, FL 33135 (United States); Bellorín, A., E-mail: alberto.bellorin@ucv.ve [Escuela de Física, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Apartado Postal 47586, Caracas 1041-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); García-Ñustes, M.A., E-mail: monica.garcia@pucv.cl [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, Casilla 4059 (Chile); Guerrero, L.E., E-mail: lguerre@usb.ve [Departamento de Física, Universidad Simón Bolívar, Apartado Postal 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Jiménez, S., E-mail: s.jimenez@upm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada a las TT.II., E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain); Vázquez, L., E-mail: lvazquez@fdi.ucm.es [Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Facultad de Informática, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040-Madrid (Spain)

    2017-06-28

    We prove analytically the existence of an infinite number of internal (shape) modes of sine-Gordon solitons in the presence of some inhomogeneous long-range forces, provided some conditions are satisfied. - Highlights: • We have found exact kink solutions to the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. • We have been able to study analytically the kink stability problem. • A kink equilibrated by an exponentially-localized perturbation has a finite number of oscillation modes. • A sufficiently broad equilibrating perturbation supports an infinite number of soliton internal modes.

  14. Intermittent Switching between Soliton Dynamic States in a Perturbed Sine-Gordon Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mads Peter; Arley, N.; Christiansen, Peter Leth

    1983-01-01

    Chaotic intermittency between soliton dynamic states has been found in a perturbed sine-Gordon system in the absence of an external ac driving term. The system is a model of a long Josephson oscillator with constant loss and bias current in an external magnetic field. The results predict the exis......Chaotic intermittency between soliton dynamic states has been found in a perturbed sine-Gordon system in the absence of an external ac driving term. The system is a model of a long Josephson oscillator with constant loss and bias current in an external magnetic field. The results predict...

  15. [SINEs in mammalian genomes can serve as additional signals in formation of facultative heterochromatin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usmanova, N M; Kazakov, V I; Tomilin, N V

    2008-01-01

    Using computer-based methods we determined the global distribution of short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) in the human and mouse X chromosomes. It has been shown that this distributions is similar to the distributions of CpG islands and genes but is different from the distribution of LINE1 elements. Since SINEs (human Alu and mouse B2) may have binding sites for Polycomb protein YY1, we suggest that these repeats can serve as additional signals ("boosters") in Polycomb-dependent silencing of gene rich segments during X inactivation.

  16. Characterization of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Lin, Xiaofei; Peddigari, Suresh; Takechi, Katsuaki; Takano, Hiroyoshi; Takio, Susumu

    2007-02-01

    Short interspersed element (SINE)-like sequences referred to as PySN1 and PySN2 were identified in a red alga, Porphyra yezoensis. Both elements contained an internal promoter with motifs (A box and B box) recognized by RNA polymerase III, and target site duplications at both ends. Genomic Southern blot analysis revealed that both elements were widely and abundantly distributed on the genome. 3' and 5' RACE suggested that PySN1 was expressed as a chimera transcript with flanking SINE-unrelated sequences and possessed the poly-A tail at the same position near the 3' end of PySN1.

  17. Group-theoretical aspects of the discrete sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orfanidis, S.J.

    1980-01-01

    The group-theoretical interpretation of the sine-Gordon equation in terms of connection forms on fiber bundles is extended to the discrete case. Solutions of the discrete sine-Gordon equation induce surfaces on a lattice in the SU(2) group space. The inverse scattering representation, expressing the parallel transport of fibers, is implemented by means of finite rotations. Discrete Baecklund transformations are realized as gauge transformations. The three-dimensional inverse scattering representation is used to derive a discrete nonlinear sigma model, and the corresponding Baecklund transformation and Pohlmeyer's R transformation are constructed

  18. Thermal sine-Gordon system in the presence of different types of dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm; Svensmark, Henrik

    1988-01-01

    The effects of thermal fluctuations on solitons and phonons of the sine-Gordon system are investigated in the presence of a αφt-βφxxt dissipation. The analysis requires the assumption of a more general autocorrelation function for the noise than the one used in previous works. We verify that this......The effects of thermal fluctuations on solitons and phonons of the sine-Gordon system are investigated in the presence of a αφt-βφxxt dissipation. The analysis requires the assumption of a more general autocorrelation function for the noise than the one used in previous works. We verify...

  19. Covariant form for the conserved currents of the sine-Gordon and Liouville theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freedman, D.Z.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Lerda, A.; Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge; Penati, S.

    1990-01-01

    A conserved covariant fourth rank tensor current J μαβγ is constructed for these models both in flat and constant curvature space. For flat space, ∫ dx + J ++++ and its parity conjugate agree with well known results for the lowest grade sine-Gordon conserved charges. However potentially new charges such as ∫ dx + J +++- and ∫ dx + J +++α ε αβ x β either vanish or fail to be conserved because J μαβγ is not symmetric in μ↔γ. There is one curious exception for sine-Gordon models in anti-de Sitter space. (orig.)

  20. Reshaping-induced spatiotemporal chaos in driven, damped sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chacon, R.

    2007-01-01

    Spatiotemporal chaos arising from the competition between sine-Gordon-breather and kink-antikink-pair solitons by reshaping an ac force is demonstrated. After introducing soliton collective coordinates, Melnikov's method is applied to the resulting effective equation of motion to estimate the parameter-space regions of the ac force where homoclinic bifurcations are induced. The analysis reveals that the chaos-order threshold exhibits sensitivity to small changes in the force shape. Computer simulations of the sine-Gordon system show good agreement with these theoretical predictions

  1. Reshaping-induced spatiotemporal chaos in driven, damped sine-Gordon systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacon, R. [Departamento de Electronica e Ingenieria Electromecanica, Escuela de Ingenierias Industriales, Universidad de Extremadura, E-06071 Badajoz (Spain)]. E-mail: rchacon@unex.es

    2007-03-15

    Spatiotemporal chaos arising from the competition between sine-Gordon-breather and kink-antikink-pair solitons by reshaping an ac force is demonstrated. After introducing soliton collective coordinates, Melnikov's method is applied to the resulting effective equation of motion to estimate the parameter-space regions of the ac force where homoclinic bifurcations are induced. The analysis reveals that the chaos-order threshold exhibits sensitivity to small changes in the force shape. Computer simulations of the sine-Gordon system show good agreement with these theoretical predictions.

  2. Solving (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation by a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ka-Lin, Su; Yuan-Xi, Xie

    2010-01-01

    By introducing a more general auxiliary ordinary differential equation (ODE), a modified variable separated ordinary differential equation method is presented for solving the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation. As a result, many explicit and exact solutions of the (2 + 1)-dimensional sine-Poisson equation are derived in a simple manner by this technique. (general)

  3. Fredholm determinant representation of quantum correlation function for Sine-Gordon at special value of coupling constant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoyama, H.; Korepin, V.E.; Thacker, H.B.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, correlation functions of the Sine-Gordon model (which is equivalent of the Massive-Thirring model) are considered at the free fermion point. The authors derive a determinant formula for local correlation functions of the Sine-Gordon model, starting form Bethe ansatz wave function. Kernel of integral operator is trigonometric version of the one for Impenetrable Bosons

  4. On the applicability of the layered sine-Gordon model for Josephson-coupled high-Tc layered superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandori, I; Jentschura, U D; Nagy, S; Sailer, K; Vad, K; Meszaros, S

    2007-01-01

    We find a mapping of the layered sine-Gordon model to an equivalent gas of topological excitations and determine the long-range interaction potentials of the topological defects. This enables us to make a detailed comparison to the so-called layered vortex gas, which can be obtained from the layered Ginzburg-Landau model. The layered sine-Gordon model has been proposed in the literature as a candidate field-theoretical model for Josephson-coupled high-T c superconductors, and the implications of our analysis for the applicability of the layered sine-Gordon model to high-T c superconductors are discussed. We are led to the conjecture that the layered sine-Gordon and the layered vortex gas models belong to different universality classes. The determination of the critical temperature of the layered sine-Gordon model is based on a renormalization-group analysis

  5. Closed-form expressions for integrals of MKdV and sine-Gordon maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamp, Peter H van der; Rojas, O; Quispel, G R W

    2007-01-01

    We present closed-form expressions for approximately N integrals of 2N-dimensional maps. The maps are obtained by travelling wave reductions of the modified Korteweg-de Vries equation and of the sine-Gordon equation, respectively. We provide the integrating factors corresponding to the integrals. Moreover we show how the integrals and the integrating factors relate to the staircase method

  6. Breather kink-antikink-pair conversion in the driven sine-Gordon system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lomdahl, P. S.; Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1984-01-01

    Breather excitations in the sine-Gordon equation influenced by constant driving forces are investigated—large driving forces cause the breather to split into a kk― (2π kink-2π antikink) pair while for small driving forces the breather excitations enter stationary modes. A perturbation method...

  7. Regularized integrable version of the one-dimensional quantum sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japaridze, G.I.; Nersesyan, A.A.; Wiegmann, P.B.

    1983-01-01

    The authors derive a regularized exactly solvable version of the one-dimensional quantum sine-Gordon model proceeding from the exact solution of the U(1)-symmetric Thirring model. The ground state and the excitation spectrum are obtained in the region ν 2 < 8π. (Auth.)

  8. Internal oscillation frequencies and anharmonic effects for the double sine-Gordon kink

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salerno, M.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1989-01-01

    A simple derivation of the small oscillation frequency around 4π-kink solutions of the double sine-Gordon equation is presented. Small corrections to these frequencies due to anharmonic effects are also numerically and analytically investigated. The analysis is based on energetic considerations...

  9. Stabilization of breathers in a parametrically driven sine-Gordon system with loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech-Jensen, N.; Kivshar, Yu. S.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1991-01-01

    We demonstrate that in a parametrically driven sine-Gordon system with loss, a breather, if driven, can be maintained in a steady state at half the external frequency. In the small-amplitude limit the system is described by the effective perturbed nonlinear Schrödinger equation. For an arbitrary...

  10. Overview of multi-input frequency domain modal testing methods with an emphasis on sine testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rost, Robert W.; Brown, David L.

    1988-01-01

    An overview of the current state of the art multiple-input, multiple-output modal testing technology is discussed. A very brief review of the current time domain methods is given. A detailed review of frequency and spatial domain methods is presented with an emphasis on sine testing.

  11. The LINEs and SINEs of Entamoeba histolytica: comparative analysis and genomic distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakre, Abhijeet A; Rawal, Kamal; Ramaswamy, Ram; Bhattacharya, Alok; Bhattacharya, Sudha

    2005-07-01

    Autonomous non-long terminal repeat retrotransposons are commonly referred to as long interspersed elements (LINEs). Short non-autonomous elements that borrow the LINE machinery are called SINES. The Entamoeba histolytica genome contains three classes of LINEs and SINEs. Together the EhLINEs/SINEs account for about 6% of the genome. The recognizable functional domains in all three EhLINEs included reverse transcriptase and endonuclease. A novel feature was the presence of two types of members-some with a single long ORF (less frequent) and some with two ORFs (more frequent) in both EhLINE1 and 2. The two ORFs were generated by conserved changes leading to stop codon. Computational analysis of the immediate flanking sequences for each element showed that they inserted in AT-rich sequences, with a preponderance of Ts in the upstream site. The elements were very frequently located close to protein-coding genes and other EhLINEs/SINEs. The possible influence of these elements on expression of neighboring genes needs to be determined.

  12. Scattering of topological solitons on barriers and holes of deformed Sine-Gordon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Alawi, Jassem H; Zakrzewski, Wojtek J

    2008-01-01

    We study various scattering properties of topological solitons in two classes of models, which are the generalizations of the Sine-Gordon model and which have recently been proposed by Bazeia et al. These two classes of models depend on a positive real nonzero parameter n but in this paper we consider the models only for its integer values as when n = 2 (for the first class) and n = 1 (for the second class), the model reduces to the Sine-Gordon one. We take the soliton solutions of these models (generalizations of the 'kink' solution of the Sine-Gordon model) and consider their scattering on potential holes and barriers. We present our results for n = 1, ..., 6. We find that, like in the Sine-Gordon models, the scattering on the barrier is very elastic while the scattering on the hole is inelastic and can, at times, lead to a reflection. We discuss the dependence of our results on n and find that the critical velocity for the transmission through the hole is lowest for n = 3

  13. Fatigue Damage Spectrum calculation in a Mission Synthesis procedure for Sine-on-Random excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angeli, Andrea; Troncossi, Marco; Cornelis, Bram

    2016-01-01

    In many real-life environments, certain mechanical and electronic components may be subjected to Sine-on-Random vibrations, i.e. excitations composed of random vibrations superimposed on deterministic (sinusoidal) contributions, in particular sine tones due to some rotating parts of the system (e.g. helicopters, engine-mounted components,...). These components must be designed to withstand the fatigue damage induced by the “composed” vibration environment, and qualification tests are advisable for the most critical ones. In the case of an accelerated qualification test, a proper test tailoring which starts from the real environment (measured vibration signals) and which preserves not only the accumulated fatigue damage but also the “nature” of the excitation (i.e. sinusoidal components plus random process) is important to obtain reliable results. In this paper, the classic time domain approach is taken as a reference for the comparison of different methods for the Fatigue Damage Spectrum (FDS) calculation in case of Sine-on-Random vibration environments. Then, a methodology to compute a Sine-on-Random specification based on a mission FDS is proposed. (paper)

  14. Grand partition function in field theory with applications to sine-Gordon field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuel, S.

    1978-01-01

    Certain relativistic field theories are shown to be equivalent to the grand partition function of an interacting gas. Using the physical insight given by this analogy many field-theoretic results are obtained, particularly for the sine-Gordon field theory. The main results are enumerated in the summary to which the reader is referred

  15. Solitons and separable elliptic solutions of the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryan, A.C.; Haines, C.R.; Stuart, A.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    It is pointed out that the two-soliton (antisoliton) solutions of the sine-Gordon equation may be obtained as limiting cases of a separable, two-parameter family of elliptic solutions. The solitons are found on the boundary of the parameter space for the elliptic solutions when the latter are considered over their usual complex domain. (Auth.)

  16. Simple connection between conservation laws in the Korteweg--de Vriesand sine-Gordon systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chodos, A.

    1980-01-01

    An infinite sequence of conserved quantities follows from the Lax representation in both the Korteweg--de Vries and sine-Gordon systems. We show that these two sequences are related by a simple substitution. In an appendix, two different methods of deriving conservation laws from the Lax representation are presented

  17. Persistent breather excitations in an ac-driven sine-Gordon system with loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lomdahl, P.S.; Samuelsen, M.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a sine-Gordon system with loss and applied ac driver, a breather can be maintained as a persistent entrained oscillation if the driver is strong enough. The threshold field is determined by a perturbation method and compared to numerical experiments. Excellent agreement is found

  18. The sine method as a more accurate height predictor for hardwoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Don C. Bragg

    2007-01-01

    Most hypsometers apply a mathematical technique that utilizes the tangent of angles and a horizontal distance to deliver the exact height of a tree under idealized circumstances. Unfortunately, these conditions are rarely met for hardwoods in the field. A “new” predictor based on sine and slope distance and discussed here does not require the same assumptions for...

  19. Sine-Gordon 2-pi-kink dynamics in the presence of small perturbations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1983-01-01

    The influence of external driving forces on the 2π-kink solution to the sine-Gordon equation is examined. The analysis is based on the approach that the solution to the problem can be divided into a 2π-kink part and a background or vacuum part. The behavior of the 2π kink depends strongly...

  20. Discovering Trigonometric Relationships Implied by the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skurnick, Ronald; Javadi, Mohammad

    2006-01-01

    The Law of Sines and The Law of Cosines are of paramount importance in the field of trigonometry because these two theorems establish relationships satisfied by the three sides and the three angles of any triangle. In this article, the authors use these two laws to discover a host of other trigonometric relationships that exist within any…

  1. Correlations between chaos in a perturbed sine-Gordon equation and a truncated model system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bishop, A.R.; Flesch, R.; Forests, M.G.; Overman, E.A.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a first step toward providing coordinates and associated dynamics for low-dimensional attractors in nearly integrable partial differential equations (pdes), in particular, where the truncated system reflects salient geometric properties of the pde. This is achieved by correlating: (1) numerical results on the bifurcations to temporal chaos with spatial coherence of the damped, periodically forced sine-Gordon equation with periodic boundary conditions; (2) an interpretation of the spatial and temporal bifurcation structures of this perturbed integrable system with regard to the exact structure of the sine-Gordon phase space; (3) a model dynamical systems problem, which is itself a perturbed integrable Hamiltonian system, derived from the perturbed sine-Gordon equation by a finite mode Fourier truncation in the nonlinear Schroedinger limit; and (4) the bifurcations to chaos in the truncated phase space. In particular, a potential source of chaos in both the pde and the model ordinary differential equation systems is focused on: the existence of homoclinic orbits in the unperturbed integrable phase space and their continuation in the perturbed problem. The evidence presented here supports the thesis that the chaotic attractors of the weakly perturbed periodic sine-Gordon system consists of low-dimensional metastable attacking states together with intermediate states that are O(1) unstable and correspond to homoclinic states in the integrable phase space. It is surmised that the chaotic dynamics on these attractors is due to the perturbation of these homocline integrable configurations

  2. Short interspersed CAN SINE elements as prognostic markers in canine mammary neoplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelaleti, Gabriela B; Granzotto, Adriana; Leonel, Camila; Jardim, Bruna V; Moschetta, Marina G; Carareto, Claudia M A; Zuccari, Debora Ap P C

    2014-01-01

    The genome of mammals is characterized by a large number of non-LTR retrotransposons, and among them, the CAN SINEs are characteristics of the canine species. Small amounts of DNA freely circulate in normal blood serum and high amounts are found in human patients with cancer, characterizing it as a candidate tumor-biomarker. The aim of this study was to estimate, through its absolute expression, the number of copies of CAN SINE sequences present in free circulating DNA of female dogs with mammary cancer, in order to correlate with the clinical and pathological characteristics and the follow-up period. The copy number of CAN SINE sequences was estimated by qPCR in 28 female dogs with mammary neoplasia. The univariate analysis showed an increased number of copies in female dogs with mammary tumor in female dogs >10 years old (p=0.02) and tumor time >18 months (pSINE fragments can be good markers for the detection of tumor DNA in blood and may characterize it as a marker of poor prognosis, being related to female dogs with shorter survival times. This estimate can be used as a prognostic marker in non-invasive breast cancer research and is useful in predicting tumor progression and patient monitoring.

  3. Stress induction of Bm1 RNA in silkworm larvae: SINEs, an unusual class of stress genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Richard H.; Choudary, Prabhakara V.; Stone, Koni K.; Schmid, Carl W.

    2001-01-01

    This study surveys the induction of RNA polymerase III (Pol III)–directed expression of short interspersed element (SINE) transcripts by various stresses in an animal model, silkworm larvae. Sublethal heat shock and exposure to several toxic compounds increase the level of Bm1 RNA, the silkworm SINE transcript, while also transiently increasing expression of a well-characterized stress-induced transcript, Hsp70 messenger RNA (mRNA). In certain cases, the Bm1 RNA response coincides with that of Hsp70 mRNA, but more often Bm1 RNA responds later in recovery. Baculovirus infection and exposure to certain toxic compounds increase Bm1 RNA but not Hsp70 mRNA, showing that SINE induction is not necessarily coupled to transcription of this particular heat shock gene. SINEs behave as an additional class of stress-inducible genes in living animals but are unusual as stress genes because of their high copy number, genomic dispersion, and Pol III–directed transcription. PMID:11599568

  4. An equivalence between the discrete Gaussian model and a generalized Sine Gordon theory on a lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baskaran, G.; Gupte, N.

    1983-11-01

    We demonstrate an equivalence between the statistical mechanics of the discrete Gaussian model and a generalized Sine-Gordon theory on an Euclidean lattice in arbitrary dimensions. The connection is obtained by a simple transformation of the partition function and is non perturbative in nature. (author)

  5. The stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs: Exact analytical solutions for simple topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabirov, K.; Rakhmanov, S.; Matrasulov, D.; Susanto, H.

    2018-04-01

    We consider the stationary sine-Gordon equation on metric graphs with simple topologies. Exact analytical solutions are obtained for different vertex boundary conditions. It is shown that the method can be extended for tree and other simple graph topologies. Applications of the obtained results to branched planar Josephson junctions and Josephson junctions with tricrystal boundaries are discussed.

  6. A Classroom Note on Generating Examples for the Laws of Sines and Cosines from Pythagorean Triangles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sher, Lawrence; Sher, David

    2007-01-01

    By selecting certain special triangles, students can learn about the laws of sines and cosines without wrestling with long decimal representations or irrational numbers. Since the law of cosines requires only one of the three angles of a triangle, there are many examples of triangles with integral sides and a cosine that can be represented exactly…

  7. Emotional Intelligence: The Sine Qua Non for a Clinical Leadership Toolbox

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Paul R.

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? "Harvard Business Review," 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of…

  8. Conjunctival amelanotic malignant melanoma arising in primary acquired melanosis sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, V; Font, R L

    1998-01-01

    The authors describe an amelanotic malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva in association with primary acquired melanosis (PAM) sine pigmento, and highlight the clinical and pathologic features of this rare entity. Histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies were performed on a conjunctival tumor in a 54-year-old white woman. Case report. Histopathologic examination revealed an invasive amelanotic melanoma of the conjunctiva, with anterior orbital extension arising from intraepithelial dysplastic melanocytes that lacked melanin pigment (PAM sine pigmento). Both the malignant melanoma cells and the intraepithelial dysplastic melanocytes in the areas of PAM exhibited S-100 and HMB-45 positivity. The patient underwent an orbital exenteration that disclosed tumor within the anterior orbit inferiorly. Amelanotic invasive malignant melanoma can arise in association with PAM sine pigmento, as seen in our patient who had orbital invasion necessitating exenteration. This aggressive form of conjunctival melanoma is often associated with a poor prognosis and risk of metastatic disease. Absence of conjunctival pigmentation in PAM sine pigmento prevents early clinical detection of this variant of PAM. This lack of pigmentation also makes clinical diagnosis virtually impossible, and diagnosis can only be established histopathologically. Awareness of this nonpigmented variety of PAM is crucial for early recognition and appropriate management of the associated melanoma.

  9. Branch structures at the steps of the devil's staircase of the sine circle map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen, H.C.; Duong-van, M.

    1992-01-01

    We have discovered substructures consisting of branches at each step of the devil's staircase of the sine circle map. These substructures are found to follow the hierarchy of the Farey tree. We develop a formalism to relate the rational winding number W=p/q to the number of branches in these substructures

  10. Approximate treatment of two soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mihaly, L.

    1979-05-01

    The so called breather solution of the sine-Gordon equation is phenomenologically described by an appropri.ately choosen potential acting between two particles. For some applications the method proves to be equivalent to other classical and quantum calculations. (author)

  11. Pedogenese et potentialites forestieres des sols sulfates acides sales des Tannes du Sine Saloum, Senegal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadio, S.

    1989-01-01

    Soils of the "Tannes region" of the Sine Saloum bassin, Senegal, are characterized by great heterogenity in morphology and physical and chemical properties. Their caracteristics are linked to topographic position, material and hydrology.

    Their recent pedogenetical evolution is a

  12. Palaeomagnetism in the Sines massif (SW Iberia) revisited: evidences for Late Cretaceous hydrothermal alteration and associated partial remagnetization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, P.; Silva, P. F.; Moita, P.; Kratinová, Z.; Marques, F. O.; Henry, B.

    2013-10-01

    This study revisits the palaeomagnetism of the Sines massif (˜76 Ma) in the southwestern Iberian Margin (Portugal). The palaeomagnetic analysis was complemented by a comprehensive study of the magnetic mineralogy by means of rock magnetic measurements and petrographic observations. The overall dispersion of palaeomagnetic directions (declination ranging between ˜N0° and ˜N50°) and their migration observed during stepwise demagnetizations have revealed the superposition of remanence components. We interpret this complex palaeomagnetic behaviour as related to the regional hydrothermalism associated with the last stages of Late Cretaceous magmatic activity. This environment favoured mineralogical alteration and a partial chemical remagnetization, giving in most samples a composite magnetization, which has been erroneously interpreted as the primary one in a previous study, then leading to a questionable model for Cretaceous Iberia rotation. Nonetheless, for some samples a single component has been isolated. Interesting rock magnetic properties and microscopic observations point to a well-preserved magnetic mineralogy for these samples, with magnetite clearly of primary origin. The associated ChRM mean direction (D/I = 3.9°/46.5°, α95 = 1.7°, N = 31 samples) then represents the true primary magnetization of the Sines massif. This new palaeomagnetic direction and the corresponding palaeomagnetic pole (long = 332.0°, lat = -79.5°, A95 = 1.7°) agrees with those from the other palaeomagnetic works for the same period and region (e.g. the Sintra and Monchique massifs), yielding a lack of significant rotation of Iberia relative to stable Europe since the uppermost Late Cretaceous (Campanian-Maastrichtian).

  13. A novel abundant family of retroposed elements (DAS-SINEs) in the nine-banded armadillo (Dasypus novemcinctus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churakov, Gennady; Smit, Arian F A; Brosius, Jürgen; Schmitz, Jürgen

    2005-04-01

    About half of the mammalian genome is composed of retroposons. Long interspersed elements (LINEs) and short interspersed elements (SINEs) are the most abundant repetitive elements and account for about 21% and 13% of the human genome, respectively. SINEs have been detected in all major mammalian lineages, except for the South American order Xenarthra, also termed Edentata (armadillos, anteaters, and sloths). Investigating this order, we discovered a novel high-copy-number family of tRNA derived SINEs in the nine-banded armadillo Dasypus novemcinctus, a species that successfully crossed the Central American land bridge to North America in the Pliocene. A specific computer algorithm was developed, and we detected and extracted 687 specific SINEs from databases. Termed DAS-SINEs, we further divided them into six distinct subfamilies. We extracted tRNA(Ala)-derived monomers, two types of dimers, and three subfamilies of chimeric fusion products of a tRNA(Ala) domain and an approximately 180-nt sequence of thus far unidentified origin. Comparisons of secondary structures of the DAS-SINEs' tRNA domains suggest selective pressure to maintain a tRNA-like D-arm structure in the respective founder RNAs, as shown by compensatory mutations. By analysis of subfamily-specific genetic variability, comparison of the proportion of direct repeats, and analysis of self-integrations as well as key events of dimerization and deletions or insertions, we were able to delineate the evolutionary history of the DAS-SINE subfamilies.

  14. Anthropogenic features in the Sines (Portugal and Essaouira (Morocco coastal aquifers: a comparative study of their hydrochemical evolution by a Principal Component Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva, M. O.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Considering the effects of climatic conditions on groundwater resources salinization and quality, a comparative study was conducted on the coastal aquifers of Sines (Portugal and Essaouira (Morocco. Under the climatic and environmental conditions these two basins present different vulnerabilities to anthropogenic activities. Both aquifers correspond to sedimentary basins with similar structures and lithologies. From the available physical, chemical and piezometric data, two series of results of each area were selected corresponding to two different years that were analysed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Sines basin is characterised by a temperate climate. In the Sines aquifer the waterrock interaction process is the major mechanism responsible for the groundwater evolution, conferring a calcium-bicarbonate facies. Applying the PCA, punctual anthropogenic contamination was identified and linked to agricultural activities. The water resources of the Essaouira basin are characteristic of a semi-arid climate, and are severely impacted by the climate (quantity and quality. PCA allowed the evaluation of the contribution of the Tidzi diapir in the water recharge that confers to the groundwater a sodium-chloride facies. Although this statistical method did not shown a nitrate contamination input in the Essaouira multi-aquifer, this polluent presents locally high values. Also the very high evaporation and scarce precipitation activate the processes of salinization and contamination.Considerando los efectos de las condiciones climáticas sobre la calidad y la salinidad de las aguas subterráneas, se ha llevado a cabo un estudio comparativo entre los acuíferos costeros de Sines (Portugal y de Essaouira (Marruecos. Teniendo en cuenta las condiciones climáticas y el medio ambiente de estas dos cuencas, resultan distintas vulnerabilidades a las actividades antrópicas. Ambos acuíferos se localizan en cuencas sedimentarias de estructura y de litolog

  15. Sine-Gordon equation as a model of a nonlinear scalar field in the Duffin-Kemmer formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Getmanov, B.S.

    1980-01-01

    The nonlinear self-interaction of a scalar field is studied in the Minkowski space-time of an arbitrary dimension. It is shown that the sine-Gordon equation can be considered as a model of the nonlinear scalar field in the Duffin-Kemmer formalism with a specific kind of nonlinearity. The ''V-A'' type interaction is found to be equivalent to the ''complex sine-Gordon'' model. Such a new formation of the sine-Gordon equation might be useful for search for its integrable generalizations

  16. Insertion polymorphisms of SINE200 retrotransposons within speciation islands of Anopheles gambiae molecular forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tu Zhijian

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background SINEs (Short INterspersed Elements are homoplasy-free and co-dominant genetic markers which are considered to represent useful tools for population genetic studies, and could help clarifying the speciation processes ongoing within the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.s. Here, we report the results of the analysis of the insertion polymorphism of a nearly 200 bp-long SINE (SINE200 within genome areas of high differentiation (i.e. "speciation islands" of M and S A. gambiae molecular forms. Methods A SINE-PCR approach was carried out on thirteen SINE200 insertions in M and S females collected along the whole range of distribution of A. gambiae s.s. in sub-Saharan Africa. Ten specimens each for Anopheles arabiensis, Anopheles melas, Anopheles quadriannulatus A and 15 M/S hybrids from laboratory crosses were also analysed. Results Eight loci were successfully amplified and were found to be specific for A. gambiae s.s.: 5 on 2L chromosome and one on X chromosome resulted monomorphic, while two loci positioned respectively on 2R (i.e. S200 2R12D and X (i.e. S200 X6.1 chromosomes were found to be polymorphic. S200 2R12D was homozygote for the insertion in most S-form samples, while intermediate levels of polymorphism were shown in M-form, resulting in an overall high degree of genetic differentiation between molecular forms (Fst = 0.46 p S200 X6.1 was found to be fixed in all M- and absent in all S-specimens. This led to develop a novel easy-to-use PCR approach to straightforwardly identify A. gambiae molecular forms. This novel approach allows to overcome the constraints associated with markers on the rDNA region commonly used for M and S identification. In fact, it is based on a single copy and irreversible SINE200 insertion and, thus, is not subjected to peculiar evolutionary patterns affecting rDNA markers, e.g. incomplete homogenization of the arrays through concerted evolution and/or mixtures of M and S IGS

  17. [Hypochondria sine materia as a psychosomatic problem: a model of hypochondriac disorders realized in the cutaneous sphere].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smulevich, A B; Dorozhenok, I Iu; Romanov, D V; L'vov, A N

    2012-01-01

    Hypochondria sine materia is a disorder with physical complains corresponding to no any somatic diagnosis. Hypochondria sine materia is a more complicated psychopathological condition compared to hypochondria cum materia. Hypochondria sine materia could be diagnosed not only in psychiatry, but mainly in general medicine. It is especially prevalent in dermatology. As a result of analysis of hypochondriac disorders involving cutaneous sphere in patients without dermatological diseases, a binary model of psychodermatological syndromes presenting with hypochondria sine materia in dermatology was developed. The binary structure of the psychodermatological syndromes includes secondary psychiatric symptoms based on primary coenesthesiopathic phenomena. The heterogeneous psychodermatological syndromes (cutaneous organ neurosis, impulsive excoriations syndrome, circumscripta hypochondria, coenesthesiopathic paranoia) could be arranged in a continuum of consecutively worsening conditions from neurotic to psychotic severity register. The syndromes differ in clinical and social prognosis requiring different approach to diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Study on W-band sheet-beam traveling-wave tube based on flat-roofed sine waveguide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Shuanzhu; Xu, Jin; Jiang, Xuebing; Lei, Xia; Wu, Gangxiong; Li, Qian; Ding, Chong; Yu, Xiang; Wang, Wenxiang; Gong, Yubin; Wei, Yanyu

    2018-05-01

    A W-band sheet electron beam (SEB) traveling-wave tube (TWT) based on flat-roofed sine waveguide slow-wave structure (FRSWG-SWS) is proposed. The sine wave of the metal grating is replaced by a flat-roofed sine wave around the electron beam tunnel. The slow-wave characteristics including the dispersion properties and interaction impedance have been investigated by using the eigenmode solver in the 3-D electromagnetic simulation software Ansoft HFSS. Through calculations, the FRSWG SWS possesses the larger average interaction impedance than the conventional sine waveguide (SWG) SWS in the frequency range of 86-110 GHz. The beam-wave interaction was studied and particle-in-cell simulation results show that the SEB TWT can produce output power over 120 W within the bandwidth ranging from 90 to 100 GHz, and the maximum output power is 226 W at typical frequency 94 GHz, corresponding electron efficiency of 5.89%.

  19. From sine-Gordon to vacuumless systems in flat and curved spacetimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazeia, D.; Moreira, D.C. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    In this work we start from the Higgs prototype model to introduce a new model, which makes a smooth transition between systems with well-located minima and systems that support no minima at all. We implement this possibility using the deformation procedure, which allows the obtaining a sine-Gordon-like model, controlled by a real parameter that gives rise to a family of models, reproducing the sine-Gordon and the so-called vacuumless models. We also study the thick brane scenarios associated with these models and investigate their stability and renormalization group flow. In particular, it is shown how gravity can change from the 5-dimensional warped geometry with a single extra dimension of infinite extent to the conventional 5-dimensional Minkowski geometry. (orig.)

  20. Discrete mKdV and discrete sine-Gordon flows on discrete space curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoguchi, Jun-ichi; Kajiwara, Kenji; Matsuura, Nozomu; Ohta, Yasuhiro

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we consider the discrete deformation of the discrete space curves with constant torsion described by the discrete mKdV or the discrete sine-Gordon equations, and show that it is formulated as the torsion-preserving equidistant deformation on the osculating plane which satisfies the isoperimetric condition. The curve is reconstructed from the deformation data by using the Sym–Tafel formula. The isoperimetric equidistant deformation of the space curves does not preserve the torsion in general. However, it is possible to construct the torsion-preserving deformation by tuning the deformation parameters. Further, it is also possible to make an arbitrary choice of the deformation described by the discrete mKdV equation or by the discrete sine-Gordon equation at each step. We finally show that the discrete deformation of discrete space curves yields the discrete K-surfaces. (paper)

  1. Color Image Encryption Using Three-Dimensional Sine ICMIC Modulation Map and DNA Sequence Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wenhao; Sun, Kehui; He, Yi; Yu, Mengyao

    Derived from Sine map and iterative chaotic map with infinite collapse (ICMIC), a three-dimensional hyperchaotic Sine ICMIC modulation map (3D-SIMM) is proposed based on a close-loop modulation coupling (CMC) method. Based on this map, a novel color image encryption algorithm is designed by employing a hybrid model of multidirectional circular permutation and deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) masking. In this scheme, the pixel positions of image are scrambled by multidirectional circular permutation, and the pixel values are substituted by DNA sequence operations. The simulation results and security analysis show that the algorithm has good encryption effect and strong key sensitivity, and can resist brute-force, statistical, differential, known-plaintext and chosen-plaintext attacks.

  2. Cross-over for the sine map and the driven damped pendulum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alstroem, P.; Levinsen, M.T.; Rasmussen, D.R.

    1986-01-01

    The sine map f ε (x)=x+μ-(1-ε) sin (2πx)/2π is by iteration known to exhibit a devil's staircase, which becomes complete as ε tends to zero. Here, the basic work of Shenker, concerning the scaling relations at the golden mean, is generalized. For periodic irrationals, the covergence of the step sizes, the minimal distances from cycle elements to zero mod 1, and their average values, are treated. Furthermore, the self-similarity of the step structures provides a set of ''similarity-dimensions'', as well as a set of ''sub-fractals'', emphasizing the close connection to Cantor's discontinuum. Also, the driven damped pendulum is considered. Surprisingly, some differences occur concerning the scaling exponents. Based on analog computations, scaling functions are found, and the differences from the sine map results are discussed. (orig.)

  3. STIMA DE SINE – ELEMENT IMPORTANT ÎN PROIECTAREA CARIEREI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina PLATON

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Savanţii susţin că doar o persoană cu stimă de sine înaltă are şanse să-şi dea seama de propriul potenţial. În procesul de orientare în carieră stima de sine va ajuta persoana să ia decizii corecte, să se autoevalueze şi să acţioneze în sensul aspiraţiilor sale.SELF-ESTEEM – AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT IN THE CAREER PLANNING PROCESSThe scientists support the idea about the awakening that is happening throughout the world to the fact that a human being cannot realize his potential without a healthy self-esteem. A high self-esteem will help a person to make decisions, self-assessment and to act according to his aspirations in the career planning process.

  4. NLIE of Dirichlet sine-Gordon model for boundary bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Changrim; Bajnok, Zoltan; Palla, Laszlo; Ravanini, Francesco

    2008-01-01

    We investigate boundary bound states of sine-Gordon model on the finite-size strip with Dirichlet boundary conditions. For the purpose we derive the nonlinear integral equation (NLIE) for the boundary excited states from the Bethe ansatz equation of the inhomogeneous XXZ spin 1/2 chain with boundary imaginary roots discovered by Saleur and Skorik. Taking a large volume (IR) limit we calculate boundary energies, boundary reflection factors and boundary Luescher corrections and compare with the excited boundary states of the Dirichlet sine-Gordon model first considered by Dorey and Mattsson. We also consider the short distance limit and relate the IR scattering data with that of the UV conformal field theory

  5. TBA equations for excited states in the sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balog, Janos; Hegedus, Arpad

    2004-01-01

    We propose thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) integral equations for multi-particle soliton (fermion) states in the sine-Gordon (massive Thirring) model. This is based on T-system and Y-system equations, which follow from the Bethe ansatz solution in the light-cone lattice formulation of the model. Even and odd charge sectors are treated on an equal footing, corresponding to periodic and twisted boundary conditions, respectively. The analytic properties of the Y-system functions are conjectured on the basis of the large volume solution of the system, which we find explicitly. A simple relation between the TBA Y-functions and the counting function variable of the alternative non-linear integral equation (Destri-de Vega equation) description of the model is given. At the special value β 2 = 6π of the sine-Gordon coupling, exact expressions for energy and momentum eigenvalues of one-particle states are found

  6. A new sine-Gordon equation expansion algorithm to investigate some special nonlinear differential equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Zhenya

    2005-01-01

    A new transformation method is developed using the general sine-Gordon travelling wave reduction equation and a generalized transformation. With the aid of symbolic computation, this method can be used to seek more types of solutions of nonlinear differential equations, which include not only the known solutions derived by some known methods but new solutions. Here we choose the double sine-Gordon equation, the Magma equation and the generalized Pochhammer-Chree (PC) equation to illustrate the method. As a result, many types of new doubly periodic solutions are obtained. Moreover when using the method to these special nonlinear differential equations, some transformations are firstly needed. The method can be also extended to other nonlinear differential equations

  7. The development of sine vibration test requirements for Viking lander capsule components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, S.

    1974-01-01

    In connection with the Viking project for exploring the planet Mars, two identical spacecraft, each consisting of an orbiter and a lander, will be launched in the third quarter of 1975. Upon arrival at the planet, the Viking lander will separate from the Viking orbiter and descend to a soft landing at a selected site on the Mars surface. It was decided to perform a sine vibration test on the Viking spacecraft, in its launch configuration, to qualify it for the booster-induced transient-dynamic environment. It is shown that component-level testing is a cost- and schedule-effective prerequisite to the system-level, sine-vibration test sequences.

  8. The long (LINEs) and the short (SINEs) of it: altered methylation as a precursor to toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carnell, Ammie N; Goodman, Jay I

    2003-10-01

    Although once thought of as "junk" DNA, the importance of interspersed elements in the genome has become increasingly appreciated in recent years. In a broad sense these are collectively referred to as transposable elements, which encompass both transposons and retrotransposons. The latter include long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) and short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs). Expression of these elements leads to genetic instability. Therefore, it is important that they remain transcriptionally silenced, and DNA methylation plays a key role in this regard. A framework for understanding the possible interplay between altered DNA methylation, an epigenetic change, and mutational events is presented. A case is made as to how retrotransposable elements, specifically LINEs and SINEs, are likely to emerge as key players in furthering our understanding of mechanisms underlying a variety of toxicities, including carcinogenesis but not limited to this endpoint.

  9. Nonlinear Fourier transforms for the sine-Gordon equation in the quarter plane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lin; Lenells, Jonatan

    2018-03-01

    Using the Unified Transform, also known as the Fokas method, the solution of the sine-Gordon equation in the quarter plane can be expressed in terms of the solution of a matrix Riemann-Hilbert problem whose definition involves four spectral functions a , b , A , B. The functions a (k) and b (k) are defined via a nonlinear Fourier transform of the initial data, whereas A (k) and B (k) are defined via a nonlinear Fourier transform of the boundary values. In this paper, we provide an extensive study of these nonlinear Fourier transforms and the associated eigenfunctions under weak regularity and decay assumptions on the initial and boundary values. The results can be used to determine the long-time asymptotics of the sine-Gordon quarter-plane solution via nonlinear steepest descent techniques.

  10. Coherence and chaos in the driven damped sine-Gordon equation: Measurement of the soliton spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overman, II, E A; McLaughlin, D W; Bishop, A R; Los Alamos National Lab., NM

    1986-02-01

    A numerical procedure is developed which measures the sine-Gordon soliton and radiation content of any field (PHI, PHIsub(t)) which is periodic in space. The procedure is applied to the field generated by a damped, driven sine-Gordon equation. This field can be either temporally periodic (locked to the driver) or chaotic. In either case the numerical measurement shows that the spatial structure can be described by only a few spatially localized (soliton wave-train) modes. The numerical procedure quantitatively identifies the presence, number and properties of these soliton wave-trains. For example, an increase of spatial symmetry is accompanied by the injection of additional solitons into the field. (orig.).

  11. Analysis, Synthesis, and Classification of Nonlinear Systems Using Synchronized Swept-Sine Method for Audio Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Antonin

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new method of identification, based on an input synchronized exponential swept-sine signal, is used to analyze and synthesize nonlinear audio systems like overdrive pedals for guitar. Two different pedals are studied; the first one exhibiting a strong influence of the input signal level on its input/output law and the second one exhibiting a weak influence of this input signal level. The Synchronized Swept Sine method leads to a Generalized Polynomial Hammerstein model equivalent to the pedals under test. The behaviors of both pedals are illustrated through model-based resynthesized signals. Moreover, it is also shown that this method leads to a criterion allowing the classification of the nonlinear systems under test, according to the influence of the input signal levels on their input/output law.

  12. New exact solutions of (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation via the new sine-Gordon equation expansion method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yong; Yan Zhenya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation is investigated using a sine-Gordon equation expansion method, which was presented via a generalized sine-Gordon reduction equation and a new transformation. As a consequence, it is shown that the method is more powerful to obtain many types of new doubly periodic solutions of (2 + 1)-dimensional Gardner equation. In particular, solitary wave solutions are also given as simple limits of doubly periodic solutions

  13. MLP based models to predict PM10, O3 concentrations, in Sines industrial area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durao, R.; Pereira, M. J.

    2012-04-01

    Sines is an important Portuguese industrial area located southwest cost of Portugal with important nearby protected natural areas. The main economical activities are related with this industrial area, the deep-water port, petrochemical and thermo-electric industry. Nevertheless, tourism is also an important economic activity especially in summer time with potential to grow. The aim of this study is to develop prediction models of pollutant concentration categories (e.g. low concentration and high concentration) in order to provide early warnings to the competent authorities who are responsible for the air quality management. The knowledge in advanced of pollutant high concentrations occurrence will allow the implementation of mitigation actions and the release of precautionary alerts to population. The regional air quality monitoring network consists in three monitoring stations where a set of pollutants' concentrations are registered on a continuous basis. From this set stands out the tropospheric ozone (O3) and particulate matter (PM10) due to the high concentrations occurring in the region and their adverse effects on human health. Moreover, the major industrial plants of the region monitor SO2, NO2 and particles emitted flows at the principal chimneys (point sources), also on a continuous basis,. Therefore Artificial neuronal networks (ANN) were the applied methodology to predict next day pollutant concentrations; due to the ANNs structure they have the ability to capture the non-linear relationships between predictor variables. Hence the first step of this study was to apply multivariate exploratory techniques to select the best predictor variables. The classification trees methodology (CART) was revealed to be the most appropriate in this case.. Results shown that pollutants atmospheric concentrations are mainly dependent on industrial emissions and a complex combination of meteorological factors and the time of the year. In the second step, the Multi

  14. Renormalization of modular invariant Coulomb gas and Sine-Gordon theories, and quantum Hall flow diagram

    OpenAIRE

    Carpentier, David

    1998-01-01

    Using the renormalisation group (RG) we study two dimensional electromagnetic coulomb gas and extended Sine-Gordon theories invariant under the modular group SL(2,Z). The flow diagram is established from the scaling equations, and we derive the critical behaviour at the various transition points of the diagram. Following proposal for a SL(2,Z) duality between different quantum Hall fluids, we discuss the analogy between this flow and the global quantum Hall phase diagram.

  15. Exact Travelling Solutions of Discrete sine-Gordon Equation via Extended Tanh-Function Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Chaoqing; Zhang Jiefang

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we generalize the extended tanh-function approach, which was used to find new exact travelling wave solutions of nonlinear partial differential equations or coupled nonlinear partial differential equations, to nonlinear differential-difference equations. As illustration, two series of exact travelling wave solutions of the discrete sine-Gordon equation are obtained by means of the extended tanh-function approach.

  16. Complex classical paths and the one-dimensional sine-Gordon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millard, P.A.

    1985-01-01

    The semiclassical limit of the Green function for a particle in the one-dimensional sine-Gordon potential is obtained by summing over complex classical paths. The results are the same as those obtained in the less physically intuitive WKB approach. In addition to being of practical utility for solving quantum mechanical problems involving tunnelling, the classical path method may show how to deal with dense configuration of instantons. (orig.)

  17. [Short interspersed repetitive sequences (SINEs) and their use as a phylogenetic tool].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramerov, D A; Vasetskiĭ, N S

    2009-01-01

    The data on one of the most common repetitive elements of eukaryotic genomes, short interspersed elements (SINEs), are reviewed. Their structure, origin, and functioning in the genome are discussed. The variation and abundance of these neutral genomic markers makes them a convenient and reliable tool for phylogenetic analysis. The main methods of such analysis are presented, and the potential and limitations of this approach are discussed using specific examples.

  18. An Implicit Scheme of Lattice Boltzmann Method for Sine-Gordon Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hui-Lin, Lai; Chang-Feng, Ma

    2008-01-01

    We establish an implicit scheme of lattice Boltzmann method for simulating the sine-Gordon equation, which can be transformed into the explicit one, so the computation of the scheme is simple. Moreover, the parameter θ of the implicit scheme is independent of the relaxation time, which makes the model more flexible. The numerical results show that this method is very effective. (fundamental areas of phenomenology (including applications))

  19. Second order phase transition in two dimensional sine-Gordon field theory - lattice model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babu Joseph, K.; Kuriakose, V.C.

    1978-01-01

    Two dimensional sine-Gordon (SG) field theory on a lattice is studied using the single-site basis variational method of Drell and others. The nature of the phase transition associated with the spontaneous symmetry breakdown in a SG field system is clarified to be of second order. A generalisation is offered for a SG-type field theory in two dimensions with a potential of the form [cossup(n)((square root of lambda)/m)phi-1].(author)

  20. Morphdynamics of Beaches in the Tróia-Sines Littoral Ribbon (SW Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Cristina; Andrade, César; Taborda, Rui; Freitas, Conceição

    2006-01-01

    In the Tróia-Sines littoral ribbon five beaches were monitored in order to evaluate morphological and textural changes. The textural analysis reveals a southward coarsening trend that reflects an increase in the wave energy. The morphodynamic data indicate that the modal stages are intermediate to reflective, and that the available beach volume increases southwards. During storm periods the volumetric changes reach 15% to 82% of the beach envelope corresponding to magnitudes of 6x10 3 to 2x10...

  1. Med sjefen på Facebook: En studie av ledere som er "venner" med sine ansatte

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Anita

    2014-01-01

    MR690 Masteroppgave i organisasjon og ledelse - utdanningsledelse Formålet med studien er å belyse hvordan aktiv bruk av sosiale medier, i dette tilfellet Facebook, påvirker relasjoner mellom mennesker. Hva skjer når en tar i bruk en websjanger som i utgangspunktet er umiddelbar og uformell, til jobbrelatert og mer formell kommunikasjon? Er det sjangeren eller relasjonen som endres? Søkelyset rettes mot ledere som er “venner” med sine medarbeidere, og problemstillingen er...

  2. Instanton contributions to the valence band of the double Sine-Gordon potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ricotta, R.M.; Escobar, C.O.

    1982-01-01

    The energy dispersion relation for the valence band of the double sine-Gordon potential is calculated, approximating the tunneling amplitude by a sum of contributions of multi-instantons and anti-instatons trajectories. The interesting feature of this potential is that they have to deal with two types of instantons, as there are two different potential barriers within one period of the potential. The results with the standard WKB approximation are compared. (Author) [pt

  3. On a Kubo-Martin-Schwinger state of the Sine-Gordon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskov, N.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper considers the Sine-Gordon equation on a finite interval as a Hamiltonian system. A Gaussian measure is defined on an extension of the phase space. It is shown that the partition funciton Z employed in the statistical mechanics of the solitons is an integral with respect to this measure. An algebra of observables is defined and on it a state is constructed which satisfies the Kubo-Martin-Schwinger condition

  4. Gene conversion as a secondary mechanism of short interspersed element (SINE) evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, D.H. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology; Batzer, M.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Deininger, P.L. [Louisiana State Univ. Medical Center, New Orleans, LA (United States). Dept. of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology]|[Alton Ochsner Medical Foundation, New Orleans, LA (United States). Lab. of Molecular Genetics

    1995-01-01

    The Alu repetitive family of short interspersed elements (SINEs) in primates can be subdivided into distinct subfamilies by specific diagnostic nucleotide changes. The older subfamilies are generally very abundant, while the younger subfamilies have fewer copies. Some of the youngest Alu elements are absent in the orthologous loci of nonhuman primates, indicative of recent retroposition events, the primary mode of SINE evolutions. PCR analysis of one young Alu subfamily (Sb2) member found in the low-density lipoprotein receptor gene apparently revealed the presence of this element in the green monkey, orangutan, gorilla, and chimpanzee genomes, as well as the human genome. However, sequence analysis of these genomes revealed a highly mutated, older, primate-specific Alu element was present at this position in the nonhuman primates. Comparison of the flanking DNA sequences upstream of this Alu insertion corresponded to evolution expected for standard primate phylogeny, but comparison of the Alu repeat sequences revealed that the human element departed from this phylogeny. The change in the human sequence apparently occurred by a gene conversion event only within the Alu element itself, converting it from one of the oldest to one of the youngest Alu subfamilies. Although gene conversions of Alu elements are clearly very rare, this finding shows that such events can occur and contribute to specific cases of SINE subfamily evolution.

  5. Retroelements (LINEs and SINEs) in vole genomes: differential distribution in the constitutive heterochromatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, M J; Marchal, J A; Fernández-Espartero, C H; Bullejos, M; Sánchez, A

    2008-01-01

    The chromosomal distribution of mobile genetic elements is scarcely known in Arvicolinae species, but could be of relevance to understand the origin and complex evolution of the sex chromosome heterochromatin. In this work we cloned two retrotransposon sequences, L1 and SINE-B1, from the genome of Chionomys nivalis and investigated their chromosomal distribution on several arvicoline species. Our results demonstrate first that both retroelements are the most abundant repeated DNA sequences in the genome of these species. L1 elements, in most species, are highly accumulated in the sex chromosomes compared to the autosomes. This favoured L1 insertion could have played an important role in the origin of the enlarged heterochromatic blocks existing in the sex chromosomes of some Microtus species. Also, we propose that L1 accumulation on the X heterochromatin could have been the consequence of different, independent and rapid amplification processes acting in each species. SINE elements, however, were completely lacking from the constitutive heterochromatin, either in autosomes or in the heterochromatic blocks of sex chromosomes. These data could indicate that some SINE elements are incompatible with the formation of heterochromatic complexes and hence are necessarily missing from the constitutive heterochromatin.

  6. A SINE in the genome of the cephalochordate amphioxus is an Alu element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Linda Z.

    2006-01-01

    Transposable elements of about 300 bp, termed “short interspersed nucleotide elements or SINEs are common in eukaryotes. However, Alu elements, SINEs containing restriction sites for the AluI enzyme, have been known only from primates. Here I report the first SINE found in the genome of the cephalochordate, amphioxus. It is an Alu element of 375 bp that does not share substantial identity with any genomic sequences in vertebrates. It was identified because it was located in the FoxD regulatory region in a cosmid derived from one individual, but absent from the two FoxD alleles of BACs from a second individual. However, searches of sequences of BACs and genomic traces from this second individual gave an estimate of 50-100 copies in the amphioxus genome. The finding of an Alu element in amphioxus raises the question of whether Alu elements in amphioxus and primates arose by convergent evolution or by inheritance from a common ancestor. Genome-wide analyses of transposable elements in amphioxus and other chordates such as tunicates, agnathans and cartilaginous fishes could well provide the answer. PMID:16733535

  7. Confinement, solitons and the equivalence between the sine-Gordon and massive Thirring models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blas Achic, H.S.; Ferreira, L.A.

    2000-01-01

    We consider a two-dimensional integrable and conformally invariant field theory possessing two Dirac spinors and three scalar fields. The interaction couples bilinear terms in the spinors to exponentials of the scalars. Its integrability properties are based on the sl(2) affine Kac-Moody algebra, and it is a simple example of the so-called conformal affine Toda theories coupled to matter fields. We show, using bosonization techniques, that the classical equivalence between a U(1) Noether current and the topological current holds true at the quantum level, and then leads to a bag model like mechanism for the confinement of the spinor fields inside the solitons. By bosonizing the spinors we show that the theory decouples into a sine-Gordon model and free scalars. We construct the two-soliton solutions and show that their interactions lead to the same time delays as those for the sine-Gordon solitons. The model provides a good laboratory to test duality ideas in the context of the equivalence between the sine-Gordon and Thirring theories

  8. Short interspersed elements (SINEs) are a major source of canine genomic diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Kirkness, Ewen F

    2005-12-01

    SINEs are retrotransposons that have enjoyed remarkable reproductive success during the course of mammalian evolution, and have played a major role in shaping mammalian genomes. Previously, an analysis of survey-sequence data from an individual dog (a poodle) indicated that canine genomes harbor a high frequency of alleles that differ only by the absence or presence of a SINEC_Cf repeat. Comparison of this survey-sequence data with a draft genome sequence of a distinct dog (a boxer) has confirmed this prediction, and revealed the chromosomal coordinates for >10,000 loci that are bimorphic for SINEC_Cf insertions. Analysis of SINE insertion sites from the genomes of nine additional dogs indicates that 3%-5% are absent from either the poodle or boxer genome sequences--suggesting that an additional 10,000 bimorphic loci could be readily identified in the general dog population. We describe a methodology that can be used to identify these loci, and could be adapted to exploit these bimorphic loci for genotyping purposes. Approximately half of all annotated canine genes contain SINEC_Cf repeats, and these elements are occasionally transcribed. When transcribed in the antisense orientation, they provide splice acceptor sites that can result in incorporation of novel exons. The high frequency of bimorphic SINE insertions in the dog population is predicted to provide numerous examples of allele-specific transcription patterns that will be valuable for the study of differential gene expression among multiple dog breeds.

  9. Scenario based approach for multiple source Tsunami Hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we present a scenario-based approach for tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines - Portugal, one of the test-sites of project ASTARTE. Sines holds one of the most important deep-water ports which contains oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid bulk, coal and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures are facing the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING a Non-linear Shallow Water Model With Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level) and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, inundation is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, runup and inundation distance. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite of Horseshoe and Marques Pombal fault as the worst case scenario. It governs the aggregate scenario with about 60 % and inundates an area of 3.5 km2.

  10. Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are abundant in Solanaceae and have a family-specific impact on gene structure and genome organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibt, Kathrin M; Wenke, Torsten; Muders, Katja; Truberg, Bernd; Schmidt, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are highly abundant non-autonomous retrotransposons that are widespread in plants. They are short in size, non-coding, show high sequence diversity, and are therefore mostly not or not correctly annotated in plant genome sequences. Hence, comparative studies on genomic SINE populations are rare. To explore the structural organization and impact of SINEs, we comparatively investigated the genome sequences of the Solanaceae species potato (Solanum tuberosum), tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), wild tomato (Solanum pennellii), and two pepper cultivars (Capsicum annuum). Based on 8.5 Gbp sequence data, we annotated 82 983 SINE copies belonging to 10 families and subfamilies on a base pair level. Solanaceae SINEs are dispersed over all chromosomes with enrichments in distal regions. Depending on the genome assemblies and gene predictions, 30% of all SINE copies are associated with genes, particularly frequent in introns and untranslated regions (UTRs). The close association with genes is family specific. More than 10% of all genes annotated in the Solanaceae species investigated contain at least one SINE insertion, and we found genes harbouring up to 16 SINE copies. We demonstrate the involvement of SINEs in gene and genome evolution including the donation of splice sites, start and stop codons and exons to genes, enlargement of introns and UTRs, generation of tandem-like duplications and transduction of adjacent sequence regions. © 2016 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Hypothetical "anatomy" of Brugada phenomenon: "Long QT sine Long QT" syndrome implicating morphologically undefined specific "Brugada's myocells".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stirbys, Petras

    2017-01-01

    The Brugada syndrome (BrS) is associated with increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. It generates genetically mediated arrhythmias posing a true pathophysiological challenge. In search of the similarities between BrS and long QT syndrome some novel insights are suggested. In patients with BrS the duration of QT interval is usually normal. Some investigators have found prolonged QT interval in the syndrome's natural course or the duration of QT segment have been extended by provocative tests unmasking BrS. Thus, BrS might be characterized as "long QT sine long QT" syndrome. The existence of two functional types of myocites is suspected. Regarding structure and function the majority of ventricular myocardium is probably mostly healthy. The rest of myocardium (preferably the subepicardium of right ventricular outflow tract) due to its genotypic peculiarities demonstrates no negative influence on ventricular performance until early adulthood is reached and/or other unstable preconditions are fulfilled (nocturnal time, fever, specific drugs, etc.). Based on published findings of positive outcomes, following the epicardial ablation of the right ventricular outflow tract region, a new hypothetical concept suggesting the presence of specific, genetically affected "Brugada's myocells" is proposed. These cells as a suitable arrhythmogenic substrate reside intramurally within the subepicardial region of the outflow tract of right ventricle. In the daytime these cells likely are dormant but at rest their nocturnal proarrhythmic behavior is activated occasionally. Presumptions regarding the pathophysiology of BrS might be the focus of further discussion.

  12. Preclinical evaluation of the novel, orally bioavailable Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE KPT-335 in spontaneous canine cancer: results of a phase I study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A London

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the activity of Selective Inhibitors of Nuclear Export (SINE compounds that inhibit the function of the nuclear export protein Exportin 1 (XPO1/CRM1 against canine tumor cell lines and perform a Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 in dogs with spontaneous cancer to provide a preliminary assessment of biologic activity and tolerability.Canine tumor cell lines derived from non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL, mast cell tumor, melanoma and osteosarcoma exhibited growth inhibition and apoptosis in response to nanomolar concentrations of SINE compounds; NHL cells were particularly sensitive with IC50 concentrations ranging from 2-42 nM. A Phase I clinical trial of KPT-335 was performed in 17 dogs with NHL (naive or relapsed, mast cell tumor or osteosarcoma. The maximum tolerated dose was 1.75 mg/kg given orally twice/week (Monday/Thursday although biologic activity was observed at 1 mg/kg. Clinical benefit (CB including partial response to therapy (PR, n = 2 and stable disease (SD, n = 7 was observed in 9/14 dogs with NHL with a median time to progression (TTP for responders of 66 days (range 35-256 days. A dose expansion study was performed in 6 dogs with NHL given 1.5 mg/kg KPT-335 Monday/Wednesday/Friday; CB was observed in 4/6 dogs with a median TTP for responders of 83 days (range 35-354 days. Toxicities were primarily gastrointestinal consisting of anorexia, weight loss, vomiting and diarrhea and were manageable with supportive care, dose modulation and administration of low dose prednisone; hepatotoxicity, anorexia and weight loss were the dose limiting toxicities.This study provides evidence that the novel orally bioavailable XPO1 inhibitor KPT-335 is safe and exhibits activity in a relevant, spontaneous large animal model of cancer. Data from this study provides critical new information that lays the groundwork for evaluation of SINE compounds in human cancer.

  13. Use of the p-SINE1-r2 in inferring evolutionary relationships of Thai rice varieties with AA genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preecha Prathepha

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In a previous study we described the prevalence and distribution in Thailand of the retroposon p- SINE1-r2, in the intron 10 of the waxy gene in cultivated and wild rice with the AA genome. In this study, additional varieties of rice were collected and sequencing was used to further characterize p-SINE1-r2. It was found that the length of the p-SINE1-r2 nucleotide sequences was about 125 bp, flanked by identical direct repeats of a 14 bp sequence. These sequences were compared and found to be similar to the sequences of p- SINE1-r2 found in Nipponbare, a rice strain discussed in a separate study. However, when compared the 48 DNA sequences identified in this study, much dissimilarity was found within the nucleotide sequences of p- SINE1-r2, in the form of base substitution mutations. Phylogenetic relationships inferred from the nucleotide sequences of these elements in cultivated rice (O. sativa and wild rice (O. nivara. It was found that rice accessions collected from the same geographical distribution have been placed in the same clade. The phylogenetic tree supports the origin and distribution of these rice strains.

  14. Quantum solitons and their classical relatives: Bethe Ansatz states in soliton sectors of the Sine--Gordon System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbaczewski, P.

    1982-01-01

    Previously we have found that the semiclassical sine--Gordon/Thirring spectrum can be received in the absence of quantum solitons via the spin 1/2 approximation of the quantized sine--Gordon system on a lattice. Later on, we have recovered the Hilbert space of quantum soliton states for the sine--Gordon system. In the present paper we present a derivation of the Bethe Ansatz eigenstates for the generalized ice model in this soliton Hilbert space. We demonstrate that via ''Wick rotation'' of a fundamental parameter of the ice model one arrives at the Bethe Ansatz eigenstates of the quantum sine--Gordon system. The latter is a ''local transition matrix'' ancestor of the coventional sine--Gordon/Thirring model, as derived by Faddeev et al. within the quantum inverse-scattering method. Our result is essentially based on the N< infinity,Δ = 1,m<<1 regime. Consequently, the spectrum received, though resembling the semiclassical one, does not coincide with it at all

  15. Deterministic approach for multiple-source tsunami hazard assessment for Sines, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wronna, M.; Omira, R.; Baptista, M. A.

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we present a deterministic approach to tsunami hazard assessment for the city and harbour of Sines, Portugal, one of the test sites of project ASTARTE (Assessment, STrategy And Risk Reduction for Tsunamis in Europe). Sines has one of the most important deep-water ports, which has oil-bearing, petrochemical, liquid-bulk, coal, and container terminals. The port and its industrial infrastructures face the ocean southwest towards the main seismogenic sources. This work considers two different seismic zones: the Southwest Iberian Margin and the Gloria Fault. Within these two regions, we selected a total of six scenarios to assess the tsunami impact at the test site. The tsunami simulations are computed using NSWING, a Non-linear Shallow Water model wIth Nested Grids. In this study, the static effect of tides is analysed for three different tidal stages: MLLW (mean lower low water), MSL (mean sea level), and MHHW (mean higher high water). For each scenario, the tsunami hazard is described by maximum values of wave height, flow depth, drawback, maximum inundation area and run-up. Synthetic waveforms are computed at virtual tide gauges at specific locations outside and inside the harbour. The final results describe the impact at the Sines test site considering the single scenarios at mean sea level, the aggregate scenario, and the influence of the tide on the aggregate scenario. The results confirm the composite source of Horseshoe and Marques de Pombal faults as the worst-case scenario, with wave heights of over 10 m, which reach the coast approximately 22 min after the rupture. It dominates the aggregate scenario by about 60 % of the impact area at the test site, considering maximum wave height and maximum flow depth. The HSMPF scenario inundates a total area of 3.5 km2.

  16. Implementing the sine transform of fermionic modes as a tensor network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epple, Hannes; Fries, Pascal; Hinrichsen, Haye

    2017-09-01

    Based on the algebraic theory of signal processing, we recursively decompose the discrete sine transform of the first kind (DST-I) into small orthogonal block operations. Using a diagrammatic language, we then second-quantize this decomposition to construct a tensor network implementing the DST-I for fermionic modes on a lattice. The complexity of the resulting network is shown to scale as 5/4 n logn (not considering swap gates), where n is the number of lattice sites. Our method provides a systematic approach of generalizing Ferris' spectral tensor network for nontrivial boundary conditions.

  17. Post-Gaussian Effective Potential of Double sine-Gordon Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Weiran; Lou Senyue

    2005-01-01

    In the framework of the functional integral formalism, we calculate the effective potential of the double sine-Gordon (DsG) model up to the second order with an optimized expansion and the Coleman's normal-ordering prescription. Within the range of convergence, we make a comparison among the classical and the effective potential of the first and second order. The numerical analysis shows that the DsG post-Gaussian EP possesses some fine global properties and makes a substantial and a concordant quantum correction to the features of the classical potential.

  18. Variabilidade espacial e temporal do recrutamento de Pollicipes pollicipes na região de Sines

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus, David José Rodrigues

    2017-01-01

    Pollicipes pollicipes é um crustáceo cirrípede que habita o intertidal rochoso em locais muito expostos à ondulação. O percebe é um recurso natural com valor económico e bastante explorado em Portugal. O recrutamento é um processo chave que afeta a dinâmica populacional desta espécie. O presente trabalho realizado na região de Sines, SW de Portugal, teve como objetivos principais estudar: a variação temporal e espacial do recrutamento do percebe num substrato artificial novo (“barticle”) e...

  19. Longshore sediment transport in the Tróia-Sines Littoral Ribbon (SW Portugal).

    OpenAIRE

    Gama, Cristina; Taborda, Rui; Andrade, César

    2006-01-01

    Longshore sediment transport in the Tróia-Sines litoral ribbon was evaluated by map comparison and applying energy flux method using numerical models. Results yielded a longshore transport residual rate in the order of 10 5 m3y-1 towards north. The comparison of the results with the ones obtained thought the analysis of the secular coastline evolution show that the empirical coefficient between the energy flux and the longshore drift is equal to 0.28 and is apparently independent with grain ...

  20. Exact Mass-Coupling Relation for the Homogeneous Sine-Gordon Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajnok, Zoltán; Balog, János; Ito, Katsushi; Satoh, Yuji; Tóth, Gábor Zsolt

    2016-05-06

    We derive the exact mass-coupling relation of the simplest multiscale quantum integrable model, i.e., the homogeneous sine-Gordon model with two mass scales. The relation is obtained by comparing the perturbed conformal field theory description of the model valid at short distances to the large distance bootstrap description based on the model's integrability. In particular, we find a differential equation for the relation by constructing conserved tensor currents, which satisfy a generalization of the Θ sum rule Ward identity. The mass-coupling relation is written in terms of hypergeometric functions.

  1. Nonlinear response to the multiple sine wave excitation of a softening--hardening system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koplik, B.; Subudhi, M.; Curreri, J.

    1979-01-01

    In studying the earthquake response of the HTGR core, it was observed that the system can display softening--hardening characteristics. This is of great consequence in evaluating the structural safety aspects of the core. In order to obtain a better understanding of the governing parameters, an investigation was undertaken with a single-degree-of-freedom system having a softening--hardening spring characteristic and excited by multiple sine waves. A parametric study varying the input amplitudes and the spring characteristic was performed. Transients were introduced into the system, and the jump phenomena between the lower softening characteristics to the higher hardening curve was studied

  2. Discrete cosine and sine transforms general properties, fast algorithms and integer approximations

    CERN Document Server

    Britanak, Vladimir; Rao, K R; Rao, K R

    2006-01-01

    The Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) is used in many applications by the scientific, engineering and research communities and in data compression in particular. Fast algorithms and applications of the DCT Type II (DCT-II) have become the heart of many established international image/video coding standards. Since then other forms of the DCT and Discrete Sine Transform (DST) have been investigated in detail. This new edition presents the complete set of DCT and DST discrete trigonometric transforms, including their definitions, general mathematical properties, and relations to the optimal Karhune

  3. Asymptotics for the Fredholm Determinant of the Sine Kernel on a Union of Intervals

    OpenAIRE

    Widom, Harold

    1994-01-01

    In the bulk scaling limit of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble of Hermitian matrices the probability that an interval of length $s$ contains no eigenvalues is the Fredholm determinant of the sine kernel $\\sin(x-y)\\over\\pi(x-y)$ over this interval. A formal asymptotic expansion for the determinant as $s$ tends to infinity was obtained by Dyson. In this paper we replace a single interval of length $s$ by $sJ$ where $J$ is a union of $m$ intervals and present a proof of the asymptotics up to second ...

  4. The R and D of half-sine pulser for eddy-current septum magnet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Luxin; Han Qian; Kang Wen

    2002-01-01

    The SSRF requires high-amplitude half-sine pulse current (10kA) and relatively narrow pulse width (∼60μs) for its eddy-current septum magnets. Moreover the machine will need a very high level of performance from the pulsers, particularly in terms of pulse amplitude stability and regulating range. For the convenience of maintenance the pulsers will be installed in the power supply hall and cabled to their eddy-current septum magnets by RG220/U. The author presents the pulser design and R and D results

  5. The R and D of half-sine pulser for eddy-current septum magnet

    CERN Document Server

    Fu Lu Xin; Kang Wen

    2002-01-01

    The SSRF requires high-amplitude half-sine pulse current (10kA) and relatively narrow pulse width (approx 60 mu s) for its eddy-current septum magnets. Moreover the machine will need a very high level of performance from the pulsers, particularly in terms of pulse amplitude stability and regulating range. For the convenience of maintenance the pulsers will be installed in the power supply hall and cabled to their eddy-current septum magnets by RG220/U. The author presents the pulser design and R and D results

  6. A note on a boundary sine-Gordon model at the free-Fermion point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murgan, Rajan

    2018-02-01

    We investigate the free-Fermion point of a boundary sine-Gordon model with nondiagonal boundary interactions for the ground state using auxiliary functions obtained from T  -  Q equations of a corresponding inhomogeneous open spin-\\frac{1}{2} XXZ chain with nondiagonal boundary terms. In particular, we obtain the Casimir energy. Our result for the Casimir energy is shown to agree with the result from the TBA approach. The analytical result for the effective central charge in the ultraviolet (UV) limit is also verified from the plots of effective central charge for intermediate values of volume.

  7. Classical particle-like behavior of Sine--Gordon solitons in scattering potentials and applied fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fogel, M.B.; Trullinger, S.E.; Bishop, A.R.; Krumhansl, J.A.

    1976-02-01

    We show that classical Sine-Gordon solitons maintain their integrity to a high degree in the presence of external perturbations. Two examples, of particular importance in condensed matter, are described in detail: (i) a model impurity is found to bind low-velocity solitons but merely phase-shift those with high-velocities, (ii) external static driving terms with damping accelerate the soliton to a terminal velocity. The importance of a translation mode is emphasized and it is concluded that the soliton behaves as a classical particle in all essential respects

  8. Separation Transformation and New Exact Solutions of the (N + 1)-dimensional Dispersive Double sine-Gordon Equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Ye; Chen Jing; Zhang Zhifei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the separation transformation approach is extended to the (N + 1)-dimensional dispersive double sine-Gordon equation arising in many physical systems such as the spin dynamics in the B phase of 3 He superfluid. This equation is first reduced to a set of partial differential equations and a nonlinear ordinary differential equation. Then the general solutions of the set of partial differential equations are obtained and the nonlinear ordinary differential equation is solved by F-expansion method. Finally, many new exact solutions of the (N + 1)-dimensional dispersive double sine-Gordon equation are constructed explicitly via the separation transformation. For the case of N > 2, there is an arbitrary function in the exact solutions, which may reveal more novel nonlinear structures in the high-dimensional dispersive double sine-Gordon equation.

  9. Numerical simulation of the self-pumped long Josephson junction using a modified sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobolev, A.S.; Pankratov, A.L.; Mygind, J.

    2006-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the dynamics of a long Josephson junction (flux-flow oscillator) biased by a DC current in the presence of magnetic field. The study is performed in the frame of the modified sine-Gordon model, which includes the surface losses, RC-load at both FFO ends and the self-pumping effect. In our model the dumping parameter depends both on the spatial coordinate and the amplitude of the AC voltage. In order to find the DC FFO voltage the damping parameter has to be calculated by successive approximations and time integration of the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. The modified model, which accounts for the presence of the superconducting gap, gives better qualitative agreement with experimental results compare to the conventional sine-Gordon model

  10. Radial frequency stimuli and sine-wave gratings seem to be processed by distinct contrast brain mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L.B. Simas

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available An assumption commonly made in the study of visual perception is that the lower the contrast threshold for a given stimulus, the more sensitive and selective will be the mechanism that processes it. On the basis of this consideration, we investigated contrast thresholds for two classes of stimuli: sine-wave gratings and radial frequency stimuli (i.e., j0 targets or stimuli modulated by spherical Bessel functions. Employing a suprathreshold summation method, we measured the selectivity of spatial and radial frequency filters using either sine-wave gratings or j0 target contrast profiles at either 1 or 4 cycles per degree of visual angle (cpd, as the test frequencies. Thus, in a forced-choice trial, observers chose between a background spatial (or radial frequency alone and the given background stimulus plus the test frequency (1 or 4 cpd sine-wave grating or radial frequency. Contrary to our expectations, the results showed elevated thresholds (i.e., inhibition for sine-wave gratings and decreased thresholds (i.e., summation for radial frequencies when background and test frequencies were identical. This was true for both 1- and 4-cpd test frequencies. This finding suggests that sine-wave gratings and radial frequency stimuli are processed by different quasi-linear systems, one working at low luminance and contrast level (sine-wave gratings and the other at high luminance and contrast levels (radial frequency stimuli. We think that this interpretation is consistent with distinct foveal only and foveal-parafoveal mechanisms involving striate and/or other higher visual areas (i.e., V2 and V4.

  11. Sine-Gordon equation and its application to tectonic stress transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bykov, Victor G.

    2014-07-01

    An overview is given on remarkable progress that has been made in theoretical studies of solitons and other nonlinear wave patterns, excited during the deformation of fault block (fragmented) geological media. The models that are compliant with the classical and perturbed sine-Gordon equations have only been chosen. In these mathematical models, the rotation angle of blocks (fragments) and their translatory displacement of the medium are used as dynamic variables. A brief description of the known models and their geophysical and geodynamic applications is given. These models reproduce the kinematic and dynamic features of the traveling deformation front (kink, soliton) generated in the fragmented media. It is demonstrated that the sine-Gordon equation is applicable to the description of series of the observed seismic data, modeling of strain waves, as well as the features related to fault dynamics and the subduction slab, including slow earthquakes, periodicity of episodic tremor and slow slip (ETS) events, and migration pattern of tremors. The study shows that simple heuristic models and analytical and numerical computations can explain triggering of seismicity by transient processes, such as stress changes associated with solitary strain waves in crustal faults. The need to develop the above-mentioned new (nonlinear) mathematical models of the deformed fault and fragmented media was caused by the reason that it is impossible to explain a lot of the observed effects, particularly, slow redistribution and migration of stresses in the lithosphere, within the framework of the linear elasticity theory.

  12. Quench dynamics near a quantum critical point: Application to the sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Grandi, C.; Polkovnikov, A.; Gritsev, V.

    2010-01-01

    We discuss the quench dynamics near a quantum critical point focusing on the sine-Gordon model as a primary example. We suggest a unified approach to sudden and slow quenches, where the tuning parameter λ(t) changes in time as λ(t)∼υt r , based on the adiabatic expansion of the excitation probability in powers of υ. We show that the universal scaling of the excitation probability can be understood through the singularity of the generalized adiabatic susceptibility χ 2r+2 (λ), which for sudden quenches (r=0) reduces to the fidelity susceptibility. In turn this class of susceptibilities is expressed through the moments of the connected correlation function of the quench operator. We analyze the excitations created after a sudden quench of the cosine potential using a combined approach of form-factors expansion and conformal perturbation theory for the low-energy and high-energy sector, respectively. We find the general scaling laws for the probability of exciting the system, the density of excited quasiparticles, the entropy and the heat generated after the quench. In the two limits where the sine-Gordon model maps to hard-core bosons and free massive fermions we provide the exact solutions for the quench dynamics and discuss the finite temperature generalizations.

  13. Low-mode truncation methods in the sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong Chuyu.

    1991-01-01

    In this dissertation, the author studies the chaotic and coherent motions (i.e., low-dimensional chaotic attractor) in some near integrable partial differential equations, particularly the sine-Gordon equation and the nonlinear Schroedinger equation. In order to study the motions, he uses low mode truncation methods to reduce these partial differential equations to some truncated models (low-dimensional ordinary differential equations). By applying many methods available to low-dimensional ordinary differential equations, he can understand the low-dimensional chaotic attractor of PDE's much better. However, there are two important questions one needs to answer: (1) How many modes is good enough for the low mode truncated models to capture the dynamics uniformly? (2) Is the chaotic attractor in a low mode truncated model close to the chaotic attractor in the original PDE? And how close is? He has developed two groups of powerful methods to help to answer these two questions. They are the computation methods of continuation and local bifurcation, and local Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov exponents. Using these methods, he concludes that the 2N-nls ODE is a good model for the sine-Gordon equation and the nonlinear Schroedinger equation provided one chooses a 'good' basis and uses 'enough' modes (where 'enough' depends on the parameters of the system but is small for the parameter studied here). Therefore, one can use 2N-nls ODE to study the chaos of PDE's in more depth

  14. Sine-square deformation of solvable spin chains and conformal field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Hosho

    2012-01-01

    We study solvable spin chains, one-dimensional massless Dirac fermions and conformal field theories (CFTs) with sine-square deformation (SSD), in which the Hamiltonian density is modulated by the function f(x) = sin  2 (πx/ℓ), where x is the position and ℓ is the length of the system. For the XY chain and the transverse field Ising chain at criticality, it is shown that the ground state of an open system with SSD is identical to that of a uniform chain with periodic boundary conditions. The same holds for the massless Dirac fermions with SSD, corresponding to the continuum limit of the gapless XY chain. For general CFTs, we find that the Hamiltonian of a system with SSD has an expression in terms of the generators of the Virasoro algebra. This allows us to show that the vacuum state is an exact eigenstate of the sine-square deformed Hamiltonian. Furthermore, for a restricted class of CFTs associated with affine Lie (Kac–Moody) algebras, including c = 1 Gaussian CFT, we prove that the vacuum is an exact ground state of the deformed Hamiltonian. This explains why the SSD has succeeded in suppressing boundary effects in one-dimensional critical systems, as observed in previous numerical studies. (paper)

  15. BPS ZN string tensions, sine law and Casimir scaling, and integrable field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneipp, Marco A. C.

    2007-01-01

    We consider a Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with spontaneous symmetry breaking of the gauge group G→U(1) r →C G , with C G being the center of G. We study two vacua solutions of the theory which produce this symmetry breaking. We show that for one of these vacua, the theory in the Coulomb phase has the mass spectrum of particles and monopoles which is exactly the same as the mass spectrum of particles and solitons of two-dimensional affine Toda field theory, for suitable coupling constants. That result holds also for N=4 super Yang-Mills theories. On the other hand, in the Higgs phase, we show that for each of the two vacua the ratio of the tensions of the BPS Z N strings satisfy either the Casimir scaling or the sine law scaling for G=SU(N). These results are extended to other gauge groups: for the Casimir scaling, the ratios of the tensions are equal to the ratios of the quadratic Casimir constant of specific representations; for the sine law scaling, the tensions are proportional to the components of the left Perron-Frobenius eigenvector of Cartan matrix K ij and the ratios of tensions are equal to the ratios of the soliton masses of affine Toda field theories

  16. Soliton scatterings by impurities in a short-length sine-Gordon chain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikande, A.M.; Kofane, T.C.

    1995-07-01

    The scattering of soliton by impurities at the frontiers of a finite-length region of an infinite sine-Gordon chain is analyzed. The impurities consist of two isotopic inhomogeneities installed at the boundaries of the finite-length region. The soliton solution in the region is found in term of snoidal sine-Gordon soliton which properly takes into account the effects of the boundaries. By contrast, the soliton solutions in the neighboring sides of the region are obtained in terms of the so-called large-amplitude, localized kinks with limiting spatial extensions at x → ± ∞, which is equal ±π. Using the continuity of these soliton solutions at the frontiers as well as appropriate boundary conditions, it is shown that the soliton may be either i) reflected by the incident impurity; ii) trapped (with oscillating motions) between the two impurities (i.e. inside the infinite region); or iii) transmitted by the second impurity into the third, infinitely extended region. The threshold velocities for the reflection and transmission into different regions are found and shown to vary exponentially as a function of the length of the bounded region. The frequency of soliton oscillations between the impurities has also been calculated in some acceptable limit. (author). 28 refs, 1 fig

  17. Numerical simulation of the self-pumped long Josephson junction using a modified sine-Gordon model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sobolev, A.; Pankratov, A.; Mygind, Jesper

    2006-01-01

    We have numerically investigated the dynamics of a long Josephson junction (flux-flow oscillator) biased by a DC current in the presence of magnetic field. The study is performed in the frame of the modified sine-Gordon model, which includes the surface losses, RC-load at both FFO ends and the self-pumping...... effect. In our model the dumping parameter depends both on the spatial coordinate and the amplitude of the AC voltage. In order to find the DC FFO voltage the damping parameter has to be calculated by successive approximations and time integration of the perturbed sine-Gordon equation. The modified model...

  18. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN) gene in different horse breeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Olio, Stefania; Scotti, Emilio; Fontanesi, Luca; Tassinari, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The myostatin (MSTN) gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus) MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs) generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot) and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic). The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81) and in the Thoroughbred (0.51), whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  19. Analysis of the 227 bp short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of the promoter of the myostatin (MSTN gene in different horse breeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefania Dall'Olio

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The myostatin (MSTN gene encodes a protein known to be a negative regulator of muscle mass in mammalian species. Different polymorphisms of the horse (Equus caballus MSTN gene have been identified, including single nucleotide polymorphisms and a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE insertion of 227 bp within the promoter of the gene. The SINE insertion has been associated with performance traits in Thoroughbred racehorses and it was proposed as a predictor of optimum racing distance. The aims of this study were to perform in silico analysis to identify putative gains or abrogation of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBSs generated by the SINE allele of the promoter and to analyse the frequency of the SINE insertion in horses used for racing (gallop and trot and other purposes. The SINE insertion was genotyped in 227 horses from 10 breeds belonging to different morphological types (brachimorphic, mesomorphic, meso-dolichomorphic and dolichomorphic. The presence of the insertion was confirmed in the Quarter Horse (SINE allele frequency of 0.81 and in the Thoroughbred (0.51, whereas the SINE allele did not segregate in any of the other analysed breeds. As the SINE MSTN gene polymorphism may be population or breed specific, it is not a useful marker for association studies in all breeds.

  20. Is the energy density of the ground state of the sine-Gordon model unbounded from below for β2 > 8π?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, M; Ivanov, A N

    2003-01-01

    We discuss Coleman's theorem concerning the energy density of the ground state of the sine-Gordon model proved in Coleman S (1975 Phys. Rev. D 11 2088). According to this theorem the energy density of the ground state of the sine-Gordon model should be unbounded from below for coupling constants β 2 > 8π. The consequence of this theorem would be the non-existence of the quantum ground state of the sine-Gordon model for β 2 > 8π. We show that the energy density of the ground state in the sine-Gordon model is bounded from below even for β 2 > 8π. This result is discussed in relation to Coleman's theorem (Coleman S 1973 Commun. Math. Phys. 31 259), particle mass spectra and soliton-soliton scattering in the sine-Gordon model

  1. Renormalization group study of the multi-layer sine-gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandori, I.

    2005-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. We analyze the phase structure of the system of coupled sine-Gordon (SG) type field theoric models. The 'pure,' SG model is periodic in the internal space spanned by the field variable. The central subjects of investigation is the multi-layer sine-Gordon (LSG) model, where the periodicity is broken partially by the coupling terms between the layers each of which is described by a scalar field, where the second term on the r.h.s. describes the interaction of the layers. Here, we dis- cuss the generalization of the results obtained for the two-layer sine-Gordon model found in the previous study. Besides the obvious field theoretical interest, the LSG model has been used to describe the vortex properties of high transition temperature superconductors, and the extension of the previous analysis to a general N-layer model is necessary for a description of the critical behaviour of vortices in realistic multi-layer systems. The couplings between the layers can be considered as mass terms. Since the periodicity of the LSG model has been broken only partially, the N-layer model has always a single zero mass eigenvalue. The presence of this single zero mass eigenvalue is found to be decisive with respect to the phase structure of the N-layer models. By a suitable rotation of the field variables, we identify the periodic mode (which corresponds to the zero mass eigenvalue) and N - 1 non-periodic modes (with explicit mass terms). The N - 1 non-periodic modes have a trivial IR scaling which holds independently of β which has been proven consistently using (i) the non-perturbative renormalization group study of the rotated model, (ii) the Gaussian integration about the vanishing-field saddle point. Due to the presence of the periodic mode the model undergoes a Kosterlitz-Thouless type phase transition which occurs at a coupling parameter β c 2 = 8Nπ, where N is the number of layers. The critical value β c 2 corresponds to the critical

  2. On the equivalence between sine-Gordon model and Thirring model in the chirally broken phase of the Thirring model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faber, M.; Ivanov, A.N.

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the equivalence between Thirring model and sine-Gordon model in the chirally broken phase of the Thirring model. This is unlike all other available approaches where the fermion fields of the Thirring model were quantized in the chiral symmetric phase. In the path integral approach we show that the bosonized version of the massless Thirring model is described by a quantum field theory of a massless scalar field and exactly solvable, and the massive Thirring model bosonizes to the sine-Gordon model with a new relation between the coupling constants. We show that the non-perturbative vacuum of the chirally broken phase in the massless Thirring model can be described in complete analogy with the BCS ground state of superconductivity. The Mermin-Wagner theorem and Coleman's statement concerning the absence of Goldstone bosons in the 1+1-dimensional quantum field theories are discussed. We investigate the current algebra in the massless Thirring model and give a new value of the Schwinger term. We show that the topological current in the sine-Gordon model coincides with the Noether current responsible for the conservation of the fermion number in the Thirring model. This allows one to identify the topological charge in the sine-Gordon model with the fermion number. (orig.)

  3. Periodic and solitary wave solutions of Kawahara and modified Kawahara equations by using Sine-Cosine method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yusufoglu, E.; Bekir, A.; Alp, M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we establish exact solutions for nonlinear evolution equations. The sine-cosine method is used to construct periodic and solitary wave solutions of the Kawahara and modified Kawahara equations. These solutions may be important of significance for the explanation of some practical physical problems

  4. Hyperbolic Cosines and Sines Theorems for the Triangle Formed by Arcs of Intersecting Semicircles on Euclidean Plane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert M. Yamaleev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The hyperbolic cosines and sines theorems for the curvilinear triangle bounded by circular arcs of three intersecting circles are formulated and proved by using the general complex calculus. The method is based on a key formula establishing a relationship between exponential function and the cross-ratio. The proofs are carried out on Euclidean plane.

  5. On second order effects in a galvanic cell : Part I. Polarization by a sine wave modulated high frequency current

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol, F. van der; Sluyters-Rehbach, M.; Sluyters, J.H.

    1975-01-01

    A theoretical study is presented concerning the application of a high-frequency alternating current, amplitude modulated by a low-frequency sine wave, to a galvanic cell. Based on the correlation with the faradaic rectification technique, expressions are given for the low-frequency demodulation

  6. Digging into the Elusive Localised Solutions of (2+1) Dimensional sine-Gordon Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, R.; Senthil Kumar, C.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we revisit the (2+1) dimensional sine-Gordon equation analysed earlier [R. Radha and M. Lakshmanan, J. Phys. A Math. Gen. 29, 1551 (1996)] employing the Truncated Painlevé Approach. We then generate the solutions in terms of lower dimensional arbitrary functions of space and time. By suitably harnessing the arbitrary functions present in the closed form of the solution, we have constructed dromion solutions and studied their collisional dynamics. We have also constructed dromion pairs and shown that the dynamics of the dromion pairs can be turned ON or OFF desirably. In addition, we have also shown that the orientation of the dromion pairs can be changed. Apart from the above classes of solutions, we have also generated compactons, rogue waves and lumps and studied their dynamics.

  7. Chiral vertex operators in off-conformal theory: Sine-Gordon example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, S.; Rajaraman, R.

    1996-01-01

    We study chiral vertex operators in sine-Gordon (SG) theory, viewed as an off-conformal system. We find that these operators, which would have been primary fields in the conformal limit, have interesting properties in the SG model. Some of them commute with the cosine interaction term in the Hamiltonian at a finite separation. Their Heisenberg equations of motion are local in space. An example of such vertex operators is Mandelstam close-quote s bosonic representation of the Fermi field. Another example is a set of vertex operators of topological number 2. We show how to construct conserved nonlocal currents from these operators. In the presence of the nonconformal interactions, these nonlocal currents have unique Lorentz spins. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  8. Efficient Implementation of Complex Modulated Filter Banks Using Cosine and Sine Modulated Filter Banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viholainen Ari

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The recently introduced exponentially modulated filter bank (EMFB is a -channel uniform, orthogonal, critically sampled, and frequency-selective complex modulated filter bank that satisfies the perfect reconstruction (PR property if the prototype filter of an -channel PR cosine modulated filter bank (CMFB is used. The purpose of this paper is to present various implementation structures for the EMFBs in a unified framework. The key idea is to use cosine and sine modulated filter banks as building blocks and, therefore, polyphase, lattice, and extended lapped transform (ELT type of implementation solutions are studied. The ELT-based EMFBs are observed to be very competitive with the existing modified discrete Fourier transform filter banks (MDFT-FBs when comparing the number of multiplications/additions and the structural simplicity. In addition, EMFB provides an alternative channel stacking arrangement that could be more natural in certain subband processing applications and data transmission systems.

  9. Bethe ansatz approach to quantum sine Gordon thermodynamics and finite temperature excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zotos, X.

    1982-01-01

    Takahashi and Suzuki (TS) using the Bethe ansatz method developed a formalism for the thermodynamics of the XYZ spin chain. Translating their formalism to the quantum sine-Gordon system, the thermodynamics and finite temperature elementary excitations are analyzed. Criteria imposed by TS on the allowed states simply correspond to the condition of normalizability of the wave functions. A set of coupled nonlinear integral equations for the thermodynamic equilibrium densities for particular values of the coupling constant in the attractive regime is derived. Solving numerically these Bethe ansatz equations, curves of the specific heat as a function of temperature are obtained. The soliton contribution peaks at a temperature of about 0.4 soliton masses shifting downward as the classical limit is approached. The weak coupling regime is analyzed by deriving the Bethe ansatz equations including the charged vacuum excitations. It is shown that they are necessary for a consistent presentation of the thermodynamics

  10. Stored polarized beams: MILES, LIMES, SMILE, sine-Bessels and SODOM2 too

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mane, S.R.

    2008-01-01

    The fundamental theory underlying several computational algorithms for the spin dynamics of stored polarized beams is analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the consequences of the use of finite-dimensional matrices and/or Fourier series. The single resonance model with a pair of diametrically opposed nonorthogonal pointlike Siberian Snakes is analyzed in detail to clarify several points pertaining to the above algorithms, and more generally to the spin dynamics of stored polarized beams in rings with Snakes. New analytical results are also presented, e.g. for the spin tune shift in the nonorthogonal Snakes model, and the sine-Bessel functions for the orthogonal Snakes model. Many results are derived using multiple algorithms, which serves as a check on their mutual consistency

  11. Experimental Results on the Level Crossing Intervals of the Phase of Sine Wave Plus Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Neji; Munakata, Tsutomu; Mimaki, Tadashi

    1993-03-01

    Experimental study was made on the level crossing intervals of a phase process of a sine wave plus narrow-band Gaussian noise. Since successive level crossings of phase do not necessarily occur alternately in the upward and downward direction due to the phase jump beyond 2π, the usual definitions of the probability densities of the level crossing intervals for continuous random processes are not applicable in the case of the phase process. Therefore, the probability densities of level crossing intervals of phase process are newly defined. Measurements of these densities were performed for noise having lowpass spectra of Gaussian and 7th order Butterworth types. Results are given for various values of the signal-to-noise power ratio and of the crossing level, and compared with corresponding approximation developed under the assumption of quasi-independence. The validity of the assumption depends on the spectrum shape of the noise.

  12. SOLITONES KINK Y ANTIKENK EN LA ECUACIÓN DE SINE -GORDON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Armando Segovia Chaves

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available La ecuación de sine-Gordon es una ecuación diferencial no lineal, tiene grandes aplicaciones no solamente en la teoría de campos relativistas, sino también encuentra aplicación en la física del estado sólido y en el transporte de señales en la fibra óptica. En este trabajo se estudian dos soluciones que tiene esta ecuación  diferencial como lo son las soluciones tipo solitón kink y soluciones tipo solitón antikink. Para obtener dichas soluciones se realiza el modelamiento matemático y se representa gráficamente su evolución espacio temporal.

  13. Obtaining changes in calibration-coil to seismometer output constants using sine waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, Adam T.; Hutt, Charles R.; Gee, Lind S.; Sandoval, Leo D.; Wilson, David C.

    2013-01-01

    The midband sensitivity of a broadband seismometer is one of the most commonly used parameters from station metadata. Thus, it is critical for station operators to robustly estimate this quantity with a high degree of accuracy. We develop an in situ method for estimating changes in sensitivity using sine‐wave calibrations, assuming the calibration coil and its drive are stable over time and temperature. This approach has been used in the past for passive instruments (e.g., geophones) but has not been applied, to our knowledge, to derive sensitivities of modern force‐feedback broadband seismometers. We are able to detect changes in sensitivity to well within 1%, and our method is capable of detecting these sensitivity changes using any frequency of sine calibration within the passband of the instrument.

  14. An enhanced sine dwell method as applied to the Galileo core structure modal survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kenneth S.; Trubert, Marc

    1990-01-01

    An incremental modal survey performed in 1988 on the core structure of the Galileo spacecraft with its adapters with the purpose of assessing the dynamics of the new portions of the structure is considered. Emphasis is placed on the enhancements of the sine dwell method employed in the test. For each mode, response data is acquired at 32 frequencies in a narrow band enclosing the resonance, utilizing the SWIFT technique. It is pointed out that due to the simplicity of the data processing involved, the diagnostic and modal-parameter data is available within several minutes after data acquisition; however, compared with straight curve-fitting approaches, the method requires more time for data acquisition.

  15. Designing a Sine-Coil for Measurement of Plasma Displacements in IR-T1 Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khorshid, Pejman; Razavi, M.; Molaii, M.; Ghoranneviss, M.; TalebiTaher, A.; Arvin, R.; Mohammadi, S.; NikMohammadi, A.

    2008-01-01

    A method for the measurement of the plasma position in the IR-T1 tokamak in toroidal coordinates is developed. A sine-coil, which is a Rogowski coil with a variable wiring density is designed and fabricated for this purpose. An analytic solution of the Biot-Savart law, which is used to calculate magnetic fields created by toroidal plasma current, is presented. Results of calculations are compared with the experimental data obtained in no-plasma shots with a toroidal current-carrying coil positioned inside the vessel to simulate the plasma movements. The results are shown a good linear behavior of plasma position measurements. The error is less than 2.5% and it is compared with other methods of measurements of the plasma position. This method will be used in the feedback position control system and tests of feedback controller parameters are ongoing

  16. Sine-squared shifted pulses for recoupling interactions in solid-state NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Mukul G.; Rajalakshmi, G.; Equbal, Asif; Mote, Kaustubh R.; Agarwal, Vipin; Madhu, P. K.

    2017-06-01

    Rotational-Echo DOuble-Resonance (REDOR) is a versatile experiment for measuring internuclear distance between two heteronuclear spins in solid-state NMR. At slow to intermediate magic-angle spinning (MAS) frequencies, the measurement of distances between strongly coupled spins is challenging due to rapid dephasing of magnetisation. This problem can be remedied by employing the pulse-shifted version of REDOR known as Shifted-REDOR (S-REDOR) that scales down the recoupled dipolar coupling. In this study, we propose a new variant of the REDOR sequence where the positions of the π pulses are determined by a sine-squared function. This new variant has scaling properties similar to S-REDOR. We use theory, numerical simulations, and experiments to compare the dipolar recoupling efficiencies and the experimental robustness of the three REDOR schemes. The proposed variant has advantages in terms of radiofrequency field requirements at fast MAS frequencies.

  17. Collective coordinates theory for discrete soliton ratchets in the sine-Gordon model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rey, Bernardo; Quintero, Niurka R.; Cuevas-Maraver, Jesús; Alejo, Miguel A.

    2014-10-01

    A collective coordinate theory is developed for soliton ratchets in the damped discrete sine-Gordon model driven by a biharmonic force. An ansatz with two collective coordinates, namely the center and the width of the soliton, is assumed as an approximated solution of the discrete nonlinear equation. The dynamical equations of these two collective coordinates, obtained by means of the generalized travelling wave method, explain the mechanism underlying the soliton ratchet and capture qualitatively all the main features of this phenomenon. The numerical simulation of these equations accounts for the existence of a nonzero depinning threshold, the nonsinusoidal behavior of the average velocity as a function of the relative phase between the harmonics of the driver, the nonmonotonic dependence of the average velocity on the damping, and the existence of nontransporting regimes beyond the depinning threshold. In particular, it provides a good description of the intriguing and complex pattern of subspaces corresponding to different dynamical regimes in parameter space.

  18. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cryns, Jackson W.; Hatchell, Brian K.; Santiago-Rojas, Emiliano; Silvers, Kurt L.

    2013-07-01

    Formal journal article Experimental analysis of a piezoelectric energy harvesting system for harmonic, random, and sine on random vibration Abstract: Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random and sine on random (SOR) input vibration scenarios. Additionally, the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. Studies in vibration harvesting have yielded numerous alternatives for harvesting electrical energy from vibrations but piezoceramics arose as the most compact, energy dense means of energy transduction. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. In this manuscript, variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. We characterize the source vibration by its acceleration response for repeatability and transcription to general application. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions for in previous literature that load optimal resistance varies with transducer natural frequency and source type, and the findings demonstrate that significant gains are seen with lower tuned transducer natural frequencies for similar source amplitudes. Going beyond idealized steady state sinusoidal and simplified random vibration input, SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibrational sources significantly alter power generation and power processing

  19. Resurgence in sine-Gordon quantum mechanics: exact agreement between multi-instantons and uniform WKB

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Misumi, Tatsuhiro [Department of Mathematical Science, Akita University,1-1 Tegata Gakuen-machi, Akita 010-8502 (Japan); Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences,Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan); Nitta, Muneto; Sakai, Norisuke [Department of Physics, and Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences,Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2015-09-23

    We compute multi-instanton amplitudes in the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics (periodic cosine potential) by integrating out quasi-moduli parameters corresponding to separations of instantons and anti-instantons. We propose an extension of Bogomolnyi-Zinn-Justin prescription for multi-instanton configurations and an appropriate subtraction scheme. We obtain the multi-instanton contributions to the energy eigenvalue of the lowest band at the zeroth order of the coupling constant. For the configurations with only instantons (anti-instantons), we obtain unambiguous results. For those with both instantons and anti-instantons, we obtain results with imaginary parts, which depend on the path of analytic continuation. We show that the imaginary parts of the multi-instanton amplitudes precisely cancel the imaginary parts of the Borel resummation of the perturbation series, and verify that our results completely agree with those based on the uniform-WKB calculations, thus confirming the resurgence structure: divergent perturbation series combined with the nonperturbative multi-instanton contributions conspire to give unambiguous results. We also study the neutral bion contributions in the ℂP{sup N−1} model on ℝ{sup 1}×S{sup 1} with a small circumference, taking account of the relative phase moduli between the fractional instanton and anti-instanton. We find that the sign of the interaction potential depends on the relative phase moduli, and that both the real and imaginary parts resulting from quasi-moduli integral of the neutral bion get quantitative corrections compared to the sine-Gordon quantum mechanics.

  20. Swept-sine noise-induced damage as a hearing loss model for preclinical assays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorena eSanz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouse models are key tools for studying cochlear alterations in noise-induced hearing loss and for evaluating new therapies. Stimuli used to induce deafness in mice are usually white and octave band noises that include very low frequencies, considering the large mouse auditory range. We designed different sound stimuli, enriched in frequencies up to 20 kHz (violet noises to examine their impact on hearing thresholds and cochlear cytoarchitecture after short exposure. In addition, we developed a cytocochleogram to quantitatively assess the ensuing structural degeneration and its functional correlation. Finally, we used this mouse model and cochleogram procedure to evaluate the potential therapeutic effect of transforming growth factor β1 inhibitors P17 and P144 on noise-induced hearing loss. CBA mice were exposed to violet swept-sine noise with different frequency ranges (2-20 or 9-13 kHz and levels (105 or 120 dB SPL for 30 minutes. Mice were evaluated by auditory brainstem response and otoacoustic emission tests prior to and 2, 14 and 28 days after noise exposure. Cochlear pathology was assessed with gross histology; hair cell number was estimated by a stereological counting method. Our results indicate that functional and morphological changes induced by violet swept-sine noise depend on the sound level and frequency composition. Partial hearing recovery followed the exposure to 105 dB SPL, whereas permanent cochlear damage resulted from the exposure to 120 dB SPL. Exposure to 9-13 kHz noise caused an auditory threshold shift in those frequencies that correlated with hair cell loss in the corresponding areas of the cochlea that were spotted on the cytocochleogram. In summary, we present mouse models of noise-induced hearing loss, which depending on the sound properties of the noise, cause different degrees of cochlear damage, and could therefore be used to study molecules which are potential players in hearing loss protection and repair.

  1. Perturbation theory in angular quantization approach and the expectation values of exponential fields in sine-Gordon model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poghossian, R.H.

    2000-01-01

    In an angular quantization approach a perturbation theory for the Massive Thirring Model (MTM) is developed, which allows us to calculate vacuum expectation values of exponential fields in sine-Gordon theory near the free fermion point in first order of the MTM coupling constant g. The Hankel transforms play an important role when carrying out these calculations. The expression we have found coincides with that of the direct expansion over g of the exact formula conjectured by Lukyanov and Zamolodchikov

  2. Analysis of optimal Reynolds number for developing laminar forced convection in double sine ducts based on entropy generation minimization principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, T.H.

    2006-01-01

    In the present paper, the entropy generation and optimal Reynolds number for developing forced convection in a double sine duct with various wall heat fluxes, which frequently occurs in plate heat exchangers, are studied based on the entropy generation minimization principle by analytical thermodynamic analysis as well as numerical investigation. According to the thermodynamic analysis, a very simple expression for the optimal Reynolds number for the double sine duct as a function of mass flow rate, wall heat flux, working fluid and geometric dimensions is proposed. In the numerical simulations, the investigated Reynolds number (Re) covers the range from 86 to 2000 and the wall heat flux (q'') varies as 160, 320 and 640 W/m 2 . From the numerical simulation of the developing laminar forced convection in the double sine duct, the effect of Reynolds number on entropy generation in the duct has been examined, through which the optimal Reynolds number with minimal entropy generation is detected. The optimal Reynolds number obtained from the analytical thermodynamic analysis is compared with the one from the numerical solutions and is verified to have a similar magnitude of entropy generation as the minimal entropy generation predicted by the numerical simulations. The optimal analysis provided in the present paper gives worthy information for heat exchanger design, since the thermal system could have the least irreversibility and best exergy utilization if the optimal Re can be used according to practical design conditions

  3. Sine-Gordon quantum field theory on the half-line with quantum boundary degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseilhac, P.; Koizumi, K.

    2003-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model on the half-line with a dynamical boundary introduced by Delius and one of the authors is considered at quantum level. Classical boundary conditions associated with classical integrability are shown to be preserved at quantum level too. Non-local conserved charges are constructed explicitly in terms of the field and boundary operators. We solve the intertwining equation associated with a certain coideal subalgebra of U q (sl 2 -bar) generated by these non-local charges. The corresponding solution is shown to satisfy quantum boundary Yang-Baxter equations. Up to an exact relation between the quantization length of the boundary quantum mechanical system and the sine-Gordon coupling constant, we conjecture the soliton/antisoliton reflection matrix and bound states reflection matrices. The structure of the boundary state is then considered, and shown to be divided in two sectors. Also, depending on the sine-Gordon coupling constant a finite set of boundary bound states are identified. Taking the analytic continuation of the coupling, the corresponding boundary sinh-Gordon model is briefly discussed. In particular, the particle reflection factor enjoys weak-strong coupling duality

  4. Accurate Frequency Estimation Based On Three-Parameter Sine-Fitting With Three FFT Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple DFT-based golden section searching algorithm (DGSSA for the single tone frequency estimation. Because of truncation and discreteness in signal samples, Fast Fourier Transform (FFT and Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT are inevitable to cause the spectrum leakage and fence effect which lead to a low estimation accuracy. This method can improve the estimation accuracy under conditions of a low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR and a low resolution. This method firstly uses three FFT samples to determine the frequency searching scope, then – besides the frequency – the estimated values of amplitude, phase and dc component are obtained by minimizing the least square (LS fitting error of three-parameter sine fitting. By setting reasonable stop conditions or the number of iterations, the accurate frequency estimation can be realized. The accuracy of this method, when applied to observed single-tone sinusoid samples corrupted by white Gaussian noise, is investigated by different methods with respect to the unbiased Cramer-Rao Low Bound (CRLB. The simulation results show that the root mean square error (RMSE of the frequency estimation curve is consistent with the tendency of CRLB as SNR increases, even in the case of a small number of samples. The average RMSE of the frequency estimation is less than 1.5 times the CRLB with SNR = 20 dB and N = 512.

  5. Heun equation in a 5D sine-Gordon brane-world model with dilaton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunha, M.S.; Christiansen, H.

    2011-01-01

    Full text: In a brane-world scenario we find the propagation modes of the gauge field in a five-dimensional space-time. We adopt warping factors of the Randall-Sundrum type which are appropriate to regularize the hierarchy problem without imposing finite compactified extra dimensions. The existence and localization of gauge particles in the ordinary four-dimensional world is studied in detail on a thick brane derived out from the equations of motion of an action with a sine-Gordon potential contribution. Maxwell zero modes together with torsion effective fields are then obtained in a gravity-dilaton background inspired in close string theories. The dilaton plays a crucial role in order that the gauge field gets localized in a conformally invariant context. Kaluza-Klein massive states are also computed and, depending on certain parameters like dilaton coupling constant and asymptotic curvature, we are able to do it fully analytically. In a general approach we find that the solutions are of the Heun type. In some specific cases we can show that the Heun general solutions can be transformed into hypergeometric functions. In others, confluent Heun solutions can be transformed into simpler functions like Mathieu functions. Exact mass spectra are found in several cases. In others, we performed numerical calculations that show a well behaved phenomenology as well. In all the cases, Kaluza-Klein modes are strongly suppressed on the brane in the effective four-dimensional theory. (author)

  6. Geborgenheid as ’n sine qua non vir opvoedende onderwys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.J. Oosthuizen

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Security as a sine qua non for education Learner security is an imperative for education. Whereas an environment of security is conducive to learning, the absence of it is destructive of effective learning. Some of the factors that are to be taken into account in order to create a sound environment of security for the learner are the following: • the physical well-being of the learner; • the mental well-being of the learner liberated from anxiety and fear and • the competence and proficiency of the teacher. In many respects contemporary South African education is characterised by an absence of security and surity. Some of the reasons for this situation are instances of physical and mental insecurity such as a prevailing culture of physical violence, drug abuse and an alarming rise of contagious diseases in schools. This article focuses on these and other factors responsible for instances of an insecure learning environment in South African education. This article also seeks to find possible solutions towards securing the learning environment of the learner.

  7. Emotional intelligence: the Sine Qua Non for a clinical leadership toolbox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Paul R

    2006-01-01

    Over the past decade, it has become increasingly clear that although IQ and technical skills are important, emotional intelligence is the Sine Qua Non of leadership. According to Goleman [Goleman, D. (1998). What makes a leader? Harvard Business Review, 93-102] "effective leaders are alike in one crucial way: they all have a high degree of emotional intelligence...and can also be linked to strong performance." The original five dimensions of EIQ are described and applied to both supervisory and clinical scenarios. As a result of reading this work, you will be able to: (1) define and provide an illustration of each of the five components of emotional intelligence (EIQ); (2) outline the relationship of EIQ to success in your profession and your personal life; (3) create a strategic action plan to enhance each dimension of EIQ in your daily life; (4) list at least three real-life experiences that could have resulted a favorable outcome with an improved EIQ; (5) complete a self-evaluation of your EIQ.

  8. Experimental Analysis of a Piezoelectric Energy Harvesting System for Harmonic, Random, and Sine on Random Vibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson W. Cryns

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting power with a piezoelectric vibration powered generator using a full-wave rectifier conditioning circuit is experimentally compared for varying sinusoidal, random, and sine on random (SOR input vibration scenarios; the implications of source vibration characteristics on harvester design are discussed. The rise in popularity of harvesting energy from ambient vibrations has made compact, energy dense piezoelectric generators commercially available. Much of the available literature focuses on maximizing harvested power through nonlinear processing circuits that require accurate knowledge of generator internal mechanical and electrical characteristics and idealization of the input vibration source, which cannot be assumed in general application. Variations in source vibration and load resistance are explored for a commercially available piezoelectric generator. The results agree with numerical and theoretical predictions in the previous literature for optimal power harvesting in sinusoidal and flat broadband vibration scenarios. Going beyond idealized steady-state sinusoidal and flat random vibration input, experimental SOR testing allows for more accurate representation of real world ambient vibration. It is shown that characteristic interactions from more complex vibration sources significantly alter power generation and processing requirements by varying harvested power, shifting optimal conditioning impedance, inducing voltage fluctuations, and ultimately rendering idealized sinusoidal and random analyses incorrect.

  9. Transforming wealth: using the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS) and splines to predict youth's math achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedline, Terri; Masa, Rainier D; Chowa, Gina A N

    2015-01-01

    The natural log and categorical transformations commonly applied to wealth for meeting the statistical assumptions of research may not always be appropriate for adjusting for skewness given wealth's unique properties. Finding and applying appropriate transformations is becoming increasingly important as researchers consider wealth as a predictor of well-being. We present an alternative transformation-the inverse hyperbolic sine (IHS)-for simultaneously dealing with skewness and accounting for wealth's unique properties. Using the relationship between household wealth and youth's math achievement as an example, we apply the IHS transformation to wealth data from US and Ghanaian households. We also explore non-linearity and accumulation thresholds by combining IHS transformed wealth with splines. IHS transformed wealth relates to youth's math achievement similarly when compared to categorical and natural log transformations, indicating that it is a viable alternative to other transformations commonly used in research. Non-linear relationships and accumulation thresholds emerge that predict youth's math achievement when splines are incorporated. In US households, accumulating debt relates to decreases in math achievement whereas accumulating assets relates to increases in math achievement. In Ghanaian households, accumulating assets between the 25th and 50th percentiles relates to increases in youth's math achievement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The sine-Gordon model and the small κ+ region of light- cone perturbation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Griffin, P.A.

    1992-01-01

    The non-perturbative ultraviolet divergence of the sine-Gordon model is used to study the k + = 0 region of light-cone perturbation theory. The light-cone vacuum is shown to be unstable at the non- perturbative β 2 = 8π critical point by a light-cone version of Coleman's variational method. Vacuum bubbles, which are k + = 0 diagram in light-cone field theory and are individually finite and non-vanishing for all β, conspire to generate ultraviolet divergences of the light-cone energy density. The k + = 0 region of momentum also contributed to connected Green's functions: the connected two point function will not diverge, as it should, at the critical point unless diagrams which contribute only at k + = 0 are properly included. This analysis shows in a simple way how the k + = 0 region cannot be ignored even for connected diagrams. This phenomenon is expected to occur in higher dimensional gauge theories starting at two loop order in light-cone perturbation theory

  11. SINE DIE SUSPENSION OF LAW ENFORCEMENT - REASON FOR THE CESSATION OF ITS EXISTENCE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Arsenie-Scarlat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The successive suspensions of aid payments from 2011 and to date, as provided by the framework Law 284/2010- Annex ,7 for uniform pay, amended, section 3, have caused serious damage to property observance, as guaranteed by Art. 1 of Protocol no. 1, additional to the European Convention on Human Rights. ”Invoking the country's economic and financial situation by the legislator, in order to restrict the exercise of a fundamental right springing from a law that is still in force, is not sufficient, but that restriction must meet all the requirements specified in Art. 53 of the Constituti on”. The rules that have the effect of "sine die" suspending the rights of former employees, now retired, restrict and limit forcedly their rights guaranteed by law and cannot be considered democratic measures, as long as successive suspensions can affect the very existence of the law. Research methods used: direct documenting through case studies from personal law practice and not only, as well as from primary and secondary bibliographic documentation. Results and implications of the study: the impact of these rules that defer the payment of aids to former employees is significant, in that they bring material losses, but also that it violates the constitutional principle of the rule of law. Sue petitions pending lawsuit in courts have been formulated, whereby admitting the application of these rights and compelling former employers to pay the ”aids” given by the law, and largely the courts upheld these claims.

  12. Random demodulation for structural health monitoring excited by the five-cycle sine burst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xing

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the Structural Health Monitoring (SHM has been paid more and more attention. The five-cycle sine burst is widely used as the exciting signal in SHM and the sensors’ responded signals are analyzed to research the damage. In the sensor network, there will be many sensors which mean many responded signals will be sampled, restored and sometimes transferred. In the traditional way which is known as Nyquist sampling theorem, the sampling rate must be more than twice the highest rate of the original signal. In this way, the amount of data will be huge. As the result, the costs will be very expensive and the equipment may be huge and heavy, which is especially unaccepted in the aircraft. It is necessary to do some research to compress the signal. The Compressing Sensing (CS theory provides new methods to compress the signals. The Random Demodulation (RD is a specific method which can accomplish the physical implementation of CS theory. In this paper, according to the structure of RD, we chose some chips to build a RD system. And we did some experiments to verify the method through the system. We chose the Orthogonal Matching Pursuit (OMP as the construct algorithm to recover the signal.

  13. Collective coordinate approximation to the scattering of solitons in modified NLS and sine-Gordon models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baron, H.E.; Zakrzewski, W.J.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the validity of collective coordinate approximations to the scattering of two solitons in several classes of (1+1) dimensional field theory models. We consider models which are deformations of the sine-Gordon (SG) or the nonlinear Schrödinger (NLS) model which posses soliton solutions (which are topological (SG) or non-topological (NLS)). Our deformations preserve their topology (SG), but change their integrability properties, either completely or partially (models become ‘quasi-integrable’). As the collective coordinate approximation does not allow for the radiation of energy out of a system we look, in some detail, at how the approximation fares in models which are ‘quasi-integrable’ and therefore have asymptotically conserved charges (i.e. charges Q(t) for which Q(t→−∞)=Q(t→∞)). We find that our collective coordinate approximation, based on geodesic motion etc, works amazingly well in all cases where it is expected to work. This is true for the physical properties of the solitons and even for their quasi-conserved (or not) charges. The only time the approximation is not very reliable (and even then the qualitative features are reasonable, but some details are not reproduced well) involves the processes when the solitons come very close together (within one width of each other) during their scattering.

  14. Asymptotics for the Fredholm determinant of the sine kernel on a union of intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widom, Harold

    1995-07-01

    In the bulk scaling limit of the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble of hermitian matrices the probability that an interval of length s contains no eigenvalues is the Fredholm determinant of the sine kernel{sin (x - y)}/{π (x - y)} over this interval. A formal asymptotic expansion for the determinant as s tends to infinity was obtained by Dyson. In this paper we replace a single interval of length s by sJ, where J is a union of m intervals and present a proof of the asymptotics up to second order. The logarithmic derivative with respect to s of the determinant equals a constant (expressible in terms of hyperelliptic integrals) times s, plus a bounded oscillatory function of s (zero if m=1, periodic if m=2, and in general expressible in terms of the solution of a Jacobi inversion problem), plus o(1). Also determined are the asymptotics of the trace of the resolvent operator, which is the ratio in the same model of the probability that the set contains exactly one eigenvalue to the probability that it contains none. The proofs use ideas from orthogonal polynomial theory.

  15. Comparison of least squares and exponential sine sweep methods for Parallel Hammerstein Models estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebillat, Marc; Schoukens, Maarten

    2018-05-01

    Linearity is a common assumption for many real-life systems, but in many cases the nonlinear behavior of systems cannot be ignored and must be modeled and estimated. Among the various existing classes of nonlinear models, Parallel Hammerstein Models (PHM) are interesting as they are at the same time easy to interpret as well as to estimate. One way to estimate PHM relies on the fact that the estimation problem is linear in the parameters and thus that classical least squares (LS) estimation algorithms can be used. In that area, this article introduces a regularized LS estimation algorithm inspired on some of the recently developed regularized impulse response estimation techniques. Another mean to estimate PHM consists in using parametric or non-parametric exponential sine sweeps (ESS) based methods. These methods (LS and ESS) are founded on radically different mathematical backgrounds but are expected to tackle the same issue. A methodology is proposed here to compare them with respect to (i) their accuracy, (ii) their computational cost, and (iii) their robustness to noise. Tests are performed on simulated systems for several values of methods respective parameters and of signal to noise ratio. Results show that, for a given set of data points, the ESS method is less demanding in computational resources than the LS method but that it is also less accurate. Furthermore, the LS method needs parameters to be set in advance whereas the ESS method is not subject to conditioning issues and can be fully non-parametric. In summary, for a given set of data points, ESS method can provide a first, automatic, and quick overview of a nonlinear system than can guide more computationally demanding and precise methods, such as the regularized LS one proposed here.

  16. Light redirecting system using sine-wave based panels for dense urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Mohamed W. N.; Mashaly, Islam A.; Mohamed, Osama N.; El-Henawy, Sally I.; Galal, Ola; Taha, Iman; Nassar, Khaled; Safwat, Amr M. E.

    2014-09-01

    Cities and towns around the world are becoming more condensed due to the shrinking amount of buildable areas, which significantly reduces the amount of light that occupants have access to. This lack of natural lighting results in health, safety and quality of life degradation. This paper presents a new technique of transmitting sunlight downward into narrow alleys and streets, by using a daylighting guiding acrylic panel that is capable of changing the direction and distribution of the incident light. The core of the proposed daylight guidance system is made up of light transmission panels with high quality. The corrugations have sine wave shaped cross-section so that the panel functions as an optical diffuser perpendicular to the direction of sunlight propagation. The day lighting system consists of the corrugated panels and a lattice frame, which supports the panel. The proposed system is to be mounted on the building roof facing the sun so as to redirect the incident sunlight downward into the narrow alleys or streets. Since building sizes and orientations are different the frame is arranged such that substantially deep light penetration and high luminance level can be achieved. Simulation results show that the proposed panel improves the illuminance values by more than 200% and 400% in autumn and winter, respectively, provides fan-out angle that exceeds 80° for certain solar altitudes and the transmitted power percentage varies from 40% to 90% as the solar altitude varies from 10° to 80°. Experimental results are in a good agreement with the simulations.

  17. Spatial and temporal structure of fish assemblages in an ''inverse estuary'', the Sine Saloum system (Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simier, M.; Blanc, L.; Aliaume, C.; Diouf, P. S.; Albaret, J. J.

    2004-01-01

    As a consequence of the Sahelian drought, the Sine Saloum, a large estuarine system located in Senegal (West Africa), has become an "inverse estuary" since the late sixties, i.e. salinity increases upstream and reaches 100 in some places. To study the fish assemblages of such a modified system, a survey was conducted in 1992, collecting fish every two months with a purse seine at eight sites spread over the three main branches of the estuary. A total of 73 species belonging to 35 families were identified. Eight species comprised 97% of the total numbers of fish. The predominant species was a small clupeid, Sardinella maderensis, representing more than half of the total biomass and nearly 70% of the total number of fish. The spatio-temporal structure of the fish assemblages was studied using the STATIS-CoA method, which combines the multitable approach with the correspondence analysis method. Whatever the season, a strong spatial organization of fish assemblages was observed, mainly related to depth and salinity. Three types of assemblages were identified. In shallow water areas, fish assemblages were dominated by Mugilidae, Gerreidae and Cichlidae and were stable with time. In open water areas, large fluctuations in the species composition were observed, due to the occasional presence of large schools of pelagic species: in the southern area, where salinity and water transparency were the lowest, the main species were Ilisha africana, Brachydeuterus auritus and Chloroscombrus chrysurus, associated with a few Sciaenidae and Tetraodontidae, while the poorest areas were characterized by only two dominant species, S. maderensis and Scomberomorus tritor.

  18. Internal tide transformation across a continental slope off Cape Sines, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small, Justin

    2002-04-01

    During the INTIFANTE 99 experiment in July 1999, observations were made of a prominent internal undular bore off Cape Sines, Portugal. The feature was always present and dominant in a collection of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the area covering the period before, during and after the trial. During the trial, rapid dissemination of SAR data to the survey ship enabled assessment of the progression of the feature, and the consequent planning of a survey of the bore coincident with a new SAR image. Large amplitude internal waves of 50 m amplitude in 250 m water depth, and 40 m in 100 m depth, were observed. The images show that the position of the feature is linked to the phase of the tide, suggesting an internal tide origin. The individual packets of internal waves contain up to seven waves with wavelengths in the range of 500-1500 m, and successive packets are separated by internal tide distances of typically 16-20 km, suggesting phase speeds of 0.35-0.45 m s -1. The internal waves were coherent over crest lengths of between 15 and 70 km, the longer wavefronts being due to the merging of packets. This paper uses the SAR data to detail the transformation of the wave packet as it passes across the continental slope and approaches the coast. The generation sites for the feature are discussed and reasons for its unusually large amplitude are hypothesised. It is concluded that generation at critical slopes of the bathymetry and non-linear interactions are the likely explanations for the large amplitudes.

  19. Measurement of instantaneous rotational speed using double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Jianfeng; Zhong, Shuncong; Zhang, Qiukun; Peng, Zhike

    2018-03-01

    Fast and accurate rotational speed measurement is required both for condition monitoring and faults diagnose of rotating machineries. A vision- and fringe pattern-based rotational speed measurement system was proposed to measure the instantaneous rotational speed (IRS) with high accuracy and reliability. A special double-sine-varying-density fringe pattern (DSVD-FP) was designed and pasted around the shaft surface completely and worked as primary angular sensor. The rotational angle could be correctly obtained from the left and right fringe period densities (FPDs) of the DSVD-FP image sequence recorded by a high-speed camera. The instantaneous angular speed (IAS) between two adjacent frames could be calculated from the real-time rotational angle curves, thus, the IRS also could be obtained accurately and efficiently. Both the measurement principle and system design of the novel method have been presented. The influence factors on the sensing characteristics and measurement accuracy of the novel system, including the spectral centrobaric correction method (SCCM) on the FPD calculation, the noise sources introduce by the image sensor, the exposure time and the vibration of the shaft, were investigated through simulations and experiments. The sampling rate of the high speed camera could be up to 5000 Hz, thus, the measurement becomes very fast and the change in rotational speed was sensed within 0.2 ms. The experimental results for different IRS measurements and characterization of the response property of a servo motor demonstrated the high accuracy and fast measurement of the proposed technique, making it attractive for condition monitoring and faults diagnosis of rotating machineries.

  20. Gambling and the need for new responses in Public Health with an addiction "sine substantia".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crusco, M; Massoni, F; Luzi, E; Ricci, P; Pelosi, M; Corbosiero, P; Rapp-Ricciardi, M; Ricci, S

    2016-01-01

    The Gambling Disorder (GD) was recently defined as a behavioral addiction by the "The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders IV"( DSM-V) since the clinical, neurobiological and psychopathological similarities led it to be defined it as an addiction "sine substantia". The aim of this study is to formulate an "identikit" of the gambler, to evaluate a possible association between GD / emotional specific factors and the correlation between GD / substance abuse, GD / suicide. In the study, 41 subjects were included (31 males and 10 females) and all were diagnosed with GD. A questionnaire was distributed containing 24 questions deriving from South Oaks Gambling Screen and the DSM-IVTR. The study showed that 51% of the respondents makes use of alcohol and / or drugs; that 73% of the patients started playing in order to relieve feelings of dysphoria and suffering consequences on work as well as family life (51%). A great deal of the respondents were indebted (39%) to the extent of needing to ask for loans from usurer (17%). Furthermore, 41% of the respondents in the sample showed that GD could be transformed into an alarming risk of suicide. The correlation between GD and drug abuse may depend on the brain function and the neural circuits that support impulsive behavior and the gratification mechanisms. Emotional experiences (stress, low level of education, divorce, poor social support) could constitute a possible risk factor that increases the GD. The committed offenses related to gambling could be explained by "loss of control". The results of the present study contributes to the body of knowledge regarding the size of phenomenon from a statistical and epidemiological point of view, suggesting the necessity for targeted information on the risks connected to GD in order to capture early warning signs which enables the intervention with suitable strategies.

  1. Retroposition of the AFC family of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) before and during the adaptive radiation of cichlid fishes in Lake Malawi and related inferences about phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K; Nishida, M; Yuma, M; Okada, N

    2001-01-01

    Lake Malawi is home to more than 450 species of endemic cichlids, which provide a spectacular example of adaptive radiation. To clarify the phylogenetic relationships among these fish, we examined the presence and absence of SINEs (short interspersed repetitive elements) at orthologous loci. We identified six loci at which a SINE sequence had apparently been specifically inserted by retroposition in the common ancestor of all the investigated species of endemic cichlids in Lake Malawi. At another locus, unique sharing of a SINE sequence was evident among all the investigated species of endemic non-Mbuna cichlids with the exception of Rhamphochromis sp. The relationships were in good agreement with those deduced in previous studies with various different markers, demonstrating that the SINE method is useful for the elucidation of phylogenetic relationships among cichlids in Lake Malawi. We also characterized a locus that exhibited transspecies polymorphism with respect to the presence or absence of the SINE sequence among non-Mbuna species. This result suggests that incomplete lineage sorting and/or interspecific hybridization might have occurred or be occurring among the species in this group, which might potentially cause misinterpretation of phylogenetic data, in particular when a single-locus marker, such as a sequence in the mitochondrial DNA, is used for analysis.

  2. Transcranial magnetic stimulation with a half-sine wave pulse elicits direction-specific effects in human motor cortex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jung, Nikolai H; Delvendahl, Igor; Pechmann, Astrid

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) commonly uses so-called monophasic pulses where the initial rapidly changing current flow is followed by a critically dampened return current. It has been shown that a monophasic TMS pulse preferentially excites different cortical circuits in the human motor...... hand area (M1-HAND), if the induced tissue current has a posterior-to-anterior (PA) or anterior-to-posterior (AP) direction. Here we tested whether similar direction-specific effects could be elicited in M1-HAND using TMS pulses with a half-sine wave configuration....

  3. Whirling modes and parametric instabilities in the discrete Sine-Gordon equation: Experimental tests in Josephson rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, S.; Strogatz, S.H.; van der Zant, H.S.J.; Orlando, T.P.

    1995-01-01

    We analyze the damped driven discrete sine-Gordon equation. For underdamped, highly discrete systems, we show that whirling periodic solutions undergo parametric instabilities at certain drive strengths. The theory predicts novel resonant steps in the current-voltage characteristics of discrete Josephson rings, occurring in the return path of the subgap region. We have observed these steps experimentally in a ring of 8 underdamped junctions. An unusual prediction, verified experimentally, is that such steps occur even if there are no vortices in the ring. Numerical simulations indicate that complex spatiotemporal behavior occurs past the onset of instability

  4. Ring-shaped quasi-soliton solutions to the two-and three-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christiansen, P.L.; Olsen, O.H.

    1979-01-01

    Ring-shaped solitary wave solutions to the Sine-Gordon equation in two and three spatial dimensions are investigated by numerical computation. Each expanding wave exhibits a return effect. The reflection of the shrinking wave at the singularity at the center of the wave is investigated in a particular case. Collision experiments in numero for expanding and shrinking concentric ring waves show that the solutions possess quasisoliton properties. A Baecklund transformation for the non-symmetric three-dimensional case is given. (Auth.)

  5. New optical solitons of space-time conformable fractional perturbed Gerdjikov-Ivanov equation by sine-Gordon equation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaşar, Elif; Yıldırım, Yakup; Yaşar, Emrullah

    2018-06-01

    This paper devotes to conformable fractional space-time perturbed Gerdjikov-Ivanov (GI) equation which appears in nonlinear fiber optics and photonic crystal fibers (PCF). We consider the model with full nonlinearity in order to give a generalized flavor. The sine-Gordon equation approach is carried out to model equation for retrieving the dark, bright, dark-bright, singular and combined singular optical solitons. The constraint conditions are also reported for guaranteeing the existence of these solitons. We also present some graphical simulations of the solutions for better understanding the physical phenomena of the behind the considered model.

  6. Retrobulbar optic neuritis and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment in a fourteen-year-old girl with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatta, M; Hayasaka, S; Kato, T; Kadoi, C

    2000-01-01

    A 14-year-old girl complained of a sudden decrease in right visual acuity. The patient had night blindness, a mottled retina but no pigments, extinguished scotopic electroretinographic response, central scotoma in the right eye and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment. She had initially received laser photocoagulation around the retinal tear and then corticosteroid therapy, cryoretinopexy and segmental buckling. Her right visual acuity increased to 1.0. The association of retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento, retrobulbar optic neuritis and rhegmatogenous retinal detachment, as demonstrated in our patient, may be uncommon. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  7. Influence of solitons in the initial state on chaos in the driven damped sine-Gordon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, A R; Fesser, K; Lomdahl, P S; Trullinger, S E

    1983-01-01

    The appearance of chaos in the a.c. driven, damped sine-Gordon equation is studied numerically. Several transitions from periodic to chaotic behavior are investigated in detail for flat initial conditions. Spatial structures (breather, kink) in the initial conditions smooth out many of these transitions and give rise to an interesting symbiosis of time and spatial intermittency. This symbiosis appears to be due to the competition between the background tendency towards chaos and the system's preference to maintain a spatial pattern. The way that this competition is relieved is also found to depend very strongly on symmetry in the initial conditions.

  8. Determinism and randomness in the evolution of introns and sine inserts in mouse and human mitochondrial solute carrier and cytokine receptor genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cianciulli, Antonia; Calvello, Rosa; Panaro, Maria A

    2015-04-01

    In the homologous genes studied, the exons and introns alternated in the same order in mouse and human. We studied, in both species: corresponding short segments of introns, whole corresponding introns and complete homologous genes. We considered the total number of nucleotides and the number and orientation of the SINE inserts. Comparisons of mouse and human data series showed that at the level of individual relatively short segments of intronic sequences the stochastic variability prevails in the local structuring, but at higher levels of organization a deterministic component emerges, conserved in mouse and human during the divergent evolution, despite the ample re-editing of the intronic sequences and the fact that processes such as SINE spread had taken place in an independent way in the two species. Intron conservation is negatively correlated with the SINE occupancy, suggesting that virus inserts interfere with the conservation of the sequences inherited from the common ancestor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Truncated Painleve expansion: Tanh-traveling wave solutions and reduction of sine-Poisson equation to a quadrature for stationary and nonstationary three-dimensional collisionless cold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, R. S.; El-Kalaawy, O. H.

    2006-01-01

    The relativistic nonlinear self-consistent equations for a collisionless cold plasma with stationary ions [R. S. Ibrahim, IMA J. Appl. Math. 68, 523 (2003)] are extended to 3 and 3+1 dimensions. The resulting system of equations is reduced to the sine-Poisson equation. The truncated Painleve expansion and reduction of the partial differential equation to a quadrature problem (RQ method) are described and applied to obtain the traveling wave solutions of the sine-Poisson equation for stationary and nonstationary equations in 3 and 3+1 dimensions describing the charge-density equilibrium configuration model

  10. Solving Non-Isospectral mKdV Equation and Sine-Gordon Equation Hierarchies with Self-Consistent Sources via Inverse Scattering Transform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qi; Zhang Dajun; Chen Dengyuan

    2010-01-01

    N-soliton solutions of the hierarchy of non-isospectral mKdV equation with self-consistent sources and the hierarchy of non-isospectral sine-Gordon equation with self-consistent sources are obtained via the inverse scattering transform. (general)

  11. Quantum solitons and their classical relatives. II. ''Fermion--boson reciprocity'' and classical versus quantum problem for the sine-Gordon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garbaczewski, P.

    1981-01-01

    Both quantum and classical sine--Gordon fields can be built out of the fundamental free neutral massive excitations, which quantally obey the Bose--Einstein statistics. At the roots of the ''boson-fermion reciprocity'' invented by Coleman, lies the spin 1/2 approximation of the underlying Bose system. By generalizing the coherent state methods to incorporate non-Fock quantum structures and to give account of the so-called boson transformation theory, we construct the carrier Hilbert space H/sub SG/ for quantum soliton operators. The h→0 limit of state expectation values of these operators among pure coherentlike states in H/sub SG/ reproduces the classical sine--Gordon field. The related (classical and quantum) spin 1/2 xyz Heisenberg model field is built out of the fundamental sine--Gordon excitations, and hence can be consistently defined on the appropriate subset of the quantum soliton Hilbert space H/sub x/yz . A correct classical limit is here shown to arise for the Heisenberg system: phase manifolds of the classical Heisenberg and sine--Gordon systems cannot be then viewed independently as a consequence of the quantum relation

  12. Aerodynamic study of a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height for Darrieus wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crunteanu, D. E.; Constantinescu, S. G.; Niculescu, M. L.

    2013-10-01

    The wind energy is deemed as one of the most durable energetic variants of the future because the wind resources are immense. Furthermore, one predicts that the small wind turbines will play a vital role in the urban environment. Unfortunately, the complexity and the price of pitch regulated small horizontal-axis wind turbines represent ones of the main obstacles to widespread the use in populated zones. In contrast to these wind turbines, the Darrieus wind turbines are simpler and their price is lower. Unfortunately, their blades run at high variations of angles of attack, in stall and post-stall regimes, which can induce significant vibrations, fatigue and even the wind turbine failure. For this reason, the present paper deals with a blade with sine variation of chord length along the height because it has better behavior in stall and post-stall regimes than the classic blade with constant chord length.

  13. The Sine-Gordon model and its applications from pendula and Josephson junctions to gravity and high-energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kevrekidis, Panayotis; Williams, Floyd

    2014-01-01

    The sine-Gordon model is a ubiquitous model of Mathematical Physics with a wide range of applications extending from coupled torsion pendula and Josephson junction arrays to gravitational and high-energy physics models. The purpose of this book is to present a summary of recent developments in this field, incorporating both introductory background material, but also with a strong view towards modern applications, recent experiments, developments regarding the existence, stability, dynamics and asymptotics of nonlinear waves that arise in the model. This book is of particular interest to a wide range of researchers in this field, but serves as an introductory text for young researchers and students  interested in the topic. The book consists of well-selected thematic chapters on diverse mathematical and physical aspects of the equation carefully chosen and assigned.

  14. Renormalization-group analysis of the generalized sine-Gordon model and of the Coulomb gas for d≥3 dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandori, I.; Jentschura, U.D.; Soff, G.; Sailer, K.

    2004-01-01

    Renormalization-group (RG) flow equations have been derived for the generalized sine-Gordon model (GSGM) and the Coulomb gas (CG) in d≥3 of dimensions by means of the Wegner-Houghton method, and by way of the real-space RG approach. The UV scaling laws determined by the leading-order terms of the flow equations are in qualitative agreement for all dimensions d≥3, independent of the dimensionality, and in sharp contrast to the special case d=2. For the 4-dimensional GSGM it is demonstrated explicitly (by numerical calculations) that the blocked potential tends to a constant effective potential in the infrared limit, satisfying the requirements of periodicity and convexity. The comparison of the RG flows for the three-dimensional GSGM, the CG, and the vortex-loop gas reveals a significant dependence on the renormalization schemes and the approximations used

  15. Standard practice for process compensated resonance testing via swept sine input for metallic and Non-Metallic parts

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice describes a general procedure for using the process compensated resonance testing (PCRT) via swept sine input method to identify metallic and non-metallic parts’ resonant pattern differences that can be used to indentify parts with anomalies causing deficiencies in the expected performance of the part in service. This practice is intended for use with instruments capable of exciting, measuring, recording, and analyzing multiple whole body mechanical vibration resonant frequencies within parts exhibiting acoustical ringing in the audio, or ultrasonic, resonant frequency ranges, or both. PCRT is used in the presence of manufacturing process variance to distinguish acceptable parts from those containing significant anomalies in physical characteristics expected to significantly alter the performance. Such physical characteristics include, but are not limited to, cracks, voids, porosity, shrink, inclusions, discontinuities, grain and crystalline structure differences, density related anomalies...

  16. Damping characteristics and flow behaviors of an ER fluid with a piston sine vibration in a viscous damper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Zhang, Xin-Rong; Niu, Xiao-Dong

    2010-01-01

    The damping characteristics and flow behaviors of ER fluids inside a piston–cylinder viscous damper subjected to external electric fields are studied based on experiment, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The viscous damper is a closed system with an inner piston and an outer cylinder, which is designed and constructed in our laboratory. In the experiment, the test ER fluid is enclosed in the gap of a piston–cylinder system. To examine the damping characteristics of the test ER fluid, a piston sine vibration experiment is performed with accompanying theoretical analyses. In addition, in order to investigate the ER flow behaviors inside the damper, a numerical simulation is carried out. The present study discloses the damping characteristics and the fluid mechanism of the ER fluid in the piston–cylinder damper with an applied external electric field

  17. Géochimie des résines et asphaltènes Geochernistry of Resins and Asphaltenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tissot B.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les produits lourds des huiles brutes (résines et asphaltènes jouent un rôle important dans la genèse et l'accumulation du pétrole, ainsi que dans la mise en production par des méthodes conventionnelles ou par récupération assistée. Les asphaltènes et résines sont considérés ici comme des fragments de kérogène, avec une structure d'ensemble comparable : ils peuvent constituer des intermédiaires dans la genèse de l'huile brute par dégradation thermique du kérogène. De plus, la pyrolyse des asphaltènes séparés à partir d'un pétrole biodégradé peut produire de nouveaux hydrocarbures saturés qui reproduisent la fraction saturée primitive, détruite par la dégradation ; on peut ainsi disposer d'un nouvel outil pour corréler ce type d'huiles brutes. Les produits lourds semblent défavorisés par rapport aux hydrocarbures, dans la migration de la roche-mère vers le réservoir, où les résines et asphaltènes sont proportionnellement moins abondants. La structure physique des asphaltènes et résines dans les pétroles, et en particulier l'existence d'une macrostructure du type micelles ou agrégats, est probablement responsable de la viscosité élevée des huiles lourdes. Une meilleure connaissance de cette macrostructure pourrait suggérer de nouvelles méthodes pour diminuer la viscosité et améliorer la récupération des huiles lourdes. The heavy constituents of crude oil (resins and asphaltenes play an important role in generation and accumulation of petroleum, and also in production by conventional and enhanced oil recovery processes. Asphaltenes and resins are considered here as small fragments of kerogen, with a comparable overall structure: they may act as intermediate compounds in oil generation by thermal breakdown of kerogen. Furthermore, pyrolysis of asphaltenes separated from a degraded crude oil is able to generate a new saturated hydrocarbon fraction which duplicates the original one, now degraded

  18. Geostatistical uncertainty of assessing air quality using high-spatial-resolution lichen data: A health study in the urban area of Sines, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Manuel C; Pinho, P; Branquinho, C; Llop, Esteve; Pereira, Maria J

    2016-08-15

    In most studies correlating health outcomes with air pollution, personal exposure assignments are based on measurements collected at air-quality monitoring stations not coinciding with health data locations. In such cases, interpolators are needed to predict air quality in unsampled locations and to assign personal exposures. Moreover, a measure of the spatial uncertainty of exposures should be incorporated, especially in urban areas where concentrations vary at short distances due to changes in land use and pollution intensity. These studies are limited by the lack of literature comparing exposure uncertainty derived from distinct spatial interpolators. Here, we addressed these issues with two interpolation methods: regression Kriging (RK) and ordinary Kriging (OK). These methods were used to generate air-quality simulations with a geostatistical algorithm. For each method, the geostatistical uncertainty was drawn from generalized linear model (GLM) analysis. We analyzed the association between air quality and birth weight. Personal health data (n=227) and exposure data were collected in Sines (Portugal) during 2007-2010. Because air-quality monitoring stations in the city do not offer high-spatial-resolution measurements (n=1), we used lichen data as an ecological indicator of air quality (n=83). We found no significant difference in the fit of GLMs with any of the geostatistical methods. With RK, however, the models tended to fit better more often and worse less often. Moreover, the geostatistical uncertainty results showed a marginally higher mean and precision with RK. Combined with lichen data and land-use data of high spatial resolution, RK is a more effective geostatistical method for relating health outcomes with air quality in urban areas. This is particularly important in small cities, which generally do not have expensive air-quality monitoring stations with high spatial resolution. Further, alternative ways of linking human activities with their

  19. Parálisis Parcial del Nervio Oculomotor Secundaria a Zoster Sine Herpete: Reporte de Un Caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar L. Rueda O.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introducción: Herpes Zoster es la reactivación del Virus Varicela Zóster en los ganglios sensoriales y/o autonómicos, típicamente caracterizado por dolor profundo de distribución dermatómica y erupciones vesiculares en piel. De manera infrecuente, puede presentarse el Zoster Sine Herpete, condición en la cual se presenta la distribución dermatómica del dolor en ausencia de lesiones dérmicas, convirtiendo el diagnóstico en un reto clínico. Caso clínico: Hombre de 69 años con dolor periorbitario, epifora, ptosis y pérdida de la aducción del ojo derecho. Los estudios imagenológicos y de laboratorio fueron normales, descartando así las principales causas de parálisis del nervio oculomotor. Se hizo diagnóstico presuntivo de Zoster Sine Herpete y se inició prueba terapéutica con valaciclovir, observándose resolución total de la sintomatología seis semanas después. Discusión: Este caso puede ser el primero en describir una parálisis parcial dolorosa del nervio oculomotor como única manifestación clínica de la reactivación del Virus Varicela Zóster y busca alertar al personal médico sobre una enfermedad latente que hace de sus reapariciones una gama de presentaciones no siempre fáciles de identificar.

  20. Investigation of 0.38 THz backward-wave oscillator based on slotted sine waveguide and pencil electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Luqi; Wei, Yanyu; Wang, Bing; Shen, Wenan; Xu, Jin; Gong, Yubin [National Key Laboratory of Science and Technology on Vacuum Electronics, School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Park, Gun-Sik [The Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    A novel backward wave oscillator (BWO) is presented by utilizing a slotted sine waveguide with a pencil electron beam to produce the high power terahertz wave. The high frequency characteristics including dispersion properties, interaction impedances, and transmission characteristics of the slotted sine waveguide are analyzed in detail. The high frequency system including the output coupler, slow wave structure (SWS), and reflector are designed properly. A 3-D particle-in-cell mode is applied to predict the device performance of the BWO based on the novel SWS. The investigation results demonstrate that this device can generate over 8.05 W output power in the frequency range of 363.4–383.8 GHz by using a 30 mA pencil electron beam and adjusting the beam voltage from 20 kV to 32 kV.

  1. A Short Interspersed Nuclear Element (SINE)-Based Real-Time PCR Approach to Detect and Quantify Porcine Component in Meat Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chi; Fang, Xin; Qiu, Haopu; Li, Ning

    2015-01-01

    Real-time PCR amplification of mitochondria gene could not be used for DNA quantification, and that of single copy DNA did not allow an ideal sensitivity. Moreover, cross-reactions among similar species were commonly observed in the published methods amplifying repetitive sequence, which hindered their further application. The purpose of this study was to establish a short interspersed nuclear element (SINE)-based real-time PCR approach having high specificity for species detection that could be used in DNA quantification. After massive screening of candidate Sus scrofa SINEs, one optimal combination of primers and probe was selected, which had no cross-reaction with other common meat species. LOD of the method was 44 fg DNA/reaction. Further, quantification tests showed this approach was practical in DNA estimation without tissue variance. Thus, this study provided a new tool for qualitative detection of porcine component, which could be promising in the QC of meat products.

  2. A RAB3GAP1 SINE Insertion in Alaskan Huskies with Polyneuropathy, Ocular Abnormalities, and Neuronal Vacuolation (POANV Resembling Human Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michaela Wiedmer

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We observed a hereditary phenotype in Alaskan Huskies that was characterized by polyneuropathy with ocular abnormalities and neuronal vacuolation (POANV. The affected dogs developed a progressive severe ataxia, which led to euthanasia between 8 and 16 months of age. The pedigrees were consistent with a monogenic autosomal recessive inheritance. We localized the causative genetic defect to a 4 Mb interval on chromosome 19 by a combined linkage and homozygosity mapping approach. Whole genome sequencing of one affected dog, an obligate carrier, and an unrelated control revealed a 218-bp SINE insertion into exon 7 of the RAB3GAP1 gene. The SINE insertion was perfectly associated with the disease phenotype in a cohort of 43 Alaskan Huskies, and it was absent from 541 control dogs of diverse other breeds. The SINE insertion induced aberrant splicing and led to a transcript with a greatly altered exon 7. RAB3GAP1 loss-of-function variants in humans cause Warburg Micro Syndrome 1 (WARBM1, which is characterized by additional developmental defects compared to canine POANV, whereas Rab3gap1-deficient mice have a much milder phenotype than either humans or dogs. Thus, the RAB3GAP1 mutant Alaskan Huskies provide an interesting intermediate phenotype that may help to better understand the function of RAB3GAP1 in development. Furthermore, the identification of the presumed causative genetic variant will enable genetic testing to avoid the nonintentional breeding of affected dogs.

  3. Numerical search for a Phi4 breather mode and study of the Phi4, sine-Gordon, and Kdv equations with adibatic coefficients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wingate, C.A.

    1978-01-01

    Two major problems are studied in this thesis. The first is a numerical search for a stable oscillating mode in the Phi4 equation similar to the one that is known for the sine-Gordon equation. Starting with a widely separated soliton and anti-soliton traveling toward each other, it is observed, after a long period of time (t = 2800), that the solitons form a quasistable oscillating state. An interesting, previously unknown structure in the interaction depending on the initial velocity and initial separation is found and studied in detail. The second topic covered here is a study of the phi4, KdV and sine-Gordon equations when the coefficients vary slowly with time. A general first order solution is found for the wave equation with a non-linear potential and is applied to the phi4 and sine-Gordon potentials. In doing this it is found that the conservation of momentum is equivalent order by order to the secular conditions. Deficiencies in existing calculations for the KdV equation are pointed out through the use of adiabatic invariants and numerical calculations

  4. The Interaction among Microbiota, Immunity, and Genetic and Dietary Factors Is the Condicio Sine Qua Non Celiac Disease Can Develop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Pagliari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Celiac disease (CD is an immune-mediated enteropathy, triggered by dietary wheat gluten and similar proteins of barley and rye in genetically susceptible individuals. This is a complex disorder involving both environmental and immune-genetic factors. The major genetic risk factor for CD is determined by HLA-DQ genes. Dysfunction of the innate and adaptive immune systems can conceivably cause impairment of mucosal barrier function and development of localized or systemic inflammatory and autoimmune processes. Exposure to gluten is the main environmental trigger responsible for the signs and symptoms of the disease, but exposure to gluten does not fully explain the manifestation of CD. Thus, both genetic determination and environmental exposure to gluten are necessary for the full manifestation of CD; neither of them is sufficient alone. Epidemiological and clinical data suggest that other environmental factors, including infections, alterations in the intestinal microbiota composition, and early feeding practices, might also play a role in disease development. Thus, this interaction is the condicio sine qua non celiac disease can develop. The breakdown of the interaction among microbiota, innate immunity, and genetic and dietary factors leads to disruption of homeostasis and inflammation; and tissue damage occurs. Focusing attention on this interaction and its breakdown may allow a better understanding of the CD pathogenesis and lead to novel translational avenues for preventing and treating this widespread disease.

  5. Estrogen-dependent expression of sine oculis homeobox 1 in the mouse uterus during the estrous cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Sijeong [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Hwang [Fertility Center of CHA Bundang Medical Center, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13496 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Hyemin [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Miseon [Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, Seoul 06135 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hye-Ryun; Song, Haengseok [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Kwonho, E-mail: kwonho.hong@dankook.ac.kr [Department of Nanobiomedical Science & BK21 PLUS NBM Global Research Center for Regenerative Medicine, Dankook University, Cheonan-si, Chungcheongnam-do 31116 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Youngsok, E-mail: youngsokchoi@cha.ac.kr [Department of Biomedical Science, CHA University, Seongnam-si, Gyeonggi-do 13488 (Korea, Republic of); Fertility Center of CHA Gangnam Medical Center, Seoul 06135 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-04-08

    The sine oculis homeobox 1 (SIX1) is a member of the Six gene family. SIX1 is involved in tissue development by regulating proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation. However, function of SIX1 in the uterus remains unknown. Here, we found that Six1 expression is regulated along the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. Six1 expression was significantly increased at estrus stage and decreased at the rest of stages. SIX1 is detected in the luminal and glandular epithelium of uterine endometrium at the estrus stage. Estrogen injection increased Six1 expression in the ovariectomized mouse uterus, whereas progesterone had no effect on its expression. Estrogen receptor antagonist inhibited estrogen-induced Six1 expression. Our findings imply that SIX1 may play a role as an important regulator to orchestrate the dynamic of uterine endometrium in response to estrogen level during the estrous cycle. These results will give us a better understanding of uterine biology. - Highlights: • Six1 expression is regulated during the estrous cycle in mouse uterus. • Six1 is highly expressed at the estrus stage of estrous cycle. • SIX1 is detected in luminal/glandular epithelium of the uterus at the estrus stage. • Estrogen stimulates Six1 expression in an estrogen receptor-dependent manner.

  6. Short interspersed element (SINE) depletion and long interspersed element (LINE) abundance are not features universally required for imprinting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Michael; de Burca, Anna; McCole, Ruth B; Chahal, Mandeep; Saadat, Ghazal; Oakey, Rebecca J; Schulz, Reiner

    2011-04-20

    Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.

  7. Short interspersed element (SINE depletion and long interspersed element (LINE abundance are not features universally required for imprinting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cowley

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Genomic imprinting is a form of gene dosage regulation in which a gene is expressed from only one of the alleles, in a manner dependent on the parent of origin. The mechanisms governing imprinted gene expression have been investigated in detail and have greatly contributed to our understanding of genome regulation in general. Both DNA sequence features, such as CpG islands, and epigenetic features, such as DNA methylation and non-coding RNAs, play important roles in achieving imprinted expression. However, the relative importance of these factors varies depending on the locus in question. Defining the minimal features that are absolutely required for imprinting would help us to understand how imprinting has evolved mechanistically. Imprinted retrogenes are a subset of imprinted loci that are relatively simple in their genomic organisation, being distinct from large imprinting clusters, and have the potential to be used as tools to address this question. Here, we compare the repeat element content of imprinted retrogene loci with non-imprinted controls that have a similar locus organisation. We observe no significant differences that are conserved between mouse and human, suggesting that the paucity of SINEs and relative abundance of LINEs at imprinted loci reported by others is not a sequence feature universally required for imprinting.

  8. Form factors in sinh- and sine-Gordon models, deformed Virasoro algebra, Macdonald polynomials and resonance identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lashkevich, Michael; Pugai, Yaroslav

    2013-01-01

    We continue the study of form factors of descendant operators in the sinh- and sine-Gordon models in the framework of the algebraic construction proposed in [1]. We find the algebraic construction to be related to a particular limit of the tensor product of the deformed Virasoro algebra and a suitably chosen Heisenberg algebra. To analyze the space of local operators in the framework of the form factor formalism we introduce screening operators and construct singular and cosingular vectors in the Fock spaces related to the free field realization of the obtained algebra. We show that the singular vectors are expressed in terms of the degenerate Macdonald polynomials with rectangular partitions. We study the matrix elements that contain a singular vector in one chirality and a cosingular vector in the other chirality and find them to lead to the resonance identities already known in the conformal perturbation theory. Besides, we give a new derivation of the equation of motion in the sinh-Gordon theory, and a new representation for conserved currents

  9. c-function and central charge of the sine-Gordon model from the non-perturbative renormalization group flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Bacsó

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the c-function of the sine-Gordon model taking explicitly into account the periodicity of the interaction potential. The integration of the c-function along trajectories of the non-perturbative renormalization group flow gives access to the central charges of the model in the fixed points. The results at vanishing frequency β2, where the periodicity does not play a role, are retrieved and the independence on the cutoff regulator for small frequencies is discussed. Our findings show that the central charge obtained integrating the trajectories starting from the repulsive low-frequencies fixed points (β2<8π to the infra-red limit is in good quantitative agreement with the expected Δc=1 result. The behavior of the c-function in the other parts of the flow diagram is also discussed. Finally, we point out that including also higher harmonics in the renormalization group treatment at the level of local potential approximation is not sufficient to give reasonable results, even if the periodicity is taken into account. Rather, incorporating the wave-function renormalization (i.e. going beyond local potential approximation is crucial to get sensible results even when a single frequency is used.

  10. Estuarine resources use by juvenile Flagfin mojarra ( Eucinostomus melanopterus) in an inverse tropical estuary (Sine Saloum, Senegal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gning, Ndombour; Le Loc'h, François; Thiaw, Omar T.; Aliaume, Catherine; Vidy, Guy

    2010-03-01

    The Flagfin mojarra, Eucinostomus melanopterus, is a marine spawner whose young individuals are common in the Sine Saloum inverse estuary (Senegal). The species offers the opportunity to study both the use of the estuarine nursery resources and the impact of the particular environment of the inverse estuary on these resources. This will lead to a better understanding of the functioning of the nursery. We investigated the resources used by juvenile Flagfin mojarra by coupling stomach contents and stable isotopes methods. Young Flagfin mojarra feed on a wide range of invertebrates. Diet changed from copepods in the smallest size class (10-40 mm), to a range of invertebrates including amphipods, insect larvae, polychaetes and mollusc in the medium size class (up to 60 mm) and mainly polychaetes for individuals >60 mm in size. In mangrove habitats with moderate salinity, the diet was dominated by polychaetes and decapod larvae (crabs) whereas in habitats with higher salinity, diet was dominated by amphipods. In very hypersaline areas with scarce mangroves, diet comprised benthic copepods, chironomid larvae and ostracods. This agreed with a clear change in δ13C measured in fish sampled at downstream or upstream sites. Comparison with signatures of primary producers suggested that the local food web exploited by young Flagfin mojarra is mainly based on phytoplankton in the downstream mangrove area, and mainly on benthic microalgae in the upstream hypersaline area. As in many studies considering the food webs in mangrove, mangrove was not identified as a major contributor to the food web exploited by E. melanopterus. This needs further investigation particularly because the exportation of estuarine materials to the sea is limited in an inverse estuary.

  11. Identification of a novel p.R1443W mutation in RP1 gene associated with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ma

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To screen mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1 gene and the rhodopsin (RHO gene in Chinese patients with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento (RPSP and describe the genotype-phenotype relationship of the mutations.METHODS:Twenty affected, unrelated Chinese individuals with RPSP (4 autosomal dominant RPSP, 12 autosomal recessive RPSP and 4 unknown inheritance pattern were recruited between 2009 and 2012. The clinical features were determined by complete ophthalmologic examinations. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR and direct DNA sequencing were used to screen the entire coding region and splice junctions of the RP1 gene and the RHO gene. The cosegregation analysis and population frequency studies were performed for patients with identified mutations.RESULTS: Five variants in the RP1 gene and one in the RHO gene were detected in 20 probands. Four missense changes (rs444772, rs446227, rs414352, rs441800 and one non-coding variant (rs56340615 were common SNPs and none of them showed a significant relationship with RPSP. A missense mutation p.R1443W was identified in the RP1 gene in three affected individuals from a family with autosomal dominant RPSP and was found to cosegregate with the phenotype in this family, suggestive of pathogenic. In addition, population frequency analysis showed the p.R1443W mutation was absent in 300 healthy controls.CONCLUSION: The identification of p.R1443W mutation cosegregating in a family with autosomal dominant RPSP highlights an atypical phenotype of the RP1 gene mutation, while RHO gene is not associated with the pathogenesis of RPSP in this study. To our knowledge, this is the fist mutation identified to associate with RPSP.

  12. Identification of a novel p.R1443W mutation in RP1 gene associated with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Sheng, Xun-Lun; Li, Hui-Ping; Zhang, Fang-Xia; Liu, Ya-Ni; Rong, Wei-Ning; Zhang, Jian-Ling

    2013-01-01

    To screen mutations in the retinitis pigmentosa 1 (RP1) gene and the rhodopsin (RHO) gene in Chinese patients with retinitis pigmentosa sine pigmento (RPSP) and describe the genotype-phenotype relationship of the mutations. Twenty affected, unrelated Chinese individuals with RPSP (4 autosomal dominant RPSP, 12 autosomal recessive RPSP and 4 unknown inheritance pattern) were recruited between 2009 and 2012. The clinical features were determined by complete ophthalmologic examinations. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct DNA sequencing were used to screen the entire coding region and splice junctions of the RP1 gene and the RHO gene. The cosegregation analysis and population frequency studies were performed for patients with identified mutations. Five variants in the RP1 gene and one in the RHO gene were detected in 20 probands. Four missense changes (rs444772, rs446227, rs414352, rs441800) and one non-coding variant (rs56340615) were common SNPs and none of them showed a significant relationship with RPSP. A missense mutation p.R1443W was identified in the RP1 gene in three affected individuals from a family with autosomal dominant RPSP and was found to cosegregate with the phenotype in this family, suggestive of pathogenic. In addition, population frequency analysis showed the p.R1443W mutation was absent in 300 healthy controls. The identification of p.R1443W mutation cosegregating in a family with autosomal dominant RPSP highlights an atypical phenotype of the RP1 gene mutation, while RHO gene is not associated with the pathogenesis of RPSP in this study. To our knowledge, this is the fist mutation identified to associate with RPSP.

  13. Synthesis of Sine-on-Random vibration profiles for accelerated life tests based on fatigue damage spectrum equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angeli, Andrea; Cornelis, Bram; Troncossi, Marco

    2018-03-01

    In many real life environments, mechanical and electronic systems are subjected to vibrations that may induce dynamic loads and potentially lead to an early failure due to fatigue damage. Thus, qualification tests by means of shakers are advisable for the most critical components in order to verify their durability throughout the entire life cycle. Nowadays the trend is to tailor the qualification tests according to the specific application of the tested component, considering the measured field data as reference to set up the experimental campaign, for example through the so called "Mission Synthesis" methodology. One of the main issues is to define the excitation profiles for the tests, that must have, besides the (potentially scaled) frequency content, also the same damage potential of the field data despite being applied for a limited duration. With this target, the current procedures generally provide the test profile as a stationary random vibration specified by a Power Spectral Density (PSD). In certain applications this output may prove inadequate to represent the nature of the reference signal, and the procedure could result in an unrealistic qualification test. For instance when a rotating part is present in the system the component under analysis may be subjected to Sine-on-Random (SoR) vibrations, namely excitations composed of sinusoidal contributions superimposed to random vibrations. In this case, the synthesized test profile should preserve not only the induced fatigue damage but also the deterministic components of the environmental vibration. In this work, the potential advantages of a novel procedure to synthesize SoR profiles instead of PSDs for qualification tests are presented and supported by the results of an experimental campaign.

  14. Mathematical modelling of tsunami impacts on critical infrastructures: exposure and severity associated with debris transport at Sines port, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Baptista, Maria Ana; Sousa Oliveira, Carlos; Ferreira, Rui M. L.

    2015-04-01

    Global energy production is still significantly dependant on the coal supply chain, justifying huge investments on building infrastructures, capable of stocking very large quantities of this natural resource. Most of these infrastructures are located at deep-sea ports and are therefore exposed to extreme coastal hazards, such as tsunami impacts. The 2011 Tohoku tsunami is reported to have inflicted severe damage to Japan's coal-fired power stations and related infrastructure. Sines, located in the Portuguese coast, hosts a major commercial port featuring an exposed coal stockpile area extending over more than 24 ha and a container terminal currently under expansion up to 100ha. It is protected against storm surges but tsunamis have not been considered in the design criteria. The dominant wind-generated wave direction is N to NW, while the main tsunamigenic faults are located S to SW of the port. This configuration potentially exposes sensitive facilities, such as the new terminal container and the coal stockpile area. According to a recent revision of the national tsunami catalogue (Baptista, 2009), Portugal has been affected by numerous major tsunamis over the last two millennia, with the most notorious event being the Great Lisbon Earthquake and Tsunami occurred on the 1st November 1755. The aim of this work is to simulate the open ocean propagation and overland impact of a tsunami on the Sines port, similar to the historical event of 1755, based on the different tsunamigenic faults and magnitudes proposed in the current literature. Open ocean propagation was modelled with standard simulation tools like TUNAMI and GeoClaw. Near-shore and overland propagation was carried out using a recent 2DH mathematical model for solid-fluid flows, STAV-2D from CERIS-IST (Ferreira et al., 2009; Canelas, 2013). STAV-2D is particularly suited for tsunami propagation over complex and morphodynamic geometries, featuring a discretization scheme based on a finite-volume method using

  15. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keihani, Ahmadreza; Shirzhiyan, Zahra; Farahi, Morteza; Shamsi, Elham; Mahnam, Amin; Makkiabadi, Bahador; Haidari, Mohsen R; Jafari, Amir H

    2018-01-01

    Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD) has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects. Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz) to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25) and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35) were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate ( 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s). High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24%) than simple patterns group (98.48%). Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features ( P rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], ( P = 0.63). Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65]) as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25-30-35). Discussion and Conclusion: Overall, rhythmic and simple pattern groups had higher and similar accuracy rates. Rhythmic stimuli patterns showed insignificantly lower fatigue rate than simple patterns. We conclude that both rhythmic and simple visual high frequency sine wave stimuli require further research for human subject SSVEP-BCI studies.

  16. Plasma column displacement measurements by modified Rogowski sine-coil and Biot-Savart/magnetic flux equation solution on IR-T1 tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razavi, M.; Mollai, M.; Khorshid, P.; Nedzelskiy, I.; Ghoranneviss, M.

    2010-01-01

    The modified Rogowski sine-coil (MRSC) has been designed and implemented for the plasma column horizontal displacement measurements on small IR-T1 tokamak. MRSC operation has been examined on test assembly and tokamak. Obtained results show high sensitivity to the plasma column horizontal displacement and negligible sensitivity to the vertical displacement; linearity in wide, ±0.1 m, range of the displacements; and excellent, 1.5%, agreement with the results of numerical solution of Biot-Savart and magnetic flux equations.

  17. 125 GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-01

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. Gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing module size are important challenges for the design of such detector system. Here we present for the first time an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15 mm * 15 mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency sine wave gating. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5 % photon detection efficiency, 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1 % afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  18. Receiver Signal to Noise Ratios for IPDA Lidars Using Sine-wave and Pulsed Laser Modulation and Direct Detections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Abshire, James B.

    2011-01-01

    seeder lasers, one on-line and one offline that are intensity modulated by two different frequency sine-waves signals before being amplified by a common laser amplifier. The receiver uses narrowband amplitude demodulation, or lock-in, Signal processing at the given laser modulation frequencies [3,4]. The laser transmitter operates in a quasi CW mode with the peak power equal to twice the average power. The on-line and off-line lasers can be transmitted at the same time without interference. Another direct detection technique uses a low duty cycle pulsed laser modulation [5,6] with the laser wavelengths alternating between on-line and off-line on successive pulses. The receiver uses time resolved detection and can also provide simultaneous target range measurement. With a lower laser duty cycle it requires a much higher peak laser power for the same average power.

  19. Use of Sine Shaped High-Frequency Rhythmic Visual Stimuli Patterns for SSVEP Response Analysis and Fatigue Rate Evaluation in Normal Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmadreza Keihani

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent EEG-SSVEP signal based BCI studies have used high frequency square pulse visual stimuli to reduce subjective fatigue. However, the effect of total harmonic distortion (THD has not been considered. Compared to CRT and LCD monitors, LED screen displays high-frequency wave with better refresh rate. In this study, we present high frequency sine wave simple and rhythmic patterns with low THD rate by LED to analyze SSVEP responses and evaluate subjective fatigue in normal subjects.Materials and Methods: We used patterns of 3-sequence high-frequency sine waves (25, 30, and 35 Hz to design our visual stimuli. Nine stimuli patterns, 3 simple (repetition of each of above 3 frequencies e.g., P25-25-25 and 6 rhythmic (all of the frequencies in 6 different sequences e.g., P25-30-35 were chosen. A hardware setup with low THD rate (<0.1% was designed to present these patterns on LED. Twenty two normal subjects (aged 23–30 (25 ± 2.1 yrs were enrolled. Visual analog scale (VAS was used for subjective fatigue evaluation after presentation of each stimulus pattern. PSD, CCA, and LASSO methods were employed to analyze SSVEP responses. The data including SSVEP features and fatigue rate for different visual stimuli patterns were statistically evaluated.Results: All 9 visual stimuli patterns elicited SSVEP responses. Overall, obtained accuracy rates were 88.35% for PSD and > 90% for CCA and LASSO (for TWs > 1 s. High frequency rhythmic patterns group with low THD rate showed higher accuracy rate (99.24% than simple patterns group (98.48%. Repeated measure ANOVA showed significant difference between rhythmic pattern features (P < 0.0005. Overall, there was no significant difference between the VAS of rhythmic [3.85 ± 2.13] compared to the simple patterns group [3.96 ± 2.21], (P = 0.63. Rhythmic group had lower within group VAS variation (min = P25-30-35 [2.90 ± 2.45], max = P35-25-30 [4.81 ± 2.65] as well as least individual pattern VAS (P25

  20. The effects of age on visual perception of sine-wave gratings at low luminance / Os efeitos da idade na percepção visual de grades senoidais em luminância baixa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Antonio dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to investigate the contrast sensitivity function for sine-wave gratings in the range between 0.25-2 cpd in young and older adults (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years old using low luminance. All subjects were free from identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. We measured the contrast thresholds for 30 participants (six volunteers in each age using the psychophysical forced-choice staircase method. In this method the volunteers had to choose the stimulus containing a test frequency at low contrast (e.g., a sine-wave grating, or another neutral stimulus at mean luminance (0.7 cd/m2. The results showed significant changes of CSF for sine-wave gratings at 1 and 2 cpd for the adults 50-59 and 60-69 years old compared to the adults of 20-23 years old. These results suggest age-related changes in the CSF for sine-wave grating at low luminance levels.

  1. Genome-wide DNA binding pattern of the homeodomain transcription factor Sine oculis (So in the developing eye of Drosophila melanogaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Jusiak

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The eye of the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster provides a highly tractable genetic model system for the study of animal development, and many genes that regulate Drosophila eye formation have homologs implicated in human development and disease. Among these is the homeobox gene sine oculis (so, which encodes a homeodomain transcription factor (TF that is both necessary for eye development and sufficient to reprogram a subset of cells outside the normal eye field toward an eye fate. We have performed a genome-wide analysis of So binding to DNA prepared from developing Drosophila eye tissue in order to identify candidate direct targets of So-mediated transcriptional regulation, as described in our recent article [20]. The data are available from NCBI Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO with the accession number GSE52943. Here we describe the methods, data analysis, and quality control of our So ChIP-seq dataset.

  2. FM-to-AM modulations induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in inertial confinement fusion laser systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Deng, Xuewei; Zhou, Wei; Hu, Dongxia; Guo, Huaiwen; Wang, Yuancheng; Zhao, Bowang; Zhong, Wei; Deng, Wu

    2018-02-01

    We report on frequency to amplitude modulation (FM-to-AM) conversion induced by a weak residual reflection stack of sine-modulated pulses in a complex laser system. Theoretical and experimental investigations reveal that when weak residual reflected pulses stack on the main pulse, the spectral intensity changes in the stacked region, which then converts to obvious AM. This kind of FM-to-AM effect often occurs in the tail of the pulse and cannot be eliminated by common compensation methods, which even enhance the modulation depth. Furthermore, the actual intensity modulation frequency and depth induced by the residual reflection stack are much higher and deeper than observed on the oscilloscope, which is harmful for safe operation of the laser facility and the driving power balance during inertial confinement fusion. To eliminate this kind of FM-to-AM effect, any possible on-axis and near-axis residual reflection in laser systems must be avoided.

  3. Sine-Gordon Equation in (1+2 and (1+3 dimensions: Existence and Classification of Traveling-Wave Solutions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yair Zarmi

    Full Text Available The (1+1-dimensional Sine-Gordon equation passes integrability tests commonly applied to nonlinear evolution equations. Its kink solutions (one-dimensional fronts are obtained by a Hirota algorithm. In higher space-dimensions, the equation does not pass these tests. Although it has been derived over the years for quite a few physical systems that have nothing to do with Special Relativity, the Sine-Gordon equation emerges as a non-linear relativistic wave equation. This opens the way for exploiting the tools of the Theory of Special Relativity. Using no more than the relativistic kinematics of tachyonic momentum vectors, from which the solutions are constructed through the Hirota algorithm, the existence and classification of N-moving-front solutions of the (1+2- and (1+3-dimensional equations for all N ≥ 1 are presented. In (1+2 dimensions, each multi-front solution propagates rigidly at one velocity. The solutions are divided into two subsets: Solutions whose velocities are lower than a limiting speed, c = 1, or are greater than or equal to c. To connect with concepts of the Theory of Special Relativity, c will be called "the speed of light." In (1+3-dimensions, multi-front solutions are characterized by spatial structure and by velocity composition. The spatial structure is either planar (rotated (1+2-dimensional solutions, or genuinely three-dimensional--branes. Planar solutions, propagate rigidly at one velocity, which is lower than, equal to, or higher than c. Branes must contain clusters of fronts whose speed exceeds c = 1. Some branes are "hybrids": different clusters of fronts propagate at different velocities. Some velocities may be lower than c but some must be equal to, or exceed, c. Finally, the speed of light cannot be approached from within the subset of slower-than-light solutions in both (1+2 and (1+3 dimensions.

  4. Pseudospectral methods on a semi-infinite interval with application to the hydrogen atom: a comparison of the mapped Fourier-sine method with Laguerre series and rational Chebyshev expansions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyd, John P.; Rangan, C.; Bucksbaum, P.H.

    2003-01-01

    The Fourier-sine-with-mapping pseudospectral algorithm of Fattal et al. [Phys. Rev. E 53 (1996) 1217] has been applied in several quantum physics problems. Here, we compare it with pseudospectral methods using Laguerre functions and rational Chebyshev functions. We show that Laguerre and Chebyshev expansions are better suited for solving problems in the interval r in R set of [0,∞] (for example, the Coulomb-Schroedinger equation), than the Fourier-sine-mapping scheme. All three methods give similar accuracy for the hydrogen atom when the scaling parameter L is optimum, but the Laguerre and Chebyshev methods are less sensitive to variations in L. We introduce a new variant of rational Chebyshev functions which has a more uniform spacing of grid points for large r, and gives somewhat better results than the rational Chebyshev functions of Boyd [J. Comp. Phys. 70 (1987) 63

  5. Système de traiement d'eaux de regémération de résines pour l'élimination du cuivre

    CERN Document Server

    Karademir, Aynur

    2005-01-01

    Des cartouches de résines échangeuses d’ions sont utilisées pour le maintien de la qualité de l’eau déminéralisée nécessaire pour le refroidissement des accélérateurs du CERN. Les eaux issues de la régénération de ces cartouches contiennent des teneurs en cuivre trop élevées pour permettre leur rejet dans les réseaux d’eaux claires ou même usées. Le projet d’un système de traitement pour abattre la concentration de cuivre, basé sur une méthode simple, avec un rendement élevé, satisfaisant du point de vue de la sécurité, de l’impact environnemental et aussi économique, fait l’objet de ce travail.

  6. Genetic variation and demographic history of the Haplochromis laparogramma group of Lake Victoria-An analysis based on SINEs and mitochondrial DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mzighani, Semvua I; Nikaido, Masato; Takeda, Miyuki; Seehausen, Ole; Budeba, Yohana L; Ngatunga, Benjamin P; Katunzi, Egid F B; Aibara, Mitsuto; Mizoiri, Shinji; Sato, Tetsu; Tachida, Hidenori; Okada, Norihiro

    2010-01-15

    More than 500 endemic haplochromine cichlid species inhabit Lake Victoria. This striking species diversity is a classical example of recent explosive adaptive radiation thought to have happened within the last approximately 15,000 years. In this study, we examined the population structure and historical demography of 3 pelagic haplochromine cichlid species that resemble in morphology and have similar niche, Haplochromis (Yssichromis) laparogramma, Haplochromis (Y.) pyrrhocephalus, and Haplochromis (Y.) sp. "glaucocephalus". We investigated the sequences of the mitochondrial DNA control region and the insertion patterns of short interspersed elements (SINEs) of 759 individuals. We show that sympatric forms are genetically differentiated in 4 of 6 cases, but we also found apparent weakening of the genetic differentiation in areas with turbid water. We estimated the timings of population expansion and species divergence to coincide with the refilling of the lake at the Pleistocene/Holocene boundary. We also found that estimates can be altered significantly by the choice of the shape of the molecular clock. If we employ the nonlinear clock model of evolutionary rates in which the rates are higher towards the recent, the population expansion was dated at around the event of desiccation of the lake ca. 17,000 YBP. Thus, we succeeded in clarifying the species and population structure of closely related Lake Victoria cichlids and in showing the importance of applying appropriate clock calibrations in elucidating recent evolutionary events.

  7. Nonergodic dynamics of the two-dimensional random-phase sine-Gordon model: Applications to vortex-glass arrays and disordered-substrate surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cule, D.; Shapir, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The dynamics of the random-phase sine-Gordon model, which describes two-dimensional vortex-glass arrays and crystalline surfaces on disordered substrates, is investigated using the self-consistent Hartree approximation. The fluctuation-dissipation theorem is violated below the critical temperature T c for large time t>t * where t * diverges in the thermodynamic limit. While above T c the averaged autocorrelation function diverges as Tln(t), for T c it approaches a finite value q * ∼1/(T c -T) as q(t)=q * -c(t/t * ) -ν (for t→t * ) where ν is a temperature-dependent exponent. On larger time scales t>t * the dynamics becomes nonergodic. The static correlations behave as ∼Tln|rvec x| for T>T c and for T c when x * with ξ * ∼exp{A/(T c -T)}. For scales x>ξ * , they behave as ∼m -1 Tln|rvec x| where m∼T/T c near T c , in general agreement with the variational replica-symmetry breaking approach and with recent simulations of the disordered-substrate surface. For strong coupling the transition becomes first order

  8. 1.25  GHz sine wave gating InGaAs/InP single-photon detector with a monolithically integrated readout circuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wen-Hao; Liu, Jian-Hong; Liu, Yin; Jin, Ge; Zhang, Jun; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2017-12-15

    InGaAs/InP single-photon detectors (SPDs) are the key devices for applications requiring near-infrared single-photon detection. The gating mode is an effective approach to synchronous single-photon detection. Increasing gating frequency and reducing the module size are important challenges for the design of such a detector system. Here we present for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, an InGaAs/InP SPD with 1.25 GHz sine wave gating (SWG) using a monolithically integrated readout circuit (MIRC). The MIRC has a size of 15  mm×15  mm and implements the miniaturization of avalanche extraction for high-frequency SWG. In the MIRC, low-pass filters and a low-noise radio frequency amplifier are integrated based on the technique of low temperature co-fired ceramic, which can effectively reduce the parasitic capacitance and extract weak avalanche signals. We then characterize the InGaAs/InP SPD to verify the functionality and reliability of the MIRC, and the SPD exhibits excellent performance with 27.5% photon detection efficiency, a 1.2 kcps dark count rate, and 9.1% afterpulse probability at 223 K and 100 ns hold-off time. With this MIRC, one can further design miniaturized high-frequency SPD modules that are highly required for practical applications.

  9. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation with bidirectional modulated sine waves in patients with chronic back pain: a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimoji, Koki; Takahashi, Norio; Nishio, Yasuyuki; Koyanagi, Mika; Aida, Sumihisa

    2007-01-01

    Objectives.  Newly developed bidirectional modulated sine waves (BMW) might provide some derived benefit to patients with low back pain. Pain relief by transcutaneous electric nerve stimulation (TENS) with BMWs was tested. Materials and Methods.  Analgesic effects of BMWs and conventional bidirectional pulsed waves on chronic back pain in 28 patients were compared, and effects of repeated TENS using BMWs on chronic back pain were investigated in 21 patients by means of a randomized double-blind, sham-controlled, parallel-group method. Pain intensity was assessed using numerical rating scale (NRS). Results.  There was significant immediate reduction in NRS in patients receiving BMWs, and 60 min after treatment compared to sham TENS. Weekly repeated treatments using massage and TENS with BMWs for 5 weeks resulted in a decrease of NRS, but there were no significant differences between the TENS plus massage and sham TENS plus massage groups. Conclusions.  This study shows that TENS with BMWs significantly inhibits chronic back pain, and treatment effects are attained within a day. The results also suggest that there were no statistically significant long-term effects of TENS with BMW in the repeated treatment.

  10. Os efeitos da idade na percepção visual de grades senoidais em luminância baixa The effects of age on visual perception of sine-wave gratings at low luminance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natanael Antonio dos Santos

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar a função de sensibilidade ao contraste (FSC de adultos e idosos (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 anos para grades senoidais de 0,25 a 2 cpg em luminância baixa. Todos os participantes apresentavam acuidade visual normal e se encontravam livres de doenças oculares identificáveis. Foram estimados limiares de contraste para 30 participantes (seis em cada faixa etária utilizando o método psicofísico da escolha forçada. Neste método, os participantes tinham que escolher um estímulo contendo uma freqüência de teste (grade senoidal em baixo contraste ou um estímulo neutro com luminância média de 0,7 cd/m². Os resultados mostraram que os grupos de 50-59 e 60-69 anos apresentaram prejuízos significativos na FSC nas freqüências espaciais de 1 e 2 cpg comparados ao grupo de 20-23 anos. Estes resultados sugerem alterações relacionadas à idade na FSC de freqüências espaciais em níveis baixos de luminância.The aim of this work was to investigate the contrast sensitivity function for sine-wave gratings in the range between 0.25-2 cpd in young and older adults (20-23, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59, 60-69 years old using low luminance. All subjects were free from identifiable ocular disease and had normal acuity. We measured the contrast thresholds for 30 participants (six volunteers in each age using the psychophysical forced-choice staircase method. In this method the volunteers had to choose the stimulus containing a test frequency at low contrast (e.g., a sine-wave grating, or another neutral stimulus at mean luminance (0.7 cd/m². The results showed significant changes of CSF for sine-wave gratings at 1 and 2 cpd for the adults 50-59 and 60-69 years old compared to the adults of 20-23 years old. These results suggest age-related changes in the CSF for sine-wave grating at low luminance levels.

  11. Udenlandsk ejerskab har sine fordele

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Steen

    2011-01-01

    Det er formentlig rigtigt, at multinationale selskaber er mindre sentimentale med hensyn til at nedlægge danske selskaber, men der er også fordele ved at være en del af en udenlandsk koncern, for eksempel med hensyn til finansiering og markedsadgang....

  12. Radioreklamen skal finde sine ben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sigurd Bennike

    1989-08-01

    Full Text Available Den 1. august 1988 startede radioreklamerne i Danmark uden nævneværdig opmærksomhed fra hverken pressen eller medieforskerne. Annoncørerne, reklamebureauerne og de store radiostationer har haft lidt svært ved at finde hinanden. Og heller ikke nemt ved at finde ud af, hvem der skulle producere reklamerne og hvordan sådan nogle skal lyde på dansk. Som det indirekte fremgår af denne artikel, så er det svært at få tal ud af branchen. - Men et kvalificeret gæt lyder på, at der er omsat for mellem 20 og 40 millioner kroner på de første måneder, koncentreret på mindre end 50 af de 237 nærradiosendetilladelser. De radiostationer der vælger at sende reklamer, skal betale 10% af deres omsætning til en særlig radiofond, hvis midler deles ud til de græsrodsradioer, som ikke kan eller vil skaffe sig reklameindtægter.

  13. Transcriptional activity of transposable elements in coelacanth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forconi, Mariko; Chalopin, Domitille; Barucca, Marco; Biscotti, Maria Assunta; De Moro, Gianluca; Galiana, Delphine; Gerdol, Marco; Pallavicini, Alberto; Canapa, Adriana; Olmo, Ettore; Volff, Jean-Nicolas

    2014-09-01

    The morphological stasis of coelacanths has long suggested a slow evolutionary rate. General genomic stasis might also imply a decrease of transposable elements activity. To evaluate the potential activity of transposable elements (TEs) in "living fossil" species, transcriptomic data of Latimeria chalumnae and its Indonesian congener Latimeria menadoensis were compared through the RNA-sequencing mapping procedures in three different organs (liver, testis, and muscle). The analysis of coelacanth transcriptomes highlights a significant percentage of transcribed TEs in both species. Major contributors are LINE retrotransposons, especially from the CR1 family. Furthermore, some particular elements such as a LF-SINE and a LINE2 sequences seem to be more expressed than other elements. The amount of TEs expressed in testis suggests possible transposition burst in incoming generations. Moreover, significant amount of TEs in liver and muscle transcriptomes were also observed. Analyses of elements displaying marked organ-specific expression gave us the opportunity to highlight exaptation cases, that is, the recruitment of TEs as new cellular genes, but also to identify a new Latimeria-specific family of Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements called CoeG-SINEs. Overall, transcriptome results do not seem to be in line with a slow-evolving genome with poor TE activity. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A versatile, highly-efficient, high-resolution von Hamos Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vane, C.R.; Smith, M.S.; Raman, S.

    1988-01-01

    An efficient, high-resolution, vertical-focusing, Bragg crystal x-ray spectrometer has been specifically designed and constructed for use in measurements of x rays produced in collisions of energetic heavy ions. In this report the design and resulting operational characteristics of the final instrument are fully described. A wide variety of sample data is also included to illustrate the utility of this device in several areas of research. 14 refs., 38 figs

  15. Reflection of sine-Gordon breathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, O. H.; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm

    1981-01-01

    The influence of a boundary on a breather traveling in a Josephson line cavity is examined by means of numerical computations. For a passive termination the breather is reflected into a breather of less energy; when the characteristic impedance of the line equals the external load resistor the br...

  16. The Hyperbolic Sine Cardinal and the Catenary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Reyes, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The hyperbolic function sinh(x)/x receives scant attention in the literature. We show that it admits a clear geometric interpretation as the ratio between length and chord of a symmetric catenary segment. The inverse, together with the use of dimensionless parameters, furnishes a compact, explicit construction of a general catenary segment of…

  17. Adsorption de l'eau dissoute dans les mélanges supercarburant-alcools en vue de leur stabilisation. Comparaison entre adsorbants classiques et résines échangeuses d'ions Adsorption of Dissolved Water in Premium-Fuel/Alcohol Blends with a View to Their Stabilization. Comparison Between Conventional Adsorbents and Ion-Exchange Resins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernasconi C.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Une réponse possible au problème de la déstabilisation par démixtion des mélanges supercarburant-alcools est l'abaissement de leur teneur en eau par adsorption physique. La forte affinité pour l'eau des résines échangeuses d'ions de type polystyrène sulfonate permet d'envisager leur utilisation dans ce cas spécifique d'application. Le principal intérêt de ce nouveau matériau adsorbant est de pouvoir se régénérer avec des calories de bas niveau (100-120°C. Nous avons donc étudié, du point de vue capacité d'adsorption et cinétique d'adsorption, le comportement de cet adsorbant et comparé ses performances à celles d'adsorbants plus classiques tels que le silicagel, l'alumine et le tamis moléculaire 3 Å. Les formes ioniques de la résine mises en oeuvre sont les formes : K+, Na+ et Mg2+. Sur le plan de la capacité totale d'adsorption, la résine, quelle que soit sa forme ionique, présente des performances supérieures à celles de l'alumine et du silicagel. Seule la forme Mg2+ adsorbe autant d'eau que le tamis moléculaire. L'efficacité de la résine est sensible à la nature de l'alcool du mélange considéré et augmente selon la séquence méthanol A possible answer to the problem of destabilization by the segregation of premium-fuel/alcohol blends lies in decreasing their water content by physical adsorption. The strong affinity of water for ion-exchange resins of the polystyrene sulfonate type suggests their use for this specific application. The main advantage of this newadsorbent material is that it can be regenerated with low-level heat (100-120°C. We thus investigated the behavior of this adsorbent from the standpoint of its adsorption capacity and adsorption kinetics. Its performances were compared to those of more conventional adsorbents, such as silicagel, alumina and a 3Å molecular sieve. The ionic forms of the resin used are in the form of K+, Na+ and Mg2+. From the standpoint of total adsorption capacity

  18. Deconstruction of spatial integrity in visual stimulus detected by modulation of synchronized activity in cat visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhiyi; Bernard, Melanie R; Bonds, A B

    2008-04-02

    Spatiotemporal relationships among contour segments can influence synchronization of neural responses in the primary visual cortex. We performed a systematic study to dissociate the impact of spatial and temporal factors in the signaling of contour integration via synchrony. In addition, we characterized the temporal evolution of this process to clarify potential underlying mechanisms. With a 10 x 10 microelectrode array, we recorded the simultaneous activity of multiple cells in the cat primary visual cortex while stimulating with drifting sine-wave gratings. We preserved temporal integrity and systematically degraded spatial integrity of the sine-wave gratings by adding spatial noise. Neural synchronization was analyzed in the time and frequency domains by conducting cross-correlation and coherence analyses. The general association between neural spike trains depends strongly on spatial integrity, with coherence in the gamma band (35-70 Hz) showing greater sensitivity to the change of spatial structure than other frequency bands. Analysis of the temporal dynamics of synchronization in both time and frequency domains suggests that spike timing synchronization is triggered nearly instantaneously by coherent structure in the stimuli, whereas frequency-specific oscillatory components develop more slowly, presumably through network interactions. Our results suggest that, whereas temporal integrity is required for the generation of synchrony, spatial integrity is critical in triggering subsequent gamma band synchronization.

  19. Optimisation of active suspension control inputs for improved performance of active safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čorić, Mirko; Deur, Joško; Xu, Li; Tseng, H. Eric; Hrovat, Davor

    2018-01-01

    A collocation-type control variable optimisation method is used to investigate the extent to which the fully active suspension (FAS) can be applied to improve the vehicle electronic stability control (ESC) performance and reduce the braking distance. First, the optimisation approach is applied to the scenario of vehicle stabilisation during the sine-with-dwell manoeuvre. The results are used to provide insights into different FAS control mechanisms for vehicle performance improvements related to responsiveness and yaw rate error reduction indices. The FAS control performance is compared to performances of the standard ESC system, optimal active brake system and combined FAS and ESC configuration. Second, the optimisation approach is employed to the task of FAS-based braking distance reduction for straight-line vehicle motion. Here, the scenarios of uniform and longitudinally or laterally non-uniform tyre-road friction coefficient are considered. The influences of limited anti-lock braking system (ABS) actuator bandwidth and limit-cycle ABS behaviour are also analysed. The optimisation results indicate that the FAS can provide competitive stabilisation performance and improved agility when compared to the ESC system, and that it can reduce the braking distance by up to 5% for distinctively non-uniform friction conditions.

  20. Active Magnetic Bearings Stiffness and Damping Identification from Frequency Characteristics of Control System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowu Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, the stiffness and damping identification for active magnetic bearings (AMBs are still in the stage of theoretical analysis. The theoretical analysis indicates that if the mechanical structure and system parameters are determined, AMBs stiffness and damping are only related to frequency characteristic of control system, ignoring operating condition. More importantly, few verification methods are proposed. Considering the shortcomings of the theoretical identification, this paper obtains these coefficients from the experiment by using the magnetic bearing as a sine exciter. The identification results show that AMBs stiffness and damping have a great relationship with the control system and rotating speed. Specifically, at low rotating speed, the stiffness and damping can be obtained from the rotor static suspension by adding the same excitation frequency. However, at high speed, different from the static suspension situation, the AMBs supporting coefficients are not only related to the frequency characteristics of control system, but also related to the system operating conditions.

  1. Retrotransposon-centered analysis of piRNA targeting shows a shift from active to passive retrotransposon transcription in developing mouse testes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourier Tobias

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Piwi-associated RNAs (piRNAs bind transcripts from retrotransposable elements (RTE in mouse germline cells and seemingly act as guides for genomic methylation, thereby repressing the activity of RTEs. It is currently unknown if and how Piwi proteins distinguish RTE transcripts from other cellular RNAs. During germline development, the main target of piRNAs switch between different types of RTEs. Using the piRNA targeting of RTEs as an indicator of RTE activity, and considering the entire population of genomic RTE loci along with their age and location, this study aims at further elucidating the dynamics of RTE activity during mouse germline development. Results Due to the inherent sequence redundancy between RTE loci, assigning piRNA targeting to specific loci is problematic. This limits the analysis, although certain features of piRNA targeting of RTE loci are apparent. As expected, young RTEs display a much higher level of piRNA targeting than old RTEs. Further, irrespective of age, RTE loci near protein-coding coding genes are targeted to a greater extent than RTE loci far from genes. During development, a shift in piRNA targeting is observed, with a clear increase in the relative piRNA targeting of RTEs residing within boundaries of protein-coding gene transcripts. Conclusions Reanalyzing published piRNA sequences and taking into account the features of individual RTE loci provide novel insight into the activity of RTEs during development. The obtained results are consistent with some degree of proportionality between what transcripts become substrates for Piwi protein complexes and the level by which the transcripts are present in the cell. A transition from active transcription of RTEs to passive co-transcription of RTE sequences residing within protein-coding transcripts appears to take place in postnatal development. Hence, the previously reported increase in piRNA targeting of SINEs in postnatal testis development

  2. Proposition d'un modèle expérimental pour la caractérisation de la réponse mécanique d'un composite (tissu de verre / résine époxyde)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naceri, A.; Vautrin, A.

    2005-05-01

    L'objet de cet article est de proposer une géométrie d'éprouvette pour la caractérisation de la réponse mécanique d'un composite constitué de 12 plis de tissus de fibres de verre noyé dans une résine époxyde. Des essais de traction uniaxiale en rampe monotone réalisés sur différentes configurations géométriques d'éprouvettes avec différentes vitesses d'essais et le calcul numérique par éléments finis de la répartition des contraintes dans la zone centrale du modèle expérimental proposé, nous ont permis de justifier le choix d'une éprouvette profilée avec un rayon de 1000 mm qui présente une section réduite au centre et pour laquelle la rupture survient dans la zone centrale sans chute notable des caractéristiques mécaniques ultimes par rapport à l'éprouvette de forme parallélépipédique.

  3. Active Control Does Not Eliminate Motion-Induced Illusory Displacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M. Thornton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available When the sine-wave grating of a Gabor patch drifts to the left or right, the perceived position of the entire object is shifted in the direction of local motion. In the current work we explored whether active control of the physical position of the patch overcomes such motion induced illusory displacement. In Experiment 1 we created a simple computer game and asked participants to continuously guide a Gabor patch along a randomly curving path using a joystick. When the grating inside the Gabor patch was stationary, participants could perform this task without error. When the grating drifted to either left or right, we observed systematic errors consistent with previous reports of motion-induced illusory displacement. In Experiment 2 we created an iPad application where the built-in accelerometer tilt control was used to steer the patch through as series of “gates”. Again, we observed systematic guidance errors that depended on the direction and speed of local motion. In conclusion, we found no evidence that participants could adapt or compensate for illusory displacement given active control of the target.

  4. Rescuing Alu: recovery of new inserts shows LINE-1 preserves Alu activity through A-tail expansion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley J Wagstaff

    Full Text Available Alu elements are trans-mobilized by the autonomous non-LTR retroelement, LINE-1 (L1. Alu-induced insertion mutagenesis contributes to about 0.1% human genetic disease and is responsible for the majority of the documented instances of human retroelement insertion-induced disease. Here we introduce a SINE recovery method that provides a complementary approach for comprehensive analysis of the impact and biological mechanisms of Alu retrotransposition. Using this approach, we recovered 226 de novo tagged Alu inserts in HeLa cells. Our analysis reveals that in human cells marked Alu inserts driven by either exogenously supplied full length L1 or ORF2 protein are indistinguishable. Four percent of de novo Alu inserts were associated with genomic deletions and rearrangements and lacked the hallmarks of retrotransposition. In contrast to L1 inserts, 5' truncations of Alu inserts are rare, as most of the recovered inserts (96.5% are full length. De novo Alus show a random pattern of insertion across chromosomes, but further characterization revealed an Alu insertion bias exists favoring insertion near other SINEs, highly conserved elements, with almost 60% landing within genes. De novo Alu inserts show no evidence of RNA editing. Priming for reverse transcription rarely occurred within the first 20 bp (most 5' of the A-tail. The A-tails of recovered inserts show significant expansion, with many at least doubling in length. Sequence manipulation of the construct led to the demonstration that the A-tail expansion likely occurs during insertion due to slippage by the L1 ORF2 protein. We postulate that the A-tail expansion directly impacts Alu evolution by reintroducing new active source elements to counteract the natural loss of active Alus and minimizing Alu extinction.

  5. Multi-Objective Sliding Mode Control on Vehicle Cornering Stability with Variable Gear Ratio Actuator-Based Active Front Steering Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xinbo; Wong, Pak Kin; Zhao, Jing; Xie, Zhengchao

    2016-01-01

    Active front steering (AFS) is an emerging technology to improve the vehicle cornering stability by introducing an additional small steering angle to the driver’s input. This paper proposes an AFS system with a variable gear ratio steering (VGRS) actuator which is controlled by using the sliding mode control (SMC) strategy to improve the cornering stability of vehicles. In the design of an AFS system, different sensors are considered to measure the vehicle state, and the mechanism of the AFS system is also modelled in detail. Moreover, in order to improve the cornering stability of vehicles, two dependent objectives, namely sideslip angle and yaw rate, are considered together in the design of SMC strategy. By evaluating the cornering performance, Sine with Dwell and accident avoidance tests are conducted, and the simulation results indicate that the proposed SMC strategy is capable of improving the cornering stability of vehicles in practice. PMID:28036037

  6. Radial sine-Gordon kinks as sources of fast breathers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caputo, Jean Guy; Sørensen, Mads Peter

    2013-01-01

    all outgoing radiation. As the kink shrinks toward r, before the collision, its motion is well described by a simple law derived from the conservation of energy. In two dimensions for r ≤ 2, the collision disintegrates the kink into a fast breather, while for r ≥ 4 we obtain a kink-breather metastable...... state where breathers are shed at each kink “return.” In three and higher dimensions d, an additional kink-oscillon state appears for small r. On the application side, the kink disintegration opens the way for new types of terahertz microwave generators....

  7. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: A SINE-QUA-NON FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    verse ranging from sea surge and flooding, melting of ice caps with potential ... level has grown from under 15,000 in 1970 to approximately 1.2 million today. Moreover ... (2004) state a rise in environmental awareness from the 1970s due to increased ..... (Doctoral thesis, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA).

  8. Sine-wave three phase resonance inverter for operation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    naeema

    conventional and simple solution to this requirement are in the following [8]. Using conventional H-bridge inverter beside of a step-up transformer. Using a renewable energy source with sufficiently large output voltage, which may be realized by a string of series connected modules followed by an H-bridge inverter [12], [13].

  9. Rockets and spacecraft: Sine qua non of space science

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The evolution of the national launch vehicle stable is presented along with lists of launch vehicles used in NASA programs. A partial list of spacecraft used throughout the world is also given. Scientific spacecraft costs are presented along with an historial overview of project development and funding in NASA.

  10. Sine-wave three phase resonance inverter for operation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper proposes a high performance single-stage three phase inverter topology for the autonomous operation of renewable energy systems. The proposed configuration can boost the low voltage of renewable energy systems such as photo voltaic systems, fuel cells, and etc can also convert the output dc power, into ...

  11. Redesign av Escola forlag sine skoleordbøker

    OpenAIRE

    Heggen, Inger Helene

    2007-01-01

    Rapporten består av en litteraturstudie (med begrepsavklaringer og en gjennomgang av ordboktypografiens historie – med hovedvekt på engelsk ordboktypografi), en analyse av ettspråklige ordbøker i dag (både norske og engelske), og en analyse av Escola Forlags ordbøker (bokmål og nynorsk utgave). Til slutt – en demononstrasjon av min resulterende redesign av ordbøkene (omslag og innmat). Her har det vært særlig viktig å tydeliggjøre oppslagsordene og oppslagsordenes underelementer s...

  12. Sine-wave three phase resonance inverter for operation of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 18, No 3 (2014) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  13. Hvordan kan det selvstyrende team kvalificere sine arbejdsprocesser?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bro, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Artiklen beskriver tre processer, beslutningsprocesser, forhandlingsprocesser og læringsprocesser, der har hvert sit særkende. Styringen af disse processer set i relation til den fælles opgave, ses som en mulig vej til kvalificering af teamsamarbejdet. Af Kirsten Bro, cand.pæd.psyk...

  14. Spaghetti Sine Curves: Virtual Environments for Reasoning and Sense Making

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özgün-Koca, S. Asli; Edwards, Michael Todd; Meagher, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In a recent collaboration with an area high school teacher, the authors were asked to develop an introductory sinusoidal curves lesson for a group of second-year algebra students. Because the topic was abstract and unfamiliar to these tenth graders, they looked for hands-on lessons to support their learning. One lesson that they found, which they…

  15. Low-frequency sine wave hard-limiting technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. O.

    1977-01-01

    Circuit includes serial-in/parallel-out shift register and weighting network that are used to eliminate effects of noise and other nonrepetitive circuit transients. Register and weighting network average decisions from section of signal where decisions are more dependable or where differences between two consecutive samples are larger.

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL EDUCATION: A SINE-QUA-NON FOR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JONATHAN

    embeddedness on formation of specific attitudes and behavioral intentions. Personality and. Social Psychology Bulletin, 22(8), 845-861. Purwanto, H. (1999). Human Behavior Based For Nursing. Jakarta: EGC. Robinson, J. O. (2013). Environmental Education and Sustainable Development in Nigeria: Breaking the missing ...

  17. Retinitis Pigmentosa Sine Pigmento Mimicking a Chiasm Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrini, Francesco; Prosdocimo, Giovanni; Romano, Francesco; Interlandi, Emanuela

    2017-08-01

    A 75-year-old woman presented to her ophthalmologist complaining of visual loss for several years. The ophthalmic examination was remarkable for a bitemporal visual field defect. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan of the brain was normal without evidence of chiasm compression. Neuro-ophthalmic examination was consistent with a retinal rather than a chiasmal disease. Retinal multimodal imaging helped in the correct diagnosis of retinitis pigmentosa, later confirmed by genetic testing.

  18. Quantitative Reasoning and the Sine Function: The Case of Zac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Kevin C.

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of literature has identified quantitative and covariational reasoning as critical for secondary and undergraduate student learning, particularly for topics that require students to make sense of relationships between quantities. The present study extends this body of literature by characterizing an undergraduate precalculus…

  19. Sine ars scientia nihil est: Leonardo da Vinci and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kickhöfel, Eduardo H P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to reflect on the relationship between art and science so far as it concerns a symposium on neurosciences. We undertake a historical overview of that relationship, paying particular attention to the sui generis case of Leonardo da Vinci, who very often is regarded as the man who worked on art and science with equal ease. We then explain why his idea of merging these two forms of knowledge failed, considering the clear-cut distinction between art and science in his time. With this clarification, we explore the matter today. We look at Raphael's The Transfiguration, in which the representation of the possessed boy is seen by neuroscientists as indicative of an epileptic seizure. We also look at the ideas of neuroscientists Semir Zeki and Vilayanur Ramachandran, who study particular aspects of brain function and suggest a new merging of art and science.

  20. Statistical dynamics of parametrically perturbed sine-square map

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We discuss the emergence and destruction of complex, critical and completely chaotic attractors in a nonlinear system when subjected to a small parametric perturba- tion in trigonometric, hyperbolic or noise function forms. For this purpose, a hybrid optical bistable system, which is a nonlinear physical system, has ...

  1. Low diversity, activity, and density of transposable elements in five avian genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Bo; Wang, Saisai; Wang, Yali; Shen, Dan; Xue, Songlei; Chen, Cai; Cui, Hengmi; Song, Chengyi

    2017-07-01

    In this study, we conducted the activity, diversity, and density analysis of transposable elements (TEs) across five avian genomes (budgerigar, chicken, turkey, medium ground finch, and zebra finch) to explore the potential reason of small genome sizes of birds. We found that these avian genomes exhibited low density of TEs by about 10% of genome coverages and low diversity of TEs with the TE landscapes dominated by CR1 and ERV elements, and contrasting proliferation dynamics both between TE types and between species were observed across the five avian genomes. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that CR1 clade was more diverse in the family structure compared with R2 clade in birds; avian ERVs were classified into four clades (alpha, beta, gamma, and ERV-L) and belonged to three classes of ERV with an uneven distributed in these lineages. The activities of DNA and SINE TEs were very low in the evolution history of avian genomes; most LINEs and LTRs were ancient copies with a substantial decrease of activity in recent, with only LTRs and LINEs in chicken and zebra finch exhibiting weak activity in very recent, and very few TEs were intact; however, the recent activity may be underestimated due to the sequencing/assembly technologies in some species. Overall, this study demonstrates low diversity, activity, and density of TEs in the five avian species; highlights the differences of TEs in these lineages; and suggests that the current and recent activity of TEs in avian genomes is very limited, which may be one of the reasons of small genome sizes in birds.

  2. Active Teachers - Active Students

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    as an initiative from the Polytechnic in Nantes, France and the University the Los Andes in Bogota, Colombia. The objective was to start a world wide collaboration allowing teachers in engineering to learn from each other about their experiences with active learning. In this thirteenth edition, ALE joins forces...... with the International Research Symposium on Problem Based Learning (IRSPB) and the International Symposium on Project Approaches in Engineering Education (PAEE) to organise the first International Joint Conference on the Learner in Engineering Education (IJCLEE 2015) hosted by Mondragon University, in San Sebastian...

  3. Is activation analysis still active?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chai Zhifang

    2001-01-01

    This paper reviews some aspects of neutron activation analysis (NAA), covering instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA), k 0 method, prompt gamma-ray neutron activation analysis (PGNAA), radiochemical neutron activation analysis (RNAA) and molecular activation analysis (MAA). The comparison of neutron activation analysis with other analytical techniques are also made. (author)

  4. Phytochemical composition and in vitro pharmacological activity of two rose hip (Rosa canina L.) preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzig, E M; Widowitz, U; Kunert, O; Chrubasik, S; Bucar, F; Knauder, E; Bauer, R

    2008-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare powdered rose hip with and without fruits (Rosae pseudofructus cum/sine fructibus, Rosa canina L., Rosaceae) with regard to their phytochemical profile and their in vitro anti-inflammatory and radical-scavenging properties. The two powders were subsequently extracted with solvents of increasing polarity and tested for inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1, COX-2) and of 5-LOX-mediated leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) formation as well as for DPPH-radical-scavenging capacity. While the water and methanol extracts were inactive in the COX-1, COX-2 and LTB(4) inhibition assays, the n-hexane and the dichloromethane extracts inhibited all three enzymes. In the active extracts, the triterpenoic acids ursolic acid, oleanolic acid and betulinic acid were identified, although only in minute amounts. Furthermore, oleic, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acid were identified apart from several saturated fatty acids. Even though unsaturated fatty acids are known to be good inhibitors of COX-1, COX-2 and LT formation, no clear correlation between their concentration in the extracts and their activity was found. We suggest that other, yet unidentified, lipophilic constituents might play a more important role for the observed in vitro inhibitory activity on arachidonic acid metabolism. Some of the extracts also showed considerable DPPH radical scavenging activity, the methanolic extracts being most potent. The radical scavenging activity of the extracts correlated very well with their total phenolic content, while ascorbic acid contributes only little to the radical-scavenging activity due to its low concentration present in the extracts. In summary, extracts derived from powdered rose hip without fruits were more effective in all assays carried out compared with extracts derived from powdered rose hip with fruits.

  5. Active Control of Separation From the Flap of a Supercritical Airfoil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, LaTunia Pack; Yao, Chung-Sheng; Seifert, Avi

    2006-01-01

    Zero-mass-flux periodic excitation was applied at several regions on a simplified high-lift system to delay the occurrence of flow separation. The NASA Energy Efficient Transport (EET) supercritical airfoil was equipped with a 15% chord simply hinged leading edge flap and a 25% chord simply hinged trailing edge flap. Detailed flow features were measured in an attempt to identify optimal actuator placement. The measurements included steady and unsteady model and tunnel wall pressures, wake surveys, arrays of surface hot-films, flow visualization, and particle image velocimetry (PIV). The current paper describes the application of active separation control at several locations on the deflected trailing edge flap. High frequency (F(+) approximately equal to 10) and low frequency amplitude modulation (F(+) sub AM approximately equal to 1) of the high frequency excitation were used for control. It was noted that the same performance gains were obtained with amplitude modulation and required only 30% of the momentum input required by pure sine excitation.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System with Hybrid Type Active Magnetic Bearing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. P.; Kim, H. G.; Han, S. C.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we designed Active Magnetic Bearing (AMB) for large scale Superconductor Flywheel Energy Storage System (SFESS) and PD controller for AMB. And we experimentally evaluated SFESS including hybrid type AMB. The radial AMB was designed to provide force slew rate that was sufficient for the unbalance disturbances at the maximum operating speed. The thrust AMB is a hybrid type where a permanent magnet carries the weight of the flywheel and an electromagnetic actuator generates the dynamic control force. We evaluated the design performance of the manufactured AMB through comparison of FEM analysis and the results of experimental force measurement. In order to obtain gains of PD controller and design a notch filter, the system identification was performed through measuring frequency response including dynamics for the AMBs, a power amp and a sensor using a sine swept test method after levitating the flywheel. Through measuring the current input of the AMBs and the orbit of a flywheel according to rotational speed, we verified excellent control performance of the AMBs with small amount current for the large scale SFESS.

  7. Activated Charcoal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common charcoal is made from peat, coal, wood, coconut shell, or petroleum. “Activated charcoal” is similar to common charcoal, but is made especially for use as a medicine. To make activated charcoal, manufacturers heat common ...

  8. Active ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frode F. Jacobsen

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The concept of active ageing has been gaining prominence in the Nordic countries and beyond. This has been reflected in policy papers in Norway and other Nordic nations. Aims: The aim of this article is to analyse the topic of active ageing in five Norwegian White Papers (2002 to 2015 and discuss those policy documents in context of relevant research literature. Methods: A qualitative document analyses is employed focusing on how active ageing, and ageing in general, is described and which concepts are employed. No ethical approval was needed. Findings: The general theme of ageing and the specific theme of active ageing are increasingly prominent in the Norwegian White Papers studied. In all documents, some assumptions regarding ageing and active ageing seem implicit, such as independence being more important than (interdependence. ‘Productive’ activities like participation in working life are stressed, while others, like reading, watching TV or watching children playing in the street, are ignored. Conclusions: The policy documents demonstrate that the topic of active ageing is growing in importance. The documents increasingly seem to stress ‘productive’ activities – those related to working life, voluntary work or sports and physical training. They exclude activities that are meaningful for many older people, like watching their grandchildren play or reading books. Implications for practice: Practitioners in older people’s care could consider reflecting on: Government documents dealing with their own practice The prevalent concept of active ageing The trend of active ageing as a facilitating or hindering factor for good care work How present discourse on active ageing may influence their attitude towards frail older persons How they wish to relate to active ageing in their own practice

  9. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  10. Energy extraction from a semi-passive flapping-foil turbine with active heave and passive pitch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Matthieu; Dumas, Guy; Gunther, Kevin; CFD Laboratory LMFN Team

    2017-11-01

    Due to the inherent complexity of the mechanisms needed to prescribe the heaving and the pitching motions of optimal flapping-foil turbines, several research groups are now investigating the potential of using unconstrained passive motions. The amplitude, the phase and the frequency of such free motions are thus the result of the interaction of the blade with the flow and its elastic supports, namely springs and dampers. In parallel with our current study on fully-passive flapping-foil turbines, we investigate in this work the possibility of using a semi-passive turbine. Unlike previous semi-passive turbines studied in the literature, we propose a turbine with a passive pitching motion and an active heaving motion constrained to be a sine wave with desired amplitude and frequency. As most of the energy extracted by flapping-foil turbines comes from the heaving motion, it is natural to connect an electric generator to this degree of freedom, thereby allowing one to constrain this motion. It is found that large-amplitude pitching motions leading to a considerable energy extraction can arise under different circumstances and mechanisms, either forced by the heaving motion or driven by an instability of the pitching motion itself. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support from the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), the Tyler Lewis Clean Energy Research Foundation, Calcul Québec and Compute Canada.

  11. Activity report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-11-01

    The Department of Physics and Measurement Technology, Biology and Chemistry (IFM) presents every year a progress report containing a brief description of activities in research and education within the department. The report is intended as an information for colleagues and institutions. The present report contains activities for the academic year July 1989 to June 1990

  12. [Active euthanasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folker, A P; Hvidt, N

    1995-02-20

    The growing interest in the subject of active euthanasia in connection with the debate regarding legalization of such practices in Denmark necessitates taking a definite standpoint. The difference in concept between active and passive euthanasia is stressed, and the Dutch guidelines are reviewed. The article discusses how far the patient's autonomy should go, as it regards the consideration of self-determination as being too narrow a criterion in itself. The discussion on the quality of life is included, and the consequences of the process of expulsion as a sociological concept are considered--the risk of a patient feeling guilty for being alive and therefore feeling compelled to request active euthanasia. The changed function of the physician is underlined, and it is discussed whether active euthansia will cause a breach of confidence between the physician and his patient. In connection with the debate the following tendencies in society are emphasized: lack of clarity, increasing medicalization and utilitarian priorities.

  13. Characterization of the past and current duplication activities in the human 22q11.2 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morrow Bernice

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Segmental duplications (SDs on 22q11.2 (LCR22, serve as substrates for meiotic non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR events resulting in several clinically significant genomic disorders. Results To understand the duplication activity leading to the complicated SD structure of this region, we have applied the A-Bruijn graph algorithm to decompose the 22q11.2 SDs to 523 fundamental duplication sequences, termed subunits. Cross-species syntenic analysis of primate genomes demonstrates that many of these LCR22 subunits emerged very recently, especially those implicated in human genomic disorders. Some subunits have expanded more actively than others, and young Alu SINEs, are associated much more frequently with duplicated sequences that have undergone active expansion, confirming their role in mediating recombination events. Many copy number variations (CNVs exist on 22q11.2, some flanked by SDs. Interestingly, two chromosome breakpoints for 13 CNVs (mean length 65 kb are located in paralogous subunits, providing direct evidence that SD subunits could contribute to CNV formation. Sequence analysis of PACs or BACs identified extra CNVs, specifically, 10 insertions and 18 deletions within 22q11.2; four were more than 10 kb in size and most contained young AluYs at their breakpoints. Conclusions Our study indicates that AluYs are implicated in the past and current duplication events, and moreover suggests that DNA rearrangements in 22q11.2 genomic disorders perhaps do not occur randomly but involve both actively expanded duplication subunits and Alu elements.

  14. Active colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior. (physics of our days)

  15. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  16. Regulatory activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This publication, compiled in 8 chapters, presents the regulatory system developed by the Nuclear Regulatory Authority (NRA) of the Argentine Republic. The following activities and developed topics in this document describe: the evolution of the nuclear regulatory activity in Argentina; the Argentine regulatory system; the nuclear regulatory laws and standards; the inspection and safeguards of nuclear facilities; the emergency systems; the environmental systems; the environmental monitoring; the analysis laboratories on physical and biological dosimetry, prenatal irradiation, internal irradiation, radiation measurements, detection techniques on nuclear testing, medical program on radiation protection; the institutional relations with national and international organization; the training courses and meeting; the technical information

  17. Identity Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-03

    in reaction to their environment. They reflect an individual’s internal or external, conscious or subconscious , overt or covert, voluntary or...identity activities under a range of legal authorities, policy constraints, transnational threats, regional concerns and biases , and most likely...Biography. A baseline and descriptive analytic product that supports the development of the behavioral influences analysis ( BIA ) individual behavioral

  18. Active instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lim, Miguel Antonio; Ørberg, Jakob Williams

    2017-01-01

    themselves. We draw on two multi-year field studies of India and Denmark to investigate how national reforms and developments within the ranking industry interact in often surprising ways. Rankings do not always do what policy makers expect. We (1) highlight the activity of rankers in these two countries, (2...

  19. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  20. Disease activity in and quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans: the Nordic PAM Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindqvist, U; Gudbjornsson, B; Iversen, L; Laasonen, L; Ejstrup, L; Ternowitz, T; Ståhle, M

    2017-11-01

    To describe the social status and health-related quality of life of patients with psoriatic arthritis mutilans (PAM) in the Nordic countries. Patients with at least one mutilated joint confirmed by radiology were studied. Disease activity involving joints and skin, physician-assessed disease activity, and patient's education and work status were recorded. Data from the 36-item Short Form Health Survey, Health Assessment Questionnaire and Dermatology Life Quality Index questionnaire were gathered and correlated with disease duration, pain, and general well-being (visual analogue scale). The controls were 58 Swedish patients with long-standing psoriatic arthritis sine PAM. Sixty-seven patients were included. Patients with PAM had a protracted disease history (33 ± 14 years) and disease onset at a relatively early age (30 ± 12 years). Overall inflammatory activity at inclusion was mild to moderate. The mean number of mutilated joints was 8.2 and gross deformity was found in 16% of patients. Forty per cent were treated with biological and 32% with conventional synthetic disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Forty-two per cent had retired early or were on sick leave. Impaired functional capacity with little or no ability to perform self-care or everyday tasks was reported by 21% of the patients. Patients between 45 and 60 years of age reported the most impaired quality of life in comparison to the control group. PAM seriously affects social functioning. Whether early recognition of PAM and new forms of therapy can improve disease outcome and quality of life remains to be studied.

  1. Active particles

    CERN Document Server

    Degond, Pierre; Tadmor, Eitan

    2017-01-01

    This volume collects ten surveys on the modeling, simulation, and applications of active particles using methods ranging from mathematical kinetic theory to nonequilibrium statistical mechanics. The contributing authors are leading experts working in this challenging field, and each of their chapters provides a review of the most recent results in their areas and looks ahead to future research directions. The approaches to studying active matter are presented here from many different perspectives, such as individual-based models, evolutionary games, Brownian motion, and continuum theories, as well as various combinations of these. Applications covered include biological network formation and network theory; opinion formation and social systems; control theory of sparse systems; theory and applications of mean field games; population learning; dynamics of flocking systems; vehicular traffic flow; and stochastic particles and mean field approximation. Mathematicians and other members of the scientific commu...

  2. Active solar information dissemination activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-07-01

    The principal objective of the project has been the development of an information dissemination strategy for the UK active solar heating industry. The project has also aimed to prepare the industry for the implementation of such a strategy and to produce initial information materials to support the early stages of the implementation process. (author)

  3. Infection-Induced Retrotransposon-Derived Noncoding RNAs Enhance Herpesviral Gene Expression via the NF-κB Pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Karijolich

    Full Text Available Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs are highly abundant, RNA polymerase III-transcribed noncoding retrotransposons that are silenced in somatic cells but activated during certain stresses including viral infection. How these induced SINE RNAs impact the host-pathogen interaction is unknown. Here we reveal that during murine gammaherpesvirus 68 (MHV68 infection, rapidly induced SINE RNAs activate the antiviral NF-κB signaling pathway through both mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS-dependent and independent mechanisms. However, SINE RNA-based signaling is hijacked by the virus to enhance viral gene expression and replication. B2 RNA expression stimulates IKKβ-dependent phosphorylation of the major viral lytic cycle transactivator protein RTA, thereby enhancing its activity and increasing progeny virion production. Collectively, these findings suggest that SINE RNAs participate in the innate pathogen response mechanism, but that herpesviruses have evolved to co-opt retrotransposon activation for viral benefit.

  4. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  5. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  6. Halal Activism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Johan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to further our understanding of contemporary Muslim consumer activism in Malaysia with a particular focus on halal (in Arabic, literally “permissible” or “lawful”) products and services. Muslim activists and organisations promote halal on a big scale in the interface...... zones between new forms of Islamic revivalism, the ethnicised state and Muslim consumer culture. Organisations such as the Muslim Consumers Association of Malaysia play an important role in pushing and protecting halal in Malaysia, that is, halal activists constantly call on the state to tighten halal...... in particular historical/national settings and that these issues should be explored in the interfaces between Islam, the state and market. More specifically, this article examines the above issues building on ethnography from fieldwork with three Muslim organisations in Malaysia....

  7. Active sharing

    CERN Multimedia

    2012-01-01

    The big news this week is, of course, the conclusions from the LHC performance workshop held in Chamonix from 6 to 10 February . The main recommendation, endorsed by CERN’s Machine Advisory Committee and adopted by the Management, is that the LHC will run at 4 TeV per beam this year. You can find all the details from Chamonix in the slides presented on Wednesday at the summary session, which leaves me free to talk about another important development coming up soon.   In ten days time, a new kind of gathering will be taking place in Geneva, bringing together two previously separate conferences, one driven by physics, the other by the medical community, but both looking to apply physics to the advancement of health. The merger of the International Conference for Translational Research in Radio-Oncology and CERN’s workshop on Physics for Health in Europe (ICTR-PHE) makes for a very eclectic mix. Presentations range from active shielding for interplanetary flight to the rather...

  8. Active Segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ajay; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2009-01-01

    The human visual system observes and understands a scene/image by making a series of fixations. Every fixation point lies inside a particular region of arbitrary shape and size in the scene which can either be an object or just a part of it. We define as a basic segmentation problem the task of segmenting that region containing the fixation point. Segmenting the region containing the fixation is equivalent to finding the enclosing contour- a connected set of boundary edge fragments in the edge map of the scene - around the fixation. This enclosing contour should be a depth boundary.We present here a novel algorithm that finds this bounding contour and achieves the segmentation of one object, given the fixation. The proposed segmentation framework combines monocular cues (color/intensity/texture) with stereo and/or motion, in a cue independent manner. The semantic robots of the immediate future will be able to use this algorithm to automatically find objects in any environment. The capability of automatically segmenting objects in their visual field can bring the visual processing to the next level. Our approach is different from current approaches. While existing work attempts to segment the whole scene at once into many areas, we segment only one image region, specifically the one containing the fixation point. Experiments with real imagery collected by our active robot and from the known databases 1 demonstrate the promise of the approach.

  9. IASS Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojaev, Alisher S.; Ibragimova, Elvira M.

    2015-08-01

    It’s well known, astronomy in Uzbekistan has ancient roots and traditions (e.g., Mirzo Ulugh Beg, Abū al-Rayhān al-Bīrūnī, Abū ‘Abdallāh al-Khwārizmī) and astronomical heritage carefully preserved. Nowadays uzbek astronomers play a key role in scientific research but also in OAD and Decadal Plan activity in the Central Asia region. International Aerospace School (IASS) is an amazing and wonderful event held annually about 30 years. IASS is unique project in the region, and at the beginning we spent the Summer and Winter Schools. At present in the summer camp we gather about 50 teenage and undergraduate students over the country and abroad (France, Malaysia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, Pakistan, Russia, etc.). They are selected on the basis of tests of astronomy and space issues. During two weeks of IASS camp the invited scientists, cosmonauts and astronauts as well as other specialists give lectures and engage in practical exercises with IASS students in astronomy, including daily observations of the Sun and night sky observations with meniscus telescope, space research and exploration, aerospace modelling, preparation and presentation of original projects. This is important that IASS gives not theoretical grounds only but also practically train the students and the hands-on training is the major aims of IASS. Lectures and practice in the field of astronomy carried out with the direct involvement and generous assistance of Uranoscope Association (Paris, France). The current 26-th IASS is planned to held in July 2015.

  10. Activation Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadeken, Owen

    2002-01-01

    Teaming is so common in today's project management environment that most of us assume it comes naturally. We further assume that when presented with meaningful and challenging work, project teams will naturally engage in productive activity to complete their tasks. This assumption is expressed in the simple (but false) equation: Team + Work = Teamwork. Although this equation appears simple and straightforward, it is far from true for most project organizations whose reality is a complex web of institutional norms based on individual achievement and rewards. This is illustrated by the very first successful team experience from my early Air Force career. As a young lieutenant, I was sent to Squadron Officer School, which was the first in the series of Air Force professional military education courses I was required to complete during my career. We were immediately formed into teams of twelve officers. Much of the course featured competition between these teams. As the most junior member of my team, I quickly observed the tremendous pressure to show individual leadership capability. At one point early in the course, almost everyone in our group was vying to become the team leader. This conflict was so intense that it caused us to fail miserably in our first outdoor team building exercise. We spent so much time fighting over leadership that we were unable to complete any of the events on the outdoor obstacle course. This complete lack of success was so disheartening to me that I gave our team little hope for future success. What followed was a very intense period of bickering, conflict, and even shouting matches as our dysfunctional team tried to cope with our early failures and find some way to succeed. British physician and researcher Wilfred Bion (Experiences in Groups, 1961) discovered that there are powerful psychological forces inherent in all groups that divert from accomplishing their primary tasks. To overcome these restraining forces and use the potential

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  18. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  19. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  20. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  1. Active knee joint flexibility and sports activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hahn, Thomas; Foldspang, Anders; Vestergaard, E

    1999-01-01

    was significantly higher in women than in men and significantly positively associated with weekly hours of swimming and weekly hours of competitive gymnastics. Active knee flexion was significantly positively associated with participation in basketball, and significantly negatively associated with age and weekly......The aim of the study was to estimate active knee flexion and active knee extension in athletes and to investigate the potential association of each to different types of sports activity. Active knee extension and active knee flexion was measured in 339 athletes. Active knee extension...... hours of soccer, European team handball and swimming. The results point to sport-specific adaptation of active knee flexion and active knee extension. Udgivelsesdato: 1999-Apr...

  2. Sine Fine: Dios, los Habsburgo y el traspaso de las insignias de poder en el Quinientos

    OpenAIRE

    Mínguez, Víctor

    2014-01-01

    Partiendo del estudio de una pintura flamenca de Ambrosius Francken, Allegorie auf die Kaiserkrönung Ferdinands II. am 9. September 1619 (Deutsches Historisches Museum de Berlín), se analiza en esta investigación la construcción iconográfica de la entrega divina de las insignias del poder a los emperadores o reyes de la Casa de Habsburgo, a través de diversos grabados y pinturas. Estas imágenes configuran un discurso visual y retórico que pretendía justificar públicamente la...

  3. Sykepleielærere sine holdninger og kunnskapsbehov i kunnskapsbasert praksis

    OpenAIRE

    Utne, Inger; Leegaard, Marit; Røkholt, Gro

    2015-01-01

    Nursing educators’ attitudes and needs for knowledge in evidence-based practice It is required that faculty in nursing education prepares students to work evidence-based (EBP). The purposes of this study are to identify teachers’ beliefs towards EBP and to describe what the faculty identify as their specific learning needs to teach EBP. Data were collected from teachers at a University College in Norway by use of questionnaires and focus group interviews. Descriptive statistics...

  4. Probability of failure prediction for step-stress fatigue under sine or random stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, R. G.

    1979-01-01

    A previously proposed cumulative fatigue damage law is extended to predict the probability of failure or fatigue life for structural materials with S-N fatigue curves represented as a scatterband of failure points. The proposed law applies to structures subjected to sinusoidal or random stresses and includes the effect of initial crack (i.e., flaw) sizes. The corrected cycle ratio damage function is shown to have physical significance.

  5. A generalized exp-function method for multiwave solutions of sine ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    With the development of soliton theory, finding multiwave solutions has ... transmission, self-transparency due to nonlinear effects of optical pulses, ..... Secondly, expanding each new dependent variable in infinite series of a formal expansion.

  6. The validation of an aerospace structure through the sine vibration analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina-Diana BRATU

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Sinusoidal vibrations represent an ideal case. Technically, it is quite hard to generate pure sinusoidal vibrations without containing other spectral components, called harmonics. Sinusoidal vibrations can appear on propeller, propulsion and turbofan aircraft as well as on helicopters and aerospace structures. They can occur during different phases of flight (take-off, ascent, cruise, landing, etc.. The aim of this article is to present how a structure can be validated by using the mathematical formulas or a FEM software such as PATRAN-NASTRAN (and the equations behind it. As an application, an aerospace structure such as thruster brackets will be analyzed. A sinusoidal signal of 1g was applied on the attachment points and the response was read from the center of gravity of the thrusters.

  7. Synergism Analysis of Bedding Slope with Piles and Anchor Cable Support under Sine Wave Vehicle Load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Dan-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Slope instability under dynamic load is the technical difficulty in the engineering; the evaluation of slope stability under dynamic load and the control of dynamic load is particularly important. In this paper, taking the right side slope of K27+140 m~380 m typical section (K27 slope for short in Chongqing Fuling-Fengdu-Shizhu expresses highway as an example to calculate and analyze. The K27 slope is under sinusoidal vehicle load and supported by anchor cable and antislide pile to resist downslide strength; at the same time, the combined effect of them is studied. Three-dimensional finite element methodology (FEM is used to simulate the bedding slope with piles and anchor cable support; furthermore, the eigenvalue can be obtained. In order to reduce error of the elastic boundary conditions caused by the reflection effect of wavelengths, the combination of Lysmer surface viscous boundary and traditional ground support boundaries is utilized to analyze and calculate the time-histories during bedding slope under dynamic load. The dynamic response of pile anchor support to resist sliding force is obtained. The concept of the pile anchor supporting coordinate interval is put forward. Furthermore, it is verified that the pile anchor supporting coordinate interval can be used to evaluate the stability of the slope under dynamic load and provide a new method for the control of the dynamic load.

  8. A Two-Dimensional Transverse Magnetic Propagation Model of a Sine Wave Using Mur Boundary Conditions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Korjack, T

    1997-01-01

    .... The nonreflecting boundary conditions due to Mur were used at the boundary surfaces. Electric field intensity distributions resulted over a progressive time expansion to illustrate the propagation effect over the entire 2-D mesh...

  9. Modulated Sine Waves for Differential Absorption Measurements Using a CW Laser System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor); Lin, Bing (Inventor); Nehrir, Amin R. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A continuous wave Light Detection and Ranging (CW LiDAR) system utilizes two or more laser frequencies and time or range shifted pseudorandom noise (PN) codes to discriminate between the laser frequencies. The performance of these codes can be improved by subtracting out the bias before processing. The CW LiDAR system may be mounted to an artificial satellite orbiting the earth, and the relative strength of the return signal for each frequency can be utilized to determine the concentration of selected gases or other substances in the atmosphere.

  10. Promising SINEs for embargoing nuclear-cytoplasmic export as an anticancer strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, David S P; Bedard, Philippe L; Kuruvilla, John; Siu, Lillian L; Razak, Albiruni R Abdul

    2014-05-01

    In cancer cells, the nuclear-cytoplasmic transport machinery is frequently disrupted, resulting in mislocalization and loss of function for many key regulatory proteins. In this review, the mechanisms by which tumor cells co-opt the nuclear transport machinery to facilitate carcinogenesis, cell survival, drug resistance, and tumor progression will be elucidated, with a particular focus on the role of the nuclear-cytoplasmic export protein. The recent development of a new generation of selective inhibitors of nuclear export (XPO1 antagonists) and how these novel anticancer drugs may bring us closer to the implementation of this therapeutic strategy in the clinic will be discussed.

  11. Impact of an oceanic port (Sines, Portugal on the fish community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuno Mamede

    2015-10-01

    These results suggest that this port may provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of a greater fish diversity and abundance than outside areas, particularly for some species that live in subtidal rocky substrates. Recreational and commercial fishing interdiction, in place in most areas of this port for several years, may be responsible for these patterns.

  12. Man må også lære af sine fejl

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2017-01-01

    Jeg ved godt, at jeg på punkter står alene med min ”pædagogik” omkring eksamen: At se eksamen som et læringsrum i lige så høj grad som en tærskel, hvor man enten kan få lov til at komme over på den anden side, eller må blive på den samme side....

  13. Auditory-Phonetic Projection and Lexical Structure in the Recognition of Sine-Wave Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remez, Robert E.; Dubowski, Kathryn R.; Broder, Robin S.; Davids, Morgana L.; Grossman, Yael S.; Moskalenko, Marina; Pardo, Jennifer S.; Hasbun, Sara Maria

    2011-01-01

    Speech remains intelligible despite the elimination of canonical acoustic correlates of phonemes from the spectrum. A portion of this perceptual flexibility can be attributed to modulation sensitivity in the auditory-to-phonetic projection, although signal-independent properties of lexical neighborhoods also affect intelligibility in utterances…

  14. bilingualism in the english of tertiary students: a sine-qua-non

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    REV YOUNG EZENWA OBIOHA

    questions were used to investigate the effects of Bilingualism on the English of tertiary students. A total of three hundred students from two tertiary institutions were used. ... thoughts, inner feelings, personal psychological ... Chinese migration to the U.S.A (Akindele & ... child is taught Mathematical multiplication and division ...

  15. Spatio-temporal effects in a perturbed Sine-Gordan system: A long Josephson junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nana, L.; Crepin Kofane, T.

    2003-12-01

    A collective coordinate approach is applied to study chaotic responses induced by an applied driven signal on the long Josephson junction influenced by a constant dc-driven field. We derive a nonlinear equation for a collective variable of the breather and the Melnikov method is then used to demonstrate the existence of irregular behavior in breather-fluxon-antifluxon pair transitions. Additionally, numerical simulations show that the theoretical predictions are well reproduced. Results obtained using these perturbative analysis are in good agreement with numerical simulations of the dynamics of the junction. (author)

  16. Hvordan håndterer Danmark risikoen for civile tab i sine bombeangreb med F16?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Steen; Marrup, Karsten

    Danske kampfl y har i de seneste fem år med jævne mellemrum deltaget i angrebsmissioner i Afghanistan, Libyen eller som nu i Irak og Syrien. Der har løbende været fremført kritik fra bl.a. Amnesty International af, om der gøres nok for at begrænse utilsigtede følgeskader, herunder civile tab, i...

  17. Analysing Diagnostic Assessment on the Ratio of Sine in a Right Triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika, R.; Juandi, D.; Rosjanuardi, R.

    2017-09-01

    This study aims to develop diagnostic assessment with the special topic of the ratio of sinus in a right triangle and analyze the result whether the students are ready to continue to the next lesson of trigonometry specially the sinus rule. The methodology that use in this study is a design research of Plomp model which is it comprises of 3 phases: (a) preliminary research; (b) prototyping phase; and (c) assessment phase. The findings show that almost half of students made a mistake in determining the ratio of sin in a right triangle, consequently the procedure for solving the problem went wrong. In strategic competency and adaptive communication most of students did not solve the problem that was given. According to the result, the students have to get remedial program before to the next lesson, the rule of sin.

  18. Development of a sine-dwell ground vibration test (GVT) system

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Zyl, Lourens H

    2006-02-27

    Full Text Available to ensure that it will be free from flutter within the intended operating envelope. Long-span bridges are also subject to flutter, and high-rise buildings can oscillate severely in high winds. Vibrations in industrial installations are also quite common...

  19. Dendritic cell neurofibroma sine pseudorosettes: report of a case with a granulomatous appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersson, Fredrik

    2011-10-01

    An unusual variant of dendritic cell neurofibroma is reported. In contrast to previous cases, the formation of pseudorosettes was lacking. The tumor was located on the anterior aspect of the thigh in a previously healthy 71-year-old woman with no evidence of neurofibromatosis. The tumor was composed of type-1 and type-2 cells, which were immunoreactive for S-100 protein and CD57. The granulomatous appearance was due to the zonal accumulation of CD34-positive dendritic cells and type-1 cells in a serpiginous fashion surrounding large areas with lesser cellularity featuring type-2 cells with scattered type-1 cells arranged in a haphazard fashion. Intralesional small neurites positive for neurofilament and perilesional perineural cells positive for epithelial membrane antigen were documented immunohistochemically.

  20. Limitations caused by distortion in room impulse response measurements by swept sine technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stojic, Branko; Ciric, Dejan; Markovic, Milos

    2011-01-01

    The significance of a room impulse response implies the requirement that its measurement should have a high level of accuracy in certain applications. One of the common problems in a measurement process is nonlinearity leading to the distortion of a room impulse response. Limitations caused...... domain with or without memory. On the other hand, the distortion in measurements is achieved either by applying the nonlinearity model or by using higher excitation level and a loudspeaker with a highly nonlinear characteristic. The results show that the most of distortion energy is located in the non...