Sample records for ham spread tongue

  1. 9 CFR 319.762 - Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. 319.762 Section 319.762 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.762 Ham spread, tongue spread, and similar products. “Ham Spread,” “Tongue...

  2. 9 CFR 319.760 - Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products.


    ... similar products. 319.760 Section 319.760 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... Salads and Meat Spreads § 319.760 Deviled ham, deviled tongue, and similar products. (a) “Deviled Ham” is a semiplastic cured meat food product made from finely comminuted ham and containing condiments...

  3. Ham test

    Acid hemolysin test; Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria - Ham test; PNH - Ham test ... BJ. In: Chernecky CC, Berger BJ, eds. Laboratory Tests and Diagnostic Procedures . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  4. Global Expression-Based Classification of Lymph Node Metastasis and Extracapsular Spread of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Xiaofeng Zhou


    Full Text Available Regional lymph node metastasis is a critical event in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC progression. The identification of biomarkers associated with the metastatic process would provide critical prognostic information to facilitate clinical decision making for improved management of OTSCC patients. Global expressional profiles were obtained for 25 primary OTSCCs, where 11 cases showed lymph node metastasis (pN+ histologically and 14 cases were nonmetastatic (pN-. Seven of pN+ cases also exhibited extracapsular spread (ECS of metastatic nodes. Multiple expression indices were used to generate signature gene sets for pN+/- and ECS+/- cases. Selected genes from signature gene sets were validated using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. The classification powers of these genes were then evaluated using a logistic model, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, leave-oneout cross-validation. qRT-PCR validation data showed that differences at RNA levels are either statistically significant (P<.05 or suggestive (P< .1 for six of eight genes tested (BMP2, CTTN, EEF1A1, GTSE1, MMP9, EGFR for pN+/- cases, for five of eight genes tested (BMP2, CTTN, EEF1A1, MMP9, EGFR for ECS+/- cases. Logistic models with specific combinations of genes (CTTN+MMP9+EGFR for pN and CTTN+EEFIA1+MMP9 for ECS achieved perfect specificity and sensitivity. Leave-one-out cross-validation showed overall accuracy rates of 85% for both pN and ECS prediction models. Our results demonstrated that the pN and the ECS of OTSCCs can be predicted by gene expression analyses of primary tumors.

  5. Fissured Tongue

    ... 2020 Annual Meeting Orlando, FL Our Partners Fissured Tongue The term fissured tongue describes the finding of multiple small furrows or grooves on the dorsal (top) surface of the tongue. These fissures can be shallow or deep, single ...

  6. Tongue biopsy

    Biopsy - tongue ... A tongue biopsy can be done using a needle. You will get numbing medicine at the place where the ... provider will gently stick the needle into the tongue and remove a tiny piece of tissue. Some ...

  7. Your Tongue

    ... Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Your Tongue KidsHealth > For Kids > Your Tongue Print A A ... sing. And don't forget talking and tasting! Tongue Twister Has anyone ever told you that the ...

  8. Ham radio for dummies

    Silver, H Ward


    An ideal first step for learning about ham radio Beyond operating wirelessly, today's ham radio operators can transmit data and pictures; use the Internet, laser, and microwave transmitters; and travel to places high and low to make contact. This hands-on beginner guide reflects the operational and technical changes to amateur radio over the past decade and provides you with updated licensing requirements and information, changes in digital communication (such as the Internet, social media, and GPS), and how to use e-mail via radio. Addresses the critical use of ham radio for replacing downe

  9. HAM proteins promote organ indeterminacy


    HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) proteins, members of the GRAS family of transcriptional regulators, are essential for maintenance of indeterminate growth in flowering plant shoots, loss-of-function ham mutants exhibiting a strikingly novel phenotype of shoot meristem arrest and differentiation. Specific cellular/molecular functions of HAM proteins underlying meristem maintenance are unknown. In this review, I highlight findings from recent analyses of Arabidopsis ham (Atham) loss-of-function phenotypes, including that HAM function limits the generation of clonally-derived meristem layers and that HAM function regulates CLAVATA3 expression. I consider how this new information both refines our understanding of the role of HAM proteins in regulating meristem structure and function, and may also suggest possible downstream HAM protein transcriptional targets. Finally, I note the significant phenotypic overlap between Atham phenotypes, and aintegumenta/anintegumenta-like6 double mutant phenotypes, suggesting meristem regulatory functions common to, and possible genetic interactions between, HAM and AINTEGUMENTA. PMID:22353859

  10. Tongue (image)

    The tongue is mainly composed of muscles. It is covered with a mucous membrane. Small nodules of tissue (papillae) cover the upper surface of the tongue. Between the papillae are the taste buds, which ...

  11. Yellow Tongue

    ... may suggest jaundice References Goldstein BG, et al. Oral lesions. Accessed Jan. 21, 2015. ... Jan. 27, 2015. Geographic tongue. American Academy of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology. ...

  12. Tongue Disorders

    Your tongue helps you taste, swallow, and chew. You also use it to speak. Your tongue is made up of many muscles. The upper surface contains your taste buds. Problems with the tongue include Pain Swelling Changes in color or texture ...

  13. Geographic Tongue

    ... cases, most often related to eating hot, spicy, salty or acidic foods Many people with geographic tongue ... sensitive oral tissues, including: Hot, spicy, acidic or salty foods Tobacco products Toothpaste that contains tartar-control ...

  14. Tongue problems

    ... Tongue pain may also occur with: Diabetic neuropathy Leukoplakia Mouth ulcers Oral cancer After menopause, some women ... problem. Medicine may be prescribed for mouth ulcers, leukoplakia, oral cancer, and other mouth sores. Anti-inflammatory ...

  15. Geographic tongue

    ... for a long time. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if the symptoms last longer than 10 days. Seek immediate medical help if: You have breathing problems. Your tongue ...

  16. Hamming Compressed Sensing

    Zhou, Tianyi


    Compressed sensing (CS) and 1-bit CS cannot directly recover quantized signals and require time consuming recovery. In this paper, we introduce \\textit{Hamming compressed sensing} (HCS) that directly recovers a k-bit quantized signal of dimensional $n$ from its 1-bit measurements via invoking $n$ times of Kullback-Leibler divergence based nearest neighbor search. Compared with CS and 1-bit CS, HCS allows the signal to be dense, takes considerably less (linear) recovery time and requires substantially less measurements ($\\mathcal O(\\log n)$). Moreover, HCS recovery can accelerate the subsequent 1-bit CS dequantizer. We study a quantized recovery error bound of HCS for general signals and "HCS+dequantizer" recovery error bound for sparse signals. Extensive numerical simulations verify the appealing accuracy, robustness, efficiency and consistency of HCS.

  17. Radio Graceful Hamming Graphs

    Niedzialomski Amanda


    Full Text Available For k ∈ ℤ+ and G a simple, connected graph, a k-radio labeling f : V (G → ℤ+ of G requires all pairs of distinct vertices u and v to satisfy |f(u − f(v| ≥ k + 1 − d(u, v. We consider k-radio labelings of G when k = diam(G. In this setting, f is injective; if f is also surjective onto {1, 2, . . . , |V (G|}, then f is a consecutive radio labeling. Graphs that can be labeled with such a labeling are called radio graceful. In this paper, we give two results on the existence of radio graceful Hamming graphs. The main result shows that the Cartesian product of t copies of a complete graph is radio graceful for certain t. Graphs of this form provide infinitely many examples of radio graceful graphs of arbitrary diameter. We also show that these graphs are not radio graceful for large t.

  18. The children of Ham

    John W. Pulis


    Full Text Available [First paragraph] Bob Marley: Songs of Freedom. RITA MARLEY, ADRIAN BOOT & CHRIS SALEWICZ (eds.. London: Bloomsbury, 1995. 288 pp. (Paper £ 14.99 Marley and Me: The Real Story. DON TAYLOR (as told to Mike Henry. Kingston: Kingston Publishers, 1994. xxxv + 226 pp. (Paper US$ 16.95 Dread Talk: The Language of Rastafari. VELMA POLLARD. Kingston: Canoe Press, 1994. x + 84 pp. (Paper J$ 150.00 Rastafari: Roots and ldeology. BARRY CHEVANNES. Syracuse NY: Syracuse University Press, 1994; Kingston: The Press - University of the West Indies, 1995. xiv + 298 pp. (Cloth US$ 34.95, Paper US$ 17.95; J$ 500.00 Seeking a myth to justify the enslavement of Africans, explorers, scholars, and others turned to the Bible, that most sacred and preeminent of Western texts, conjured-up an old biblical curse, and set it to work one more time. As Europe entered the Modern Era, Africans were reinvented as the children of Ham and were targeted for a life of servitude in the New World. Five hundred years later, black folk in Jamaica seized upon an event in Africa, re-interpreted a passage in the Revelation of John, and set in motion a project that transformed enslavement and exile into a religious movement of global proportions.1

  19. Imaging of tongue carcinoma

    Ong, Cheng K.; Chong, Vincent F.H.


    The tongue enables taste and plays a critical role in formation of food bolus and deglutition. The tongue is also crucial for speech and the earliest sign of tongue paresis is a change in the quality of speech. Given the importance of the tongue, tongue carcinoma should be accurately staged in order to optimise treatment options and preserve organ function. The intent of this review is to familiarise radiologists with the pertinent anatomy of the tongue and the behaviour of tongue carcinoma s...

  20. Tongue-Tie (Ankyloglossia)

    ... ENTCareers Marketplace Find an ENT Doctor Near You Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia) Tongue-tie (Ankyloglossia) Patient Health Information ... may be serious in some individuals. When Is Tongue-tie a Problem That Needs Treatment? In Infants ...

  1. The intractability of computing the Hamming distance

    Manthey, Bodo; Reischuk, Rüdiger


    Given a string x and a language L, the Hamming distance of x to L is the minimum Hamming distance of x to any string in L. The edit distance of a string to a language is analogously defined. First, we prove that there is a language in $AC^0$ such that both Hamming and edit distance to this language

  2. Intramuscular variation in fresh ham muscle color

    This experiment was conducted to characterize a defect involving pale muscle tissue in the superficial, ventral portion of ham muscles, resulting in two-toned appearance of cured ham products. Biceps femoris muscles (n = 200), representing 3 production systems, were obtained from the ham-boning lin...

  3. Characterization of the Neurospora crassa cell fusion proteins, HAM-6, HAM-7, HAM-8, HAM-9, HAM-10, AMPH-1 and WHI-2.

    Ci Fu

    Full Text Available Intercellular communication of vegetative cells and their subsequent cell fusion is vital for different aspects of growth, fitness, and differentiation of filamentous fungi. Cell fusion between germinating spores is important for early colony establishment, while hyphal fusion in the mature colony facilitates the movement of resources and organelles throughout an established colony. Approximately 50 proteins have been shown to be important for somatic cell-cell communication and fusion in the model filamentous fungus Neurospora crassa. Genetic, biochemical, and microscopic techniques were used to characterize the functions of seven previously poorly characterized cell fusion proteins. HAM-6, HAM-7 and HAM-8 share functional characteristics and are proposed to function in the same signaling network. Our data suggest that these proteins may form a sensor complex at the cell wall/plasma membrane for the MAK-1 cell wall integrity mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK pathway. We also demonstrate that HAM-9, HAM-10, AMPH-1 and WHI-2 have more general functions and are required for normal growth and development. The activation status of the MAK-1 and MAK-2 MAPK pathways are altered in mutants lacking these proteins. We propose that these proteins may function to coordinate the activities of the two MAPK modules with other signaling pathways during cell fusion.

  4. Weak isometries of Hamming spaces

    Ryan Bruner


    Full Text Available Consider any permutation of the elements of a (finite metric space that preserves a specific distancep. When is such a permutation automatically an isometry of the metric space? In this note we studythis problem for the Hamming spaces H(n,q both from a linear algebraic and combinatorial pointof view. We obtain some sufficient conditions for the question to have an affirmative answer, as wellas pose some interesting open problems.

  5. Ham Sandwich with Mayo: A Stronger Conclusion to the Classical Ham Sandwich Theorem

    Elton, John H


    The conclusion of the classical ham sandwich theorem of Banach and Steinhaus may be strengthened: there always exists a common bisecting hyperplane that touches each of the sets, that is, intersects the closure of each set. Hence, if the knife is smeared with mayonnaise, a cut can always be made so that it will not only simultaneously bisect each of the ingredients, but it will also spread mayonnaise on each. A discrete analog of this theorem says that n finite nonempty sets in n-dimensional Euclidean space can always be simultaneously bisected by a single hyperplane that contains at least one point in each set. More generally, for n compactly-supported positive finite Borel measures in Euclidean n-space, there is always a hyperplane that bisects each of the measures and intersects the support of each measure.

  6. Peritoneal mesothelioma metastasis to the tongue – Comparison with 8 pleural mesothelioma reports with tongue metastases

    Melisa V. Vazquez


    Conclusions: Metastasis of MM to the tongue is rare and usually in the uncommon context of MM with multiple sites of extra-thoracic or extra-abdominal spread. We have described a unique clinical manifestation of a rare subtype of mesothelioma. Moreover, we have tabulated and summarised details (including responses to surgery or/and radiotherapy regarding all reported cases of mesotheliomas with tongue metastasis.

  7. Paradigma da disseminação local do carcinoma epidermóide da base de língua Paradigm of local spreading in squamous cell carcinoma of the base of the tongue

    Francisco S. Amorim Filho


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão de disseminação local através da delimitação clínica da extensão da lesão primária assim como os subsítios invadidos. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram analisados os prontuários de 290 pacientes com carcinoma epidermóide de base de língua no Departamento de Cirurgia de Cabeça e Pescoço e Otorrinolaringologia do Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo - Brasil, de 1977 a 2000, sendo estadiados pelo TNM da UICC, e os resultados analisados pelo teste do Quiquadrado para tabelas Z x N (Cochran para estudo da associação dos sítios e dimensão da neoplasia em relação à invasão da linha média. RESULTADOS: Com predomínio dos homens (8:1 e da 6ª década de vida (41,0%, 83,8% eram etilistas e tabagistas e em 4,7% os hábitos estavam ausentes. Quanto aos sintomas, odinofagia (37,6%, linfonodo (21,7% e a média de tempo entre o 1º sintoma e o diagnóstico de 6 meses (62,0%. Quanto ao estadiamento, tivemos T1-T2 (18,3%, T3 (32,4%, T4(50,7%. Quanto à disseminação local, em direção à valécula (25,3%, epiglote (18,7%, glote (2,7%, anteriormente para o v lingual em (22,4% e póstero lateralmente para a prega faringloepiglótica (6,6% e seio piriforme (2,2%. Quanto a ultrapassagem da linha média, isso ocorreu em 66,2% dos casos, sendo 42,2% (T2, 54,2% (T3 e 82,9% (T4. CONCLUSÃO: o carcinoma epidermóide no estádio T4 ultrapassa a linha média da base da língua em 82,9%.AIM: To analyse the local spreading pattern through clinical delimitation of primary lesion extension as well as subsites involvement. STUDY DESIGN: Chart review. MATERIAL AND METHOD: Files of 290 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the base of the tongue from Department of Head Neck and Surgery and Otorhinolaryngology of Hospital Heliópolis, Hosphel, São Paulo, Brazil from 1977 to 2000, were analysed. They were staged through TNM from UICC, and then through thoygh K square text with Z x

  8. Cat tongue Velcro

    Noel, Alexis; Martinez, Andrea; Jung, Hyewon; Tsai, Ting-Wen; Hu, David


    A cat's tongue is covered in an array of spines called papillae. These spines are thought to be used in grooming and rasping meat from bones of prey, although no mechanism has been given. We use high-speed video to film a cat removing cat food deeply wedged into a 3-D printed fur mat. We show that the spines on the tongue act as Velcro for particles. The tongue itself is highly elastic. As the cat presses it against a substrate, the tongue flattens and the spines separate. When the tongue is removed from the substrate the spines come together, wedging particles between them. This elasticity-driven entrapment permits the surface of the tongue to act as a carrier for hard to reach particles, and to increase the efficacy of grooming and feeding.

  9. Image Analysis for Tongue Characterization

    SHENLansun; WEIBaoguo; CAIYiheng; ZHANGXinfeng; WANGYanqing; CHENJing; KONGLingbiao


    Tongue diagnosis is one of the essential methods in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The ac-curacy of tongue diagnosis can be improved by tongue char-acterization. This paper investigates the use of image anal-ysis techniques for tongue characterization by evaluating visual features obtained from images. A tongue imaging and analysis instrument (TIAI) was developed to acquire digital color tongue images. Several novel approaches are presented for color calibration, tongue area segmentation,quantitative analysis and qualitative description for the colors of tongue and its coating, the thickness and moisture of coating and quantification of the cracks of the toilgue.The overall accuracy of the automatic analysis of the colors of tongue and the thickness of tongue coating exceeds 85%.This work shows the promising future of tongue character-ization.

  10. Geographic Tongue in Monozygotic Twins

    Shekhar M, Guna


    This article discusses a case of 5-year-old girl monozygotic twins who were suffering from geographic tongue (GT), a benign inflammatory disorder of the tongue which is characterized by circinate, irregular erythematous lesions on the dorsum and lateral borders of the tongue caused by loss of filiform papillae of the tongue epithelium. Whilst geographic tongue is a common entity, reports on this condition are uncommon in the literature. To best of our knowledge, this is the first report which...

  11. Two Applications of the Hamming-Golay Code

    Liu, Andy


    In this paper, we give two unexpected applications of a Hamming code. The first one, also known as the "Hat Problem," is based on the fact that a small portion of the available code words are actually used in a Hamming code. The second one is a magic trick based on the fact that a Hamming code is perfect for single-error correction.

  12. The Tongue and Quill


    many sources; e.g., official records, private communications and automated transactions. emoticons —Facial expressions drawn on the computer (see page...AFH 33-337 30 June 1997 The Tongue and Quill Communication is an essential tool for the twenty-first century Air Force Report Documentation Page... Communications and Information THE TONGUE AND QUILL Supersedes AFH 37-137, 31 August 1994 Certified by: ACSC/DEX (Lt Col Kermit Phelps) OPR: ACSC/DEXP (Mrs

  13. Pre-freezing raw hams affects quality traits in cooked hams: potential influence of protein oxidation.

    Utrera, M; Armenteros, M; Ventanas, S; Solano, F; Estévez, M


    The influence of protein carbonylation and lipid oxidation on colour and texture changes in cooked hams from fresh and pre-frozen (frozen/thawed) raw material was studied. Samples from three muscles, biceps femoris (BF) quadriceps femoris (QF) and semimembranosus (SM) were analysed for the gain of specific protein carbonyls, α-aminoadipic and γ-glutamic semialdehydes, the gain of TBA-RS and their colour and texture properties by instrumental and sensory techniques. The formation of protein carbonyls occurred concomitantly with an intense loss of redness and increase of hardness. Both phenomena were found to be more intense in QF and SM muscles in cooked hams elaborated from frozen material. Lipid oxidation played a negligible role on the impaired quality traits observed in cooked hams as a result of pre-freezing. Plausible mechanisms by which protein carbonylation may be implicated in the loss of quality in cooked hams produced from pre-frozen material are discussed.

  14. Common Exercises in Whole Building HAM Modelling

    Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika


    Subtask 1 of the IEA ECBCS Annex 41 (IEA 2007) project had the purpose to advance development in modelling of integral Heat, Air and Moisture (HAM) transfer processes that take place in “whole buildings”. Such modelling considers all relevant elements of buildings: The indoor air, building envelo...

  15. Morphological study of the northern pike (Esox lucius) tongue.

    Sadeghinezhad, Javad; Rahmati-holasoo, Hooman; Fayyaz, Sahel; Zargar, Ashkan


    The northern pike (Esox lucius) is a fresh water species belonging to the Esocidae family. It is a carnivorous fish feeding mostly on invertebrates and fishes. Due to the scantiness of relevant literature regarding the morphology of the tongue in fish we carried out this study with the aim of providing information on the dorsal surface morphology and histological structures of the tongue in E. lucius. The tongues of five E. lucius were examined using light- and scanning electron- microscopy (SEM) techniques. The SEM studies revealed the presence of numerous teeth, longitudinal mucosal strands and scattered taste buds spread on the tongue surface. Histological studies using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining showed that the musculature was not visible in the tongue of E. lucius. The tongue is composed of mucosa, and submucosa supported by osteocartilagionous skeleton. The mucosa consists of several layers of unicellular mucous cells interrupted by numerous teeth. The derivation of teeth from the underlying bronchial skeleton was visible in longitudinal section. The scattered taste buds with a typical onion shape were also present. Overall, the morphological features of the E. lucius tongue together suggested its mechanical and sensory roles. The findings of this study together with morphological and physiological data from other fishes contribute to the knowledge of the nutrition and feeding behavior in aquaculture species.

  16. Epidermoid Cyst of Tongue

    Choubarga Naik


    Full Text Available Epidermoid cyst occurring within the tongue is rare. A 5 year old male child was brought to OPD with a tongue mass which was gradually increasing in size. There was associated difficulty in speech and mastication as the swelling increased in size. Intraoral examination revealed moderately tender, fluctuant and enlarged tongue. A diagnosis of dermoid cyst was made and the patient was booked for surgery. Excision of the cyst was done under general anaesthesia. Post-operative histopathology was done. The histopathological findings confirm the diagnosis of an epidermoid cyst, characterized by the presence of: (I a cyst cavity lined by stratified squamous epithelium with keratinization on the surface; and (II connective tissue with a mild inflammation. The proposed treatment was considered successful as the case was solved and there was no recurrence. Keywords: dermoid; epidermoid cyst;tounge. | PubMed

  17. Hierarchical Parallel Evaluation of a Hamming Code

    Shmuel T. Klein


    Full Text Available The Hamming code is a well-known error correction code and can correct a single error in an input vector of size n bits by adding logn parity checks. A new parallel implementation of the code is presented, using a hierarchical structure of n processors in logn layers. All the processors perform similar simple tasks, and need only a few bytes of internal memory.

  18. Tongue schwannoma: clinicopathological findings.

    Catalfamo, Luciano; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Nava, Carla; Familiari, Elena; Petrocelli, Marzia; Iudicello, Valeria; Ieni, Antonio; Barresi, Valeria; De Ponte, Francesco Saverio


    Schwannomas are peripheral nerve sheath tumors. Approximately 25% of extracranial schwannomas are located in the head and neck district, but only 1% shows an intraoral origin. We report a case of a 28-year-old patient with a tongue schwannoma. Morphologic analysis and immunohistochemical findings strongly support the diagnosis. Surgical treatment is discussed.

  19. Schwannoma of tongue.

    Moreno-García, Carlos; Pons-García, María Asunción; González-García, Raúl; Monje-Gil, Florencio


    The schwannomas are nervous tissue tumors. We report a case of schwannoma of oral tongue. Because schwannomas are quite rare in the oral cavity, they are often not immediately included in the differential diagnosis of oropharyngeal masses, causing delay in identification and treatment. The definitive diagnosis requires histopathologic examination.

  20. Kernel based eigenvalue-decomposition methods for analysing ham

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Møller, Flemming


    Every consumer wants fresh ham and the way we decide whether the meat is fresh or not is by looking at the color. The producers of ham wants a long shelf life, meaning they want the ham to look fresh for a long time. The Danish company Danisco is therefore trying to develop optimal storing...... conditions and finding useful additives to hinder the color to change rapidly. To be able to prove which methods of storing and additives work, Danisco wants to monitor the development of the color of meat in a slice of ham as a function of time, environment and ingredients. We have chosen to use multi...... spectral images to monitor the change in color. We therefore have to be able to segment the ham into the dierent categories of which the ham consists. These categories include fat, gristle and two dierent types of meat. This segmentation is difficult when using the traditional orthogonal transformation...


    Blo rtan rdo rje


    Full Text Available Tibetan tongue twisters are a distinctive and significant part of Tibetan oral folk literature. They are made up of words and phrases related to what people see and experience in daily life. These words are strung together and are difficult to articulate rapidly and fluently, often because of a succession of questions and/ or similar consonantal sounds. This article sheds light on this poorly studied, vanishing, aspect of Tibetan tradition by focusing on tongue twisters that were once popular in Pha bzhi (Hayu 哈 玉 , a subdivision of Skya rgya (Jiajia 贾 加 Administrative Village, Skya rgya Township, Gcan tsha (Jianzha 尖扎 County, Rma lho (Huangnan 黄南 Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture, Mtsho sngon (Qinghai 青海 Province, PR China.

  2. Hamming generalized corrector for reactivity calculation

    Suescun-Diaz, Daniel; Ibarguen-Gonzalez, Maria C.; Figueroa-Jimenez, Jorge H. [Pontificia Universidad Javeriana Cali, Cali (Colombia). Dept. de Ciencias Naturales y Matematicas


    This work presents the Hamming method generalized corrector for numerically resolving the differential equation of delayed neutron precursor concentration from the point kinetics equations for reactivity calculation, without using the nuclear power history or the Laplace transform. A study was carried out of several correctors with their respective modifiers with different time step calculations, to offer stability and greater precision. Better results are obtained for some correctors than with other existing methods. Reactivity can be calculated with precision of the order h{sup 5}, where h is the time step. (orig.)

  3. "Hidden" tongue jewellery.

    McNamara, C M


    Tongue piercing has many associated risks. This is a case report of a patient who, to avoid parental disapproval, hid the dorsal aspect of a lingual stud device. Subsequently, the dorsum repaired. The device could no longer be removed manually and warranted surgical removal. Despite being in situ for over two years, no further complications arose, but all efforts to obtain patient agreement for removal of the device failed.

  4. Modeling the consequences of tongue surgery on tongue mobility

    Buchaillard, Stéphanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan


    This paper presents the current achievements of a long term project aiming at predicting and assessing the impact of tongue and mouth floor surgery on tongue mobility. The ultimate objective of this project is the design of a software with which surgeons should be able (1) to design a 3D biomechanical model of the tongue and of the mouth floor that matches the anatomical characteristics of each patient specific oral cavity, (2) to simulate the anatomical changes induced by the surgery and the possible reconstruction, and (3) to quantitatively predict and assess the consequences of these anatomical changes on tongue mobility and speech production after surgery.

  5. Black hairy tongue syndrome.

    Gurvits, Grigoriy E; Tan, Amy


    Black hairy tongue (BHT) is a benign medical condition characterized by elongated filiform lingual papillae with typical carpet-like appearance of the dorsum of the tongue. Its prevalence varies geographically, typically ranging from 0.6% to 11.3%. Known predisposing factors include smoking, excessive coffee/black tea consumption, poor oral hygiene, trigeminal neuralgia, general debilitation, xerostomia, and medication use. Clinical presentation varies but is typically asymptomatic, although aesthetic concerns are common. Differential diagnosis includes pseudo-BHT, acanthosis nigricans, oral hairy leukoplakia, pigmented fungiform papillae of the tongue, and congenital melanocytic/melanotic nevi/macules. Clinical diagnosis relies on visual observation, detailed history taking, and occasionally microscopic evaluation. Treatment involves identification and discontinuation of the offending agent, modifications of chronic predisposing factors, patient's re-assurance to the benign nature of the condition, and maintenance of adequate oral hygiene with gentle debridement to promote desquamation. Complications of BHT (burning mouth syndrome, halitosis, nausea, gagging, dysgeusia) typically respond to therapy. Prognosis is excellent with treatment of underlying medical conditions. BHT remains an important medical condition which may result in additional burden on the patient and health care system and requires appropriate prevention, recognition and treatment.

  6. 9 CFR 319.310 - Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar...


    ... with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. 319.310 Section 319.310 Animals and....310 Lima beans with ham in sauce, beans with ham in sauce, beans with bacon in sauce, and similar products. “Lima Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Ham in Sauce,” “Beans with Bacon in Sauce,”...

  7. Simple methods to decrease sodium and nitrite contents in hams

    Talia Franco-Avila


    Full Text Available Introduction: Ham is a product highly consumed by society; however it contains some elements that make it a non-recommended food. Thus, it has been attempted to eliminate or reduce those components.Material and Methods: Content of sodium, nitrites, peroxides and total coliforms were compared after processes of Washing (W and Simple Cooking (SC in turkey and pork ham in a cross-sectional analytical experimental study. Furthermore, sensory acceptance of thesamples through an acceptance test of five points was evaluated. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Bonferroni were used to assess the mean difference between groups. The value of p≤0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results: Both processes reduced the amount of sodium in both types of ham in statistically significant way (p≤0.001. The major percentage of reduction was presented with SC: 73.4% for turkey ham and 63.5% for pork ham. Likewise, the higher percentage of nitrite reduction was 50.6% in pork ham with SC technique (p≤0.05. Peroxide index decreased with both techniques in both hams without statistical significance. Total coliforms count was kept constant in all samples. Higher sensory acceptance of W concerning SC in all sensory characteristics was observed.Conclusions: W and SC techniques reduce sodium, nitrite and peroxide index without affecting the sanitation of hams. Furthermore, W is accepted in all sensory categories. We recommend using W technique before consumption of the product.

  8. On the generalized Hamming weights of convolutional codes

    Rosenthal, J.; York, E.V.


    Motivated by applications in cryptology K. Wei introduced in 1991 the concept of a generalized Hamming weight for a linear block code. In this paper we define generalized Hamming weights for the class of convolutional codes and we derive several of their basic properties. By restricting to convoluti

  9. Contact hypersensitivity after tongue piercing

    Ananta Herachakri P


    Full Text Available Background: Recently tongue piercing has become increasingly popular in the society. Several case reports have presented various complications of tongue piercing. However, there is no scientific evidence about contact hypersensitivity to tongue piercing. Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the contact hypersensitivity after using tongue piercing. Methods: Nineteen male Rattus norvegicus were divided into three groups: group A treated with vaseline on the back and dorsum tongue (control group, group B (I treated with HgCl2 10% cream on the tongue dorsum, group B (II treated with tongue piercing for 10 days and group C with HgCl 2 10% cream on the back, ear lobe, and tongue, then re-exposure with same materials on ear, back and tongue for 24 and 48 hours. Before and after 24 and 48 hours applications, ear width was measured with sliding caliper. At the end of treatments, the rats were sacrificed. All tissue specimens were made for Hematoylin Eosine (H&E staining examination. The number of mononuclear cells was counted under light microscope Data was analyzed with One-Way ANOVA followed by LSD (p<0.05. Results: The result of this study showed that there were a significant difference of the thickness of ear lobe and the number of mononuclear cells (lymphocyte and monocyte among all groups. Conclusion: It is concluded that tongue piercing induce contact hypersensitivity.Latar belakang: Saat ini pemakaian tongue piercing sangat popular di masyarakat. Beberapa laporan kasus menunjukkan bahwa tongue piercing menimbulkan beberapa komplikasi. Namun, belum ada bukti ilmiah mengenai reaksi hipesensitivitas tongue piercing. Tujuan: Untuk mengetahui reaksi hipersensitivitas setelah menggunakan tongue piercing. Metode: Sembilan belas tikus jantan Rattus novergicus yang dibagi dalam tiga kemlompok yaitu: grup A diberi perlakuan dengan vaselin pada punggung dan dorsum lidah, grup B (I diberi perlakuan dengan krim HgCl2 10% pada dorsum lidah dan B

  10. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P


    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture.

  11. 9 CFR 319.106 - “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,” “Country Style Pork...


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false âCountry Ham,â âCountry Style Ham,â âDry Cured Ham,â âCountry Pork Shoulder,â âCountry Style Pork Shoulder,â and âDry Cured Pork Shoulder.â... Smoked § 319.106 “Country Ham,” “Country Style Ham,” “Dry Cured Ham,” “Country Pork Shoulder,”...


    Ilyas Masudin


    Full Text Available This article attempts to schedule flow shop production using Nawaz Enscore Ham (NEH to schedule jobs machining. The objective of this paper is to minimize total makespan which could reduce total production costs. This paper is based on the case study where NEH is applied in scheduling jobs in machines and then compared with the existing machine’s scheduling. The algorithm of NEH is also used to reduce idle time of machines so that the utility or performances of the machine are maintained. The results of NEH simulation indicate that by applying NEH algorithm to scheduling machines for 10 jobs and 5 machines can reduce 2.5 per cent or 118 minutes of completing time of jobs. It also decreases total idle time of machines about 582 minutes compared with the existing scheduling.


    Ilyas Masudin


    Full Text Available This article attempts to schedule flow shop production using Nawaz Enscore Ham (NEH to schedule jobs machining. The objective of this paper is to minimize total makespan which could reduce total production costs. This paper is based on the case study where NEH is applied in scheduling jobs in machines and then compared with the existing machine’s scheduling. The algorithm of NEH is also used to reduce idle time of machines so that the utility or performances of the machine are maintained.  The results of NEH simulation indicate that by applying NEH algorithm to scheduling machines for 10 jobs and 5 machines can reduce 2.5 per cent or 118 minutes of completing time of jobs. It also decreases total idle time of machines about 582 minutes compared with the existing scheduling.

  14. The competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs

    Park, Boram


    The competition graph of a digraph D is a graph which has the same vertex set as D and has an edge between x and y if and only if there exists a vertex v in D such that (x,v) and (y,v) are arcs of D. For any graph G, G together with sufficiently many isolated vertices is the competition graph of some acyclic digraph. The competition number k(G) of a graph G is defined to be the smallest number of such isolated vertices. In general, it is hard to compute the competition number k(G) for a graph G and it has been one of important research problems in the study of competition graphs to characterize a graph by its competition number. In this paper, we give the exact values of the competition numbers of ternary Hamming graphs.

  15. HAM/TSP and major depression: the role of age

    Ney Boa-Sorte


    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the role of demographic variables in the relationship between the presence of HAM/TSP and current major depression.Methods: It is a cross-sectional study of 108 HTLV-1 infected patients (47 with TSP/HAM resident of Salvador, Brazil. The Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Brazilian Version 5 was used to evaluate the presence of depression. Prevalence ratios were used to describe relationship between HAM/TSP and depression. The HAM/TSP classification was carried out according to the criteria proposed by Castro-Costa et al.Results: Prevalence of depression was 37.96%. No association was observed between presence of HAM/TSP and diagnosis of current major depression in the global analysis of patients (PR: 0.94; CI 95%: 0.57-1.55. In the stratified analysis, however, greater prevalence of depres- sion was observed amongst individuals with HAM/TSP in the 18-39 age group (PR: 2.59; CI 95%: 1.36-4.95.Conclusion: Our findings suggest that age is an effect modifier in the relationship between HAM/TSP and depression, and this aspect should be considered in future studies on the topic.

  16. 21 CFR 880.6230 - Tongue depressor.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tongue depressor. 880.6230 Section 880.6230 Food... § 880.6230 Tongue depressor. (a) Identification. A tongue depressor is a device intended to displace the tongue to facilitate examination of the surrounding organs and tissues. (b) Classification. Class...

  17. Lymphocyte alveolitis in HAM/TSP patients: preliminary report

    K. Mattos


    Full Text Available HTLV-I associated myelopathy has been described as a systemic disease characterized by manifestations in several organs outside the nervous system. We report inflammatory pulmonary involvement in patients with diagnosis of HAM.

  18. Identification and origin of odorous sulfur compounds in cooked ham

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frederic; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis


    The aim of this work was to identify and gain further knowledge on the origin of sulfur compounds present in the volatile fraction of cooked ham, and on their role in the aroma of this product. To this end, we performed analyses by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. Among the odorant sulfur compounds identified, three furans present in trace amounts proved to have very intense odours responsible for the "meaty, cooked ham" notes of th...


    Dr. Lilibeth A. Roxas


    Full Text Available The potential of Native Chicken to be processed into palatable ham was conducted making use of Queen Pineapple (QP crude extract as one of the curing ingredients. Primarily, the main goal is to develop a protocol in the manufacture of processed native chicken ham and determine the organoleptic quality of native chicken ham product. The age of the bird and maturity of the fruit were considered for the best organoleptic quality of chicken ham. In this study, the combine injection and dry cure (CIDC method of the conventional formula was adopted. The desired amount of QP crude extract was first determined for the pump pickle. Curing salt was used for the control while different volume of pineapple crude extract was used in two treatments. The protocols for processing native chicken were developed using slaughter native chicken, and QP crude extract as curing ingredient for ham making. Color, flavor, juiciness and tenderness were among the desirable characteristics considered in this study. The sensory evaluation by trained panelists on QP-cured ham samples demonstrated comparable results. All the cooked meat samples were apparently acceptable to the sensory panel. The mean scores for flavor, juiciness and tenderness of meat samples have slight differences; however, they are not statistically significant. Indeed, native chicken can be processed into palatable ham with queen pineapple (Formosa variety extract that served as curing ingredient, flavor enhancer and tenderizer. Native Chicken QP-Cured ham is a commendable value-added product for both native chicken and queen pineapple by-products (butterball size.

  20. Analysis of the pressure response of high angle multiple (HAM) fractures intersecting a welbore; Kokeisha multi fracture (HAM) kosei ni okeru atsuryoku oto kaiseki ni tsuite

    Ujo, S.; Osato, K. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Arihara, N. [Waseda University, Tokyo (Japan); Schroeder, R.


    This paper reports pressure response analysis on wells piercing a high angle multi (HAM) fracture model. In this model which is defined on a three-dimensional space, a plurality of slanted fractures intersect with wells at high angles (however, intersection of fractures with each other is not considered). With respect to the pressure response analysis method using this model, the paper presents a basic differential equation on pressure drawdown and boundary conditions in the wells taking flows in the fractures pseudo-linear, as well as external boundary conditions in calculation regions (a reservoir spreads to an infinite distance, and its top and bottom are closed by non-water permeating beds). The paper also indicates that results of calculating a single vertical fracture model and a slanted fracture model by using a numerical computation program (MULFRAC) based on the above equations agree well respectively with the existing calculation results (calculations performed by Erlougher and Cinco et al). 5 refs., 6 figs.

  1. Elaboration and acceptability of restructured hams added with jabuticaba skin

    Ana Paula de Carvalho ALVES

    Full Text Available Abstract Jabuticaba skin flour (JSF, rich in antioxidants and fibre, was used in order to develop four restructured hams in different combinations with meat: 0% control – without the addition of JSF, with the addition of 0.5% JSF, 1.0% JSF and 1.5% JSF, meeting, therefore, the growing demand for meat products with functional appeal. Physicochemical characterizations and sensory analysis were performed, evaluating the impact of information on possible health benefits and the effect on storage. Restructured hams with JSF had higher contents of phenolic compounds; greater weight loss; a darker shade; texture profile with smaller parameters of stiffness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, flexibility and chewiness (except the restructured ham with 0.5% JSF. Phenolic compounds, pH values, colour and TBARs did not differ with storage time, but were statistically different among JSF concentrations. Panellists preferred the restructured ham without JSF, however, the analysis of variance for overall aspect did not show a significant difference between the restructured ham “control” and those added with 0.5% and 1.0% JSF, after informing the panellists that they would possibly bring health benefits. It is concluded that it is possible to prepare and store restructured hams with JSF, at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0% with good acceptance.

  2. HAM-D17 and HAM-D6 sensitivity to change in relation to desvenlafaxine dose and baseline depression severity in major depressive disorder

    Bech, P; Boyer, P; Germain, J-M;


    -blind, placebo-controlled, 8-week trials of fixed-dose desvenlafaxine (50, 100, 200 or 400 mg/d) for major depressive disorder. HAM-D (17) and HAM-D (6) effect sizes were assessed. RESULTS: HAM-D (17) effect sizes were negative (favoured placebo) for higher desvenlafaxine doses (200-400 mg/d) at week 1, but were......INTRODUCTION: This retrospective analysis compared sensitivity to change on the 17-item and 6-item Hamilton Rating Scales For Depression (HAM-D (17) and HAM-D (6), respectively) in relation to antidepressant dose and baseline depression severity. METHODS: Data were derived from 6 randomized, double...

  3. Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath

    ... your desktop! more... Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce Bad Breath Article Chapters Tongue Scrapers Only Slightly Reduce ... oral cavity. Reviewed: January 2012 Related Articles: Halitosis (Bad Breath) Do You Have Traveler's Breath? Does a ...

  4. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Erbou, Søren G.; Thauland, T.


    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end...... of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams...... section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt tribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non...

  5. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis

    Vestergaard, Christian Sylvest; Erbou, Søren G.; Thauland, T.;


    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end...... of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams...... section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt tribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non...

  6. Effect of cooking bag and netting packaging on the quality of pork ham during water cooking.

    Cheng, Qiaofen; Sun, Da-Wen


    As a preliminary test for combining water cooking with vacuum cooling in soup of pork ham, three package treatments were designed to study the effect of cooking bag and netting on the quality of water cooked ham, i.e. ham cooked with a cooking bag and without a cooking bag (single netting and double netting). For treatments without a cooking bag, the results indicated that there was no significant superiority of ham cooked with double netting compared with ham cooked with single netting on the processing efficiency and quality characteristics. Although the hams cooked with a bag performed better in some chemical retentions and pigment, the water contents were significantly lower than those hams cooked in single netting (P0.05). By considering the safety, convenience, cost, and the recovery effect on the quality changes of ham during vacuum cooling in soup, cooking with single netting is a better choice for future research.

  7. Rotated Walsh-Hadamard Spreading with Robust Channel Estimation for a Coded MC-CDMA System

    Raulefs Ronald


    Full Text Available We investigate rotated Walsh-Hadamard spreading matrices for a broadband MC-CDMA system with robust channel estimation in the synchronous downlink. The similarities between rotated spreading and signal space diversity are outlined. In a multiuser MC-CDMA system, possible performance improvements are based on the chosen detector, the channel code, and its Hamming distance. By applying rotated spreading in comparison to a standard Walsh-Hadamard spreading code, a higher throughput can be achieved. As combining the channel code and the spreading code forms a concatenated code, the overall minimum Hamming distance of the concatenated code increases. This asymptotically results in an improvement of the bit error rate for high signal-to-noise ratio. Higher convolutional channel code rates are mostly generated by puncturing good low-rate channel codes. The overall Hamming distance decreases significantly for the punctured channel codes. Higher channel code rates are favorable for MC-CDMA, as MC-CDMA utilizes diversity more efficiently compared to pure OFDMA. The application of rotated spreading in an MC-CDMA system allows exploiting diversity even further. We demonstrate that the rotated spreading gain is still present for a robust pilot-aided channel estimator. In a well-designed system, rotated spreading extends the performance by using a maximum likelihood detector with robust channel estimation at the receiver by about 1 dB.

  8. Tongue Image Feature Extraction in TCM

    LI Dong; DU Lian-xiang; LU Fu-ping; DU Jun-ping


    In this paper, digital image processing and computer vision techniques are applied to study tongue images for feature extraction with VC++ and Matlab. Extraction and analysis of the tongue surface features are based on shape, color, edge, and texture. The developed software has various functions and good user interface and is easy to use. Feature data for tongue image pattern recognition is provided, which form a sound basis for the future tongue image recognition.

  9. The Communication Complexity of the Hamming Distance Problem

    Huang, Wei; Shi, Yaoyun; Zhang, Shengyu; Zhu, Yufan


    We investigate the randomized and quantum communication complexity of the Hamming Distance problem, which is to determine if the Hamming distance between two n-bit strings is no less than a threshold d. We prove a quantum lower bound of \\Omega(d) qubits in the general interactive model with shared prior entanglement. We also construct a classical protocol of O(d \\log d) bits in the restricted Simultaneous Message Passing model, improving previous protocols of O(d^2) bits (A. C.-C. Yao, Procee...

  10. PM1 steganographic algorithm using ternary Hamming Code

    Kamil Kaczyński


    Full Text Available PM1 algorithm is a modification of well-known LSB steganographic algorithm. It has increased resistance to selected steganalytic attacks and increased embedding efficiency. Due to its uniqueness, PM1 algorithm allows us to use of larger alphabet of symbols, making it possible to further increase steganographic capacity. In this paper, we present the modified PM1 algorithm which utilizies so-called syndrome coding and ternary Hamming code. The modified algorithm has increased embedding efficiency, which means fewer changes introduced to carrier and increased capacity.[b]Keywords[/b]: steganography, linear codes, PM1, LSB, ternary Hamming code

  11. Muscle characteristics only partially explain color variations in fresh hams.

    Stufft, K; Elgin, J; Patterson, B; Matarneh, S K; Preisser, R; Shi, H; England, E M; Scheffler, T L; Mills, E W; Gerrard, D E


    Fresh hams display significant lean color variation that persists through further processing and contributes to a less desirable cured product. In an attempt to understand the underlying cause of this color disparity, we evaluated the differences in muscle characteristics and energy metabolites across semimembranosus (SM) muscles differing in color variation. The L* (lightness) and a* (redness) values were highest and lowest (Pmuscle while the ultimate pH was the lowest (Pmuscle may contribute to ham color variation but suggest other factors may mitigate or exacerbate these variances. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Processing-Dependent and Clonal Contamination Patterns of Listeria monocytogenes in the Cured Ham Food Chain Revealed by Genetic Analysis.

    Morganti, Marina; Scaltriti, Erika; Cozzolino, Paolo; Bolzoni, Luca; Casadei, Gabriele; Pierantoni, Marco; Foni, Emanuela; Pongolini, Stefano


    The quantitative and qualitative patterns of environmental contamination by Listeria monocytogenes were investigated in the production chain of dry-cured Parma ham. Standard arrays of surfaces were sampled in processing facilities during a single visit per plant in the three compartments of the food chain, i.e., ham production (19 plants) and postproduction, which was divided into deboning (43 plants) and slicing (25 plants) steps. The numbers of sampled surfaces were 384 in ham production, with 25 positive for L. monocytogenes, and 1,084 in postproduction, with 83 positives. Statistical analysis of the prevalence of contaminated surfaces showed that in ham production, contamination was higher at the beginning of processing and declined significantly toward the end, while in postproduction, prevalence rose toward the end of processing. Prevalence was higher in the deboning facilities than in slicing facilities and was dependent on the type of surface (floor/drainage > clothing > equipment). The qualitative pattern of contamination was investigated through an analysis of the survey isolates and a set of isolates derived from routine monitoring, including longitudinal isolations. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and whole-genome single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis revealed a remarkable clonality of L. monocytogenes within plants, with the detection of 16 plant-specific clones out of 17 establishments with multiple isolates. Repeated detections of clonal isolates >6 months apart were also observed. Six was the maximum number of between-isolate differences in core SNPs observed within these clones. Based on the same six-SNP threshold, three clusters of clonal isolates, shared by six establishments, were also identified. The spread of L. monocytogenes within and between plants, as indicated by its clonal behavior, is a matter of concern for the hygienic management of establishments.

  13. Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor of tongue

    Shan-Yin Tsai


    Full Text Available Ectomesenchymal chondromyxoid tumor (ECMT is a rare entity of the dorsal tongue first described in 1995. Herein, we report a rare case of lingual ECMT in a 41-year-old man. Patient presented with an asymptomatic, small nodule (0.5 cm in diameter in the anterior tongue. The pathological findings showed uni-lobular proliferation of fusiform cells, arranged in net-like sheets or swirls, in a chondromyxoid background. The tumor cells were immunoreactive for S-100 and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, but negative for epithelial markers. Familiarity with this entity helps pathologists make a correct diagnosis.

  14. Sensory and rapid instrumental methods as a combined tool for quality control of cooked ham

    Barbieri, Sara; Soglia, Francesca; Palagano, Rosa; Tesini, Federica; Bendini, Alessandra; Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio; Gallina Toschi, Tullia


    In this preliminary investigation, different commercial categories of Italian cooked pork hams have been characterized using an integrated approach based on both sensory and fast instrumental measurements. For these purposes, Italian products belonging to different categories (cooked ham, ?selected? cooked ham and ?high quality? cooked ham) were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis and by the application of rapid tools such as image analysis by an ?electronic eye? and texture analyzer. T...


    Titon Slamet Kurnia


    Tulisan ini membahas isu proses internalisasi standar HAM internasional dalam forum domestik melalui mekanisme pengujian konstitusionalitas undang-undang oleh MKRI. Tulisan ini berargumen bahwa MKRI seyogianya mempertimbangkan standar HAM internasional dalam menguji konstitusionalitas undangundang berdasarkan Bab XA UUD NRI 1945. Argumen itu didasarkan pada preskripsi bahwa standar HAM internasional berlaku/mengikat kepada negara dan mensyaratkannya untuk menyesuaikan undangundang beserta tindakan pejabatnya dengan kaidah HAM internasional tersebut

  16. Tongue as the Window to the Heart

    Tsung O.Cheng


    @@ To the Editor: I read with great interest your masterful article on study of the tongue in patients with coronary heart disease. Tongue is, indeed, the window to the heart. Many cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease can be accurately diagnosed by the Chinese traditional physicians by careful inspection of the tongue (Figure 1).

  17. Interface Electronic Circuitry for an Electronic Tongue

    Keymeulen, Didier; Buehler, Martin


    Electronic circuitry has been developed to serve as an interface between an electronic tongue and digital input/output boards in a laptop computer that is used to control the tongue and process its readings. Electronic tongues can be used for a variety of purposes, including evaluating water quality, analyzing biochemicals, analyzing biofilms, and measuring electrical conductivities of soils.

  18. Using 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in the pre-operative evaluation of tongue carcinoma.

    Moreno, K F; Cornelius, R S; Lucas, F V; Meinzen-Derr, J; Patil, Y J


    This study aimed to evaluate the role of 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging in predicting tongue tumour thickness via direct and reconstructed measures, and their correlations with corresponding histological measures, nodal metastasis and extracapsular spread. A prospective study was conducted of 25 patients with histologically proven squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and pre-operative 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging from 2009 to 2012. Correlations between 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging and histological measures of tongue tumour thickness were assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient: r values were 0.84 (p Tesla magnetic resonance imaging had 83 per cent sensitivity, 82 per cent specificity, 82 per cent accuracy and a 90 per cent negative predictive value for detecting cervical lymph node metastasis. In this cohort, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging measures of tumour thickness correlated highly with the corresponding histological measures. Further, 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging was an effective method of detecting malignant adenopathy with extracapsular spread.

  19. Tongues of Men and Angels

    McGraw, John J.


    The accelerating popularity of Charismatic Christianity has brought with it a host of new sensibilities and ritual practices. Glossolalia, or ‘speaking in tongues,’ stands out among these as a particularly dramatic innovation. Typically staid churchgoers, once touched by the Holy Spirit, begin...

  20. Editorial: Mother Tongue and Education

    S. P. Singh


    Full Text Available Linguists, language experts and child-psychologists believe that children can learn better in their mother tongue but that doesn’t go against multilingual education. It has also been observed that children studying through multilingual system develop better thinking and skills than monolingual education systems. Parents and peer all can help the child understand the issues if it

  1. Solitary angiokeratoma of the tongue.

    Sion-Vardy, Netta; Manor, Esther; Puterman, Max; Bodner, Lipa


    Angiokeratoma is a rare cutaneous lesion. It can be either a generalized systemic form, presenting as multiple asymptomatic papules on the skin, associated with metabolic diseases or a solitary cutaneous form. Oral cavity involvement is more common in the systemic form, as a part of a more generalized cutaneous disease, but very rare in the localized form of angiokeratoma. A 45-year-old female presented with a painless lesion on the tongue of one months duration, which bled occasionally. On clinical examination, a lesion of approximately 5 mm in diameter was observed on the left surface of the tongue. The lesion was purple in color with a granulomatous appearance. There were no other changes in the oral mucosa. On dermatologic examination, no angiokeratomas were found, anywhere on the skin. The lesion was excised under local anesthesia. The histologic diagnosis was angiokeratoma. A case of a solitary angiokeratoma of the tongue is reported. We report here the third intra-oral case and the second case in the tongue with solitary angiokeratoma.

  2. Mittal bonded tongue thrusting appliance

    Rekha Mittal


    Full Text Available These days majority of orthodontist includes bonded molar attachment in their inventory to eliminate the discomfort of molar separation during initial appointment and band spaces left at the end of treatment. This article describes a innovative and economical method of attachment of bonded tongue crib if required during the initial or later stages of treatment along with bonded molar tubes.

  3. Tongues of Men and Angels

    McGraw, John J.


    The accelerating popularity of Charismatic Christianity has brought with it a host of new sensibilities and ritual practices. Glossolalia, or ‘speaking in tongues,’ stands out among these as a particularly dramatic innovation. Typically staid churchgoers, once touched by the Holy Spirit, begin...


    V. Raveenthiran


    Full Text Available Arguably, release of tongue tie is the oldest surgical procedure and it is perhaps older than circumcision. According to the Old Testament, the Lord released the tied tongue of Moses and made him speak well. Tongue-tie is pedantically known as ankyloglossia inferior minor. Simplicity of its treatment has earned this malady several etiological attributions such as difficulty of speech and breast feeding. All over the world, lactation consultants refer neonates for release of tongue tie as they believe it to be the cause of maternal nipple pain.Perhaps this is the only indication of tongue tie release in neonates.

  5. Ham particle size influences saltiness perception in flans.

    Emorine, M; Septier, C; Thomas-Danguin, T; Salles, C


    One major issue of the food industry is reducing sodium content while maintaining food acceptability and liking. Despite extensive research in this field, little has been published on real complex food products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the size of particles, a parameter easily adjusted in food processing, could influence the salty taste of low-salt food product. We thus evaluated the effect of ham particle sizes (4 levels, including a zero level) on salt perception and the consumer liking of flans varying in their overall salt concentrations (low- and high-salt content). Two consumer panels, composed of 107 and 77 subjects, rated, respectively, the saltiness of and liking for the developed flans (8 samples). The outcomes of this study indicated first, that the addition of ham to flans increased the salty taste perception and second, that a decrease in ham particle size (ground ham) increased the perceived saltiness. Moreover, low- and high-salt flans were equally liked, demonstrating that food manufacturers could reduce the salt contents (here, by over 15%) while maintaining consumer acceptability through the manipulation of the size of the salt-providing particles.

  6. On the Feng-Rao bound for generalized hamming weights

    Geil, Hans Olav; Thommesen, Christian


    The Feng-Rao bound gives good estimates of the minimum distance of a large class of codes. In this work we are concerned with the problem of how to extend the Feng-Rao bound so that it deals with all the generalized Hamming weights. The problem was solved by Heijnen and Pellikaan in [7] for a lar...

  7. Tongue controlled computer game: A new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim


    Objective: To investigate the influence of tongue-disability, age and gender on motor performance for a tongue training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Design: Two controlled observational studies. Setting: A neurorehabilitation center and a dental...... of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue between groups in any of the studies (P>0.094). Conclusions: The present study provided evidence that tongue-disability and age can influence behavioral measures of tongue motor performance. TDS may be a new adjunctive neurorehabilitation regime in treating tongue...... school. Participants: In Study 1, eleven tongue-disabled patients with symptoms of dysphagia and dysarthria and 11 age-and sex-matched controls participated in tongue training. In Study 2, 16 healthy elderly and 16 healthy young participants volunteered. Intervention: In study 1 and study 2, the tongue...

  8. Phosphine fumigation and residues in dry-cured ham in commercial applications.

    Zhao, Y; Abbar, S; Phillips, T W; Schilling, M W


    Dry-cured hams often become infested with ham mites (Tyrophagus putrescentiae) during the aging process. Methyl bromide has been used to fumigate dry cured ham plants and is the only available fumigant that is effective at controlling ham mite infestations. However, methyl bromide will eventually be phased out of all industries. This research was designed to determine the efficacy of phosphine fumigation at controlling ham mites and red-legged beetles and any impact of phosphine fumigation on the sensory quality and safety of dry cured hams. Fumigation trials were conducted in simulated ham aging houses and commercial ham aging houses. Mite postembryonic mortality was 99.8% in the simulated aging houses and >99.9% in commercial aging houses three weeks post fumigation. Sensory tests with trained panelists indicated that there were no detectable differences (P > 0.05) between phosphine fumigated and control hams. In addition, residual phosphine concentration was below the legal limit of 0.01 ppm in ham slices that were taken from phosphine fumigated hams.

  9. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Lida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit


    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two....... EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5kPa, 10kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during...

  10. Linezolid induced black hairy tongue

    Govindan Balaji


    Full Text Available Black hairy tongue (BHT also called as lingua villosa nigra, is a self limiting benign condition characterized by hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae of tongue with brown or black discoloration. Smoking, poor oral hygiene, xerostomia, using peroxide containing mouth washes, substance abuse and drugs (steroids, methyldopa, olanzapine, etc are the predisposing factors. However its occurrence in relation to linezolid ingestion among south Indians has not been reported in PubMed database. Here we report a case, where significant association of linezolid intake with BHT was found in a 10-year-old boy, who was treated with tablet linezolid for post surgical infection of left side radial neck fracture. This case is reported for the rarity of occurrence with linezolid therapy. According to Naranjo adverse drug reaction (ADR causality scale, the association of BHT due to linezolid in our case was probable.

  11. Ossifying chondrolipoma of the tongue

    Tasić Desanka


    Full Text Available Introduction. Chondrolipomas and osteolipomas are uncommon variants of lipomatous tumors. Case report. We presented a 60-year-old woman with ossifying chondrolipoma of the tongue. Clinical examination revealed a firm nodular mass, located in the midline of the posterior region on the dorsal surface of the tongue. Histologically, the lesion was well-delimited showing areas of mature adipocytes arranged in lobules and separated by fibrous connective tissue septa, islands of mature cartilaginous tissue and osseous metaplasia. Trabeculae of lamellar bone within a fibro-fatty background were visible throughout the tumor. The cartilaginous areas merging centrally with bone formation and fatty marrow tissue were present, as well as the hematopoietic elements in the fatty marrow. The bone forming was found to be through both membranous and enchondral mechanisms. Conclusion. Ossifying chrondrolipoma with hematopoietic elements is extremely unusual lesion. This interesting entity should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of lingual lesions.

  12. Peroneal Flap for Tongue Reconstruction.

    Lin, Ying-Sheng; Liu, Wen-Chung; Lin, Yaoh-Shiang; Chen, Lee-Wei; Yang, Kuo-Chung


    Background For large tongue defects, reconstructive surgeons have devised a variety of feasible options, such as radial forearm free flap and anterolateral thigh (ALT) flap. In our institution, peroneal flap has been the workhorse flap for the soft tissue defect in head and neck reconstruction. We present our experience using peroneal flap in tongue reconstruction. Patients and Methods The study included 47 patients who had undergone tongue reconstructions with peroneal flaps after tumor resection. The size and location of the defect after tumor resection determined whether the peroneal flaps could be harvested as pure septocutaneous flaps to solely reconstruct the neotongue or to carry an additional muscle bulk to fill the adjacent defect. Retrospective chart review was used to look for postoperative complications and to perform functional assessments (which were also performed through telephone inquiry). Results Of the 47 patients, 3 (6%) had flap failure and 1 (2.1%) had partial flap necrosis. The hemiglossectomy group had better results than the total glossectomy group with respect to speech and diet, but neither of these results reached statistical significance (p = 1.0 for speech and p = 0.06 for diet). The results of the subtotal glossectomy group were better than those of the total glossectomy group with respect to diet (p = 0.03). No statistically significant differences were noted among the three groups with respect to cosmetic aspect (p = 0.64). Conclusions Considering its reasonable postoperative complication rates and functional results, peroneal flap can be considered a feasible option for tongue reconstruction. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  13. 9 CFR 319.103 - Cured beef tongue.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cured beef tongue. 319.103 Section 319... Cured beef tongue. In preparing “Cured Beef Tongue,” the application of curing solution to the fresh beef tongue shall not result in an increase in the weight of the cured beef tongue of more than...

  14. Tongue Color Analysis for Medical Application

    Bob Zhang


    Full Text Available An in-depth systematic tongue color analysis system for medical applications is proposed. Using the tongue color gamut, tongue foreground pixels are first extracted and assigned to one of 12 colors representing this gamut. The ratio of each color for the entire image is calculated and forms a tongue color feature vector. Experimenting on a large dataset consisting of 143 Healthy and 902 Disease (13 groups of more than 10 samples and one miscellaneous group, a given tongue sample can be classified into one of these two classes with an average accuracy of 91.99%. Further testing showed that Disease samples can be split into three clusters, and within each cluster most if not all the illnesses are distinguished from one another. In total 11 illnesses have a classification rate greater than 70%. This demonstrates a relationship between the state of the human body and its tongue color.

  15. Somatosensory processing of the tongue in humans

    Kiwako Sakamoto


    Full Text Available We review research on somatosensory (tactile processing of the tongue based on data obtained using non-invasive neurophysiological and neuroimaging methods. Technical difficulties in stimulating the tongue, due to the noise elicited by the stimulator, the fixation of the stimulator, and the vomiting reflex, have necessitated the development of specialized devices. In this article, we show the brain activity relating to somatosensory processing of the tongue evoked by such devices. More recently, the postero-lateral part of the tongue has been stimulated, and the brain response compared with that on stimulation of the antero-lateral part of the tongue. It is likely that a difference existed in somatosensory processing of the tongue, particularly around primary somatosensory cortex (SI, Brodmann area 40 (BA 40, and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC.

  16. Cavity approach to sphere packing in Hamming space.

    Ramezanpour, A; Zecchina, R


    In this paper we study the hard sphere packing problem in the Hamming space by the cavity method. We show that both the replica symmetric and the replica symmetry breaking approximations give maximum rates of packing that are asymptotically the same as the lower bound of Gilbert and Varshamov. Consistently with known numerical results, the replica symmetric equations also suggest a crystalline solution, where for even diameters the spheres are more likely to be found in one of the subspaces (even or odd) of the Hamming space. These crystalline packings can be generated by a recursive algorithm which finds maximum packings in an ultrametric space. Finally, we design a message passing algorithm based on the cavity equations to find dense packings of hard spheres. Known maximum packings are reproduced efficiently in nontrivial ranges of dimensions and number of spheres. © 2012 American Physical Society

  17. Childhood-onset HAM/TSP with progressive cognitive impairment.

    Zorzi, Giovanna; Mancuso, Roberta; Nardocci, Nardo; Farina, Laura; Guerini, Franca Rosa; Ferrante, Pasquale


    HTLV-I associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is a chronic myelopathy, usually with adult-onset. Very few cases of childhood-onset have been described, most presenting with progressive paraparesis and sphincteric disturbances as in the adult form. Here we report a young male with childhood-onset of HAM/TSP and progressive cognitive and behavioral disturbances. A serological screening revealed HTLV-I infection, confirmed by Western Immunoblotting analysis. Molecular characterization of amplified HTLV-I proviral DNA has been performed both in the patient and his mother by LTR sequence analysis, and HLA genotype inheritance was evaluated. Our case indicates the possibility that cognitive dysfunctions may be one manifestation of HTLV-I infection in childhood.

  18. Concept Association and Hierarchical Hamming Clustering Model in Text Classification

    Su Gui-yang; Li Jian-hua; Ma Ying-hua; Li Sheng-hong; Yin Zhong-hang


    We propose two models in this paper. The concept of association model is put forward to obtain the co-occurrence relationships among keywords in the documents and the hierarchical Hamming clustering model is used to reduce the dimensionality of the category feature vector space which can solve the problem of the extremely high dimensionality of the documents' feature space. The results of experiment indicate that it can obtain the co-occurrence relations among keywords in the documents which promote the recall of classification system effectively. The hierarchical Hamming clustering model can reduce the dimensionality of the category feature vector efficiently, the size of the vector space is only about 10% of the primary dimensionality.

  19. Salt distribution in dry-cured ham measured by computed tomography and image analysis.

    Vestergaard, Christian; Erbou, Søren G; Thauland, Torunn; Adler-Nissen, Jens; Berg, Per


    Forty-seven hams were scanned four times by computed tomography (CT) while being manufactured into dry-cured hams. An image-processing algorithm measured CT values in the lean part of the hams and provided line profiles reflecting the magnitude and spatial location of salt gradients. At the end of manufacturing, seven entire hams were dissected and the salt content of the lean part determined. Likewise, in the remaining 40 hams, the lean meat of the slices corresponding to the CT images was dissected, analyzed chemically for NaCl and compared to the CT value. The salt content of entire dry-cured hams correlated well (r(2)=0.94) to the CT value of a 10 mm section located at the center of femur bone, perpendicular to the length axis of the hams. In the same position, significant correlations between the CT values before (r(2)=0.71) and after (r(2)=0.80) the ageing period and actual chemical analysis of the same section were demonstrated. Line profiles illustrating the combined salt distribution and dehydration within a ham related to the physical characteristics of the ham as well as to the manufacturing process. These findings reveal that the effects of altered manufacturing practices can be followed non-invasively, while hams are still in production. Computed tomography combined with appropriate image analysis offers advantages as a non-invasive tool in both research and product development.

  20. Prediction of lean and fat composition in swine carcasses from ham area measurements with image analysis.

    Jia, Jiancheng; Schinckel, Allan P; Forrest, John C; Chen, Way; Wagner, Jeffrey R


    Video images of ham cross-sections were recorded from 71 pork carcasses (ranging in weight from 72 to 119kg). Three sets of prediction equations were developed to estimate pork carcass lean and fat composition from video image analysis (VIA) of ham cross-sectional area measurements, 10th rib back fat depth (TENFAT) and hot carcass weight (HCKg). Carcass data of dissected lean and fat in the four primal cuts (ham, loin, Boston button and picnic shoulder) were used as dependent variables in establishing regression equations. The first set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and total ham weight (HTKg). Regression models containing the single variable HTKg times ham percentage lean area (Vol. 1) or HTKg times ham percentage fat area (Vol. 2) accounted for 88% and 68% of the variation in total carcass lean weight (CLKg) and total carcass fat weight (CFKg) from the right side of each carcass, respectively. The second set of equations combined VIA ham measurements and TENFAT (cm). Multiple regression models involving TENFAT, Vol. 1, and Vol. 2 accounted for 91% and 90% of the variation in CLKg and CFKg. The third set of equations used VIA ham measurements, TENFAT and HCKg. Carcass lean weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and ham lean area (HLA) (R(2)=.92). Carcass fat weight was best predicted by HCKg, TENFAT, and Vol. 2 (R(2)=.91). Overall correlations showed a high association between Vol. 1 and CLKg (r=.94, PVol. 2 and CFKg (r=.83, P<.0001). Ham lean area was related to CLKg (r=.74, P<.0001) and ham fat area to CFKg (r=.81, P<.0001). The results of this study indicated video image analysis of ham cross-section slices combined with backfat depth at the 10th rib can be used for accurate estimation of total carcass lean or fat composition.

  1. Giant Plexiform Schwannoma of the Tongue

    Lluís Nisa


    Full Text Available We present the case of a 38-year-old woman that presented with a very slowly enlarging mass of the tongue. MRI revealed a large mass originating in the tongue base and extending to the supraglottic space. Biopsy of this tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. An endaural approach allowed complete resection of the tumor. Definitive histopathological examination showed a plexiform schwannoma. Schwannoma or neurilemoma represents a benign tumor potentially affecting any nerve. The head and neck region is a relatively common location for schwannomas, but tongue schwannomas are considered to be rare and pose the problem of both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of tongue masses.

  2. Base of tongue schwannoma: a case report.

    Ying, Yu-Lan Mary; Zimmer, Lee A; Myers, Eugene N


    Both malignant and benign lesions may be found on the base of the tongue, including metastasis from other sites. Various surgical approaches to the base of tongue have been described. Here, we report a case of a 26-year-old woman with a schwannoma in the base of tongue removed through a suprahyoid pharyngotomy approach. The biology and pathology of schwannoma in the oral cavity are discussed. The advantage of the suprahyoid pharyngotomy approach for complete excision of a mass in the base of tongue is demonstrated.

  3. Giant plexiform schwannoma of the tongue.

    Nisa, Lluís; von Büren, Toni; Tiab, Amine; Giger, Roland


    We present the case of a 38-year-old woman that presented with a very slowly enlarging mass of the tongue. MRI revealed a large mass originating in the tongue base and extending to the supraglottic space. Biopsy of this tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. An endaural approach allowed complete resection of the tumor. Definitive histopathological examination showed a plexiform schwannoma. Schwannoma or neurilemoma represents a benign tumor potentially affecting any nerve. The head and neck region is a relatively common location for schwannomas, but tongue schwannomas are considered to be rare and pose the problem of both clinical and histological differential diagnosis of tongue masses.

  4. Effectiveness of mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating: a systematic review

    M.I. van der Sleen; D.E. Slot; E. van Trijffel; E.G. Winkel; G.A. van der Weijden


    Background:  The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence regarding the effects of mechanical tongue cleaning compared with no mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating (TC). Methods:  PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane-CENTRAL were searched to identify p

  5. Effectiveness of mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating : a systematic review

    Van der Sleen, M. I.; Slot, D. E.; Van Trijffel, E.; Winkel, E. G.; Van der Weijden, G. A.


    Background: The objective of this review was to summarize the available evidence regarding the effects of mechanical tongue cleaning compared with no mechanical tongue cleaning on breath odour and tongue coating (TC). Methods: PubMed-MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane-CENTRAL were searched to identify pot

  6. Tongue Strength: Its Relationship to Tongue Thrusting, Open-Bite, and Articulatory Proficiency.

    Dworkin, James P.; Culatta, Richard A.


    No significant differences in tongue strength were found between any of the three groups of 7- to 16-year old children: normal speaking with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, frontal lisping with anterior tongue thrusting during swallow and open bite malocclusion, and normal controls. (Author/DLS)

  7. Timing and hamming weight attacks on minimal cost encryption scheme

    YUAN Zheng; WANG Wei; ZHANG Hua; WEN Qiao-yan


    The timing and Hamming weight attacks on the data encryption standard (DES) cryptosystem for minimal cost encryption scheme is presented in this article. In the attack, timing information on encryption processing is used to select and collect effective plaintexts for attack. Then the collected plaintexts are utilized to infer the expanded key differences of the secret key, from which most bits of the expanded secret key are recovered. The remaining bits of the expanded secret key are deduced by the correlations between Hamming weight values of the input of the S-boxes in the first-round. Finally, from the linear relation of the encryption time and the secret key's Hamming weight, the entire 56 bits of the secret key are thoroughly recovered. Using the attack, the minimal cost encryption scheme can be broken with 223 known plaintexts and about 221 calculations at a success rate a>99%. The attack has lower computing complexity, and the method is more effective than other previous methods.

  8. Identification and origin of odorous sulfur compounds in cooked ham.

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis


    The aim of this work was to identify and gain further knowledge on the origin of sulfur compounds present in the volatile fraction of cooked ham, and on their role in the aroma of this product. To this end, we performed analyses by one- and two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry, and olfactometry. Among the odorant sulfur compounds identified, three furans present in trace amounts proved to have very intense odours responsible for the "meaty, cooked ham" notes of this pork product. They were 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-(methyldithio)furan and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl) disulphide. Addition of thiamine or cysteine also enabled us to study the effect of these odour precursors on the formation of odorant furans during the cooking of ham. The results revealed a direct link between the thermal degradation of thiamine and the formation of these compounds. By contrast, addition of cysteine in the presence of fructose or xylose did not appreciably increase their production.

  9. Frog tongue acts as muscle-powered adhesive tape

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N


    Frogs are well known to capture fast-moving prey by flicking their sticky tongues out of the mouth. This tongue projection behaviour happens extremely fast which makes frog tongues a biological high-speed adhesive system. The processes at the interface between tongue and prey, and thus the mechanism of adhesion, however, are completely unknown. Here, we captured the contact mechanics of frog tongues by filming tongue adhesion at 2000 frames per second through an illuminated glass. We found th...

  10. Load, and Modifies the Immune Response in a Patient with HAM/TSP

    Davi Tanajura Costa


    Full Text Available The human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 is the known causative agent of a chronic neurologic condition known as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. Although several therapies have been evaluated for HAM/TSP, none have been approved for use in humans. In this paper, we describe a 55-year-old female patient with HAM/TSP who was treated with interferon beta-1a. This patient, in comparison to 20 female patients with HAM/TSP who were not treated, showed improvement in urinary symptoms over four years of therapy, as well as a reduction in HTLV-1 proviral load and serum cytokine levels typically observed in HAM/TSP. This improved outcome merits further controlled studies on the use and efficacy of interferon beta-1a as a therapy for HAM/TSP.

  11. Tongue's substance and coating recognition analysis using HSV color threshold in tongue diagnosis

    Kamarudin, Nur Diyana; Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Mi, Xiaoyu


    In ISO TC249 conference, tongue diagnosis has been one of the most active research and their objectifications has become significant with the help of numerous statistical and machine learning algorithm. Color information of substance or tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. In order to produce high reproducibility of color measurement analysis, tongue images have to undergo several procedures such as color correction, segmentation and tongue's substance-coating separation. This paper presents a novel method to recognize substance and coating from tongue images and eliminate the tongue coating for accurate substance color measurement for diagnosis. By utilizing Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV) color space, new color-brightness threshold parameters have been devised to improve the efficiency of tongue's substance and coating separation procedures and eliminate shadows. The algorithm offers fast processing time around 0.98 seconds for 60,000 pixels tongue image. The successful tongue's substance and coating separation rate reported is 90% compared to the labelled data verified by the practitioners. Using 300 tongue images, the substance Lab color measurement with small standard deviation had revealed the effectiveness of this proposed method in computerized tongue diagnosis system.

  12. Tongue force in patients with myasthenia gravis

    Weijnen, FG; Kuks, JBM; van der Glas, HW; Wassenberg, MWM; Bosman, F


    Objectives - The aim was to study tongue force in patients with bulbar myasthenia gravis and compare it with that of patients with ocular myasthenia gravis, patients in clinical remission who previously suffered from bulbar myasthenia gravis, and healthy subjects. Material and methods - Tongue force

  13. Looking Mother Tongue Instruction through Different Perspectives

    Regmi, Kapil Dev


    Mother Tongue Instruction has been a debatable issue since long. There may be two options in the medium of instruction: either to teach especially primary and preprimary schoolchildren in their own mother tongue or continue using second or foreign language as the medium of instruction. Both of the approaches bear some pros and cons. This article…

  14. A Brief Analysis on Slips of Tongue



    The phenomenon of slips of tongue is very common in our daily life.And it is closely related to some psychological reasons.This paper aims to introduce the research about this phenomenon, to present the types of slips of tongue and some analysis on it.

  15. Tongue as the Window to the Heart

    Tsung O. Cheng


    To the Editor: I read with great interest your masterful article on study of the tongue in patients with coronary heart disease.Tongue is,indeed,the window to the heart.Many cardiovascular diseases including coronary heart disease can be accurately diagnosed by the Chinese traditional physicians by careful inspection of the tongue(Figure 1).

  16. Mu rhythm desynchronization by tongue thrust observation.

    Sakihara, Kotoe; Inagaki, Masumi


    We aimed to investigate the mu rhythm in the sensorimotor area during tongue thrust observation and to obtain an answer to the question as to how subtle non-verbal orofacial movement observation activates the sensorimotor area. Ten healthy volunteers performed finger tap execution, tongue thrust execution, and tongue thrust observation. The electroencephalogram (EEG) was recorded from 128 electrodes placed on the scalp, and regions of interest were set at sensorimotor areas. The event-related desynchronization (ERD) and event-related synchronization (ERS) for the mu rhythm (8-13 Hz) and beta (13-25 Hz) bands were measured. Tongue thrust observation induced mu rhythm ERD, and the ERD was detected at the left hemisphere regardless whether the observed tongue thrust was toward the left or right. Mu rhythm ERD was also recorded during tongue thrust execution. However, temporal analysis revealed that the ERD associated with tongue thrust observation preceded that associated with execution by approximately 2 s. Tongue thrust observation induces mu rhythm ERD in sensorimotor cortex with left hemispheric dominance.

  17. Proteolysis and Flavor Characteristics of Serrano Ham Processed under Different Ripening Temperature Conditions.

    del Olmo, Ana; Calzada, Javier; Gaya, Pilar; Nuñez, Manuel


    Physicochemical, proteolysis and sensory characteristics of Serrano hams processed under low, medium and high ripening temperature conditions (RTC), with respective average temperatures of 9.3, 14.3, and 19.1 °C, were determined throughout a 15-mo period. In addition, quantitative relationships among variables were calculated. Medium and high RTC hams showed lower moisture contents and lower levels of low- and high-ionic-strength soluble proteins than low RTC hams. At 15 mo, aldolase was the most abundant low-ionic-strength soluble protein and actin the most abundant high-ionic-strength soluble protein in all hams while creatine kinase was no longer detected and H-meromyosin was detected only in low and medium RTC hams. Levels of all the molecular-weight peptide fractions increased during ripening, with higher factors of increase for the fractions of lower molecular weight. Total free amino acids were at significantly higher concentrations in medium and high RTC hams than in low RTC hams from month 7 onwards. The correlations of flavor preference and flavor intensity with ripening time, thermal integral, total free amino acids and most individual free amino acids were highly significant, while raw-meat taste was negatively correlated with all those variables. From month 5 to month 9 of ripening, development of a high quality flavor evolved more rapidly in medium RTC hams, flavor intensity increased at a faster rate in high RTC hams and raw-meat taste declined more rapidly in medium and high RTC hams. Medium and high RTC may be applied to accelerate the ripening process of Serrano ham without impairing flavor preference. Medium and high ripening temperature conditions (RTC) may be applied to Serrano ham in order to enhance the phenomena associated with ripening, without loss of product quality. Moisture loss, degradation of proteins and formation of free amino acids were accelerated in medium and high RTC hams. From month 5 to month 9 of ripening, development of a

  18. Characterization of hams added with nut residual pastes from the mechanical extraction of oil

    Juan José Luna Guevara


    Full Text Available Nuts contain in their composition nutrients and bioactive compounds that when consumed in sufficient amounts may provide health benefits. In this study was evaluated the influence of the addition of residual pastes (10%, obtained from the extraction of oil from walnut (Juglans regia L., pecan (Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, variety Western Shley, and peanut (Arachis hypogaea, on the modification of some textural, proximate, physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of cooked hams. Hams were stored at 4 ° C for 21 days. Hams containing pastes significantly increased (P ≤ 0.05 the protein, fat, and total fiber content. Hams added with paste presented a less rigid structures (P ≤ 0.05. The color parameters (L*, a*, and b* of hams decrease slightly during the storage time, except for the ham added with walnut paste, which was darker. The nut pastes contributed significantly (P ≤ 0.05 to decrease the shelf life of hams. However, the yeast and mold counts in ham were less than 10 CFU/g at 21 days of storage. aw and pH decreased significantly (P ≤ 0.05 and syneresis increased during storage. Hams added with residual pastes were well sensory accepted regarding color, aroma, taste, appearance, and overall acceptability.

  19. Characterization of hemorrhages in the ham topsides and tenderloins of slaughter pigs

    Dich-Jørgensen, Kristine; Larsen, Helle Daugaard; Leifsson, Páll S.


    The aim of the study was to characterize the different types of muscle hemorrhages in the ham and tenderloin of CO2-stunned slaughter pigs. The distinct types of hemorrhages were characterized according to their distribution and size. The hemorrhages in the ham were multiple, pinpoint hemorrhages...... predominantly distributed in the caudal part of the muscle. The hemorrhages in the tenderloin were single and circular, located either at the tip or the head. Histologically, three distinct types of hemorrhages were observed. Type 1, which was peracute (ham and the tenderloin....... Type 2, which was acute (> 4 h old), and restricted to the ham. Type 3 contained bone marrow and cartilage, was peracute (

  20. Cortico-muscular synchronization by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles during isometric tongue protrusion.

    Maezawa, Hitoshi; Mima, Tatsuya; Yazawa, Shogo; Matsuhashi, Masao; Shiraishi, Hideaki; Funahashi, Makoto


    Tongue movements contribute to oral functions including swallowing, vocalizing, and breathing. Fine tongue movements are regulated through efferent and afferent connections between the cortex and tongue. It has been demonstrated that cortico-muscular coherence (CMC) is reflected at two frequency bands during isometric tongue protrusions: the beta (β) band at 15-35Hz and the low-frequency band at 2-10Hz. The CMC at the β band (β-CMC) reflects motor commands from the primary motor cortex (M1) to the tongue muscles through hypoglossal motoneuron pools. However, the generator mechanism of the CMC at the low-frequency band (low-CMC) remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the mechanism of low-CMC during isometric tongue protrusion using magnetoencephalography (MEG). Somatosensory evoked fields (SEFs) were also recorded following electrical tongue stimulation. Significant low-CMC and β-CMC were observed over both hemispheres for each side of the tongue. Time-domain analysis showed that the MEG signal followed the electromyography signal for low-CMC, which was contrary to the finding that the MEG signal preceded the electromyography signal for β-CMC. The mean conduction time from the tongue to the cortex was not significantly different between the low-CMC (mean, 80.9ms) and SEFs (mean, 71.1ms). The cortical sources of low-CMC were located significantly posterior (mean, 10.1mm) to the sources of β-CMC in M1, but were in the same area as tongue SEFs in the primary somatosensory cortex (S1). These results reveal that the low-CMC may be driven by proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles to S1, and that the oscillatory interaction was derived from each side of the tongue to both hemispheres. Oscillatory proprioceptive feedback from the tongue muscles may aid in the coordination of sophisticated tongue movements in humans.

  1. p53 Expression Helps Identify High Risk Oral Tongue Pre- malignant Lesions and Correlates with Patterns of Invasive Tumour Front and Tumour Depth in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cases.

    Viveka, Thangaraj Soundara; Shyamsundar, Vidyarani; Krishnamurthy, Arvind; Ramani, Pratibha; Ramshankar, Vijayalakshmi


    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is the most common oral cancer subtype with a maximum propensity for regional spread. Our objective was to study if p53 expression might have any correlation with aggressive patterns of invasion within oral tongue cancers as well as with the histologically identified degree of oral tongue dysplasia. p53 immunoexpression was studied using immunohistochemistry in early staged OTSCCs (n=155), oral tongue dysplasias, (n=29) and oral tongue normal specimens (n=10) and evaluated for correlations with histological and clinicopathological parameters. Our study (n=194) showed a pattern of p53 expression increasing with different grades of tongue dysplasia to different grades of invasive OTSCC (p=0.000). Among the OTSCC tumours, positive p53 expression was seen in 43.2% (67/155) and a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased Bryne's grade of the tumour invasive front (p=0.039) and increased tumour depth (p=0.018). Among the OTSCC patients with tobacco habits, (n=91), a higher p53 labelling index was significantly associated with increased risk of local recurrence (p=0.025) and with lymphovascular space involvement (p=0.014). Evaluation of p53 through varying degrees of dysplasia to oral tongue cancer indicates that p53 expression is linked to aggressive features of oral tongue cancers and tongue precancers entailing a closer monitoring in positive cases. Among the OTSCCs, p53 expression is associated with tumour aggressiveness correlating with increased grading of invasive tumour front and tumour depth.

  2. Sensor Arrays and Electronic Tongue Systems

    Manel del Valle


    Full Text Available This paper describes recent work performed with electronic tongue systems utilizing electrochemical sensors. The electronic tongues concept is a new trend in sensors that uses arrays of sensors together with chemometric tools to unravel the complex information generated. Initial contributions and also the most used variant employ conventional ion selective electrodes, in which it is named potentiometric electronic tongue. The second important variant is the one that employs voltammetry for its operation. As chemometric processing tool, the use of artificial neural networks as the preferred data processing variant will be described. The use of the sensor arrays inserted in flow injection or sequential injection systems will exemplify attempts made to automate the operation of electronic tongues. Significant use of biosensors, mainly enzyme-based, to form what is already named bioelectronic tongue will be also presented. Application examples will be illustrated with selected study cases from the Sensors and Biosensors Group at the Autonomous University of Barcelona.

  3. Paleoecology of the Niland Tongue

    Robbins, E.I.


    The swamp or paludal ecosystem is preserved in coals and carbonaceous shales. Remains of organisms of the swamp communities consist of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, ostracodes, and insects; vertebrates such as a hard-shelled turtle and crocodiles; and vascular plant remains. Aquatic communities are found in dark shale and are represented by the remains of bacteria and fungi; algae; invertebrates such as pelecypods, gastropods, and insects; and vertebrates such as crocodiles, fish, and a soft-shelled turtle. No vascular macrophytes (rooted aquatic vegetation) could be identified in the pollen and spore assemblage. Charophytes are abundant and show that colonies of the aquatic alga lived on the lake bottoms. The great variety of organisms suggests that the environment had a high input of nutrients. The phosphate-rich Phosphoria Formation, which could serve as a good source of nutrients, cropped out in the watershed of the Niland Tongue basin. The ostracode-crocodile association, calcareous charophytes, and good preservation of plant tissues and palynomorphs put limits on the alkaline geochemical environment in which the lacustrine rocks were deposited. The palynomorphs in the Niland Tongue rocks are dark yellow and light brown in color. These colors suggest that rocks containing them have been buried deeper in the past than they are today.

  4. Black carbon concentration and deposition estimations in Finland by the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM

    A. I. Hienola


    Full Text Available The prediction skill of the regional aerosol–climate model REMO-HAM was assessed against the black carbon (BC concentration measurements from five locations in Finland, with focus on Hyytiälä station for the year 2005. We examined to what extent the model is able to reproduce the measurements using several statistical tools: median comparison, overlap coefficient (OVL; the common area under two probability distributions curves and Z score (a measure of standard deviation, shape and spread of the distributions. The results of the statistics showed that the model is biased low. The local and regional emissions of BC have a significant contribution, and the model tendency to flatten the observed BC is most likely dominated by the lack of domestic burning of biofuel in the emission inventories. A further examination of the precipitation data from both measurements and model showed that there is no correlation between REMO's excessive precipitation and BC underestimation. This suggests that the excessive wet removal is not the main cause of the low black carbon concentration output. In addition, a comparison of wind directions in relation with high black carbon concentrations shows that REMO-HAM is able to predict the BC source directions relatively well. Cumulative black carbon deposition fluxes over Finland were estimated, including the deposition on snow.

  5. Transcriptomic dissection of tongue squamous cell carcinoma

    Schwartz Joel L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The head and neck/oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNOSCC is a diverse group of cancers, which develop from many different anatomic sites and are associated with different risk factors and genetic characteristics. The oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC is one of the most common types of HNOSCC. It is significantly more aggressive than other forms of HNOSCC, in terms of local invasion and spread. In this study, we aim to identify specific transcriptomic signatures that associated with OTSCC. Results Genome-wide transcriptomic profiles were obtained for 53 primary OTSCCs and 22 matching normal tissues. Genes that exhibit statistically significant differences in expression between OTSCCs and normal were identified. These include up-regulated genes (MMP1, MMP10, MMP3, MMP12, PTHLH, INHBA, LAMC2, IL8, KRT17, COL1A2, IFI6, ISG15, PLAU, GREM1, MMP9, IFI44, CXCL1, and down-regulated genes (KRT4, MAL, CRNN, SCEL, CRISP3, SPINK5, CLCA4, ADH1B, P11, TGM3, RHCG, PPP1R3C, CEACAM7, HPGD, CFD, ABCA8, CLU, CYP3A5. The expressional difference of IL8 and MMP9 were further validated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. The Gene Ontology analysis suggested a number of altered biological processes in OTSCCs, including enhancements in phosphate transport, collagen catabolism, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB signaling cascade, extracellular matrix organization and biogenesis, chemotaxis, as well as suppressions of superoxide release, hydrogen peroxide metabolism, cellular response to hydrogen peroxide, keratinization, and keratinocyte differentiation in OTSCCs. Conclusion In summary, our study provided a transcriptomic signature for OTSCC that may lead to a diagnosis or screen tool and provide the foundation for further functional validation of these specific candidate genes for OTSCC.



    Objective To investigate the clinical pathological feature and diagnostic criteria of tongue amyloidosis (AL).Methods During 1992 to 2005, 25 patients pathologically diagnosed as tongue AL in our hospital were reviewed retrospectively, and all of them had no enlarged tongue. Haematoxylin and eosin (HE) and immunohistochemical staining were used to detect the amyloid deposition on the tongue.Results Totally 84 % (21/25) patients had symptoms of xerostomia and taste-blindness, 44 % (11/25) patients complained of activity limitation of tongue. Macroscopic observation showed mucosa pallescence, punctuate hemorrhage, red grain particles, and ulcers on the tongue. HE staining indicated amyloid depositions in basement membrane,muscle cell, vessel wall, and nerve fiber. Immunohistochemical study demonstrated kappa light-chain deposition in 64%(16/25) cases, and lambda light-chain deposition in 36 % (9/25) cases. They presented in vessel wall, nerve fiber, and muscle cells.Conclusion The biopsy is an important means for the diagnosis of early tongue AL, and the wide variety of amyloid light chain is helpful to differential diagnosis.

  7. Surgical approaches for tongue base schwannoma.

    Ying, Binbin; Zhu, Songsong; Qiao, Yang; Ye, Weimin; Maimaiti, Abdikerimjian; Hu, Jingzhou; Zhang, Yong


    Schwannomas (neurilemmomas) are benign nerve sheath tumor originating from Schwann cells. They are well circumscribed and rarely infiltrate and metastasize. Schwannomas of the head and neck commonly occur in the tongue followed by the palate, floor of mouth, buccal mucosa, and mandible. Tongue base schwannomas could extend to the pharyngeal cavity or the floor of the mouse, and it is difficult to differentiate between tumors of the lingual, hypoglossal, and glossopharyngeal nerves.Surgical treatment of tongue base schwannomas is difficult because of limited operative exposure. Although mandibulotomy with lip splitting could obtain good exposure, surgeons might strike a balance between exposure obtaining and morbidity following because there are intricate neurovascular anatomical relationships in this region, and mandibulotomy with lip splitting would cause significant morbidity. Surgical approach options are important for tongue base schwannoma removal. From March 2008 to March 2010, 8 patients were clinically and pathologically diagnosed with tongue base schwannomas in our department, and all underwent surgical treatment. In our experience, transoral approach was used for tongue base schwannomas extending to the floor of the mouse and suprahyroid pharyngotomy approach for those extending to the pharyngeal cavity. Follow-up was made until now. One patient who experienced transoral excision still experienced numbness in the region of the lateral tongue tip, and the other 7 patients had no postoperative long-term complications.

  8. The tongue, mandible, hyoid system

    Giuseppe Messina


    Full Text Available The craniocervical-mandibular system works in harmony and allows different functional tasks as the postural control of the cervical region. This system is formed by the temporomandibular joint, the masticatory muscles and ligaments connecting the temporomandibular joint and the cervical region. It has been seen to affect human posture, and many disorders of the temporomandibular joints may affect this functional arrangement. Notwithstanding this system considered as a functional arrangement, may offer various clinical explanations, it does not hold anatomical connections with the posterior region of the cranium, thus it should not be refered to as a craniocervical arrangement. For this reason a new interpretation of such system as the tongue, mandible, hyoid system should be considered. Such functional reinterpretation between these three anatomical structures allows further comprehension of specific clinical conditions connected to deglutition aspects or the temporomandibular joint, for such needs to be taken into account during clinical diagnosis and treatment.

  9. Sensory characteristics of Iberian ham: Influence of salt content and processing conditions.

    Andrés, A I; Cava, R; Ventanas, J; Thovar, V; Ruiz, J


    Sensory characteristics of Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles from 24 dry-cured Iberian hams were assessed. Hams were salted with different amounts of salt (6% and 3% w/w) and then ripened at different temperature conditions (traditional processing vs. modified processing). Hams manufactured using modified processing showed higher scores for dryness (P<0.05), hardness (P<0.05) and rancid flavour (P<0.001) in the Semimembranosus muscle than those processed in a traditional way. The Biceps femoris muscle of hams salted with 6% of salt was drier (P<0.05), harder (P<0.05) and more fibrous (P<0.01) than in hams salted with 3% salt. Salty taste was more intense in the Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris from hams with a higher level of salt (P<0.01 and P<0.001, respectively). A more intense rancidity in hams ripened in modified processing could affect the overall aroma. A decrease in salt content produces less salty hams, but the changes in texture traits should be also considered.

  10. Identification and control of moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in dry-cured ham.

    Alía, Alberto; Andrade, María J; Rodríguez, Alicia; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Bernáldez, Victoria; Córdoba, Juan J


    The aims of this work were to identify moulds responsible for black spot spoilage in the drying and cellar stages of dry-cured ham processing and evaluate the effectiveness of preventive actions for controlling this alteration. Four mould strains isolated from spoiled hams were identified by morphological characteristics and the ITS and β-tubulin sequencing. Two of them were Cladosporium oxysporum, one was C. cladosporioides and the remaining one was C. herbarum. These spoiling strains reproduced the black spots on dry-cured ham-based media and ham slices. Additionally, the effect of water activity (aw) conditions reached throughout dry-cured ham ripening and the activity of the protective culture Penicillium chrysogenum CECT 20922 against the spoiling moulds were evaluated. In the dry-cured ham model system the growth of the Cladosporium strains was minimised when the aw approaches 0.84 or in P. chrysogenum CECT 20922 inoculated dry-cured ham slices. Therefore such combination could be used to avoid the black spot formation in dry-cured ham.

  11. A validation analysis of two self-reported HAM-D6 versions

    Bech, P; Wilson, P; Wessel, T


    the unidimensionality of this administration form in patients with mild-to-moderate depression. METHOD: The item response theory analysis of Mokken was used to test the unidimensionality of both the Interactive Voice Recording System (IVRS) version of the HAM-D(6) and a paper-and-pencil self-reported version (S-HAM-D(6...

  12. Development of potentiometric equipment for the identification of altered dry-cured hams: A preliminary study.

    Girón, Joel; Gil-Sánchez, Luís; García-Breijo, Eduardo; Pagán, M Jesús; Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl


    Microbiological contamination in dry-cured ham can occur in the early stages of the process, a large number of microorganisms involved in spoilage can produce alterations in the product. These include non-common odours, which are detected at the end of the process by a procedure called "cala", consisting of a sharp instrument punctured in every ham; this is smelled by an expert taster, who classifies hams as good and altered hams. An electronic device would be suitable for this process given the large amount of hams. The present research aims to develop objective equipment based on the potentiometry technique that identifies altered hams. A probe was developed, containing silver, nickel and copper electrodes, and was employed to classify altered and unaltered hams prior to classification by a tester. The results shown lower Ag and higher Cu potential values for altered hams. The differences in potentiometric response reveal a classification model, although further studies are required to obtain a reliable classification model.

  13. A validation analysis of two self-reported HAM-D6 versions

    Bech, P; Wilson, P; Wessel, T


    OBJECTIVE: The six items of the clinician-administrated Hamilton Depression Scale (HAM-D(6)) cover the core items of depressive states reflecting the antidepressive effect of medication. In this study, the two self-reported versions of the HAM-D(6) have been psychometrically validated to ensure t...

  14. Electronic Tongue Containing Redox and Conductivity Sensors

    Buehler, Martin


    The Electronic Tongue (E-tongue 2) is an assembly of sensors for measuring concentrations of metal ions and possibly other contaminants in water. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings, and detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion. The device includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an oxidation/reduction (redox) sensor pair, an electrical sensor, an array of eight galvanic cells, and eight ion-specific electrodes.

  15. A Z_m Ham Sandwich Theorem for Complex Measures

    Simon, Steven


    A "ham sandwich" theorem is derived for n complex measures on C^n. For each integer m >= 2, a complex hyperplane H and m corresponding "1/m" sectors are found, satisfying the condition that the "rotational average" of the measures of these sectors is zero. The result can be seen as a kind of rotational equipartition of each measure by a regular "m-fan". The proof of the theorem is topological, based on a Z_m version of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem for punctured (2n - 1)-spheres in C^n. Any finite real measure on R^{2n} can be seen as a type of complex measure on C^n, so the theorem can be applied to n finite measures on R^{2n}. In the case that m = 3, this shows the existence of a regular 3-fan which trisects each of the n measures. Similarly, any pair of finite real measures on R^{2n} can be naturally identified with a complex measure on C^n, so the theorem applies to 2n finite measures on R^{2n}. This yields a rotational condition on pairs of finite measures, and the original ham sandwich theorem for R^{2n} is r...

  16. On the Feng-Rao bound for generalized Hamming weights

    Geil, Olav; Thommesen, Christian


    The Feng-Rao bound gives good estimates of the minimum distance of a large class of codes. In this work we are concerned with the problem of how to extend the Feng-Rao bound so that it deals with all the generalized Hamming weights. The problem was solved by Heijnen and Pellikaan in [7] for a large...... family of codes that includes the duals of one-point geometric Goppa codes and the q-ary Reed-Muller codes, but not the Feng-Rao improved such ones. We show that Heijnen and Pellikaan’s results holds for the more general class of codes for which the traditional Feng-Rao bound can be applied. We also...... establish the connection to the Shibuya-Sakaniwa bound for generalized Hamming weights ([15], [16], [17], [18], [19] and [20]). More precisely we show that the Shibuya-Sakaniwa bound is a consequence of the extended Feng-Rao bound. In particular the extended Feng-Rao bound gives always at least as good...

  17. Nutritional composition of dry-cured ham and its role in a healthy diet.

    Jiménez-Colmenero, F; Ventanas, J; Toldrá, F


    Dry-cured ham is a traditional product with a strong presence in markets in the Mediterranean area. It is very popular with European consumers and is of enormous economic importance for the meat industry in the Mediterranean area. Although the great palatability of ham largely outweighs other considerations, aspects relating to health and wellbeing are increasingly important factors in consumer decisions. The potential role of ham in a context of healthy nutrition has not been clearly elucidated, especially considering that origins and production methods of dry-cured hams can induce differences in composition. The object of this review was on the one hand to provide an analysis of the components of dry-cured ham and their role in a healthy diet, and on the other hand to suggest possible strategies for improving its nutritional composition.

  18. Evolution of volatile aldehydes in Iberian ham matured under different processing conditions.

    Martín, L; Timón, M L; Petrón, M J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T


    To evaluate the influence of the Iberian ham processing conditions in the evolution of volatile aldehydes, 35 hams were processed in two plants following different conditions of relative humidity and temperature. For this, free fatty acids, peroxide values and volatile aldehydes were quantified in the hams. The highest increases in free fatty acids were noted during the drying stage in both processing plants. The drying period also revealed the greatest increase in peroxide values, where the highest values were in those hams processed at higher temperatures. The temperature during post-salting and drying had a marked influence on the formation of volatile aldehydes, being responsible for the differences in volatile compounds of matured hams.

  19. An iterative HAM approach for nonlinear boundary value problems in a semi-infinite domain

    Zhao, Yinlong; Lin, Zhiliang; Liao, Shijun


    In this paper, we propose an iterative approach to increase the computation efficiency of the homotopy analysis method (HAM), a analytic technique for highly nonlinear problems. By means of the Schmidt-Gram process (Arfken et al., 1985) [15], we approximate the right-hand side terms of high-order linear sub-equations by a finite set of orthonormal bases. Based on this truncation technique, we introduce the Mth-order iterative HAM by using each Mth-order approximation as a new initial guess. It is found that the iterative HAM is much more efficient than the standard HAM without truncation, as illustrated by three nonlinear differential equations defined in an infinite domain as examples. This work might greatly improve the computational efficiency of the HAM and also the Mathematica package BVPh for nonlinear BVPs.

  20. Tongue diagnosis:relationship between sublingual tongue morphology in three tongue protrusion angles and menstrual clinical symptoms

    Tim Hideaki Tanaka


    OBJECTIVE:The morphological and color characteristics of the tongue sublingual veins (SLVs) can manifest differently within the subjects, depending on the way their tongue is curled upward. This study was conducted in order to investigate the clinical relevancy of tongue SLV diagnosis in relation to menstrual clinical symptoms (pain, clots, heavy, and scanty), using three different inspection procedures (IP1, IP2, and IP3). METHODS: Three-hundred and seventy-seven female patients were asked to stick out their tongues in three speciifc ways which were intended to create different tongue protrusion angles. The SLV parameters for thickness (TK), length (LE), color (CL), shape (SP), and nodules (ND) were then evaluated. RESULTS: According to the results of the Waldχ2 test, IP1 provides the best model for pain (R2 = 0.155), IP3 for clots (R2 = 0.437), IP2 for heavy (R2 = 0.268), and scanty (R2 = 0.192). Abnormal SLV diagnostic parameters were most strongly associated with the clinical symptom of clots (R2= 0.492). CONCLUSION: While the study showed the relations between tongue SLV features and menstrual clinical symptoms, as wel it showed that IP2 was the best overal predictor for the symptomatic indexes used in this study, and using one particular SLV inspection procedure may not be sufifcient. The application of a particular inspection method alone may cause under- or over-estimation of SLV abnormalities.

  1. Contribution of a selected fungal population to the volatile compounds on dry-cured ham.

    Martín, Alberto; Córdoba, Juan J; Aranda, Emilio; Córdoba, M Guía; Asensio, Miguel A


    Dry-cured ham is obtained after several months of ripening. Different fungi strive on the surface, including toxigenic molds. Proteolysis and lipolysis by the endogenous and microbial enzymes seem to play a decisive role in the generation of flavor precursors in dry-cured meat products. In addition, fungi show a positive impact on the volatile compounds of ripened pork loins. However, the contribution of the fungal population to flavor formation in dry-cured ham remains unclear. One selected strain each of Penicillium chrysogenum and Debaryomyces hansenii was inoculated as starter cultures on dry-cured ham. Volatile compounds extracted by solid phase micro-extraction technique were analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. A trained panel evaluated flavor and texture of fully ripened hams. The wild fungal population on non-inoculated control hams correlates with higher levels of short chain aliphatic carboxylic acids and their esters, branched carbonyls, branched alcohols, and some sulfur compounds, particularly at the outer muscle. Conversely, P. chrysogenum and D. hansenii seem to be responsible for higher levels of long chain aliphatic and branched hydrocarbons, furanones, long chain carboxylic acids and their esters. The very limited impact of P. chrysogenum on pyrazines in inoculated hams can be due to the activity of the yeast. Lower levels for some of the more volatile linear carbonyls at the ham surface suggest an anti-oxidant effect by micro-organisms. The differences in volatile compounds did not show a neat impact on flavor in the sensorial analysis. Nonetheless, inoculated hams got a better overall acceptability, which has to be attributed to their improved texture. The lower toughness of inoculated hams is a direct consequence of an early settling of a highly proteolytic mold. Thus, the use of selected fungi as starter cultures may be useful to obtain high-quality and safe dry-cured ham.

  2. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility

    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing 30 group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing two seasons (hot and cold) and two production focuses (lean and quality) were ...

  3. Potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer: Tongue diagnosis.

    Han, Shuwen; Yang, Xi; Qi, Quan; Pan, Yuefen; Chen, Yongchao; Shen, Junjun; Liao, Haihong; Ji, Zhaoning


    Tongue diagnosis, as a unique method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), was used to discriminate physiological functions and pathological conditions by observing the changes of the tongue and tongue coating. The aims of the present study were to explore a potential screening and early diagnosis method of cancer through evaluating the differences of the images of tongue and tongue coating and the microbiome on the tongue coating. The DS01-B tongue diagnostic information acquisition system was used to photograph and analyze the tongue and tongue coating. The next-generation sequencing technology was used to determine the V2-V4 hypervariable regions of 16S rDNA to investigate the microbiome on the tongue coating. Bioinformatics and statistical methods were used to analyze the microbial community structure and diversity. Comparing with the healthy people, the number of mirror-like tongue, thick tongue coating and the moisture of tongue were increased in cancers. The dominant color of the tongue in the healthy people was reddish while it was purple in the cancers. The relative abundance of Neisseria, Haemophilus, Fusobacterium and Porphyromonas in the healthy people were higher than that in the cancers. We also found 6 kinds of special microorganisms at species level in cancers. The study suggested that tongue diagnosis may provide potential screening and early diagnosis method for cancer.

  4. Transfer of mother tongue in SLA



    In SLA transfer of mother tongue can not be overlooked. And we group it into positive transfer and negative transfer, which are reflected on different levels including pronunciation, vocabulary, syntax and culture.

  5. Investigation of the Chinese rolling tongue consonants

    ZHOU Ligang; Keni'ti Kido


    Some special monosyllabic Chinese words which contain rolling tongue consonants are discussed. Based on the spectrum analysis, the special characteristic is found at a frequency higher than 3 kHz. The distinction is not only in the consonant part but also in the vowel part.The people in the north region of China distinguish the rolling tongue consonants from the straight tongue consonants both in utterance and in hearing, but those in the south region of China do not. The results of the hearing investigation using synthesized speech show that the consonant part corresponding to the normal one has more effect than the vowel part on the recognition of the words containing the rolling tongue consonant.

  6. Huge Tongue Lipoma: A Case Report

    Mohammad Ali Damghani


    Full Text Available Introduction: Lipomas are among the most common tumors of the human body. However, they are uncommon in the oral cavity and are observed as slow growing, painless, and asymptomatic yellowish submucosal masses. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice and recurrence is not expected.    Case Report: The case of a 30-year-old woman with a huge lipoma on the tip of her tongue since 3 years, is presented. She had difficulty with speech and mastication because the tongue tumor was filling the oral cavity. Clinical examination revealed a yellowish lesion, measuring 8 cm in maximum diameter, protruding from the lingual surface. The tumor was surgically excised with restoration of normal tongue function and histopathological examination of the tumor confirmed that it was a lipoma.   Conclusion:  Tongue lipoma is rarely seen and can be a cause of macroglossia. Surgical excision for lipoma is indicated for symptomatic relief and exclusion of associated malignancy.

  7. Instruction in the Mother Tongues in Yugoslavia.

    Mikes, Melanie


    Educational practices and problems in Yugoslavia with regard to bilingual education are described. The effect of mother-tongue education on the students' academic achievement and literacy attainment is also examined. (RM)

  8. Effects of marketing group on the quality of fresh and cured hams sourced from a commercial processing facility.

    Arkfeld, E K; Wilson, K B; Overholt, M F; Harsh, B N; Lowell, J E; Hogan, E K; Klehm, B J; Bohrer, B M; Kroscher, K A; Peterson, B C; Stites, C R; Mohrhauser, D A; King, D A; Wheeler, T L; Dilger, A C; Shackelford, S D; Boler, D D


    The objective was: 1) to characterize the effect of marketing group on fresh and cured ham quality, and 2) to determine which fresh ham traits correlated to cured ham quality traits. Pigs raised in 8 barns representing 2 seasons (hot and cold) and 2 production focuses (lean and quality) were used. Three groups were marketed from each barn. A total of 7,684 carcasses were used for data collection at the abattoir. Every tenth carcass was noted as a select carcass for in-depth ham quality analyses. Leg primal weight and instrumental color were measured on 100% of the population. On the select 10% of the population, hams were fabricated into sub-primal pieces, and 3-piece hams were manufactured to evaluate cured ham quality and processing yield. Data were analyzed as a split-plot design in the MIXED procedure of SAS with production focus as the whole-plot factor, and marketing group as the split-plot factor. Pearson correlation coefficients between fresh and cured ham traits were computed. There were no differences ( ≥ 0.15) in instrumental color or ultimate pH ( ≥ 0.14) among fresh ham muscles from any marketing group. The only exception was the semimembranosus of marketing group 2 was lighter than marketing group 1 ( = 0.03) and the dark portion of the semitendinosus muscle from group 1 was lighter than from group 3 ( = 0.01). There were no differences ( ≥ 0.33) in ultimate pH of fresh ham muscles between production focuses, but several muscles from quality focus pigs were lighter in color than ham muscles from lean focus pigs. The lack of differences in fresh ham quality lead to few differences in cured ham quality. Cured hams from the quality focus pigs had greater lipid content ( marketing group 1 and 2 were 1.52 units lighter than hams from marketing group 3 ( 0.01). Overall, marketing group did not impact ham quality. Fresh ham quality was not strongly related to cured ham quality. Some correlations were present between fresh and cured ham traits, but

  9. Mitochondrial assembly receptor expression is an independent prognosticator for patients with oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

    Su, Yan-Ye; Chen, Chang-Han; Chien, Chih-Yen; Lin, Wei-Che; Huang, Wan-Ting; Li, Shau-Hsuan


    Recent evidence suggests that the local renin-angiotensin system has been implicated in various malignancies. The mitochondrial assembly receptor is a newly identified receptor for angiotensin peptides, angiotensin-(1-7), and has an important role in the renin-angiotensin system. However, the role of the mitochondrial assembly receptor in the prognosis of cancer patients remains unclear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the significance of mitochondrial assembly receptor signaling in the prognosis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Mitochondrial assembly receptor immunohistochemistry was examined in 151 oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients and was correlated with treatment outcome. The functional relevance of the mitochondrial assembly receptor in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell lines was evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide reduction and bromodeoxyuridine incorporation assays. Mitochondrial assembly receptor overexpression was significantly correlated with early pathological T classification ( p=0.029) and the absence of extracapsular spread ( p=0.039). Univariate analyses demonstrated that mitochondrial assembly receptor overexpression was significantly associated with superior overall survival ( p=0.012). In multivariate comparison, mitochondrial assembly receptor overexpression remained independently associated with superior overall survival ( p=0.008, hazard ratio=1.862). In vitro, angiotensin-(1-7) suppressed the cell growth in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells, and this response was reversed by the mitochondrial assembly receptor antagonist, A779. Mitochondrial assembly receptor expression is independently associated with the prognosis of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma patients. These findings suggest that mitochondrial assembly receptor signaling may be a promising novel target for oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Giant Plexiform Schwannoma of the Tongue


    We present the case of a 38-year-old woman that presented with a very slowly enlarging mass of the tongue. MRI revealed a large mass originating in the tongue base and extending to the supraglottic space. Biopsy of this tumor confirmed the diagnosis of schwannoma. An endaural approach allowed complete resection of the tumor. Definitive histopathological examination showed a plexiform schwannoma. Schwannoma or neurilemoma represents a benign tumor potentially affecting any nerve. The head and ...

  11. Tongue coating removal: comparison of the efficiency of three techniques

    Luciana Sassa Marocchio


    Full Text Available Objective: Compare the efficiency of three techniques for tongue cleaning, by comparison of the amount of tongue coating removed by each technique. Methods: Tongue cleaning was performed using an Oral B 30 (Procter&Gamble, São Paulo, Brasil toothbrush; a Saude Bucal (Odomed, São Paulo, Brasil tongue scraper, and a new tongue cleaning technique, consisting of a tongue cleaner with bristles and a scraping edge and a Halitus® (Halitus, Campinas, Brasil tongue cleaning spray solution. The study design used 15 healthy volunteers who were submitted to each of the tongue cleaning techniques, once every 21 days. The volunteers were instructed to abstain from any procedure to clean their tongues, for 48 hours before the application of each technique. At each scheduled time, a dental professional performed a single standardized tongue cleaning procedure using one of the cleaning methods, and inserted the removed tongue coating into a test tube. Results: The results were obtained by weighing the tube test with tongue coating after the cleaning procedure (final weight deducting the weight of the empty tube test (initial weight. The findings showed that the new tongue cleaning technique (combination of a tongue cleaner with brush and scraper plus a tongue cleaning spray solution was statistically superior in removing tongue coating when compared with the tongue scraper or toothbrush, probably due to the technique and materials used. Conclusion: The tongue cleaning procedure, when performed within a specific technique, associated with products that improve the cleaning action, makes possible to reach better results, allowing the removal of more tongue coating.

  12. The use of thermography on the slaughter-line for the assessment of pork and raw ham quality

    M. Morgante


    Full Text Available The left and right hams of forty heavy pig carcasses were thermographed to evaluate whether surface temperature differences were related to meat and ham quality. Thermal imaging analysis showed no differences in average surface temperature among classes of pH or of L* colour co-ordinate nor among classes of ham defects such as veining and red skin. However, hams with a lower fat cover displayed a significantly warmer average temperature surface. Infrared thermography seems to be a practical and non-invasive method to detect hams with a fat cover below the minimum requested to be submitted to the dry-curing process.

  13. [Research progress on the risk factors of geographic tongue].

    Huamei, Yang; Yu, Zhou; Xin, Zeng; Ga, Liao; Qianming, Chen


    Geographic tongue, also called benign migratory glossitis, is a common and superficial benign inflammatory disorder that affects the tongue epithelium. The majority of geographic tongue lesions typically manifest as irregular central erythematous patches. These lesions, which are caused by the loss of filiform papillae, are defined by an elevated whitish band-like border that can change location, size, and pattern over a period of time. Histological observations of the oral mucosa affected by geographic tongue revealed nonspecific inflammation. Some reports described cases of migratory stomatitis, wherein lesions simultaneously manifested on the extra lingual oral mucosa. This condition is also called ectopic geographic tongue, which is clinically and histologically similar to the type normally confined to the tongue. In most cases, patients are asymptomatic and do not require treatment. The condition may spontaneously exhibit periods of remission and exacerbation with good prognosis. The specific etiology of geographic tongue remains unknown. Geographic tongue is age-related and is prevalent among young individuals. Various etiological factors that have been suggested in literature include immunological factors, genetic factors, atopic or allergic tendency, emotional stress, tobacco consumption, hormonal disturbances, and zinc deficiency. Geographic tongue may coexist with other disorders, such as fissured tongue, psoriasis, diabetes mellitus, gastroin- testinal diseases, burning mouth syndrome, and Down syndrome. Experts currently disagree on whether geographic tongue is an oral manifestation of psoriasis. Moreover, some scholars suggest that geographic tongue is a prestage of fissured tongue. The objective of this review is to summarize current research on risk factors of geographic tongue.

  14. Kernel based eigenvalue-decomposition methods for analysing ham

    Christiansen, Asger Nyman; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Møller, Flemming


    conditions and finding useful additives to hinder the color to change rapidly. To be able to prove which methods of storing and additives work, Danisco wants to monitor the development of the color of meat in a slice of ham as a function of time, environment and ingredients. We have chosen to use multi...... methods, such as PCA, MAF or MNF. We therefore investigated the applicability of kernel based versions of these transformation. This meant implementing the kernel based methods and developing new theory, since kernel based MAF and MNF is not described in the literature yet. The traditional methods only...... have two factors that are useful for segmentation and none of them can be used to segment the two types of meat. The kernel based methods have a lot of useful factors and they are able to capture the subtle differences in the images. This is illustrated in Figure 1. You can see a comparison of the most...

  15. Aerosol processing in stratiform clouds in ECHAM6-HAM

    Neubauer, David; Lohmann, Ulrike; Hoose, Corinna


    Aerosol processing in stratiform clouds by uptake into cloud particles, collision-coalescence, chemical processing inside the cloud particles and release back into the atmosphere has important effects on aerosol concentration, size distribution, chemical composition and mixing state. Aerosol particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei. Cloud droplets can take up further aerosol particles by collisions. Atmospheric gases may also be transferred into the cloud droplets and undergo chemical reactions, e.g. the production of atmospheric sulphate. Aerosol particles are also processed in ice crystals. They may be taken up by homogeneous freezing of cloud droplets below -38° C or by heterogeneous freezing above -38° C. This includes immersion freezing of already immersed aerosol particles in the droplets and contact freezing of particles colliding with a droplet. Many clouds do not form precipitation and also much of the precipitation evaporates before it reaches the ground. The water soluble part of the aerosol particles concentrates in the hydrometeors and together with the insoluble part forms a single, mixed, larger particle, which is released. We have implemented aerosol processing into the current version of the general circulation model ECHAM6 (Stevens et al., 2013) coupled to the aerosol module HAM (Stier et al., 2005). ECHAM6-HAM solves prognostic equations for the cloud droplet number and ice crystal number concentrations. In the standard version of HAM, seven modes are used to describe the total aerosol. The modes are divided into soluble/mixed and insoluble modes and the number concentrations and masses of different chemical components (sulphate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt and mineral dust) are prognostic variables. We extended this by an explicit representation of aerosol particles in cloud droplets and ice crystals in stratiform clouds similar to Hoose et al. (2008a,b). Aerosol particles in cloud droplets are represented by 5 tracers for the

  16. Equivariant Equipartitions: Ham Sandwich Theorems for Finite Subgroups of Spheres

    Simon, Steven


    Equivariant "Ham Sandwich" Theorems are obtained for the finite subgroups of the unit spheres S^{d-1}, d=1,2,4. Given any F-valued mass distributions on F^n and any non-zero finite subgroup G of the unit sphere S^{d-1} in F= R, C, or H, it is shown that there exists a collection of fundamental G-regions partitioning F^n which "G-Equipartition" each of the n measures, as realized by the simultaneous vanishing of the "G-averages" of the regions' measures. Equipartition results for real measures follow, among them that any n signed mass distributions on R^{(p-1)n} can be equipartitioned by a single regular p-fan for any prime number p.

  17. C. elegans HAM-1 functions in the nucleus to regulate asymmetric neuroblast division.

    Leung, Amy; Hua, Khang; Ramachandran, Pavitra; Hingwing, Kyla; Wu, Maria; Koh, Pei Luan; Hawkins, Nancy


    All 302 neurons in the C. elegans hermaphrodite arise through asymmetric division of neuroblasts. During embryogenesis, the C. elegans ham-1 gene is required for several asymmetric neuroblast divisions in lineages that generate both neural and apoptotic cells. By antibody staining, endogenous HAM-1 is found exclusively at the cell cortex in many cells during embryogenesis and is asymmetrically localized in dividing cells. Here we show that in transgenic embryos expressing a functional GFP::HAM-1 fusion protein, GFP expression is also detected in the nucleus, in addition to the cell cortex. Consistent with the nuclear localization is the presence of a putative DNA binding winged-helix domain within the N-terminus of HAM-1. Through a deletion analysis we determined that the C-terminus of the protein is required for nuclear localization and we identified two nuclear localization sequences (NLSs). A subcellular fractionation experiment from wild type embryos, followed by Western blotting, revealed that endogenous HAM-1 is primarily found in the nucleus. Our analysis also showed that the N-terminus is necessary for cortical localization. While ham-1 function is essential for asymmetric division in the lineage that generates the PLM mechanosensory neuron, we showed that cortical localization may not required. Thus, our results suggest that there is a nuclear function for HAM-1 in regulating asymmetric neuroblast division and that the requirement for cortical localization may be lineage dependent.

  18. Does bilingualism twist your tongue?

    Gollan, Tamar H; Goldrick, Matthew


    The current study investigated whether bilingualism affects the processing of sub-lexical representations specifying the sound structure of words. Spanish-English bilinguals, Mandarin-English bilinguals, and English-only monolinguals repeated English tongue twisters. Twister materials had word or nonword targets (thus varying in whether lexical information did or did not support sound processing), and similar or dissimilar sounds (thus varying in difficulty with respect to competition at a sub-lexical level). Even though bilinguals had learned English at an early age, and spoke English without an accent, Spanish-English bilinguals produced significantly more twister errors than monolinguals, particularly in the absence of lexical support. Mandarin-English bilinguals were also disadvantaged, but more consistently across all twister types. These results reveal that bilingual disadvantages extend beyond the lexical level to affect the processing of sub-lexical representations. More generally, these findings suggest that experience with sound structures (and not simply their intrinsic complexity) shapes sub-lexical processing for all speakers.

  19. Repeated tongue lift movement induces neuroplasticity in corticomotor control of tongue and jaw muscles in humans.

    Komoda, Yoshihiro; Iida, Takashi; Kothari, Mohit; Komiyama, Osamu; Baad-Hansen, Lene; Kawara, Misao; Sessle, Barry; Svensson, Peter


    This study investigated the effect of repeated tongue lift training (TLT) on the excitability of the corticomotor representation of the human tongue and jaw musculature. Sixteen participants performed three series of TLT for 41 min on each of 5 consecutive days. Each TLT series consisted of two pressure levels (5 kPa and 10 kPa). All participants underwent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electromyographic (EMG) recordings of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in four sessions: (1) before TLT on Day 1 (baseline), (2) after TLT on Day 1, (3) before TLT on Day 5, and (4) after TLT on Day 5. EMG recordings from the left and right tongue dorsum and masseter muscles were made at three pressure levels (5 kPa, 10 kPa, 100% tongue lift), and tongue, masseter, and first dorsal interosseous (FDI) MEPs were measured. There were no significant day-to-day differences in the tongue pressure during maximum voluntary contractions. The amplitudes and thresholds of tongue and masseter MEPs after TLT on Day 5 were respectively higher and lower than before TLT on Day 1 (Ptongue and masseter MEP areas; no significant changes occurred in MEP onset latencies. FDI MEP parameters (amplitude, threshold, area, latency) were not significantly different between the four sessions. Our findings suggest that repeated TLT can trigger neuroplasticity reflected in increased excitability of the corticomotor representation of not only the tongue muscles but also the masseter muscles.

  20. The aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    P. Stier


    Full Text Available The aerosol-climate modelling system ECHAM5-HAM is introduced. It is based on a flexible microphysical approach and, as the number of externally imposed parameters is minimised, allows the application in a wide range of climate regimes. ECHAM5-HAM predicts the evolution of an ensemble of microphysically interacting internally- and externally-mixed aerosol populations as well as their size-distribution and composition. The size-distribution is represented by a superposition of log-normal modes. In the current setup, the major global aerosol compounds sulfate (SU, black carbon (BC, particulate organic matter (POM, sea salt (SS, and mineral dust (DU are included. The simulated global annual mean aerosol burdens (lifetimes for the year 2000 are for SU: 0.80 Tg(S (3.9 days, for BC: 0.11 Tg (5.4 days, for POM: 0.99 Tg (5.4 days, for SS: 10.5 Tg (0.8 days, and for DU: 8.28 Tg (4.6 days. An extensive evaluation with in-situ and remote sensing measurements underscores that the model results are generally in good agreement with observations of the global aerosol system. The simulated global annual mean aerosol optical depth (AOD is with 0.14 in excellent agreement with an estimate derived from AERONET measurements (0.14 and a composite derived from MODIS-MISR satellite retrievals (0.16. Regionally, the deviations are not negligible. However, the main patterns of AOD attributable to anthropogenic activity are reproduced.

  1. Evolution of chemical-physical parameters and rheological characteristics of Sarda and Maltese goat dry hams

    Rina Mazzette


    Full Text Available In Sardinia, goat farming is a very important resource. Sarda and Maltese breed are reared mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat, while meat from adult goats is undervalued. The use of adult goat meat to obtain ripened ham will contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. The aim of the present study was to characterize Sarda and Maltese goat dry ham in order to evaluate the quality of autochthonous goat breed meat. Chemical-physical characteristics were determined dur-ing the production stages, while the rheological and colour parameters and the composition of the goat ham were determined at the end of ripening. The pH evolution during processing were similar to other cured meat products, e.g. sheep hams, even though the values were high, especially in the products from Sarda breed. The aw value regularly decreased during processing. Colour parameters (L*, a*, b* in the hams from Maltese goat breed were significantly (P<0.05 higher than in those from Sarda. The Sarda goat ham showed a significantly lower percentage of moisture (42% vs 52%, an higher protein content (44.35% vs 34.19%, while no differences were pointed out in the total fat content. Among the ham rheological properties, hardness parameters showed higher levels (13850.22±7589.92 vs 11073.99±6481.31, respectively in Sarda and Maltese hams in comparison to similar products from pork and sheep, while adhesiveness value was lower. The results show that the quality parameters of goat ripened hams are affected mainly by the charac-teristics of the goat meat, in relation on the breed and the breeding system, and, less, by the traditional technology.

  2. Sensory and rapid instrumental methods as a combined tool for quality control of cooked ham.

    Barbieri, Sara; Soglia, Francesca; Palagano, Rosa; Tesini, Federica; Bendini, Alessandra; Petracci, Massimiliano; Cavani, Claudio; Gallina Toschi, Tullia


    In this preliminary investigation, different commercial categories of Italian cooked pork hams have been characterized using an integrated approach based on both sensory and fast instrumental measurements. For these purposes, Italian products belonging to different categories (cooked ham, "selected" cooked ham and "high quality" cooked ham) were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis and by the application of rapid tools such as image analysis by an "electronic eye" and texture analyzer. The panel of trained assessors identified and evaluated 10 sensory descriptors able to define the quality of the products. Statistical analysis highlighted that sensory characteristics related to appearance and texture were the most significant in discriminating samples belonged to the highest (high quality cooked hams) and the lowest (cooked hams) quality of the product whereas the selected cooked hams, showed intermediate characteristics. In particular, high quality samples were characterized, above all, by the highest intensity of pink intensity, typical appearance and cohesiveness, and, at the same time, by the lowest intensity of juiciness; standard cooked ham samples showed the lowest intensity of all visual attributes and the highest value of juiciness, whereas the intermediate category (selected cooked ham) was not discriminated from the other. Also physical-rheological parameters measured by electronic eye and texture analyzer were effective in classifying samples. In particular, the PLS model built with data obtained from the electronic eye showed a satisfactory performance in terms of prediction of the pink intensity and presence of fat attributes evaluated during the sensory visual phase. This study can be considered a first application of this combined approach that could represent a suitable and fast method to verify if the meat product purchased by consumer match its description in terms of compliance with the claimed quality.

  3. Influence of the ability to roll the tongue and tongue-training parameters on oral motor performance and learning

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Basic, Aida;


    OBJECTIVE: Training of tongue function is an important part of rehabilitation of patients with brain damage. A standardized tongue-training task has been shown to induce cortical plasticity. This study tested the possible influence of the natural ability to roll the tongue and modulations of tongue......-training parameters on tongue-training performance. DESIGN: A total of 44 healthy adult subjects participated. 29 subjects (15 with and 14 without ability to roll their tongue) performed 1h standard tongue-training task. Another 15 subjects participated in 2 sessions: Standard and Modulation in randomized order....... Standard session: 1h tongue-training with fixed training parameters; Modulation session: 1h tongue-training with modulation of training parameters every 20min (3 different settings - A, B, C, with different timing of task). Perceived task difficulty was evaluated on a 0-10 numerical rating scale (NRS...

  4. Effect of added thiamine on the key odorant compounds and aroma of cooked ham.

    Thomas, Caroline; Mercier, Frédéric; Tournayre, Pascal; Martin, Jean-Luc; Berdagué, Jean-Louis


    This study shows that thiamine plays a major role in the formation of three key odorants of cooked ham: 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-methyl-3-methyldithiofuran, and bis(2-methyl-3-furyl)disulphide. Analyses revealed that under identical cooking conditions, the productions of these three aroma compounds increase in a closely intercorrelated way when the dose of thiamine increases. Using a specific 2-methyl-3-furanthiol extraction-quantification method, it was possible to relate the amounts of thiamine added in model cooked hams to the amounts of 2-methyl-3-furanthiol produced in the cooking process. Sensory analyses highlighted the role of thiamine as a precursor of cooked ham aroma.

  5. Lower bounds on the periodic Hamming correlations of frequency hopping sequences with low hit zone


    In this paper, several periodic Hamming correlation lower bounds for frequency hopping sequences with low hit zone, with respect to the size p of the frequency slot set, the sequence length L, the family size M, low hit zone LH ( or no hit zone NH ), the maximum periodic Hamming autocorrelation sidelobe Ha and the maximum periodic Hamming crosscorrelation Hc, are established. It is shown that the new bounds include the known Lempel-Greenberger bounds, T.S. Seay bounds and Peng-Fan bounds for the conventional frequency hopping sequences as special cases.

  6. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool.

    Latha, Rewanthwar Swathi; Lakshmi, P K


    Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue) which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.

  7. Electronic tongue: An analytical gustatory tool

    Rewanthwar Swathi Latha


    Full Text Available Taste is an important organoleptic property governing acceptance of products for administration through mouth. But majority of drugs available are bitter in taste. For patient acceptability and compliance, bitter taste drugs are masked by adding several flavoring agents. Thus, taste assessment is one important quality control parameter for evaluating taste-masked formulations. The primary method for the taste measurement of drug substances and formulations is by human panelists. The use of sensory panelists is very difficult and problematic in industry and this is due to the potential toxicity of drugs and subjectivity of taste panelists, problems in recruiting taste panelists, motivation and panel maintenance are significantly difficult when working with unpleasant products. Furthermore, Food and Drug Administration (FDA-unapproved molecules cannot be tested. Therefore, analytical taste-sensing multichannel sensory system called as electronic tongue (e-tongue or artificial tongue which can assess taste have been replacing the sensory panelists. Thus, e-tongue includes benefits like reducing reliance on human panel. The present review focuses on the electrochemical concepts in instrumentation, performance qualification of E-tongue, and applications in various fields.

  8. Salt and intramuscular fat modulate dynamic perception of flavour and texture in dry-cured hams.

    Lorido, Laura; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Jesús; Ventanas, Sonia


    The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of salt and intramuscular fat (IMF) content on the sensory characteristics of two different types of dry-cured hams (Iberian and Serrano) using the time-intensity (TI) method. All studied TI parameters of flavour attributes (overall flavour, saltiness, cured and rancid flavours) were significantly (p < 0.05) affected by variations in the salt and/or IMF content. However, regarding texture attributes only the maximum intensity (Imax) of hardness was significantly (p < 0.05) affected by the salt content of hams. Compared to Iberian dry-cured hams, the dynamic perception of the flavour and texture of Serrano dry-cured hams was less influenced by variations in salt and/or IMF content. The dynamic sensory techniques may be helpful to guarantee the quality of dry-cured products subjected to strategies of salt and fat reduction.

  9. Data Encryption and Decryption Algorithm Using Hamming Code and Arithmetic Operations

    Kurapati Sundar Teja


    Full Text Available This paper explains the implementation of data encryption and decryption algorithm using hamming code and arithmetic operations with the help of Verilog HDL. As the days are passing the old algorithms are not remained so strong cryptanalyst are familiar with them. Hamming code is one of forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper hamming code algorithm was discussed and the implementation of it was done with arithmetic operations. For high security some arithmetic operations are added with hamming code process. A 3-bit data will be encrypted as 14-bit and using decryption process again we will receives 3-bit original data. The implemented design was tested on Spartan3A FPGA kit.

  10. Analysis of the Relationship between Hamming Distance and the Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    Sun Haimeng


    Full Text Available Electromagnetic information leak as a potential data security risk is more and more serious. Discussing the relationship between compromising emanations and Hamming distance is directed to preventing or reducing the electromagnetic information leakage. The paper presents the model of electromagnetic information leak, then the hierarchical protection strategy based on the model is proposed, that is anti-radiation, anti-intercept and anti-reconstruction. Analyzing the causes of electromagnetic information leak through the touch screen case, the paper describes the electromagnetic radiation intensity is correlated to the transition's Hamming distance. The paper presents the anti-intercept method, which is reducing the Hamming distance of the sensitive data or keep Hamming distance constant in order to reducing or preventing the electromagnetic information leakage. The anti-intercept method is available showed as the touch screen case.    

  11. Sensory profiling of Dalmatian dry-cured ham under different temperature conditions

    Zlatko Janječić


    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of the Dalmatian ham processing conditions on weight loss and sensory characteristics, 20 hams were processed following different temperature conditions during salting and ripening. For that purpose, hams were evaluated using quantitative descriptive analysis. The weight loss was higher and all sensory traits except presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine crystals were higher rated for hams processed at higher temperatures. The most significant (P<0.0001 influence of temperature was established on subcutaneous fat color, muscle color and presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine, whereas no influence was established on appearance, marbling, flavor and melting. This concludes that there is overall significant effect of higher temperature on sensory characteristics most likely due to the more intense proteolysis and lipolysis.

  12. Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition

    ... 496-3500 Share Science Highlight: January 2, 2014 Tongue-Driven Wheelchair Out-Maneuvers the Competition Researchers funded ... Imaging and Bioengineering have demonstrated that their novel Tongue Drive System is superior to other assistive devices ...

  13. The geometry of resonance tongues : a singularity theory approach

    Broer, Hendrik; Golubitsky, Martin; Vegter, Gert


    Resonance tongues and their boundaries are studied for nondegenerate and (certain) degenerate Hopf bifurcations of maps using singularity theory methods of equivariant contact equivalence and universal unfoldings. We recover the standard theory of tongues (the nondegencrate case) in a straightforwar

  14. Mother Tongue Eclipsing in the Linguistic Repertoire of Yoruba ...


    Oct 31, 2016 ... Yoruba-speaking parents acquire English as their First Language and Yoruba ..... first language (or mother tongue) learning and reinforcement available to .... use their mother tongue, they would do things that would motivate.

  15. Schwannoma of the base of tongue – A rare presentation

    M. Panduranga Kamath


    Conclusion: Schwannomas arising in the base of tongue are rare and are not often included in the differential diagnosis. They are usually benign and have excellent prognosis as compared to the usual malignant lesions which occur in the tongue base.

  16. Isolated tongue tremor after gamma knife radiosurgery for acoustic schwannoma.

    Chung, Sun J; Im, Joo-Hyuk; Lee, Jae-Hong; Cho, A-Hyun; Kwon, Miseon; Lee, Myoung C


    We describe a patient who had an isolated tongue tremor with an audible click after gamma knife radiosurgery for acoustic schwannoma. The nature of the tongue tremor was clearly demonstrated by videofluoroscopy. The possible pathogenic mechanisms are discussed.

  17. [Vasculogenic mimicry in tongue squamous cell carcinoma].

    Zhang, Xiaogen; Liu, Chundong; Luo, Luqiao; Cai, Xiaohui


    To investigate the presence of vasculogenic mimicry (VM) in tongue squamous cell carcinoma and explore its clinical significance. Forty-two surgical specimens of tongue squamous cell carcinoma were examined for the presence of VM using HE staining and double staining of CD34 and PAS. Of the 42 specimens, 18 (42.86%) showed the presence of VM. VM was not correlated with the patients' age or gender, but with lymph node metastasis and the grade of tumor differentiation. Compared with tumors without VM, the tumors with VM had a significantly higher rate of lymph node metastasis (P<0.05) and a lower grade of differentiation (P<0.05). VM can be present in tongue squamous cell carcinoma, and the poorly differentiated tumors contain more VM, which is associated with a greater likeliness of lymph node metastasis and a poorer prognosis.

  18. The Tongue as an Excitable Medium

    Seiden, Gabriel


    Geographic tongue (GT) is a benign condition affecting approximately 2% of the population, whereby the papillae covering the upper part of the tongue are lost due to a slowly expanding inflammation. The resultant dynamical appearance of the tongue has striking similarities with well known phenomena observed in excitable media, such as forest fires, cardiac dynamics and chemically-driven reaction-diffusion systems. Here we explore the dynamics associated with GT from a dynamical systems perspective, utilizing cellular automata simulations. We emphasize similarities with other excitable systems as well as unique features observed in GT. Our results shed light on the evolution of the inflammation and contribute to the classification of the severity of the condition, based on the characteristic patterns observed in GT patients.

  19. Undulating tongue in Wilson′s disease

    M Nagappa


    Full Text Available We report an unusual occurrence of involuntary movement involving the tongue in a patient with confirmed Wilson′s disease (WD. She manifested with slow, hypophonic speech and dysphagia of 4 months duration, associated with pseudobulbar affect, apathy, drooling and dystonia of upper extremities of 1 month duration. Our patient had an uncommon tongue movement which was arrhythmic. There was no feature to suggest tremor, chorea or dystonia. It might be described as athetoid as there was a writhing quality, but of lesser amplitude. Thus, the phenomenology was uncommon in clinical practice and the surface of the tongue was seen to "ripple" like a liquid surface agitated by an object or breeze. Isolated lingual dyskinesias are rare in WD. It is important to evaluate them for WD, a potentially treatable disorder.

  20. Radiation response of the mouse tongue epithelium

    Moses, R.; Kummermehr, J.


    Mouse tongue mucosa has been used as a model to study dose responses to local irradiation. Although the irradiation procedures is less feasible and more time-consuming than e.g. snout irradiation, the tongue is the only location where a reasonable area of intraoral, multilayered epithelium in the mouse can be locally treated and scored, and a relatively small burden is imposed on the animal. In pilot experiments with external 300 kV x-irradiation just tolerated by the lip, the authors did not see critical damage to the tongue. In the present model, the onset of denudation was not correctly predicted by the normal turnover time of the tissue.

  1. Progress of Biomimetic Artificial Nose and Tongue

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Qingjun


    As two of the basic senses of human beings, olfaction and gustation play a very important role in daily life. These two types of chemical sensors are important for recognizing environmental conditions. Electronic nose and electronic tongue, which mimics animals' olfaction and gustation to detect odors and chemical components, have been carried out due to their potential commercial applications for biomedicine, food industry and environmental protection. In this report, the biomimetic artificial nose and tongue is presented. Firstly, the smell and taste sensors mimicking the mammalian olfaction and gustation was described, and then, some mimetic design of electronic nose and tongue for odorants and tastants detection are developed. Finally, olfactory and gustatory biosensors are presented as the developing trends of this field.

  2. Three-dimensional tori and Arnold tongues

    Sekikawa, Munehisa, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical and Intelligent Engineering, Utsunomiya University, Utsunomiya-shi 321-8585 (Japan); Inaba, Naohiko [Organization for the Strategic Coordination of Research and Intellectual Property, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Kamiyama, Kyohei [Department of Electronics and Bioinformatics, Meiji University, Kawasaki-shi 214-8571 (Japan); Aihara, Kazuyuki [Institute of Industrial Science, the University of Tokyo, Meguro-ku 153-8505 (Japan)


    This study analyzes an Arnold resonance web, which includes complicated quasi-periodic bifurcations, by conducting a Lyapunov analysis for a coupled delayed logistic map. The map can exhibit a two-dimensional invariant torus (IT), which corresponds to a three-dimensional torus in vector fields. Numerous one-dimensional invariant closed curves (ICCs), which correspond to two-dimensional tori in vector fields, exist in a very complicated but reasonable manner inside an IT-generating region. Periodic solutions emerge at the intersections of two different thin ICC-generating regions, which we call ICC-Arnold tongues, because all three independent-frequency components of the IT become rational at the intersections. Additionally, we observe a significant bifurcation structure where conventional Arnold tongues transit to ICC-Arnold tongues through a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation in the neighborhood of a quasi-periodic Hopf bifurcation (or a quasi-periodic Neimark-Sacker bifurcation) boundary.

  3. [True double dermoid cyst of the tongue].

    García Callejo, F J; Roselló Millat, P; Alpera Lacruz, R; Platero Zamarreño, A; Jubert, A


    Dermoid cysts into ENT zone are specially infrequent--just the 7% of the organism--, and extremely rare if are located in the tongue. They are usually detected as midline acute swelling, and produce swallowing, speech and sleep disorders at neonatal period because of their congenital character. We present an eleven-year-old boy admitted at our Hospital bearing a submandibular and oral swelling, and dysphagia with odynophagia, finally diagnosed as an intralingual double dermoid cyst of the anterior two thirds. The history of frenulectomy due to a presumed ankyloglossia, the previous presence of a dorsal tumour in tongue with a difficult phonetic articulation, and the midline location of lesions made us to suspect on dermoid cysts of the tongue. Complete surgical excision were diagnostic and therapeutic, and the child recovered totally their mastication, swallowing and speech abilities. Pathophysiological aspects, treatment and the atypical course of the case are discussed.

  4. A Giant Hemangioma of the Tongue

    Babak Saedi


    Full Text Available Introduction: Vascular abnormalities are relatively uncommon lesions, but head and neck is a common region for vascular malformation which is classified as benign tumors. In this paper, the authors report a rare presentation of vascular malformation in the tongue and its managements. Case Report: An 18 months 2 old child presented with a giant mass of tongue which caused functional and aesthetic problem. The rapid growth pattern of cavernous hemangioma was refractory to corticosteroid. The lesion was excised without any complication. Since the mass was so huge that not only filled entire oral cavity but was protruding outside, airway management was a great challenge for anesthesia plan and at the same time surgical technique was difficult to select. Conclusion: Despite different recommended modalities in managing hemangiomas of the tongue, in cases of huge malformations, surgery could be the mainstay treatment and provided that critical care measures are taken in to account, could be performed very safely.

  5. Stimulating effect of tongue on craniofacial growth.

    Schumacher, G H; Becker, R; Hübner, A; Pommerenke, F


    The influence of the tongue on craniofacial growth was studied in 96 Mini-Lewe miniature pigs. The animals were partially glossectomized at different ages and slaughtered at various intervals after operation. The skulls were macerated for biometric analysis. Mandibular growth was significantly reduced lengthwise in animals glossectomized at age 12 weeks. The role played by the tongue in orofacial growth was also indicated by the reduced width of the lower jaw. In pigs partially glossectomized at age 12 weeks, lateral growth of the entire lower jaw was reduced after eight weeks. In animals glossectomized at age six weeks, lateral growth of the lower jaw was reduced in the region of the 1st deciduous molars and the canines after glossectomy. Partial glossectomy had no significant effects on vertical growth of the lower jaw, growth of the upper jaw or overall skull growth. Shortening of the tongue in miniature pigs six weeks old resulted in no measurable jaw changes 23 weeks after surgery.

  6. Convergence of macroscopic tongue anatomy in ruminants and scaling relationships with body mass or tongue length.

    Meier, Andrea R; Schmuck, Ute; Meloro, Carlo; Clauss, Marcus; Hofmann, Reinhold R


    Various morphological measures demonstrate convergent evolution in ruminants with their natural diet, in particular with respect to the browser/grazer dichotomy. Here, we report quantitative macroanatomical measures of the tongue (length and width of specific parts) of 65 ruminant species and relate them to either body mass (BM) or total tongue length, and to the percentage of grass in the natural diet (%grass). Models without and with accounting for the phylogenetic structures of the dataset were used, and models were ranked using Akaike's Information Criterion. Scaling relationships followed geometric principles, that is, length measures scaled with BM to the power of 0.33. Models that used tongue length rather than BM as a body size proxy were consistently ranked better, indicating that using size proxies that are less susceptible to a wider variety of factors (such as BM that fluctuates with body condition) should be attempted whenever possible. The proportion of the freely mobile tongue tip of the total tongue (and hence also the corpus length) was negatively correlated to %grass, in accordance with concepts that the feeding mechanism of browsers requires more mobile tongues. It should be noted that some nonbrowsers, such as cattle, use a peculiar mechanism for grazing that also requires long, mobile tongues, but they appear to be exceptions. A larger corpus width with increasing %grass corresponds to differences in snout shape with broader snouts in grazers. The Torus linguae is longer with increasing %grass, a finding that still warrants functional interpretation. This study shows that tongue measures covary with diet in ruminants. In contrast, the shape of the tongue (straight or "hourglass-shaped" as measured by the ratio of the widest and smallest corpus width) is unrelated to diet and is influenced strongly by phylogeny.

  7. Inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes on hams shortly after vacuum packaging by spray application of lauric arginate.

    Taormina, P J; Dorsa, W J


    This study measured and compared the short-term efficacy levels of lauric arginate (LAE) as a postlethality treatment against Listeria monocytogenes present on varied surfaces of large-diameter hams. Preliminary in vitro work demonstrated a 5-log inactivation of L. monocytogenes in 5,000- and 9,090-ppm LAE solutions within 180 min at 4.4 and 23 degrees C. Six different whole-muscle ham types were inoculated with L. monocytogenes at ca. 7-log CFU per ham and spray treated with between 15 and 29 ml of a 9,090-ppm LAE solution, or an equal volume of water (control), prior to vacuum packaging. After 48 h at 4.4 degrees C, populations were recovered from ham and interior packaging surfaces by using a surface rinse method with Dey-Engley neutralizing broth followed by plating on modified Oxford medium. Logarithmic reductions of L. monocytogenes exceeding 2 log CFU/cm(2) of ham surfaces were achieved by LAE treatment on all ham types. Hams with 1,129 cm(2) of surface area that had been processed by drenching in liquid smoke had 3.84 and 2.67 CFU/cm(2) 48 h following treatment with 18 ml of water or LAE, respectively, but increasing treatment volumes to 22 ml significantly reduced (P < 0.05) L. monocytogenes levels to 0.65 log CFU/cm(2). This study demonstrated the efficacy of LAE against L. monocytogenes on several ham types, thereby validating it as a postlethality treatment for inactivation of the pathogen.

  8. Subcutaneous and intermuscular fat characterisation of dry-cured Iberian hams.

    Timón, M L; Ventanas, J; Carrapiso, A I; Jurado, A; García, C


    The fatty acid composition of the triacylglycerols and free fatty acids of subcutaneous (internal and superficial layers) and intermuscular fat and the contribution of these fatty acids to the formation of volatile compounds were determined in dry-cured Iberian ham. The profile of the fatty acids and volatile compounds showed that lipolytic and oxidative processes occur more intensively in subcutaneous than intermuscular fat, however, few differences were found compared to those found in ham lean.

  9. Jubler over hans død- før hyldede de ham

    Bjerg, Magnus; Sabih, Joshua A.


    Den vestlige verdens ledere står i kø for at juble over Muammar Gaddafis død torsdag, selvom de for få år siden modtog ham med åbne arme......Den vestlige verdens ledere står i kø for at juble over Muammar Gaddafis død torsdag, selvom de for få år siden modtog ham med åbne arme...

  10. Infrahyoid myofascial flap for tongue reconstruction.

    Windfuhr, Jochen P; Remmert, Stephan


    For selected cases, reconstruction of the tongue may be required after tumor removal. This study was undertaken to demonstrate a simplified concept of tongue reconstruction with emphasis on infrahyoid myofascial flaps (IMF). The defects of the tongue were classified in 23 patients according to the extent of tumor growth, functional and surgical aspects. The oral tongue (OT; n = 1), base of tongue (BT; n = 12) or both areas (OT and BT; n = 10) were involved, with (n = 14) or without (n = 9) infiltration of adjacent tissues. Minor defects (extent (1/4) or less) required no reconstructive procedure at any area. Major defect closure (extent (1/2)-3/4) was accomplished with a combination of IMF covered by a radial forearm flap (RFF). A complete reconstruction of the OT was achieved with a combination of a bilateral IMF covered by a RFF. Whenever the complete BT has to be removed, interposition of a vein graft to establish a sufficient arterial blood supply to the remaining OT is mandatory. Moreover, a larynx lift to prevent aspiration is recommendable. Resection of adjacent soft tissues requires a larger RFF (OT; BT) or flaps from the shoulder-back region (BT and OT). Whenever the integrity of the mandible has to be sacrificed, a free fibula graft serves as an excellent tool for reconstruction. IMF serves as a reliable tool for minor or major reconstructive procedures of the tongue. Reliability and versatility of IMF may contribute to a reduced time required for surgery since harvesting is performed in the neck area immediately after neck dissection. Moreover, harvesting of the IMF does not result in an increased postoperative morbidity. Hence, functional restoration can be achieved with a more cost-effective procedure.

  11. Tongues in degree 4 Blaschke products

    Canela, Jordi; Fagella, Núria; Garijo, Antonio


    The goal of this paper is to investigate the family of Blasche products {{B}a}(z)={{z}3}\\frac{z-a}{1-\\bar{a}z} , which is a rational family of perturbations of the doubling map. We focus on the tongue-like sets which appear in its parameter plane. We first study their basic topological properties and afterwards we investigate how bifurcations take place in a neighborhood of their tips. Finally we see how the fixed tongue extends beyond its natural domain of definition.

  12. Lingual neurofibroma causing dysaesthesia of the tongue

    Lykke, Eva; Nørgaard, Tove; Rye Rasmussen, Eva


    of otorhinolaryngology with irritation and dysaesthesia of the lateral aspect of the tongue. The only finding was a slightly red area from which a biopsy was taken. The macroscopic findings observed by the surgeon were consistent with normal tongue tissue. The histopathological examination showed a small, rounded tumour...... closely approximated to an invagination of the surface epithelium and with a small lymphatic infiltrate. The tumour was a neurofibroma. A Schwannoma type B was considered but the presence of small nerves and positive neurofilament reaction favoured a neurofibroma. The patient had no other neurofibromas...

  13. [Comparative imaging of cancers of the tongue].

    Maradji-Melia, P; Bruneton, J N; Balu-Maestro, C; Marcy, P Y; Dubruque, F; Dassonville, O


    In a comparative study of 18 cases of tongue cancer examined with ultrasonography, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), the authors assess the advantages and disadvantages of each technique. MRI seems to be more effective for the detection of small lesions, the examination of the mobile part of the tongue, in case of dental artifacts, for the study of regional extension and to screen recurrence. CT retains its indications for large tumors in patients who are in a poor general condition, tired, and cannot stand lengthy examinations. Ultrasonography remains the first-intention examination in all cases because of its indisputable superiority for lymph node examination.

  14. Schwannoma of the tongue: one case report.

    Mevio, E; Gorini, E; Lenzi, A; Migliorini, L


    The schwannomas are nervous tissue tumours that arise from Schwann cells; they are uncommon in peripheral nerves and rare in the tongue. After, a review of the literature, we present a case of schwannoma which arose in the ventral part of the body of the tongue. The tumour presented as a slowly growing mass producing few symptoms. The diagnosis of schwannoma is usually made post-operatively by histological identification although modern imaging techniques can provide useful indications. The treatment is exclusively surgical and usually enucleation of the mass is uncomplicated. There are no reports of malignant transformation.


    Satyananda Rao


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: A case report of an 18 - year - old young girl presented with a slow - growing, painless swelling on the right side of the tongue since 4 years. This was associated with disturbances in mastication. Examination revealed a 3 cm x 4 cm, globular smooth, mobile mass on right side of the tongue. There was no neurological deficit and no neck nodes palpable. She underwent excision of the mass under general anaesthesia. Complete enucleation with primary closure was carried out. The patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and histo patho logical evaluation was consistent with schwannoma. The patient is recurrence free till date

  16. Consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries.

    Resano, H; Pérez-Cueto, F J A; Sanjuán, A I; de Barcellos, M D; Grunert, K G; Verbeke, W


    The objective is to investigate consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries. A logistic regression model has been fitted using data collected through a cross-sectional web-based survey carried out in Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Poland and Greece during January 2008 (n=2437 of which 2156 were dry-cured ham consumers). Satisfaction was evaluated as overall satisfaction, as well as specific satisfaction with healthfulness, price, convenience and taste. The findings show that the main determinant of overall satisfaction is taste satisfaction, hence, producers are recommended to focus on matching sensory acceptability of dry-cured ham. No significant between-country differences were found, reflecting the wide availability of this product in all countries. Consumer characteristics influenced their level of satisfaction. Men, older (age > 52 years) and frequent consumers of dry-cured ham consumption were more likely to be satisfied with dry-cured ham. Consumers trust the butcher's advice and they preferred purchasing dry-cured ham at a butcher shop rather than in a supermarket.

  17. Effect of Transport Distance and Season on Some Defects of Fresh Hams Destined for DPO Production

    Arduini, Agnese; Redaelli, Veronica; Luzi, Fabio; Dall’Olio, Stefania; Pace, Vincenzo; Nanni Costa, Leonardo


    Simple Summary Transport to the slaughterhouse is a stressful event for pigs. Travel duration and conditions can negatively affect animal welfare and carcass quality. Some defects in fresh hams are strictly connected to pre-slaughter transportation. Journeys with short (170 km) distances may increase damage in fresh hams and decrease Denomination Protected of Origin (DPO) Parma dry-cured ham production. Abstract Pre-slaughter handling is related to defects in fresh hams that result in exclusion from the DPO Parma chain, including hematomas, lacerations, microhaemorrhages and veining. To determine the effects of transport conditions on hams, we collected data on defects in 901,990 trimmed fresh hams from heavy pigs provided by 3,650 batches from slaughterhouse during 2012 and 2013. For all batches, transport distance (1–276 km) season and year of delivery were considered. A decrease of all defect occurrences was observed for increasing distance up to 170 km (P transported 38–170 km during the summer. PMID:26480322

  18. Histological and morphological observations on tongue of Scincella tsinlingensis (Reptilia, Squamata, Scincidae).

    Yang, Chun; Wang, Limin


    The histology and morphology characteristics of the tongue in Scincella tsinlingensis were studied by light and electronic microscopy. Under light microscopy, the tongue consists of tip, lingual body and radix in sequence. Numerous lingual papillae widely distribute on the surface of the dorsal and ventral flanks in the tongue, in addition to some regions of the tip. The papillae's surface is covered with the epithelial layer. The lamina propria and dense connective tissue are distinct existing under the epithelial layer. There are many lingual glands spread over the lamina propria. Tongue muscle is developed and composed of distinct intrinsic muscle, hyoglossus and genioglossus. By scanning electron microscopy, at higher magnification, the epithelial cells of the dorsal surface in the divaricate tongue tips show numerous microvilli, micro-ridges and micro-pores. The surface of dorsal side of the papillae in lingual body is covered with abundant of micro-ridges and taste bud lacuna. On the surface of the papillae in radix, micro-facets and micro-ridges are compactly distributed, as well as scattered mucilage-pores. The lingual epithelium is divided into four layers observed by the transmission electron microscope. Cells of basal layer are irregularly elliptical in shape, with sparse organelles in the cytoplasm. The deep intermediate layer is not always distinct. Small numbers of organelles are scattered into the cytoplasm. The cells of the superficial intermediate layer gradually flatten, as do their nuclei. The cytoplasm contains many keratohyalin granules. Cell membranes are formed processes around cells and joined by abundant desmosomes to the cell membranes of adjacent cells. The cells located on the extreme free-surface side of the keratinized layer have fallen off. The basal lamina is intercalated between the basal layer and the lamina propria. The lamina propria of lingual body contains lingual gland. A large part of the cytoplasm is occupied by mucus

  19. Tongue Control and Its Implication in Pronunciation Training

    Ouni, Slim


    Pronunciation training based on speech production techniques illustrating tongue movements is gaining popularity. However, there is not sufficient evidence that learners can imitate some tongue animation. In this paper, we argue that although controlling tongue movement related to speech is not such an easy task, training with visual feedback…

  20. Evidence for an elastic projection mechanism in the chameleon tongue

    Groot, de J.H.; Leeuwen, van J.L.


    To capture prey, chameleons ballistically project their tongues as far as 1.5 body lengths with accelerations of up to 500 m s-2. At the core of a chameleon's tongue is a cylindrical tongue skeleton surrounded by the accelerator muscle. Previously, the cylindrical accelerator muscle was assumed to p

  1. A three-dimensional atlas of human tongue muscles.

    Sanders, Ira; Mu, Liancai


    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue's anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a three-dimensional (3D) computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue.

  2. Tongue controlled computer game: A new approach for rehabilitation of tongue motor function

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim


    Objective: To investigate the influence of tongue-disability, age and gender on motor performance for a tongue training paradigm involving playing a computer game using the Tongue Drive System (TDS). Design: Two controlled observational studies. Setting: A neurorehabilitation center and a dental...... training lasted 30 min and 40 min respectively. The participants were instructed to play a computer game with the tongue using TDS. Main Outcome Measures: Motor performance was compared between groups in both studies. Correlation analyses were performed between age and relative improvement in performance...... young participants performed better than healthy elderly (Peffect of gender (P=0.140). There was a significant negative correlation between age and relative improvement in performance (δ=-0.450, P=0.009). There were no significant differences in subject-based reports...

  3. Ablation of advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer and reconstruction with free flap: functional outcomes.

    Chien, C Y; Su, C Y; Hwang, C F; Chuang, H C; Jeng, S F; Chen, Y C


    To evaluate the functional outcomes of patients who underwent total or nearly total glossectomy for advanced tongue or base of tongue cancer. We used the radial forearm free flap (RFFF), anterior lateral thigh flap (ALTF) or fibular osteocutaneous flap (FOCF) to reconstruct the oral defect after radical resection in 39 patients undergoing total or nearly total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation. Good functional outcomes, measured by independent feeding, speech and swallowing were achieved in 35, 36 and 35 patients, respectively. The cumulative 4-year survival rates were 63.8% for tongue cancer and 42.9% for base of tongue cancer. Reconstruction with free flaps is a feasible method to restore the functional outcomes in speech and deglutition among patients who undergo total or nearly total glossectomy with laryngeal preservation.

  4. Use of a biomechanical tongue model to predict the impact of tongue surgery on speech production

    Buchaillard, Stéphanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan


    This paper presents predictions of the consequences of tongue surgery on speech production. For this purpose, a 3D finite element model of the tongue is used that represents this articulator as a deformable structure in which tongue muscles anatomy is realistically described. Two examples of tongue surgery, which are common in the treatment of cancers of the oral cavity, are modelled, namely a hemiglossectomy and a large resection of the mouth floor. In both cases, three kinds of possible reconstruction are simulated, assuming flaps with different stiffness. Predictions are computed for the cardinal vowels /i, a, u/ in the absence of any compensatory strategy, i.e. with the same motor commands as the one associated with the production of these vowels in non-pathological conditions. The estimated vocal tract area functions and the corresponding formants are compared to the ones obtained under normal conditions

  5. A Normative-Speaker Validation Study of Two Indices Developed to Quantify Tongue Dorsum Activity from Midsagittal Tongue Shapes

    Zharkova, Natalia


    This study reported adult scores on two measures of tongue shape, based on midsagittal tongue shape data from ultrasound imaging. One of the measures quantified the extent of tongue dorsum excursion, and the other measure represented the place of maximal excursion. Data from six adult speakers of Scottish Standard English without speech disorders…

  6. The Tongue Map, Real or Not?

    Marshall, Pamela A.


    Students need practice in proposing hypotheses, developing experiments that will test these hypotheses, and generating data that they will analyze to support or refute them. I describe a guided-inquiry activity based on the "tongue map" concept, appropriate for middle school and high school students.

  7. Ground-Tracking With a Forked Tongue


    Scientists since Aristotle’s day have wondered why the tongues of snakes and many lizards——are forked, a trait that dates from at least the Cretaceous,more than 65 million years ago.Now Kurt Schwenk,a University of Connecticut evolutionary biologist, thinks he knows the answer. "It gives them the abil-

  8. Native American Languages as Heritage Mother Tongues

    McCarty, Teresa L.


    This article examines current efforts to revitalise, stabilise, and maintain Indigenous languages in the USA. Most Native American languages are no longer acquired as a first language by children. They are nonetheless languages of identity and heritage, and in this sense can and should be considered mother tongues. The article begins with a…

  9. Mother Tongue Education: Necessary? Possible? Sustainable?

    Graham, Barbara Elaine


    Issues affecting pre-school education in a rural area of Kenya are highlighted in a study of a mother tongue education (MTE) programme in one indigenous language group, the Pokomo. Factors supporting the introduction of MTE include official support for MTE, the welcoming of non-government stakeholder involvement in education, the presence of…

  10. Acute dystonia mimicking angioedema of the tongue

    Rasmussen, Eva Rye; Pallesen, Kristine A U; Bygum, Anette


    We report a case of acute dystonia of the face, jaw and tongue caused by metoclopramide and mimicking angioedema. The patient had attacks for several years before the correct diagnosis was made and we present the first ever published video footage of an attack. This adverse drug reaction is known...


    Rizwan Sanadi


    Full Text Available A Frenum is a fold of mucous membrane, usually with enclosed muscle fibers, that attaches the lips and cheeks to the alveolar mucosa and/or mucosa and underlying periosteum. Tongue tie or ankyloglossia is a developmental anomaly of the tongue characterized by an abnormally short, thick lingual frenum resulting in limitation of tongue movement. It causes difficulty in speech articulation due to limitation in tongue movement. In this article we report a case of 24 years old female with Tongue tie, complaining of difficulty in speech. It was surgically treated with uneventful healing and good patient satisfaction.

  12. Availability of Tongue Diagnosis System for Assessing Tongue Coating Thickness in Patients with Functional Dyspepsia

    Juyeon Kim


    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an important procedure in traditional Korean medicine (TKM. In particular, tongue coating thickness (TCT is deemed to show the progression of the disease. However, conventional tongue diagnosis has limitations because of various external factors. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the availability of tongue diagnosis system (TDS in the assessment of TCT. This study has been designed as a prospective clinical trial involving 60 patients with functional dyspepsia. Tongue images will be obtained by TDS twice with a 30 min interval. The system will measure the percentage of TCT and classify it as either no coating, thin coating, or thick coating according to the existing diagnostic criteria. After finishing the collection of 60 patients' tongue images, TCT on the images will be simultaneously evaluated by the conventional method to establish the gold standard for assessing TCT by 5 well-trained clinicians. The evaluation will be repeated by the same clinicians after 2 weeks, but the order of the images will be changed. This trial is expected to provide clinical evidence for the availability of TDS as a diagnostic tool and to contribute to the standardization of the diagnosis system used in TKM. This trial is registered with NCT01864837.

  13. A 3-Dimensional Atlas of Human Tongue Muscles



    The human tongue is one of the most important yet least understood structures of the body. One reason for the relative lack of research on the human tongue is its complex anatomy. This is a real barrier to investigators as there are few anatomical resources in the literature that show this complex anatomy clearly. As a result, the diagnosis and treatment of tongue disorders lags behind that for other structures of the head and neck. This report intended to fill this gap by displaying the tongue’s anatomy in multiple ways. The primary material used in this study was serial axial images of the male and female human tongue from the Visible Human (VH) Project of the National Library of Medicine. In addition, thick serial coronal sections of three human tongues were rendered translucent. The VH axial images were computer reconstructed into serial coronal sections and each tongue muscle was outlined. These outlines were used to construct a 3-dimensional computer model of the tongue that allows each muscle to be seen in its in vivo anatomical position. The thick coronal sections supplement the 3-D model by showing details of the complex interweaving of tongue muscles throughout the tongue. The graphics are perhaps the clearest guide to date to aid clinical or basic science investigators in identifying each tongue muscle in any part of the human tongue. PMID:23650264

  14. A soft biomimetic tongue: model reconstruction and motion tracking

    Lu, Xuanming; Xu, Weiliang; Li, Xiaoning


    A bioinspired robotic tongue which is actuated by a network of compressed air is proposed for the purpose of mimicking the movements of human tongue. It can be applied in the fields such as medical science and food engineering. The robotic tongue is made of two kinds of silicone rubber Ecoflex 0030 and PDMS with the shape simplified from real human tongue. In order to characterize the robotic tongue, a series of experiments were carried out. Laser scan was applied to reconstruct the static model of robotic tongue when it was under pressurization. After each scan, the robotic tongue was scattered into dense points in the same 3D coordinate system and the coordinates of each point were recorded. Motion tracking system (OptiTrack) was used to track and record the whole process of deformation dynamically during the loading and unloading phase. In the experiments, five types of deformation were achieved including roll-up, roll-down, elongation, groove and twist. Utilizing the discrete points generated by laser scan, the accurate parameterized outline of robotic tongue under different pressure was obtained, which could help demonstrate the static characteristic of robotic tongue. The precise deformation process under one pressure was acquired through the OptiTrack system which contains a series of digital cameras, markers on the robotic tongue and a set of hardware and software for data processing. By means of tracking and recording different process of deformation under different pressure, the dynamic characteristic of robotic tongue could be achieved.

  15. The motor evoked potential in aids and HAM/TSP State of the evidence El potencial evocado motor en SIDA y HAM/PET

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: We aimed to better understand the involvement of the corticospinal tract, assessed by non-invasive transcranial stimulation, in order to determine the actual involvement of the motor system in patients with HAM/TSP and AIDS. METHOD: An exhaustive MEDLINE search for the period of 1985 to 2008 for all articles cross-referenced for "HTLV-I, HTLV-II, HTLV-III and HIV, HIV1, HIV2, evoked potential, motor evoked potential, high voltage electrical stimulation, transcranial magnetic stimulation, magnetic stimulation, corticomotor physiology, motor pathways, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, AIDS, SIDA, tropical spastic paraparesis, HTLV-I-associated myelopathy, HAM, TSP, and HAM/TSP" were selected and analysed. RESULTS: Eighteen papers published in English, Spanish, Portuguese, French and Japanese were identified. Only the central motor conduction time has been analyzed in seropositive patients to human retroviruses. The investigations done on HAM/TSP support the involvement of the pyramidal tract mainly at lower levels, following a centripetal pattern; in AIDS, such an involvement seems to be more prominent at brain levels following a centrifugal pattern. CONCLUSION: The central motor conduction time abnormalities and involvement differences of the corticospinal tract of patients with AIDS and HAM/TSP dissected here would allow to re-orient early neurorehabilitation measures in these retroviruses-associated neurodegenerative disorders. Besides this, more sophisticated and sensitive non-invasive corticospinal stimulation measures that detect early changes in thalamocortical-basal ganglia circuitry will be needed in both clinically established as well as asymptomatic patients at times when the fastest corticospinal fibers remain uninvolved.OBJETIVO: Investigar el compromiso del tracto piramidal, evaluado por estimulación trascranial no invasiva, en pacientes afectados por SIDA y HAM/TSP. MÉTODO: Se realizó una búsqueda en la base de

  16. Case report macroglossia: Review and application of tongue reduction technique

    Bilommi R. Irhamni


    Full Text Available Congenital macroglossia is uncommon condition, Enlargement can be true as seen in vascular malformations or muscular enlargement. It may cause significant symptoms in children such as sleep apnea, respiratory distress, drooling, difficulty in swallowing and dysarthria. Long-standing macroglossia leads to an anterior open bite deformity, mucosal changes, exposure to potential trauma, increased incidence of upper respiratory tract infections and failure to thrive. Tongue movements, sounds and Speech articulation may also be affected. It is important to achieve uniform global reduction of the enlarged tongue for functional as well as esthetic reasons. The multiple techniques advocated for tongue reduction reveal that an ideal procedure has yet to emerge. In our case report we describe a modified reduction technique of the tongue globally preserving the taste, sensation and mobility of the tongue suitable for cases of enlargement of the tongue as in muscular hypertrophy. It can be used for repeat reductions without jeopardizing the mobility and sensibility of the tongue.

  17. Ectopic expression of the HAM59 gene causes homeotic transformations of reproductive organs in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.).

    Shulga, O A; Neskorodov, Ya B; Shchennikova, A V; Gaponenko, A K; Skryabin, K G


    The function of the HAM59 MADS-box gene in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) was studied to clarify homeotic C activity in the Asteraceae plant family. For the first time, transgenic sunflower plants with a modified pattern of HAM59 expression were obtained. It was shown that the HAM59 MADS-box transcription factor did mediate C activity in sunflower. In particular, it participated in termination of the floral meristem, repression of the cadastral function of A-activity, and together with other C-type sunflower protein HAM45-in the specification of the identity of stamens and pistils.

  18. Analysis of volatile compounds from Iberian hams: a review

    Narváez-Rivas, M.


    Full Text Available This article provides information on the study of the volatile compounds in raw and dry-cured Iberian hams. Different volatile compounds are identified and studies carried out by different authors are presented. This article reviews the analytical methods that have been used to determine the different volatiles of these samples. Furthermore, all volatile compounds identified (a total of 411 volatiles have been collected in several tables according to different series of compounds: hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and ethers, lactones, terpenes and chloride compounds, nitrogenous compounds, sulfur compounds and carboxylic acids. This review can be useful in subsequent research due to the complexity of the study.

    En este artículo se proporciona información sobre el estudio de los compuestos volátiles del jamón ibérico tanto fresco como curado. Se presentan los diferentes compuestos volátiles identificados por distintos autores. Además, se evalúan los métodos analíticos que han sido utilizados para determinar dichos compuestos volátiles en este tipo de muestras. Todos los compuestos identificados y descritos en esta revisión (un total de 411 compuestos volátiles han sido agrupados en diversas tablas de acuerdo a las diferentes familias a que pertenecen: hidrocarburos, aldehídos, cetonas, alcoholes, ésteres y éteres, lactonas, terpenos, compuestos halogenados, compuestos nitrogenados, compuestos de azufre y ácidos carboxílicos. Debido a la complejidad de este estudio, la presente revisión puede ser muy útil en investigaciones posteriores.

  19. Simulations of the consequences of tongue surgery on tongue mobility: implications for speech production in post-surgery conditions

    Buchaillard, Stéphanie; Perrier, Pascal; Payan, Yohan


    This paper presents simulations of the impact of tongue surgery on tongue movements and on speech articulation. For this, a 3D biomechanical Finite Element (FE) model of the tongue is used. Muscles are represented within the FE structure by specific subsets of elements. The tongue model is inserted in the upper airways including jaw, palate and pharyngeal walls. Two examples of tongue surgery, which are quite common in the treatment of cancers of the oral cavity are modelled: hemiglossectomy and large resection of the mouth floor. Three kinds of reconstruction are also modelled, assuming flaps with a low, medium or high stiffnesses. The impact of the surgery without any reconstruction and with the three different reconstructions is quantitatively measured and compared during simulated speech production sequences. More precisely, differences in global 3D tongue shape and in velocity patterns during tongue displacements are evaluated.

  20. Information in CDS Spreads

    L. Norden (Lars)


    textabstractWe investigate how public and private information drives corporate CDS spreads before rating announcements. We find that CDS spreads of firms with higher news intensity move significantly earlier and stronger before rating announcements, which can be explained with public information fro

  1. The spreading of disorder.

    Keizer, Kees; Lindenberg, Siegwart; Steg, Linda


    Imagine that the neighborhood you are living in is covered with graffiti, litter, and unreturned shopping carts. Would this reality cause you to litter more, trespass, or even steal? A thesis known as the broken windows theory suggests that signs of disorderly and petty criminal behavior trigger more disorderly and petty criminal behavior, thus causing the behavior to spread. This may cause neighborhoods to decay and the quality of life of its inhabitants to deteriorate. For a city government, this may be a vital policy issue. But does disorder really spread in neighborhoods? So far there has not been strong empirical support, and it is not clear what constitutes disorder and what may make it spread. We generated hypotheses about the spread of disorder and tested them in six field experiments. We found that, when people observe that others violated a certain social norm or legitimate rule, they are more likely to violate other norms or rules, which causes disorder to spread.

  2. The Graph, Geometry and Symmetries of the Genetic Code with Hamming Metric

    Reijer Lenstra


    Full Text Available The similarity patterns of the genetic code result from similar codons encoding similar messages. We develop a new mathematical model to analyze these patterns. The physicochemical characteristics of amino acids objectively quantify their differences and similarities; the Hamming metric does the same for the 64 codons of the codon set. (Hamming distances equal the number of different codon positions: AAA and AAC are at 1-distance; codons are maximally at 3-distance. The CodonPolytope, a 9-dimensional geometric object, is spanned by 64 vertices that represent the codons and the Euclidian distances between these vertices correspond one-to-one with intercodon Hamming distances. The CodonGraph represents the vertices and edges of the polytope; each edge equals a Hamming 1-distance. The mirror reflection symmetry group of the polytope is isomorphic to the largest permutation symmetry group of the codon set that preserves Hamming distances. These groups contain 82,944 symmetries. Many polytope symmetries coincide with the degeneracy and similarity patterns of the genetic code. These code symmetries are strongly related with the face structure of the polytope with smaller faces displaying stronger code symmetries. Splitting the polytope stepwise into smaller faces models an early evolution of the code that generates this hierarchy of code symmetries. The canonical code represents a class of 41,472 codes with equivalent symmetries; a single class among an astronomical number of symmetry classes comprising all possible codes.

  3. SIFT-MS analysis of Iberian hams from pigs reared under different conditions.

    Carrapiso, Ana I; Noseda, Bert; García, Carmen; Reina, Raquel; Sánchez Del Pulgar, José; Devlieghere, Frank


    The aim of this study was to investigate the usefulness of a Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry (SIFT-MS) equipment to tentatively quantify relevant volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham, and to differentiate Iberian hams from pigs reared at four different conditions yielding different commercial grades. The SIFT-MS analysis allowed the rapid quantification of 39 Iberian ham volatile compounds, 16 of them being significantly affected by the rearing conditions of pigs. The full spectra SIFT-MS data allowed the correct classification of 79.2% of hams according to diet, which is a smaller percentage than that obtained using intramuscular fatty acid data (95.8%) obtained by using a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector after lipid extraction and transesterification. Therefore, the SIFT-MS analysis would be a rapid tool to tentatively quantify some relevant volatile compounds, and also would provide a rapid but rough classification of Iberian ham according to the rearing conditions of pigs.

  4. Non-destructive determination of fat content in green hams using ultrasound and X-rays.

    de Prados, M; Fulladosa, E; Gou, P; Muñoz, I; Garcia-Perez, J V; Benedito, J


    This work addresses the use of ultrasound (US) and medical dual energy X-ray absorptiometry methods to predict the fat content in green pork hams. Ultrasonic velocity (υ) and X-ray absorption were measured in 78 green hams. An increase in the fat content involved an increase in υ and a decrease in the X-ray attenuation measured at 2°C. Models developed to predict the fat content from the ultrasonic velocity or X-ray parameters provided errors of 2.97% and 4.65%, respectively. The combination of both US and X-ray technologies did not improve prediction accuracy. These models allowed green hams to be classified into three levels of fatness, with 88.5% and 65.4% of the hams correctly classified when using models based on ultrasonic and X-ray parameters, respectively. Therefore, US and X-rays emerge as useful quality control technologies with which to estimate the fat content in green pork hams.

  5. Proposal for a New Noncontact Method for Measuring Tongue Moisture to Assist in Tongue Diagnosis and Development of the Tongue Image Analyzing System, Which Can Separately Record the Gloss Components of the Tongue

    Toshiya Nakaguchi


    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is a noninvasive diagnosis and is traditionally one of the most important tools for physicians who practice Kampo (traditional Japanese medicine. However, it is a subjective process, and its results can depend on the experience of the physician performing it. Previous studies have reported how to measure and evaluate the shape and color of the tongue objectively. Therefore, this study focused on the glossy component in order to quantify tongue moisture in tongue diagnosis. We hypothesized that moisture appears as a gloss in captured images and measured the amount of water on the tongue surface in 13 subjects. The results showed a high correlation between the degree of gloss and the amount of water on the tongue surface and suggested that the moisture on the tongue can be estimated by the degree of gloss in a captured image. Because the moisture level on the tongue changes during the course of taking photos, it became clear that we had to wait at least 3 minutes between photos. Based on these results, we established the tongue image analyzing system (TIAS, which can consistently record the gloss and color of the tongue surface simultaneously.

  6. [Observation of the ultrastructure of the tongue coating].

    Watanabe, Hideaki


    An observational study was conducted to clarify the morphological features of the fine structure of the tongue coating, which is one of the main causes of halitosis. Tongue specimens from cadavers, whom dental students had practiced on for anatomy class, were used as materials to observe the surface structure. Tongue coatings were obtained from patients who were referred to the Fresh Breath Clinic, Dental Hospital, Tokyo Medical and Dental University. After macroscopic observation of the tongue surface, tongue coating and examination of halitosis, the tongue coating was scraped carefully, following which it was observed using a light microscope and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results obtained were as follows. The tongue coating consisted mainly of bacteria and desquamated keratinized epithelium which originated chiefly from the filiform papilla. The desquamated keratinized epithelium was also composed of degenerated epithelium of every level, from a comparatively normal epithelium to a fragmented altered epithelium. In addition, the level of degeneration of the keratinized epithelium differed according to the state of distribution and the revitalization of bacteria located in its surroundings. The intensity of halitosis increased with the amount of tongue coating. Increased amounts of tongue coating, however, did not necessarily correlate with increased halitosis in the patients. It was suggested that the severity of halitosis was probably associated with the level of bacterial invasion-related degeneration of the desquamated keratinized epithelium (tongue coating's quality).

  7. Improved denture retention in patients with retracted tongues.

    Lee, Ji-Hua; Chen, Jen-Hao; Lee, Huey-Er; Chang, Hong-Po; Chen, Hong-Sen; Yang, Yi-Hsin; Chou, Tsau-Mau


    Patients who wear mandibular dentures and hold their tongues in retracted positions alter the dimensions of the sublingual space and disrupt the peripheral seal that is needed for optimal denture retention. The authors studied whether retention could be improved if patients moved their tongues from a retracted resting position to an ideal resting position. The authors observed and classified the mandibular residual ridge morphologies of 85 participants who wore complete dentures. The authors recorded and compared the retention of the mandibular denture before and after repositioning the tongue to the ideal resting position. When the participants' tongues were in a retracted resting position, the average retention of the mandibular denture was 75.38 gram weight (+/- 81.83 standard deviation [SD]). After participants repositioned their tongues to the ideal resting position, the average retention of the mandibular denture was 118.89 gw (+/- 93.00 SD), an increase of 57.73 percent. In all morphological classes, when participants held their tongues in the ideal resting position, the average mandibular denture retention increased by 57.73 percent, a statistically significant improvement compared with when participants held their tongues in a retracted resting position. Clinicians are encouraged to evaluate carefully the tongue resting position in all patients who wear dentures, help create reasonable therapeutic expectations by informing patients about the significant effect that tongue position will have on future denture retention and provide helpful neuromuscular training for patients with retracted-tongue habits.

  8. Carcinoma cuniculatum arising in the tongue.

    Thavaraj, Selvam; Cobb, Alistair; Kalavrezos, Nicholas; Beale, Timothy; Walker, Donald Murray; Jay, Amrita


    Carcinoma cuniculatum (CC) is a rare, distinct clinico-pathological variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that is defined histologically by the characteristic infiltrative pattern of a deep, broad, and complex proliferation of stratified squamous epithelium with keratin cores and keratin-filled crypts. Herein, we present a case report of CC of the oral tongue and discuss its diagnosis, management, and outcome, as well as briefly review the world literature. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of CC of the tongue to be reported in the English literature. We draw attention to its clinico-pathological features and highlight that awareness of this entity as a distinct variant of SCC facilitates its correct management.

  9. Electronic Noses and Tongues in Wine Industry

    Maria Luz Rodriguez-Mendez


    Full Text Available The quality of wines is usually evaluated by a sensory panel formed of trained experts or traditional chemical analysis. Over the last few decades, electronic noses and electronic tongues have been developed to determine the quality of foods and beverages. They consist of arrays of sensors with cross-sensitivity, combined with pattern recognition software, which provide a fingerprint of the samples that can be used to discriminate or classify the samples. This holistic approach is inspired by the method used in mammals to recognize food through their senses. They have been widely applied to the analysis of wines, including quality control, aging control or the detection of fraudulence, among others. In this paper, the current status of research and development in the field of electronic noses and tongues applied to the analysis of wines is reviewed. Their potential applications in the wine industry are described. The review ends with a final comment about expected future developments.

  10. Flow and mixing around a glacier tongue

    C. L. Stevens


    Full Text Available A glacier tongue floating in the coastal ocean presents a significant obstacle to the local flow and influences oceanic mixing and transport processes. Here ocean shear microstructure observations at a glacier tongue side-wall show tidally-induced flow pulses and vortices as well as concomitant mixing. Flow speeds within the pulses reached around three times that of the ambient tidal flow amplitude and generated vertical velocity shear as large as 3×10−3 s−1. During the maximum flow period turbulent energy dissipation rates reached a maximum of 10−5 m2 s−3, around three decades greater than local background levels. This is in keeping with estimates of the gradient Richardson Number which dropped to around unity. Associated vertical diffusivities are higher that expected from parameterization, possibly reflecting the proximity of the cryotopography.

  11. Biomolecular Markers in Cancer of the Tongue

    Daris Ferrari


    Full Text Available The incidence of tongue cancer is increasing worldwide, and its aggressiveness remains high regardless of treatment. Genetic changes and the expression of abnormal proteins have been frequently reported in the case of head and neck cancers, but the little information that has been published concerning tongue tumours is often contradictory. This review will concentrate on the immunohistochemical expression of biomolecular markers and their relationships with clinical behaviour and prognosis. Most of these proteins are associated with nodal stage, tumour progression and metastases, but there is still controversy concerning their impact on disease-free and overall survival, and treatment response. More extensive clinical studies are needed to identify the patterns of molecular alterations and the most reliable predictors in order to develop tailored anti-tumour strategies based on the targeting of hypoxia markers, vascular and lymphangiogenic factors, epidermal growth factor receptors, intracytoplasmatic signalling and apoptosis.

  12. Influence of sensory characteristics on the acceptability of dry-cured ham.

    Ruiz, J; García, C; Muriel, E; Andrés, A I; Ventanas, J


    The influence of different sensory attributes on the acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham was studied. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that juiciness and several flavour traits were the major attributes positively influencing acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham, whereas yellowness of the fat, dryness and fibrousness showed a negative influence. Using stepwise multivariate regression, juiciness and flavour intensity were the two traits that better explained the acceptability of dry-cured ham, the linear model obtained showing a regression coefficient of 0.526. The regression coefficient of acceptability with juiciness and flavour intensity was higher using a piecewise linear regression model (R(2)=0.759) showing, therefore, a discontinuous relationship between these variables. However, results on product acceptability have been obtained using trained panellists and it might be possible that the use of a consumer panel would change these conclusions.

  13. Linear hydrocarbons content of intramuscular lipids of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    Petrón, M J; Antequera, T; Muriel, E; Tejeda, J F; Ventanas, J


    This study has been carried out to determine the linear hydrocarbons content (n-alkane and n-alkene) in intramuscular lipids (biceps femoris muscle) of dry-cured Iberian ham considering "feeding system" (Montanera: fed on acorns and pasture and concentrate feed) and "genotype" (hams from Iberian pure pigs and hams from Iberian crossbreed with Duroc in a 50%). The linear hydrocarbons from n-C(14) to n-C(32) range were present in the four studied groups. n-Alkenes fraction (60-76 mg/kg of intramuscular fat) was higher than n-alkanes fraction (34-38 mg/kg). The most abundant n-alkane and n-alkene were the shortest chain ones. Feeding and genotype did not influence linear hydrocarbons content (neither n-alkanes nor n-alkenes).

  14. Study of the branched hydrocarbon fraction of intramuscular lipids from Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Petrón, M J; Tejeda, J F; Muriel, E; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T


    Branched hydrocarbons from the unsaponifiable lipid fraction of intramuscular fat from Iberian dry-cured hams were analyzed. Thirty-four hams were distributed into four groups according to the feed system of the pigs (extensive system "Montanera" and intensive system "Pienso") and genotype (Iberian and Iberian×Duroc). A total of 35 different hydrocarbons were identified in this study. Some differences were found in the levels of branched, cyclical and unsaturated hydrocarbons as a function of the diet of the pigs (3-hexyl-1,1-dimethyl cyclopentane, p<0.05; 3-octadecene, p<0.01; neophytadiene, p<0.001; 1-ethylundecyl benzene, p<0.01; cyclohexadecane, p<0.001; cyclotriacontane, p<0.05). However, the genotype had a limited effect in the level of branched hydrocarbons found. The study of branched hydrocarbons in intramuscular fat from dry-cured Iberian ham allows differentiation between the pigs management systems.

  15. Laser-light backscattering response to water content and proteolysis in dry-cured ham

    Fulladosa, E.; Rubio-Celorio, M.; Skytte, Jacob Lercke


    Laser backscattering imaging (LBI) is a low-cost technology proposed to determine non-invasively composition and microstructural characteristics of agro food and dairy products. The aim of this work was to define the effect of different acquisition conditions (wavelength, object distance and angle...... of laser incidence) and to analyse the laser-light backscattering changes caused by additional hot air drying and proteolysis of dry-cured ham slices. The feasibility of the technology to determine water content and proteolysis (which is related to textural characteristics) of commercial sliced dry......-cured ham was also evaluated. Results showed that a red laser (635 nm) is more convenient than a green laser (532 nm) to analyse dry-cured ham but no preferable angle or object distance to evaluate dryness or proteolysis was found. Nevertheless, light scattering parameters were modified depending...

  16. Technological suitability of transglutaminase preparations in the production of cooked ham

    Jan Pyrcz


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine effect of replacing the phosphates by the preparations containing transglutaminase enzyme on the quality of cooked ham. Accepted factors of technological variability, preparation raw material (in whole or in muscle trimmings below, the curing brine injection level (30 or 40% and two types of enzyme transglutaminase preparations slightly differentiate sensory desirability, but also physical and chemical properties of cooked hams. In spite of the transglutaminase preparations used in the experiment the reduction of cooking loss was not significantly affect and the improving the tastiness, their technological usefulness in cooked ham production is satisfactory. The beneficial effect of the impact of transglutaminase preparations can be particularly seen in the case of products derived from trimmings. Thanks to these preparations raw meat with less technological suitability or cooking can be used to produce high quality products.

  17. Degradation of LIM domain-binding protein three during processing of Spanish dry-cured ham.

    Gallego, Marta; Mora, Leticia; Fraser, Paul D; Aristoy, María-Concepción; Toldrá, Fidel


    Extensive proteolysis takes place during the processing of dry-cured ham due to the action of muscle peptidases. The aim of this work was to study the degradation of LIM domain binding protein 3 (LDB3), which is located at the Z-lines of the sarcomere, at different times during the Spanish dry-cured ham processing (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 9 months). A total of 107 peptides have been identified by mass spectrometry, most of them generated from the first region of the protein sequence (position 1-90) providing evidence for the complexity and variability of proteolytic reactions throughout the whole process of dry-curing. Methionine oxidation has been observed in several peptides by the end of the process. The potential of some of the identified peptides to be used as biomarkers of dry-cured ham processing has also been considered.

  18. Growth inhibition of lactic acid bacteria in ham by nisin: a model approach.

    Kalschne, Daneysa L; Geitenes, Simone; Veit, Marilei R; Sarmento, Cleonice M P; Colla, Eliane


    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been described as spoilage organisms in vacuum-packed cooked ham. A Fractional Factorial Design was performed to investigate the relative merits of sodium chloride, sodium lactate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium erythorbate, nisin and pediocin, in limiting the Lactobacillus sakei growth in broth culture. This allowed rejection of sodium chloride, sodium lactate and sodium erythorbate (no significant effects on growth), and a Central Composite Rotatable Design broth culture study was performed comparing the effects of nisin and pediocin. From this study, nisin was identified as a more important variable for inclusion into a cooked ham model (significant effects on growth parameters: logarithmic increase in the population, exponential microbial growth rate and lag phase extension). The validation of this outcome in a model formulation of vacuum-packed sliced cooked ham (0.001%, 0.007% and 0.013% of nisin) stored for 60days, confirmed the inhibitory effect of nisin on total LAB growth.

  19. Implications of HAM/TSP functional incapacity in the quality of life

    Marcia Shublaq


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To identify the functional status and quality of life of HAM/TSP patients. METHOD: We evaluated prospectively 30 HAM/TSP patients (20 females seen in the Neuroinfection Clinic of the HUGG. The functional capacity was analyzed by the functional independence measure (FIM, the expanded disability status (EDSS scale and the Osame's motor disability score (OMDS. The quality of life was assed by the Short-Form Health Survey 36 (SF-36TM. RESULTS: All patients need assistance device. The FIM, OMDS and EDSS scores classified 70%, 67% and 67% of the patients as dependent, respectively. The lowest scores of the SF-36 survey were found in the domains related to the physical health (D1, D2, role-emotional functioning (D7 and social functioning (D6. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that the HAM/TSP physical impairment has an impact in the emotional and social issues, considering the limitation in the daily activities.

  20. Detrusor Arreflexia as an End Stage of Neurogenic Bladder in HAM/TSP?

    Matheus Tannus


    Full Text Available The HTLV-1 virus is a known agent involved in the development of HAM/TSP. Past studies have typically observed patients with autonomic dysfunction consisting of detrusor overactivity and detrusor-sphincter dyssynergia, with the occasional observation of underactive detrusor or detrusor arreflexia. However, studies have not yet evaluated the progression of neurogenic bladder over time. In this paper, we describe a HAM/TSP patient with the initial development of overactive detrusor, and subsequent development of detrusor arreflexia. Given a paucity of studies characterizing the effects of HTLV-1 on the autonomic nervous system, particularly aspects controlling continence, this patient's clinical course may represent one type of end point for patients with HAM/TSP and neurogenic bladder. Further cohort or case-series studies, with particular emphasis on the progression of neurogenic bladder, are needed to evaluate the significance of this described case in relation to typical disease progression patterns.

  1. Higher Order Spreading Models

    Argyros, S A; Tyros, K


    We introduce the higher order spreading models associated to a Banach space $X$. Their definition is based on $\\ff$-sequences $(x_s)_{s\\in\\ff}$ with $\\ff$ a regular thin family and the plegma families. We show that the higher order spreading models of a Banach space $X$ form an increasing transfinite hierarchy $(\\mathcal{SM}_\\xi(X))_{\\xi<\\omega_1}$. Each $\\mathcal{SM}_\\xi (X)$ contains all spreading models generated by $\\ff$-sequences $(x_s)_{s\\in\\ff}$ with order of $\\ff$ equal to $\\xi$. We also provide a study of the fundamental properties of the hierarchy.

  2. Tongue Liminary Threshold Identification to Electrotactile Stimulation

    Robineau, Fabien; Orliaguet, Jean-Pierre; Payan, Yohan


    Many applications use electrostimulation of the human skin to provide tactile sensation. The effect of electrotactile stimulations were studied on a 6x6 matrix of tactile electrodes placed on the anterior part of the tongue. The liminary threshold with continuous or discontinuous waveform and patterns with 2 or 4 electrodes was investigated. The result suggest that for energy saving and to improve the yield, it would probably be better to use discontinuous stimulation with two electrode patterns.

  3. Actinomycosis of The Tongue: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Aniece Chowdary, Anirudh Kaul, Surinder Atri*


    Full Text Available Actinomycosis is a bacterial, suppurative chronic infectious disease caused by Actinomyces israelli.Actinomycotic infections of the cervicofacial region are not uncommon , however Actinomycosis of tongueis rare. A mass that may mimic both benign and malignant neoplasms can be seen at clinical presentationand may mislead the diagnosis. We report a patient who presented with a tumor like tongue mass causingspeech disturbance and difficulty in swallowing, diagnosed as actinomycosis

  4. Cysticercosis of tongue: Cytohistologic approach to diagnosis

    Govindaswamy Koteeswaran


    Full Text Available Cysticercosis is continuing to be a major health problem in developing countries. Radiological and serological techniques are routinely used for pre-operative diagnosis of cysticercosis. But fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC is cost effective and simple procedure, so it is important to be aware of diagnostic pitfalls in the cytomorphologic diagnosis of cysticercosis. We present a case of cysticercosis of tongue, which accounts for only 34 cases in the world literature.

  5. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Carlos Chiesa Estomba


    Full Text Available Introduction: Tuberculosis is an infectious disease that has displayed increasing incidence in the last decades. It is estimated that up to 20% of tuberculosis cases affect extra-pulmonary organs. In the ENT area, soft palate and tongue are the least probable locations.   Case Report A 62-year-old female with a history of rheumatoid arthritis and treatment with corticosteroids and Adalimumab, developed a foreign body sensation in the pharynx accompanied by a sore throat and halitosis. The laryngoscopy with a 70 degree rigid telescope showed an ulcerated hypertrophic lesion in the right vallecula of about 2-3 cm in the base of the tongue. Acid-alcohol resistant bacilli were found positive for M. tuberculosis, through the Ziehl Neelsen method and Löwenstein culture the patient was treated with tuberculostatic medication. Conclusion:  TB is a possible diagnosis when in the presence of an ulcerated lesion at the base of the tongue, accompanied by sore throat, dysphagia, or foreign body sensation.


    Hegde Nidarsh D.


    Full Text Available Oral ulcers is a very common disorder of the oral mucosa. Patients with signs or symptoms of oral ulcers are sometimes referred to gastroenterology clinics, however, in most instances the ulcers does not reflect gastrointestinal disease, some with a chronic non- healing ulcer are advised biopsy. Indeed, a spectrum of disorders can give rise to oral mucosal ulcers ranging from minor local trauma to significant local disease such as malignancy or systemic illness. Lesions of the tongue have a broad differential diagnosis ranging from benign idiopathic processes to infections, cancers, and infiltrative disorders. This article will focus on common ulcerative disorders of the tongue in aspects of their clinical features and differential diagnosis, two case reports with the diagnosis and conservative management for long-term chronic ulcers. The two cases which are reported in this article had a differential diagnosis of Squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue. The clinical picture was craterlike lesion, having a velvety-red base and a rolled, indurated border and most important painless in both cases. Removal of the irritant which was the tooth, rehabilitation of the oral mucosa by lubrication with Cocus Nucifera resulted in the healing of the ulcers. Functional components of Cocus Nucifera are Squaline, tocopherol, phytosterols and other sterols which are all plant steroids.

  7. Methods and studies of tongue reconstruction

    Fahmi A. Numan; LIAO Gui-qing


    Total and even partial glossectomy could be a major event in the life of a patient. Tongue function is so complicated which makes maintaining normal functions of the tongue such as swallowing and speech and preserving larynx integrity after the surgery is a primary objective of the surgeon. This task is very difficult and the result is not predictable. Recent years, however, there has been interesting developments in microsurgical techniques, and these advancements enable oral and maxillofacial surgeons to achieve better results and improve the quality of their patient's life. The results even with use of the new technology are still far from perfect. Several reasons may cause variation in the result. Some of them have to do with the patient such as general health and other reasons are due to the method that is used and nature of the defect after the removal of the tumor. This article was undertaken to summarize the various methods and techniques used over the years to restore oral tongue functions after defects.




    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Schwannomas are the benign tumours arising from the Schwann cells. Intraoral and pharyngeal schwannomas are rare and constitute less than 1%. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 39 year old lady who presented with progressive dysphagia and dysphonia since three months. Intraoral examination showed a well - defined reddish lesion arising from the base of the tongue. She was referred to the department of radiodiagnosis for CT and MRI of the neck to know the extent of the lesion. Differential diagnosis of schwannoma and minor salivary gland tumor was given. Excision biopsy of the lesion was done and the histologic examination showed it as schwannoma. DISCUSSION: Schwannomas of the base of the tongue are rare and should be included in the differential diagnosis based on the imaging features and enhancem ent pattern. CONCLUSION: Imaging features, particularly MRI with contrast helps in differentiating benign from malignant lesions of the base of the tongue. Schwannomas are benign and have good prognosis as they can be excised when compared to the other intraoral malignant lesions.

  9. Effectiveness of a new toothbrush design versus a conventional tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing tongue microbiota

    Luciana Assirati Casemiro


    Full Text Available For centuries, specific instruments or regular toothbrushes have routinely been used to remove tongue biofilm and improve breath odor. Toothbrushes with a tongue scraper on the back of their head have recently been introduced to the market. The present study compared the effectiveness of a manual toothbrush with this new design, i.e., possessing a tongue scraper, and a commercial tongue scraper in improving breath odor and reducing the aerobic and anaerobic microbiota of tongue surface. The evaluations occurred at 4 moments, when the participants (n=30 had their halitosis quantified with a halimeter and scored according to a 4-point scoring system corresponding to different levels of intensity. Saliva was collected for counts of aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Data were analyzed statistically by Friedman's test (p<0.05. When differences were detected, the Wilcoxon test adjusted for Bonferroni correction was used for multiple comparisons (group to group. The results confirmed the importance of mechanical cleaning of the tongue, since this procedure provided an improvement in halitosis and reduction of aerobe and anaerobe counts. Regarding the evaluated methods, the toothbrush's tongue scraper and conventional tongue scraper had a similar performance in terms of breath improvement and reduction of tongue microbiota, and may be indicated as effective methods for tongue cleaning.

  10. Iberian ham typification by direct infusion electrospray and photospray ionization mass spectrometry fingerprinting.

    González-Dominguez, R; García-Barrera, T; Gómez-Ariza, J-L


    Iberian ham is a product of high commercial value whose quality mainly depends on breeding and feeding of pigs in an authorized way. Simple, fast, simple, reliable and high-throughput analytical methods are necessary to assure the quality of ham and for fraud prevention. Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is proposed as an advantageous alternative over other analytical techniques commonly used in this industry for product authentication. The analytical approach is based on direct infusion electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI(+)-MS) of dichloromethane/methanol (60:40) extracts of ham intramuscular fat. Similarly, atmospheric pressure photoionization ionization mass spectrometry (APPI(+)-MS) was used with a flow injection analysis system for sample introduction with methanol/water (50%) as the mobile phase and toluene as the dopant. All experiments were performed on an API QSTAR® XL Hybrid system using both ESI and APPI sources. The ESI(+)-MS mass spectra present several clusters of peaks attributed to ammonium adducts [M + NH(4) (+) ] of lipid compounds (mono-, di- and triacylglycerols - MGs, DGs, TGs, and free fatty acids - FFAs), that can be identified by MS/MS spectra. On the other hand, the APPI(+)-MS spectra present [M + H(+) ] ions and reflect a higher fragmentation of the sample. Five different types of Iberian ham samples were successfully classified using partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) of data from these samples. The application of direct infusion tandem mass spectrometry to dichloromethane/methanol extracts from intramuscular fat ham allows the simple, fast and reliable fingerprinting typification of different Iberian ham samples from pigs with different diets. With the proposed method, sample handling is minimal and chromatographic separation is not necessary, which represents an evident advantage over other analytical procedures usually used for this purpose. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Evaluation of antilisterial action of cilantro oil on vacuum packed ham.

    Gill, A O; Delaquis, P; Russo, P; Holley, R A


    Cilantro oil is an essential oil preparation extracted from the plant Coriandrum sativium. A series of experiments were conducted to evaluate the ability of cilantro oil to control the growth of Listeria monocytogenes on vacuum-packed ham. The in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration for five strains of L. monocytogenes was found to vary from 0.074% to 0.018% depending on strain. Cilantro oil treatments were then tested on ham disks inoculated with a cocktail of the five L. monocytogenes strains. The treatments studied were 0.1%, 0.5%, and 6% cilantro oil diluted in sterile canola oil or incorporated into a gelatin gel in which lecithin was used to enhance incorporation of the cilantro oil. Gelatin gel treatments were also conducted with 1.4% monolaurin with or without 6% cilantro oil to determine if an interaction between the antimicrobials could increase inhibition of L. monocytogenes. Treated ham was then vacuum-packed and stored at 10 degrees C for up to 4 weeks. The only cilantro oil treatment which inhibited growth of L. monocytogenes on the ham samples was 6% cilantro oil gel. Samples receiving this treatment had populations of L. monocytogenes 1.3 log CFU/ml lower than controls at week 1 of storage, though there was no difference between treatments from week 2 onward. It appears that immobilization of the antimicrobial in a gel enhanced the effect of treatments. Cilantro oil does not appear to be a suitable agent for the control of L. monocytogenes on ham. The possible reasons for reduced effectiveness of cilantro oil against L. monocytogenes on ham are discussed.

  12. Lipid and protein oxidation and sensory properties of vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham subjected to high hydrostatic pressure.

    Fuentes, Verónica; Ventanas, Jesús; Morcuende, David; Estévez, Mario; Ventanas, Sonia


    The effect of HHP treatment (600 MPa) on the oxidative stability of lipids and proteins of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham and the impact on the sensory characteristics of the product was investigated. In order to assess how different commercial presentations are affected by HHP treatment, three different presentations of vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham were considered, namely, (i) intact format (IF) corresponding to non-sliced vacuum-packaged dry-cured ham, (ii) conventional-sliced format (CSF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices placed stretched out in the package and (iii) alternative-sliced format (ASF) corresponding to dry-cured ham slices piled up horizontally. The oxidation of dry-cured ham lipids and proteins was enhanced by HHP-treatment with the presentation being highly influential on these oxidative reactions. Pre-slicing dry-cured ham results in a more susceptible product to oxidative reactions during pressurisation and subsequent refrigerated storage. Possible mechanisms, by which HHP-induced oxidative reactions would affect particular sensory traits in vacuum-packaged Iberian dry-cured ham such as colour, texture and flavour attributes, are discussed.

  13. Sampling methods to detect and estimate populations of Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae) infesting dry-cured hams

    Spatial and temporal dynamics of pest populations is an important aspect of effective pest management. However, absolute sampling of some pest populations such as the ham mite, Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank) (Sarcoptiformes: Acaridae), a serious pest of dry-cured ham, can be difficult. Sampling ...

  14. Exploring consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries

    Resano, Helena; Perez-Cueto, Federico J. A.; Sanjuán, Ana


    This papers' objective is to investigate consumer satisfaction with dry-cured ham in five European countries. A logistic regression model has been fitted using data collected through a crosssectional web-based survey carried out in Belgium, Germany, Denmark, Poland and Greece during January 2008 (n...... are recommended to focus on matching sensory acceptability of dry-cured ham. No significant between-country differences were found, reflecting the wide availability of this product in all countries. Consumer characteristics influenced their level of satisfaction. Men, older (age >52 years) and frequent consumers...

  15. Degradation of LIM domain-binding protein three during processing of Spanish dry-cured ham


    Extensive proteolysis takes place during the processing of dry-cured ham due to the action of muscle peptidases. The aim of this work was to study the degradation of LIM domain binding protein 3 (LDB3), which is located at the Z-lines of the sarcomere, at different times during the Spanish dry-cured ham processing (2, 3.5, 5, 6.5, and 9 months). A total of 107 peptides have been identified by mass spectrometry, most of them generated from the first region of the protein sequence (position 1-9...

  16. Influence of the convective surface transfer coefficients on the Heat, Air, and Moisture (HAM) building performance

    Steskens, Paul Wilhelmus Maria Hermanus; Janssen, Hans; Rode, Carsten


    HAM conditions. The paper focuses on the influence of the interior surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients, and investigates its effect on the hygrothermal performance. The parameter study showed that the magnitude of the convective surface transfer coefficients have a relatively large......Current models to predict heat, air and moisture (HAM) conditions in buildings assume constant boundary conditions for the temperature and relative humidity of the neighbouring air and for the surface heat and moisture transfer coefficients. These assumptions may introduce errors in the predicted...... influence on the predicted hygrothermal conditions at the surface of a building component and on the heat and vapour exchange with the indoor environment....

  17. Defatting Vestibuloplasty for Functional and Esthetic Reconstruction of Tongue.

    Park, Si-Yeok; Kim, Min-Keun; Kim, Seong-Gon; Kwon, Kwang-Jun; Byun, Jin-Soo; Park, Chan-Jin; Park, Young-Wook


    The radial forearm free flap (RFFF) is a thin and pliable tissue with many advantages for tongue reconstruction. However, tongues reconstructed with RFFF occasionally need revision surgery because inadequate defect measurement at primary surgery can lead to bulkiness and limited movement of reconstructed tongue. In this case, the patient underwent partial glossectomy and RFFF reconstruction for treatment of tongue cancer five years prior. We could not make a lower denture for the patient, because the alveolo-lingual sulcus of tongue was almost lost. So we performed vestibuloplasty with a modified Kazanjian method on the lingual vestibule of the mandibular right posterior area, and defatting surgery to debulk the flap. After surgery, we observed that the color and texture of the revised tongue changed to become similar with adjacent tissue. The patient obtained a more functional and esthetic outcome. Accordingly, we present a case report with a review of relevant literature.

  18. Enterobacteriaceae and pseudomonadaceae on the dorsum of the human tongue

    Simone Conti


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux. RESULTS: 43% of the individuals, presented the target microorganisms on the tongue dorsum, with greater prevalence among individuals between 40 and 50 years of age (p = 0.001 and non-smokers (p=0.0485. CONCLUSIONS: A higher prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonadaceae was observed on the tongue dorsum of the individuals evaluated. There was no correlation between these species and the presence and thickness of tongue coating, gender and presence of dentures.

  19. [Tongue play and manganese deficiency in dairy cattle].

    Karatzias, H; Roubies, N; Polizopoulou, Z; Papasteriades, A


    The present paper discusses "tongue rolling" observed in dairy cattle farms of a region in northern Greece associated with manganese deficiency. In these animals total body manganese status was evaluated by determining hair, as well as feed manganese content. Cows exhibiting tongue rolling had significantly lower hair manganese content, compared to non-tongue rolling control animals from other farms; in addition, feedstuff analysis demonstrated that manganese and inorganic phosphorus intake of affected cows was also significantly lower.


    Simone Conti; Silvana Soléo Ferreira dos Santos; Cristiane Yumi Koga-Ito; Antonio Olavo Cardoso Jorge


    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to correlate the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Moraxellaceae and Xanthomonadaceae on the posterior dorsum of the human tongue with the presence of tongue coating, gender, age, smoking habit and denture use. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Bacteria were isolated from the posterior tongue dorsum of 100 individuals in MacConkey agar medium and were identified by the API 20E system (Biolab-Mérieux). RESULTS: 43% of the individuals, presented the targ...

  1. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene;


    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....

  2. Base of tongue neurilemmoma: excision by transoral laser microsurgery.

    Ballesteros, Ferran; Vilaseca, Isabel; Blanch, Jose Luis; Gaspa, Albert; Bernal-Sprekelsen, Manuel


    Benign and malignant tumors of the tongue base can be removed by various surgical approaches. A rare case of neurilemmoma of the base of the tongue removed by transoral laser microsurgery (TLM) is presented. Schwannomas in this area usually present as a slow-growing, painless mass on the tongue surface. In this case, fiberoptic examination and magnetic resonance imaging were crucial as first step studies to elucidate the biology of the lesion.

  3. Ancient schwannoma of the tongue: a case report.

    Bilici, Suat; Akpınar, Meltem; Yiğit, Ozgür; Günver, Feray


    A 45-year-old male patient had left sided submucosal swelling extending backwards from the tip of the tongue disturbing articulation and swallowing. Submucosally located lesion was 3 x 2 x 1.5 cm in size and totally excised under local anesthesia. In this article, we present a case of ancient schwannoma of tongue. Although a very rare entity, ancient schwannoma should be considered in differential diagnosis of tongue lesions.

  4. Volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham as affected by the length of the curing process.

    Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Cava, R; Andrés, A; García, C


    Volatile compounds from 10 dry-cured Iberian hams ripened for two different processing times, a prolonged traditional one (600 days) and a shortened process (420 days), were analysed by purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Eighty-three compounds were identified which agreed with the major classes found in other ham types. The amount of methyl branched alkanes was much higher than in other dry-cured ham types, probably due to the feeding regime. The percentages of 2- and 3-methylbutanal were higher (p<0.0001 and p<0.0003, respectively) in the longer aged hams, whereas the amounts of some compounds from lipid oxidation decreased from 420 to 600 days aging. In agreement with these observations, 600-day hams had higher scores for those odour and flavour traits usually considered to be positive attributes and lower scores for rancidity. A positive and significant correlation between 2-methyl butanal and cured flavour was found.

  5. Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue: a case report

    Khasawneh Faisal Abdullah


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Linezolid-induced black hairy tongue has been rarely reported. The purpose of this paper is to report a case of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue and review the literature. Case presentation A 56-year-old Caucasian man was admitted with community-acquired pneumonia that failed to respond to levofloxacin 750mg daily. He was started on linezolid and meropenem and was subsequently discharged home on oral linezolid 600mg every 12 hours and intravenous ertapenem 1g daily. On a follow-up clinic visit, day 14 of linezolid therapy, he complained of dysgeusia and his tongue examination was consistent with black hairy tongue. After he finished his antibiotic course, his complaints resolved with regular tongue brushing. Conclusion Black hairy tongue is characterized by abnormal hypertrophy and elongation of filiform papillae. Five reported cases of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue were identified in a MEDLINE search (from January 2000 to June 2012. The Naranjo Probability Scale revealed a probable adverse drug reaction of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Potential contributing factors included other antibiotics, drug–drug interaction and poor oral hygiene. Health care professionals should be aware of the possibility of linezolid-induced black hairy tongue. Thorough history for other possible contributing factors should be obtained. Patients on linezolid should be counseled to perform good oral hygiene.

  6. Functional morphology of the tongue in the nutcracker (Nucifraga caryocatactes).

    Jackowiak, Hanna; Skieresz-Szewczyk, Kinga; Kwieciński, Zbigniew; Trzcielińska-Lorych, Joanna; Godynicki, Szymon


    The nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes belongs to a group of bird species that use their beak and tongue as tools for obtaining food, such as seeds from hard-to-reach cones or nuts from shells. The aim of the present study, carried out with a scanning electron microscope, was to define the morphological features of the tongue of the nutcracker, which seems to be adapted to its environment through specific methods of obtaining food. One of the characteristic features of the nutcracker's tongue is the unique structure of the anterior part of the tongue, which has two long and highly keratinized processes - a product of the renewable keratinized layer of the epithelium covering the ventral surface of the tongue. These dagger-like processes, which are a modified "lingual nail," take a major role in levering up and shelling seeds, which are transported over the short sulcus-shaped body of the tongue. A unique feature of the nutcracker's tongue is the groove separating the body from the root. Two rows of highly keratinized, mechanical, conical papillae are located at the junction of the body and the root. These papillae are mechanically protective elements for passing food particles in the form of seeds. Among lingual glands, only the posterior lingual glands on the root of the tongue have been observed. Their secretion agglutinates dry food before it is swallowed. Results of the present study indicate that the nutcracker's tongue is an efficient tool resembling a lever that is helpful in shelling seeds.

  7. Relationship between tongue positions and formant frequencies in female speakers.

    Lee, Jimin; Shaiman, Susan; Weismer, Gary


    This study examined the relationship (1) between acoustic vowel space and the corresponding tongue kinematic vowel space and (2) between formant frequencies (F1 and F2) and tongue x-y coordinates for the same time sampling point. Thirteen healthy female adults participated in this study. Electromagnetic articulography and synchronized acoustic recordings were utilized to obtain vowel acoustic and tongue kinematic data across ten speech tasks. Intra-speaker analyses showed that for 10 of the 13 speakers the acoustic vowel space was moderately to highly correlated with tongue kinematic vowel space; much weaker correlations were obtained for inter-speaker analyses. Correlations of individual formants with tongue positions showed that F1 varied strongly with tongue position variations in the y dimension, whereas F2 was correlated in equal magnitude with variations in the x and y positions. For within-speaker analyses, the size of the acoustic vowel space is likely to provide a reasonable inference of size of the tongue working space for most speakers; unfortunately there is no a priori, obvious way to identify the speakers for whom the covariation is not significant. A second conclusion is that F1 variations reflect tongue height, but F2 is a much more complex reflection of tongue variation in both dimensions.

  8. The role of extensional viscosity in frog tongue projection

    Noel, Alexis; Wagner, Caroline; McKinley, Gareth; Mendelson, Joe; Hu, David


    Frogs and other amphibians capture insects through high-speed tongue projection, some achieving tongue accelerations of over fifty times gravity. In this experimental study, we investigate how a frog's sticky saliva enables high-speed prey capture. At the Atlanta zoo, we used high-speed video to film the trajectory of frog tongues during prey capture. We have also designed and built a portable extensional rheometer; by following the capillary-driven thinning in the diameter of a thread of saliva we characterize the relaxation time and extensional viscosity and so infer the adhesive force between the frog tongue and prey.

  9. Neuropsychological assessment in HTLV-1 infection: a comparative study among TSP/HAM, asymptomatic carriers, and healthy controls.

    Silva, M T T; Mattos, P; Alfano, A; Araújo, A Q-C


    Human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-I) can cause tropical spastic paraparesis/HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (TSP/HAM) and adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma. More recently other diseases such as isolated peripheral polyneuropathy, myopathy, artropathy, and uveitis have been associated with this retrovirus. Only a few uncontrolled studies, without necessary exclusion criteria, have described mild cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients. To further clarify this the authors evaluated, through neuropsychological testing patients with TSP/HAM and asymptomatic infected carriers, comparing both groups with healthy controls. To verify the presence of cognitive deficits among TSP/HAM patients and asymptomatic HTLV-1 infected carriers. In addition, the authors aimed to investigate if these deficits correlated with the degree of motor impairment in TSP/HAM patients. From a cohort of 501 HTLV-1 infected people the authors selected, according to predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria, 40 asymptomatic HTLV-1 carriers and 37 TSP/HAM patients. Neuropsychological testing was blindly performed in both groups and their scores were compared with those obtained from controls. Both the HTLV-1 carrier group and the group of patients with TSP/HAM exhibited a lower performance in neuropsychological tests when compared with controls. Asymptomatic infected carriers and TSP/HAM patients did not differ in their cognitive results. Also, there was no relation between the degree of motor disability and cognitive deficits in the TSP/HAM group. Psychomotor slowing and deficits in the some domains characterised the neuropsychological impairment in HTLV-1 infection: verbal and visual memory, attention and visuomotor abilities. TSP/HAM as well as asymptomatic infection can be associated with mild cognitive deficits. This finding, if confirmed by further studies, will permit the inclusion of cognitive impairment among the neurological manifestations of HTLV-1.

  10. A study of chemical profiles and appearance of white crystals in Istrian dry-cured ham: effect of desalting

    Helga Medić


    Full Text Available In order to find out the effect on physical-chemical profile of Istrian dry-cured ham with particular regard to the appearance of white crystals in the muscles, raw salted legs were desalted by soaking the legs in cold water for 24 hours. The 20 raw hams taken from 10 slaughtered hogs (Swedish Landrace breed and processed in the traditional Istrian manner were used. After salting and pressing, the raw hams were divided into two groups: 1 the 10 left legs of each hog were desalted (D; 2 the 10 right legs were not desalted (N. Following this, both groups of legs were subjected to continuous processing. Samples for chemical analysis and counting of white spots were taken from the 20 legs (10 N and 10 D from 10 hogs, each weighing 12 to 15 kg. Chemical analysis of muscle tissue showed a highly significant difference (P<0.0001 in the salt quantity in the N (6.85% and D (5.31% dry-cured hams, as expected. Desalting affected the level of calcium which was higher (P=0.0124 in the D hams (0.27 g than in the N hams (0.22 g. Desalting did not affect the free amino acid content, with the exception of methionine which was lower (P=0.0041 in D (0.14 g than in N hams (0.17 g. Desalting affected the level of two free fatty acids as follows: heptadecanoic acid was higher (P=0.0203 in N (0.18% than in D hams (0.24% and DPA was higher (P=0.0373 in N (0.49% than in D hams (0.39%. By counting the white precipitates, it was established that the regularity of appearance of the precipitate was noted on both the D and N hams, such that where there was no precipitate on the right N ham, nor was their any on the left D ham of the same hog. However, desalting only lead to a slight decrease in the appearance of precipitates (average of 0.7 points, but it is certain that desalting reduces the salt content in the legs, which affects some physical- chemical changes in the ham tissues during processing.

  11. HAM-Tools – a whole building simulation tool in Annex 41

    Kalagasidis, Angela Sasic; Rode, Carsten; Woloszyn, Monika


    HAM-Tools is a building simulation software. The main task of this tool is to simulate transfer processes related to building physics, i.e. heat, air and moisture transport in buildings and building components in operating conditions. The scope of the ECBCS Annex 41 “Whole Building Heat, Air and ...

  12. VLSI Implementation of Encryption and Decryption System Using Hamming Code Algorithm

    Fazal Noorbasha


    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose an optimized VLSI implementation of encryption and decryption system using hamming code algorithm. In the present field of communication has got many applications, and in every field the data is encoded at the transmitter and transfer on a communication channel and receive at the receiver after data is decoded. During the broadcast of data it might get degraded because of some noise on the channel. So it is crucial for the receiver to have some function which can recognize and correct the error in the received data. Hamming code is one of such forward error correcting code which has got many applications. In this paper the algorithm for hamming code is discussed and then implementation of it in verilog is done to get the results. Hamming code is an upgrading over parity check method. Here a code is implemented in verilog in which 4-bit of information data is transmitted with 3-redundancy bits. In order to do that the proposed method uses a Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA. It is known that FPGA provides quick implementation and fast hardware verification. It gives facilities of reconfiguring the design construct unlimited number of times. The HDL code is written in verilog, Gate Level Circuit and Layout is implemented in CMOS technology.

  13. Cognitive event-related potentials and brain magnetic resonance imaging in HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM).

    Fukushima, T; Ikeda, T; Uyama, E; Uchino, M; Okabe, H; Ando, M


    Auditory and visual cognitive event-related potentials (ERPs) were investigated in 14 patients with HTLV-1 associated myelopathy (HAM) and in 36 normal controls. In the HAM patients, the latencies of P300 and N200 by the auditory tone method were significantly delayed, and N100 by the auditory click method was significantly delayed in latency. No abnormal ERP components were observed with visual methods. While these auditory abnormal ERPs were present in the HAM patients, there was no evidence of visual abnormal ERPs. Abnormal lesions on the white matter were evident at magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 6 (75%) of 8 patients. There was no correlation between MRI lesions and the abnormalities of ERPs, but there was a significant correlation between bifrontal index on MRI and P300 amplitudes at Cz and Pz sites by auditory tone method. In one patient, atrophy of bilateral parietal lobes was seen on MRI and P300 latencies delayed using various methods. Therefore, the possibility that electrophysiological cognitive impairment in patients with HAM is related to brain atrophy rather than to white matter lesions requires attention.

  14. Effects of Processing Temperature on Color Properties of Dry-Cured Hams Made without Nitrite

    Giovanni Parolari


    Full Text Available Dry cured hams were investigated for their ability to develop red color even at low temperature (3–4 °C and in the absence of added nitrites; results were compared with those obtained from nitrite-free hams made at conventional warm maturing temperatures. Colorimetric parameters (L*, a*, b*, and hue and concentration of the main pigments Zn protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP and heme were measured at three stages of preparation (six, nine, and 12 months, showing that red color was successfully formed at low temperatures, though at a slower rate and less intensively than under warm conditions. Major differences in the pattern of color development were found with the two processing temperatures. While the typical features of an enzyme-dependent mechanism, with a progressive drop in enzyme activity paralleling the synthesis of Zn protoporphyrin IX, were observed at warm temperatures, the same did not occur in cold-made hams, where the enzyme activity was almost unchanged throughout the process. These results, along with data from a descriptive sensory analysis, are supportive of a non-enzymatic mechanism leading to ZnPP (hence the red color under cold conditions, with an estimated three-month delay compared with nitrite-free hams manufactured in a warm maturing regimen.

  15. Analytical Solution of Nonlinear Problems in Classical Dynamics by Means of Lagrange-Ham

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Mahdavi, S. H; Rabbani, A.


    In this work, a powerful analytical method, called Homotopy Analysis Methods (HAM) is coupled with Lagrange method to obtain the exact solution for nonlinear problems in classic dynamics. In this work, the governing equations are obtained by using Lagrange method, and then the nonlinear governing...

  16. Survival of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and ham.

    Campbell, Jonathan A; Dickson, James S; Cordray, Joseph C; Olson, Dennis G; Mendonca, Aubrey F; Prusa, Kenneth J


    Infections from antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a major concern for human health professionals around the world. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is just one of the resistant organisms of concern. MRSA prevalence has also been recently reported in retail meat products at rates higher than originally thought. Although the risk of contracting an infection from handling contaminated meat products is thought to be low, very little is known about this organism from a food safety perspective. The objective of this study was to determine the survival of MRSA during thermal processing of frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham. Frankfurters, summer sausage, and boneless ham were manufactured using formulations and processing procedures developed at the Iowa State University meat laboratory. Thermal processing resulted in a significant log reduction (psausage, and frankfurters when compared to uncooked, positive controls for each of the three processed meat products. All products were thermally processed to an internal temperature of 70°C and promptly cooled to 7.2°C. Boneless ham showed the highest log reduction (7.28 logs) from cooking, followed by summer sausage (6.75 logs) and frankfurters (5.53 logs). The results of this study indicate that thermal processing of ham, summer sausage, and frankfurters to 70°C is sufficient to reduce the risk of MRSA as a potential food safety hazard.

  17. A new phenylethanoid glycoside from Rabdosia lophanthoides (Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)Hara.

    Wei Sheng Feng; Xin Yu Zang; Xiao Ke Zheng; Yan Zhi Wang


    A new phenylethanoid glycoside,3-hydroxy-4-methoxy-β-phenylethoxy-P-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-3)-2-O-acetyl-O-β-D-glucopyranoside,named Iophanthoside A,was isolated from Rabdosia lophanthoides(Buch.-Ham.ex D.Don)Hara.Its structurewas determined by spectroscopic evidences.

  18. Influence of tumbling, tumbling time, trim and sodium tripolyphosphate on quality and yield of cured hams

    Krause, R.J.; Ockerman, H.W.; Krol, B.; Moerman, P.C.; et al.


    Forty‐four boneless, cured hams were assigned to treatment groups to study the effect of tumbling, tumbling time (18 hr intermittent, 9.5 hr intermittent, 3 hr continuous), tumbling temperature (5°C and 15°C), sodium tripolyphosphate (TPP) pickle level (0 and 3.3%), and trim (lean, regular, and fat)

  19. Effects of tongue position and lung volume on voluntary maximal tongue protrusion force in humans.

    Saboisky, Julian P; Luu, Billy L; Butler, Jane E; Gandevia, Simon C


    Maximal voluntary protrusion force of the human tongue has not been examined in positions beyond the incisors or at different lung volumes. Tongue force was recorded with the tongue tip at eight positions relative to the incisors (12 and 4mm protrusion, neutral and 4, 12, 16, 24 and 32mm retraction) at functional residual capacity (FRC), total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) in 15 healthy subjects. Maximal force occurred between 12mm and 32mm retraction (median 16mm). Maximum force at FRC was reproducible at the optimal tongue position across sessions (P=0.68). Across all positions at FRC the average force was highest at 24mm retraction (28.3±5.3N, mean±95% CI) and lowest at 12mm protrusion (49.1±4.6% maximum; Ptongue positions, maximal force was on average 9.3% lower at FRC than TLC and RV (range: 4.5-12.7% maximum, P<0.05). Retracted positions produce higher-force protrusions with a small effect of lung volume.

  20. Formation of heterocyclic amines in salami and ham pizza toppings during baking of frozen pizza.

    Gibis, Monika; Weiss, Jochen


    Heterocyclic amines (HAs) are formed as Maillard reaction products in the crust of meat products during heating processes. Two typical pizza toppings--salami and cooked ham--were analyzed for the presence of HAs after baking frozen pizzas at top and bottom temperatures of 250 and 230 °C, respectively. After baking pizza slices for 12 min, MeIQx (2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.2 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline; 0.5 ng/g), PhIP (2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine; 0.2 ng/g), norharman (4.5 ng/g), and harman (2.5 ng/g) were found in the ham toppings, whereas only the comutagenic norharman (107.4 ng/g) and harman (11.4 ng/g) were found in the salami toppings. The content of MeIQx and 4,8-DiMeIQx in ham increased from 0.3 to 1.8 ng/g and 0.8 to 1.6 ng/g, respectively, when the recommended baking time was increased from 15 min (manufacturer's specification) to 18 min at 230 °C. MeIQx was formed in salami when the heating time was extended to 18 min. Moreover, higher concentrations of PhIP in salami or ham slices were found when baking temperatures were 250 °C rather than 230 °C (baking time of 12 min). However, sensory tests showed that panelists preferred longer-baked pizzas due to an increased crispiness. Thus, results show that a substantial formation of HAs may occur in pizza toppings such as ham and salami, with ham being particularly susceptible when compared to salami. Formation of HAs increases with increasing baking time and temperature. The occurrence of the cupping of ham or salami slices during baking may also increase the formation of HAs.

  1. Spindle cell haemangioma of the tongue.

    French, Kathryn E M; Felstead, Andrew M; Haacke, Norman; Theaker, Jeffrey; Brennan, Peter A; Colbert, Serryth D


    Spindle cell hemangioma (SCH) is an uncommon benign vascular tumor that rarely occurs in the mouth. We present an SCH arising in the tongue of a 52-year-old otherwise healthy woman. SCH should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular tumors in the oral cavity and not misinterpreted as a more aggressive vascular tumor. We describe the clinical presentation, investigation, differential diagnosis and management of this condition and a literature search showing published case reports. Although SCH rarely presents in the oral cavity it needs to be considered in the differential diagnosis of oral cavity tumors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Spread codes and spread decoding in network coding

    Manganiello, F; Gorla, E.; Rosenthal, J.


    In this paper we introduce the class of spread codes for the use in random network coding. Spread codes are based on the construction of spreads in finite projective geometry. The major contribution of the paper is an efficient decoding algorithm of spread codes up to half the minimum distance.

  3. Accelerated processing of dry-cured ham. Part I. Viability of the use of brine thawing/salting operation.

    Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl; Ibáñez, J B; Pagán, María J; Flores, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Fito, Pedro


    In a previous study, the brine thawing/salting operation using frozen hams as raw material was proposed in order to obtain accelerated processing of dry-cured hams. The time needed to reach the same NaCl concentration on a dry weight basis and the same NaCl concentration in the ham liquid phase for the deeper areas at the end of the post-salting stage were determined. The aim of this work was to study the influence of the brine thawing/salting operation on the whole dry-cured ham manufacturing process, using the traditional thawing and salting methods as control. The obtained results indicate that although a strong reduction in the thawing, salting and post-salting stages is obtained by using brine thawing/salting, the time needed in the dry-curing and maturing phases increases compared to those traditionally processed, probably due to the absence of pile salting and thus the reduction in the thickness of the ham piece as a consequence of the ham pressing. From the composition and microbiological point of view, no significant differences were observed among the hams processed by the different treatments.

  4. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy


    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  5. Spatiotemporal Coupling of the Tongue in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Kuruvilla, Mili S.; Green, Jordan R.; Yunusova, Yana; Hanford, Kathy


    Purpose: The primary aim of the investigation was to identify deficits in spatiotemporal coupling between tongue regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The relations between disease-related changes in tongue movement patterns and speech intelligibility were also determined. Methods: The authors recorded word productions from 11…

  6. Malignant melanoma of the tongue following low-dose radiation

    Kalemeris, G.C.; Rosenfeld, L.; Gray, G.F. Jr.; Glick, A.D.


    A 47-year-old man had a spindly malignant melanoma of the tongue many years after low-dose radiation therapy for lichen planus. To our knowledge, only 12 melanomas of the tongue have been reported previously, and in none of these was radiation documented.

  7. Extremely high-power tongue projection in plethodontid salamanders

    Deban, S.M.; O'Reilly, J.C.; Dicke, U.; Leeuwen, van J.L.


    Many plethodontid salamanders project their tongues ballistically at high speed and for relatively great distances. Capturing evasive prey relies on the tongue reaching the target in minimum time, therefore it is expected that power production, or the rate of energy release, is maximized during tong

  8. Pedagogical Competencies for Mother-Tongue Teacher Education

    Mata, Liliana


    This study aims to elaborate a framework for both the foundation and application of professional standards for mother-tongue teachers. The main issue with which this study is concerned constitutes the lack of a set of clear standards for the initial training of mother-tongue teachers. In terms of theory, that which has currently been analyzed in…

  9. Evaluation of Manometric Measures during Tongue-Hold Swallows

    Doeltgen, Sebastian H.; Witte, Ulrike; Gumbley, Freya; Huckabee, Maggie-Lee


    Purpose: Based on visual inspection, prior research documented increased movement of the posterior pharyngeal wall in healthy volunteers during tongue-hold swallows. This manometric study investigated the immediate effects of the tongue-hold maneuver on pharyngeal peak pressure generation, duration of pressure generation, and pressure slope…

  10. Phonological Encoding in Mandarin Chinese: Evidence from Tongue Twisters.

    Kember, Heather; Croot, Karen; Patrick, Ellis


    Models of connected speech production in Mandarin Chinese must specify how lexical tone, speech segments, and phrase-level prosody are integrated in speech production. This study used tongue twisters to test predictions of the two different models of word form encoding. Tongue twisters were constructed from 5 sets of characters that rotated pairs of initial segments or pairs of tones, or both, across format (ABAB, ABBA), and across position of the characters in four-character tongue twister strings. Fifty two native Mandarin Chinese speakers read aloud 120 tongue twisters, repeating each one six times in a row. They made a total of 3503 (2.34%) segment errors and 1372 (.92%) tone errors. Segment errors occurred on the onsets of the first and third characters in the ABBA but not ABAB segment-alternating tongue twisters, and on the onsets of the second and fourth characters of the tone-alternating tongue twisters. Tone errors were highest on the third and fourth characters in the tone-alternating tongue twisters. The pattern of tone errors is consistent with the claim that tone is associated to a metrical frame prior to segment encoding, while the format by position interaction found for the segment-alternating tongue twisters suggest articulatory gestures oscillate in segment production as proposed by gestural phonology.

  11. Alterations in contractile properties of tongue muscles in old rats.

    Ota, Fumikazu; Connor, Nadine P; Konopacki, Richard


    Fatigue and weakness are well-known signs of aging that are related to sarcopenia, or loss of skeletal muscle mass, organization, and strength. Sarcopenia may affect swallowing. The tongue plays a vital role in swallowing, but there is limited knowledge regarding age-related changes in lingual muscle contractile properties. Our purpose was to determine whether alterations in tongue force, temporal features of tongue muscle contraction, and fatigability are manifested as a function of aging in old rats. We evaluated tongue muscle contractile properties in young and old Fischer 344/Brown Norway rats. Contractions were elicited via bilateral electrical stimulation of the hypoglossal nerves. Maximum tongue forces and fatigability were not significantly altered in old animals, but aging was associated with significantly longer twitch contraction time and longer half-decay recovery time intervals (p < .01). The results indicated that old animals generated sufficient maximum tongue forces, but were slower in achieving these forces than young animals. These findings are consistent with reports of altered temporal parameters of tongue actions during swallowing in humans, and suggest that a disruption in the timing of muscle contraction onset and recovery may contribute to the altered tongue kinetics observed with aging.

  12. Repair of large palatal fistula using tongue flap

    Fejjal Nawfal


    Full Text Available Large palatal fistulas are a challenging problem in cleft surgery. Many techniques are used to close the defect. The tongue flap is an easy and reproductible procedure for managing this complication. The authors report a case of a large palatal fistula closure with anteriorly based tongue flap.

  13. Tongue Measures in Individuals with Normal and Impaired Swallowing

    Stierwalt, Julie A. G.; Youmans, Scott R.


    Purpose: This investigation sought to add to the extant literature on measures of normal tongue function, to provide information on measures of tongue function in a group of individuals with oral phase dysphagia, and to provide a comparison of these 2 groups matched for age and gender. Method: The Iowa Oral Performance Instrument was utilized to…

  14. Effect of tongue thrust swallowing on position of anterior teeth.

    Jalaly, Tahereh; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Amini, Foroozandeh


    There is no consensus about the effect of tongue thrusting on incisor position. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position of anterior teeth in growing children with tongue thrust swallowing. In the present study 193 subjects with an age range of 9 to 13 years participated. All the patients were examined by a trained investigator and those having tongue thrust swallowing were selected and the position of their anterior teeth was compared with a control group consisting of 36 subjects with normal occlusion. Data was analyzed by independent sample t-test. Among the 193 students who were examined in this study, 10 cases (5%) were diagnosed to be tongue thrusters. Overjet was significantly increased in tongue thrust individuals (P 0.05). The results indicated that tongue thrust may have an environmental effect on dentofacial structures. Considering the high incidence of tongue thrust in orthodontic patients, it is suggested that dental practitioners observe patients of all ages and those in all stages of orthodontic treatment for evidence of tongue thrust swallowing.

  15. Mother Tongue and Education in Africa: Publicising the Reality

    Kioko, Angelina N.; Ndung'u, Ruth W.; Njoroge, Martin C.; Mutiga, Jayne


    Varied realities surround the use of mother tongue education in Africa. These realities are entrenched in the attitudes and misconceptions that have gone unchallenged due to inadequate literature on the successful use of mother tongues in the classroom and beyond. The realities discussed in this paper include the frustrations of children…

  16. The Use of Mother Tongue in Second Language Teaching

    赵鸣霄; 张立杰


    This paper explores the specific application of mother tongue in Second Language learning from the perspective of class management, introducing learning methods, teaching vocabulary, teaching grammar, dealing with exercises and testing, and cooperation among students. It is concluded that mother tongue should be properly used in Second Language Teaching in or-der to improve the teaching of second language.

  17. Altered expression of CXCR3 and CCR6 and their ligands in HTLV-1 carriers and HAM/TSP patients.

    Rafatpanah, Houshang; Felegari, Mehdi; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Vakili, Rosita; Rajaei, Taraneh; Hampson, Ian; Hassanshahi, Golmahossein; Valizadeh, Narges; Gerayli, Sina; Hamid, Farajifard; Zamanian, Shadi; MollaHosseini, Farzad; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim


    Recruitment of leukocytes by chemokines and chemokine receptors to CNS plays a crucial role in the induction of inflammatory response in HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). In the present study, chemokine and chemokine receptors involved in trafficking of lymphocytes to the CNS were measured in HAM/TSP patients, HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs), and healthy controls. The PVL, CCR6, and CXCR3 mRNA expression, and CXCL9 and CXCL10 protein levels were measured in all subjects. The PVL of HAM/TSP patients was higher than that of ACs (P = 0.02). CCR6 expression was higher in HAM/TSP patients and in ACs compared to the healthy controls (P = 0.005 and P = 0.04, respectively). A significant difference was observed in CCR6 expression when a combination of HAM/TSP patients and ACs were compared to the healthy individuals (P = 0.005). Furthermore, there was a significantly lower CXCR3 expression between HAM/TSP and control groups (P = 0.001), and between the ACs and healthy controls (P = 0.001). However, the increased CXCR3 expression in ACs compared to HAM/TSP patients was not significant. Furthermore, the CXCL10 protein levels in HAM/TSP patients was higher than in controls (P = 0.012), and CXCL9 protein levels was also higher in the HAM/TSP and ACs groups than in the controls (P = 0.001 and P = 0.004, respectively). In conclusion, it seems that decreased expression of CXCR3 and higher expression of CCR6 were associated with HTLV-1 infection, what indicate that these alterations may favor virus dissemination but not disease manifestation. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.




    Full Text Available Pelvic endometriosis is a common gynaecologic problem. But the histogenesis of endometriosis was not so clear. Various theories have been proposed by Pathologist in the past. Here we present a case of endometriosis of fallopian tube by lymphatic spread which has been proved histopathologically

  19. Spreading of miscible liquids

    Walls, Daniel J.; Haward, Simon J.; Shen, Amy Q.; Fuller, Gerald G.


    Miscible liquids commonly contact one another in natural and technological situations, often in the proximity of a solid substrate. In the scenario where a drop of one liquid finds itself on a solid surface and immersed within a second, miscible liquid, it will spread spontaneously across the surface. We show experimental findings of the spreading of sessile drops in miscible environments that have distinctly different shape evolution and power-law dynamics from sessile drops that spread in immiscible environments, which have been reported previously. We develop a characteristic time to scale radial data of the spreading sessile drops based on a drainage flow due to gravity. This time scale is effective for a homologous subset of the liquids studied. However, it has limitations when applied to significantly chemically different, yet miscible, liquid pairings; we postulate that the surface energies between each liquid and the solid surface becomes important for this other subset of the liquids studied. Initial experiments performed with pendant drops in miscible environments support the drainage flow observed in the sessile drop systems.

  20. Virus spread in networks

    Mieghem, P. van; Omic, J.; Kooij, R.E.


    The influence of the network characteristics on the virus spread is analyzed in a new-the N-intertwined Markov chain-model, whose only approximation lies in the application of mean field theory. The mean field approximation is quantified in detail. The N-intertwined model has been compared with the

  1. Methods for quantifying tongue shape and complexity using ultrasound imaging.

    Dawson, Katherine M; Tiede, Mark K; Whalen, D H


    Quantification of tongue shape is potentially useful for indexing articulatory strategies arising from intervention, therapy and development. Tongue shape complexity is a parameter that can be used to reflect regional functional independence of the tongue musculature. This paper considers three different shape quantification methods - based on Procrustes analysis, curvature inflections and Fourier coefficients - and uses a linear discriminant analysis to test how well each method is able to classify tongue shapes from different phonemes. Test data are taken from six native speakers of American English producing 15 phoneme types. Results classify tongue shapes accurately when combined across quantification methods. These methods hold promise for extending the use of ultrasound in clinical assessments of speech deficits.

  2. Training induced cortical plasticity compared between three tongue training paradigms

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Jim


    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different training types and secondary to test gender differences on the training-related cortical plasticity induced by three different tongue training paradigms: 1. Therapeutic tongue exercises (TTE), 2. Playing computer games......) (control) were established using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) at three time-points: (1) before tongue training, (2) immediately after training, (3) 1 h after training. Subject-based reports of motivation, fun, pain and fatigue were evaluated on 0-10 numerical rating scales (NRS) after training......-points. No significant effect of tongue training on FDI MEPs was observed (P>0.335). The tongue cortical motor map areas were not significantly increased by training (P>0.142). Training with TDS was most motivating and fun (Plevel was not different between groups...

  3. Tongue piercing by a Yogi: QEEG observations.

    Peper, Erik; Wilson, Vietta E; Gunkelman, Jay; Kawakami, Mitsumasa; Sata, Misa; Barton, William; Johnston, James


    : This study reports on the QEEG observations recorded from a yogi during tongue piercing in which he demonstrated voluntary pain control. The QEEG was recorded with a Lexicor 1620 from 19 sites with appropriate controls for impedence and artifacts. A neurologist read the data for abnormalities and the QEEG was analyzed by mapping, single and multiple hertz bins, coherence, and statistical comparisons with a normative database. The session included a meditation baseline and tongue piercing. During the meditative baseline period the yogi's QEEG maps suggesting that he was able to lower his brain activity to a resting state. This state showed a predominance of slow wave potentials (delta) during piercing and suggested that the yogi induced a state that may be similar to those found when individuals are under analgesia. Further research should be conducted with a group of individuals who demonstrate exceptional self-regulation to determine the underlying mechanisms, and whether the skills can be used to teach others how to manage pain.

  4. Base of Tongue Tuberculosis: A Case Report

    Prepageran Narayanan


    Full Text Available We report a rare case of base of tongue tuberculosis following pulmonary tuberculosis. Patient presented to us with chief complaints of sore throat and pain on swallowing for period of 3 months. On examination with 70 degree telescope, we observed an ulcer on right side of base of tongue. The edges of the ulcer appeared to be undermined with whitish slough at the centre of the ulcer. Examination of neck showed a multiple small palpable middle deep cervical lymph nodes on right side of neck. Biopsy of the ulcer was taken, which showed granulomatous inflammation, suggestive of tuberculosis. Laboratory investigations revealed a raise in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, sputum for acid fast bacilli was strongly positive. Chest X ray was performed for patient showed multiple areas of consolidation. Patient was referred to chest clinic for further management of tuberculosis and was started on anti-tuberculous drugs. In conclusion tuberculosis of oral cavity is rare, but should be considered among one of the differential diagnosis of the oral lesions and biopsy is necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

  5. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham


    The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields i...

  6. Tongue pressure patterns during water swallowing.

    Kennedy, Daniel; Kieser, Jules; Bolter, Chris; Swain, Michael; Singh, Bhavia; Waddell, J Neil


    Bolus propulsion during the normal oral phase of swallowing is thought to be characterised by the sequential elevation of the front, middle, and posterior regions of the dorsum of the tongue. However, the coordinated orchestration of lingual movement is still poorly understood. This study examined how pressures generated by the tongue against the hard palate differed between three points along the midline of the tongue. Specifically, we tested three hypotheses: (1) that there are defined individual patterns of pressure change within the mouth during liquid swallowing; (2) that there are significant negative pressures generated at defined moments during normal swallowing; and, (3) that liquid swallowing is governed by the interplay of pressures generated in an anteroposterior direction in the mouth. Using a metal appliance described previously, we measured absolute pressures during water swallows in six healthy volunteers (4 male, 2 female) with an age range of 25-35 years. Participants performed three 10-ml water swallows from a small cup on five separate days, thus providing data for a total of 15 separate water swallows. There was a distinct pattern to the each of the pressure signals, and this pattern was preserved in the mean obtained when the data were pooled. Furthermore, raw signals from the same subjects presented consistent patterns at each of the five testing sessions. In all subjects, pressure at the anterior and hind palate tended to be negative relative to the preswallow value; at mid-palate, however, pressure changes were less consistent between individuals. When the pressure differences between the sites were calculated, we found that during the swallow a net negative pressure difference developed between anterior and mid-palate and a net positive pressure difference developed between mid-palate and hind palate. Large, rapid fluctuations in pressure occurred at all sites and these varied several-fold between subjects. When the brief sharp reduction

  7. Optimizing Hybrid Spreading in Metapopulations

    Zhang, Changwang; Cox, Ingemar J; Chain, Benjamin M


    Epidemic spreading phenomena are ubiquitous in nature and society. Examples include the spreading of diseases, information, and computer viruses. Epidemics can spread by \\textit{local spreading}, where infected nodes can only infect a limited set of direct target nodes and \\textit{global spreading}, where an infected node can infect every other node. In reality, many epidemics spread using a hybrid mixture of both types of spreading. In this study we develop a theoretical framework for studying hybrid epidemics, and examine the optimum balance between spreading mechanisms in terms of achieving the maximum outbreak size. In a metapopulation, made up of many weakly connected subpopulations, we show that one can calculate an optimal tradeoff between local and global spreading which will maximise the extent of the epidemic. As an example we analyse the 2008 outbreak of the Internet worm Conficker, which uses hybrid spreading to propagate through the internet. Our results suggests that the worm would have been eve...

  8. Combinatorics of spreads and parallelisms

    Johnson, Norman


    Partitions of Vector Spaces Quasi-Subgeometry Partitions Finite Focal-SpreadsGeneralizing André SpreadsThe Going Up Construction for Focal-SpreadsSubgeometry Partitions Subgeometry and Quasi-Subgeometry Partitions Subgeometries from Focal-SpreadsExtended André SubgeometriesKantor's Flag-Transitive DesignsMaximal Additive Partial SpreadsSubplane Covered Nets and Baer Groups Partial Desarguesian t-Parallelisms Direct Products of Affine PlanesJha-Johnson SL(2,

  9. Two Babinski signs in seropositive (HAM and seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis Dos signos de Babinski en pacientes con paraparesia espástica tropical seropositiva (HAM y seronegativa

    Fidias E. Leon-Sarmiento


    Full Text Available Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP may or may not be associated to HTLV-I antibodies and is usually characterized by clinical and pathological spinal cord abnormalities at thoracic levels. We present here five Brazilian patients who had typical chronic idiopatic spastic paraparesis; two of them were HTLV-I seropositive (HAM and three HTLV-I seronegative (TSP - associated-myelopathy. Three out of these five patients also displayed clinical supraspinal involvement, indeed, platysma muscle hypotrophy or atrophy (the Babinski plus sign. These findings support the view that clinical involvement in HAM and TSP is wider than the spinal cord abnormalities usually considered. Possible non-infectious co-factors (e.g., mycotoxins may be involved in disease pathogenesis in a multistep process of viruses, toxins and environment which may account for serological differences found in this group of patients.La paraparesia espástica tropical (PET, puede o no estar asociada con anticuerpos contra el HTLV-I y se caracteriza, usualmente, por alteraciones clínicas y patológicas a nivel de region dorso-lumbar de la medula espinal. Presentamos cinco pacientes brasileros, quienes tuvieron hallazgos típicos de paraparesia espástica crónica idiopática; dos de ellos tuvieron (HAM y tres no tuvieron (TSP anticuerpos, en el suero, contra el HTLV-I. En tres pacientes se encontró hipotrofia o atrofia del músculo platisma (signo de Babinski plus, demostrando que el compromiso clínico en pacientes con HAM y TSP se extiende más allá de la médula espinal torácica. Cofactores (por ejemplo, micotoxinas podrían estar involucrados en la patogénesis de esta enfermedad, en una interacción compleja de virus, toxinas y medio ambiente, lo cual explicaría las diferencias serológicas encontradas en este grupo de pacientes.

  10. Contributing to interpret sensory attributes qualifying Iberian hams from the volatile profile

    García-González, Diego L.


    Full Text Available The study involved the sensory assessment of 8 Iberian hams from the main producer zones and the analysis of their volatile composition by SPME-GC. The latter analysis was carried out independently on 4 well defined locations of the ham (subcutaneous fat, and biceps femoris, semitendinosus, and semimembranosus muscles in order to know their possible partial contribution to the whole ham aroma. The relation between volatile compounds and sensory attributes was established by the procedure of statistical sensory wheel (SSW, generating 4 different plots, each one of them referring to one of the ham locations. The volatile compounds explain similar information of the sensory attributes independently of the part of the ham from which they are produced although the volatiles quantified in semitendinosus muscle and subcutaneous fat seem to contribute slightly more than the other parts to the sensory profile determined by the panellists.Volatiles compounds with significance in the ham aroma were 3-methylbutanol, hexanal, octanol, nonanol, 2- heptanol, among many others, although their contribution to the aroma varies depending on the location.El estudio se ha llevado a cabo con 8 jamones ibéricos de las principales zonas productoras mediante panel sensorial y análisis de la fracción volátil con SPME-GC. Los últimos análisis fueron llevados a cabo en cuatro localizaciones independientes del jamón (grasa subcutánea, y los músculos bíceps femoris, semitendinosus y semimembranosus para conocer sus posibles contribuciones parciales al aroma completo del jamón. La relación entre compuestos volátiles y atributos sensoriales ha sido establecida mediante el procedimiento estadístico de la rueda sensorial (SSW, generando una representación gráfica por cada localización. Los compuestos volátiles explican los mismos atributos sensoriales independientemente de la parte del jamón en que se generen aunque los volátiles cuantificados en el m

  11. Quasirandom Rumor Spreading

    Doerr, Benjamin; Sauerwald, Thomas


    We propose and analyse a quasirandom analogue of the classical push model for disseminating information in networks ("randomized rumor spreading"). In the classical model, in each round each informed vertex chooses a neighbor at random and informs it, if it was not before. It is known that this simple protocol succeeds in spreading a rumor from one vertex to all others within O(log n) rounds on complete graphs, hypercubes, random regular graphs, Erdos-Renyi random graph and Ramanujan graphs with high probability. In the quasirandom model, we assume that each vertex has a (cyclic) list of its neighbors. Once informed, it starts at a random position of the list, but from then on informs its neighbors in the order of the list. Surprisingly, irrespective of the orders of the lists, the above mentioned bounds still hold. In some cases even better bounds than for the classical model can be shown.

  12. Spread spectrum image steganography.

    Marvel, L M; Boncelet, C R; Retter, C T


    In this paper, we present a new method of digital steganography, entitled spread spectrum image steganography (SSIS). Steganography, which means "covered writing" in Greek, is the science of communicating in a hidden manner. Following a discussion of steganographic communication theory and review of existing techniques, the new method, SSIS, is introduced. This system hides and recovers a message of substantial length within digital imagery while maintaining the original image size and dynamic range. The hidden message can be recovered using appropriate keys without any knowledge of the original image. Image restoration, error-control coding, and techniques similar to spread spectrum are described, and the performance of the system is illustrated. A message embedded by this method can be in the form of text, imagery, or any other digital signal. Applications for such a data-hiding scheme include in-band captioning, covert communication, image tamperproofing, authentication, embedded control, and revision tracking.

  13. Tongue resting pressure of the tongue anchorage pad in different body positions: a pilot study.

    Zeng, J; Xu, K; Gao, X; Xu, T


    We designed a modified transpalatal arch (tongue anchorage pad, TAP) to help control the vertical dimension. This study aimed to evaluate its efficiency by measuring the tongue resting pressure at different anteroposterior positions of the TAP in the upright and supine positions and to investigate the effect of changes in body position. Our study recruited 17 volunteers with individual normal occlusion (4 males, 13 females, age 22-33 years). An individualised TAP was designed for each subject. With a miniature sensor (FSS1500NS) installed in the device, we measured the pressure at the level of the distal second premolar (PM2), the first molar (M1) and the second molar (M2) in both the upright and supine positions. Nonparametric analysis was applied with the level of significance set at 0.05. In the upright position, tongue pressures obtained at PM2, M1 and M2 were 183.94, 130.81 and 113.07 Pa, respectively, with the maximum value detected at PM2 (P = 0.001). While in the supine position, pressures of 187.03, 156.87 and 201.69 Pa were detected at the same sites, with significantly higher values for M1 (P = 0.002) and M2 (P = 0.004). Tongue resting pressure decreases from the anterior aspect to the posterior aspect in the upright position. In the supine position, the pressure is consistent across the midline with pressure enhancement at M1 and M2. As many questions remain about this appliance and appropriate intruding force, further clinical and basic studies are required prior to its clinical implementation.

  14. Molecularly imprinted polymers as recognition materials for electronic tongues.

    Huynh, Tan-Phat; Kutner, Wlodzimierz


    For over three decades now, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) have successfully been used for selective chemical sensing because the shape and size of their imprinted molecular cavities perfectly matched those of the target analyte molecules. Moreover, orientation of recognizing sites of these cavities corresponded to those of the binding sites of the template molecules. In contrast, electronic tongue (e-tongue) is usually an array of low-affinity recognition units. Its selectivity is based on recognition pattern or multivariate analysis. Merging these two sensing devices led to a synergetic hybrid sensor, an MIP based e-tongue. Fabrication of these e-tongues permitted simultaneous sensing and discriminating several analytes in complex solutions of many components so that these arrays compensated for limitation in cross-reactivity of MIPs. Apparently, analytical signals generated by MIP-based e-tongues, compared to those of ordinary sensor arrays, were more reliable where a unique pattern or 'fingerprint' for each analyte was generated. Additionally, several transduction platforms (from spectroscopic to electrochemical) engaged in constructing MIP-based e-tongues, found their broad and flexible applications. The present review critically evaluates achievements in recent developments of the MIP based e-tongues for chemosensing.

  15. Electronic Tongue for Quantitation of Contaminants in Water

    Buehler, Marlin; Kuhlman, Gregory


    An assembly of sensors, denoted an electronic tongue, is undergoing development as a prototype of compact devices for use in measuring concentrations of contaminants in water. Thus far, the electronic tongue has been tested on ions of Cu, Zn, Pb, and Fe and shown to respond to concentrations as low as about 10 parts per million. This electronic tongue is expected to be capable of measuring concentrations of other metal ions and organic compounds. Potential uses for electronic tongues include monitoring the chemical quality of water in a variety of natural, industrial, and laboratory settings; detecting micro-organisms indirectly by measuring microbially influenced corrosion; and characterizing compounds of interest to the pharmaceutical and food industries. This version of the electronic tongue includes a heater, a temperature sensor, an array of ion-specific electrodes, an oxidation/ reduction sensor pair, an electrical-conductivity sensor, and an array of galvanic cells, all on one compact ceramic substrate. Special-purpose electronic excitation and readout circuitry for the sensors has also been constructed. The main advantage of the electronic tongue, relative to electrodes of this type used traditionally to assess water quality, is extreme ruggedness. The types of measurements that can be performed by use of the sensors on the electronic tongue are quite varied. The best combination of types of measurements for a given application depends on the specific contaminants that one seeks to detect. Experimental studies to identify such combinations were in progress at the time of reporting the information for this article.

  16. Living in limbo: Being diagnosed with oral tongue cancer

    Genevieve Philiponis


    Full Text Available Objective: Oral tongue cancer presents clinical challenges to effective diagnosis that affect patient experience. Patient experience of the diagnostic process is poorly described, making opportunities for nursing intervention unclear. Methods: We qualitatively describe, using constant comparative analysis, oral tongue cancer diagnosis using data from a larger grounded theory study of oral tongue cancer survivorship. Using constant comparative analysis - in keeping with the methodology of the main study - we analyzed 16 survivor interviews for themes explaining the patient experience of oral tongue cancer diagnosis. Results: We termed the broader diagnostic process "living in limbo." This process includes the themes describing the peri-diagnostic process itself - "self-detected lesion," "lack of concern," "seeking help," "not a straightforward diagnosis," and "hearing the diagnosis." Entry into treatment concludes "Living in Limbo" and is described by the theme "worry and trust." Conclusions: Our findings are limited by retrospective interviews and participant homogeneity among other features. Future research with prospective designs and diverse groups of people at risk for and diagnosed with oral tongue cancer, as well as targeting those who have had negative biopsies with no eventual diagnosis of oral tongue cancer, will build on our findings. Further, study of patient experience in other sociocultural context and healthcare systems is needed to inform nursing science and practice. Finally, "living in limbo" suggests that clinician and public education about oral tongue cancer diagnosis is needed.

  17. Slip of the tongue: Implications for evolution and language development.

    Forrester, Gillian S; Rodriguez, Alina


    A prevailing theory regarding the evolution of language implicates a gestural stage prior to the emergence of speech. In support of a transition of human language from a gestural to a vocal system, articulation of the hands and the tongue are underpinned by overlapping left hemisphere dominant neural regions. Behavioral studies demonstrate that human adults perform sympathetic mouth actions in imitative synchrony with manual actions. Additionally, right-handedness for precision manual actions in children has been correlated with the typical development of language, while a lack of hand bias has been associated with psychopathology. It therefore stands to reason that sympathetic mouth actions during fine precision motor action of the hands may be lateralized. We employed a fine-grained behavioral coding paradigm to provide the first investigation of tongue protrusions in typically developing 4-year old children. Tongue protrusions were investigated across a range of cognitive tasks that required varying degrees of manual action: precision motor action, gross motor action and no motor actions. The rate of tongue protrusions was influenced by the motor requirements of the task and tongue protrusions were significantly right-biased for only precision manual motor action (p<.001). From an evolutionary perspective, tongue protrusions can drive new investigations regarding how an early human communication system transitioned from hand to mouth. From a developmental perspective, the present study may serve to reveal patterns of tongue protrusions during the motor development of typically developing children.

  18. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool

    Radhika, T.; Jeddy, Nadeem; Nithya, S.


    Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated. PMID:28123263

  19. Tongue prints: A novel biometric and potential forensic tool

    T Radhika


    Full Text Available Tongue is a vital internal organ well encased within the oral cavity and protected from the environment. It has unique features which differ from individual to individual and even between identical twins. The color, shape, and surface features are characteristic of every individual, and this serves as a tool for identification. Many modes of biometric systems have come into existence such as fingerprint, iris scan, skin color, signature verification, voice recognition, and face recognition. The search for a new personal identification method secure has led to the use of the lingual impression or the tongue print as a method of biometric authentication. Tongue characteristics exhibit sexual dimorphism thus aiding in the identification of the person. Emerging as a novel biometric tool, tongue prints also hold the promise of a potential forensic tool. This review highlights the uniqueness of tongue prints and its superiority over other biometric identification systems. The various methods of tongue print collection and the classification of tongue features are also elucidated.

  20. On the Application of Mother tongue in Primary school English Teaching



    This paper first briefly reviews the application of mother tongue in primary school English teaching and then hackles the positive contribution of learners’ mother tongue thinking and mother tongue knowledge in English learning.Finally,it suggests that it is necessary for English teachers at the primary school to make use of mother tongue in timely and appropriate way.

  1. Explorations of the Similarities and Differences between the Mother Tongue and the Second Language Learning



    This paper mainly discusses the similarities and differences between the mother tongue and the second language learning. That is, major characteristics of the mother tongue acquisition, the second language with own peculiarities and big difference from the mother tongue, some significant similarities between the mother tongue and the second languages and the implication for classroom teaching.

  2. Dry cured ham quality as related to lipid quality of raw material and lipid changes during processing: a review.

    Gilles, Gandemer


    Lipids play a key role in sensory traits of dry cured hams. Both the quantity and the composition of lipids in raw material affect dry-cured hams quality. The lipid characteristics strongly depend on rearing systems developed in different area in Europe. During processing, lipids undergo lipolysis and oxidation. Phospholipids are the main substrates of both lipolysis and oxidation. Lipolysis forms free fatty acids rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids all along the process. Lipids are also subj...

  3. Leukokeratosis nicotina glossi-smokers' tongue.

    Farman, A G; Van Wyk, C W


    "Leukokeratosis nicotina glossi" or "smokers' tongue" is a homogeneous leukoplakia with evenly distributed pin-point hemispherical depressions. Histologically, there is a loss of glossal papillae, hyperkeratosis, acanthosis and the formation of large drop-shaped rete pegs with central clefting and occasional parakeratotic plugging. Mitotic activity and atypia are not marked and there is no evidence of Candida species infection. In some respects the lesion histologically resembles verrucous carcinoma but, unlike that condition, papillomatosis is not clinically noticeable and an invasive "leading edge" is not apparent. All but one of the subjects in which the lesion was seen were men, all had concurrent leukokeratosis nicotina palati and two gave histories of laryngeal carcinoma.

  4. [A case of tongue base schwannoma].

    Xie, Huishan; Yang, Feng; Zhuo, Mingying


    Published reports of benign nerve sheath tumors of the oropharynx especially at tongue base are extremely rare. They may slowly growing but represent a potential threat to the airway, prompt diagnosis and treatment are vital. To our knowledge, this case presents the rare clinical condition and the first giant one. Due to the rarity, awareness of the possibility of a schwannoma in various otolaryngological conditions is an important step in making a correct clinical diagnosis. Here we represent a rare case of a giant schwannoma that arose from valleculae projecting to supraglottis to cause swallowing difficult but no breathing problem. The mass was completely removed, and no recurrence during next 2 years follow-up.

  5. Schwannoma of the tongue in a child.

    Lukšić, Ivica; Müller, Danko; Virag, Mišo; Manojlović, Spomenka; Ostović, Karmen Trutin


    A schwannoma or neurilemmoma is a benign, slow growing, usually solitary and encapsulated tumour originating from Schwann cells of the nerve sheath. Approximately 25-40% of all schwannomas are seen in the soft tissues of the head and neck, often originate from the acoustic nerve. Intraoral schwannomas are rare and account for 1% of schwannomas of the head and neck region. We report the case of a 10-year-old boy diagnosed with a schwannoma of the tongue. The purpose of this report is to emphasize the possibility of diagnosing schwannoma among all other lingual lesions in children. The disease itself was diagnosed histologically after complete surgical excision. Five years after surgical treatment, the patient is without signs of recurrence. This paper highlights the importance of a multidisciplinary approach in the diagnosis and surgical treatment of this very rare entity.

  6. HAM56 and CD68 antigen presenting cells surrounding a sarcoidal granulomatous tattoo

    Ana Maria Abreu Velez


    Full Text Available Context : Tattoos are produced by introducing colorants of various compositions into the skin, either accidentally or for cosmetic purposes. Case Report: A 62-year-old male presented with a cosmetic tattoo and requested a total excision of the lesion. Dermatopathologic analysis of the excised tissue with hematoxylin and eosin examination, as well as immunohistochemistry was performed. H&E staining demonstrated classic histologic features of a tattoo. Utilizing immunohistochemistry, dermal histiocytic antigen presenting cells stained with HAM56 and CD68 antibodies; the staining was present surrounding the tattoo pigment. Conclusions : We identified two macrophage markers (HAM56 and CD68 surrounding dermal tattoo pigment. A minimal dermal inflammatory immune was noted to the tattoo pigment. Moreover, the immune response and/or tolerance to tattoos is not well characterized. We suggest that tattoo materials and techniques could be utilized in therapeutic delivery for diseases such recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa, potentially preventing immune rejection of gene therapy agents.

  7. Characterization of the most odor-active compounds of Iberian ham headspace.

    Carrapiso, Ana I; Ventanas, Jesús; García, Carmen


    Gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) based on detection frequency (DF) was used to characterize the most odor-active compounds from the headspace of Iberian ham. Twenty-eight odorants were identified by GC-O on two capillary columns, including aldehydes (11), sulfur-containing compounds (7), ketones (5), nitrogen-containing compounds (2), esters (2), and an alcohol. Among them, the highest odor potencies (DF values) were found for 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-heptanone, 3-methylbutanal, methanethiol, hexanal, hydrogen sulfide, 1-penten-3-one, 2-methylpropanal, ethyl 2-methylbutyrate, and (E)-2-hexenal. Nine of the 28 most odor-active compounds were identified for the first time as aroma components of dry-cured ham, including hydrogen sulfide, 1-penten-3-one, (Z)-3-hexenal, 1-octen-3-one, and the meaty-smelling compounds 2-methyl-3-furanthiol, 2-furfurylthiol, 3-mercapto-2-pentanone, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 2-propionyl-1-pyrroline.

  8. Effects of salt and temperature on proteolysis during ripening of Iberian ham.

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Antequera, T; Timón, M L; Ventanas, J


    Fifty-five hams from Iberian pigs were processed using two different dry-curing techniques, traditional and modern. Salt content, non-protein nitrogen and its fractions (peptide, amino acid and volatile basic nitrogen) from Biceps femoris muscles were quantified. The existence of an overlapping effect of both temperature and salt content on the general non-protein nitrogen production was observed. The most intense proteolytic breakdown took place when higher temperatures were reached during the drying stage. The difference in salt concentration seems to contribute to generating different quantities in the non-protein nitrogen fractions. The inclusion at the end of the cellar stage of a stuffing period would permit increasing the accumulation of free amino acid in high salted hams.

  9. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds formed during processing of Iberian ham.

    Martín, L; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; Benítez-Donoso, R; Córdoba, J J


    Fifty-five legs from Iberian pigs were traditionally processed into dry cured hams. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction from the biceps femoris muscle were analyzed by HPLC. At the drying stage and in the last months in the cellar the largest increases in these water-soluble compounds took place. There was a clear influence on free amino acid formation of salt content and on the formation of peptides of the temperature at each processing stage. As the amount of non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction increases with processing time, their determination could provide a maturation index for Iberian ham.

  10. A Ham Sandwich Analogue for Quaternionic Measures and Finite Subgroups of S^3

    Simon, Steven


    A "ham sandwich" theorem is established for n quaternionic Borel measures on quaternionic space H^n. For each finite subgroup G of S^3, it is shown that there is a quaternionic hyperplane H and a corresponding tiling of H^n into |G| fundamental regions which are rotationally symmetric about H with respect to G, and satisfy the condition that for each of the n measures, the "G average" of the measures of these regions is zero. If each quaternionic measure is a 4-tuple of finite Borel measures on R^{4n}, the original ham sandwich theorem on R^{4n} is recovered when G = Z_2. The theorem applies to [n/4] finite Borel measures on R^n, and when G is the quaternion group Q_8, this gives a decomposition of R^n into 2 rings of 4 cubical "wedges" each, such that the measure any two opposite wedges is equal for each finite measure.

  11. Quantum Algorithm for K-Nearest Neighbors Classification Based on the Metric of Hamming Distance

    Ruan, Yue; Xue, Xiling; Liu, Heng; Tan, Jianing; Li, Xi


    K-nearest neighbors (KNN) algorithm is a common algorithm used for classification, and also a sub-routine in various complicated machine learning tasks. In this paper, we presented a quantum algorithm (QKNN) for implementing this algorithm based on the metric of Hamming distance. We put forward a quantum circuit for computing Hamming distance between testing sample and each feature vector in the training set. Taking advantage of this method, we realized a good analog for classical KNN algorithm by setting a distance threshold value t to select k - n e a r e s t neighbors. As a result, QKNN achieves O(n 3) performance which is only relevant to the dimension of feature vectors and high classification accuracy, outperforms Llyod's algorithm (Lloyd et al. 2013) and Wiebe's algorithm (Wiebe et al. 2014).

  12. Two Babinski signs in seropositive (HAM) and seronegative tropical spastic paraparesis.

    Leon-Sarmiento, Fidias E; Calderon, Andres; Hernandez, Hernan G


    Tropical spastic paraparesis (TSP) may or may not be associated to HTLV-I antibodies and is usually characterized by clinical and pathological spinal cord abnormalities at thoracic levels. We present here five Brazilian patients who had typical chronic idiopathic spastic paraparesis; two of them were HTLV-I seropositive (HAM) and three HTLV-I seronegative (TSP) -associated-myelopathy. Three out of these five patients also displayed clinical supraspinal involvement, indeed, platysma muscle hypotrophy or atrophy (the Babinski plus sign). These findings support the view that clinical involvement in HAM and TSP is wider than the spinal cord abnormalities usually considered. Possible non-infectious co-factors (e.g., mycotoxins) may be involved in disease pathogenesis in a multistep process of viruses, toxins and environment which may account for serological differences found in this group of patients.

  13. Aroma-active compounds in jinhua ham produced with different fermentation periods.

    Liu, Xiao-Sheng; Liu, Jian-Bin; Yang, Zheng-Mao; Song, Huan-Lu; Liu, Ye; Zou, Ting-Ting


    The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI), odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid), saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal), benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid), ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone) were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  14. Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods

    Xiao-Sheng Liu


    Full Text Available The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS. In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI, odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid, saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal, benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid, ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period.

  15. Recent Progresses in Analysis of Tongue Manifestation for Traditional Chinese Medicine

    WEI Bao-guo; CAI Yi-heng; ZHANG Xin-feng; SHEN Lan-sun


    Tongue diagnosis is one of the most precious and widely used diagnostic methods in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). However, due to its subjective, qualitative and experience-dependent nature, the studies on tongue characterization have been widely emphasized. This paper surveys recent progresses in analysis of tongue manifestation. These new developments include the cross-network and cross-media color reproduction of tongue image, the automatic segmentation of tongue body based on knowledge, the automatic analysis of curdiness and griminess for the tongue fur and the automatic analysis of plumpness, wryness and dot -thorn of tongue body. The clinic experiments verify the validity of these new methods.

  16. The pattern of tongue positions and properties of Kazak vowels

    Xin, Ruiqing


    Acoustic analysis of Kazak vowels has been undertaken and values of the first two formants are extracted as the data for the pattern of tongue positions. Both formant values and the pattern of tongue positions of Kazak vowels indicate that there is a relative minimal-pair contrast distribution among the vowels. Although all of the vowels are within the area of the cardinal vowels, most Kazak vowel are centralized and the ultimate of tongue positions is confined in a comparatively small area. Vowels [e] and [ɨ] are actually not that as the IPA signified.

  17. High-pressure processing and antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita


    The efficiency of combining high-pressure processing (HPP) and active packaging technologies to control Listeria monocytogenes growth during the shelf life of artificially inoculated cooked ham was assessed. Three lots of cooked ham were prepared: control, packaging with alginate films, and packaging with antimicrobial alginate films containing enterocins. After packaging, half of the samples were pressurized. Sliced cooked ham stored at 6 degrees C experienced a quick growth of L. monocytogenes. Both antimicrobial packaging and pressurization delayed the growth of the pathogen. However, at 6 degrees C the combination of antimicrobial packaging and HPP was necessary to achieve a reduction of inoculated levels without recovery during 60 days of storage. Further storage at 6 degrees C of pressurized antimicrobial packed cooked ham resulted in L. monocytogenes levels below the detection limit (day 90). On the other hand, storage at 1 degrees C controlled the growth of the pathogen until day 39 in non-pressurized ham, while antimicrobial packaging and storage at 1 degrees C exerted a bacteriostatic effect for 60 days. All HPP lots stored at 1 degrees C led to counts <100CFU/g at day 60. Similar results were observed when combining both technologies. After a cold chain break no growth of L. monocytogenes was observed in pressurized ham packed with antimicrobial films, showing the efficiency of combining both technologies.

  18. Effects of phosphine and methyl bromide fumigation on the volatile flavor profile and sensory quality of dry cured ham.

    Sekhon, R K; Schilling, M W; Phillips, T W; Aikins, M J; Hasan, M M; Corzo, A; Mikel, W B


    In separate experiments, randomized complete block designs with three replications were utilized to evaluate the effects of phosphine (PH(3)) (0, 200 and 1000ppm for 48h) and methyl bromide (MB) (0, 4, 8, 16, and 32mg/L for 48h) fumigation concentration on the volatile flavor compound concentrations in dry cured ham. Minimal differences existed (P>0.05) in the presence and concentration of aroma active compounds in both PH(3) and MB fumigated hams but sulfur and oxidation compounds were more prevalent (Pfumigated treatments when compared to the control. As phosphine fumigation concentration increased, the residual concentration of phosphine also increased in the hams (Pphosphine allowed in stored food products (0.01ppm) in the United States. A triangle test (n=56) indicated that consumers could not discriminate (P>0.75) between the control hams and those that were fumigated with PH(3). Minimal aroma/flavor differences existed among MB, PH3 and control hams, and dry cured ham that was fumigated with PH(3) was safe for consumption based on residual phosphine concentrations in the meat tissue.

  19. Effect of use of citrus bagasse as functional product-extender on physicochemical and textural properties of cooked ham

    José Antonio Aguilar-Rico


    Full Text Available The substitution effect of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse on physico-chemical characteristics of cooked ham was evaluated. A 33 factorial design was used, with substitution levels of 0, 50 and 100%. The results indicate that the substitution of potato starch for orange bagasse results in increase in the ham yield, but to replace the carrageenan and/or soy protein by orange bagasse, cause decrease in yield below that non-substituted ham. Moreover, if even yields increase with substitution of potato starch by orange bagasse, however, the textural characteristics of the product obtained showed deficiency in comparison with thenon-substituted ham. Apparently orange bagasse substitution does not alter the matrix stability formation in ham, so there was no significant difference in expressible moisture. Substitution of carrageenan, soy protein and potato starch by orange bagasse in ham has highest influence on pH and color parameters, this due probably to compounds presents in the fruit (citric acid and carotenoids. Orange bagasse has high potential as a novel source of dietary fiber in food industry.

  20. Use of antimicrobial biodegradable packaging to control Listeria monocytogenes during storage of cooked ham.

    Marcos, Begonya; Aymerich, Teresa; Monfort, Josep M; Garriga, Margarita


    The antimicrobial effect against L. monocytogenes of biodegradable films (alginate, zein and polyvinyl alcohol) containing enterocins was investigated. Survival of the pathogen was studied by means of challenge tests performed at 6 degrees C during 8 and 29 days, for air-packed and vacuum-packed sliced cooked ham, respectively. Air packaging was tested with two concentrations of enterocins (200 and 2000 AU/cm2). Control air-packed cooked ham showed an increase of L. monocytogenes from 10(4) to 10(7) CFU/g after 8 days. By contrast, packaging with antimicrobial films effectively slowed down the pathogen's growth, leading to final counts lower than in control lots. Air-packaging with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins effectively controlled L. monocytogenes for 8 days. An increase of only 1 log unit was observed in zein and polyvinyl alcohol lots at the same enterocin concentration. Vacuum packaging with films containing enterocins (2000 AU/cm2) also delayed the growth of the pathogen. No increase from inoculated levels was observed during 15 days in antimicrobial alginate films. After 29 days of storage, the lowest counts were obtained in samples packed with zein and alginate films containing enterocins, as well as with zein control films. The most effective treatment for controlling L. monocytogenes during 6 degrees C storage was vacuum-packaging of sliced cooked ham with alginate films containing 2000 AU/cm2 of enterocins. From the results obtained it can concluded that antimicrobial packaging can improve the safety of sliced cooked ham by delaying and reducing the growth of L. monocytogenes.

  1. Topological Characterization of Hamming and Dragonfly Networks and its Implications on Routing

    Camarero Coterillo, Cristobal; Vallejo Gutiérrez, Enrique; Beivide Palacio, Julio Ramón


    Current HPC and datacenter networks rely on large-radix routers. Hamming graphs (Cartesian products of complete graphs) and dragonflies (two-level direct networks with nodes organized in groups) are some direct topologies proposed for such networks. The original definition of the dragonfly topology is very loose, with several degrees of freedom such as the inter- and intra-group topology, the specific global connectivity and the number of parallel links between groups (or trunking level). ...

  2. Analysis of the Relationship between Hamming Distance and the Electromagnetic Information Leakage

    Sun Haimeng; Liu Jinming; Zhang Jiemin; Mao Jian


    Electromagnetic information leak as a potential data security risk is more and more serious. Discussing the relationship between compromising emanations and Hamming distance is directed to preventing or reducing the electromagnetic information leakage. The paper presents the model of electromagnetic information leak, then the hierarchical protection strategy based on the model is proposed, that is anti-radiation, anti-intercept and anti-reconstruction. Analyzing the causes of electromagnetic ...

  3. Implementasi Filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR Window Hamming dan Blackman menggunakan DSK TMS320C6713



    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Filter didefinisikan sebagai proses atau rangkaian yang melewatkan pita frekuensi tertentu yang diinginkan dan meredam pita frekuensi lainnya. Salah satu metode perancangan filter digital Finite Impulse Response (FIR adalah metode windowing. Dalam penelitian ini digunakan jenis window Hamming dan Blackman. Simulasi dilakukan dengan menggunakan software Matlab dengan memasukan frekuensi passband, frekuensi stopband, ripple passband, dan stopband attenuation. Dengan frekuensi sampling sebesar 15000 Hz, frekuensi passband sebesar 3000 Hz, frekuensi stopband sebesar 5000 Hz. Setelah simulasi dilakukan implementasi filter dengan parameter yang sama menggunakan DSK TMS 320C6713 dengan bantuan software CCS. Simulasi dan implementasi dilakukan pada semua band frekuensi. Hasil pengujian terhadap implementasi filter adalah respon magnitude, frekuensi cut-off, bandwidth, dan faktor kualitas dengan hasil simulasi tidak menunjukkan perbedaan yang signifikan. Kata kunci: filter digital, windowing, Hamming, Blackman, frekuensi cut-off . ABSTRACT Filter is defined as a process or series that skip certain desired frequency band and other frequency bands drown. One method of designing a digital filter Finite Impulse Response (FIR is a windowing method. This study used the type of window Hamming and Blackman. Simulations performed using Matlab software by inserting a frequency passband, stopband frequency, passband ripple, and stopband attenuation. With a sampling frequency of 15,000 Hz, a frequency of 3000 Hz passband, stopband frequency of 5000 Hz. After the simulation is completed, implementation of the filter with the same parameters using TMS 320C6713 DSK with the help of software CCS. Simulation and implmentasi performed on all frequency bands. The test results of the implementation of the filter is the Magnitude response, the cut-off frequency, bandwidth, and quality factor with simulation results showed no significant difference. Keywords: digital

  4. Influence of cooking process on protein fractions in cooked ham and mortadella

    Vonghia, G; Liuzzi, V.; M. Faccia; G. Alviti; G. Cacace; A. Di Luccia


    The mortadella is a pork meat sausage (in natural or artificial bowel) accurately triturated and mixed with little backfat cubes, salt, sodium nitrate and nitrite, spices and peppercorns, and then cooked in oven for many hours. The cooked ham is obtained from an anatomically completed piece of meat; the working process provides the addiction of salt and spices, the brine, the bones removal, the churning and the pressing, so the cured meat is first packed in a mould provided for this purpose, ...

  5. Functional MRI of tongue motor tasks in patients with tongue cancer: observations before and after partial glossectomy

    Haupage, Samantha; Branski, Ryan C.; Kraus, Dennis [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Head and Neck Surgery, New York, NY (United States); Peck, Kyung K. [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Medical Physics, New York, NY (United States); Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Medical Physics and Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Hsu, Meier [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, New York, NY (United States); Holodny, Andrei [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States)


    The current study seeks to provide preliminary data regarding this central, adaptive response during tongue motor tasks utilizing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) before and after glossectomy. Six patients, with confirmed histological diagnoses of oral tongue cancer, underwent fMRI before and 6 months after partial glossectomy. These data were compared to nine healthy controls. All subjects performed three tongue motor tasks during fMRI: tongue tapping (TT), dry swallow (Dry), and wet swallow (Wet). Following surgery, increased activation was subjectively observed in the superior parietal lobule, supplementary motor area, and anterior cingulate. Region of interest (ROI) analysis of the precentral gyrus confirmed increased cortical activity following surgery. In addition, comparisons between pre-surgical scans and controls suggested the dry swallow task was sensitive to elicit tongue-related activation in the precentral gyrus (p {<=} 0.05). The adaptive changes in the cortex following partial glossectomy reflect recruitment of the parietal, frontal, and cingulate cortex during tongue motor tasks. In addition, post-operative activation patterns more closely approximated control levels than the pre-operative scans. Furthermore, the dry swallow task appears most specific to elicit tongue-related cortical activity. (orig.)

  6. Determination of volatile compounds and quality parameters of traditional Istrian dry-cured ham.

    Marušić, Nives; Vidaček, Sanja; Janči, Tibor; Petrak, Tomislav; Medić, Helga


    The aim of this work was to determine the characteristics of Istrian dry-cured ham by instrumental methods and sensory analysis. The aroma-active compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham from 2010 and 2012 were investigated by using headspace-solid phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Samples of biceps femoris were also evaluated by measuring physical and chemical characteristics. 92 volatile aroma compounds of Istrian dry-cured ham were found. Volatile compounds belonged to several chemical groups: aldehydes (51.4; 51.3%), terpenes (16.5; 16.4%), alcohols (15.5; 13.2%), ketones (8.6; 7.4%), alkanes (3.8; 5.7%), esters (1.3; 1.6%), aromatic hydrocarbons (0.8; 3.9%) and acids (0.6; 0.9%). Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that fat content, tenderness and melting texture were positively correlated. Terpenes were strongly correlated with flavour of added spices. Sweet taste and the presence of esters were positively correlated as well as negative odour, raw meat flavour and water content.

  7. Characterization of commercial cooked hams according to physicochemical, sensory, and textural parameters using chemometrics

    Francine Gomes Basso Los


    Full Text Available Cooked ham is considered a high-value product due to the quality of its raw material. Although its consumption is still low in Brazil, it is increasing due to the rising purchasing power of sectors of the population. This study aimed to assess the microbiological, physicochemical, rheological, and sensory quality of cooked hams (n=11 marketed in Brazil. All samples showed microbiological results within the standards established by Brazilian legislation. Eight of the eleven samples studied met all the legal requirements; two samples violated the standards due to the addition of starch; one sample had lower protein content than the minimum required, and another one had sodium content higher than that stated on the label. The use of Hierarchical Cluster Analysis allowed the agglomeration of the samples into three groups with distinct quality traits and with significant differences in moisture content, chromaticity, syneresis, and heating and freezing loss. Principal Component Analysis showed that the samples which correlated to higher sensory acceptance regarding flavor and overall acceptability were those with higher moisture, protein, fat, and luminosity values. This study confirmed the efficacy of multivariate statistical techniques in assessing the quality of commercial cooked hams and in indicating the physicochemical parameters associated with the perception of product quality.


    R. Melillo


    Full Text Available Goat farming is a very important resource, expecially in marginal and unlikely exploitable Mediterranean areas. They are extensively reared, mainly for milk production and for suckling kids meat. The meat from adult goats instead is not profitable, because of its very low commercial value. The transformation of the Sarda goat (native breed meat in ripened products (ham would contribute to safeguard the Sardinian goat supply chain. In the present study, in order to characterize the Sarda breed goat dry ham, five batches (L1–L5, processed in a traditional plant, were analyzed. The chemical-physical characteristics were determined in the following stages: fresh ham (MP, after salting (S, after drying (E and at the end of ripening (P. The microbiological parameters were determined in MP and in P. The dynamics of pH during processing were similar to those of cured meat products (in P: 6.58±0.26. The aw value decreased during the processing up to 0.79±0.03. Regarding the microbiological parameters, in P the coagulase negative Staphylococci were the prevalent flora (4.38±1.08 Log10 cfu/g, followed by the Lactic acid bacteria (2.46±1.00. The Moulds and Yeasts were not constant and the presence of pathogens was not highlighted.

  9. HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP): still an obscure disease.

    Pillat, Micheli Mainardi; Bauer, Moisés Evandro; de Oliveira, Augusto Cesar Penalva; Ulrich, Henning; Casseb, Jorge


    Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is the ethiologic agent of the neurological disorder HTLV-1- associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Although the majority of HTLV-1-infected individuals remain asymptomatic during their lifetime, approximately one percent of this population develops a myelopathy consisting of a chronic inflammation of the white and gray matter of the spinal cord. Glucocorticoids are widely used for treatment because of their anti-inflammatory properties, improving symptoms mainly in those patients with only a few years from onset of the disease, when inflammation is more prominent. Interferon-alpha and vitamin C are other therapies presenting some benefits in clinical practice, probably due to their anti-viral and immunomodulatory activities observed ex vivo. Furthermore, inhibitors of histone deacetylase, which increase virus expression but result in a substantial decline in the proviral load, have also been proposed. This review is intended to bridge the gap between clinical and basic science by presenting recent findings on HAM/TSP disease, mechanisms of drug action, and benefits of these therapies in HAM/TSP patients.

  10. Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, florfenicol and florfenicol amine in ham sausage with a hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay.

    Tao, Xiaoqi; Jiang, Haiyang; Yu, Xuezhi; Zhu, Jinghui; Wang, Xia; Wang, Zhanhui; Niu, Lanlan; Wu, Xiaoping; Shen, Jianzhong


    A novel chemiluminescent immunoassay utilising two types of primary antibodies (murine monoclonal antibody and rabbit polyclonal antibody) and two types of horseradish peroxidase-labelled secondary antibodies was established for simultaneously detecting multiple amphenicol residues in ham sausage. After combining the extract procedure of the target amphenicol into one simplified method, this hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen chloramphenicol (CAP), florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) at the same time by adding the corresponding secondary antibody. Ham sausage samples were analysed by using this hybrid immunoassay, with LODs of CAP being 0.01 μg kg⁻¹, of FF being 2.8 μg kg⁻¹ and of FFA being 3.0 μg kg⁻¹. The applicability of the proposed method has been validated by determining CAP, FF and FFA in ham sausage samples with satisfactory results. Good recoveries and high correlation with traditional enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and LC-MS/MS results illustrated that the developed hybrid chemiluminescent immunoassay could screen high-throughput ultra-trace amphenicol residues effectively at one time.

  11. Simultaneous analysis of consumer variables, acceptability and sensory characteristics of dry-cured ham.

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Tomita, Masaru


    We conducted a consumer acceptability analysis of dry-cured ham based on sensory evaluation. Consumer acceptability data are rendered heterogeneous by the diverse backgrounds and assessment abilities of the participants, requiring versatile analytical methods for their interpretation. Totally, 9 sensory attributes of 12 kinds of dry-cured ham samples collected from Japan (n=9), Italy (n=1), Spain (n=1), and Germany (n=1) were tasted by 117 Japanese consumers who showed acceptable evaluation abilities during blind sampling. Common techniques, such as hierarchical clustering, principal component analysis, and external preference mapping, were simultaneously utilized to analyze each characteristics scored in modified hedonic scale. These analyses revealed the relationships between the features and preferences of the assessors. For example, consumers aged 20-30 with smoking and drinking habits preferred sweetness and saltiness, and gave high ratings to Spanish Jómon serrano and Italian prosciutto. Our approach could assist ham marketers to identify potential purchasers and the preferred characteristics of their products.


    Peter Mell


    Full Text Available Previous work introduced the idea of grouping alert s at a Hamming distance of 1 to achieve lossless al ert aggregation; such aggregated meta-alerts were shown to increase alert interpretability. However, a mea n of 84023 daily Snort alerts were reduced to a still formidable 14099 meta-alerts. In this work, we add ress this limitation by investigating several approaches that all contribute towards reducing the burden on the analyst and providing timely analysis. We explore m inimizing the number of both alerts and data elemen ts by aggregating at Hamming distances greater than 1. We show how increasing bin sizes can improve aggregation rates. And we provide a new aggregation algorithm that operates up to an order of magnitud e faster at Hamming distance 1. Lastly, we demonstrat e the broad applicability of this approach through empirical analysis of Windows security alerts, Snor t alerts, netflow records, and DNS logs. The result is a reduction in the cognitive load on analysts by mini mizing the overall number of alerts and the number of data elements that need to be reviewed in order for an analyst to evaluate the set of original alerts.

  13. Furosine as an index of heat treatment intensity in meat products: Its application to cooked ham.

    Pompei, C; Spagnolello, A


    Furosine, a product of acid hydrolysis of Amadori compounds, has been proposed as an index of the heat treament intensity in various food products. In this paper we suggest furosine as an index of heat treatment in pork-meat products as well. Furosine is not detectable in fresh raw pork muscle and in injected tumbled pork muscle, the latter being used for the production of cooked ham. Activation energy of furosine formation in raw muscle and tumbled muscle, in the temperature range of 70 °-90 °C, was 79.2 kJ/mole and 81.7 kJ/mole, respectively. Furosine concentration was assessed in cooked hams whose time-temperature profiles, with reference to the cooking and cooling processes, were well known, thus enabling the verification of the feasibility of its use in the evaluation of heat damage. The good correlation between the values found during this investigation and the values foreseen by kinetic calculation confirms that furosine can be used as an index of heat treatment intensity in the production of cooked ham.

  14. Estimation of wave directional spreading

    Deo, M.C.; Gondane, D.S.; SanilKumar, V.

    One of the useful measures of waves directional spreading at a given location is the directional spreading parameter. This paper presents a new approach to arrive at its characteristic value using the computational technique of Artificial Neural...

  15. E-tongue 2 REDOX response to heavy metals

    Buehler, M. G.; Kuhlman, G. M.; Kounaves, S. P.


    E-Tongue 2 an array of electrochemical sensors including REDOX electrodes for Cylic Voltammetry and Anodic Stripping Voltammetry measurements, Galvanic cells for corrosion measurements, and Ion Selective Electrodes.

  16. The Novel Mechanical Property of Tongue of a Woodpecker

    P Zhou; X Q Kong; C W Wu; Z Chen


    Biomaterials such as bone, teeth, nacre and silk are known to have superior mechanical properties due to their specific nanocomposite structures. Here we report that the woodpecker's tongue exhibits a novel strength and flexibility due to its special composite micro/nanostructure. The tongue consists of a flexible cartilage-and-bone skeleton covered with a thin layer tissue of high strength and elasticity. At the interface between the cartilage-and-bone skeleton and the tissue layer, there is a hierarchical fiber-typed connection. It is this special design of the tongue that makes the woodpeckers efficient in catching the insects inside trees. The special micro/nanostructures of the woodpecker's tongue show us a potential method to enhance the interfacial connection between soft and hard material layers forr bio-inspired composite system designs.

  17. Weighted Nuclear Norm Minimization Based Tongue Specular Reflection Removal

    Zhenchao Cui


    Full Text Available In computational tongue diagnosis, specular reflection is generally inevitable in tongue image acquisition, which has adverse impact on the feature extraction and tends to degrade the diagnosis performance. In this paper, we proposed a two-stage (i.e., the detection and inpainting pipeline approach to address this issue: (i by considering both highlight reflection and subreflection areas, a superpixel-based segmentation method was adopted for the detection of the specular reflection areas; (ii by extending the weighted nuclear norm minimization (WNNM model, a nonlocal inpainting method is proposed for specular reflection removal. Experimental results on synthetic and real images show that the proposed method is accurate in detecting the specular reflection areas and is effective in restoring tongue image with more natural texture information of tongue body.

  18. Evaluation of milk and dairy products by electronic tongue

    Mirjana Hruškar


    Full Text Available The concept of electronic tongue or taste sensor has been developed rapidly in the last decade due to their large potential in food quality control. The electronic tongue is based on electrochemical sensors combined with multivariate data analysis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the discriminating ability of the electronic tongue for the recognition of different milk and yoghurt samples from different producers and various dairy products from one producer. The results were evaluated by multivariate data analysis - Principal components analysis. The electronic tongue α-ASTREE (Alpha M.O.S has successfully distinguished five brands of milk purchased on the Croatian market, five brands of yoghurt also purchased on Croatian market and differentiated among various products from one dairy producer.

  19. Tongue base schwannoma: report, review, and unique surgical approach.

    Sawhney, Raja; Carron, Michael A; Mathog, Robert H


    Base of tongue schwannomas are exceedingly rare and therefore often are not immediately included in the differential diagnosis and treatment of oropharyngeal tumors. After a thorough review of the English literature, we found only 6 previously reported cases of tongue base schwannomas. We are contributing a report of a 37-year-old woman with progressive dysphagia, dysarthria, and large tongue base schwannoma. Diagnosis was confirmed by imaging studies and biopsy followed by surgical excision designed to preserve nerve function. A number of surgical approaches have been described for tongue base schwannomas. Each has its own degree of postoperative morbidity. The use of a unilateral transcervical incision with blunt dissection was simple and quickly accomplished with protection of nearby nerves. Histologic identification of Antoni A and B areas along with strong and diffuse staining with S-100 stain pathologically completed the diagnosis of schwannoma.

  20. Hybrid spread spectrum radio system

    Smith, Stephen F [London, TN; Dress, William B [Camas, WA


    Systems and methods are described for hybrid spread spectrum radio systems. A method, includes receiving a hybrid spread spectrum signal including: fast frequency hopping demodulating and direct sequence demodulating a direct sequence spread spectrum signal, wherein multiple frequency hops occur within a single data-bit time and each bit is represented by chip transmissions at multiple frequencies.

  1. Work-related allergies to storage mites in Parma (Italy) ham workers

    Tafuro, Federica; Ridolo, Erminia; Goldoni, Matteo; Montagni, Marcello; Mutti, Antonio; Corradi, Massimo


    Objectives To investigate the role of storage mites in the development of allergic diseases among ham production workers, and to search for early alterations in lung function tests and early inflammation markers in exhaled air. Respiratory allergies due to storage mites have been reported in people with various occupations but, although such mites are unavoidable when curing ham, there are no published data concerning ham production workers. Setting Secondary care. Design Experimental cross-sectional study. Participants 220 participants (110 ham production workers and 110 controls) were recruited. Primary and secondary outcome measures Workers answered a medical questionnaire, and underwent spirometry and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide at 50 mL/s (FeNO50) measurements. Those with allergic symptoms also underwent skin prick tests to determine their sensitisation to airborne allergens. A methacholine test was performed in symptomatic participants when spirometry was normal to assess airways hyper-responsiveness. Results Symptomatic storage mite sensitisation was observed in 16 workers (14.5%) (rhinoconjunctivitis in 15 (63%) and asthma in (4%)) and 2 controls (1.8%; p=0.001). Higher FeNO50 values in exposed symptomatic workers compared with healthy control participants (34.65±7.49 vs 13.29±4.29 ppb; p<0.001) suggested bronchial and nasal involvement, although their lung function parameters were normal. Regardless of exposure, a FeNO50 value of 22.5 ppb seems to be 100% sensitive and 99.4% specific in distinguishing allergic and non-allergic participants. Multivariate analysis of FeNO50 values in the symptomatic participants showed that they were positively influenced by IgE-mediated allergy (p=0.001) and reported symptom severity (p=0.041), and negatively by smoking status (p=0.049). Conclusions Ham processing workers, as well as workers involved in any meat processing work that includes curing, should be informed about the occupational risk of

  2. Effect of temperature on the growth kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis in cooked ham

    Szczawińska Małgorzata Ewa


    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine a growth rate of Salmonella Enteritidis in cooked ham stored under different temperatures and to compare usefulness of the mathematical models for describing the microbiological data. The samples of cooked pork ham were inoculated with the mixture of three Salmonella Enteritidis strains and stored at 5°C, 10°C, 15°C for 21 d, and at 20°C and 25°C for 5 d. The number of salmonellae was determined at 10 periods of storage at each temperature. From each sample a series of decimal dilutions were prepared and plated onto Brilliant Green Agar. The plates were incubated at 37°C for 24-48 h under aerobic conditions. The colonies grown on culture media were counted, bacterial counts were multiplied by the appropriate dilutions, and number of bacteria (colony-forming units was calculated. The bacterial counts were transformed into logarithms and analysed using IBM SPSS Statistics 20. The experiment was performed in five replicates. The obtained growth curves of bacteria were fitted to primary growth models, namely Gompertz, logistic, and Baranyi models. The goodness-of-fit test was evaluated by calculating mean square error and Akaike’s criterion. Growth kinetics values from the modified Gompertz and logistic equations were calculated. It was found that in samples of ham stored at 5°C and 10°C for 21 d, the number of bacteria remained almost at the same level during storage. In samples stored at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C growth of salmonellae was observed. It was found that logistic model gave in most cases the best fit to obtained microbiological data describing the behaviour of S. Enteritidis in cooked ham. The growth kinetics values calculated in this study from logistic equations can be used to predict potential S. Enteritidis growth in cooked ham stored at 15°C, 20°C, and 25°C.

  3. Introduction of the HAM-Nat examination--applicants and students admitted to the Medical Faculty in 2012-2014.

    Werwick, Katrin; Winkler-Stuck, Kirstin; Hampe, Wolfgang; Albrecht, Peggy; Robra, Bernt-Peter


    Hintergrund/Zielsetzung: Die Medizinische Fakultät Magdeburg hat zum Wintersemester 2012/13 einen Wissenstest zur Auswahl ihrer Studienbewerber eingeführt. Das Hamburger Auswahlverfahren für medizinische Studiengänge - Naturwissenschaftsteil (HAM-Nat) umfasst einen Multiple Choice-Test mit Fragen zu medizinisch relevanten Aspekten der Fächer Biologie, Physik, Chemie und Mathematik, der speziell für die Auswahl von Medizinbewerbern entwickelt wurde. Es wird untersucht, wie der HAM-Nat die Studierendenauswahl beeinflusst, aus welchen Gründen sich Studierende im Rahmen des Bewerbungsverfahrens für die Teilnahme am Test entscheiden und welche Erwartungen sie an das Studium haben.Methodik: Die Auswahlverfahren der Hochschule 2011 (ohne HAM-Nat) und 2012-2014 (mit HAM-Nat) werden verglichen. Aufbauend auf den Ergebnissen explorativer Interviews wurden erstmalig Studienanfänger des Wintersemesters 2013/2014 zur Wahl von Studienfach und Studienort sowie zu ihren Erwartungen an das Studium schriftlich befragt. Ergebnisse: Das um den HAM-Nat-Test erweiterte Auswahlverfahren wurde problemlos eingeführt. Der HAM-Nat hatte einen großen Einfluss auf die Auswahlentscheidung. Rund 65% der Zugelassenen hätten bei ausschließlicher Berücksichtigung der Abiturnote keinen Studienplatz erhalten. Männliche Bewerber zeigten im Durchschnitt bessere HAM-Nat-Ergebnisse als weibliche. Den Fragebogen beantworteten 147 von 191 Studienanfängern(77%). Für Studienbewerber aus Sachsen-Anhalt sind Hauptgründe für die Wahl der Landeshauptstadt die regionale Nähe, das vorhandene soziale Umfeld, die guten Studienbedingungen und der Wohlfühlcharakter am Studienort. Für die Mehrzahl der Bewerber, insbesondere für Bewerber aus anderen Bundesländern, standen dagegen die relativ guten Zulassungschancen in Magdeburg im Vordergrund. Schlussfolgerung: Die Medizinische Fakultät Magdeburg sieht im HAM-Nat ein geeignetes Instrument, um Bewerber mit hervorragenden naturwissenschaftlichen

  4. Effect of starter cultures and packaging methods on amino acid profile and eating quality characteristics of pork ham.

    Gogoi, Protiva; Borpuzari, R N; Borpuzari, T; Hazarika, R A; Bora, J R


    Wet cured pork hams were inoculated with a mixed starter cultures comprising of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Micrococcus varians M483 at the dose level of 106 cfu/g and the un inoculated hams served as controls. The amino acid profile of hams of the treated and the control groups stored at 4oC under MAP and VP and evaluated on 60th day of storage revealed that treated hams liberated higher concentration of free amino acids except for proline and methionine which were found in higher concentration (P < 0.01) in the MAP control samples. The MAP control samples liberated glutamic acid (85.65 ± 1.40 ppm), cystine (21.56 ± 1.14 ppm) and tyrosine (16.63 ± 1.94 ppm) whereas, the treated samples did not release these amino acids. The VP control samples too liberated cystine (6.98 ± 1.36 ppm) and arginine (42.70 ± 2.78 ppm) but the treated ham of the VP did not liberate these amino acids. The VP hams had higher concentration (P < 0.01) of free proline, glycine, alanine, valine, methionine, isoleucine, phenylalanine, lysine and histidine than the MAP samples. Colour analysis of ham using CIE Lab colour system revealed that the treated samples had significantly higher concentrations of L*, a* and b* components. The L* and a* values were higher in the MAP than under VP systems while the b* values were higher in the VP samples than the MAP samples. Neither the bacterial cultures nor the packaging system influenced the textural property of ham. Starter cultures inoculated hams were rated superior (P < 0.05) in terms of their sensory properties. Hams packaged under MAP were rated superior (P < 0.05) than those packaged under VP in terms of appearance, colour, taste, tenderness, flavour, juiciness and overall acceptability.

  5. The Prevalence of Tongue Thrusting in Patients with Periodontal Disease

    S.A Miremadi; A.A. Khoshkhounejad; E. Mahdavi


    Statement of Problem: Tongue thrust and/or its consequent swallowing pattern are amongst the parafunctional habits that have always been considered as etiological factors for dental disorders by different investigators.Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of tongue thrusting and the incidence of periodontal disorders associated with this habit among patients referred to the Department of Periodontology, School of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences.Mat...

  6. An Electromyographic Study of Jaw and Tongue Reflexes in Frogs

    熊井, 敏文; 野村, 浩道


    Electromyographic activities of jaw and tongue muscles produced reflexly by mechanical and chemical stimulation of various loci of orofacial region were studied in the frog, Rana nigromaculata. Temporal muscle activity occurred when mechanical stimuli were applied to the palatal ridge, lower lip, root of tongue and pharynx. Electromyograms of the masseter muscle were similar to that of the temporal muscle, but the masseter muscle activity was occurred ipsilaterally and was not occurred by the...



    Schwannomas are truly encapsulated neoplasms of the human body and are always solitary. Only 1-2% occur intraorally with tongue being the most common site. A 20yr old male presented with a painless, slow growing swelling on the left side of the tongue for the past 1 year. Fine needle aspiration cytology was done and a benign mesenchymal lesion, possibility of Schwannoma was given. Biopsy of the tumour was performed and sent for histopathological examination which confirmed the diagnosis of Sc...

  8. Effects of tongue pressing effortful swallow in older healthy individuals.

    Park, Taeok; Kim, Youngsun


    The risk of swallowing disorders is increased for older individuals due to weak tongue and pharyngeal muscle strength. This study was appraised the value of a preventative approach by developing the tongue pressing effortful swallow (TPES) applied using a home-based and self-administered procedure. The TPES was developed by combining two swallowing exercises: tongue strengthening exercise and the effortful swallow. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of the TPES on maximum tongue pressure and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity in older individuals. 27 older individuals (mean 73 years) performed a 4-week TPES. The exercise program was adapted to a home-based and self-administered procedure. The maximum tongue pressure was measured by the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument and peak amplitude of submental muscle activity by surface electromyography (sEMG). Statistical comparisons were made by a matched pairs t-test (psEMG did not differ between before and after exercises. The TPES had a positive impact in older individuals. The TPES, a combining exercise, was possible because two exercises had common physiological events. The TPES was a more innovative and efficient approach than the tongue strengthening exercise alone. In addition, older individuals were able to perform the swallowing exercise at home and by themselves with little assistance. Future research needs to refine the TPES and apply it to patients with dysphagia. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  9. The tongue after whiplash: case report and osteopathic treatment

    Bordoni BB


    Full Text Available Bruno Bordoni,1-3 Fabiola Marelli,2,3 Bruno Morabito2-4 1Department of Cardiology, Santa Maria Nascente IRCCS, Don Carlo Gnocchi Foundation, Institute of Hospitalization and Care with Scientific Address, Milan, 2CRESO, School of Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Castellanza,3CRESO, School of Osteopathic Centre for Research and Studies, Falconara Marittima, Ancona, 4Foundation Polyclinic University A, Gemelli University Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, Rome, Italy Abstract: The tongue plays a fundamental role in several bodily functions; in the case of a dysfunction, an exhaustive knowledge of manual techniques to treat the tongue is useful in order to help patients on their path toward recovery. A 30-year-old male patient with a recent history of whiplash, with increasing cervical pain during swallowing and reduced ability to open the mouth, was treated with osteopathic techniques addressed to the tongue. The osteopathic techniques led to a disappearance of pain and the complete recovery of the normal functions of the tongue, such as swallowing and mouth opening. The manual osteopathic approach consists of applying a low load, in order to produce a long-lasting stretching of the myofascial complex, with the aim of restoring the optimal length of this continuum, decreasing pain, and improving functionality. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first article reporting a case of resolution of a post whiplash disorder through osteopathic treatment of the tongue. Keywords: tongue, indirect osteopathic techniques, fascia, fascial release

  10. Enlarged tongue due to primary systemic amyloidosis:clinicopathologic observation

    潘卫红; 李娜萍; 梁国芬


    @@Primary amyloidosis (AL) is characterized by deposition of abnormal extra cellular protein in the form of fibrils in many organs, especially the heart, kidneys, gastrointestinal tract, and peripheral nervous system.1 Involvement of the tongue is not uncommon in primary AL. In 22 % to 26 % of patients suffering from AL, amyloid deposition in the tongue can result in an enlarged tongue.2 Lingual changes arising from localization or from all over, AL has been reported frequently as initial signs of the disease. Macroscopically, it is difficult to distinguish AL of the tongue from other lesions. In view of the variety of protein species involved and the wide spectrum of possible clinical presentations,3 the diagnosis of lingual AL is frequently overlooked, because immunohistochemical studies of such cases have not been undertaken. Here we describe two male patients with primary systemic AL who developed enlarged tongues. In addition to the manifestation of lingual AL, in which oral signs were the primary indicators of the disease, we describe the immunohistochemical findings of the tongue to discuss diagnostic criteria for lingual amyloid in primary AL.

  11. Properties of Magnetic Tongues over a Solar Cycle

    Poisson, M; Fuentes, M López; Mandrini, C H


    The photospheric spatial distribution of the main magnetic polarities of bipolar active regions (ARs) presents during their emergence deformations are known as magnetic tongues. They are attributed to the presence of twist in the toroidal magnetic flux-tubes that form the ARs. The aim of this article is to study the twist of newly emerged ARs from the evolution of magnetic tongues observed in photospheric line-of-sight magnetograms. We apply the procedure described by Poisson et al. (2015, Solar Phys. 290, 727) to ARs observed over the full Solar Cycle 23 and the beginning of Cycle 24. Our results show that the hemispherical rule obtained using the tongues as a proxy of the twist has a weak sign-dominance (53 % in the southern hemisphere and 58 % in the northern hemisphere). By defining the variation of the tongue angle, we characterize the strength of the magnetic tongues during different phases of the AR emergence. We find that there is a tendency of the tongues to be stronger during the beginning of the em...

  12. Fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation

    Ziemer, Rodger E


    This lecture covers the fundamentals of spread spectrum modulation, which can be defined as any modulation technique that requires a transmission bandwidth much greater than the modulating signal bandwidth, independently of the bandwidth of the modulating signal. After reviewing basic digital modulation techniques, the principal forms of spread spectrum modulation are described. One of the most important components of a spread spectrum system is the spreading code, and several types and their characteristics are described. The most essential operation required at the receiver in a spread spect

  13. Quantitative Contributions of the Muscles of the Tongue, Floor-of-Mouth, Jaw, and Velum to Tongue-to-Palate Pressure Generation

    Palmer, Phyllis M.; Jaffe, Debra M.; McCulloch, Timothy M.; Finnegan, Eileen M.; Van Daele, Douglas J.; Luschei, Erich S.


    Purpose: The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between tongue-to-palate pressure and the electromyography (EMG) measured from the mylohyoid, anterior belly of the digastric, geniohyoid, medial pterygoid, velum, genioglossus, and intrinsic tongue muscles. Methods: Seven healthy adults performed tongue-to-palate pressure…

  14. Rifts in spreading wax layers

    Ragnarsson, R; Santangelo, C D; Bodenschatz, E; Ragnarsson, Rolf; Ford, J Lewis; Santangelo, Christian D; Bodenschatz, Eberhard


    We report experimental results on the rift formation between two freezing wax plates. The plates were pulled apart with constant velocity, while floating on the melt, in a way akin to the tectonic plates of the earth's crust. At slow spreading rates, a rift, initially perpendicular to the spreading direction, was found to be stable, while above a critical spreading rate a "spiky" rift with fracture zones almost parallel to the spreading direction developed. At yet higher spreading rates a second transition from the spiky rift to a zig-zag pattern occurred. In this regime the rift can be characterized by a single angle which was found to be dependent on the spreading rate. We show that the oblique spreading angles agree with a simple geometrical model. The coarsening of the zig-zag pattern over time and the three-dimensional structure of the solidified crust are also discussed.

  15. Standardisation of Western blotting to detect HTLV-1 antibodies synthesised in the central nervous system of HAM/TSP patients

    Luiz Claudio Pereira Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Intrathecal synthesis of human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1 antibodies (Abs represents conclusive evidence of a specific immune response in the central nervous system of HTLV-1 associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP patients. Western blotting (WB for HTLV Abs in serum is a confirmatory test for HTLV-1 infection. The aim of this study was to standardise the Western blot to demonstrate the intrathecal pattern of Abs against HTLV-1 proteins in HAM/TSP patients. Paired cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum samples were selected from 20 patients with definite HAM/TSP, 19 HTLV-1 seronegative patients and two HTLV-1 patients without definite HAM/TSP. The presence of reactive bands of greater intensity in the CSF compared to serum (or bands in only the CSF indicated the intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs. All definite HAM/TSP patients presented with an intrathecal synthesis of anti-HTLV-1 Abs; these Abs were not detected in the control patients. The most frequent intrathecal targets of anti-HTLV-1 Abs were GD21, rgp46-I and p24 and, to a lesser extent, p19, p26, p28, p32, p36, p53 gp21 and gp46. The intrathecal immune response against env (GD21 and rgp46-I and gag (p24 proteins represents the most important humoral pattern in HAM/TSP. This response may be used as a diagnostic marker, considering the frequent association of intrathecal anti-HTLV-1 Ab synthesis with HAM/TSP and the pathogenesis of this neurological disease.

  16. Effects of tongue-hold swallows on suprahyoid muscle activation according to the relative tongue protrusion length: a preliminary study.

    Oh, Jong-Chi


    Tongue-hold swallow (THS) is a therapeutic maneuver used to increase the posterior pharyngeal wall motion during swallowing. This maneuver has also been reported to result in increased activation of the suprahyoid muscles. The hypothesis of this study was that the degree of suprahyoid muscle activation would depend on the tongue protrusion-length. The aim of this study was to investigate the activation levels of the suprahyoid muscles by surface electromyography (sEMG) while performing the THS maneuver at three tongue-protrusion lengths. Suprahyoid muscle activity during THSs was recorded in 25 adult volunteers (17 women and 8 men; age range 20-38 years). To record the activity of the suprahyoid muscles while the participants performed the maneuver, surface wireless EMG electrodes separated by a distance of 1 cm were placed on the skin on both sides of the midline under the chin. Each activity was recorded three times. Data analysis was performed by repeated-measures analysis of variance. Our results revealed that participants exhibited greater electrical activity during THS with 2/3rd or maximal tongue protrusion as compared to THS with 1/3rd tongue protrusion (p ≤ 0.001). To maximize the therapeutic effect of the THS maneuver, it is advised to protrude the tongue maximally as long as swallowing is possible.

  17. Amperometric Bioelectronic Tongue for glucose determination

    Yazan Al-Issa


    Full Text Available An amperometric Bioelectronic Tongue is reported for glucose determination that contains eight sensor electrodes constructed using different metal electrodes (Pt, Au, oxidoreductase enzymes (glucose oxidase, ascorbate oxidase, uricase, and membrane coatings (Nafion, chitosan. The response to varying concentrations of glucose, ascorbic acid, uric acid, and acetaminophen was tested for two models, concentration determination by current density measurements at individual electrodes and concentration determination by a linear regression model for the entire electrode array. The reduced chi-squared for the full array model was found to be about one order of magnitude lower than that for the individual-electrode model. Discrimination of glucose from chemical interference by the other three species is accomplished through a combination of enzyme catalysis, metal electrocatalysis, and membrane surface charge. The benefit of incorporating enzyme electrodes into the sensor array is illustrated by the lower correlation coefficients between different enzyme electrodes relative to non-enzyme coated electrodes. This approach can be more generally applied to detection of other substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes.

  18. Perineural tumor spread - Interconnection between spinal and cranial nerves.

    Kozić, Duško; Njagulj, Vesna; Gaćeša, Jelena Popadić; Semnic, Robert; Prvulović, Nataša


    The secondary neoplastic involvement of the cervical plexus in patients with head and neck malignancies is extremely rare. MR examination of the neck revealed the diffuse neoplastic infiltration of the right C2 root, in a 57-year-old patient with several months long pain in the right ear region and a history of the tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Associated perineural tumor spread and consequent distal involvement of great auricular nerve and vagus nerve were evident. Best of our knowledge, this is the first reported involvement of the cervical plexus in patients with head and neck cancers, associated with the clearly documented interconnection between the cervical plexus and cranial nerves via great auricular nerve.

  19. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Kyung Bin, E-mail: [Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University, Daejeon 305-764 (Korea, Republic of)


    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham. - Highlights: > We compare irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of pathogens. > We examine changes in the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium. > Irradiation at 2 kGy is more effective in sliced ham than fumaric acid treatment. > Low-dose irradiation can improve the microbial safety of sliced ham during storage.

  20. Ischaemic necrosis of the tongue as a rare complication of cardiogenic shock.

    Hulstaert, E; Roggeman, E; Beeckman, A-S; Moerman, M; Vanderstraeten, E; Rasquin, K; Monsaert, E; Baert, D; Dewint, P; Burvenich, P; Van Steenkiste, C


    Ischaemic necrosis of the tongue is an unusual clinical finding. In most cases it is associated with vasculitis, particularly giant cell arteritis (GCA). Other causes include profound cardiogenic shock. We report a case of tongue necrosis in an 81-year-old Caucasian woman. The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) for cardiogenic shock. Swelling of the tongue was reported before intubation and evolved into tongue ischaemia and necrosis of the tip of the tongue. After surgical debridement the patient recovered. To our knowledge, this is the second report of a patient surviving tongue necrosis resulting from cardiogenic shock.

  1. [Methodological study on digitalization of tongue image in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis].

    Zhou, Yue; Yang, Jie; Shen, Li


    This is a research aimed at proposing a computerized tongue analysis method based on computerized image processing for quantizing the tongue properties in traditional Chinese medical diagnosis. The chromatic algorithm and 2-D Gabor wavelet transformation are applied to segmenting tongue from original image. The statistical method is adopted in identifying the colors of each pixel, which are attributed to the tongue substance and coating respectively. Thickness of tongue coating is determined by energy of 2-D Gabor wavelet coefficients (GWTE). The distribution of GWTE and invariant moment algorithm are used to judge the tongue texture. The experiment result shows that all methods proposed in this paper are effective.

  2. Genetic and environmental effects on a meat spotting defect in seasoned dry-cured ham

    Giulio Pagnacco


    Full Text Available Purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of a visible spotting defect on the slice of dry-cured ham and assess environmental and genetic causes of this frequent problem. A group of 233 pigs from commercial cross-breeding lines, progeny of ten boars and forty seven sows, was raised in a single herd to obtain the “Italian Heavy Pig”, typically slaughtered at 160 ± 10 kg live weight and older than 9 months of age. A quality evaluation of their right dry-cured hams, seasoned according to the Parma P.D.O. protocol, was undertaken. Each ham was cross-sectioned to obtain a slice of Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus and Biceps Femoris muscles. The focused phenotype was the presence/absence of brownish spots in these muscles, which represent a remarkable meat defect with strong impact on the final sale price. Environmental and management factors were considered in order to evaluate variability related to the phenotype. Animals were raised on two different flooring types (concrete and slatted floor and a Vitamin C diet was also supplemented in the last 45 days before slaughtering to half of the animals. While the pre-planned environmental effects did not show any significant contribution to the total variability of the phenotype, the genetic analysis showed a near to zero value for heritability with a consistent 0.32 repeatability. The proportion of the total phenotypic variance was explained by an important dominance genetic component (0.26 indicating that the technological seasoning process may play a secondary role on the expression of this phenotype.

  3. Analysis of microbiological contamination in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage in Korea.

    Park, Myoung-Su; Wang, Jun; Park, Joong-Hyun; Forghani, Fereidoun; Moon, Jin-San; Oh, Deog-Hwan


    The objective of this study was to investigate the microbial contamination levels (aerobic bacteria plate count [APC], coliforms, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) in mixed pressed ham and cooked sausage. A total of 180 samples were collected from factories with and without hazard analysis critical control point (HACCP) systems at four steps: after chopping (AC), after mixing (AM), cooling after the first heating process, and cooling after the second heating process. For ham, APCs and coliform and E. coli counts increased when ingredients were added to the meat at the AC step. Final product APC was 1.63 to 1.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in nine (15.0%) and six (10.0%) samples, respectively, but only at the AC and AM steps and not in the final product. Sausage results were similar to those for ham. The final product APC was 1.52 to 3.85 log CFU/g, and coliforms and E. coli were not detected. S. aureus and L. monocytogenes were found in 29 (24.2%) and 25 (20.8%) samples at the AC and AM steps, respectively, but not in the final product. These results indicate that the temperature and time of the first and second heating are of extreme importance to ensure the microbiological safety of the final product regardless of whether a HACCP system is in place. Microorganism contamination must be monitored regularly and regulations regarding sanitization during processing should be improved. Education regarding employee personal hygiene, environmental hygiene, prevention of cross-contamination, ingredient control, and step-by-step process control is needed to reduce the risk of food poisoning.

  4. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana


    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  5. A Fast SVM-Based Tongue's Colour Classification Aided by k-Means Clustering Identifiers and Colour Attributes as Computer-Assisted Tool for Tongue Diagnosis

    Ooi, Chia Yee; Kawanabe, Tadaaki; Odaguchi, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Fuminori


    In tongue diagnosis, colour information of tongue body has kept valuable information regarding the state of disease and its correlation with the internal organs. Qualitatively, practitioners may have difficulty in their judgement due to the instable lighting condition and naked eye's ability to capture the exact colour distribution on the tongue especially the tongue with multicolour substance. To overcome this ambiguity, this paper presents a two-stage tongue's multicolour classification based on a support vector machine (SVM) whose support vectors are reduced by our proposed k-means clustering identifiers and red colour range for precise tongue colour diagnosis. In the first stage, k-means clustering is used to cluster a tongue image into four clusters of image background (black), deep red region, red/light red region, and transitional region. In the second-stage classification, red/light red tongue images are further classified into red tongue or light red tongue based on the red colour range derived in our work. Overall, true rate classification accuracy of the proposed two-stage classification to diagnose red, light red, and deep red tongue colours is 94%. The number of support vectors in SVM is improved by 41.2%, and the execution time for one image is recorded as 48 seconds.


    Nadir -


    Full Text Available Violence in household such as physical, psychological, sexualand economical violence is a form of criminal action happens inhousehold in which the doer and victim are from the samehousehold. The way of penal policy through the government insolution of violence in household is formed in norm codificationof positive law (positive wettelijk, by carrying out UU number 23of 2004 about abolition of violence in a household. Thisregulation is a form of government attention to human rights(HAM, and gender, non discrimination and the protection ofviolence victims in a household.

  7. Relevance of nitrate and nitrite in dry-cured ham and their effects on aroma development

    Flores, Mónica


    Full Text Available Potassium and sodium salts of nitrite (E 249 and E 250 and nitrate (E 251 and E 252 are authorised for use under certain levels in several foodstuffs such as non-heat-treated, cured and dried meat products, other cured meat products, canned meat products and bacon. The key point in the use of nitrate and nitrite as preservatives is to find a balance between ensuring the microbiological safety of the ham and keeping as low as possible the level of nitrosamines in the final product. Nitrites and nitrates are authorised as additives for dry-cured ham in the Directive 2006/52/EC of 5 July 2006 that modifies previous Council Directive 95/2/EC on food additives other than colours and sweeteners. The effect of nitrate and its reduction to nitrite in controlling the lipid oxidation process during the ham ripening is very important for the development of the characteristic cured flavour. The main benefits and drawbacks of the use of nitrites and nitrates in dry-cured ham and how these levels may affect its flavour are discussed in this manuscript.Las sales sódica y potásica del nitrito (E249 y E250 y del nitrato (E251 y E252 están autorizados para su uso en los productos cárnicos, secos, curados y no tratados por el calor, otros productos cárnicos curados, productos cárnicos enlatados y bacon. El punto esencial en el uso de nitrato y nitrito como conservantes consiste en encontrar un balance entre el aseguramiento de la seguridad microbiológica del jamón y mantener el nivel de nitrosaminas tan bajo como sea posible. Los nitratos y nitritos están autorizados como aditivos en el jamón curado según la Directiva Europea 2006/52/EC de 5 de Julio de 2006 que modificaba la previa Directiva Europea 95/2/EC de aditivos alimentarios distintos a los colorantes y edulcorantes. El efecto del nitrato y su reducción a nitrito para controlar la oxidación de los lípidos durante la maduración del jamón es muy importante para el desarrollo del caracter

  8. Processamento do presunto "cook-in" de cordeiros Processing of cook-in ham of lambs

    Eliane Mattos Monteiro


    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo desenvolver tecnologia para produto curado (presunto "cook-in", com pernis de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale em associação com tratamentos tecnológicos (massagem em "tumbler" e processo "cook-in". O estudo foi desenvolvido pela EMBRAPA/CPPSUL e Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brasil. Após as análises da composição química, a carne foi injetada manualmente com 20 % de salmoura composta por água + gelo 79%, cloreto de sódio 7,52%, condimento para presunto 4,70%, fosfatos 1,97%, sais de cura 1,88%, sacarose 3,38% e glutamato monossódico 0,19 %. Os presuntos foram avaliados quanto à composição química (umidade, proteína, gordura, cinzas, pigmentos totais e pH, parâmetros sensoriais (cor, aroma, sabor, textura e aceitabilidade e rendimento. Uma das principais características dos presuntos obtidos com pernil de cordeiros cruza Texel x Corriedale foi o baixo conteúdo de gordura associado ao bom rendimento e à excelente aceitabilidade.The aim of this study was to develop technology for the curing lambs (cook-in hams which were manufactured from the legs of crossbred Texel x Corriedale lambs in association with technologic treatment (massaging in tumbler and cook-in process. The experiment was conducted at the EMBRAPA-CPPSUL/ UFSM, RS, Brazil. After the evaluation of the chemical composition, the meat was injected with it manually - 20 % of brine containing water 79%, salt 7.52%, curing salts 1.88%, sucrose 3.38%, ham condiments 4.70%, phosphate 1.97% and sodium glutamate 0.19%. The ham quality was evaluated by analysis of its chemical composition (moisture, protein, ash, fat, pH, sensory properties (color, aroma, texture, acceptability and yield. The main characteristics of lamb hams were low fat contents associated with excellent acceptability and good yield.

  9. Hiromeri: a specialty ham of Cyprus--historical evidence, culinary and cultural perspectives.

    Patapiou, Nasa; Lazarou, Chrystalleni


    Hiromeri is a specialty ham of Cyprus, made of smoked pork leg that is matured in wine. Until now there has been no systematic effort to present historical evidence that will support the Cypriot authenticity of this product. In this article, the historical evidence from sixteenth to twentieth centuries, referring to the production and trade of hiromeri in Cyprus, is presented. The evidence is drawn from archival testimony, travelers' descriptions, old history books, and essays on agricultural production. Moreover, a description of the hiromeri production process as well as past and current culinary uses and customs associated with its production and consumption are presented.

  10. Bovine Blood Constituents as Fat Replacers in Ham Pâté

    Fabiana Ribeiro Viana; Carolina Schaper Bizzotto; Disney Ribeiro Dias; Oliveira,Afonso L.; Marialice Pinto Coelho Silvestre


    Some tests were carried out in this work with the aim of evaluating a partial replacement of fat in the raw batter of ham pâté by using bovine blood constituents, such as globin (GL), plasma (PL) or 1:1 globin and plasma (GP). Plasma was separated from red cells by blood centrifugation, and globin was extracted by the carboxymethylcellulose method. The salt-soluble protein content (SSP) and the binding properties including water holding capacity (WHC) and raw batter stability (RBS) were estim...

  11. Assessment of the impact of tongue size in patients with bimaxillary protrusion.

    Adesina, Bola Ayodele; Otuyemi, Olayinka Donald; Kolawole, Kikelomo Adebanke; Adeyemi, Abigail Tokunbo


    Tongue size, posture and pressure are considered to have significant influences on the positioning of dentoalveolar structures. Based on the equilibrium theory, forward resting posture of the tongue with light force and long duration could have both a horizontal and vertical effect on teeth. Bimaxillary proclination, a malocclusion trait often seen in African descents with multifactorial etiological factors, could well be related to tongue dimensions. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between tongue dimensions and bimaxillary proclination patients. One hundred selected lateral cephalometric radiographs of consecutive orthodontic patients who met the study criteria were divided into study (bimaxillary proclination with interincisal angle [I/I]bimaxillary proclination group were higher than those in the control group except for tongue proportion. These differences were statistically significant for tongue thickness, tongue length and intermaxillary space length (P bimaxillary proclination and a normal interincisal relationship (P > 0.05). None of the variables (tongue thickness, tongue length, intermaxillary space length, tongue area and percentage tongue proportion) could be used as predictors for interincisal relationship. Tongue length, thickness and intermaxillary space length were significantly different between the bimaxillary and normal subjects. However, none of the measured tongue variables could be used as a predictor for incisor relationship. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  12. Building sensory receptors on the tongue.

    Oakley, Bruce; Witt, Martin


    Neurotrophins, neurotrophin receptors and sensory neurons are required for the development of lingual sense organs. For example, neurotrophin 3 sustains lingual somatosensory neurons. In the traditional view, sensory axons will terminate where neurotrophin expression is most pronounced. Yet, lingual somatosensory axons characteristically terminate in each filiform papilla and in each somatosensory prominence within a cluster of cells expressing the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), rather than terminating among the adjacent cells that secrete neurotrophin 3. The p75NTR on special specialized clusters of epithelial cells may promote axonal arborization in vivo since its over-expression by fibroblasts enhances neurite outgrowth from overlying somatosensory neurons in vitro. Two classical observations have implicated gustatory neurons in the development and maintenance of mammalian taste buds--the early arrival times of embryonic innervation and the loss of taste buds after their denervation in adults. In the modern era more than a dozen experimental studies have used early denervation or neurotrophin gene mutations to evaluate mammalian gustatory organ development. Necessary for taste organ development, brain-derived neurotrophic factor sustains developing gustatory neurons. The cardinal conclusion is readily summarized: taste buds in the palate and tongue are induced by innervation. Taste buds are unstable: the death and birth of taste receptor cells relentlessly remodels synaptic connections. As receptor cells turn over, the sensory code for taste quality is probably stabilized by selective synapse formation between each type of gustatory axon and its matching taste receptor cell. We anticipate important new discoveries of molecular interactions among the epithelium, the underlying mesenchyme and gustatory innervation that build the gustatory papillae, their specialized epithelial cells, and the resulting taste buds.

  13. Does Mother Tongue Interfere in Second Language Learning?

    Elif Nur Denizer


    Full Text Available Mother tongue largely refers to not only the language one learns from one’s mother but also the speaker’s dominant and home language. It’s also called native language. This study was conducted to find whether mother tongue interferences in second-language learning, and if so; whether it affects the learners’ performance in four language skills, and also in which skill(s it has the biggest effect. Data collection tool included a questionnaire by which participants were asked to rate the questions and tick-circle or write in the correct blank. The questionnaire was based on both quantitative and qualitative approaches with the help of 4-point Likert-scale questions and one open-ended question at the last part. The participants of the study were 20 volunteer students (15 females and 5 males in Uludag University on whom the questionnaire was randomly applied.  They ranged in age from 18 to 40 and the mean age was 23. Their mother tongue was Turkish, and they knew English as a foreign language. The questionnaire shows that mother tongue interferes with second language learning in some way. In English language, the most challenging part was Grammar, while the most difficult and influenced skills was Speaking. In addition, participants had difficulty with speaking without any preparation. When it comes to having difficulty, participants had difficulty with determiners, English tenses and articles. The results indicated the interference of mother tongue in almost all aspects.

  14. Policy and experiment in mother tongue literacy in Nigeria

    Akinnaso, F. Niyi


    The advocacy for initial mother tongue literacy in elementary schools and in adult education has been intensified within the past three decades, reflecting new attitudes to cultural diversity, especially to multilingual and multicultural education. This paper assesses the efforts made in one country, Nigeria, to achieve mother tongue literacy for its citizens, through a comparative analysis of the national policy on mother tongue literacy and the Ife experimental project, whose major purpose was to test the effectiveness of the use of the mother tongue as a medium of instruction throughout the six years of primary education. Although, like the Ife project, many experimental projects on mother tongue literacy in other countries are shown to have succeeded in realizing their objectives, the findings highlight the mediating effects of several non-linguistic variables. The findings indicate that its use as the medium of instruction in schools cannot compensate for the deficiencies in the educational system, particularly poor quality instructional facilities, or the social barriers in the wider society which prevent certain groups of minority children from learning well in school. The implications of the findings are discussed.

  15. Cine-MRI swallowing evaluation after tongue reconstruction

    Hartl, Dana M. [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)], E-mail:; Kolb, Frederic; Bretagne, Evelyne [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Institute Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France); Bidault, Francois; Sigal, Robert [Department of Radiology, Institut Gustave Roussy, 39 rue Camille Desmoulins, 94805 Villejuif Cedex (France)


    Objective: To determine the feasibility of cine-MRI for non-invasive swallowing evaluation after surgery for lingual carcinoma with reconstruction using microvascular free flaps. Methods: Ten patients with stage IV carcinoma of the mobile tongue and/or tongue base treated by surgical resection and reconstruction with a free flap were evaluated after an average of 4.3 years (range: 1.5-11 years), using cine-MRI in 'single-shot fast spin echo' (SSFSE) mode. Fiberoptic laryngoscopy of swallowing was performed before MRI to detect aspiration. The tolerance and ability to complete the exam were noted. The mobilities of the oral and pharyngeal structures visualized were evaluated as normal, reduced or increased. Results: Cine-MRI was well tolerated in all cases; 'dry' swallow was performed for the 2 patients with clinical aspiration. Tongue base-pharyngeal wall contact was observed in 5 cases. An increased anterior tongue recoil, increased mandibular recoil, increased posterior oropharyngeal wall advancement and an increased laryngeal elevation were observed in 4 cases. One case of a passive 'slide' mechanism was observed. Conclusions: Cine-MRI is a safe, non-invasive technique for the evaluation of the mobility of oral and oropharyngeal structures after free-flap reconstruction of the tongue. For selected cases, it may be complementary to clinical examination for evaluation of dysphagia after surgery and free-flap reconstruction. Further technical advances will be necessary before cine-MRI can replace videofluoroscopy, however.

  16. Tongue thickness relates to nutritional status in the elderly.

    Tamura, Fumiyo; Kikutani, Takeshi; Tohara, Takashi; Yoshida, Mitsuyoshi; Yaegaki, Ken


    Many elderly people under long-term care suffer from malnutrition caused by dysphagia, frequently leading to sarcopenia. Our hypothesis is that sarcopenia may compromise oral function, resulting in dysphagia. The objectives of this study were to evaluate sarcopenia of the lingual muscles by measuring the tongue thickness, and elucidate its relationship with nutritional status. We examined 104 elderly subjects (mean age = 80.3 ± 7.9 years). Anthropometric data, such as triceps skinfold thickness and midarm muscle area (AMA), were obtained. The tongue thickness of the central part was determined using ultrasonography. Measurement was performed twice and the mean value was obtained. The relationship between tongue thickness and nutritional status was analyzed by Pearson's correlation coefficient and Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. AMA and age were identified by multiple-regression analysis as factors influencing tongue thickness. The results of this study suggest that malnutrition may induce sarcopenia not only in the skeletal muscles but also in the tongue.

  17. Morphometric growth relationships of the immature human mandible and tongue.

    Hutchinson, Erin F; Kieser, Jules A; Kramer, Beverley


    The masticatory apparatus is a highly adaptive musculoskeletal complex comprising several relatively independent structural components, which assist in functions including feeding and breathing. We hypothesized that the tongue is elemental in the maintenance of normal ontogeny of the mandible and in its post-natal growth and development, and tested this using a morphometric approach. We assessed tongue and mandibular measurements in 174 (97 male) human cadavers. Landmark lingual and mandibular data were gathered individuals aged between 20 gestational weeks and 3 yr postnatal. In this analysis, geometric morphometrics assisted in visualizing the morphometrical growth changes in the mandible and tongue. A linear correlation in conjunction with principal component analysis further visualized the growth relationship between these structures. We found that the growth of the tongue and mandible were intrinsically linked in size and shape between 20 gestational weeks and 24 months postnatal. However, the mandible continued to change in shape and size into the 3rd yr of life, whereas the tongue only increased in size over this same period of time. These findings provide valuable insights into the allometric growth relationship between these structures, potentially assisting the clinician in predicting the behaviour of these structures in the assessment of malocclusions.

  18. Tongue-jaw kinematic correlates of /s/ spectra

    Dembowski, James S.; Crumb, Richard K.


    Frequencies of spectral peaks for fricatives are determined by the size of the resonating cavity anterior to the place of articulatory constriction in the upper vocal tract. For /s/, this cavity size may be altered through anterior-posterior (a-p) movements of the tongue blade forming the constriction, changes of jaw height, and degree of lip protrusion. With respect to intensity, modeling studies suggest that intensity of fricative spectral peaks may be related to degree of articulatory constriction. These spectral-kinematic relationships have been little studied in natural speech. This study used data from the University of Wisconsin X-Ray Microbeam Database to examine the relationship between spectral peaks and movements of the tongue and jaw in the /s/ productions of one normal speaker. Results showed no relationship between a-p tongue position and frequency of spectral peaks. However, a significant inverse correlation related peak between frequency and jaw opening. Thus, for this speaker jaw height appeared a more important determinant of spectral variability for /s/ than tongue position. Additional results showed a significant relationship between peak intensity and distance of the tongue blade from the palate. These natural speech data will be discussed with respect to models and theories of fricative production.

  19. The tongue after whiplash: case report and osteopathic treatment

    Bordoni, Bruno; Marelli, Fabiola; Morabito, Bruno


    The tongue plays a fundamental role in several bodily functions; in the case of a dysfunction, an exhaustive knowledge of manual techniques to treat the tongue is useful in order to help patients on their path toward recovery. A 30-year-old male patient with a recent history of whiplash, with increasing cervical pain during swallowing and reduced ability to open the mouth, was treated with osteopathic techniques addressed to the tongue. The osteopathic techniques led to a disappearance of pain and the complete recovery of the normal functions of the tongue, such as swallowing and mouth opening. The manual osteopathic approach consists of applying a low load, in order to produce a long-lasting stretching of the myofascial complex, with the aim of restoring the optimal length of this continuum, decreasing pain, and improving functionality. According to the authors’ knowledge, this is the first article reporting a case of resolution of a post whiplash disorder through osteopathic treatment of the tongue. PMID:27462180

  20. Review on the current trends in tongue diagnosis systems

    Chang Jin Jung


    Full Text Available Tongue diagnosis is an essential process to noninvasively assess the condition of a patient's internal organs in traditional medicine. To obtain quantitative and objective diagnostic results, image acquisition and analysis devices called tongue diagnosis systems (TDSs are required. These systems consist of hardware including cameras, light sources, and a ColorChecker, and software for color correction, segmentation of tongue region, and tongue classification. To improve the performance of TDSs, various types TDSs have been developed. Hyperspectral imaging TDSs have been suggested to acquire more information than a two-dimensional (2D image with visible light waves, as it allows collection of data from multiple bands. Three-dimensional (3D imaging TDSs have been suggested to provide 3D geometry. In the near future, mobile devices like the smart phone will offer applications for assessment of health condition using tongue images. Various technologies for the TDS have respective unique advantages and specificities according to the application and diagnostic environment, but this variation may cause inconsistent diagnoses in practical clinical applications. In this manuscript, we reviewed the current trends in TDSs for the standardization of systems. In conclusion, the standardization of TDSs can supply the general public and oriental medical doctors with convenient, prompt, and accurate information with diagnostic results for assessing the health condition.

  1. Schwannoma base tongue: Case report and review of literature.

    George, N A; Wagh, M; Balagopal, P G; Gupta, S; Sukumaran, R; Sebastian, P


    Schwannomas are benign peripheral nerve sheath tumors. These are rare in the oral cavity (1%). The most common site of involvement in oral cavity is the tongue. Posterior third of tongue is not frequently involved. The aim of this paper is to present a case report of base tongue schwannoma and review literature of this rare tumor. Data from literature were analyzed for age, gender, presenting symptom, size at presentation, and surgical approach. We report a case of 26 year-old male who presented with swelling posterior 1/3rd tongue and change in quality of voice. He was evaluated for the same with MR and incision biopsy and was planned for surgery. Surgery was abandoned at a district hospital due to difficulty in intubation. At our center he underwent fibro optic bronchoscopy guided intubation followed by general anesthesia. He underwent excision of mass using left paramedian lip spitting approach with mandibulotomy and mandibular swing. Tumor was excised in toto. His postoperative recovery was uneventful. Literature review between 2001 and 2012 was done. 15 cases of base tongue schwannoma were identified. The most common age group involved was between 30-40 years. There was a slightly higher incidence in females. All patients were symptomatic at presentation. Most common complaints were related to swallowing and throat pain. Most patients underwent transoral excision of the tumor.

  2. Paired pulse TMS stimulation and human tongue corticomotor pathways

    Kothari, Mohit; Svensson, Peter; Nielsen, Jørgen Feldbæk;

    (CS) and the test stimulus (TS). The aim of the present methodological study was to optimize stimulus parameters for ppTMS studies of tongue motor control by examining the influence of different ISI and intensities of the CS on SICI and ICF. Methods: 17 healthy volunteers participated (mean age: 22.......6±0.8 years). ppTMS was applied to the “hot-spot” of the tongue motor cortex and motor evoked potential (MEPs) were recorded from the tongue muscles with surface EMG electrodes. TS intensity was set at 120% of resting motor threshold (rMT). Single pulse and six different ISIs for ppTMS: 2, 2.5, 3, 3.5, 10, 15...... different intensities of CS and ISIs. Conclusion: Significant SICI but no ICF was evoked with the present stimulus paradigms. The two stimulus intensities of the CS evoked similar responses. These results may be applied in future studies on the effect of tongue training on SICI and ICF in the tongue motor...

  3. Comparison of dry medium culture plates for mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

    Park, Junghyun; Kim, Myunghee


    This study was performed to compare the performance of Sanita-Kun dry medium culture plate with those of traditional culture medium and Petrifilm dry medium culture plate for the enumeration of the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet. Mesophilic aerobic bacteria were comparatively evaluated in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet using Sanita-Kun aerobic count (SAC), Petrifilm aerobic count (PAC), and traditional plate count agar (PCA) media. According to the results, all methods showed high correlations of 0.989~1.000 and no significant differences were observed for enumerating the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in the tested food products. SAC method was easier to perform and count colonies efficiently as compared to the PCA and PAC methods. Therefore, we concluded that the SAC method offers an acceptable alternative to the PCA and PAC methods for counting the mesophilic aerobic bacteria in milk, ice cream, ham, and codfish fillet products.

  4. Classification of dry-cured hams according to the maturation time using near infrared spectra and artificial neural networks.

    Prevolnik, M; Andronikov, D; Žlender, B; Font-i-Furnols, M; Novič, M; Škorjanc, D; Čandek-Potokar, M


    An attempt to classify dry-cured hams according to the maturation time on the basis of near infrared (NIR) spectra was studied. The study comprised 128 samples of biceps femoris (BF) muscle from dry-cured hams matured for 10 (n=32), 12 (n=32), 14 (n=32) or 16 months (n=32). Samples were minced and scanned in the wavelength range from 400 to 2500 nm using spectrometer NIR System model 6500 (Silver Spring, MD, USA). Spectral data were used for i) splitting of samples into the training and test set using 2D Kohonen artificial neural networks (ANN) and for ii) construction of classification models using counter-propagation ANN (CP-ANN). Different models were tested, and the one selected was based on the lowest percentage of misclassified test samples (external validation). Overall correctness of the classification was 79.7%, which demonstrates practical relevance of using NIR spectroscopy and ANN for dry-cured ham processing control.

  5. Effects of irradiation and fumaric acid treatment on the inactivation of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium inoculated on sliced ham

    Song, Hyeon-Jeong; Lee, Ji-Hye; Song, Kyung Bin


    To examine the effects of fumaric acid and electron beam irradiation on the inactivation of foodborne pathogens in ready-to-eat meat products, sliced ham was inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella typhimurium. The inoculated ham slices were treated with 0.5% fumaric acid or electron beam irradiation at 2 kGy. Fumaric acid treatment reduced the populations of L. monocytogenes and S. typhimurium by approximately 1 log CFU/g compared to control populations. In contrast, electron beam irradiation decreased the populations of S. typhimurium and L. monocytogenes by 3.78 and 2.42 log CFU/g, respectively. These results suggest that electron beam irradiation is a better and appropriate technique for improving the microbial safety of sliced ham.

  6. Inclusion complexation of flavour compounds by dispersed high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) in an aqueous model system.

    Yeo, Lihe; Thompson, Donald B; Peterson, Devin G


    This study investigated how hydrophobicity, solubility and the concentration of flavour compounds related to inclusion complexation by dispersed native high amylose maize starch (HAMS). The effect of native lipid on flavour retention and the effect of time (one day to one month) on flavour retention and precipitated starch yield was also examined. Flavour-starch complexation was dependent on the flavour compound hydrophobicity, the flavour concentration in a dose-dependent manner and also influenced by time (increased during storage). Flavour composition also influenced starch complexation; no flavour complexes were reported with limonene by itself but were observed when added in binary flavour mixtures with menthone or thymol. Furthermore, no difference in flavour retention was observed for native and lipid-free starch dispersions. In summary, flavour inclusion complexes with HAMS exhibited cooperativity-type binding behaviour; with a critical ligand concentration needed for a stable physical association between flavour compounds and HAMS.

  7. Elimination of Listeria monocytogenes from vacuum-packed dry-cured ham by E-beam radiation.

    Hoz, L; Cambero, M I; Cabeza, M C; Herrero, A M; Ordónez, J A


    The inactivation kinetics for Listeria monocytogenes Scott A (CIP 103575, serotype 4b) and Listeria innocua (NTC 11288) after E-beam radiation were studied in vacuum-packed ready-to-eat dry-cured ham to optimize the sanitation treatment of this product. A treatment of 1.12 kGy was calculated to reach the food safety objective according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture criterion. No irradiation treatment is necessary to meet the European Union microbiological criterion for this bacterium. No changes (at doses Dry-cured hams treated with 1 and 2 kGy had negligible sensory modifications (appearance, odor, and flavor). However, the application of 3 and 4 kGy resulted in an increase in the intensity of off-odors and off-flavors. Despite these effects, all irradiated vacuum-packed dry-cured hams treated at < or =4 kGy were deemed acceptable for trading.

  8. Processing technology of three delicacy ham sausage%三鲜火腿肠的加工技术

    王雪梅; 王森; 幸胜平; 周永昌


    Ham sausage is a convenient food and eaten frequently by people. Developing safe, delicious and nutritious ham sausage is the need of production and the market. Adding mushrooms, carrots and shrimp meat in the ham sausage can reach the purpose of rich flavor and balanced nutrition.%火腿肠是人们经常食用的方便食品,开发安全、可口、营养均衡的火腿肠是生产的需要.更是市场的需要。三鲜火腿肠是在火腿肠中添加了香菇、胡萝卜和虾仁,达到了口味丰富,营养均衡的目的。

  9. Accumulation and evolution of tocopherols in dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs as affected by their feeding and rearing system

    Rey, A I; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A


    The influence of feeding and rearing systems on the accumulation and evolution of α- and γ-tocopherols in relation to storage time in dry-cured ham slices and pieces was investigated. The accumulation of γ-tocopherol in Musculus Biceps femoris or fat of cured hams was lower in groups fed acorns i...

  10. Evaluation of HTLV-1 activity in HAM/TSP patients using proviral load and Tax mRNA expression after In Vitro lymphocyte activation

    Atefeh Yari


    Conclusion: Although proviral load had been addressed as a valuable index for monitoring HTLV-1 infected subjects, the results of this study demonstrated that Tax expression in activated PBMCs along with proviral load assessment in HAM/TSP patients are a more reliable factor for determining the prognosis and monitoring healthy carriers and HAM/TSP patients.

  11. 76 FR 5649 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Construction and Operation-Western Alignment


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Surface Transportation Board Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.--Construction and Operation-- Western... Tongue River Railroad Company's (TRRC) application to construct and operate a rail line in...

  12. A Comparative Study of Contemporary Color Tongue Image Extraction Methods Based on HSI

    Mingfeng Zhu


    Full Text Available Tongue image with coating is of important clinical diagnostic meaning, but traditional tongue image extraction method is not competent for extraction of tongue image with thick coating. In this paper, a novel method is suggested, which applies multiobjective greedy rules and makes fusion of color and space information in order to extract tongue image accurately. A comparative study of several contemporary tongue image extraction methods is also made from the aspects of accuracy and efficiency. As the experimental results show, geodesic active contour is quite slow and not accurate, the other 3 methods achieve fairly good segmentation results except in the case of the tongue with thick coating, our method achieves ideal segmentation results whatever types of tongue images are, and efficiency of our method is acceptable for the application of quantitative check of tongue image.

  13. Differences in the Tongue Features of Primary Dysmenorrhea Patients and Controls over a Normal Menstrual Cycle

    Jihye Kim; Haebeom Lee; Hyunho Kim; Jong Yeol Kim; Keun Ho Kim


      Background. The aims of this study were to investigate the relationships between tongue features and the existence of menstrual pain and to provide basic information regarding the changes in tongue features...

  14. Hardware Realization of Fast Multi-Scalar Elliptic Curve Point Multiplication by Reducing the Hamming Weights Over GF(p

    Nagaraja Shylashree


    Full Text Available We present a new hardware realization of fast elliptic curve Multi-Scalar Point Multiplication (MSPM using the sum of products expansion of the scalars. In Elliptic curve point Multiplication latency depends on the number of one’s (Hamming Weight in the binary representation of the scalar multiplier. By reducing the effective number of one’s in the multiplier, the multiplication speed is automatically increased. Therefore we describe a new method of effectively reducing the Hamming weight of the scalar multipliers thereby reduces the number of Point Adders when multi scalar multiplication is needed. The increase in speed achieved outweighs the hardware cost and complexity.

  15. Evaluation of T Regulatory Lymphocytes Transcription Factors in HTLV-1-Associated Myelopathy/Tropical Spastic Paraparesis (HAM/TSP) Patients.

    Ghezeldasht, Sanaz Ahmadi; Sadeghian, Hamed; Azarpazhooh, Mahmoud Reza; Shamsian, Seyyed Ali Akbar; Rafatpanah, Houshang; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Rezaee, Seyyed Abdolrahim


    HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) is an aggressive neurological disease. The CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell population plays pivotal roles in the maintenance of immunological tolerance and prevention of such autoimmune diseases. In the current study, proviral load (PVL), factor forkhead box p3 (Foxp3), and glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor-related protein (GITR) gene expression and regulatory T cells (Tregs) counts of 21 HAM/TSP patients and 16 HTLV-1 healthy carriers (ACs) were measured using real-time PCR, TaqMan method, and flow cytometry. The demographic, history of disease, and severity of myelopathy were assessed by a checklist and the Osame motor disability score (OMDS). The mean OMDS for HAM/TSP was 4.82 ± 2.37 which had no significant correlation with Treg count or the expression of Foxp3, GITR, and PVL. The CD4(+)CD25(+) cell counts had no significant differences between HAM/TSP and ACs. Findings revealed a higher PVL in HAM/TSPs (313.36 copies/10(4)) compared to ACs (144.93 copies/10(4), p = 0.035). The Foxp3 and GITR mRNA levels were lower in HAM/TSP patients (11.78 and 13.80, respectively) than those in healthy carriers (18.44 and 21.00, p = 0.041 and 0.03, respectively). There was a significant correlation between Treg frequency and Foxp3 gene expression (R = 0.67, p = 0.006) and GITR and Foxp3 (R = 0.84, p = 0.042) in HAM/TSP patients. Furthermore, the transcription factors have strong correlations with CD4(+)CD25(+) T cell frequencies. These findings suggest that HTLV-1 infection can modify the expression of main functional transcription factors, FOXP3 and GITR, which may lead to immune response deterioration of Tregs and consequently HAM/TSP manifestation.

  16. Tongue entrapment by chew toys in two dogs.

    Rubio, A; Van Goethem, B; Verhaert, L


    Compression of a chew toy during regular play activity can create a vacuum effect eventually causing entrapment of oral tissues. Two cases of tongue entrapment are described, which resulted in severe tissue swelling, oedema and vascular obstruction. In the first dog, the toy was removed by the veterinary surgeon under general anaesthesia. Damage to the tongue proved to be reversible and the dog recovered uneventfully. In the second patient, the toy was forcefully removed by the owner. The resulting tongue necrosis required partial amputation. Treatment of this emergency condition consists of elimination of the negative pressure inside the toy by piercing it or even by insufflation of positive pressure inside the toy, and of an atraumatic manipulation to prevent further damage to the compromised tissues.

  17. Cavernous hemangioma of the tongue: A rare case report

    K A Kamala


    Full Text Available Hemangiomas are developmental vascular abnormalities and more than 50% of these lesions occur in the head and neck region, with the lips, tongue, buccal mucosa, and palate most commonly involved. They are considered as hamartomas rather than true neoplasms. Here we report a case of hemangioma of the body of the tongue, discussing the diagnostic aspects and treatment modalities of such lesion and emphasizing the role of the color Doppler ultrasonography, especially in the diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as patient′s age, size and site of lesion and the proximity of lesion to vital structure are paramount in the determination of the therapeutic approach and surgical excision. Even though radiotherapy, cryotherapy, laser therapy, medical treatment, injection of sclerosing substances and the selective embolization of the lingual artery seem to have some efficacy, the author conclude that surgery is the therapy of choice in the isolated vascular lesions of the body of the tongue.

  18. Adenocarcinoma involving the tongue and the epiglottis in a horse.

    Laus, Fulvio; Rossi, Giacomo; Paggi, Emanuele; Bordicchia, Matteo; Fratini, Margherita; Tesei, Beniamino


    Tumors involving the oral cavity of the horse are uncommon. No cases of equine adenocarcinoma on the dorsum of the tongue have been reported in the literature. We report a case of adenocarcinoma located on the dorsum of the posterior one-third of the tongue in a 29-year-old gelding with severe dysphagia. Endoscopy revealed an epiglottis involvement, and histology was consistent with adenocarcinoma arising from minor salivary glands, which was associated with a severe fungal colonization of affected tissues. The goals of this report are to present an uncommon case of dorsum of the tongue-associated neoplasia and to highlight the association with atypical fungal colonization, to review the literature and to discuss possible clinical approach and prognosis.

  19. Cutaneous metastasis from squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue

    Tashnin Rahman


    Full Text Available Context: Cutaneous metastasis from head and neck cancer is uncommon and it is seen from laryngeal cancer. Cutaneous metastasis from the base of tongue is relatively rare. Case Report: A 55-year-old male, who was a treated case of squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue presented with metastatic nodule on the skin of face and thigh. But, there was complete resolution of the tumor at the primary site. In the present case, clinically obvious cutaneous nodules with metastasis appeared soon after the completion of treatment with concurrent chemo-radiotherapy. The metastasis to the skin of face clinically appeared like an inflammatory lesion. Fine needle aspiration cytology confirmed the diagnosis of metastasis to skin at both the sites. Conclusion: Our case has highlighted that there could be associated occult skin metastasis at the time of diagnosis in squamous carcinoma of the base of tongue.

  20. Influence of visual observational conditions on tongue motor learning

    Kothari, Mohit; Liu, Xuimei; Baad-Hansen, Lene


    To investigate the impact of visual observational conditions on performance during a standardized tongue-protrusion training (TPT) task and to evaluate subject-based reports of helpfulness, disturbance, pain, and fatigue due to the observational conditions on 0-10 numerical rating scales. Forty-e...... regarding the level of disturbance, pain or fatigue. Self-observation of tongue-training facilitated behavioral aspects of tongue motor learning compared with model-observation but not compared with control....... feedback of their own TPT performance, Group 3: control group performed the TPT without any conditioning. There was no overall difference between groups but TPT performance increased over time. A significant group x time interaction indicated that the self-observation group performed significantly better...

  1. Tongue cancer during pregnancy: Surgery and more, a multidisciplinary challenge.

    Tagliabue, Marta; Elrefaey, Shimaa Hassan; Peccatori, Fedro; Favia, Gianfranco; Navach, Valeria; Pignataro, Lorenzo; Capaccio, Pasquale; Venturino, Marco; Tredici, Stefano; Alterio, Daniela; Mosca, Fabio; Pugni, Lorenza; Scarfone, Giovanna; Cossu Rocca, Maria; Calabrese, Luca


    No international guidelines are available for the treatment of oral tongue cancer during pregnancy. Six patients with tongue cancer during pregnancy were identified by a retrospective chart review. In three of the cases we did not follow the standard treatment, the women had disease progression, and two of them died after a short time. A multidisciplinary discussion and literature review suggest that following the standard surgical procedure could be the optimal treatment to ensure mother and baby health in tongue cancer. Nonetheless choosing between maternal advantage and potential fetal damage should not be an individual medical decision. Treatment "customization" is a possibility. Patients and their families should be provided with comprehensive information and appropriate support in order to fully participate in the decision-making process. The patient's care may be improved if carried out in a specialized maternity center where the surgical oncologic treatment is managed together with the obstetric aspects.

  2. Schwannoma of tongue base treated with transoral carbon dioxide laser.

    Mehrzad, H; Persaud, R; Papadimitriou, N; Kaniyur, S; Mochloulis, G


    Schwannomas are benign slow growing solitary tumours of nerve sheath origin and can arise from any myelinated nerve. They have been reported to occur in most parts of the body with the highest incidence (25%) in the head and neck region, although tongue base lesions are rare. The tumour is resistant to radiotherapy, and therefore, the treatment of choice is surgery. We present a case of a tongue base schwannoma which was completely extirpated with a carbon dioxide laser via the transoral approach. The patient experienced virtually no morbidity from the use of the laser. Whilst tongue base schwannoma has been documented, we could not find an earlier report in the English literature describing our method of treatment. We conclude that transoral carbon dioxide laser can be added to the surgical armamentarium for the management of other similar cases in the future.

  3. Heat transfer and fire spread

    Hal E. Anderson


    Experimental testing of a mathematical model showed that radiant heat transfer accounted for no more than 40% of total heat flux required to maintain rate of spread. A reasonable prediction of spread was possible by assuming a horizontal convective heat transfer coefficient when certain fuel and flame characteristics were known. Fuel particle size had a linear relation...

  4. Ultrasonic assessment of the melting behaviour in fat from Iberian dry-cured hams.

    Niñoles, L; Mulet, A; Ventanas, S; Benedito, J


    The feasibility of using ultrasounds to characterize the melting properties of fat from Iberian dry-cured hams was evaluated. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) and ultrasonic measurements were used to characterize the fat melting. The ultrasonic velocity in fat decreased with the increase in temperature, showing four different sections (0-4 degrees C, 4-10 degrees C, 10-20 degrees C and 20-24 degrees C). Ultrasonic velocity was related (R(2)=0.99) to the percentage of melted fat (%MEF) showing an increase of 5.4 ms(-1) for 1% increase of melted fat (%MEF above 60%). The thermal history did not affect the ultrasonic measurements from 10 to 25 degrees C and, consequently, this range was the most suitable for classifying Iberian dry-cured products with different genetics and feeding backgrounds. Ultrasonic measurements could be a reliable technique to estimate the %MEF and subsequently the related sensory attributes in Iberian dry-cured ham at 10-25 degrees C, which is the common temperature range for the consumption of Iberian dry-cured products.

  5. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    G. J. Roelofs


    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by cloud droplets growing on particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  6. Efficient algorithms for the reverse shortest path problem on trees under the hamming distance

    Tayyebi Javad


    Full Text Available Given a network G(V,A,c and a collection of origin-destination pairs with prescribed values, the reverse shortest path problem is to modify the arc length vector c as little as possible under some bound constraints such that the shortest distance between each origin-destination pair is upper bounded by the corresponding prescribed value. It is known that the reverse shortest path problem is NP-hard even on trees when the arc length modifications are measured by the weighted sum-type Hamming distance. In this paper, we consider two special cases of this problem which are polynomially solvable. The first is the case with uniform lengths. It is shown that this case transforms to a minimum cost flow problem on an auxiliary network. An efficient algorithm is also proposed for solving this case under the unit sum-type Hamming distance. The second case considered is the problem without bound constraints. It is shown that this case is reduced to a minimum cut problem on a tree-like network. Therefore, both cases studied can be solved in strongly polynomial time.

  7. Aerosol activation and cloud processing in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM

    G. J. Roelofs


    Full Text Available A parameterization for cloud processing is presented that calculates activation of aerosol particles to cloud drops, cloud drop size, and pH-dependent aqueous phase sulfur chemistry. The parameterization is implemented in the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM5-HAM. The cloud processing parameterization uses updraft speed, temperature, and aerosol size and chemical parameters simulated by ECHAM5-HAM to estimate the maximum supersaturation at the cloud base, and subsequently the cloud drop number concentration (CDNC due to activation. In-cloud sulfate production occurs through oxidation of dissolved SO2 by ozone and hydrogen peroxide. The model simulates realistic distributions for annually averaged CDNC although it is underestimated especially in remote marine regions. On average, CDNC is dominated by particles from the accumulation mode, with smaller contributions from the Aitken and coarse modes. The simulations indicate that in-cloud sulfate production is a potentially important source of accumulation mode sized cloud condensation nuclei, due to chemical growth of activated Aitken particles and to enhanced coalescence of processed particles. The strength of this source depends on the distribution of produced sulfate over the activated modes. This distribution is affected by uncertainties in many parameters that play a direct role in particle activation, such as the updraft velocity, the aerosol chemical composition and the organic solubility, and the simulated CDNC is found to be relatively sensitive to these uncertainties.

  8. New analytical method for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer equations and comparison with HAM

    Rashidi, M. M.; Erfani, E.


    In this study, we present a numerical comparison between the differential transform method (DTM) and the homotopy analysis method (HAM) for solving Burgers' and nonlinear heat transfer problems. The first differential equation is the Burgers' equation serves as a useful model for many interesting problems in applied mathematics. The second one is the modeling equation of a straight fin with a temperature dependent thermal conductivity. In order to show the effectiveness of the DTM, the results obtained from the DTM is compared with available solutions obtained using the HAM [M.M. Rashidi, G. Domairry, S. Dinarvand, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 708-717; G. Domairry, M. Fazeli, Commun. Nonlinear Sci. Numer. Simul. 14 (2009) 489-499] and whit exact solutions. The method can easily be applied to many linear and nonlinear problems. It illustrates the validity and the great potential of the differential transform method in solving nonlinear partial differential equations. The obtained results reveal that the technique introduced here is very effective and convenient for solving nonlinear partial differential equations and nonlinear ordinary differential equations that we are found to be in good agreement with the exact solutions.

  9. Drop spreading with random viscosity

    Xu, Feng


    We examine theoretically the spreading of a viscous liquid drop over a thin film of uniform thickness, assuming the liquid's viscosity is regulated by the concentration of a solute that is carried passively by the spreading flow. The solute is assumed to be initially heterogeneous, having a spatial distribution with prescribed statistical features. To examine how this variability influences the drop's motion, we investigate spreading in a planar geometry using lubrication theory, combining numerical simulations with asymptotic analysis. We assume diffusion is sufficient to suppress solute concentration gradients across but not along the film. The solute field beneath the bulk of the drop is stretched by the spreading flow, such that the initial solute concentration immediately behind the drop's effective contact lines has a long-lived influence on the spreading rate. Over long periods, solute swept up from the precursor film accumulates in a short region behind the contact line, allowing patches of elevated v...

  10. Sinking, wedging, spreading - viscous spreading on a layer of fluid

    Bergemann, Nico; Juel, Anne; Heil, Matthias


    We study the axisymmetric spreading of a sessile drop on a pre-existing layer of the same fluid in a regime where the drop is sufficiently large so that the spreading is driven by gravity while capillary and inertial effects are negligible. Experiments performed with 5 ml drops and layer thicknesses in the range 0.1 mm drop evolves as R tn , where the spreading exponent n increases with the layer thickness h. Numerical simulations, based on the axisymmetric free-surface Navier-Stokes equations, reveal three distinct spreading regimes depending on the layer thickness. For thick layers the drop sinks into the layer, accompanied by significant flow in the layer. By contrast, for thin layers the layer ahead of the propagating front is at rest and the spreading behaviour resembles that of a gravity-driven drop spreading on a dry substrate. In the intermediate regime the spreading is characterised by an advancing wedge, which is sustained by fluid flow from the drop into the layer.

  11. Dislocated Tongue Muscle Attachment and Cleft Palate Formation.

    Kouskoura, T; El Fersioui, Y; Angelini, M; Graf, D; Katsaros, C; Chiquet, M


    In Pierre Robin sequence, a retracted tongue due to micrognathia is thought to physically obstruct palatal shelf elevation and thereby cause cleft palate. However, micrognathia is not always associated with palatal clefting. Here, by using the Bmp7-null mouse model presenting with cleft palate and severe micrognathia, we provide the first causative mechanism linking the two. In wild-type embryos, the genioglossus muscle, which mediates tongue protrusion, originates from the rostral process of Meckel's cartilage and later from the mandibular symphysis, with 2 tendons positive for Scleraxis messenger RNA. In E13.5 Bmp7-null embryos, a rostral process failed to form, and a mandibular symphysis was absent at E17.5. Consequently, the genioglossus muscle fibers were diverted toward the lingual surface of Meckel's cartilage and mandibles, where they attached in an aponeurosis that ectopically expressed Scleraxis. The deflection of genioglossus fibers from the anterior-posterior toward the medial-lateral axis alters their direction of contraction and necessarily compromises tongue protrusion. Since this muscle abnormality precedes palatal shelf elevation, it is likely to contribute to clefting. In contrast, embryos with a cranial mesenchyme-specific deletion of Bmp7 (Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre) exhibited some degree of micrognathia but no cleft palate. In these embryos, a rostral process was present, indicating that mesenchyme-derived Bmp7 is dispensable for its formation. Moreover, the genioglossus appeared normal in Bmp7:Wnt1-Cre embryos, further supporting a role of aberrant tongue muscle attachment in palatal clefting. We thus propose that in Pierre Robin sequence, palatal shelf elevation is not impaired simply by physical obstruction by the tongue but by a specific developmental defect that leads to functional changes in tongue movements.



    The objective of this paper is to identify one of the reasons for the crack to initiate at the tongue region. The design of the tongue region of the centrifugal pump casing plays an important role in influencing the pump performance and cavitation. Tongue region should have enough strength to withstand against repeated loads imparted by the impeller. Crack at the tongue region is examined under hydrostatic pressure conditions .Practically, at the site location it was observed that the crack w...

  13. Treatment and retention of relapsed anterior open-bite with low tongue posture and tongue-tie: A 10-year follow-up.

    Seo, Yu-Jin; Kim, Su-Jung; Munkhshur, Janchivdorj; Chung, Kyu-Rhim; Ngan, Peter; Kim, Seong-Hun


    The purpose of the current report is to present 6-year long-term stability and 10-year follow-up data for an adult patient who was treated with a tongue elevator for relapsed anterior open-bite. The 19-year-old male patient presented with the chief complaint of difficulty in chewing his food. Collectively, clinical and radiographic examinations revealed an anterior open-bite, low tongue posture, and tongue-tie. The patient opted for orthodontic treatment alone, without any surgical procedure. A lingual frenectomy was recommended to avoid the risk of relapse, but the patient declined because he was not experiencing tongue discomfort. Initial treatment of the anterior open-bite with molar intrusion and tongue exercises was successful, but relapse occurred during the retention period. A tongue elevator was used for retreatment, because the approach was minimally invasive and suited the patient's requirements regarding discomfort, cost, and time. The appliance changed the tongue posture and generated an altered tongue force, which ultimately resulted in intrusive dentoalveolar effects, and a subsequent counterclockwise rotation of the mandible. The results showed long-term stability and were maintained for six years through continual use of the tongue elevator. The results of this case indicated that a tongue elevator could be used not only as an alternative treatment for open-bite, but also as an active retainer.

  14. Molecular Determinants of Human T-lymphotropic Virus Type 1 Transmission and Spread

    Patrick L. Green


    Full Text Available Human T-lymphotrophic virus type-1 (HTLV-1 infects approximately 15 to 20 million people worldwide, with endemic areas in Japan, the Caribbean, and Africa. The virus is spread through contact with bodily fluids containing infected cells, most often from mother to child through breast milk or via blood transfusion. After prolonged latency periods, approximately 3 to 5% of HTLV-1 infected individuals will develop either adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL, or other lymphocyte-mediated disorders such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP. The genome of this complex retrovirus contains typical gag, pol, and env genes, but also unique nonstructural proteins encoded from the pX region. These nonstructural genes encode the Tax and Rex regulatory proteins, as well as novel proteins essential for viral spread in vivo such as, p30, p12, p13 and the antisense encoded HBZ. While progress has been made in the understanding of viral determinants of cell transformation and host immune responses, host and viral determinants of HTLV-1 transmission and spread during the early phases of infection are unclear. Improvements in the molecular tools to test these viral determinants in cellular and animal models have provided new insights into the early events of HTLV-1 infection. This review will focus on studies that test HTLV-1 determinants in context to full length infectious clones of the virus providing insights into the mechanisms of transmission and spread of HTLV-1.

  15. Controversies in the management of tongue base cancer.

    O'Neill, J P


    BACKGROUND: Tongue base cancer is one of the most lethal head and neck cancers. There is considerable controversy in the management of this disease with wide variation of opinion within the literature. METHODS: We discuss the presentation, diagnostic and therapeutic strategies which exist in the literature. Articles were reviewed from 1970 to 2007 within the Medline, Pubmed and Cochrane libraries. CONCLUSIONS: Smokers with a history of persistent unilateral neck pain, even in the absence of clinical signs warrant MRI neck imaging. Tongue base cancer organ preservation therapeutic strategies, radiation and concomitant platinum based chemotherapy, currently optimise oncologic and quality of life outcomes.

  16. Fully integrated wireless inductive tongue computer interface for disabled people.

    Struijk, Lotte N S Andreasen; Lontis, Eugen Romulus; Bentsen, Bo; Christensen, Henrik Vie; Caltenco, Hector A; Lund, Morten Enemark


    This work describes a novel fully integrated inductive tongue computer interface for disabled people. The interface consists of an oral unit placed in the mouth, including inductive sensors, related electronics, a system for wireless transmission and a rechargeable battery. The system is activated using an activation unit placed on the tongue, and incorporates 18 inductive sensors, arranged in both a key area and a mouse-pad area. The system's functionality was demonstrated in a pilot experiment, where a typing rate of up to 70 characters/minute was obtained with an error rate of 3%. Future work will include tests with disabled subjects.

  17. The global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM, version 2: sensitivity to improvements in process representations

    K. Zhang


    Full Text Available This paper introduces and evaluates the second version of the global aerosol-climate model ECHAM-HAM. Major changes have been brought into the model, including new parameterizations for aerosol nucleation and water uptake, an explicit treatment of secondary organic aerosols, modified emission calculations for sea salt and mineral dust, the coupling of aerosol microphysics to a two-moment stratiform cloud microphysics scheme, and alternative wet scavenging parameterizations. These revisions extend the model's capability to represent details of the aerosol lifecycle and its interaction with climate. Nudged simulations of the year 2000 are carried out to compare the aerosol properties and global distribution in HAM1 and HAM2, and to evaluate them against various observations. Sensitivity experiments are performed to help identify the impact of each individual update in model formulation.

    Results indicate that from HAM1 to HAM2 there is a marked weakening of aerosol water uptake in the lower troposphere, reducing the total aerosol water burden from 75 Tg to 51 Tg. The main reason is the newly introduced κ-Köhler-theory-based water uptake scheme uses a lower value for the maximum relative humidity cutoff. Particulate organic matter loading in HAM2 is considerably higher in the upper troposphere, because the explicit treatment of secondary organic aerosols allows highly volatile oxidation products of the precursors to be vertically transported to regions of very low temperature and to form aerosols there. Sulfate, black carbon, particulate organic matter and mineral dust in HAM2 have longer lifetimes than in HAM1 because of weaker in-cloud scavenging, which is in turn related to lower autoconversion efficiency in the newly introduced two-moment cloud microphysics scheme. Modification in the sea salt emission scheme causes a significant increase in the ratio (from 1.6 to 7.7 between accumulation mode and coarse mode emission fluxes of

  18. The Influence of Mother Tongue on English Teaching in Chinese Universities

    ZHAO Bing


    @@ 0 Introduction A lot of English learning researchers focus on the influence of mother tongue on English learning and teaching.Corder,the British applied linguist thought that mother tongue influenced the English learning positively (or negatively) when the language rules of mother tongue and a of target language show no (much) differences.

  19. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith


    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  20. Tongue-Pressure and Hyoid Movement Timing in Healthy Liquid Swallowing

    Steele, Catriona; Sasse, Caroline; Bressmann, Tim


    It was hypothesized that tongue-palate pressure generation might directly facilitate hyoid movement in swallowing through the anatomical connections of the extrinsic tongue muscles. If true, non-invasive measures of tongue-palate pressure timing might serve as a proxy measure of hyoid excursion. The timing relationships between events in the…

  1. A three-dimensional kinematic analysis of tongue flicking in Python molurus

    Groot, de J.H.; Sluijs, van der I.; Snelderwaard, P.C.; Leeuwen, van J.L.


    The forked snake tongue is a muscular organ without hard skeletal support. A functional interpretation of the variable arrangement of the intrinsic muscles along the tongue requires a quantitative analysis of the motion performance during tongue protrusion and flicking. Therefore, high-speed fluoros

  2. Analysis of 3-D Tongue Motion from Tagged and Cine Magnetic Resonance Images

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Lee, Junghoon; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.


    Purpose: Measuring tongue deformation and internal muscle motion during speech has been a challenging task because the tongue deforms in 3 dimensions, contains interdigitated muscles, and is largely hidden within the vocal tract. In this article, a new method is proposed to analyze tagged and cine magnetic resonance images of the tongue during…

  3. Analysis of 3-D Tongue Motion from Tagged and Cine Magnetic Resonance Images

    Xing, Fangxu; Woo, Jonghye; Lee, Junghoon; Murano, Emi Z.; Stone, Maureen; Prince, Jerry L.


    Purpose: Measuring tongue deformation and internal muscle motion during speech has been a challenging task because the tongue deforms in 3 dimensions, contains interdigitated muscles, and is largely hidden within the vocal tract. In this article, a new method is proposed to analyze tagged and cine magnetic resonance images of the tongue during…

  4. Acoustic and tongue kinematic vowel space in speakers with and without dysarthria.

    Lee, Jimin; Littlejohn, Meghan Anne; Simmons, Zachary


    The purpose is to investigate acoustic and tongue body kinematic vowel dispersion patterns and vowel space in speakers with and without dysarthria secondary to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Acoustic and tongue kinematic vowel spaces were examined at the same time sampling point using electromagnetic articulography in 11 speakers with dysarthria secondary to ALS and 11 speakers without dysarthria. Tongue kinematic data were collected from the tongue body sensor (∼25 mm posterior from the tongue apex). A number of acoustic and tongue body kinematic variables were tested. The result showed that the acoustic and tongue kinematic vowel dispersion patterns are different between the groups. Acoustic and tongue body kinematic vowel spaces are highly correlated; however, unlike acoustic vowel space, tongue body kinematic vowel space was not significantly different between the groups. Both acoustic and tongue kinematic vowel dispersion patterns are sensitive to the group difference, especially with high vowels. The tongue kinematic vowel space approach is too crude to differentiate the speakers with dysarthria secondary to ALS from speakers without dysarthria. To examine tongue range of motion in speakers with dysarthria, a more refined articulatory kinematic approach needs to be examined in the future.

  5. Effect of Tongue Exercise on Protrusive Force and Muscle Fiber Area in Aging Rats

    Connor, Nadine P.; Russell, John A.; Wang, Hao; Jackson, Michelle A.; Mann, Laura; Kluender, Keith


    Purpose: Age-related changes in tongue function may contribute to dysphagia in elderly people. The authors' purpose was to investigate whether aged rats that have undergone tongue exercise would manifest increased protrusive tongue forces and increased genioglossus (GG) muscle fiber cross-sectional areas. Method: Forty-eight young adult,…

  6. Multicomponent analysis of fermentation growth media using the electronic tongue (ET)

    Legin, A.; Kirsanov, D.; Rudnitskaya, A.;


    A potentiometric electronic tongue (ET) consisting of eight cross-sensitive chemical sensors and a standard pH electrode has been appliedfor analysis of simulated fermentation solutions typical for fermentation processes with Aspergillus niger . The electronic tongue has been found capable...... samples. Sensor performance was fast and reproducible which promises well for routine application of the electronic tongue for fermentation process monitoring....

  7. Oral stereognostic ability among tongue thrusters with interdental lisp, tongue thrusters without interdental lisp and normal children.

    Colletti, E A; Geffner, D; Schlanger, P


    30 children, i.e., 10 children per group, 8 yr. of age, were given an oral stereognostic test. This test of 10 geometric forms varying in shape were developed by NIDR. 47 stimuli pairs were used and 10 pairs were repeated to measure test reliability. Subjects were blindfolded and asked to respond whether Items 1 and 2, presented consecutively, were the same or different. Results indicated that both groups of tongue thrusters with and without interdental lisp scored significantly more poorly than did normal children (t = 4.68, P less than .001; t = 5.00, P less than .001), respectively. There were no significant differences, however, between tongue thrusters with and without interdental lisp (t = .33, P greater than .05). Observations indicated that normal children used the tongue tip more frequently and accurately when discriminating the geometric forms than did the other groups.

  8. Spreading convulsions, spreading depolarization and epileptogenesis in human cerebral cortex

    Dreier, Jens P; Major, Sebastian; Pannek, Heinz-Wolfgang


    Spreading depolarization of cells in cerebral grey matter is characterized by massive ion translocation, neuronal swelling and large changes in direct current-coupled voltage recording. The near-complete sustained depolarization above the inactivation threshold for action potential generating...

  9. The effect of salt reduction on sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, ham and salami.

    Aaslyng, Margit Dall; Vestergaard, Christian; Koch, Anette Granly


    Sodium chloride (NaCl) is a multi-functional ingredient used to inhibit microbial growth and to ensure good texture and taste in processed meat. This study showed how moderately (22-25%) and greatly (43-50%) reduction of NaCl affected yield, sensory quality and microbial growth in hotdog sausages, bacon, cooked cured ham and salami. In greatly reduced products, the yield was reduced by 8% in sausages and 6% in ham, whereas the yield in bacon and salami remained unaffected. The microbial growth was generally not affected by reducing the content of NaCl to 2.0% in sausages, 2.3% in bacon, 1.7% in ham and 6.3% in salami (aqueous phase). Salt taste, juiciness and texture were the sensory parameters most affected by the NaCl reduction. In sausages and ham, reduction from 2.2% to 1.7% and from 2.3% to 1.3% (w/w), respectively, did not alter the sensory properties. In contrast, the sensory properties of bacon and salami were significantly affected already after a moderately reduction.

  10. Is designation of origin an important cue driving consumer loyalty behaviour? Evidence from scanner data on dry-cured ham

    Chrysochou, Polymeros; Giraud, Georges


    designation of origin influences their actual purchase behaviour and, moreover, behavioural loyalty towards them. For measuring loyalty we applied the Dirichlet model on scanner supermarket data on dry-cured ham, a common local French food product. Results show that designation of origin...... is not that an important driver of loyalty comparing to price and brand name....

  11. Volatile compounds and odor traits of dry-cured ham (Prosciutto crudo) irradiated by electron beam and gamma rays

    Kong, Qiulian; Yan, Weiqiang; Yue, Ling; Chen, Zhijun; Wang, Haihong; Qi, Wenyuan; He, Xiaohua


    Prosciutto crudo samples were irradiated at 0, 3 and 6 kGy by gamma rays (GR) and electron beam (EB), respectively. The odor scores and volatile compounds were examined after 7 days storage at 4 °C. Volatile compounds from samples without and with irradiation at 6 kGy were analyzed by GC-MS. Fifty-nine compounds were identified, including terpenes, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, alkanes, esters, aromatic hydrocarbons and acids. Both GR and EB irradiation resulted in formation of (Z)-7-Hexadecenal, cis-9-hexadecenal, tetradecane, E-9-tetradecen-1-ol formate, and losing of hexadecamethyl-heptasiloxane and decanoic acid-ethyl ester in hams. However, GR irradiation caused additional changes, such as formation of undecane and phthalic acid-2-cyclohexylethyl butyl ester, significantly higher level of 1-pentadecene, and losing of (E, E)-2,4-decadienal and octadecane. EB was shown to be better in maintaining ham's original odor than GR. Our results suggest that EB irradiation is a promising method for treatment of ready to eat hams as it exerts much less negative effect on the flavor of hams compared to GR irradiation.

  12. Development of a ready to eat fish based product using seafood industry byproducts: FisHam

    Luís Raimundo


    Full Text Available Over the last years, there has been an increased demand from consumers for safe, nutritionally balanced and convenient food products. These trends are contributing towards an increasing demand for fishery products which affects fishery resources worldwide, compromising stocks of many fish species. The technological enhancement of the byproducts of fish industries or fish species of low commercial value, transforming these materials in products with high nutritional potential will simultaneously contribute towards fulfill present consumer trends and to a more sustainable marine resources management. The present work develops the product concept and prototype formulation of a ready to eat omega 3 enriched product using raw material trimmings of fish of low commercial value. The product developed, FisHam is a ham-like refrigerated product, which can be slice and added to sandwiches or diced and added to salads. Product concept was validated with a questionnaire, in which it was obtained a positive global acceptance by 86% of the inquired people. Sensory analysis of the product revealed its good acceptability, with an average global appreciation of “enjoyed moderately” and with 58% of the pannel stating the intention of buying the product. Fish oil addition had no impact on sensory acceptance. Regarding the physicochemical analysis, the selected formulation showed a content of protein of 7,08%, low lipid content of 3,74%, medium content of humidity of 61% and low caloric value of 164 calories per 100 grams. The color, textural attributes, humidity content and microbiological parameters were monitored during 10 days of refrigerated storage at 5ºC. On the microbiological level, the product showed the absence of enterobacteries and psychrotrophics in compliance with legal microbiological criteria set for ready to eat products. It can be concluded that this new product can be considered an alternative product to meat ham and other meat products in

  13. Predictive Model for Growth of Staphylococcus aureus on Raw Pork, Ham, and Sausage.

    Mansur, Ahmad Rois; Park, Joong-Hyun; Oh, Deog-Hwan


    Recent Staphylococcus aureus outbreaks linked to meat and poultry products underscore the importance of understanding the growth kinetics of S. aureus in these products at different temperatures. Raw pork, ham, and sausage (each 10 ± 0.3 g) were inoculated with a three-strain cocktail of S. aureus, resulting in an initial level of ca. 3 log CFU/g. Samples were stored isothermally at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30, 35, and 40°C, and S. aureus was enumerated at appropriate time intervals. The square root model was developed using experimental data collected from S. aureus grown on all samples (where data from raw pork, ham, and sausage were combined) so as to describe the growth rate of S. aureus as a function of temperature. The model was then compared with models for S. aureus growth on each individual sample in the experiments (raw pork, ham, or sausage) and the S. aureus ComBase models, as well as models for the growth of different types of pathogens (S. aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Clostridium perfringens, Salmonella serovars, and Salmonella Typhimurium) on various types of meat and poultry products. The results show that the S. aureus model developed here based on the pooled data from all three pork products seems suitable for the prediction of S. aureus growth on different pork products under isothermal conditions from 10 to 25°C, as well as for S. aureus growth on different meat and poultry products at higher temperatures between 20 and 35°C. Regardless of some high deviations observed at temperatures between 25 and 40°C, the developed model still seems suitable to predict the growth of other pathogens on different types of meat and poultry products over the temperature ranges used here, especially for E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium. The developed model, therefore, may be useful for estimating the effects of storage temperature on the behavior of pathogens in different meat and poultry products and for microbial risk assessments evaluating meat

  14. Teaching Tongue-Tied Students: Ankyloglossia in the Instrumental Classroom

    Dovel, Jason


    Ankyloglossia is a significant medical condition that has not been adequately addressed in music education literature. While practically every instructor will have students who struggle with ankyloglossia, many teachers are entirely unaware of this condition's various symptoms and treatments. Ankyloglossia, more commonly known as tongue-tie, is a…

  15. Mother Tongue Use in Task-Based Language Teaching Model

    Hung, Nguyen Viet


    Researches of English language teaching (ELT) have focused on using mother tongue (L1) for years. The proliferation of task-based language teaching (TBLT) has been also occurred. Considerable findings have been made in the existing literature of the two fields; however, no mentions have been made in the combination of these two ELT aspects, i.e.,…

  16. Tongue-Palate Contact of Perceptually Acceptable Alveolar Stops

    Lee, Alice; Gibbon, Fiona E.; O'Donovan, Cliona


    Increased tongue-palate contact for perceptually acceptable alveolar stops has been observed in children with speech sound disorders (SSD). This is a retrospective study that further investigated this issue by using quantitative measures to compare the target alveolar stops /t/, /d/ and /n/ produced in words by nine children with SSD (20 tokens of…

  17. Artificial tongue based on metal-biomolecule coordination polymer nanoparticles.

    Pu, Fang; Ran, Xiang; Ren, Jinsong; Qu, Xiaogang


    We construct an array-based recognition system (the so-called artificial tongue) through the self-assembly of nucleotides, dyes and lanthanide ions. Metal ions are selected as model analytes for verifying its discrimination ability. The work provides valuable insights into the application and development of biomolecule-based materials.

  18. Vision of tongue movements bias auditory speech perception.

    D'Ausilio, Alessandro; Bartoli, Eleonora; Maffongelli, Laura; Berry, Jeffrey James; Fadiga, Luciano


    Audiovisual speech perception is likely based on the association between auditory and visual information into stable audiovisual maps. Conflicting audiovisual inputs generate perceptual illusions such as the McGurk effect. Audiovisual mismatch effects could be either driven by the detection of violations in the standard audiovisual statistics or via the sensorimotor reconstruction of the distal articulatory event that generated the audiovisual ambiguity. In order to disambiguate between the two hypotheses we exploit the fact that the tongue is hidden to vision. For this reason, tongue movement encoding can solely be learned via speech production but not via others׳ speech perception alone. Here we asked participants to identify speech sounds while matching or mismatching visual representations of tongue movements which were shown. Vision of congruent tongue movements facilitated auditory speech identification with respect to incongruent trials. This result suggests that direct visual experience of an articulator movement is not necessary for the generation of audiovisual mismatch effects. Furthermore, we suggest that audiovisual integration in speech may benefit from speech production learning. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Tapping into tongue motion to substitute or augment upper limbs

    Ghovanloo, Maysam; Sahadat, M. Nazmus; Zhang, Zhenxuan; Kong, Fanpeng; Sebkhi, Nordine


    Assistive technologies (AT) play an important role in the lives of people with disabilities. Most importantly, they allow individuals with severe physical disabilities become more independence. Inherent abilities of the human tongue originated from its strong representation in the motor cortex, its direct connection to the brain through well-protected cranial nerves, and easy access without a surgery have resulted in development of a series of tongue-operated ATs that tap into the dexterous, intuitive, rapid, precise, and tireless motion of the tongue. These ATs not only help people with tetraplegia as a result of spinal cord injury or degenerative neurological diseases to access computers/smartphones, drive wheelchairs, and interact with their environments but also have the potential to enhance rehabilitation paradigms for stroke survivors. In this paper, various types of tongue operated ATs are discussed based on their working principles and task based performances. Comparisons are drawn based on widely accepted and standardized quantitative measures, such as throughput, information transfer rate, typing speed/accuracy, tracking error, navigation period, and navigation accuracy as well as qualitative measures, such as user feedback. Finally, the prospects of using variations of these versatile devices to enhance human performance in environments that limit hand and finger movements, such as space exploration or underwater operations are discussed.

  20. Contingent negative variation elicited before jaw and tongue movements.

    Yoshida, K; Iizuka, T


    Contingent negative variation (CNV) is a negative brain potential occurring between two successive stimuli when the first stimulus is a warning and the second stimulus requires a motor response. The CNV is interpreted as an expression of the cognitive processes in preparation for a response directed to a purpose. Using 19 electrodes we recorded CNVs for mouth opening, closing and lateral movements, tongue protrusion and hand extension in 10 healthy subjects. The aim of the study was to examine the motor control mechanism underlying jaw and tongue movements in a cognitive paradigm. The first stimulus (S1) served as a preparatory warning signal for the imperative stimulus (S2) 2 s after the S1. The subject performed the experimental tasks after the S2. The grand average CNVs for jaw and tongue movements showed a bilaterally widespread negativity with the maximum in the vertex region (Cz). The early CNV was identified about 400 ms after the S1 and its amplitude was highest at the midline-frontal area. The late CNV started approximately 1000 ms after the S1 with the maximum at Cz. The mean amplitude was significantly lower for hand extension than for the other tasks, and significantly higher for lateral movement than for mouth closing, suggesting that the CNV amplitude can be affected by the complexity of the task. The CNV recording may provide a means to study the neuronal activity necessary for the sensorimotor integration of jaw and tongue movements.

  1. Resonance tongues in Hill's equations : A geometric approach

    Broer, H; Simo, C


    The geometry of resonance tongues is considered in, mainly reversible, versions of Hill's equation, close to the classical Mathieu case. Hill's map assigns to each value of the multiparameter the corresponding Poincare matrix. Dy an averaging method, the geometry of Hill's map locally can be underst

  2. Education in the Mother Tongue and Educational Achievement in Paraguay.

    Corvalan, Grazziella


    Studies show that the use of the mother-tongue (Guarani) as a medium of instruction with students in Paraguay is the most significant determining factor in the acquisition of knowledge. The discrepancy between educational ideology and educational policies in Paraguay regarding the implementation of bilingual education programs negatively affects…

  3. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick


    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational policy…

  4. Marriage, Sexuality and Moral Responsibility among the Tongu Mafi ...


    Mar 21, 2016 ... natural death and living an exemplary life (Sarpong, 1971, p. 3;. Dzobo, 1985 ... The moral responsibility of the married couple, family and for that matter ... phenomenological study of the Tongu Mafi people of Ghana, mainly through ... Children of the same parents, including adopted siblings, step brothers ...

  5. A congenital mucocele of the anterior dorsal tongue

    Wong Chung, J.E.; Ensink, R.J.H.; Thijs, H.F.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den


    We report on a new-born with a congenital mucocele on the anterior dorsal side of the tongue. The presentation as well as the differential diagnosis of congenital oral swellings is discussed. Because of breastfeeding problems the mucinous swelling was incised and drained two days after birth. Immedi

  6. The Holy Spirit as Dove and as Tongues of Fire

    Nielsen, Kirsten


    This article analyses the dove and the tongues of fire in Jørgen Gustava Brandt's hymn "Hør himmelsus i tredie time!" (Hear the rush from heaven at the third hour!) The following intertexts are included in the analysis: Acts 2:1-4; Gen 11:1-9, examples of fire as image of God in the Old Testament...

  7. Mother Tongue Education in Singapore: Concerns, Issues and Controversies

    Ng, Chin Leong Patrick


    In 1966, the Singapore Government implemented the English-knowing bilingual policy which made it mandatory for all Chinese students to study English as a "First Language" and the Chinese language (CL) as a "Mother Tongue Language" in Singapore schools. Using key literature relevant to Singapore's bilingual educational…

  8. How Children Learn Their Mother Tongue: They Don't

    Halpern, Mark


    A new solution is offered to the Infant Language Acquisition Problem, rejecting both of Chomsky's alternatives. It proposes that the infant does not acquire his mother tongue by mastering its grammar, whether by inference from personal experience or via an innate Language Acquisition Device such as the UG, but that the language he hears is all…

  9. Tongue-lip adhesion in Pierre Robin sequence.

    Krishna Kumar, K S; Vylopilli, Suresh; Sivadasan, Anand; Pati, Ajit Kumar; Narayanan, Saju; Nair, Santhy Mohanachandran


    Patients with Pierre Robin sequence exhibit varying degrees of airway obstruction and feeding difficulty. In some patients, airway obstruction may be profound, warranting surgical intervention to maintain a patent airway. The purpose of this article is to highlight the advantages of the tongue-lip adhesion procedure for the management of airway obstruction in such patients compared to the currently available options.

  10. The Bumpy Road to Mother Tongue Instruction in Malawi

    Kamwendo, Gregory Hankoni


    In 1996, the Ministry of Education in Malawi directed that in future Standards 1 to 4 would be taught through mother tongues. It took eight years before the pilot phase of the language policy could begin. The paper critically analyses this situation using Bamgbose's framework which says that, in Africa, language policies tend to follow one or more…

  11. Femtosecond laser ablation of gold interdigitated electrodes for electronic tongues

    Manzoli, Alexandra; de Almeida, Gustavo F. B.; Filho, José A.; Mattoso, Luiz H. C.; Riul, Antonio; Mendonca, Cleber R.; Correa, Daniel S.


    Electronic tongue (e-tongue) sensors based on impedance spectroscopy have emerged as a potential technology to evaluate the quality and chemical composition of food, beverages, and pharmaceuticals. E-tongues usually employ transducers based on metal interdigitated electrodes (IDEs) coated with a thin layer of an active material, which is capable of interacting chemically with several types of analytes. IDEs are usually produced by photolithographic methods, which are time-consuming and costly, therefore, new fabrication technologies are required to make it more affordable. Here, we employed femtosecond laser ablation with pulse duration of 50 fs to microfabricate gold IDEs having finger width from 2.3 μm up to 3.2 μm. The parameters used in the laser ablation technique, such as light intensity, scan speed and beam spot size have been optimized to achieve uniform IDEs, which were characterized by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The electrical properties of gold IDEs fabricated by laser ablation were evaluated by impedance spectroscopy, and compared to those produced by conventional photolithography. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation is a promising alternative to conventional photolithography for fabricating metal IDEs for e-tongue systems.

  12. Operant Control of Pathological Tongue Thrust in Spastic Cerebral Palsy.

    Thompson, George A., Jr.


    The behavior modification procedure, carried out at mealtime with a ten-year-old retarded boy who had spastic cerebral palsy, consisted of differential reinforcement and punishment, and resulted in substantial decreases in tongue thrust (reverse swallowing) and food expulsion, and a large increase in observed chewing. (Author/DLS)

  13. Plexiform hypoglossal schwannoma of the tongue and the submandibular region.

    Al-Mahdi, Akmam H; Al-Khurrhi, Luay E; Atto, Ghada Z; Dhaher, Ameer


    Hypoglossal schwannomas usually develop in the intracranial portion of the brain. Incidence of hypoglossal schwannomas of the submandibular region is extremely rare. A 27-year-old patient presented to us with hypoglossal schwannoma of the tongue and the submandibular region. The tumor was excised intraorally combined with submandibular approach. Histopathologic examination revealed a plexiform schwannoma (a rare variant).

  14. Schwannoma of the tongue: An unusual presentation in a child

    Naidu Giridhar


    Full Text Available Schwannomas are benign tumors of nerve sheath and quite uncommon in the oral cavity. In contrast to the earlier reports in the literature, a confounding case of a lingual schwannoma presenting as a symptomatic and exophytic growth on the ventral surface of the tongue in a 12-year-old boy is discussed here.

  15. Schwannoma of the tongue: an unusual presentation in a child.

    Naidu, Giridhar S; Sinha, Samindra Mohan


    Schwannomas are benign tumors of nerve sheath and quite uncommon in the oral cavity. In contrast to the earlier reports in the literature, a confounding case of a lingual schwannoma presenting as a symptomatic and exophytic growth on the ventral surface of the tongue in a 12-year-old boy is discussed here.

  16. The Infraordinary as Spatial Discourse: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen


    of perception, I interrogated a London dry cleaner as an (infra-ordinary) urban function: Tongue of the Dry Cleaner uses creative writing and critical spatial practice as tools for gaining insight. It moves through the elements of the space and production line of the dry cleaner, unfolding it bit by bit...

  17. Mother Tongue-Based Bilingual Education in Papua New Guinea

    Malone, Susan; Paraide, Patricia


    Papua New Guinea (PNG), an independent state in the southwest Pacific, is the most linguistically diverse country in the world. Its roughly six million people speak over 800 distinct languages. In spite of this diversity, in 1995 the Papua New Guinean government established a mother tongue-based bilingual education programme in which community…

  18. Is There a Correlation between Languages Spoken and Intricate Movements of Tongue? A Comparative Study of Various Movements of Tongue among the Three Ethnic Races of Malaysia

    Nayak, Satheesha B; Awal, Mahfuzah Binti; Han, Chang Wei; Sivaram, Ganeshram; Vigneswaran, Thimesha; Choon, Tee Lian


    Introduction Tongue is mainly used for taste, chewing and in speech. In the present study, we focused on the secondary function of the tongue as to how it is used in phonetic pronunciation and linguistics and how these factors affect tongue movements. Objective To compare all possible movements of tongue among Malaysians belonging to three ethnic races and to find out if there is any link between languages spoken and ability to perform various tongue movements. Materials and Methods A total of 450 undergraduate medical students participated in the study. The students were chosen from three different races i.e. Malays, Chinese and Indians (Malaysian Indians). Data was collected from the students through a semi-structured interview following which each student was asked to demonstrate various tongue movements like protrusion, retraction, flattening, rolling, twisting, folding or any other special movements. The data obtained was first segregated and analysed according to gender, race and types and dialects of languages spoken. Results We found that most of the Malaysians were able to perform the basic movements of tongue like protrusion, flattening movements and very few were able to perform twisting and folding of the tongue. The ability to perform normal tongue movements and special movements like folding, twisting, rolling and others was higher among Indians when compared to Malay and Chinese. Conclusion Languages spoken by Indians involve detailed tongue rolling and folding in pronouncing certain words and may be the reason as to why Indians are more versatile with tongue movements as compared to the other two races amongst Malaysians. It may be a possibility that languages spoken by a person serves as a variable that increases their ability to perform special tongue movements besides influenced by the genetic makeup of a person. PMID:26894051

  19. Spreading the Bible in China


    According to records of the Bible Society in China, more than 300 million copies of the Bible in Chinese have been published and distributed since 1823. The spread of the Bible in China has gone through five stages.

  20. Spread effects - methodology; Spredningseffekter - metodegrunnlag



    Diffusion of technology, environmental effects and rebound effects are the principal effects from the funding of renewable energy and energy economising. It is difficult to estimate the impact of the spread effects both prior to the measures are implemented and after the measures are carried out. Statistical methods can be used to estimate the spread effects, but they are insecure and always need to be complemented with qualitative and subjective evaluations. It is more adequate to evaluate potential spread effects from market and market data surveillance for a selection of technologies and parties. Based on this information qualitative indicators for spread effects can be constructed and used both ex ante and ex post (ml)

  1. Roles of Ties in Spreading

    Cui, Ai-Xiang; Zhou, Tao


    Background: Controlling global epidemics in the real world and accelerating information propagation in the artificial world are of great significance, which have activated an upsurge in the studies on networked spreading dynamics. Lots of efforts have been made to understand the impacts of macroscopic statistics (e.g., degree distribution and average distance) and mesoscopic structures (e.g., communities and rich clubs) on spreading processes while the microscopic elements are less concerned. In particular, roles of ties are not yet clear to the academic community. Methodology/Principle Findings: Every edges is stamped by its strength that is defined solely based on the local topology. According to a weighted susceptible-infected-susceptible model, the steady-state infected density and spreading speed are respectively optimized by adjusting the relationship between edge's strength and spreading ability. Experiments on six real networks show that the infected density is increased when strong ties are favored i...

  2. 宣威火腿白点的分析%Analysis of White Particles in Xuanwei Ham

    王兴红; 江东福; 马萍; 彭谦


    Xuanwei Ham is a famous ham in China with some white particle spots often appeared in ham, mostly in ham muscle.However, examined by microbiological methods and observed by light microscope, there are neither microbes nor parasites in the white particle spots. Proteins in particles would decompose significantly, and two main proteins with molecular weights of respectively 51000 and 13200 were detected by gradient SDS-PAGE in particles. The content of tyrosine in white particles was eight times higher than that in normal ham muscle, which indicated that the particles might be decomposed protein, tyrosine and some other component. All the contents of inorganic elements analyzed are less than those in ham muscle, and the schondroitin sulfate occurred in white particle implie that pathological disease might occur in muscle at the particle position during live stage of pig. Inoculating yeast on ham during salting can prevent the formation of particles effectively.%宣威火腿是中国三大著名火腿之一,常常有白点在火腿中出现,影响产品外观.通过微生物学方法和显微镜观察,发现这些白点既不是微生物,也不是寄生虫.白点中的蛋白质降解程度很高,经梯度SDS-PAGE凝胶分析,发现白点含有两种主要蛋白质,其分子量为51000和13200.在白点中的酪氨酸含量是正常火腿肌肉的8倍.表明白点可能是蛋白质降解产物、酪氨酸结晶和一些其它成分.所有无机成分的含量经分析都少于火腿肌肉.在白点中还有硫酸软骨素出现,表明在猪的活体阶段在自点部位的蛋白质发生了某种病理性变化.在火腿腌制阶段火腿上接种酵母能有效的减少火腿白点的形成.

  3. Evaluation of HTLV-1 HBZ and proviral load, together with host IFN λ3, in pathogenesis of HAM/TSP.

    Mozhgani, Sayed-Hamidreza; Jaberi, Najmeh; Rezaee, Seyed Abdolrahim; Bustani, Reza; Jazayeri, Seyed Mohammad; Akbarin, Mohammad Mehdi; Milani, Saeideh; Tarokhian, Hanieh; Norouzi, Mehdi


    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus 1 (HTLV-1) is associated with two progressive diseases: HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATLL). Although HTLV-1 proviral load (PVL) has been introduced as a risk factor for these diseases' progression, it is not sufficient on its own to yield an accurate estimation of the outcome of the infection. In the present study, PVL and HTLV-1 basic leucine zipper factor (HBZ) expression level as viral factors, and IFN λ3 as a host factor, were evaluated in HAM/TSP patients and HTLV-1 asymptomatic carriers (ACs). During 2014-2015, 12 HAM/TSP patients and 18 ACs who had been referred to the HTLV-1 Clinic, Ghaem Hospital, Mashhad University of Medical Sciences (MUMS), Mashhad, Iran, were enrolled in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated and the DNA and mRNA were extracted for quantification of HBZ, IFN λ3 expression, and PVL using real-time PCR (TaqMan method). Although the PVL was higher in the HAM/TSP group, with a 94% confidence interval, there were no considerable differences in terms of HBZ mRNA and PVL between ACs and HAM patients. IFN λ3 expression in the HAM/TSP group was significantly higher than in the ACs (P = 0.02). To the best of our knowledge, no study has evaluated the expression level of IFN λ3 in HTLV-1 positive patients. The immune response against HTLV-1 viral antigens and virulent factors will therefore further refine our knowledge of interactions between the virus and host in the pathogenesis of HTLV-1-related disorders. The virus PVL and the host IFN λ3 can be used as pathogenic factors of HTLV-1 infected patients at risk of HAM/TSP manifestation. J. Med. Virol. 89:1102-1107, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. [Hyperspectral acquisition system for tongue inspection based on X-Y scanning galvanometer].

    Li, Gang; Zhao, Jing; Lin, Ling; Zhang, Bao-ju


    Hyperspectral was used for tongue inspection in the present work to resolve the problem that information of current research for tongue inspection was inadequate. A hyperspectral acquisition system based on X-Y scanning galvanometer was also proposed due to the high cost of the current hyperspectral apparatus. An experiment was made to test the ability of this system. By collecting the hyperspectral information of color pictures with size similar to the tongue, the results of experiment showed that this system can acquire more information of tongue than other methods, and this method can provide a new way for tongue inspection.

  5. Morphology of the tongue in a newborn Stejneger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri).

    Shindo, Junji; Yamada, Tadasu K; Yoshimura, Ken; Kageyama, Ikuo


    This light and scanning electron microscopic (SEM) study on the tongue of a newborn Stejneger's beaked whale (Mesoplodon stejnegeri) demonstrated a clear difference in its form from than that of other cetacean and adult Stejneger's beaked whales. This newborn Stejneger's beaked whale had a spoon-like shaped tongue. The dorsal surface in the center part of the tongue was flat and did not have papillae, but there were marginal papillae and small papillae on the anterior part of the tongue. In the posterior of the tongue, hillock-shaped papillae with taste buds on the epithelium were observed.

  6. [One case of low temperature plasma resection in the neonatal congenital cyst of tongue].

    Zhang, Fangfang; Ma, Jian; Wu, Jingcai


    Our department treated one case of neonatal congenital cyst of tongue in March 23, 2015. The clinical manifestation of the case is mainly laryngeal stridor after birth 10d, and when infants were associated with progressive dysphagia. Electrolaryngoscope examination showed the goitre look like the cyst of tongue. Laryngeal CT scanning showed tongue lesions, consider the possibility of large cyst. Bilateral thyroid gland showed good, and no obvious abnormality was found in the cervical ultrasonography. The children was transferred to the ear-nose-throat department for excision of cyst of tongue by low-temperature plasma knife, and postoperative pathology confirmed the diagnosis of cyst of tongue.

  7. Decreased radiation doses to tongue with “stick-out” tongue position over neutral tongue position in head and neck cancer patients who refused or could not tolerate an intraoral device (bite-block, tongue blade, or mouthpiece) due to trismus, gag reflex, or discomfort during intensity-modulated radiation therapy

    Kil, Whoon Jong; Kulasekere, Christina; Derrwaldt, Ronald; Bugno, Jacob; Hatch, Craig


    Purpose To assess changes in oral cavity (OC) shapes and radiation doses to tongue with different tongue positions during intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) but who refused or did not tolerate an intraoral device (IOD), such as bite block, tongue blade, or mouthpiece. Results Tongue volume outside of OC was 7.1 ± 3.8 cm3 (5.4 ± 2.6% of entire OC and 7.8 ± 3.1% of oral tongue) in IMRT-S. Dmean of OC was 34.9 ± 8.0 Gy and ...

  8. Epidemic spreading in complex networks

    Jie ZHOU; Zong-hua LIU


    The study of epidemic spreading in complex networks is currently a hot topic and a large body of results have been achieved.In this paper,we briefly review our contributions to this field,which includes the underlying mechanism of rumor propagation,the epidemic spreading in community networks,the influence of varying topology,and the influence of mobility of agents.Also,some future directions are pointed out.

  9. Study of inter-fraction movements of tongue during radiation therapy in cases of tongue malignancy using volumetric cone beam computed tomography (CBCT imaging

    Mirza Athar Ali


    Full Text Available Purpose: Tongue is a mobile organ in head and neck region predisposing it for geographic miss during the course of fractionated radiotherapy for tongue malignancy. This study analyses movement of tongue during the course of radiotherapy using volumetric KV-cone beam computed tomography (KV-CBCT imaging for patients of tongue malignancy treated without using tongue bite. Methods: We analysed 100 KV-cone beam CTs performed on 10 patients with carcinoma of tongue undergoing fractionated radiotherapy. All the patients underwent thermoplastic mask immobilisation and CT simulation. During the course of radiotherapy, all patients underwent volumetric KV-CBCT imaging to assess the movements of tongue. Five arbitrary reference points were used to analyse the movements of tongue in 3-dimensions: 1 Point A: Tip of tongue; 2 Point B: Point over right lateral border, 4 cm posterior to the tip of tongue; 3 Point C: Point over left lateral border, 4 cm posterior to the tip of tongue; 4 Point D: Point over superior most part (dorsum of tongue, 4 cm posterior to the tip of tongue; 5 Point E: Point over the surface of base of tongue at the level of tip of epiglottis. Results: Mean movements of point A: +0.21 cm (SD: 0.12 and -0.23 cm (SD: 0.14, point B: +0.14 cm (SD: 0.04 and -0.19 cm (SD: 0.1, point C: +0.12 cm (SD: 0.05 and -0.14 cm (SD: 0.06, point D: +0.15 cm (SD: 0.07 and -0.29 cm (SD: 0.22 and point E: +0.23 cm (SD: 0.15 and -0.23 cm (SD: 0.14. Conclusion: Organ movement is one of the great challenges encountered during radiotherapy. Tongue is one such organ in head and neck region. Concept of internal target volume (ITV margin which takes into account the internal organ movements should be considered for tongue malignancies. ITV to PTV margin will depend on the setup accuracy, immobilization device and imaging modality utilised for setup verification. In an IGRT (Image Guided Radio Therapy setup, a PTV margin of 0.3 to 0.5 cm from ITV would be safe.

  10. Short faces, big tongues: developmental origin of the human chin.

    Michael Coquerelle

    Full Text Available During the course of human evolution, the retraction of the face underneath the braincase, and closer to the cervical column, has reduced the horizontal dimension of the vocal tract. By contrast, the relative size of the tongue has not been reduced, implying a rearrangement of the space at the back of the vocal tract to allow breathing and swallowing. This may have left a morphological signature such as a chin (mental prominence that can potentially be interpreted in Homo. Long considered an autopomorphic trait of Homo sapiens, various extinct hominins show different forms of mental prominence. These features may be the evolutionary by-product of equivalent developmental constraints correlated with an enlarged tongue. In order to investigate developmental mechanisms related to this hypothesis, we compare modern 34 human infants against 8 chimpanzee fetuses, whom development of the mandibular symphysis passes through similar stages. The study sets out to test that the shared ontogenetic shape changes of the symphysis observed in both species are driven by the same factor--space restriction at the back of the vocal tract and the associated arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone. We apply geometric morphometric methods to extensive three-dimensional anatomical landmarks and semilandmarks configuration, capturing the geometry of the cervico-craniofacial complex including the hyoid bone, tongue muscle and the mandible. We demonstrate that in both species, the forward displacement of the mental region derives from the arrangement of the tongue and hyoid bone, in order to cope with the relative horizontal narrowing of the oral cavity. Because humans and chimpanzees share this pattern of developmental integration, the different forms of mental prominence seen in some extinct hominids likely originate from equivalent ontogenetic constraints. Variations in this process could account for similar morphologies.

  11. Manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon.

    Debray, Alexis


    Chameleons have developed a specialized ballistic tongue which elongates more than six times its rest length at speeds higher than 3.5 m s(-1) and accelerations 350 m s(-2), with a highly flexible mobile part, and which applies no continuous force during forward motion. These characteristics are possible because this tongue consists of two highly specialized systems, an ejection system for the forward motion and an accordion-like system for the retraction. Four manipulators inspired by the tongue of the chameleon and based on this design have been developed, resulting in three characteristics similar to the tongue of the chameleon: extensibility of the manipulator, flexibility of the mobile part, and absence of continuous force during the forward motion. The first manipulator mimics the basic mechanism of the tongue of the chameleon and reproduced its basic performances. A second manipulator performs a catching function at a speed of 3.5 m s(-1) with an acceleration of 573 m s(-2) while elongating seven times its rest length. The design of this manipulator is such that the dc motor used for retraction applies a torque 25 times its rated torque. Moreover, during the retraction, the mobile part of the manipulator moves due to its own inertia, allowing the dc motor to rotate at full velocity. In another manipulator, the addition of an elastomer in the mobile part allows for control of the retraction velocity. A model for these two manipulators compares well with the experimental data. Finally, the addition of wings on the mobile part allows us to take the advantage of aerodynamic effects, which is unusual for manipulators.

  12. Management of Large Tongue Schwannoma – A Short Report

    Jayanta Medhi


    Full Text Available Schwannoma is a benign nerve sheath tumor composed of schwann cells. Oral cavity is a rare site for schwannomas, tongue being the most common location. Here we are presenting a case of a young adult who presented with a huge swelling in the tongue which was removed by mandibulotomy approach and pre-operative tracheostomy. A 22-year-old male patient presented to the outpatient department with a history of swelling in the tongue for the last 4 years with progressive difficulty in swallowing food and change of voice over the last few months. Upon examination a large swelling was observed on the posterior part of the tongue compromising the oropharyngeal inlet. The approximate size of the swelling was 5cmx4cm. After proper clinical evaluation the patient was advised to obtain a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI study of the oral cavity, which showed it to be a nerve sheath tumor (Schwannoma originating from the hypoglossal nerve branch. The patient was admitted for surgery. As difficult intubation was anticipated, pre-operative tracheostomy was performed. The tongue mass was approached by right paramedian mandibulotomy using a transcervical lip split incision. Post operative histopathological examination of the removed specimen showed hypercellular ‘Antony A’ area with plump spindle cells and hypocellular ‘Antony B’ area in a Hematoxylin & eosin stain (200x. This confirmed the diagnosis for a schwannoma. As each and every case is unique in its presentation, so is the management. The idea of presenting the above case is to emphasise the role of selection for the proper approach and foresee the preventable complications while working around the airway.

  13. Antioxidant supplementation in pig nutrition: effects on shelf life of longissimus dorsi muscle and consumers’ preferences for smoked cured ham.

    Federica Maghin


    Full Text Available The effects of dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture in medium-heavy swine on oxidative status, nutritional and sensory characteristics of longissimus dorsi (LD muscle and smoked cured ham were evaluated. Seventy-four pigs (PIC x Max Grow, were assigned to two experimental groups: control (CT and treated supplemented with antioxidant mixture (AOX for 45 days before slaughter. The total antiradicalic activity of blood (KRL test and carcass dressing percentage was positively affected (P<0.05 by AOX supplementation. Chemical composition of LD was not affected by dietary treatment. Oxidative stability and colour indices were significantly affected (P<0.05 by dietary treatment and storage time (0, 6, 12, 15 days under modified atmosphere packs - MAP. Sensory analysis revealed that at 12 and 15 days of storage a loss of colour beside presence of off odors was higher (P<0.05 in CT than AOX group. The seasoning losses of smoked cured ham tended to be lower (P=0.06 in AOX group than CT. Physical and chemical composition was not affected by dietary treatment. Sensory analysis revealed a difference between CT and AOX (P<0.05 in salty and sweet taste. Furthermore, the consumer test revealed that smoked cured ham from AOX were preferred (P<0.05 than CT. Dietary supplementation with antioxidant mixture improves total antioxidant status, carcass dressing percentage and smoked cured ham seasoning losses. The oxidative, colour stability and sensory parameters of LD muscle was improved in AOX groups during refrigerated storage in MAP. Antioxidant mixture positively affect the consumer preference of smoked cured ham, without affecting other quality parameters.

  14. 78 FR 1936 - Tongue River Railroad Company, Inc.-Rail Construction and Operation-In Custer, Powder River and...


    ... a proceeding known as Tongue River III.\\3\\ \\1\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and Operation--In....2d 758 (9th Cir.), cert. denied, 484 U.S. 976 (1987). \\2\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and..., 1996). \\3\\ Tongue River R.R.--Rail Constr. and Operation--Western Alignment, FD 30186 (Sub-No. 3) (STB...

  15. Tongue pressure during swallowing in adults with down syndrome and its relationship with palatal morphology.

    Hashimoto, Megumi; Igari, Kazuko; Hanawa, Soshi; Ito, Ayumi; Takahashi, Atsushi; Ishida, Naoko; Koyama, Shigeto; Ono, Takahiro; Sasaki, Keiichi


    In individuals with Down syndrome, hypotonicity of the tongue and an underdeveloped maxilla may lead to poor oral motor coordination, which adversely affects the oral phase of swallowing. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristics of pressure produced by the tongue against the hard palate during swallowing in individuals with Down syndrome. In addition, the relationship between tongue pressure and palatal morphology was examined. We studied nine adults with Down syndrome and ten healthy adults as controls. Tongue pressure while swallowing 5 mL water was recorded by a sensor sheet system with five measuring points attached to the hard palate. Palatal length, depth, width, curvature, and slope were measured by three-dimensional digital maxillary imaging. The order of onset of tongue pressure on the median line of the hard palate was the same in all participants, except for three with Down syndrome. The duration and maximal magnitude of tongue pressure on the median line in nine participants with Down syndrome were significantly shorter and lower than those of controls. In participants with Down syndrome, significant positive correlations were observed between the duration of tongue pressure at the mid-median part of the hard palate and palatal depth and width, and between the duration and maximal magnitude of tongue pressure at the posterior-median part and palatal length. These findings suggest that impaired tongue activity, poor tongue control, and constrained tongue motion due to a short and narrow palate contribute to swallowing difficulty in individuals with Down syndrome.

  16. Sexual dimorphism in the histologic organization of the muscle fibers in human tongue.

    de Campos, Deivis; Jotz, Geraldo Pereira; Heck, Layana; Xavier, Léder Leal


    Tongue movements are critical for speech, swallowing, and respiration; and tongue dysfunction could lead to dysarthria, dysphagia, and obstructive sleep apnea, respectively. Our current understanding of the contributions of specific tongue muscles (TOs) to precise movement patterns is limited. Likewise, there is still little information regarding the orientation of histologic muscle fibers of the tongue in humans, especially between men and women. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the histologic organization in the tongue of men and women. Ten tongues were studied in human specimens obtained from necropsies (five men and five women). The muscles were analyzed using histology, and the morphometric parameters were measured using Image Pro-Plus Software (Image Pro-Plus 6.0; Media Cybernetics, Silver Spring, MD). Slices were obtained from the anterior, median, and posterior parts of the tongue. We classified and estimated the percentages of transverse (T), oblique (O), and longitudinal (L) fibers in the tongue. To quantify the percentage of fibers in each category in the tongue, the shape coefficient (Shape Z) was estimated. Statistical differences were found between the orientation of the muscle fibers of men and women only for the middle region of the tongue. The middle region of the tongue in women compared with men has a smaller difference in the variation of the percentage of fibers T (P=0.0004), O (P=0.0006), and L (P=0.0013). These morphologic findings are probably related to physiological differences.

  17. Hydrolysis and loss of extractability of proteins during ripening of iberian ham.

    Córdoba, J J; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; López-Bote, C; García, C; Asensio, M A


    To elucidate the extent of the hydrolysis and loss of extractability of protein during the traditional ripening of Iberian ham, the evolution during processing of non-protein nitrogen (NPN) and protein fractions soluble in 0·03 m pH 7·1 phosphate and 1·1 KI + 0·1 m phosphate pH 7·4 buffers and 6 m urea was followed from Semimembranosus and Biceps femoris muscles. The NPN steadily increased during processing, showing maximum intensity at salting and drying. Electrophoretic study of the proteins extracted, and microscopical examination of the pellet obtained after consecutive extractions with the above buffers, revealed that hydrolysis and insolubilization are more intense in myofibrillar than in sarcoplasmic proteins. Protein aggregation involves mainly the myofibrillar fraction, and occurs during the first stage of processing.

  18. Changes in intramuscular lipids during ripening of Iberian dry-cured ham.

    Martín, L; Córdoba, J J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T


    Thirty-one thighs were obtained from Iberian pigs fattened with acorns and were processed during 22 months in the traditional dry-curing process. Lipolysis affecting intramuscular fat during the processing of Iberian dry-cured ham has been analyzed by studying the changes of glycerides, phospholipids and free fatty acids in lipids from Biceps femoris muscle. Little change affected the fatty acid composition of glycerides during processing. A double-phased increase in the acidity values and a decrease in the quantity of fatty acids of phospholipids during the processing were observed. There seems to be a relationship between the extension of the lipolysis taking place during the maturing and the processing conditions and raw material used.


    S. Leones Sherwin Vimalraj


    Full Text Available In SDR, it is advantageous if the data is transmitted using the best among the various modulation techniques with respect to SNR. The receiver has the ability to automatically identify the modulation technique and demodulate it. This process involves a novel method where a pilot sequence helps in identifying the type of modulation at the receiver. Ten modulation techniques are used in this study and their performance is studied. Further, error detection and correction is done to the received data using hamming encoder. This study also discusses about the error handling capability and detection of the position in which the error occurs. This work can be implemented in remote locations and in emergency situations where a particular modulation technique is used based on the available QoS.

  20. Quality traits of fallow deer (Dama dama dry-cured hams

    E. Piasentier


    Full Text Available Meat processing by drying, after salting or fermentation and before a long ripening period, is an ancient and widespread process, used to preserve meat from spoilage. Among the wide variety of dry meat products made in Europe, the most famous ones are made from pork (Italian and Spanish dry-cured hams, fermented sausages, but other interesting products are obtained from meat of different species: i.e., the “bresaola”, from bovine, horse, goat, etc. (Paleari et al., 2002. Deer meat and meat products are interesting in this picture, since they include the high degree of consumers’ appreciation for dried products and considering the growing interest for food obtained by natural husbandry and technology...