Sample records for halothane significantly increased

  1. Low-dose Simvastatin Increases Skeletal Muscle Sensitivity to Caffeine and Halothane

    Xu-lei Cui; Ying-lin Wang; Gang Tan; Ai-lun Luo; Xiang-yang Guo


    Objective To determine whether the myotoxic side effects of statin simvastatin affect skeletal muscle’s sensitivity to caffeine and halothane. Methods Primary cultured neonate rat skeletal myotubes were treated with 0.01-5.0μmol/L simvastatin for 48 hours. MTT was used to evaluate cellular viability. The gross morphology and microstructure of the myotubes were observed with a light and electron microscope, respectively. The intracellular calcium concentrations ([Ca2+]i) at rest and in response to caffeine and halothane were investigated by fluorescence calcium imaging. Data were analyzed byanalysis of variance (ANOVA) test. Results Simvastatin (0.01-5.0μmol/L) decreased myotube viability, changed their morphological features and microstructure, and increased the resting [Ca2+]i in a dose-dependent manner. Simvastatin did not change myotube’s sensitivity to low doses of caffeine (0.625-2.5 mmol/L) or halothane (1.0-5.0 mmol/L). In response to high-dose caffeine (10.0 mmol/L, 20.0 mmol/L) and halothane (20.0 mmol/L, 40.0 mmol/L), myotubes treated with 0.01μmol/L simvastatin showed a significant increase in sensitivity, but those treated with 1.0μmol/L and 5.0μmol/L simvastatin showed a significant decrease. The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ storage peaked in the myotubes treated with 0.01μmol/L simvastatin, but it decreased when cells were treated with higher doses of simvastatin (0.1-5.0μmol/L). Conclusions The myotoxic side effect of simvastatin was found to change the sensitivity of myotubes in response to high-dose caffeine and halothane. When dose was low, sensitivity increased mainly because of increased Ca2+ content in the sarcoplasmic reticulum, which might explain why some individuals with statin-induced myotoxic symptoms may show positivecaffeine-halothane contracture test results. However, when the dose was high and the damage to the myotubes was severer, sensitivity was lower. It is here supposed that the damage itself might put individuals with

  2. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase increases caffeine- and halothane-induced contractures in muscle bundles of malignant hyperthermia susceptible and healthy individuals

    Schuster, Frank; Müller, Rainer; Hartung, Edmund; Roewer, Norbert; Anetseder, Martin


    Background Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is triggered by halogenated anaesthetics and depolarising muscle relaxants, leading to an uncontrolled hypermetabolic state of skeletal muscle. An uncontrolled sarcoplasmic Ca2+ release is mediated via the ryanodine receptor. A compensatory mechanism of increased sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase activity was described in pigs and in transfected cell lines. We hypothesized that inhibition of Ca2+ reuptake via the sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA) enhances halothane- and caffeine-induced muscle contractures in MH susceptible more than in non-susceptible skeletal muscle. Methods With informed consent, surplus muscle bundles of 7 MHS (susceptible), 7 MHE (equivocal) and 16 MHN (non-susceptible) classified patients were mounted to an isometric force transducer, electrically stimulated, preloaded and equilibrated. Following 15 min incubation with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA) 25 μM, the European MH standard in-vitro-contracture test protocol with caffeine (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 3; 4 mM) and halothane (0.11; 0.22; 0.44; 0.66 mM) was performed. Data as median and quartiles; Friedman- and Wilcoxon-test for differences with and without CPA; p muscle bundles did not differ between groups. CPA increased halothane- and caffeine-induced contractures significantly. This increase was more pronounced in MHS and MHE than in MHN muscle bundles. Conclusion Inhibition of the SERCA activity by CPA enhances halothane- and caffeine-induced contractures especially in MHS and MHE skeletal muscle and may help for the diagnostic assignment of MH susceptibility. The status of SERCA activity may play a significant but so far unknown role in the genesis of malignant hyperthermia. PMID:15946384

  3. Inhibition of sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase increases caffeine- and halothane-induced contractures in muscle bundles of malignant hyperthermia susceptible and healthy individuals

    Roewer Norbert


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malignant hyperthermia (MH is triggered by halogenated anaesthetics and depolarising muscle relaxants, leading to an uncontrolled hypermetabolic state of skeletal muscle. An uncontrolled sarcoplasmic Ca2+ release is mediated via the ryanodine receptor. A compensatory mechanism of increased sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase activity was described in pigs and in transfected cell lines. We hypothesized that inhibition of Ca2+ reuptake via the sarcoplasmic Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA enhances halothane- and caffeine-induced muscle contractures in MH susceptible more than in non-susceptible skeletal muscle. Methods With informed consent, surplus muscle bundles of 7 MHS (susceptible, 7 MHE (equivocal and 16 MHN (non-susceptible classified patients were mounted to an isometric force transducer, electrically stimulated, preloaded and equilibrated. Following 15 min incubation with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA 25 μM, the European MH standard in-vitro-contracture test protocol with caffeine (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2; 3; 4 mM and halothane (0.11; 0.22; 0.44; 0.66 mM was performed. Data as median and quartiles; Friedman- and Wilcoxon-test for differences with and without CPA; p Results Initial length, weight, maximum twitch height, predrug resting tension and predrug twitch height of muscle bundles did not differ between groups. CPA increased halothane- and caffeine-induced contractures significantly. This increase was more pronounced in MHS and MHE than in MHN muscle bundles. Conclusion Inhibition of the SERCA activity by CPA enhances halothane- and caffeine-induced contractures especially in MHS and MHE skeletal muscle and may help for the diagnostic assignment of MH susceptibility. The status of SERCA activity may play a significant but so far unknown role in the genesis of malignant hyperthermia.

  4. Role of cellular immunity in halothane hepatitis: an in vitro study

    Lu Zhijie; Miao Xuerong; Wang Xiaoyan; Wu Jingxiang; Lv Xin; Yu Weifeng


    Objective: To explore the effect of cellular immunity in halothane hepatitis. Methods: Hepatotoxicity model was established by exposing male Hartley guinea pigs to 1% halothane via inspiration for 4 h each time for 1 or 3 times within a 42-day interval. Then their hepatocytes and lymphocytes were collected and divided into 2 parts for different cultures. Hepatocytes were cultivated with or without 1% halothane for 4 h and lymphocytes were cultivated with or without 12.5 μg/ml trifluoroacetylated guinea pig serum albumin (TFA-GSA). Then the 2 kinds of hepatocytes were co-cultivated with lymphocytes (1:100) with or without TFA-GSA induction respectively and the supernatant fluid was taken after 24, 48 and 72 h to determine the concentration of alanine aminotransferase (ALT). The halothane cultivated hepatocytes were co-cultivated with various proportion of TFA-GSA antigen induced lymphocytes and ALT was determined after 48 h to determine the proper proportion of hepatocytes and lymphocyte. Results: Lymphocytes of 3 times halothane induced guinea pigs caused a significant increase of ALT in hepatocytes with or without halothane induction. But the lymphocytes of l time halothane induced guinea pigs only caused a significant increase of ALT in hepatocytes with induction of halothane. The increase of ALT was only seen after 48- and 72-hour co-culture. The proper proportion of hepatocytes and lymphocytes was l:100 for lymphocytes cytotoxicity. Conclusion: Lymphocytes is sensitized after inhalation of halothane and generates cytotoxicity to hepatocytes. The immune response of lymphocytes to hepatocytes will be enhanced by repeated inhalation of halothane. The cellular immunity may be one of the mechanisms of halothane induced hepatotoxicity.

  5. Effects of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane on isolated rat heart muscle.

    Miralles, F S; Carceles, M D; Laorden, M L; Hernandez, J


    Since the effects in the intact organism are complicated by central as well as peripheral effects, we compared the direct cardiac effects of three commonly used inhalational anaesthetics--halothane, isoflurane and enflurane--on isolated heart muscle. Concentration-response curves for inotropic, chronotropic and ventricular automaticity effects of halothane, isoflurane and enflurane (0.1-2% v/v) on electrically stimulated left atria, right atria and right ventricles of the rat were obtained. All three inhalational anaesthetics significantly decreased contractile force; the inhibitory concentration 50 (IC50) of enflurane was 0.55 +/- 0.06% v/v, significantly lower than halothane (0.96 +/- 0.08% v/v) and isoflurane (0.67 +/- 0.05% v/v). Similar results were obtained on atrial nomotopic rate. Halothane, isoflurane and enflurane produced negative chronotropic effects in this preparation. On the other hand, halothane and isoflurane significantly reduced the ventricular ectopic automaticity. However enflurane (0.3, 0.5, 1% v/v) increased ventricular rate. There were statistically significant differences between the IC50 values of atrial and ventricular rate for halothane and isoflurane. These results indicate: (a) direct negative inotropic and chronotropic effects for the three inhalational anaesthetics tested; (b) anti-dysrhythmic actions for halothane and isoflurane; and (c) dysrhythmogenic effects of enflurane.

  6. Additive contribution of nitrous oxide to halothane MAC in infants and children.

    Murray, D J; Mehta, M P; Forbes, R B; Dull, D L


    Fifty-one infants and small children (14.7 +/- 7.2 mo) were studied to determine the MAC of halothane in O2 (n = 11) and in the presence of three different nitrous oxide (N2O) concentrations (25% [n = 13], 50% [n = 13], and 75% [n = 14]). In the three N2O groups, after randomly assigning patients to an N2O group, anesthesia was induced with halothane and N2O using a pediatric circle system. After endotracheal intubation, halothane and N2O end-expired concentrations were adjusted to predetermined concentrations. The initial halothane concentrations in each group were based on the assumption that each percent N2O reduced halothane concentrations by 0.01 vol % (assumed halothane MAC = 1.0 vol %). Based on the response of the preceding subject in each group, halothane concentrations were increased or decreased depending on whether the response was to move or not to move, respectively, in response to the surgical incision. The mean duration of constant end-tidal concentrations before skin incision was 10 min. End-tidal gases were sampled and measured from a separate distal sampling port of an endotracheal tube during controlled ventilation (Perkin-Elmer Mass Spectrometer). The MAC value for halothane in O2 was 0.94 +/- 0.08 vol % (mean +/- SD). The MAC values of halothane in the presence of 25%, 50%, and 75% N2O were 0.78 +/- 0.12 vol %, 0.44 +/- 0.10 vol %, and 0.29 +/- 0.06 vol %, respectively. All concentrations of N2O significantly reduced the MAC of halothane. A regression analysis through all four data points yielded a linear relationship (r2 = 0.87) with a predicted MAC for N2O of 105 vol %. Unlike halothane and isoflurane, the predicted MAC of N2O in infants and children is similar to that reported by others in adults. Similar to the results of clinical studies in adults, the contribution of N2O to halothane MAC in children is additive.

  7. Halothane potentiates the alcohol-adduct induced TNF-alpha release in heart endothelial cells

    Freeman Thomas L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The possibility exists for major complications to occur when individuals are intoxicated with alcohol prior to anesthetization. Halothane is an anesthetic that can be metabolized by the liver into a highly reactive product, trifluoroacetyl chloride, which reacts with endogenous proteins to form a trifluoroacetyl-adduct (TFA-adduct. The MAA-adduct which is formed by acetaldehyde (AA and malondialdehyde reacting with endogenous proteins, has been found in both patients and animals chronically consuming alcohol. These TFA and MAA-adducts have been shown to cause the release of inflammatory products by various cell types. If both adducts share a similar mechanism of cell activation, receiving halothane anesthesia while intoxicated with alcohol could exacerbate the inflammatory response and lead to cardiovascular injury. Methods We have recently demonstrated that the MAA-adduct induces tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α release by heart endothelial cells (HECs. In this study, pair and alcohol-fed rats were randomized to receive halothane pretreatments intra peritoneal. Following the pretreatments, the intact heart was removed, HECs were isolated and stimulated with unmodified bovine serum albumin (Alb, MAA-modified Alb (MAA-Alb, Hexyl-MAA, or lipopolysaccharide (LPS, and supernatant concentrations of TNF-α were measured by ELISA. Results Halothane pre-treated rat HECs released significantly greater TNF-α concentration following MAA-adduct and LPS stimulation than the non-halothane pre-treated in both pair and alcohol-fed rats, but was significantly greater in the alcohol-fed rats. Conclusion These results demonstrate that halothane and MAA-adduct pre-treatment increases the inflammatory response (TNF-α release. Also, these results suggest that halothane exposure may increase the risk of alcohol-induced heart injury, since halothane pre-treatment potentiates the HEC TNF-α release measured following both MAA-Alb and LPS

  8. Effects of ketamine infusion on halothane minimal alveolar concentration in horses.

    Muir, W W; Sams, R


    Eight adult horses were used in a study to determine ketamine's ability to reduce halothane requirement. To obtain steady-state plasma concentrations of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 micrograms/ml, loading doses and constant infusions for ketamine were calculated for each horse on the basis of data from other studies in which the pharmacokinetic properties of ketamine were investigated. Blood samples for determination of plasma ketamine concentrations were collected periodically during each experiment. Plasma ketamine concentrations were determined by capillary gas chromatography/mass spectrometry under electron-impact ionization conditions, using lidocaine as the internal standard. Halothane minimal alveolar concentration (MAC; concentration at which half the horses moved in response to an electrical stimulus) and plasma ketamine concentration were determined after steady-state concentrations of each ketamine infusion had been reached. Plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 microgram/ml decreased halothane MAC. The degree of MAC reduction was correlated directly with the square root of the plasma ketamine concentration, reaching a maximum of 37% reduction at a plasma ketamine concentration of 10.8 +/- 2.7 micrograms/ml. Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, and the rate of increase of right ventricular pressure did not change with increasing plasma ketamine concentration and halothane MAC reduction. Cardiac output increased significantly during ketamine infusions and halothane MAC reduction. Our findings suggest that plasma ketamine concentrations > 1.0 micron/ml reduce halothane MAC and produce beneficial hemodynamic effects.

  9. Human chest wall function while awake and during halothane anesthesia. II. Carbon dioxide rebreathing.

    Warner, D O; Warner, M A


    Changes in the distribution of respiratory drive to different respiratory muscles may contribute to respiratory depression produced by halothane. The aim of this study was to examine factors that are responsible for halothane-induced depression of the ventilatory response to carbon dioxide rebreathing. In six human subjects, respiratory muscle activity in the parasternal intercostal, abdominal, and diaphragm muscles was measured using fine-wire electromyography electrodes. Chest wall motion was determined by respiratory impedance plethysmography. Electromyography activities and chest wall motion were measured during hyperpnea produced by carbon dioxide rebreathing while the subjects were awake and during 1 MAC halothane anesthesia. Halothane anesthesia significantly reduced the slope of the response of expiratory minute ventilation to carbon dioxide (from 2.88 +/- 0.73 (mean +/- SE) to 2.01 +/- 0.45 l.min-1.mmHg-1). During the rebreathing period, breathing frequency significantly increased while awake (from 10.3 +/- 1.4 to 19.7 +/- 2.6 min-1, P awake and anesthetized in four of the six subjects. Halothane anesthesia enhances the rebreathing response of neural drive to the primary respiratory muscle, the diaphragm. These findings provide direct evidence that, at the dose examined in this study, halothane-induced respiratory depression is caused by alterations in the distribution and timing of neural drive to the respiratory muscles, rather than a global depression of respiratory motoneuron drive.

  10. Interaction between halothane and morphine on isolated heart muscle.

    Laorden, M L; Hernandez, J; Carceles, M D; Miralles, F S; Puig, M M


    The present study describes the effects of halothane on morphine activity in the isolated left atria of the rat. Concentration-response curves were obtained for the negative inotropic effects of morphine on electrically stimulated left atria. Morphine significantly decreased the contractile force, with an inhibitory concentration 16 (IC16) of 3.130.698 +/- 22.5 X 10(-9) M. The opiate agonist was more potent in reserpinized rats, causing a consistent negative inotropic action over a wide range (10(-8)-10(-4) M) or morphine concentrations. The IC16 of morphine was significantly (P less than 0.001) decreased in the presence of 1.5% v/v halothane. The administration of L-naloxone (3 X 10(-7)-10(-6) M) but not D-naloxone (10(-6) M) antagonized the inhibitory effects of morphine in the presence of halothane. These results demonstrate that halothane increases the potency of morphine on the isolated left atria and suggest that this effect is mediated by opioid receptors.

  11. Hepatic effects of halothane, isoflurane or sevoflurane anaesthesia in dogs.

    Topal, A; Gül, N; Ilçöl, Y; Görgül, O S


    The effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane anaesthesia on hepatic function and hepatocellular damage were investigated in dogs, comparing the activity of hepatic enzymes and bilirubin concentration in serum. An experimental study was designed. Twenty-one clinically normal mongrel dogs were divided into three groups and accordingly anaesthetized with halothane (n = 7), isoflurane (n = 7) and sevoflurane (n = 7). The dogs were 1-4 years old, and weighed between 13.5 and 27 kg (18.4 +/- 3.9). Xylazine HCI (1-2 mg/kg) i.m. was used as pre-anaesthetic medication. Anaesthesia was induced with propofol 2 mg/kg i.v. The trachea was intubated and anaesthesia maintained with halothane, isoflurane or sevoflurane in oxygen at concentrations of 1.35, 2 and 3%, respectively. Intermittent positive pressure ventilation (tidal volume, 15 ml/kg; respiration rate, 12-14/min) was started immediately after intubation and the anaesthesia lasted for 60 min. Venous blood samples were collected before pre-medication, 24 and 48 h, and 7 and 14 days after anaesthesia. Serum level of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH GGT) activities and bilirubin concentration were measured. Serum AST, ALT and GGT activities increased after anaesthesia in all groups. In the halothane group, serum AST and ALT activities significantly increased all the time after anaesthesia compared with baseline activities. But in the isoflurane group AST and ALT activities increased only between 2 and 7 days, and in the sevoflurane group 7 days after anaesthesia. GGT activity was increased in the halothane group between 2 and 7 days, and in the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups 7 days after anaesthesia. All dogs recovered from anaesthesia without complications and none developed clinical signs of hepatic damage within 14 days. The results suggest that the use of halothane anaesthesia induces an

  12. The effect of low concentrations of halothane on the cerebrovascular circulation in young children.

    Paut, O; Lazzell, V A; Bissonnette, B


    To determine the effect of halothane on cerebral blood flow velocity measured by transcranial Doppler, 23 healthy young children were studied during surgery. Anaesthesia was induced with thiopental, fentanyl and vecuronium, and maintained with halothane in 70% nitrous oxide in oxygen. A continuous epidural anaesthesia with 0. 25% bupivacaine was performed. End-tidal carbon dioxide pressure, temperature, heart rate and systolic blood pressure were kept constant. Three minimal alveolar concentrations (MAC; 0.5, 1.0 and 1. 5) of halothane were administered in stepwise increases. The cerebral blood flow velocity increased significantly at 1.0 (p MAC (p value at 0.5 MAC. No further change in cerebral blood flow velocity was seen between 1.0 and 1.5 MAC. These data show that maximal changes in cerebral blood flow velocity are obtained at 1.0 MAC and that further increases in halothane concentration do not modify the cerebral circulation. It is suggested that young children differ from adults in that the maximal effect of halothane occurs at lower concentrations.

  13. Human chest wall function while awake and during halothane anesthesia. I. Quiet breathing.

    Warner, D O; Warner, M A; Ritman, E L


    Data concerning chest wall configuration and the activities of the major respiratory muscles that determine this configuration during anesthesia in humans are limited. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of halothane anesthesia on respiratory muscle activity and chest wall shape and motion during spontaneous breathing. Six human subjects were studied while awake and during 1 MAC halothane anesthesia. Respiratory muscle activity was measured using fine-wire electromyography electrodes. Chest wall configuration was determined using images of the thorax obtained by three-dimensional fast computed tomography. Tidal changes in gas volume were measured by integrating respiratory gas flow, and the functional residual capacity was measured by a nitrogen dilution technique. While awake, ribcage expansion was responsible for 25 +/- 4% (mean +/- SE) of the total change in thoracic volume (delta Vth) during inspiration. Phasic inspiratory activity was regularly present in the diaphragm and parasternal intercostal muscles. Halothane anesthesia (1 MAC) abolished activity in the parasternal intercostal muscles and increased phasic expiratory activity in the abdominal muscles and lateral ribcage muscles. However, halothane did not significantly change the ribcage contribution to delta Vth (18 +/- 4%). Intrathoracic blood volume, measured by comparing changes in total thoracic volume and gas volume, increased significantly during inspiration both while awake and while anesthetized (by approximately 20% of delta Vth, P < 0.05). Halothane anesthesia significantly reduced the functional residual capacity (by 258 +/- 78 ml), primarily via an inward motion of the end-expiratory position of the ribcage. Although the diaphragm consistently changed shape, with a cephalad displacement of posterior regions and a caudad displacement of anterior regions, the diaphragm did not consistently contribute to the reduction in the functional residual capacity. Halothane anesthesia




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a relatively new sur gical procedure which is enjoying ever increasing popularit y and presenting new anesthetic challenges. Volatile anesthetics play an important ro le in the management of haemodynamic changes due to CO2 pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopi c surgeries. The aim of the study is to evaluate Isoflurane Vs Halothane as an adjunct t o obtund haemodynamic response due to CO2 pneumoperitoneum. MATERIALS & METHODS: 50 patients aged 20-60 yrs of either sex belonging to ASA grade I & II scheduled for electiv e laparoscopic cholecystectomy admitted in MLB Medical College, Jhansi were randomly divided i nto two group. Group I – O 2 : N 2 O + Inhalational agent (Isoflurane 1.5-2% Group II – O 2 : N 2 O + Inhalational agent (Halothane 1.5-2% RESULTS : Hypertensive response due to CO 2 pneumoperitoneum was well suppressed by Isoflurane (1.5-2% {Group-I} which maintained pulse rate at a relatively higher side than halothane, (1.5-2%{Group II} decreased mean arteria l pressure more significantly than halothane without any difference in arterial oxygen saturation (SPO 2 and end tidal CO 2 concentration (E T CO 2 . CONCLUSION : This can be concluded from the study that Isoflur ane (Group-I more effectively attenuated the haemodyna mic response due to CO 2 pneumoperitoneum during laparoscopic cholecystectomy as compared to Halothane (Group-II under balanced anesthetic technique.

  15. A combined X-ray scattering and simulation study of halothane in membranes at raised pressures

    McCarthy, N. L. C.; Brooks, N. J.; Tyler, A. I. I.; ElGamacy, Mohammad; Welche, P. R. L.; Payne, M. C.; Chau, P.-L.


    Using a combination of high pressure wide angle X-ray scattering experiments and molecular dynamics simulations, we probe the effect of the archetypal general anaesthetic halothane on the lipid hydrocarbon chain packing and ordering in model bilayers and the variation in these parameters with pressure. Incorporation of halothane into the membrane causes an expansion of the lipid hydrocarbon chain packing at all pressures. The effect of halothane incorporation on the hydrocarbon chain order parameter is significantly reduced at elevated pressure.

  16. Naloxone modifies the inotropic decrease induced by halothane on isolated left atria.

    Laorden, M L; Carceles, M D; Miralles, F S; Hernandez, J


    1. The present study evaluates the interaction between naloxone and halothane on the left atria. 2. Halothane produced significant decrease in auricular inotropism at concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 2.5 v/v%. 3. Naloxone modified the concentration response curve to halothane. The antagonism between both drugs is consistent with a competitive antagonism since the curve obtained had a slope which did not differ significantly from -1. 4. These results suggest that the negative inotropic effects induced by halothane could be mediated by opioid receptors.

  17. Inhibitory action of halothane on rat masculine sexual behavior and sperm motility.

    Oropeza-Hernández, Luis F; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Albores, Arnulfo; Fernández-Guasti, Alonso


    Adult male rats were exposed to inhale halothane in the following regime: 15 ppm/4 h/5 days/week/9 weeks. Sexual behavior observations and sperm motility test were made before halothane exposure (0 days) and at 15, 30, 45 and 60 days of exposure. Fifteen days after halothane exposure, this anesthetic inhibited the proportion of animals displaying ejaculation. In those animals ejaculating, halothane produced an inhibition of masculine sexual behavior reflected as an increase in the intromission latency, number of mounts and postejaculatory interval. At 30 days after exposure, only an increase in the intromission latency was observed. At 45 and 60 days, the inhibitory effect of halothane on sexual behavior disappeared. Similarly, at 15 and 30 days, but not at 45 or 60 days of halothane exposure, a reduced sperm motility was observed. Such transient effects of halothane suggest the development of tolerance to the inhibitory actions of this anesthetic on sexual behavior and sperm motility. These halothane effects are in line with an inhibition of masculine sexual behavior after stimulation of the GABAergic system.

  18. Effects of adenosine agonist R-phenylisopropyl-adenosine on halothane anesthesia and antinociception in rats

    Hai-chun MA; Yan-fen WANG; Chun-sheng FENG; Hua ZHAO; Shuji DOHI


    Aim: To investigate the antinociceptive effect of adenosine agonist Rphenylisopropyl-adenosine (R-PIA) given to conscious rats by intracerebroventricular (ICV) and intrathecal (IT), and identify the effect of R-PIA on minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane with pretreatment of A1 receptor an tagonist 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine (DPCPX) or K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine (4-AP). Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with 24 gauge stainless steel guide cannula using stereotaxic apparatus and ICV method, and an IT catheter (PE-10, 8.5 cm) was inserted into the lumbar subarachnoid space, while the rats were under pentobarbital anesthesia. After one week of recovery from surgery, rats were randomly assigned to one of the following protocols: MAC of halothane, or tail-flick latency. All measurements were performed after R-PIA (0.8-2.0 μg) microinjection into ICV and IT with or without pretreatment of DPCPX or 4-AP. Results: Microinjection of adenosine agonist R PIA in doses of 0.8-2.0 μg into ICV and IT produced a significant dose- and time dependent antinociceptive action as reflected by increasing latency times and ICV administration of adenosine agonist R-PIA (0.8 μg) reducing halothane anes thetic requirements (by 29%). The antinociception and reducing halothane requirements effected by adenosine agonist R-PIA was abolished by DPCPX and 4-AP. Conclusion: ICV and IT administration of adenosine agonist R-PIA produced an antinociceptive effect in a dose-dependent manner and decreased hal othane MAC with painful stimulation through activation of A1 receptor subtype, and the underlying mechanism involves K+ channel activation.

  19. Ca2+ cytochemical changes of hepatotoxicity caused by halothane and sevoflurane in enzyme-induced hypoxic rats

    Wei-Feng Yu; Li-Qun Yang; Mai-Tao Zhou; Zhi-Qiang Liu; Quan Li


    AIM: To investigat the relation between hepatotoxicity of halothane and sevoflurane and altered hepatic calcium homeostasis in enzyme-induced hypoxic rats.METHODS: Forty-eight rats were pretreated with phenobarbital and randomly divided into six groups (eight in each group) and exposed to O2/N2/1.2 MAC anesthetics for :1 h: normal control (NC), 21% O2/79% N2; hypoxic control (HC), 14% O2/86%N2; normal sevoflurane (NS),21% O2/ N2/1.2MAC sevoflurane; hypoxic sevoflurane (HS), 14% O2/N2/1.2MAC sevoflurane; normal halothane (NH)21%O2/7g%N2/1.2MAC halothane; hypoxic halothane (HH), 14% O2/N2/1.2MAC halothane. Liver specimens and blood were taken 24 h after exposure to calcium and determined by EDX microanalysis.RESULTS: The liver of all rats given halothane (14%O2)had extensive centrilobular necrosis and denaturation.Morphologic damage was accompanied with an increase in serum glutamic pyruvic transminase. In groups NH and HH, more calcium was precipitated in cytoplasm and mitochondria.CONCLUSION: These results suggest that halothane increases cytosolic Ca2+ concentration in hepatocytes.Elevation in Ca2+ concentration is implicated in the mechanism of halothane-induced hepatotoxicity.sevoflurane is less effective in affecting hepatic calcium homeostasis than halothane.

  20. Tracheal extubation in children: halothane versus isoflurane, anesthetized versus awake.

    Pounder, D R; Blackstock, D; Steward, D J


    The authors compared the incidence of respiratory complications and arterial hemoglobin desaturation during emergence from anesthesia in children whose tracheas were extubated while they were anesthetized or after they were awake and to whom halothane or isoflurane had been administered. One hundred children 1-4 yr of age undergoing minor urologic surgery were studied. After a standard induction technique, patients were randomized to receive either isoflurane or halothane. In 50 patients tracheal extubation was performed while they were breathing 2 MAC of either halothane or isoflurane in 100% oxygen. The remaining 50 patients received 2 MAC (volatile agent plus nitrous oxide) during the operation, but tracheal extubation was delayed until they were awake. A blinded observer recorded the incidence of respiratory complications and continuously measured hemoglobin saturation for 15 min after extubation. When tracheal extubation occurred in deeply anesthetized patients, no differences were found between the two volatile agents. When tracheal extubation of awake patients was performed, the use of isoflurane was associated with more episodes of coughing and airway obstruction than was halothane (P less than 0.05). Awake tracheal extubation following either agent was associated with significantly more episodes of hemoglobin desaturation than was tracheal extubation while anesthetized.

  1. AMPA receptor competitive antagonism reduces halothane MAC in rats.

    McFarlane, C; Warner, D S; Todd, M M; Nordholm, L


    Various subtypes of receptors have been identified for glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter. Previous studies have shown that antagonism of glutamate at the NMDA receptors reduces minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) for volatile anesthetics. NBQX (2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo(f)quinoxaline) is a selective antagonist at the glutamatergic AMPA receptor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether AMPA receptor antagonism influences halothane MAC in the rat. Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with halothane in 50% O2/balance N2, tracheally intubated and the lungs were mechanically ventilated. Increasing doses of NBQX were intravenously infused in three groups while the control group was infused with vehicle (D5W). Halothane MAC was then determined by the tail-clamp method. Halothane MAC was log-linearly related to plasma NBQX concentrations (MAC = 0.125 (In plasma concentration NBQX) + 1.035, r2 = 0.77). A maximal 58% reduction of halothane MAC was achieved with an NBQX loading dose of 42 mg/kg followed by a continuous infusion rate of 36 mg x kg-1 x h-1 (control = 1.02 +/- 0.07%; NBQX = 0.43 +/- 0.12%; P awake rats were randomly assigned to groups based on the dose of NBQX infused. Pa(CO2) and mean arterial pressure were measured at time 0 and at 5 and 30 min after start of NBQX infusion. The infusion was then stopped. Time until recovery of the righting reflex was recorded.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. [Halothane anesthesia decreases the level of interstitial striatal dopamine of awake freely moving rats in an in vivo microdialysis study].

    Adachi, Y; Uchihashi, Y; Watanabe, K; Satoh, T


    We investigated the effect of halothane on the level of interstitial dopamine of in vivo awake, free moving rats brain striatum using microdialysis techniques. Rats were implanted a microdialysis probe to right striatum of the brain and administered 1.5% of halothane (approximately 1.2 MAC) for 1 or 2 hours, and dialysates from the probe were determined every 20 minutes. Halothane anesthesia reduced the amount of dopamine derived from dialysate, and after discontinuation of halothane and at emergence from anesthesia, the level of dopamine was increased. The levels of metabolites of dopamine during anesthesia were increased lineally in a time dependent manner. We hypothesized that halothane might increase the rate of re-uptake of dopamine at nerve endings and decreased level of interstitial dopamine is compensated by dopamine releases during anesthesia.

  3. Halothane concentrations required to block the cardiovascular responses to incision (MAC CVR) in infants and children.

    Ishizawa, Y; Dohi, S


    The purpose of this study was to determine the halothane concentration in N2O required to block the cardiovascular responses to skin incision (MAC CVR) in infants and children. We studied 64 unpremedicated ASA 1 infants and children (one month to seven years). In each infant or child, anaesthesia was induced slowly with halothane and N2O, and an endotracheal tube was placed. The MAC CVR was assessed, after a steady state end-tidal halothane concentration had been established for ten minutes, by the "up and down technique" of Dixon. Positive responses were defined as an increase in MAP or HR > 10%. The MAC CVR50 values of halothane with 60% N2O were 1.16 +/- 0.23% at 1-6 mo, 1.17 +/- 0.18% at 7-12 mo, 0.95 +/- 0.26% at 1-3 yr, and 1.12 +/- 0.16% at 4-7 yr. The value at 1-3 years children was less than those in the other age groups (P values of MAC CVR50 of halothane in infants and children are higher than those required to block motor responses (MAC). The halothane requirement to block cardiovascular responses is lowest in the children aged one to three years.

  4. Biophysical Modeling of Alpha Rhythms During Halothane-Induced Unconsciousness.

    Vijayan, Sujith; Ching, ShiNung; Purdon, Patrick L; Brown, Emery N; Kopell, Nancy J


    During the induction of general anesthesia there is a shift in power from the posterior regions of the brain to the frontal cortices; this shift in power is called anteriorization. For many anesthetics, a prominent feature of anteriorization is a shift specifically in the alpha band (8-13 Hz) from posterior to frontal cortices. Here we present a biophysical computational model that describes thalamocortical circuit-level dynamics underlying anteriorization of the alpha rhythm in the case of halothane. Halothane potentiates GABAA and increases potassium leak conductances. According to our model, an increase in potassium leak conductances hyperpolarizes and silences the high-threshold thalamocortical (HTC) cells, a specialized subset of thalamocortical cells that fire at the alpha frequency at relatively depolarized membrane potentials (>-60 mV) and are thought to be the generators of quiet awake occipital alpha. At the same time the potentiation of GABAA imposes an alpha time scale on both the cortical and the thalamic component of the frontal portion of our model. The alpha activity in the frontal component is further strengthened by reciprocal thalamocortical feedback. Thus, we argue that the dual molecular targets of halothane induce the anteriorization of the alpha rhythm by increasing potassium leak conductances, which abolishes occipital alpha, and by potentiating GABAA, which induces frontal alpha. These results provide a computational modeling formulation for studying highly detailed biophysical mechanisms of anesthetic action in silico.

  5. MAC of xenon and halothane in rhesus monkeys.

    Whitehurst, S L; Nemoto, E M; Yao, L; Yonas, H


    Local cerebral blood flow (LCBF) maps produced by 33% xenon-enhanced computed tomographic scanning (Xe/CT LCBF) are useful in the clinical diagnosis and management of patients with cerebrovascular disorders. However, observations in humans that 25-35% xenon (Xe) inhalation increases cerebral blood flow (CBF) have raised concerns that Xe/CT LCBF measurements may be inaccurate and that Xe inhalation may be hazardous in patients with decreased intracranial compliance. In contrast, 33% Xe does not increase CBF in rhesus monkeys. To determine whether this interspecies difference in the effect of Xe on CBF correlates with an interspecies difference in the anesthetic potency of Xe, we measured the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of Xe preventing movement to a tail-clamp stimulus in rhesus monkeys. Using a standard protocol for the determination of MAC in animals, we first measured the MAC of halothane (n = 5), and then used a combination of halothane and Xe to measure the MAC of Xe (n = 7). The halothane MAC was 0.99 +/- 0.12% (M +/- SD), and the Xe MAC was 98 +/- 15%. These results suggest that the MAC of Xe in rhesus monkeys is higher than the reported human Xe MAC value of 71%. Thus the absence of an effect of 33% Xe on CBF in the rhesus monkey may be related to its lower anesthetic potency.

  6. [Effects of halothane and isoflurane on the canine duodenal paraneurons].

    Sato, K; Noguchi, R; Taga, K; Shimoji, K; Fujita, T


    Administration of amino acid solution (50 mM tryptophane and phenylalanine in saline) into the canine duodenum is known to cause an increase in pancreatic secretion. This response is mediated by the excitation of duodenal endocrine cells, paraneurons, which release cholecystokinin (CCK) into the systemic circulation in response to intraluminal amino acid stimuli. Pancreatic secretory cells are then evoked by the CCK in the blood to secrete the juice into the duodenum. The authors investigated the effects of two general anesthetics, halothane and isoflurane, on this response. Nine mongrel dogs were subjected to this study. Each dog underwent laparotomy under nitrous oxide (75%)-oxygen (25%) anesthesia with pancuronium (GO-Pb). The duodenal loop was exposed and two polyethylene cannulae (18Fr) were introduced into the loop. Proximal cannula was for the administration of the amino acid solution into the loop, and distal one was for drainage of the solution. The pancreatic duct was inserted with a polyethylene catheter, through which pancreatic juice was collected and measured for the volume and protein output by spectrophotometry. After these surgical procedures, the pancreatic secretory response to intraluminal amino acid stimuli was examined under GO-Pb (Control). Then halothane (1.0%) (Group 1, four dogs) or isoflurane (2.0%) (Group 2, five dogs) was administered for 30 min and the same response was tested. The pancreatic secretory response to intraluminal amino acid stimulus was suppressed by the surgical concentrations of both halothane (1.0%) and isoflurane (2.0%). Neither halothane nor isoflurane suppressed the pancreatic secretory response evoked by intravenous CCK infusion (10 Ivy Dog Units.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. EEG entropy values during isoflurane, sevoflurane and halothane anesthesia with and without nitrous oxide.

    Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Ali, Zulfiqar; Bithal, Parmod K; Singh, Gyaninder P; Laithangbam, Pradip K; Dash, Hari H


    We hypothesized that like bispectral index, entropy may be anesthetic agent specific. We carried out a study to assess the entropy values of different anesthetics at equi-minimal alveolar concentrations (MACs) with air and nitrous oxide as carrier gases. Thirty adult patients undergoing spine surgery were randomized to receive halothane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane, in 2 stages, (a) with air/oxygen mixture (2:1) and (b) in nitrous oxide/oxygen (2:1). Heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, response entropy (RE), and state entropy (SE) were noted at 1.0 and 1.5 MACs for each agent. Statistical analysis was done using the 2-way analysis of variance followed by Bonferroni correction and Student t test for paired data. P value of less than 0.05 were considered significant. The demographics and baseline values of heart rate, mean arterial blood pressure, RE, and SE were comparable. Changing from air/oxygen as carrier gas to 66% nitrous oxide in oxygen resulted in significant increase in both RE and SE at 1.0 MAC for all the agents (Psevoflurane and isoflurane (P0.05). Again the values of RE and SE remained high for halothane as compared with isoflurane and sevoflurane. In conclusion, our data suggest a possibility of misinterpretation of anesthetic hypnosis when entropy values increase with addition of nitrous oxide to 1 MAC isoflurane and sevoflurane.

  8. Halothane, isoflurane, xenon, and nitrous oxide inhibit calcium ATPase pump activity in rat brain synaptic plasma membranes.

    Franks, J J; Horn, J L; Janicki, P K; Singh, G


    Perturbation of neuronal calcium homeostasis may alter neurotransmission in the brain, a phenomenon postulated to characterize the anesthetic state. Because of the central role of plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) in maintaining Ca2+ homeostasis, the authors examined the effect of several inhalational anesthetics on PMCA function in synaptic plasma membranes (SPM) prepared from rat brain. Ca(2+)-ATPase pumping activity was assessed by measurement of ATP-dependent uptake of Ca2+ by SPM vesicles. ATPase hydrolytic activity was assessed by spectrophotometric measurement of inorganic phosphate (Pi) released from ATP. For studies of anesthetic effects on PMCA activity, Ca2+ uptake or Pi release was measured in SPM exposed to halothane, isoflurane, xenon, and nitrous oxide at partial pressures ranging from 0 to 1.6 MAC equivalents. Halothane and isoflurane exposures were carried out under a gassing hood. For xenon and nitrous oxide exposures, samples were incubated in a pressure chamber at total pressures sufficient to provide anesthetizing partial pressures for each agent. Dose-related inhibition of Ca(2+)-ATPase pumping activity was observed in SPM exposed to increasing concentrations of halothane and isoflurane, confirmed by ANOVA and multiple comparison testing (P Xenon and nitrous oxide also inhibited Ca2+ uptake by SPM vesicles. At partial pressures of these two gases equivalent to 1.3 MAC, PMCA was inhibited approximately 20%. Hydrolysis of ATP by SPM fractions was also inhibited in a dose-related fashion. An additive effect occurred when 1 vol% of halothane was added to xenon or nitrous oxide at partial pressures equivalent to 0-1.6 MAC for the latter two agents. Plasma membranes Ca(2+)-ATPase is significantly inhibited, in a dose-related manner, by clinically relevant partial pressures of halothane, isoflurane, xenon, and nitrous oxide. Furthermore, these anesthetics inhibit PMCA activity in accordance with their known potencies, and an additive effect was

  9. Halothane anaesthesia and liver damage A review of the literature on this and associated hazards

    Spoor, N L


    In radiological protection the decision to use bronchopulmonary lavage, or not to use it, will occasionally rest on a comparison of risks: on the one hand the long-term radiological risk and, on the other, the short-term risks from the operation itself (after several repetitions) and from multiple exposure to the anaesthetic agents, thiopentone (or other barbiturate) and halothane. The purpose of this review was to find a numerical estimate for the risk of irreversible liver damage from multiple exposure to halothane in a healthy male aged between 20 and 60 years. The many reports which have appeared since 1970 have shown that halothane hepatitis is probably a specific, but rare, pathological condition and that the risks from halothane exposure are no greater than those from other anaesthetics. The facts suggest that there is an increased risk associated with multiple exposure. If for the average patient the mortality risk from one anaesthetic exposure to halothane is 1 in 10 sup 5 , the risk from two further...

  10. The positive effects of Midazolam on functional activity of white rat brain cells in conditions of halothane anesthesia.

    Vadachkoria, Z; Dzidziguri, L; Bakuradze, E; Dzidziguri, D


    For the elimination of postoperative complications, which are evident in infants with congenital palatine and upper lip cleft after halothane anesthesia during standard premedication (Atropine, Dimedrol) the usage of agents of benzodiazepine group with anti-hypoxic effects is advised. The latter may modulate the blocked ion channels by neuromediators, which are activated by GABA and GABA receptor function. The neuro-protective ability of halothane is demonstrated. To reveal the mechanisms of positive effects using benzodiazepine group for premedication we have investigated the effects of midazolam of brain cell functional activity of experimental animals (white rats) in conditions of halothane anesthesia. For the estimation of white rat brain cells functional activity the nuclear transcriptional activity was studied (based on the intensity of [14C]-UTF inclusion), also the glutamic acid decarboxilaze activity (GAD65/67) using immunohistochemistry. It is estimated that halothane inhibits the transcription in rat brain cells. During midazolam premedication the halothane inhibitory effect on RNA synthesis is not revealed. After an hour of pseudo-operation halothane also induces proved decrease of quantity of GAD65/67 positive cells in CA3 hippocampal field. At the same time the quantity of similar cells are increased in CA1 field. The increase of GAD65/67 positive cells in CA1 is more evident during midazolam premedication. Based on the data received we can conclude that the positive effect of midazolam results in increase of GAD65/67 positive cells in CA1 hippocampal field.

  11. Coal exporters win significant price increases



    Coal exports won a 3 dollars/t or almost 8% rise in hard coking coal prices to lift the benchmark Goonyella brand to 42.75 dollars/t. This was followed by major price increases for semi-hard coking coal with the prices of some grades increased by 8 dollars/t or by more than 23%. The new prices will come into effect for the year beginning April, 2001 and acre then first price rises in two years. The article reviews the major Asia countries with their coal supply information. 1 tab., 4 photos.

  12. The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and hemodynamic effects of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in newborn swine.

    Lerman, J; Oyston, J P; Gallagher, T M; Miyasaka, K; Volgyesi, G A; Burrows, F A


    To determine the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) and hemodynamic responses to halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane in newborn swine, 36 fasting swine 4-10 days of age were anesthetized with one of the three volatile anesthetics in 100% oxygen. MAC was determined for each swine. Carotid artery and internal jugular catheters were inserted and each swine was allowed to recover for 48 h. After recovery, heart rate (HR), systemic systolic arterial pressure (SAP), and cardiac index (CI) were measured awake and then at 0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 MAC of the designated anesthetic in random sequence. The (mean +/- SD) MAC for halothane was 0.90 +/- 0.12%; the MAC for isoflurane was 1.48 +/- 0.21%; and the MAC for sevoflurane was 2.12 +/- 0.39%. Awake (mean +/- SD) measurements of HR, SAP, and CI did not differ significantly among the three groups. Compared to the awake HR, the mean HR decreased 35% at 1.5 MAC halothane (P less than 0.001), 19% at 1.5 MAC isoflurane (P less than 0.005), and 31% at 1.5 MAC sevoflurane (P less than 0.005). Compared to awake SAP, mean SAP measurements decreased 46% at 1.5 MAC halothane (P less than 0.001), 43% at 1.5 MAC isoflurane (P less than 0.001), and 36% at 1.5 MAC sevoflurane (P less than 0.005). Mean SAP at 1.0 and 1.5 MAC halothane and isoflurane were significantly less than those measured at equipotent concentrations of sevoflurane (P less than 0.005). Compared to awake CI, mean CI measurements decreased 53% at 1.5 MAC halothane (P less than 0.001) and 43% at 1.5 MAC isoflurane (P less than 0.005).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. CNOOC Reports Significant Increase in 2006 Profits


    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC), the country's No.3 oil producer,recently announced pretax profits jumped 24 percent to 48.1 billion yuan (US$6.2 billion) in 2006. The offshore oil giant reported 60.1 percent increase in pretax profits, totaling 38.8 billion yuan (US$5 billion) in 2005. Analysts said the dropped oil prices in the second half of last year had greatly affected the company's profit growth.

  14. Unwanted intra-operative penile erection during pediatric hypospadiasis repair. Comparison of propofol and halothane.

    Abbasi, Hamid Reza; Ben Razavi, Seyed Soheil; Hajiesmaeili, Mohammad Reza; Behdad, Shekoufeh; Ghiamat, Mohammad Mehdi; Eghbali, Ahmad


    To compare the erectile effect of propofol and halothane on unwanted intraoperative penile erection (UIOPE) during pediatric hypospadiasis repair. One hundred and seventeen boys who were in the age range of 6 months to 6 years and referred for hypospadiasis repair to our referral teaching hospital were included in this randomized clinical trial. Patients were randomly assigned to one of the two study groups before anesthesia induction. Anesthesia was maintained with a continuous intravenous infusion of propofol and inhalational halothane in the propofol (P) and halothane (H) groups, respectively. Data regarding the patients’ age, weight, pre- and intra-operative chordee, UIOPE, anesthesia time, surgery time, hematoma formation, and wound infection were collected. The Chi-Square and Fisher’s exact tests were used for comparison. No statistically significant differences were noted regarding age, weight, and pre and intra-operative chordee between the two groups. The incidence of UIOPE (10.34% versus 57.63%; P = .000), anesthesia time (174.15 +/- 15.02 versus 181.26 +/- 15.19; P =.012), and surgery time (162.34 +/- 12.99 versus 167.69 +/- 13.90 +/- 13.90; P = .034) were significantly lower in group P compared with group H. The use of propofol during hypospadiasis surgical repair is more safe and effective than halothane in preventing UIOPE and reducing surgery and anesthesia time.

  15. A comparison of halothane and sevoflurane for bronchoscopic removal of foreign bodies in children.

    Batra Yatindra


    Full Text Available The present study was designed to compare induction and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and halothane for rigid bronchoscopy for removal of foreign bodies in tracheobronchial tree in children. Forty four children (age 1-4 years were allocated randomly to two groups to receive either halothane (group H; n=22 or sevoflurane (group S; n=22 in oxygen. A graded inhalation technique was used with maximum inspiratory concentration of 5% for halothane and 8% for sevoflurane. Time for loss of consciousness and induction time in group H and group S were 2.3+/-0.4 min vs 2.2+/-0.4 min (p>0.05 and 4.6+/-0.7 min vs 4.9+/-0.6 min (p>0.05 respectively. Intubation conditions with rigid bronchoscope were similar in both groups. Fewer children in group H had vocal cord movements as compared to group S on laryngoscopy (3 vs 8, p>0.05. Six children in group H and two children in group S had disturbances of cardiac rhythm (p>0.05. Emergence time was significantly shorter in group S as compared to group H (group H - 29.6+/-10.7 min vs group S- 12.3+/-7.6 min, p<0.05. Modified Aldrete′s score of 8 was achieved significantly faster in group S as compared to group H (group H - 33.8+/-9.3 min vs group S- 17.3+/-6.8 min, p<0.05. Adverse events during induction and recovery were comparable between the two groups except for significantly high incidence of excitement in group S. In conclusion, halothane is as suitable as sevoflurane for children undergoing rigid bronchoscopy for airway foreign body retrieval, but sevoflurane has a quicker recovery.

  16. Ventilatory responses to acute metabolic acidemia in humans awake, sedated, and anesthetized with halothane.

    Knill, R L; Clement, J L


    The authors produced metabolic acidemia acutely in human subjects awake, sedated with halothane (0.1 MAC), and anesthetized with halothane (1.0 MAC) by infusing L-arginine hydrochloride, 5-6 mmol X kg-1, over 3 h. Ventilation was recorded at resting arterial hydrogen ion concentration [( H+]a) and at 2-4 isocapnic increments of [H+]a, in each case, while end-tidal oxygen tension (PETO2) was varied between greater than 300 mmHg and 45 mmHg. Total increments of [H+]a in awake, sedated, and anesthetized subjects were 13 +/- 4, 12 +/- 2, and 12 +/- 3 nmol X 1(-1) (means +/- SD). In the awake state, metabolic acidemia increased ventilation (VI) in proportion to [H+]a. The magnitude of response increased with reduced PETO2, such that the response to acidemia and hypoxemia combined was synergistic. The delta VI/delta [H+]a slopes at PETO2 values of greater than 300, 100-120, and 45 mmHg were 0.47 +/- 0.27, 0.85 +/- 0.24, and 3.01 +/- 1.30 1 X min-1 X nmol-1 X 1, respectively (means +/- SD). Halothane sedation reduced the responses to added [H+]a determined at PETO2 values of 100-120 and 45 mmHg, as well as the response to hypoxemia and to the interaction of acidemia and hypoxemia, each to less than half awake values. Halothane anesthesia further impaired the responses to [H+]a and virtually abolished the response to hypoxemia and to acidemia-hypoxemia interaction. A small residual response to added [H+]a during anesthesia could be accounted for by a slight concurrent increase of PaCO2, leaving no response attributable to metabolic [H+]a itself.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Determination of the minimum alveolar concentration for halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane in the gerbil.

    de Segura, I A Gómez; de la Víbora, J Benito; Criado, A


    The present work determined the minimum alveolar concentrations (MAC) of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane in adult female gerbils (n=24). Animals were placed in a chamber for anaesthetic induction before performing tracheal intubation. The tracheal tube was connected to a non-rebreathing circuit with minimal dead space. Body temperature, blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates and end-tidal volatile anaesthetic levels were measured continuously. MAC was determined using a standard noxious stimulus (tail-clamp). All experiments were performed at the same time of the day, body temperature was maintained constant and blood-gas analysis was performed to confirm that values were within normal limits. The mean+/-SD MAC values were 1.06+/-0.11% halothane (n=8), 1.55+/-0.08% isoflurane (n=8) and 2.90+/-0.12% sevoflurane (n=7). Cardiovascular parameters at 1xMAC did not differ significantly among anaesthetics but the respiratory rate was significantly higher in the halothane group than in the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups. The SpO2 values recorded throughout anaesthesia and the pH and partial oxygen pressure values determined at the end of the study did not differ among the studied anaesthetics at 1xMAC. These data suggest that the MAC for halogenated inhalant anaesthetics in gerbils is lower than the average MAC values obtained in rats and mice.

  18. Isoflurane and sevoflurane decrease entropy indices more than halothane at equal MAC values.

    Prabhakar, Hemanshu; Ali, Zulfiqar; Bithal, Parmod K; Rath, Girija P; Singh, Deepak; Dash, Hari H


    Recently, bispectral index (BIS) values were demonstrated to be different for various anesthetics as a result of differential effects on electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. Entropy is similar to the BIS monitor, as both process raw EEG to derive a number. We hypothesized that entropy may also be anesthetic agent-specific. Thirty adult patients undergoing spinal surgery were randomized to receive halothane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane. Entropy indices were recorded at various minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values-0.5, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5-both during wash-in and wash-out of the agent. Heart rate (HR), mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), response entropy (RE), and state entropy (SE) were noted. Statistical analysis was done using a one-way analysis-ofvariance test. P values less than 0.05 were considered significant. Ten patients in each group completed the study. The demographics and baseline values of HR, MAP, RE, and SE were comparable in all three groups. During the study period, for a given MAC value, both RE and SE remained low in the isoflurane and sevoflurane groups compared to the halothane group. For a given MAC, the RE and SE were comparable during wash-in and wash-out phases. Halothane produced higher entropy values as compared to isoflurane and sevoflurane at equivalent MAC levels.

  19. Effect of high-frequency positive-pressure ventilation on halothane ablation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction.

    Hall, S M; Chapleau, M; Cairo, J; Levitzky, M G


    High-frequency positive-pressure ventilation (HFPPV) was compared to intermittent positive-pressure ventilation (IPPV) during unilateral atelectasis with and without halothane anesthesia. Dogs with electromagnetic flow probes chronically implanted on their main (Qt) and left (Ql) pulmonary arteries were ventilated via Carlen's dual-lumen endotracheal tubes. In eight closed-chest dogs, about 43% of the cardiac output perfused the left lung during bilateral ventilation by either a Harvard animal respirator (IPPV) or a Health-dyne model 300 high-frequency ventilator (HFPPV). Unilateral atelectasis decreased blood flow (Ql/Qt) to that lung. Ql/Qt was 19 +/- 1% with HFPPV during left-lung atelectasis and right-lung ventilation, compared to 32 +/- 1% with unilateral IPPV. This suggests that HFPPV permits stronger hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Addition of 1% halothane increased blood flow to the atelectatic left lung during unilateral ventilation with IPPV but not with HFPPV. This suggests that halothane decreases the effects of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction during conventional ventilation but not during HFPPV.

  20. Trifluoroacetylated adducts in spermatozoa, testes, liver and plasma and CYP2E1 induction in rats after subchronic inhalatory exposure to halothane.

    Oropeza-Hernández, Luis F; Quintanilla-Vega, Betzabet; Reyes-Mejía, Raul A; Serrano, Carmen J; García-Latorre, Ethel A; Dekant, Wolfgang; Manno, Maurizio; Albores, Arnulfo


    The induction of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2E1 in testes and liver and the presence of trifluoroacetylated (TFA) adducts in spermatozoa, testes, liver and plasma were investigated in rats subchronically exposed by inhalation to halothane (15 ppm/4 h/day/5 days/week/9 weeks). After halothane exposure, p-nitrophenol hydroxylase (p-NPH) activity increased 3.2-fold and CYP2E1 apo-protein content 7-fold in testes, whereas in liver, p-NPH increased 2.3-fold and CYP2E1 apoprotein content 1.4-fold. These results suggest a differential inductive effect of halothane on CYP2E1 in these tissues. Moreover, TFA adducts were present in microsomes of testis and liver and in plasma of halothane-treated rats. The immunoblot analysis of testicular microsomes showed two intense TFA protein bands of 63 and 59 kDa, whereas in liver three intense bands of 100, 76 and 63 kDa were observed. Bands of similar molecular weights to those observed in liver were detected in the plasma of halothane-treated animals. In addition, TFA adducts were detected by immunofluorescence in spermatozoa, probably in the acrosome and/or perinuclear theca region, and in the distal tail of spermatozoa. The increase in CYP2E1 apoprotein and p-NPH activity observed in testis and liver microsomes suggests that halothane induces its own biotransformation both hepatically and extrahepatically and in addition, that the nature of the TFA adducts will depend on the proteins present in each tissue. Also, the presence of TFA adducts in spermatozoa may result from the activation of halothane in the reproductive tract. The detailed mechanism of TFA adduct formation and its consequences on the spermatozoa function remain to be fully clarified.

  1. Study on Relationship Between Halothane Gene and Behavioral Stereotypies in Pregnant Sows

    CUI Wei-guo; LI Jian-hong; BAO Jun


    A simple preparation using the ear tissue for PCR amplification was established for diagnosis of genotypes for halothane in 181 sows.3 halothane heterozygous pigs were detected.The behaviors of the sows that have different genotypes were observed.The heterozygous sows expressed seem more behavioral stereotypies than halothane resistant.But there is no difference in two genotypes.The behaviour directed trough in heterozygous sows is higher than halothane resistant.

  2. Comparative evaluation of halothane anaesthesia in medetomidine–butorphanol and midazolam–butorphanol premedicated water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis

    V. Malik


    Full Text Available Six clinically healthy male water buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis 2–3 years of age and weighing 290–325 kg were used for 2 different treatments (H1 andH2. The animals of groupH1 were premedicated with medetomidine (2.5 g/kg, i.v. and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg, i.v., while in groupH2 midazolam (0.25 mg/kg and butorphanol (0.05 mg/kg were used intravenously. Induction of anaesthesia was achieved by 5%thiopental sodium inH1 (3.85±0.63 mg/kg and H2 (6.96 ± 0.45 mg/kg groups. The anaesthesia was maintained with halothane in 100 % oxygen through a large animal anaesthetic machine. Better analgesia and sedation with a significantly lower dose of thiopental for induction and significantly higher values of sternal recumbency time and standing time were recorded in group H1 than in group H2 , whereas no significant (P > 0.05 difference for the halothane concentration was observed between groups H1 and H2. Significant decrease in heart rate was observed in group H1 whereas it significantly increased in group H2. In both groups, RR decreased during the preanaesthetic period, which increased significantly (P<0.01 after halothane administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 fall in RT was recorded from 20 min to the end of observation period. A significant (P < 0.05 fall in MAP was observed in group H1 from 15 min until the end, while in group H2 MAP increased nonsignificantly (P > 0.05 after premedication and a significant (P<0.05 occurredafter thiopental administration. In both groups a significant (P<0.01 increase in CVP and a significant (P<0.01 decrease in SpO2 were observed after premedication which persisted up to 120 min. ECG changes included significant (P<0.01 decrease and increase in QRS amplitudes in groupsH1 andH2 respectively, a significant (P < 0.05 increase in PR interval was recorded at 15 min in group H1, a significant (P<0.05 decrease in PR interval in groupH2 , a significant (P<0.05 decrease in T wave amplitude in groupH1, and a

  3. Modelo experimental de indução de lesão oxidativa hepática em ratos por halotano Experimental model of liver oxidative damage induction in rats by halothane

    Luis Josino Brasil


    : Twenty-five male wistar rats were divided in five equals groups: CO (Control, HO14 (Halothane/Hypoxia, F (fenobarbital alone, O14 (Hypoxia alone and H (Halothane alone. After 24 hours the rats were killed, their livers removed to determine chemoluminescence, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, catalase, superoxide dismutase, and blood samples were taken to determine AST and ALT. The histopathologic evaluation was performed with hematoxylin and eosin staining. Histopathologic scores are presented as 25th-75th percentile/range values and median ± range. RESULTS/CONCLUSION: Halothane-hypoxic exposure resulted in a significant changes in the activities of antioxidant enzymes, and induced hepatic lipoperoxidation. Moreover it resulted in histopathologic liver injury as well as significant increase of serum activity of AST and ALT.

  4. Climate impacts of oil extraction increase significantly with oilfield age

    Masnadi, Mohammad S.; Brandt, Adam R.


    Record-breaking temperatures have induced governments to implement targets for reducing future greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Use of oil products contributes ~35% of global GHG emissions, and the oil industry itself consumes 3-4% of global primary energy. Because oil resources are becoming increasingly heterogeneous, requiring different extraction and processing methods, GHG studies should evaluate oil sources using detailed project-specific data. Unfortunately, prior oil-sector GHG analysis has largely neglected the fact that the energy intensity of producing oil can change significantly over the life of a particular oil project. Here we use decades-long time-series data from twenty-five globally significant oil fields (>1 billion barrels ultimate recovery) to model GHG emissions from oil production as a function of time. We find that volumetric oil production declines with depletion, but this depletion is accompanied by significant growth--in some cases over tenfold--in per-MJ GHG emissions. Depletion requires increased energy expenditures in drilling, oil recovery, and oil processing. Using probabilistic simulation, we derive a relationship for estimating GHG increases over time, showing an expected doubling in average emissions over 25 years. These trends have implications for long-term emissions and climate modelling, as well as for climate policy.

  5. MAC-awake of isoflurane, enflurane and halothane evaluated by slow and fast alveolar washout.

    Gaumann, D M; Mustaki, J P; Tassonyi, E


    End-tidal anaesthetic concentrations at first eye opening in response to a verbal command during recovery from anaesthesia (MAC-awake), were measured for isoflurane (n = 16), enflurane (n = 16) and halothane (n = 14). MAC-awake was measured during either slow or fast alveolar washout. Slow washout was obtained by decreasing anaesthetic concentrations in predetermined steps of 15 min, assuming equilibration between brain and alveolar partial pressures. Fast alveolar washout was obtained by discontinuation of the inhalation anaesthetic, which had been maintained at 1 MAC for at least 15 min. Mean MAC-awake obtained with slow alveolar washout was similar for isoflurane (0.25 (SD 0.03) MAC), and enflurane (0.27 (0.04) MAC) and significantly greater than values obtained by fast alveolar washout (isoflurane: 0.19 (0.03) MAC; enflurane: 0.20 (0.03) MAC). The MAC-awake of isoflurane and enflurane was significantly less than that of halothane, which was 0.59 (0.10) MAC as evaluated by the slow and 0.50 (0.05) MAC as evaluated by the fast alveolar washout method. Recovery time from anaesthesia with fast alveolar washout was 8.8 (4.0) min for halothane, which was not different from isoflurane (15 (2.5) min), but significantly shorter than for enflurane (22 (10) min), reflecting differences in the anaesthetic concentration gradient between MAC and MAC-awake values. These data do not support the hypothesis of a uniform ratio between MAC and MAC-awake values.

  6. Solubility increases associated with crystalline drug nanoparticles: methodologies and significance.

    Van Eerdenbrugh, Bernard; Vermant, Jan; Martens, Johan A; Froyen, Ludo; Humbeeck, Jan Van; Van den Mooter, Guy; Augustijns, Patrick


    In this manuscript, the determination of solubility of crystalline drug nanosuspensions by a range of methods is critically investigated. As the determinations of solubility were performed in the presence of the solubilizing nanosuspension stabilizer d-α-tocopherol polyethylene glycol 1000 succinate (TPGS), the potential effects of this excipient on the measurements were studied first. Solubility data of nanosuspensions of itraconazole, loviride, phenytoin and naproxen were generated using different methodologies. Data obtained using separation-based methodologies (centrifugation, filtration and ultracentrifugation) proved to be of limited use, due to poor nanoparticle separation efficiencies and/or significant adsorption of TPGS onto the nanoparticle surfaces. Light scattering and turbidity were found to be more suitable for the determination of nanosuspension solubility. The obtained data show that, unlike earlier reports, the solubility increases due to nanosizing are small, with measured increases of only 15%. These solubility increases are in fair agreement with what would be predicted based on the Ostwald-Freundlich equation.

  7. Physiologic and acid-base measures of gopher snakes during ketamine or halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia.

    Custer, R S; Bush, M


    Arterial acid-base and selected physiologic measures of gopher snakes (Pituophis melanoleucus catenifer) during ketamine or halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia were compared with base-line values. During ketamine anesthesia, significant decreases in pH and HCO-3 concentrations indicated acid-base states of uncompensated metabolic acidosis. In contrast, halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia induced acidosis of respiratory origin, through a significant depression in respiratory rate. In addition to the conventional measures, the OH-/H+ ratios and the alpha-imidazole (alpha IM) values were calculated to assess acid-base status during anesthesia. Values for both factors decreased significantly during both ketamine and halothane-nitrous oxide anesthesia. Where H+ concentrations nearly doubled, the decline in the OH-/H+ ratio exceeded 70% and the alpha IM decreased less than 20%. It was concluded that these 2 factors may be helpful in evaluation of the acid-base status of ectothermic animals when normal values for the conventional measures of pH and pCO2 are not available for comparison.

  8. Halothane hepatitis in Iran: A review of 59 cases

    Payam Eghtesadi-Araghi; Amir-Ali Sohrabpour; Homayoon Vahedi; Mehdi Saberi-Firoozi


    AIM:To study halothane hepatitis (HH) in Iran and its associated risk factors.METHODS:We retrospectively studied files of all cases diagnosed with HH referred to three referral hospitals and four private centers in Iran from April 1994 to September 2006.Information on age at surgery,gender,medications history,obesity,history of previous exposure,previous reaction to halothane,familial history,type of surgery,perioperative hypoxia or sepsis,morbidity and mortality were recorded and analyzed.RESULTS:A total of 59 cases were identified.Fortyeight (81%) were women.The median age at the time of surgery was 44 years (range,18 to 80 years).Sixty percent of patients were above 40-year-old.Obesity was observed in 22.2%.Previous history of exposures to halothane was noted in 61% of which 50% had history of post-exposure reaction.Coronary artery bypass graft (CABG),cholecystectomy,and cosmetic surgeries (mainly weight reduction) were the most frequent surgeries.The mortality rate was 12.2%.In patients developing encephalopathy,it was as high as 50%.CONCLUSION:HH remains an important cause of morbidity and mortality in centers still using this anesthetic.However,a large percentage of these cases could have been avoided.To lessen occurrence of further cases of HH,the authors suggest that in female patients having a history of surgery (or delivery) with general anesthesia,the use of halothane should be absolutely avoided.Utilization of proper substitutes in adults' anesthesia is advocated.


    Sarabjit kaur , Veena Chatrath , Gagandeep Kaur , Vishal Jarewal , Kulwinder S Sandhu , Sudha


    Full Text Available Purpose: General anaesthesia for oral surgeries in paediatric patients is always challenging for an anaesthesiologist. Aim was to compare halothane+propofol and sevoflurane+propofol in paediatric patients undergoing adenotonsillectomy without muscle relaxant. Method: In a double blind manner, eighty patients of 3-10 years were premedicated with inj. Atropine and randomly divided into two groups of forty each. In Group A, priming was done with 50% oxygen+50% nitrous oxide+4% halothane for 1 minute, after loss of eye lash reflex and centralisation of pupil intravenous cannulation done. Inj. midazolom, lignocaine and Propofol were given and trachea was intubated. Maintenance was done with 1-2% halothane+ nitrous oxide+ oxygen and continuous propofol infusion. Similar technique was used in group B except for priming done with sevoflurane 7% and maintenance with 2-3%. Both groups were compared for induction, intubating conditions, haemodynamics and emergence characteristics. Results: Induction was rapid in group B as time for loss of eye lash reflex and centralisation of pupil was less in group B (21.88±12.6 &114.40±28.8 seconds as compared to group A (33.05±4.0 & 140.05±12.1 sec p<0.001. Intubating conditions were excellent but mean intubation time was less in group B as compared to group A p<0.001. Heart rate and blood pressure remained on lower side in group A. Emergence was significantly rapid in group B. No side effect or complications were noted. Conclusion: Both groups provided excellent intubating conditions but sevoflurane+propofol group was better as it provided faster induction and rapid recovery from anaesthesia with more stable haemodynamics as compared to Halothane+propofol group.

  10. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in endometrial carcinoma.

    Yoon, Gun; Koh, Chang Won; Yoon, Nara; Kim, Ji-Ye; Kim, Hyun-Soo


    p16 is a negative regulator of cell proliferation and is considered a tumor suppressor protein. Alterations in p16 protein expression are associated with tumor development and progression. However, the p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has not been investigated in the endometrium. Therefore, we evaluated stromal p16 expression in different types of endometrial lesions using immunohistochemistry. Differences in the p16 expression status according to the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 62, 26, and 36 cases of benign, precancerous, and malignant endometrial lesions, respectively. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas precancerous lesions showed a variable degree of staining proportion and intensity. Atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia (AH/EIN) and serous endometrial intraepithelial carcinoma (SEIC) had significantly higher stromal p16 expression levels than benign lesions. Endometrioid carcinoma (EC), serous carcinoma (SC), and carcinosarcoma showed significantly elevated stromal p16 expression levels compared with benign and precancerous lesions. In addition, there were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between AH/EIN and SEIC and between EC and SC. In contrast, differences in stromal p16 expression among nonpathological endometrium, atrophic endometrium, endometrial polyp, and hyperplasia without atypia were not statistically significant. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development and progression of endometrial carcinoma, and raise the possibility that p16 overexpression in the peritumoral stroma is associated with aggressive oncogenic behavior of endometrial SC.

  11. Neocortical RELN promoter methylation increases significantly after puberty.

    Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M


    Reelin plays a pivotal role in neurodevelopment. Excessive RELN promoter methylation and/or decreased RELN gene expression have been described in schizophrenia and autism. We assessed RELN promoter methylation in post-mortem temporocortical tissue (Brodmann Area 41/42) of three prepuberal and six postpuberal normal individuals. The former display very little or no methylation, whereas most postpuberal individuals are heavily methylated, especially at CpG positions located between -131 and -98 bp (prepuberal vs. postpuberal, P<0.05). Sex hormones thus seemingly boost DNA methylation at the RELN promoter. This physiological change could significantly contribute to the onset of schizophrenia and the worsening of autistic behaviors, both typically occurring at puberty.

  12. Significant increase of chromosomal damage in protein energy malnutrition.

    el-Ghazali, S; Mikhail, M; Awadallah, M; Shatla, H


    The present study attempts to investigate the impact of protein energy malnutrition (PEM) on chromosomes. Twenty infants suffering from marasmus and kwashiorkor were chosen from the in-patient paediatric hospital of Ain Shams University. They were matched by age and sex and socioeconomic status to ten healthy infants (controls). Whole blood lymphocytic cultures were set up for every infant and harvested after 48 h incubation. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was found to be nearly nine times greater among infants with PEM compared to controls (6.7% versus 0.7% respectively); the difference was statistically highly significant, P less than 0.001. The recorded aberrations were mainly chromatid gaps and isogaps. In addition, chromatid breaks, dicentrics and acentric fragments were observed. Moreover, the younger the age of the infant the greater the frequency of chromosomal aberrations. The results direct our attention to the genetic risk effect of PEM.

  13. Spectral analysis of the EEG during halothane anaesthesia: Input-output relations

    Silva, F.H. Lopes da; Smith, N. Ty; Zwart, Aart; Nichols, W.W.

    1. 1. The “Halothane-brain compartment” system was investigated in dogs. The input was the inspired concentration of Halothane. The output was the intensity of EEG spectral components. The EEG was analysed by a hybrid system (analogue filters and digital integration in a small computer). For the

  14. Pemberian Ekstrak Bayam Merah (Amarantus Tricolor linn Memperbaiki Ekspresi BDNF dan GLUR1 pada Area Hipokampus Tikus Muda yang Terpapar Anestesi Inhalasi Halothane dan Sevoflurane

    Raden Argarini


    Full Text Available In the development stage, brain has a higher level of vulnerability than the adult brain to anesthetic agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of red amaranth extract to brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and AMPA glutamate receptor subunit 1 (Glur1 expressions as biomarkers of cognitive and neuroplasticity in rat hippocampus areas exposed to inhaled anesthetics halothane and sevoflurane. The design of this study was a randomized posttest only control group. This study was conducted at the Department of Biochemistry Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Airlangga, and the anesthetic procedures were performed at the Veterinary Hospital, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Universitas Airlangga during the period of May–October 2014. The subjects of this study were 23 white male rats (Rattus norvegicus wistar strain, aged 1–1.5 months, weighted approximately 60–100 grams in a healthy physical condition. The subjects were divided into 5 groups, K (control; K1 (1 MAC halothane; K2 (red amaranth 800 mg/kgBW + 1 MAC halothane; K3 (1 MAC sevoflurane; and K4 (red amaranth 800mg/kgBW+1 MAC sevoflurane. The results of this study showed a decrease in the expression of BDNF when halothane and sevoflurane were administered. Red amaranth treatment prior to anesthetic gases exposure preserved and increased BDNF expression (p=0.000 while GLUR1 expression increased in the group that received halothane and sevoflurane administration and decreased back to normal in the group that received red amaranth treatment prior to exposure to anesthetic gases (p=0.000. In conclusion, red amaranth extract has the potential effect to prevent cognitive neurotoxicity on the cognitive function in rats exposed to anesthetic gases.

  15. Stereochemical configuration and selective excitation of the chiral molecule halothane

    Pitzer, Martin; Burzynski, Phillip; Weller, Miriam; Metz, Daniel; Neff, Jonathan; Waitz, Markus; Trinter, Florian; Schmidt, Lothar Ph H; Williams, Joshua B; Jahnke, Till; Schmidt-Böcking, Horst; Berger, Robert; Dörner, Reinhard; Schöffler, Markus


    X-ray single-photon ionization and fragmentation of the chiral molecule halothane (CHBrClCF${}_{3}$) from a racemic mixture have been investigated using the COLTRIMS (Cold Target Recoil Ion Momentum Spectroscopy) technique. Two important facets related to the core ionization of this species are examined: Firstly, the distinction of enantiomers (mirror isomers) and the determination of absolute configuration on a single-molecule level by four-body Coulomb explosion; secondly, the interplay of site-selective excitation and fragmentation patterns. These results are easily transferrable to other molecular species and show the wealth of features

  16. Postcountershock myocardial damage after pretreatment with adrenergic and calcium channel antagonists in halothane-anesthetized dogs

    Gaba, D.M.; Metz, S.; Maze, M.


    Transthoracic electric countershock can cause necrotic myocardial lesions in humans as well as experimental animals. The authors investigated the effect on postcountershock myocardial damage of pretreatment with prazosin, an alpha-1 antagonist; L-metoprolol, a beta-1 antagonist, and verapamil, a calcium channel-blocking agent. Twenty dogs were anesthetized with halothane and given two transthoracic countershocks of 295 delivered joules each after drug or vehicle treatment. Myocardial injury was quantitated 24 h following countershock by measuring the uptake of technetium-99m pyrophosphate in the myocardium. Elevated technetium-99m pyrophosphate uptake occurred in visible lesions in most dogs regardless of drug treatment. For each of four parameters of myocardial damage there was no statistically significant difference between control animals and those treated with prazosin, metoprolol, or verapamil. These data suggest that adrenergic or calcium channel-mediated mechanisms are not involved in the pathogenesis of postcountershock myocardial damage.

  17. Interaction between prostaglandins of the E-type with a urinary component from halothane anesthetized rats

    Christensen, P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H


    Prostaglandins of the E-type (PGE's) were found to react or combine with a urinary metabolite of Halothane yielding products which were left unrecovered during the purification procedure preceding specific radioimmunoassay of PGE2. The products were retained on sephadex LH-20 columns, and showed...... and maintaining the anaesthesia with Halothane-nitrous oxide or it could be reversed by adding barbiturates to urine samples obtained from animals anaesthetized with Halothane-nitrous oxide alone. The barbiturates effectively competed with PGE for the metabolite leaving PGE to behave normally on sephadex LH-20...

  18. Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis episode during halothane anesthesia in a horse.

    Bailey, J E; Pablo, L; Hubbell, J A


    A 7-month-old Quarter Horse filly was admitted for surgical repair of a right olecranon fracture. Anesthesia was achieved with xylazine hydrochloride, guaifenesin, ketamine hydrochloride, and halothane. Two and a half hours after induction of anesthesia, myotonia, muscle fasciculations, and sweating, concurrent with high serum potassium concentration and associated electrocardiographic changes consistent with hyperkalemic periodic paralysis, were observed. Treatment included intermittent positive-pressure ventilation, changing intravenous administration of fluids from lactated Ringer's solution to 0.9% NaCl solution, and administration of calcium gluconate, glycopyrrolate, dopamine, and sodium bicarbonate. Clinical signs resolved with the return of serum potassium concentrations to the reference range. The horse was confirmed to be heterozygous for hyperkalemic periodic paralysis by DNA testing.

  19. Time-resolved spectroscopy of the fluorescence quenching of a donor — acceptor pair by halothane

    Sharma, A.; Draxler, S.; Lippitsch, M. E.


    Donor (anthracene) sensitized acceptor (perylene) fluorescence is quenched more efficiently by halothane than is intrinsic perylene fluorescence. The underlying process of dynamic fluorescence quenching is investigated by time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy.

  20. Significant increase of Echinococcus multilocularis prevalencein foxes, but no increased predicted risk for humans

    Maas, M.; Dam-Deisz, W.D.C.; Roon, van A.M.; Takumi, K.; Giessen, van der J.W.B.


    The emergence of the zoonotic tapeworm Echinococcus multilocularis, causative agent ofalveolar echinococcosis (AE), poses a public health risk. A previously designed risk mapmodel predicted a spread of E. multilocularis and increasing numbers of alveolar echinococ-cosis patients in the province of L

  1. [The effect of halothane and enflurane as well as of propanidid and ketamin on the aortic baroreceptor discharge of decerebrated cats (author's transl)].

    Hagenau, W; Pietsch, D; Arndt, J O


    The effect of halothane, enflurane, propanidid and ketamine on the sensitivity of the aortic baroreceptors and its quantitative relationship with arterial pressure were studied in decerebrated cats. Receptor response curves (single baroreceptor fibres of the depressor nerve) were constructed by plotting the average discharge rate (spikes/sec) against the aortic mean pressure and the effect of the anaesthetics on them was analysed. The blood pressure was changed over wide ranges by inflating a balloon placed in the thoracic part of the descending aorta through a femoral artery. Receptor sensitivity increased with halothane and enflurane, yet it decreased with propanidid. It remained uneffected duringanesthesia with ketamine. Thus, different anesthetics act differently on the afferent impulse traffic of baroreceptors. The possible role of these effects on blood pressure control during anaesthesia is discussed.


    Santosh K


    , diastolic blood pressures, and SpO2. The depth of anesthesia was assessed clinically by evaluation of changes in heart rate, and blood pressure during surgery and these were maintained within 20% of baseline values. RESULTS: Induction time was significantly shorter with Gr S[mean(SD 136.0(19.343secs] than with Gr H [mean (SD 156.09(10.651 secs] (P=0.0001. Intubation time was significantly shorter with Gr S [mean (SD 242.400(9.940 secs] than with Gr H[mean(SD 265.769(12.039 secs] (P<0.0001. Time to emergence was significantly shorter in Gr S [mean(SD 217.667(22.831secs] than with Gr H[mean(SD 450.5(18.407 secs] (P<0.0001. CONCLUSIONS: We found that sevoflurane is an excellent agent for inhalational induction of anesthesia in pediatric patients. It facilitates a rapid induction of anesthesia, found to be 20 seconds faster than halothane in our study. Emergence time is relatively shorter with sevoflurane as compared to halothane

  3. Increasing vaginal progesterone gel supplementation after frozen-thawed embryo transfer significantly increases the delivery rate

    Alsbjerg, Birgit; Polyzos, Nikolaos P; Elbaek, Helle Olesen


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the reproductive outcome in patients receiving frozen-thawed embryo transfer before and after doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation. The study was a retrospective study performed in The Fertility Clinic, Skive Regional Hospital, Denmark....... A total of 346 infertility patients with oligoamenorrhoea undergoing frozen-thawed embryo transfer after priming with oestradiol and vaginal progesterone gel were included. The vaginal progesterone dose was changed from 90 mg (Crinone) once a day to twice a day and the reproductive outcome during the two...... rate (8.7% versus 20.5%, respectively; P=0.002). Doubling of the vaginal progesterone gel supplementation during frozen-thawed embryo transfer cycles decreased the early pregnancy loss rate, resulting in a significantly higher delivery rate. This study evaluated the reproductive outcome of 346 women...

  4. [Modification of the analgetic effects (buprenorphine, pentazocine, pethidine) on respiration and haemodynamics by epidural, halothane- or neuroleptanaesthesia (author's transl)].

    Wüst, H J; Moritz, K G; Sandmann, W; Richter, O


    In 38 patients buprenorphine, meperidine and pentazocine were given in a single dose for postoperative pain relief 20 hours after the end of anaesthesia. Measuring the parameters of the high- and low-pressure system as well as the metabolism the authors found that the effects of these analgetic medicaments, intravenously injected were significantly influenced by fentanyl, halothane or diazepam, given under the course of operation. Especially buprenorphine, injected after epidural anaesthesia in combination with diazepam sedation, proved to have a rather negative effect, because it caused a strong depression of respiration and circulation. On the other hand buprenorphine had, given after neuroleptanaesthesia, a neutralizing - and pentazocine and pethidine in combination with neuroleptanaesthesia a stimulating influence on the circulation. After halothane-anaesthesia the effect of the analegtics on the cardiovascular system was, when buprenorphine was given, depressing and when pentazocine was given indifferent. Similar reactions, but more pronounced, could be seen in the epidural group. With certain reservations, caused by the preliminary character of this study, the following conclusions can be drawn for the anaesthetic practice: 1 Choosing analgetic drugs for postoperative pain relief, the anaesthesist has to be aware of the interactions, possibly resulting from the medicaments, given during anaesthesia. 2. The number of medicaments, given during anaesthesia, should be kept small, considering the eventual interactions and the unintentional secondary effects.

  5. Rates of glucose utilization and glucogenesis in rats in the basal state induced by halothane anaesthesia.

    Heath, D F; Frayn, K N; Rose, J G


    1. Rates and rate coefficients of glucose utilization and replacement were determined with [5-3H]- and [U-14C]-glucose in rats starved for 24h, either conscious or under halothane anaesthesia, in a thermoneutral environment. Plasma insulin concentrations were also measured. 2. Halothane anaesthesia decreased the turnover rate by 20%, which was similar to previously reported decreases in metabolic rates caused by natural sleep. 3. Fractional recycling of glucose carbon was little affected by halothane. 4. Comparison of values in one rat with those in another, among both conscious rats and those under halothane anaesthesia, showed that rate coefficients were inversely correlated with plasma glucose concentrations. 5. These findings indicated that halothane, in the concentration used (1.25%, v/v), had little specific effect on glucose metabolism. 6. Although equilibrium plasma glucose concentrations in different rats under halothane were widely different (4-8 mmol/l) the rates of utilization were very similar (2.5-3.1 micronmol/min per 100 g), indicating that these rates were determined by the production of glucose from gluconeogenic precursors released by basal metabolism, the rate of which is necessarily similar in different rats. 7. Among rats under halothane anaesthesia plasma insulin concentrations were negatively correlated with rate coefficients, showing that the differences between rate coefficients were mostly accounted for by differences between rats in tissue sensitivities to insulin. Thus in each 24h-starved rat, sleeping or resting, the main regulators of the plasma glucose concentrations were the rate of supply of gluconeogenic substrates from energy metabolism and the intrinsic sensitivity of the tissues to insulin. 8. We found that a commonly used deionization method of purifying glucose for determination of its specific radioactivity was inadequate.




    inhalational agent and muscle relaxation was achieved with injection pancuronium 0.1mg/kg body weight. There was an increase in blood pressure and heart rate > 30 mm of hg or 30 beats/min greater than the base line respectively (score 2 on Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Sweating , Tears score , were seen in 5 seconds . However there were no abnormalities seen in three records and the heart rate were in normal range ( score 0 or 1 Blood Pressure , Heart Rate , Sweating , Tears score . With regards to more objective parameters in the anesthetic records , increase in blood pres sure (>30 mm of hg and heart rate (.30 beats/min were observed in 67% of the awareness cases and 21% in matched controls. (p=0.001 . The concentration of halothane was increased from 0.2% to 0.6% in one patient who had both sweating and tears and with a sweating score of 2 in PRST scoring. 2 patients had tears and 1 patient had sweating and none of the patients had awareness. In our study patients who had anxious mental status pre - operatively showed exaggerated blood pressure intraoperatively

  7. Partial intravenous anaesthesia in 5 horses using ketamine, lidocaine, medetomidine and halothane

    K. Kruger


    Full Text Available A partial intravenous protocol was used successfully to maintain anaesthesia in 5 healthy horses. Horses were premedicated with acepromazine, romifidine and butorphanol, induced with guaifenesin and ketamine and maintained on a constant rate infusion of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane inhalation anaesthesia. Mean end-tidal halothane concentration to maintain a surgical plane of anaesthesia was 0.8 ± 0.2 %. Mean dobutamine requirement to maintain mean arterial pressure above 9.31 kPa was 0.42 ± 0.3 µg/kg/min. The administration of relatively low doses of lidocaine, ketamine and medetomidine together with halothane resulted in haemodynamically stable anaesthesia, followed by smooth recovery.

  8. The effects of halothane on somatosensory and flash visual evoked potentials during operations.

    Wang, A D; Costa e Silva, I; Symon, L; Jewkes, D


    Intraoperative use of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP's) to monitor intracranial aneurysm surgery and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP's) for parasellar surgery have been routinely employed in our clinic. We found that both EP modalities are sensitive to the changing concentration of our standard hypotensive agent, halothane. The prolongation of the N14-N20 interpeak latency to median nerve stimulation at the wrist, and prolongation of P100 latency with altered configuration of early VEP components to flash light stimulation, appear to be the results of direct pharmacological effects of the agent and not an effect of secondary hypotension. VEP is found easily abolished by halothane at a concentration of 2.0%, while the SEP is more resistant. Halothane is not ideal however when monitoring intraoperative VEP.

  9. IR spectra of halothane-acetone complex in liquefied noble gases (Kr and Xe)

    Melikova, S. M.; Rutkowski, K. S.; Rospenk, M.


    IR absorption spectra of solutions of halothane (C2HBrClF3) and acetone ((CD3)2CO) mixtures in liquefied noble gases (krypton and xenon) have been recorded and analyzed. Bands due to weak hydrogenbonded complexes are identified. The complex-formation enthalpy is estimated in a series of temperature experiments on the change in the total intensity of the bands due to monomers and complexes. Second-order bands are found, which are assigned to the first overtone of stretching vibration CH of halothane and the Raman band related to simultaneous excitation of stretching vibration CH of halothane and stretching vibration CO of acetone. The results of ab initio calculation performed within the MP2/6-311++G(d, p) approximation are used to analyze the spectroscopic data.

  10. Effects of acute intravenous administration of pentamidine, a typical hERG-trafficking inhibitor, on the cardiac repolarization process of halothane-anesthetized dogs.

    Yokoyama, Hirofumi; Nakamura, Yuji; Iwasaki, Hiroshi; Nagayama, Yukitoshi; Hoshiai, Kiyotaka; Mitsumori, Yoshitaka; Sugiyama, Atsushi


    Although acute treatment of pentamidine does not directly modify any ionic channel function in the heart at clinically relevant concentrations, its continuous exposure can prolong QT interval. Recent in vitro studies have indicated that hERG trafficking inhibition may play an important role in the onset of pentamidine-induced long QT syndrome. In this study, we examined acute in vivo electropharmacological effects of pentamidine using the halothane-anesthetized canine model (n = 5). The clinically relevant total dose of 4 mg/kg of pentamidine (namely, 1 mg/kg, i.v. over 10 min followed by 3 mg/kg, i.v. over 10 min with a pause of 20 min) decreased the mean blood pressure, ventricular contraction, preload to the left ventricle, and peripheral vascular resistance. Pentamidine also enhanced the atrioventricular conduction in parallel with its cardiohemodynamic actions, but it gradually prolonged both the ventricular repolarization period and effective refractory period, whereas no significant change was detected in the intraventricular conduction. Thus, acute administration of a clinically relevant dose of pentamidine can suppress cardiac function and vascular tone with reflex-mediated increase of sympathetic activity, whereas it may delay the repolarization process, suggesting that inhibition of potassium-channel trafficking might be induced more acutely in vivo than those previously expected in vitro.

  11. Etorphine-halothane anaesthesia in two five-year-old African elephants (Loxodonta africana : clinical communication

    G.F. Stegmann


    Full Text Available Anaesthesia of 2 five-year-old femaleAfrican elephants (Loxodonta africana was required for dental surgery. The animals were each premedicated with 120 mg of azaperone 60 min before transportation to the hospital. Before offloading, 1 mg etorphine was administered intramuscularly (i.m. to each elephant to facilitate walking them to the equine induction / recovery room. For induction, 2 mg etorphine was administered i.m. to each animal. Induction was complete within 6 min. Surgical anaesthesia was induced with halothane-in-oxygen after intubation of the trunk. During surgery the mean heart rate was 61 and 45 beats / min respectively. Systolic blood pressures increased to 27.5 and 25.6 kPa respectively, and were treated with intravenous azaperone. Blood pressure decreased thereafter to a mean systolic pressure of 18.1 and 19.8 kPa, respectively. Rectal temperature was 35.6 and 33.9 oC at the onset of surgery, and decreased to 35.3 and 33.5 oC, respectively, at the end of anaesthesia. Etorphine anaesthesia was reversed with 5mg diprenorphine at the completion of 90 min of surgery.

  12. Meta-analysis of the effect of the halothane gene on 6 variables of pig meat quality and on carcass leanness.

    Salmi, B; Trefan, L; Bloom-Hansen, J; Bidanel, J P; Doeschl-Wilson, A B; Larzul, C


    Technological meat quality is a significant economic factor in pork production, and numerous publications have shown that it is strongly influenced both by genetic status and by rearing and slaughter conditions. The quality of meat is often described by meat pH at different times postmortem, as well as by color and drip loss, whereas carcass quality is often characterized by lean percentage. A meta-analysis of findings relating to 3,530 pigs reported in 23 publications was carried out to assess the effects of the halothane gene, sex, breed, and slaughter weight of animals on 7 selected variables: pH at 45 min postmortem, ultimate pH, reflectance (L*-value), redness (a*-value), yellowness (b*-value), drip loss, and lean percentage. Two statistical methods were used in the meta-analysis: the method of effect size and the better known random effects model. The method of effect size was associated with Markov chain Monte Carlo techniques for implementing Bayesian hierarchical models to avoid the problems of limited data and publication bias. The results of our meta-analysis showed that the halothane genotype had a significant effect on all analyzed pork quality variables. Between-study variance was evaluated with the Cochran (1954) Q-test of heterogeneity. Meta-regression was used to explain this variance, with covariates such as breed, sex, slaughter weight, and fasting duration being integrated into different regression models. The halothane gene effect was associated with the breed effect only for the following variables: L*-value, b*-value, and drip loss. Slaughter weight contributed significantly only to the explanation of differences in ultimate pH between homozygous genotypes. In response to inconsistencies reported in the literature regarding the difference between the genotypes NN and Nn, results of the meta-analysis showed that the difference between these 2 genotypes was significant for all the analyzed variables except the a*-value.

  13. Haemodynamic changes during halothane, sevoflurane and desflurane anaesthesia in dogs before and after the induction of severe heart failure.

    Preckel, B; Müllenheim, J; Hoff, J; Obal, D; Heiderhoff, M; Thämer, V; Schlack, W


    The effects of desflurane and sevoflurane on the failing myocardium are still uncertain. We investigated the effects of different concentrations of sevoflurane, desflurane and halothane in dogs with pacing induced chronic heart failure. Global (left ventricular pressure, left ventricular dP/dt, Konigsbergtransducer) and regional myocardial function (systolic segment length shortening, ultrasonic crystals) were measured in chronically instrumented dogs with tachycardia induced severe congestive heart failure. Measurements were performed in healthy dogs and after induction of heart failure in the awake state and during anaesthesia with 0.75, 1.0, 1.25 and 1.75 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of halothane, sevoflurane or desflurane. The anaesthetics reduced dP/dtmax in a dose-dependent manner in healthy dogs (dP/dtmax decreased to 43-53% of awake values at 1.75 MAC). Chronic rapid left ventricular pacing increased heart rate and left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and decreased mean arterial pressure, left ventricular systolic pressure and dP/dtmax. The reduction in contractility was similar in the failing myocardium (to 41-50% of awake values at 1.75 MAC). Segmental shortening was reduced during anaesthesia by 50-62% after pacing compared with 22-44% in normal hearts. While there were similar effects of the different anaesthetics on diastolic function in healthy dogs, after induction of heart failure a more pronounced increase of the time constant of isovolumic relaxation and a greater decrease of dP/dtmin was observed with sevoflurane than with desflurane, indicating a stronger depression of diastolic function. While the negative inotropic effects of sevoflurane and desflurane were similar in normal and in the failing myocardium in vivo, desflurane led to a better preservation of diastolic function in the failing myocardium.

  14. Sevoflurane decreases bispectral index values more than does halothane at equal MAC multiples.

    Schwab, Hildebrand S; Seeberger, Manfred D; Eger, Edmond I; Kindler, Christoph H; Filipovic, Miodrag


    At the minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of inhaled anesthetics, 50% of subjects move in response to noxious stimulation. Similarly, at MAC-awake, 50% of subjects respond appropriately to command. The bispectral index (BIS) nominally measures the effect of anesthetics on wakefulness or consciousness. We postulated that the use of halothane with a larger MAC-awake/MAC ratio than sevoflurane would produce higher BIS values at comparable levels of MAC. We studied 33 unpremedicated patients anesthetized by inhalation, 18 with sevoflurane and 15 with halothane. We measured BIS before and during anesthesia at 1 MAC, both before and after tracheal intubation facilitated by fentanyl and rocuronium and then at 1.5 MAC. BIS measurements were made after meeting steady-state conditions. No surgery was performed during this study. BIS values in awake patients did not differ between the sevoflurane and halothane groups (96 +/- 2 and 96 +/- 2, mean +/- sd, respectively). At 1 MAC without and with neuromuscular blockade and at 1.5 MAC, BIS values for patients anesthetized with halothane (54 +/- 7, 56 +/- 7, and 49 +/- 7, respectively) exceeded those for patients anesthetized with sevoflurane (34 +/- 6, 34 +/- 6, and 29 +/- 5, respectively) (P < 0.0001). This finding adds to other evidence indicating that BIS is drug specific.

  15. Stable inhibition of brain synaptic plasma membrane calcium ATPase in rats anesthetized with halothane.

    Franks, J J; Horn, J L; Janicki, P K; Singh, G


    The authors recently showed that plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) activity in cerebral synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) is diminished in a dose-related fashion during exposure in vitro to halothane, isoflurane, xenon, and nitrous oxide at clinically relevant partial pressures. They have now extended their work to in vivo studies, examining PMCA pumping in SPM obtained from control rats decapitated without anesthetic exposure, from rats decapitated during halothane anesthesia, and from rats decapitated after recovery from halothane anesthesia. Three treatment groups were studied: 1) C, control rats that were decapitated without anesthetic exposure, 2) A, anesthetized rats exposed to 1 minimum effective dose (MED) for 20 min and then decapitated, and 3) R, rats exposed to 1 MED for 20 min and then decapitated after recovery from anesthesia, defined as beginning to groom. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase pumping and Ca(2+)-dependent ATPase hydrolytic activity, as well as sodium-calcium exchanger activity and Na+-K+-ATPase hydrolytic activity, were assessed in cerebral SPM. In addition, halothane effect on smooth endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) was examined. Plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase transport of Ca2+ into SPM vesicles from anesthetized rats was reduced to 71% of control (P SPM from rats killed while anesthetized with halothane, compared with rats killed without anesthesia or after recovery from anesthesia. The studies described in this report, in conjunction with previously reported inhibition of PMCA activity in vitro by a wide range of anesthetic agents, indicate a relationship between inhibition of PMCA and action of inhalational anesthetics.

  16. Cost of wound treatment to increase significantly in Denmark over the next decade

    Hjort, Anne Mette; Gottrup, F


    To demonstrate that changes in demography, life expectancy and incidence of background diseases (including type 2 diabetes mellitus) during the period 2009-2020 will significantly increase the costs of wound care in Denmark.......To demonstrate that changes in demography, life expectancy and incidence of background diseases (including type 2 diabetes mellitus) during the period 2009-2020 will significantly increase the costs of wound care in Denmark....

  17. Relationships between the H and A-O blood types, phosphohexose isomerase and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase red cell enzyme systems and halothane sensitivity, and economic traits in a superior and an inferior selection line of swiss landrace pigs.

    Vögeli, P; Stranzinger, G; Schneebeli, H; Hagger, C; Künzi, N; Gerwig, C


    Associations between production traits and the genes for halothane sensitivity (HAL), S, A and H blood group systems and phosphohexose isomerase (PHI) and 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase (6-PGD) enzyme systems were investigated in two lines of pigs selected for an index. The phenotypic variance-covariance matrix of the index included backfat thickness and daily gain, whereas the genetic variance-covariance matrix included daily gain, feed conversion and percentage of lean meat. The experiment was conducted at the experimental station of the Institute of Animal Production and has been underway since 1973. The same index was applied but in two opposite directions to give a superior and inferior line in relation to the production traits. One hundred twenty-nine animals of the superior line in the seventh generation and 88 animals of the inferior line in the sixth generation were studied. Forty-two percent (54/129) of the animals of the superior line were halothane-positive. No animals in the inferior line were halothane reactors. Of the halothane-positive pigs, 70.4% (38/54) in the superior line had the HaHa and 94.4% (51/54) had the SsSs genotype, whereas only 4% (3/75) of the HaHa and 12% (9/75) of the SsSs pigs were halothane-negative. By practicing selection at the H and S loci, it seems possible to efficiently reduce halothane sensitivity in Swiss Landrace pigs. In pigs of the superior line, there were significant differences in percentage of lean meat, carcass length, pH1 (pH value at 45 min to 1 h postmortem, M. longissimus) and reflectance values among genotypes of the HAL, S and H systems and among some genotypes of the 6-PGD system. Poorest meat quality, highest percentage of lean meat and shortest carcass length were observed in pigs homozygous for the alleles HALn, Ss, Ha, PHIB and 6-PGDA. In the inferior line, these associations were absent. As the HAL locus is associated with the above mentioned production traits, linkage disequilibria may explain the

  18. Halothane, isoflurane, xenon, and nitrous oxide inhibit calcium ATPase pump activity in rat brain synaptic plasma membranes

    Franks, J J; Horn, J L; Janicki, P K; Singh, G


    .... For studies of anesthetic effects on PMCA activity, Ca2+ uptake or Pi release was measured in SPM exposed to halothane, isoflurane, xenon, and nitrous oxide at partial pressures ranging from 0 to 1.6 MAC equivalents...

  19. Anesthetic recovery and hemodynamic effects of continuous thiopental infusion versus halothane for maintenance anesthesia in patients undergoing ocular surgery

    Shoroghi, Mehrdad; Farahbakhsh, Farshid; Sheikhvatan, Mehrdad; Sheikhfathollahi, Mahmood; Abbasi, Ali; Talebi, Azam


    Purpose: To investigate anesthesia recovery and hemodynamic status in patients under thiopental infusion or halothane maintenance anesthesia undergoing ocular surgery. Methods: Fifty-nine voluntary patients undergoing ocular surgery in Farabi hospital were allocated to one of two maintenance anesthe

  20. [The concentrations of halothane in the operating theatre and its dependance on various methods of removal (author's transl)].

    Hövener, B; Link, J


    Measurement of halothane concentrations by means of gas chromatography was used to compare the efficiency of 1) a filtration system and 2) ducting of gases into the exhaust of the ventilation system of our operating threatre. The concentrations were found to be lower when the latter method was used. Measurements made subsequently provided data on halothane concentrations occurring during routine service when different methods of anaesthesia were used, with and without ducting of gases into the ventilation exhaust system.

  1. Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for the Anesthetics Halothane, Isoflurane, and Desflurane in the Pig (SUS SCROFA)


    HALOTHANE, ISOFLURANE, AND DESFLURANE IN THE PIG ( SUS SCROFA ) / Allen Vinegar MANTECH-GEO CENTER JOINT VENTURE PO BOX 31009 ~ DAYTON, OH 45437-0009...Pharmacokinetic Model for the Anesthetics Contract F41624-96-C-9010 Halothane, Isoflurane, and Desfiurane in the Pig ( Sus Scrofa ) PE 62202F PR 7757 6. AUTHOR(S) TA...PFA) " CA Figure I - Physiologicallly Based Pharmacokinetic Model of the Pig ( Sus scrofa ). Abbreviations: CA, arterial concentration; CX, exhaled

  2. Continuous background light significantly increases flashing-light enhancement of photosynthesis and growth of microalgae.

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David


    Under specific conditions, flashing light enhances the photosynthesis rate in comparison to continuous illumination. Here we show that a combination of flashing light and continuous background light with the same integrated photon dose as continuous or flashing light alone can be used to significantly enhance photosynthesis and increase microalgae growth. To test this hypothesis, the green microalga Dunaliella salina was exposed to three different light regimes: continuous light, flashing light, and concomitant application of both. Algal growth was compared under three different integrated light quantities; low, intermediate, and moderately high. Under the combined light regime, there was a substantial increase in all algal growth parameters, with an enhanced photosynthesis rate, within 3days. Our strategy demonstrates a hitherto undescribed significant increase in photosynthesis and algal growth rates, which is beyond the increase by flashing light alone.

  3. Simple exercises that significantly increase cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation

    Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert


    We tested the hypothesis that simple exercises may significantly increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and/or cerebral oxygenation. Eighteen subjects ranging in age from nineteen to thirty nine participated in a four-stage study during which measurements of end tidal CO_2 (EtCO2 - by capnometer) and local brain oxygenation (by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor) were taken. The four stages were 1) baseline, 2) breathing exercises, 3) solving an arithmetic problem, and 4) biofeedback. During the breathing exercises there was a significant increase in EtCO2 indicating a significant increase in global CBF. The increase in global CBF was estimated on the basis of a theoretical model. During the arithmetic and biofeedback tasks there was a significant increase in the local (Fp1) oxygenation, but it varied between the different participants. The results may lead to new clinical applications of CBF and brain oxygenation monitoring and behavioral control. We foresee future more detailed investigations in the contr...

  4. An acoustical pump capable of significantly increasing pressure ratio of thermoacoustic heat engines


    Pressure ratio is one of the important parameters for evaluating a thermoacoustic heat engine. A so-called acoustical pump, which is capable of significantly increasing pressure ratio of a thermoacoustic heat engine, is proposed. Its operating principle is given. Also, a verification experiment is done with nitrogen gas in the energy-focused thermoacoustic heat engine, showing that the pressure ratio increased from 1.25 to 1.47.

  5. Drug metabolism and genetic polymorphism in subjects with previous halothane hepatitis

    Ranek, L; Dalhoff, K; Poulsen, H E


    To test the hypothesis that halothane hepatitis is caused by a combination of altered drug metabolism and an immunoallergic disposition, the metabolism of antipyrine, metronidazole, sparteine, phenytoin, and racemic R- and S-mephenytoin was investigated in seven subjects with previous halothane...... hepatitis do not appear to be different from controls with regard to drug metabolism and HLA tissue type. The possibility of a higher frequency of complement C3 phenotype F and FS needs further investigation....... hepatitis. The HLA tissue types and the complement C3 phenotypes were also determined. The metabolism of antipyrine and metronidazole was within normal range in all subjects, and they were all fast or extensive metabolizers of sparteine, mephenytoin, and phenytoin. HLA tissue types were unremarkable. Five...


    Liviana Niminet


    Full Text Available The Small but Significant Nontransitory Increase in Price Test was designed to define the relevant market by concepts of product, geographical area and time. This test, also called the ,,hypothetical monopolistic test” is the subject of many researches both economical and legal as it deals with economic concepts as well as with legally aspects.

  7. Increase of the Antarctic Sea Ice Extent is highly significant only in the Ross Sea

    Yuan, Naiming; Ding, Minghu; Ludescher, Josef; Bunde, Armin


    In the context of global warming, the question of why Antarctic sea ice extent (SIE) has increased is one of the most fundamental unsolved mysteries. Although many mechanisms have been proposed, it is still unclear whether the increasing trend is anthropogenically originated or only caused by internal natural variability. In this study, we employ a new method where the underlying natural persistence in the Antarctic SIE can be correctly accounted for. We find that the Antarctic SIE is not simply short-term persistent as assumed in the standard significance analysis, but actually characterized by a combination of both short- and long-term persistence. By generating surrogate data with the same persistence properties, the SIE trends over Antarctica (as well as five sub-regions) are evaluated using Monte-Carlo simulations. It is found that the SIE trends over most sub-regions of Antarctica are not statistically significant. Only the SIE over Ross Sea has experienced a highly significant increasing trend (p = 0.008) which cannot be explained by natural variability. Influenced by the positive SIE trend over Ross Sea, the SIE over the entire Antarctica also increased over the past decades, but the trend is only at the edge of being significant (p = 0.034).

  8. Effects of Short-term Feeding Magnesium before Slaughter on Blood Metabolites and Postmortem Muscle Traits of Halothane-carrier Pigs

    Jing Chen


    Full Text Available Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire×Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 108.2±0.8 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p0.05 on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01, while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05 as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05 muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05 muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes.

  9. Use of the caffeine-halothane contracture test for the diagnosis of malignant hyperthermia in Brazil

    R.T. Sudo


    Full Text Available Malignant hyperthermia (MH is a pharmacogenetic disease triggered by volatile anesthetics and succinylcholine. Deaths due to MH have been reported in Brazil. The first Malignant Hyperthermia Diagnostic and Research Center in Latin America was inaugurated in 1993 at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The center followed the diagnostic protocols of the North America MH Group, in which the contractures of biopsies from the vastus lateralis muscle are analyzed after exposure to caffeine and halothane (CHCT. CHCT was performed in individuals who survived, their relatives and those with signs/symptoms somewhat related to MH susceptibility (MHS. Here, we report data from 194 patients collected over 16 years. The Southeast (N = 110 and South (N = 71 represented the majority of patients. Median age was 25 (4-70 years, with similar numbers of males (104 and females (90. MHS was found in 90 patients and 104 patients were normal. Abnormal responses to both caffeine and halothane were observed in 59 patients and to caffeine or halothane in 20 and 11 patients, respectively. The contracture of biopsies from MHS exposed to caffeine and halothane was 1.027 ± 0.075 g (N = 285 and 4.021 ± 0.255 g (N = 226, respectively. MHS was found in patients with either low or high blood creatine kinase and also, with a low score on the clinical grading scale. Thus, these parameters cannot be used with certainty to predict MHS. We conclude that the CHCT protocol described by the North America MH Group contributed to identification of MHS in suspected individuals at an MH center in Brazil with 100% sensitivity and 65.7% specificity.

  10. Modification of sodium and potassium channel gating kinetics by ether and halothane

    Bean, B.P.; Shrager, P.; Goldstein, D.A.


    The effects of ether and halothane on the kinetics of sodium and potassium currents were investigated in the crayfish giant axon. Both general anesthetics produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding up of sodium current inactivation at all membrane potentials, with no change in the rising phase of the currents. Double-pulse inactivation experiments with ether also showed faster inactivation, but the rate of recovery from inactivation at negative potentials was not affected. Ether shifted the midpoint of the steady-state fast inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction and made the curve steeper. The activation of potassium currents was faster with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state potassium currents. Ether and halothane are known to perturb the structure of lipid bilayer membranes; the alterations in sodium and potassium channel gating kinetics are consistent with the hypothesis that the rats of the gating processes of the channels can be affected by the state of the lipids surrounding the channels, but a direct effect of ether and halothane on the protein part of the channels cannot be ruled out.

  11. Influence of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on gastroesophageal reflux during anesthesia in dogs.

    Wilson, Deborah V; Boruta, Daniel T; Evans, A Tom


    To determine whether maintenance of anesthesia with halothane or sevoflurane is associated with a lower incidence of gastroesophageal reflux (GER) than the use of isoflurane in dogs undergoing orthopedic surgery. 90 dogs. Dogs were evaluated during elective orthopedic surgery. Dogs with a history of vomiting or that had received any drugs that would alter gastrointestinal tract function were excluded from the study. The anesthetic protocol used was standardized to include administration of acepromazine maleate and morphine prior to induction of anesthesia with thiopental. Dogs were allocated to receive halothane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane to maintain anesthesia. A sensor-tipped catheter was placed to measure esophageal pH during anesthesia. Gastroesophageal reflux was defined as an esophageal pH 7.5. 51 dogs had 1 or more episodes of acidic GER during anesthesia. Reflux was detected in 14 dogs receiving isoflurane, 19 dogs receiving halothane, and 18 dogs receiving sevoflurane. In dogs with GER, mean +/- SD time from probe placement to onset of GER was 36 +/- 65 minutes and esophageal pH remained surgery or moving a dog on or off the surgery table. Dogs that developed GER soon after induction of anesthesia were more likely to regurgitate. Maintenance of anesthesia with any of the 3 commonly used inhalant agents is associated with a similar risk for development of GER in dogs.

  12. The acute hypoxic ventilatory response under halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane anaesthesia in rats.

    Karanovic, N; Pecotic, R; Valic, M; Jeroncic, A; Carev, M; Karanovic, S; Ujevic, A; Dogas, Z


    The relative order of potency of anaesthetic agents on the hypoxic ventilatory response has been tested in humans, but animal data are sparse. We examined the effects of 1.4, 1.6, 1.8, and 2.0 MAC halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on phrenic nerve activity in euoxia (baseline) and during acute normocapnic hypoxia (inspired oxygen fraction 0.09) in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. With halothane, all animals became apnoeic even in euoxia, and the hypoxic response was completely abolished at all anaesthetic levels. With isoflurane, 5 of 14 animals exhibited phrenic nerve activity in euoxia at 1.4 MAC and demonstrated a hypoxic response (302% of baseline activity), but all became apnoeic and lost the hypoxic response at higher doses. With sevoflurane, phrenic nerve activity and a hypoxic response was preserved in at least some animals at all doses (i.e. even the highest dose of 2.0 MAC). Similar to the rank order of potency previously observed in humans, the relative order of potency of depression of the hypoxic ventilatory response in rats was halothane (most depressive) > isoflurane > sevoflurane (p = 0.01 for differences between agents).

  13. Significant alterations in reported clinical practice associated with increased oversight of organ transplant center performance.

    Schold, Jesse D; Arrington, Charlotte J; Levine, Greg


    In the past several years, emphasis on quality metrics in the field of organ transplantation has increased significantly, largely because of the new conditions of participation issued by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. These regulations directly associate patients' outcomes and measured performance of centers with the distribution of public funding to institutions. Moreover, insurers and marketing ventures have used publicly available outcomes data from transplant centers for business decision making and advertisement purposes. We gave a 10-question survey to attendees of the Transplant Management Forum at the 2009 meeting of the United Network for Organ Sharing to ascertain how centers have responded to the increased oversight of performance. Of 63 responses, 55% indicated a low or near low performance rating at their center in the past 3 years. Respondents from low-performing centers were significantly more likely to indicate increased selection criteria for candidates (81% vs 38%, P = .001) and donors (77% vs 31%, P < .001) as well as alterations in clinical protocols (84% vs 52%, P = .007). Among respondents indicating lost insurance contracts (31%), these differences were also highly significant. Based on respondents' perceptions, outcomes of performance evaluations are associated with significant changes in clinical practice at transplant centers. The transplant community and policy makers should practice vigilance that performance evaluations and regulatory oversight do not inadvertently lead to diminished access to care among viable candidates or decreased transplant volume.

  14. Endotracheal tube cuff pressure increases significantly during anterior cervical fusion with the Caspar instrumentation system.

    Sperry, R J; Johnson, J O; Apfelbaum, R I


    To determine whether endotracheal tube cuff pressure increases significantly with surgical retraction and cervical spine distraction during anterior cervical spine surgery with Caspar instrumentation, we prospectively studied 10 patients undergoing this procedure. The tracheas of all patients were intubated with a Mallinckrodt Hi-Lo endotracheal tube. Tracheal tube cuff pressures measured with a transducer system were 42.4 mm Hg +/- 7.0 mm Hg (SEM) after intubation and cuff inflation. Air was removed from the endotracheal tube cuff until the trachea was just barely sealed at a cuff pressure of 15.2 mm Hg +/- 1.6 mm Hg. The endotracheal tube cuff pressure was readjusted to "just-seal" pressure before the surgeons introduced the Caspar instrumentation. The cuff pressure with traction and distraction was 43.2 mm Hg +/- 5.0 mm Hg. This pressure was significantly increased from the "just-seal" pressure, and from the cuff pressure after instrumentation was discontinued (9.8 mm Hg +/- 2.3 mm Hg). We conclude that anterior cervical spine surgery with Caspar instrumentation is associated with a significant increase in endotracheal tube cuff pressure.

  15. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats.

    Yang, Shih-Ying; Juang, Shin-Hun; Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee; Hou, Yu-Chi


    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC(0-t) and C(max) of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC(0-t) of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C(max) of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution.

  16. Significant increase of summertime ozone at Mount Tai in Central Eastern China

    Sun, Lei; Xue, Likun; Wang, Tao; Gao, Jian; Ding, Aijun; Cooper, Owen R.; Lin, Meiyun; Xu, Pengju; Wang, Zhe; Wang, Xinfeng; Wen, Liang; Zhu, Yanhong; Chen, Tianshu; Yang, Lingxiao; Wang, Yan; Chen, Jianmin; Wang, Wenxing


    Tropospheric ozone (O3) is a trace gas playing important roles in atmospheric chemistry, air quality and climate change. In contrast to North America and Europe, long-term measurements of surface O3 are very limited in China. We compile available O3 observations at Mt. Tai - the highest mountain over the North China Plain - during 2003-2015 and analyze the decadal change of O3 and its sources. A linear regression analysis shows that summertime O3 measured at Mt. Tai has increased significantly by 1.7 ppbv yr-1 for June and 2.1 ppbv yr-1 for the July-August average. The observed increase is supported by a global chemistry-climate model hindcast (GFDL-AM3) with O3 precursor emissions varying from year to year over 1980-2014. Analysis of satellite data indicates that the O3 increase was mainly due to the increased emissions of O3 precursors, in particular volatile organic compounds (VOCs). An important finding is that the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) have diminished since 2011, but the increase of VOCs appears to have enhanced the ozone production efficiency and contributed to the observed O3 increase in central eastern China. We present evidence that controlling NOx alone, in the absence of VOC controls, is not sufficient to reduce regional O3 levels in North China in a short period.

  17. Significant yield increases from control of leaf diseases in maize - an overlooked problem?!

    Jørgensen, Lise Nistrup


    The area of maize has increased in several European countries in recent years. In Denmark, the area has increased from 10,000 ha in 1980 to 185,000 ha in 2011. Initially only silage maize was cultivated in Denmark, but in more recent years the area of grain maize has also increased. Farms growing...... maize have often grown maize consecutively for several years. This leads to significant amounts of debris building up in the fields, which serves as an important source of inoculum for diseases when new crops are grown. In recent years, leaf diseases have caused production problems over several seasons....... Two major diseases have been identified: Eyespot (Kabatiella zeae) and Northern leaf blotch (Exserohilum turcicum). Other diseases, including Southern maize leaf blight or maydis leaf blight, caused by Bipolaris maydis, and Northern corn leaf spot, caused by Bipolaris zeicola, may potentially play...

  18. Hydrologic effects of large southwestern USA wildfires significantly increase regional water supply: fact or fiction?

    Wine, M. L.; Cadol, D.


    In recent years climate change and historic fire suppression have increased the frequency of large wildfires in the southwestern USA, motivating study of the hydrological consequences of these wildfires at point and watershed scales, typically over short periods of time. These studies have revealed that reduced soil infiltration capacity and reduced transpiration due to tree canopy combustion increase streamflow at the watershed scale. However, the degree to which these local increases in runoff propagate to larger scales—relevant to urban and agricultural water supply—remains largely unknown, particularly in semi-arid mountainous watersheds co-dominated by winter snowmelt and the North American monsoon. To address this question, we selected three New Mexico watersheds—the Jemez (1223 km2), Mogollon (191 km2), and Gila (4807 km2)—that together have been affected by over 100 wildfires since 1982. We then applied climate-driven linear models to test for effects of fire on streamflow metrics after controlling for climatic variability. Here we show that, after controlling for climatic and snowpack variability, significantly more streamflow discharged from the Gila watershed for three to five years following wildfires, consistent with increased regional water yield due to enhanced infiltration-excess overland flow and groundwater recharge at the large watershed scale. In contrast, we observed no such increase in discharge from the Jemez watershed following wildfires. Fire regimes represent a key difference between the contrasting responses of the Jemez and Gila watersheds with the latter experiencing more frequent wildfires, many caused by lightning strikes. While hydrologic dynamics at the scale of large watersheds were previously thought to be climatically dominated, these results suggest that if one fifth or more of a large watershed has been burned in the previous three to five years, significant increases in water yield can be expected.

  19. Breast cancer-associated metastasis is significantly increased in a model of autoimmune arthritis

    Das Roy, Lopamudra; Pathangey, Latha B; Tinder, Teresa L; Schettini, Jorge L; Gruber, Helen E; Mukherjee, Pinku


    Introduction Sites of chronic inflammation are often associated with the establishment and growth of various malignancies including breast cancer. A common inflammatory condition in humans is autoimmune arthritis (AA) that causes inflammation and deformity of the joints. Other systemic effects associated with arthritis include increased cellular infiltration and inflammation of the lungs. Several studies have reported statistically significant risk ratios between AA and breast cancer. Despite this knowledge, available for a decade, it has never been questioned if the site of chronic inflammation linked to AA creates a milieu that attracts tumor cells to home and grow in the inflamed bones and lungs which are frequent sites of breast cancer metastasis. Methods To determine if chronic inflammation induced by autoimmune arthritis contributes to increased breast cancer-associated metastasis, we generated mammary gland tumors in SKG mice that were genetically prone to develop AA. Two breast cancer cell lines, one highly metastatic (4T1) and the other non-metastatic (TUBO) were used to generate the tumors in the mammary fat pad. Lung and bone metastasis and the associated inflammatory milieu were evaluated in the arthritic versus the non-arthritic mice. Results We report a three-fold increase in lung metastasis and a significant increase in the incidence of bone metastasis in the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice compared to non-arthritic control mice. We also report that the metastatic breast cancer cells augment the severity of arthritis resulting in a vicious cycle that increases both bone destruction and metastasis. Enhanced neutrophilic and granulocytic infiltration in lungs and bone of the pro-arthritic and arthritic mice and subsequent increase in circulating levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF), interleukin-17 (IL-17), interleukin-6 (IL-6), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and tumor necrosis factor

  20. Exam anxiety induces significant blood pressure and heart rate increase in college students.

    Zhang, Zhihong; Su, Hai; Peng, Qiang; Yang, Qing; Cheng, Xiaoshu


    To investigate the relationship between the anxiety and blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) increase in peri-exam period. Sixty-four college students(20.0 ± 0.1 year old) were included in this study. The BP and HR were measured in the morning and in the evening for 3 days during the prereview (ba), review, and exam periods. The BP and HR increase amplitudes (HRIA) of review and exam periods were from the difference of corresponding values and basic values, and the BPIA/baBP and HRIA/baHR were calculated. All of the students completed the Self-Rating Anxiety score (SAS) questionnaire the first day of the exam period. Scores over 50 points were used as the standard for anxiety. From the prereview to exam periods, the BP and HR increased gradually. The exam SBPIA (4.3 ± 1.3 vs. 0.3 ± 0.5 mmHg, P family hypertension group had higher anxiety score; meanwhile, their exam BPIAs and HRIAs were significantly higher than their corresponding group. The BP and HR increase in the review and exam period, anxiety is an important factor of BP and HR increase.

  1. Significantly Increasing the Ductility of High Performance Polymer Semiconductors through Polymer Blending.

    Scott, Joshua I; Xue, Xiao; Wang, Ming; Kline, R Joseph; Hoffman, Benjamin C; Dougherty, Daniel; Zhou, Chuanzhen; Bazan, Guillermo; O'Connor, Brendan T


    Polymer semiconductors based on donor-acceptor monomers have recently resulted in significant gains in field effect mobility in organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). These polymers incorporate fused aromatic rings and have been designed to have stiff planar backbones, resulting in strong intermolecular interactions, which subsequently result in stiff and brittle films. The complex synthesis typically required for these materials may also result in increased production costs. Thus, the development of methods to improve mechanical plasticity while lowering material consumption during fabrication will significantly improve opportunities for adoption in flexible and stretchable electronics. To achieve these goals, we consider blending a brittle donor-acceptor polymer, poly[4-(4,4-dihexadecyl-4H-cyclopenta[1,2-b:5,4-b']dithiophen-2-yl)-alt-[1,2,5]thiadiazolo[3,4-c]pyridine] (PCDTPT), with ductile poly(3-hexylthiophene). We found that the ductility of the blend films is significantly improved compared to that of neat PCDTPT films, and when the blend film is employed in an OTFT, the performance is largely maintained. The ability to maintain charge transport character is due to vertical segregation within the blend, while the improved ductility is due to intermixing of the polymers throughout the film thickness. Importantly, the application of large strains to the ductile films is shown to orient both polymers, which further increases charge carrier mobility. These results highlight a processing approach to achieve high performance polymer OTFTs that are electrically and mechanically optimized.

  2. Potential therapeutic significance of increased expression of aryl hydrocarbon receptor in human gastric cancer

    TieLi Peng; Jie Chen; Wei Mao; Xin Liu; Yu Tao; Lian-Zhou Chen; Min-Hu Chen


    AIM: To determine the functional significance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) in gastric carcinogenesis, and to explore the possible role of AhR in gastric cancer (GC) treatment. METHODS: RT-PCR, real-time PCR, and Western blotting were performed to detect AhR expression in 39 GC tissues and five GC cell lines. AhR protein was detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) in 190 samples: 30 chronic superficial gastritis (CSG), 30 chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 30 intestinal metaplasia (IM), 30 atypical hyperplasia (AH), and 70 GC. The AhR agonist tetrachlorodibenzo-para-dioxin (TCDD) was used to treat AGS cells. MTT assay and flow cytometric analysis were performed to measure the viability, cell cycle and apoptosis of AGS cells. RESULTS: AhR expression was significantly increased in GC tissues and GC cell lines. IHC results indicated that the levels of AhR expression gradually increased, with the lowest levels in CSG, followed by CAG, IM, AH and GC. AhR expression and nuclear translocation were significantly higher in GC than in precancerous tissues. TCDD inhibited proliferation of AGS cells via induction of growth arrest at the G1-S phase. CONCLUSION: AhR plays an important role in gastric carcinogenesis. AhR may be a potential therapeutic target for GC treatment.

  3. Iontophoresis significantly increases the trans-dentinal delivery of osteoprotegerin, alendronate, and calcitonin.

    Kitchens, James A; Schwartz, Scott A; Schindler, William G; Hargreaves, Kenneth M


    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the delivery of alendronate, calcitonin, and osteoprotegerin (OPG) through human dentin by both diffusion and iontophoresis for the potential treatment of invasive cervical resorption. Radiolabeled alendronate, calcitonin, and OPG were added to the top of a split chamber device that contained 1-mm thick dentin disks devoid of a smear layer. Transdentinal movement of medicaments by either random diffusion or application of an iontophoretic current was measured by analysis of gamma emission of effluent fractions. In addition, calcitonin delivery was evaluated at differing magnitudes of current (0-4 mA) by using the aforementioned chamber. Diffusion of all 3 medicaments was minimal. In contrast, the application of a 3-mA iontophoretic gradient significantly increased delivery for all 3 compounds at 10-, 20-, and 30-minute intervals. In addition, a linear increase in permeability was seen for calcitonin as milliamperes were increased from 0 to 4 (r = 0.947), with more than a 100-fold increase in delivery observed with iontophoresis. Delivery of the tested medicaments by using iontophoresis might prove to be a useful technique for treatment of invasive cervical resorption.

  4. [Blood supply to the liver in the human after 1 MAC desflurane in comparison with isoflurane and halothane].

    Schindler, E; Müller, M; Zickmann, B; Kraus, H; Reuner, K H; Hempelmann, G


    Objective of this investigation was to compare the effects of the new inhalation agent desflurane with equipotent doses of isoflurane and halothane on hepatic blood flow (tHBF). 36 Patients scheduled for elective aortocoronary bypass grafting were enrolled to the study. tHBF was assessed by plasma clearance and hepatic extraction of indocyanine green, and standard haemodynamic parameters were measured by thermodilution technique. The measurements were performed awake and after intubation at equilibration of 1 MAC. All measurements were terminated before skin incision. We found a significant decrease of tHBF in all patients regardless of the inhalation agent used (H 918 ml/min +/- 107 to 625 ml/min +/- 181, I 930 ml/min +/- 195 to 637 ml/min +/- 137, D 940 ml/min +/- 129 to 677 ml/min +/- 122). The tHBF in relation to cardiac output also decreased significantly (H 17% +/- 5 to 14% +/- 3, I 16% +/- 3 to 14% +/- 5, D 20% +/- 5 to 18% +/- 6). No difference was seen between the groups according to tHBF and haemodynamics. The results of this study suggest that all inhalation agents included in the study significantly decreased tHBF during anaesthesia with the concentration of 1 MAC.

  5. [A significant increase in intraoperative flash visual evoked potential amplitude during craniopharyngioma surgery-case report].

    Kawaguchi, Tomohiro; Ogawa, Yoshikazu; Fujiwara, Satoru; Tominaga, Teiji


    The flash visual evoked potential (VEP) is a useful diagnostic modality for visual preservation during surgery. Decreased VEP amplitude is recognized to indicate visual deterioration;however, whether intraoperative VEP can detect visual improvement remains unclear. We describe a craniopharyngioma case with a significant increase in VEP amplitude during surgery. A 67-year-old woman presented with progressive gait disturbance and impaired consciousness. Head magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated a sellar-suprasellar tumor compressing the optic chiasm upward with significant ventricular dilation. Her Glasgow Coma Scale was E3V3M5. Visual fields and acuity could not be examined because of impaired consciousness, and she could not see/recognize objects on a table. Preoperative VEP showed reproducible waveforms. Tumor removal by the extended transsphenoidal approach was performed with VEP monitoring. Increased VEP amplitude was observed after dural incision and persisted until the surgery ended. Postoperative VEP waveforms were also reproducible, but visual fields/acuity could not be examined because of cognitive dysfunction. Useful visual function was restored, and she became independent in daily life. The histological diagnosis was craniopharyngioma. The patient underwent ventriculo-peritoneal shunting for hydrocephalus 16 days after tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful and she was transferred to another hospital for rehabilitation. Intraoperative VEP may indicate visual improvement during surgery, which is a useful objective assessment for visual function in patients with impaired consciousness and cognitive dysfunction.

  6. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Xiaohua Wei

    Full Text Available Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production

  7. Significant increase in ecosystem C can be achieved with sustainable forest management in subtropical plantation forests.

    Wei, Xiaohua; Blanco, Juan A


    Subtropical planted forests are rapidly expanding. They are traditionally managed for intensive, short-term goals that often lead to long-term yield decline and reduced carbon sequestration capacity. Here we show how it is possible to increase and sustain carbon stored in subtropical forest plantations if management is switched towards more sustainable forestry. We first conducted a literature review to explore possible management factors that contribute to the potentials in ecosystem C in tropical and subtropical plantations. We found that broadleaves plantations have significantly higher ecosystem C than conifer plantations. In addition, ecosystem C increases with plantation age, and reaches a peak with intermediate stand densities of 1500-2500 trees ha⁻¹. We then used the FORECAST model to simulate the regional implications of switching from traditional to sustainable management regimes, using Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) plantations in subtropical China as a study case. We randomly simulated 200 traditional short-rotation pure stands and 200 sustainably-managed mixed Chinese fir--Phoebe bournei plantations, for 120 years. Our results showed that mixed, sustainably-managed plantations have on average 67.5% more ecosystem C than traditional pure conifer plantations. If all pure plantations were gradually transformed into mixed plantations during the next 10 years, carbon stocks could rise in 2050 by 260.22 TgC in east-central China. Assuming similar differences for temperate and boreal plantations, if sustainable forestry practices were applied to all new forest plantation types in China, stored carbon could increase by 1,482.80 TgC in 2050. Such an increase would be equivalent to a yearly sequestration rate of 40.08 TgC yr⁻¹, offsetting 1.9% of China's annual emissions in 2010. More importantly, this C increase can be sustained in the long term through the maintenance of higher amounts of soil organic carbon and the production of timber products

  8. The chronicity of tonsillitis is significantly correlated with an increase in an LTi cell portion.

    Chang, Jung Hyun; Kim, Soochan; Koo, Jihye; Lane, Peter J L; Yoon, Sun Och; Park, Ah Young; Kim, Kyung-Su; Kim, Mi-Yeon


    The current study explored the relationship between lymphoid tissue inducer (LTi) cells and patients' clinical and immunological status. LTi cells are critical for lymphoid tissue development and maintenance of CD4 T cell-dependent immune responses. The percentage of CD117+CD3-CD56-CD127+ RORγ+ LTi cells isolated from human tonsils was determined and correlated with changes in other immune subsets and clinical factors. We found that the portion of LTi and CD4 T cells was significantly increased in chronic tonsillitis compared to non-inflamed tonsils. Additionally, the expression of OX40 by memory CD4 T cells and OX40 ligand (OX40L) and interleukin (IL)-22 by LTi cells was higher in chronically inflamed tonsils. The treatment for tonsillitis with ibuprofen did not alter LTi cell viability and the expression of OX40L and IL-22. These results demonstrate that during chronic inflammation, LTi cells are increased and express higher levels of OX40L and IL-22, and this is correlated with an increase in memory CD4 T cells.

  9. Pedi-cap color change precedes a significant increase in heart rate during neonatal resuscitation.

    Blank, Doug; Rich, Wade; Leone, Tina; Garey, Donna; Finer, Neil


    Heart rate is the most important indicator of infant well-being during neonatal resuscitation. The Nellcor Pedi-Cap turns gold when exposed to exhaled gas with CO₂>15 mmHg. The aim of this study was to determine if Pedi-Cap gold color change during neonatal resuscitation precedes an increase in heart rate in babies with bradycardia receiving mask ventilation. This was a single-center retrospective review of video recordings and physiologic data of newborns with bradycardia receiving mask positive pressure ventilation during neonatal resuscitation. Subjects were included if the baby's HRCap gold color change compared to the HR after Pedi-Cap gold color change. Forty-one newborns during the study period had HRCap. The median heart rate 10s prior to Pedi-Cap gold color change was 75 BPM (IQR 62-85) and increased to 136 BPM (IQR 113-158) 30 s after gold color change (pCap gold color change to 52 ± 17% 30s after gold color change (p=0.001). Colorimetric CO₂ detection during mask positive pressure ventilation in neonatal resuscitation precedes a significant increase in heart rate and SpO₂. The Pedi-Cap can be easily applied during resuscitation, requires no electricity, provides immediate feedback and may be a useful, simple tool early in resuscitation and may be especially useful in resource limited settings. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Carbon monoxide production from degradation of desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane, and sevoflurane by soda lime and Baralyme.

    Fang, Z X; Eger, E I; Laster, M J; Chortkoff, B S; Kandel, L; Ionescu, P


    Anecdotal reports suggest that soda lime and Baralyme brand absorbent can degrade inhaled anesthetics to carbon monoxide (CO). We examined the factors that govern CO production and found that these include: 1) The anesthetic used: for a given minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC)-multiple, the magnitude of CO production (greatest to least) is desflurane > or = enflurane > isoflurane > halothane = sevoflurane. 2) The absorbent dryness: completely dry soda lime produces much more CO than absorbent with just 1.4% water content, and soda lime containing 4.8% or more water (standard soda lime contains 15% water) generates no CO. In contrast, both completely dry Baralyme and Baralyme with 1.6% water produce high concentrations of CO, and Baralyme containing 4.7% water produces concentrations equaling those produced by soda lime containing 1.4% water. Baralyme containing 9.7% or more water and standard Baralyme (13% water) do not generate CO.3) The type of absorbent: at a given water content, Baralyme produces more CO than does soda lime. 4) The temperature: an increased temperature increases CO production. 5) The anesthetic concentration: more CO is produced from higher anesthetic concentrations. These results suggest that CO generation can be avoided for all anesthetics by using soda lime with 4.8% (or more) water or Baralyme with 9.7% (or more) water, and by using inflow rates of less than 2-3 L/min. Such inflow rates are low enough to ensure that the absorbent does not dry out.

  11. Adenovirus respiratory infection: significant increase in diagnosis using PCR comparing with antigen detection and culture methods

    Elenice Stroparo


    Full Text Available Adenovirus (AdV respiratory infections are usually described as being associated with high mortality rates. Laboratory diagnosis is essential for the establishment of the appropriate therapy, and for guiding the implementation of preventive measures in order to prevent the spread of the infection. Aiming to analyze the sensitivity and specificity of the laboratorial diagnosis methods available, we compared antigen detection by indirect immunofluorescence assay (IF, and a specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR, to detect AdV in respiratory samples collected from patients admitted to hospital with acute respiratory disease. Positive samples were inoculated into a cell culture to confirm the results. We analyzed 381 samples from the nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during the year 2008; of these, 2.6% tested were positive for adenovirus through IF and 10% through PCR; positive isolation was obtained in 40% and 26% of these cases, respectively. Most infected patients were children under six months of age, and despite of the fact that a significant number of patients required intensive care, the mortality rate was low (5%. In conclusion, molecular methods were found to be useful for rapid diagnosis of adenovirus infections with higher sensitivity than antigen detection; their introduction permitted a significant increase in diagnoses of adenovirus infections.

  12. [Significant increase in the colonisation of Staphylococcus aureus among medical students during their hospital practices].

    Rodríguez-Avial, Carmen; Alvarez-Novoa, Andrea; Losa, Azucena; Picazo, Juan J


    Staphylococcus aureus is a pathogen of major concern. The emergence of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) has increasingly complicated the therapeutic approach of hospital-acquired infections. Surveillance of MRSA and control measures must be implemented in different healthcare settings, including screening programs for carriers. Our first aim was to determine the prevalence of methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA) and MRSA nasal carriage in medical students from the Clínico San Carlos Hospital (Madrid). As the MRSA carrier rate in healthcare workers is higher than in the general population, we hypothesised that carrier rate could be increased during their clinical practice in their last three years. We performed an epidemiologic al study of the prevalence of S. aureus colonisation among a group of medical students, who were sampled in 2008 in their third-year, and in 2012 when this class was in its sixth year. We have found a significant increase in MSSA carriage, from 27% to 46%. There were no MRSA colonisations in the third-year, but one was found in the sixth-year group. The large majority of strains (89%) of strains were resistant to penicillin, and 27% to erythromycin and clindamycin. As 19 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus MR were also identified, a horizontal transfer of genes, such as mecA gene to S. aureus, could have occurred. Medical students are both, at risk for acquiring, and a potential source of nosocomial pathogens, mainly MSSA. Therefore, they should take special care for hygienic precautions, such as frequent and proper hand washing, while working in the hospital. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  13. Subcurative radiation significantly increases cell proliferation, invasion, and migration of primary glioblastoma multiforme in vivo

    Adarsh Shankar; Robert A. Knight; Stephen Brown; Ali S. Arbab; Sanath Kumar; Asm Iskander; Nadimpalli RS Varma; Branislava Janic; Ana deCarvalho; Tom Mikkelsen; Joseph A. Frank; Meser M. Ali


    Tumor cellproliferation, infiltration, migration, and neovascularization are known causes of treatment resistance in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of radiation on the growth characteristics of primary human GBM developed in a nude rat. Primary GBM cells grown from explanted GBM tissues were implanted orthotopically in nude rats. Tumor growth was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging on day 77 (baseline) after implantation. The rats underwent irradiation to a dose of 50 Gy delivered subcuratively on day 84 postimplantation (n= 8), or underwent no radiation (n= 8). Brain tissues were obtained on day 112 (nonirradiated) or day 133 (irradiated). Immunohistochemistry was performed to determine tumor cell proliferation (Ki-67) and to assess the expression of infiltration marker (matrix metalloproteinase-2, MMP-2) and cell migration marker (CD44). Tumor neovascularization was assessed by microvessel density using von-Willebrand factor (vWF) staining. Magnetic resonance imaging showed well-developed, infiltrative tumors in 11 weeks postimplantation. The proportion of Ki-67-positive cells in tumors undergoing radiation was (71 ± 15)%compared with (25 ± 12)%in the nonirradiated group (P=0.02). The number of MMP-2-positive areas and proportion of CD44-positive cells were also high in tumors receiving radiation, indicating great invasion and infiltration. Microvessel density analysis did not show a significant difference between nonirradiated and irradiated tumors. Taken together, we found that subcurative radiation significantly increased proliferation, invasion, and migration of primary GBM. Our study provides insights into possible mechanisms of treatment resistance fol owing radiation therapy for GBM.

  14. Myriocin significantly increases the mortality of a non-mammalian model host during Candida pathogenesis.

    Nadja Rodrigues de Melo

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is a major human pathogen whose treatment is challenging due to antifungal drug toxicity, drug resistance and paucity of antifungal agents available. Myrocin (MYR inhibits sphingosine synthesis, a precursor of sphingolipids, an important cell membrane and signaling molecule component. MYR also has dual immune suppressive and antifungal properties, potentially modulating mammalian immunity and simultaneously reducing fungal infection risk. Wax moth (Galleria mellonella larvae, alternatives to mice, were used to establish if MYR suppressed insect immunity and increased survival of C. albicans-infected insects. MYR effects were studied in vivo and in vitro, and compared alone and combined with those of approved antifungal drugs, fluconazole (FLC and amphotericin B (AMPH. Insect immune defenses failed to inhibit C. albicans with high mortalities. In insects pretreated with the drug followed by C. albicans inoculation, MYR+C. albicans significantly increased mortality to 93% from 67% with C. albicans alone 48 h post-infection whilst AMPH+C. albicans and FLC+C. albicans only showed 26% and 0% mortalities, respectively. MYR combinations with other antifungal drugs in vivo also enhanced larval mortalities, contrasting the synergistic antifungal effect of the MYR+AMPH combination in vitro. MYR treatment influenced immunity and stress management gene expression during C. albicans pathogenesis, modulating transcripts putatively associated with signal transduction/regulation of cytokines, I-kappaB kinase/NF-kappaB cascade, G-protein coupled receptor and inflammation. In contrast, all stress management gene expression was down-regulated in FLC and AMPH pretreated C. albicans-infected insects. Results are discussed with their implications for clinical use of MYR to treat sphingolipid-associated disorders.

  15. Free ammonia pre-treatment of secondary sludge significantly increases anaerobic methane production.

    Wei, Wei; Zhou, Xu; Wang, Dongbo; Sun, Jing; Wang, Qilin


    Energy recovery in the form of methane from sludge/wastewater is restricted by the poor and slow biodegradability of secondary sludge. An innovative pre-treatment technology using free ammonia (FA, i.e. NH3) was proposed in this study to increase anaerobic methane production. The solubilisation of secondary sludge was significantly increased after FA pre-treatment at up to 680 mg NH3-N/L for 1 day, under which the solubilisation (i.e. 0.4 mg SCOD/mg VS; SCOD: soluble chemical oxygen demand; VS: volatile solids) was >10 times higher than that without FA pre-treatment (i.e. 0.03 mg SCOD/mg VS). Biochemical methane potential assays showed that FA pre-treatment at above 250 mg NH3-N/L is effective in improving anaerobic methane production. The highest improvement in biochemical methane potential (B0) and hydrolysis rate (k) was achieved at FA concentrations of 420-680 mg NH3-N/L, and was determined as approximately 22% (from 160 to 195 L CH4/kg VS added) and 140% (from 0.22 to 0.53 d(-1)) compared to the secondary sludge without pre-treatment. More analysis revealed that the FA induced improvement in B0 and k could be attributed to the rapidly biodegradable substances rather than the slowly biodegradable substances. Economic and environmental analyses showed that the FA-based technology is economically favourable and environmentally friendly. Since this FA technology aims to use the wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) waste (i.e. anaerobic digestion liquor) to enhance methane production from the WWTPs, it will set an example for the paradigm shift of the WWTPs from 'linear economy' to 'circular economy'. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Significantly increased risk of carotid atherosclerosis with arsenic exposure and polymorphisms in arsenic metabolism genes

    Hsieh, Yi-Chen [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Lien, Li-Ming [Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Neurology, Shin Kong WHS Memorial Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chung, Wen-Ting [Department of Neurology, Wanfang Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Clinical Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Hsieh, Fang-I; Hsieh, Pei-Fan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Wu, Meei-Maan [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Basic Medicine, College of Medicine, Fu-Jen Catholic University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Tseng, Hung-Pin [Department of Neurology, Lotung Poh-Ai Hospital, I-Lan, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Hung-Yi, E-mail: [School of Public Health, College of Public Health and Nutrition, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 11031, Taiwan (China); Chen, Chien-Jen [Genomics Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China)


    Individual susceptibility to arsenic-induced carotid atherosclerosis might be associated with genetic variations in arsenic metabolism. The purpose of this study is to explore the interaction effect on risk of carotid atherosclerosis between arsenic exposure and risk genotypes of purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP), arsenic (+3) methyltransferase (As3MT), and glutathione S-transferase omega 1 (GSTO1) and omega 2 (GSTO2). A community-based case-control study was conducted in northeastern Taiwan to investigate the arsenic metabolic-related genetic susceptibility to carotid atherosclerosis. In total, 863 subjects, who had been genotyped and for whom the severity of carotid atherosclerosis had been determined, were included in the present study. Individual well water was collected and arsenic concentration determined using hydride generation combined with flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The result showed that a significant dose-response trend (P=0.04) of carotid atherosclerosis risk associated with increasing arsenic concentration. Non-significant association between genetic polymorphisms of PNP Gly51Ser, Pro57Pro, As3MT Met287Thr, GSTO1 Ala140Asp, and GSTO2 A-183G and the risk for development of carotid atherosclerosis were observed. However, the significant interaction effect on carotid atherosclerosis risk was found for arsenic exposure (>50 {mu}g/l) and the haplotypes of PNP (p=0.0115). A marked elevated risk of carotid atherosclerosis was observed in subjects with arsenic exposure of >50 {mu}g/l in drinking water and those who carried the PNP A-T haplotype and at least either of the As3MT risk polymorphism or GSTO risk haplotypes (OR, 6.43; 95% CI, 1.79-23.19). In conclusion, arsenic metabolic genes, PNP, As3MT, and GSTO, may exacerbate the formation of atherosclerosis in individuals with high levels of arsenic concentration in well water (>50 {mu}g/l). - Highlights: {yields}Arsenic metabolic genes might be associated with carotid atherosclerosis. {yields

  17. Biotransformation of oral dehydroepiandrosterone in elderly men: significant increase in circulating estrogens.

    Arlt, W; Haas, J; Callies, F; Reincke, M; Hübler, D; Oettel, M; Ernst, M; Schulte, H M; Allolio, B


    The most abundant human steroids, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate ester DHEAS, may have a multitude of beneficial effects, but decline with age. DHEA possibly prevents immunosenescence, and as a neuroactive steroid it may influence processes of cognition and memory. Epidemiological studies revealed an inverse correlation between DHEAS levels and the incidence of cardiovascular disease in men, but not in women. To define a suitable dose for DHEA substitution in elderly men we studied pharmacokinetics and biotransformation of orally administered DHEA in 14 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 58.8 +/- 5.1 yr; mean body mass index, 25.5 +/- 1.5 kg/m2) with serum DHEAS concentrations below 4.1 micromol/L (1500 ng/mL). Diurnal blood sampling was performed on 3 occasions in a single dose, randomized, cross-over design (oral administration of placebo, 50 mg DHEA, or 100 mg DHEA). The intake of 50 mg DHEA led to an increase in serum DHEAS to mean levels of young adult men, whereas 100 mg DHEA induced supraphysiological concentrations [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; area under the curve (AUC) 0-12 h (mean +/- SD) for DHEA, 108 +/- 22 vs. 252 +/- 45 vs. 349 +/- 72 nmol/L x h; AUC 0-12 h for DHEAS, 33 +/- 9 vs. 114 +/- 19 vs. 164 +/- 36 micromol/L x h]. Serum testosterone and dihydrotestosterone remained unchanged after DHEA administration. In contrast, 17beta-estradiol and estrone significantly increased in a dose-dependent manner to concentrations still within the upper normal range for men [placebo vs. 50 mg DHEA vs. 100 mg DHEA; AUC 0-12 h for 17beta-estradiol, 510 +/- 198 vs. 635 +/- 156 vs. 700 +/- 209 pmol/L x h (P DHEA seems to be a suitable substitution dose in elderly men, as it leads to serum DHEAS concentrations usually measured in young healthy adults. The DHEA-induced increase in circulating estrogens may contribute to beneficial effects of DHEA in men.

  18. Scaling of surface-plasma reactors with a significantly increased energy density for NO conversion.

    Malik, Muhammad Arif; Xiao, Shu; Schoenbach, Karl H


    Comparative studies revealed that surface plasmas developing along a solid-gas interface are significantly more effective and energy efficient for remediation of toxic pollutants in air than conventional plasmas propagating in air. Scaling of the surface plasma reactors to large volumes by operating them in parallel suffers from a serious problem of adverse effects of the space charges generated at the dielectric surfaces of the neighboring discharge chambers. This study revealed that a conductive foil on the cathode potential placed between the dielectric plates as a shield not only decoupled the discharges, but also increased the electrical power deposited in the reactor by a factor of about forty over the electrical power level obtained without shielding and without loss of efficiency for NO removal. The shield had no negative effect on efficiency, which is verified by the fact that the energy costs for 50% NO removal were about 60 eV/molecule and the energy constant, k(E), was about 0.02 L/J in both the shielded and unshielded cases.

  19. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils.

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei


    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg(-1)) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica.

  20. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels

    Kucharski, TJ; Ferralis, N; Kolpak, AM; Zheng, JO; Nocera, DG; Grossman, JC


    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  1. Templated assembly of photoswitches significantly increases the energy-storage capacity of solar thermal fuels.

    Kucharski, Timothy J; Ferralis, Nicola; Kolpak, Alexie M; Zheng, Jennie O; Nocera, Daniel G; Grossman, Jeffrey C


    Large-scale utilization of solar-energy resources will require considerable advances in energy-storage technologies to meet ever-increasing global energy demands. Other than liquid fuels, existing energy-storage materials do not provide the requisite combination of high energy density, high stability, easy handling, transportability and low cost. New hybrid solar thermal fuels, composed of photoswitchable molecules on rigid, low-mass nanostructures, transcend the physical limitations of molecular solar thermal fuels by introducing local sterically constrained environments in which interactions between chromophores can be tuned. We demonstrate this principle of a hybrid solar thermal fuel using azobenzene-functionalized carbon nanotubes. We show that, on composite bundling, the amount of energy stored per azobenzene more than doubles from 58 to 120 kJ mol(-1), and the material also maintains robust cyclability and stability. Our results demonstrate that solar thermal fuels composed of molecule-nanostructure hybrids can exhibit significantly enhanced energy-storage capabilities through the generation of template-enforced steric strain.

  2. Factors associated with an increased risk of vertebral fracture in monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance.

    Piot, J M; Royer, M; Schmidt-Tanguy, A; Hoppé, E; Gardembas, M; Bourrée, T; Hunault, M; François, S; Boyer, F; Ifrah, N; Renier, G; Chevailler, A; Audran, M; Chappard, D; Libouban, H; Mabilleau, G; Legrand, E; Bouvard, B


    Monoclonal gammopathies of undetermined significance (MGUS) have been shown to be associated with an increased risk of fractures. This study describes prospectively the bone status of MGUS patients and determines the factors associated with vertebral fracture. We included prospectively 201 patients with MGUS, incidentally discovered, and with no known history of osteoporosis: mean age 66.6±12.5 years, 48.3% women, 51.7% immunoglobulin G (IgG), 33.3% IgM and 10.4% IgA. Light chain was kappa in 64.2% patients. All patients had spinal radiographs and bone mineral density measurement in addition to gammopathy assessment. At least one prevalent non-traumatic vertebral fracture was discovered in 18.4% patients and equally distributed between men and women. Fractured patients were older, had a lower bone density and had also more frequently a lambda light chain isotype. Compared with patients with κ light chain, the odds ratio of being fractured for patients with λ light chain was 4.32 (95% confidence interval 1.80-11.16; P=0.002). These results suggest a high prevalence of non-traumatic vertebral fractures in MGUS associated with lambda light chain isotype and not only explained by low bone density.

  3. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C


    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of DNA fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Penguins significantly increased phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution in maritime Antarctic soils

    Zhu, Renbin; Wang, Qing; Ding, Wei; Wang, Can; Hou, Lijun; Ma, Dawei


    Most studies on phosphorus cycle in the natural environment focused on phosphates, with limited data available for the reduced phosphine (PH3). In this paper, matrix-bound phosphine (MBP), gaseous phosphine fluxes and phosphorus fractions in the soils were investigated from a penguin colony, a seal colony and the adjacent animal-lacking tundra and background sites. The MBP levels (mean 200.3 ng kg−1) in penguin colony soils were much higher than those in seal colony soils, animal-lacking tundra soils and the background soils. Field PH3 flux observation and laboratory incubation experiments confirmed that penguin colony soils produced much higher PH3 emissions than seal colony soils and animal-lacking tundra soils. Overall high MBP levels and PH3 emissions were modulated by soil biogeochemical processes associated with penguin activities: sufficient supply of the nutrients phosphorus, nitrogen, and organic carbon from penguin guano, high soil bacterial abundance and phosphatase activity. It was proposed that organic or inorganic phosphorus compounds from penguin guano or seal excreta could be reduced to PH3 in the Antarctic soils through the bacterial activity. Our results indicated that penguin activity significantly increased soil phosphine formation and phosphorus contribution, thus played an important role in phosphorus cycle in terrestrial ecosystems of maritime Antarctica. PMID:25394572

  5. Effects of halothane-nitrous oxide inhalation anesthesia and Inactin on overall renal and tubular function in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Christensen, P; Leyssac, P P


    Real function, plasma renin concentration (PRC) and prostaglandin (PG) excretion rate was studied in groups of Sprague-Dawley (SPRD) and Wistar (WIST) rats anesthetized with either Halothane-N2O or Inactin. Conscious rats were used as controls. A. In Halothane-N2O anesthesia inulin clearance (CIN......) and absolute proximal reabsorption rate (APR) was moderately decreased (by about 20%), while renal plasma flow (RPF), urine flow and solute excretion remained unchanged as compared to conscious rats. There was a linear relationship between the reciprocal of the proximal occlusion time (OT) and CIN in Halothane...

  6. Influência do gene halotano sobre a qualidade da carne suína Effect of the halothane gene on the quality of pork

    Paulete de Oliveira Vargas Culau


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do gene halotano sobre as características de qualidade da carne suína. Foram utilizadas 151 carcaças de suínos híbridos comerciais, sendo 93 carcaças com genótipo halotano normal (HalNN, 51 heterozigotas (HalNn e 7 recessivas (Hal nn. As medidas efetuadas foram peso da carcaça, refletância através da fibra óptica GP4-Hennessy, temperatura muscular aos 45 minutos e pH aos 45 minutos e 24 horas após o abate no músculo Longissimus dorsi, cor e identificação do genótipo halotano em amostras de gordura através de PCR-RFLP. Houve diferença significativa entre suínos HalNn e HalNN e entre Hal nn e HalNN quanto ao pH inicial e a cor. Em relação à temperatura muscular e pH, final não houve diferença significativa entre os genótipos. A freqüência de carcaças PSE foi mais elevada nos suínos Hal nn e HalNn do que nos suínos HalNN (85,71; 58,82 e 36,56%, pelo pH inicial; 71,43; 47,06 e 17,20%, pela cor, respectivamente. A qualidade da carne de suínos Hal nn e HalNn foi inferior à de suínos HalNN, em termos de pH e cor.The aim of this research work was to evaluate the effect of the halothane gene on the quality characteristics of pork. Commercial hybrid pork carcasses (151 were used for the trial, 93 with normal halothane genotype (HalNN, 51 heterozygous genotype (HalNn and 7 homozigous recessive genotype (Hal nn. The measured attributes were carcass weight, muscle temperature at 45 minutes and pH at 45 minutes and 24 hours after the slaughter at the Longissimus dorsi muscle and color. Identification of the halothane genotype was determined in fat samples through the PCR-RLPC technique. Significant differences were observed between HalNn and HalNN and between Hal nn and HalNN pigs in relation to the inicial pH and color of the meat. The PSE carcasses frequency was greater in the Hal nn and in the HalNn pigs than in the HalNN (85.71, 58.82, and 36,56%, based on the initial pH; 71

  7. Significant increase in residual DNA damage as a possible mechanism of radiosensitization by gemcitabine

    Weiss, C. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Div. of Radiobiology, Friedrich Alexander Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Grabenbauer, G.G.; Sauer, R. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Friedrich Alexander Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany); Distel, L. [Div. of Radiobiology, Friedrich Alexander Univ. of Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)


    Purpose: To investigate the effect of gemcitabine (dFdC), a promising radiosensitizing nucleoside analog, on the induction and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) after ionizing radiation (RT) in a pancreatic tumor cell line. Material and Methods: BxPC3 pancreatic tumor cells were treated using different concentrations of gemcitabine with and without subsequent irradiation. DNA dsbs were detected by constant-field gel electrophoresis under neutral conditions. Results: With the addition of gemcitabine (0.5-1,000 {mu}mol/l for 2 h prior to RT) to RT (0-75 Gy), a considerable and dose-dependent increase of remaining DNA damage after 24 h (5.4-fold for 0.5 {mu}mol/l dFdC, 12.2-fold for 1,000 {mu}mol/l dFdC at 25 Gy) was noted. Enhancement factors were inversely correlated with increasing X-ray dose (7.8-fold for 0.5 {mu}mol/l dFdC at 1 Gy decreasing to 1.6-fold at 75 Gy). Conversely, the induction of DNA dsbs was not affected. Gemcitabine alone lead to a slight increase of initial DNA dsbs and only a modest elevation of residual DNA damage. Conclusion: These findings strengthen the hypothesis of DNA repair inhibition as a major mechanism of radiosensitization by gemcitabine. (orig.)

  8. Strong Selection Significantly Increases Epistatic Interactions in the Long-Term Evolution of a Protein.

    Aditi Gupta


    Full Text Available Epistatic interactions between residues determine a protein's adaptability and shape its evolutionary trajectory. When a protein experiences a changed environment, it is under strong selection to find a peak in the new fitness landscape. It has been shown that strong selection increases epistatic interactions as well as the ruggedness of the fitness landscape, but little is known about how the epistatic interactions change under selection in the long-term evolution of a protein. Here we analyze the evolution of epistasis in the protease of the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1 using protease sequences collected for almost a decade from both treated and untreated patients, to understand how epistasis changes and how those changes impact the long-term evolvability of a protein. We use an information-theoretic proxy for epistasis that quantifies the co-variation between sites, and show that positive information is a necessary (but not sufficient condition that detects epistasis in most cases. We analyze the "fossils" of the evolutionary trajectories of the protein contained in the sequence data, and show that epistasis continues to enrich under strong selection, but not for proteins whose environment is unchanged. The increase in epistasis compensates for the information loss due to sequence variability brought about by treatment, and facilitates adaptation in the increasingly rugged fitness landscape of treatment. While epistasis is thought to enhance evolvability via valley-crossing early-on in adaptation, it can hinder adaptation later when the landscape has turned rugged. However, we find no evidence that the HIV-1 protease has reached its potential for evolution after 9 years of adapting to a drug environment that itself is constantly changing. We suggest that the mechanism of encoding new information into pairwise interactions is central to protein evolution not just in HIV-1 protease, but for any protein adapting to a changing

  9. Longer duration of asthma is significantly associated with increased RV/TLC ratio.

    Tiwari, Anupama; Rahman, Kazi; Abejie, Belayneh; Jain, Vipul V; Vempilly, Jose Joseph


    Although FEV1/FVC ratio has been shown to be negatively associated with longer duration of asthma; an association between RV/TLC ratio and longer duration of asthma has not been explored. Patients with established asthma for more than a year and met inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited. Data obtained by questionnaire after informed consent was obtained, Pulmonary function tests and laboratory results were collected through chart review. Correlation and multiple linear regressions were used to analyze the data. Among the 93 subjects, 61 were women. The mean age of patients was 58 ± 15 years, and the mean duration of asthma was 21 ± 18 years. The ethnic composition included: Caucasians 64%, Hispanics 28% and other groups 8%. The FEV1/FVC ratio was not significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.15, p = 0.05). However, the RV/TLC ratio was significantly associated with duration of asthma (R2 = 0.46, p TLC ratio may be a better indicator than FEV1/FVC ratio to detect airway obstruction related to longer duration of asthma. Lung volume measurements should be done in addition to spirometry to detect changes related to airway obstruction in patients with longer duration of asthma. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Rerouting end-face-TIR capable rays to significantly increase evanescent wave signal power

    Jianjun Ma; Yasser Chiniforooshan; Huacai Chen; Jiahua Chen; Wojtek J. Bock; Andrea Cusano


    The critical findings associated with end-face total internal reflection (TIR) phenomemon we proved before are reported. In particular, these findings reveal that the end-face-TIR capable rays experience enormous mode mixing when encountering a roughened end face. As a result, 94% of the overall detectable power is contributed by this effect. With a smooth fiber end face, this figure is mere 52%. We interpret the mechanism behind these unusual phenomena and its significance for the performance enhancement of fiber optic evanescent wave sensor.%@@ The critical findings associated with end-face total internal reflection (TIR) phenomemon we proved before are reported, In particular, these findings reveal that the end-face-TIR capable rays experience enormous mode mixing when encountering a roughened end face.As a result, 94Vo of the overall detectable poweris contributed by this effect.With a smooth fiber end face, this figure is mere 52%.We interpret the mechanism behind these unusual phenomena and its significance for the performance enhancement of fiber optic evanescent wave sensor.

  11. Stromal p16 expression is significantly increased in malignant ovarian neoplasms.

    Yoon, Nara; Yoon, Gun; Park, Cheol Keun; Kim, Hyun-Soo


    Alterations in p16 protein expression have been reported to be associated with tumor development and progression. However, p16 expression status in the peritumoral stroma has been rarely investigated. We investigated the stromal p16 expression in ovarian neoplasms using immunohistochemistry, and differences in the expression status depending on the degree of malignancy and histological type were analyzed. This study included 24, 21, and 46 cases of benign, borderline, and malignant ovarian lesions, respectively, of which 29, 25, and 32 cases were serous, mucinous, and endometriosis-associated lesions. Most benign lesions showed negative or weak expression, whereas borderline lesions showed focal, moderate expression. Malignant lesions showed markedly elevated stromal p16 expression compared with benign or borderline lesions. There were significant differences in stromal p16 expression between benign and borderline lesions (P p16 expression among the histological types were not significant. Stromal p16 expression in ovarian neoplasms was absent or weak in benign and focal, moderate in borderline lesions, whereas malignant lesions exhibited diffuse, moderate-to-strong p16 immunoreactivity. Our observations suggest that stromal p16 expression is involved in the development of ovarian carcinoma. Further studies are necessary to confirm our preliminary results.

  12. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication.

    Atkinson, Helen C; Marsh, Julie A; Rath, Shoshana R; Kotecha, Rishi S; Gough, Hazel; Taylor, Mandy; Walwyn, Thomas; Gottardo, Nicholas G; Cole, Catherine H; Choong, Catherine S


    Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) and treated with modern COG protocols (n = 80) to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI) and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5%) were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P < 0.004) for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P = 0.7). Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P = 0.0005), disease risk (P < 0.0001), age (P = 0.0001), and BMI z-score (P < 0.0001) at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P = 0.01). Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  13. Increased Body Mass Index during Therapy for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Significant and Underestimated Complication

    Helen C. Atkinson


    Full Text Available Objective & Design. We undertook a retrospective review of children diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL and treated with modern COG protocols (n=80 to determine longitudinal changes in body mass index (BMI and the prevalence of obesity compared with a healthy reference population. Results. At diagnosis, the majority of patients (77.5% were in the healthy weight category. During treatment, increases in BMI z-scores were greater for females than males; the prevalence of obesity increased from 10.3% to 44.8% (P<0.004 for females but remained relatively unchanged for males (9.8% to 13.7%, P=0.7. Longitudinal analysis using linear mixed-effects identified associations between BMI z-scores and time-dependent interactions with sex (P=0.0005, disease risk (P<0.0001, age (P=0.0001, and BMI z-score (P<0.0001 at diagnosis and total dose of steroid during maintenance (P=0.01. Predicted mean BMI z-scores at the end of therapy were greater for females with standard risk ALL irrespective of age at diagnosis and for males younger than 4 years of age at diagnosis with standard risk ALL. Conclusion. Females treated on standard risk protocols and younger males may be at greatest risk of becoming obese during treatment for ALL. These subgroups may benefit from intervention strategies to manage BMI during treatment for ALL.

  14. Significant increase of aerosol number concentrations in air masses crossing a densely trafficked sea area

    Simonas Kecorius


    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluated 10 months data (September 2009 to June 2010 of atmospheric aerosol particle number size distribution at three atmospheric observation stations along the Baltic Sea coast: Vavihill (upwind, Sweden, Utö (upwind, Finland, and Preila (downwind, Lithuania. Differences in aerosol particle number size distributions between the upwind and downwind stations during situations of connected atmospheric flow, when the air passed each station, were used to assess the contribution of ship emissions to the aerosol number concentration (diameter interval 50–400 nm in the Lithuanian background coastal environment. A clear increase in particle number concentration could be noticed, by a factor of 1.9 from Utö to Preila (the average total number concentration at Utö was 791 cm−3, and by a factor of 1.6 from Vavihill to Preila (the average total number concentration at Vavihill was 998 cm−3. The simultaneous measurements of absorption Ångström exponents close to unity at Preila supported our conclusion that ship emissions in the Baltic Sea contributed to the increase in particle number concentration at Preila.

  15. Big data integration shows Australian bush-fire frequency is increasing significantly

    Dutta, Ritaban; Das, Aruneema; Aryal, Jagannath


    Increasing Australian bush-fire frequencies over the last decade has indicated a major climatic change in coming future. Understanding such climatic change for Australian bush-fire is limited and there is an urgent need of scientific research, which is capable enough to contribute to Australian society. Frequency of bush-fire carries information on spatial, temporal and climatic aspects of bush-fire events and provides contextual information to model various climate data for accurately predicting future bush-fire hot spots. In this study, we develop an ensemble method based on a two-layered machine learning model to establish relationship between fire incidence and climatic data. In a 336 week data trial, we demonstrate that the model provides highly accurate bush-fire incidence hot-spot estimation (91% global accuracy) from the weekly climatic surfaces. Our analysis also indicates that Australian weekly bush-fire frequencies increased by 40% over the last 5 years, particularly during summer months, implicating a serious climatic shift. PMID:26998312

  16. Continuous Collection of Adeno-Associated Virus from Producer Cell Medium Significantly Increases Total Viral Yield.

    Benskey, Matthew J; Sandoval, Ivette M; Manfredsson, Fredric P


    The ability to efficiently produce large amounts of high-titer recombinant adeno-associated virus (AAV) is a prerequisite to the continued success of AAV as a gene therapy tool targeted toward large-animal preclinical studies or human clinical therapeutics. Current manufacturing procedures necessitate laborious and time-consuming purification procedures to obtain AAV particles of sufficient titer and purity for these demanding biomedical applications. The finding that AAV can be harvested and purified from producer cell medium may represent an efficient alternative to purifying AAV from cellular lysates. Here we sought to determine the maximum duration of time, and frequency within which AAV can be harvested from producer cell medium, in order to maximize the yield obtained from a single transfection preparation. Human embryonic kidney 293T cells were transfected with polyethylenimine to produce AAV2/5 expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP), and cellular medium was harvested every 2 days until a maximum duration of 19 days posttransfection. AAV2/5-GFP was released into producer cell medium at a steady state until 7 days posttransfection, at which time titers dropped dramatically. Harvesting medium every two days resulted in the maximum yield of AAV from a single preparation, and the cumulative yield of AAV harvested from the producer cell medium was 4-fold higher than the yield obtained from a traditional purification of AAV from cellular lysates. The AAV2/5 harvested from medium within the 7-day collection time-course mediated high levels of transduction in vivo, comparable to AAV2/5 harvested from cellular lysates. AAV purified from cell lysates showed increasing amounts of empty particles at 5 and 7 days posttransfection, whereas AAV purified from cell medium did not show an increase in the amount of empty particles throughout the 7-day time course. Finally, we extended these findings to AAV2/9, demonstrating that a comparable ratio of AAV2/9 particles are

  17. Break dance significantly increases static balance in 9 years-old soccer players.

    Ricotti, Leonardo; Ravaschio, Andrea


    Static balance in young athletes is an important ability that has a relevant influence on their present and future sport performances, as well as on the reduction in risk of injury. The present study reports data collected on three homogeneous groups of 9 years-old athletes (n=10 for each group), whose static balance was monitored every two months during an overall period of six months. At the beginning of the study, all of the children in each of the three groups were performing soccer activity with a frequency (three times a week) that was kept constant during the observation period. During the six months, group 1 maintained only the soccer activity, group 2 also performed swimming activity (twice a week) in parallel with the soccer activity, while group 3 started, at month 2, to perform soccer activity with a break dance course (twice a week). Double leg stance (with eyes open and closed) and single leg stance (on dominant and non-dominant leg) tests were performed using a force platform, and the COP area calculated for each trial. Results show a clear decrease in the "soccer+break dance" players COP area values during the six months, suggesting an improvement in their static balance. The difference was significantly greater with respect to that of soccer players and "soccer+swimming" players. This was evident in all the tests performed starting from two months after the break dance activity began.

  18. Increase of energy balance significantly alters major lipogenic gene expression in lactation ewes.

    Laliotis, George P; Bizelis, Iosif; Vitsa, Alkistis; Rogdakis, Emmanuel


    The objective of the present study was to examine changes observed in the expression of cytosolic NADP isocitrate dehydrogenase (ICDH) and glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genes, the major implicated genes in ruminant lipogenesis in terms of produce NADPH, during the early post-weaning period in dairy ewes in respect to energy intake, and to further correlate the noted changes with their respective enzymatic activities. A total of 21 subcutaneous adipose tissue samples were obtained from seven lactating (2nd lactation period) dairy ewes of the Chios breed. Adipose tissue samples were taken from the tail head region at weeks 1, 2, and 4 after weaning (45 days after parturition). Dairy ewes were in negative energy balance during weeks 1 and 2 after weaning and they moved into a strong positive energy balance at week 4 after weaning. Expression of ICDH and G6PD genes and their respective enzymatic activity was determined. Results showed that both genes' expression and enzymatic activities were significantly minimal at week 1 after weaning, reaching a maximum level at week 4 after weaning (P gene expression (P energy intake changes. Almost similar changes were observed for enzymatic activities, rendering these enzymes as potential biochemical markers of ovine lipogenesis. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

  19. Delaying diagnostic procedure significantly increases mortality in patients with invasive mucormycosis.

    Jeong, Su Jin; Lee, Ji Un; Song, Young Goo; Lee, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Min Joo


    Invasive mucormycosis is an uncommon but increasing life-threatening fungal infection. The present study investigated clinical characteristics and mortality among patients diagnosed as invasive mucormycosis infection. We retrospectively reviewed a total of 24 histologically proven cases of invasive mucormycosis at two tertiary care referral hospitals between November 2005 and February 2014. Overall survival was 50% (n = 12). The time between onset of symptom and diagnostic procedure proved to be associated with mortality (P = 0.009). In addition, preexisting renal failure and thrombocytopenia demonstrated trends toward a poor outcome in our study (P = 0.089 and 0.065, respectively). On multivariate regression analysis, delayed diagnostic procedure (more than 16 days after the onset of symptoms) was an independent predictor of mortality (OR= 12.34, 95% CI, 1.43-10.64; P = 0.022). Mucormycosis is a destructive fungal infection that is associated with high mortality rates, ranging from 40% to 100% depending on the form of disease. When a clinician suspects invasive mucormycosis infection, an early diagnostic procedure performed within 16 days from the onset of symptom and early initiation of antifungal therapy will lead to successful management of this highly fatal disease.

  20. Elicitor Mixtures Significantly Increase Bioactive Compounds, Antioxidant Activity, and Quality Parameters in Sweet Bell Pepper

    Lina Garcia-Mier


    Full Text Available Sweet bell peppers are greatly appreciated for their taste, color, pungency, and aroma. Additionally, they are good sources of bioactive compounds with antioxidant activity, which can be improved by the use of elicitors. Elicitors act as metabolite-inducing factors (MIF by mimic stress conditions. Since plants rarely experience a single stress condition one by one but are more likely to be exposed to simultaneous stresses, it is important to evaluate the effect of elicitors on plant secondary metabolism as mixtures. Jasmonic acid (JA, hydrogen peroxide (HP, and chitosan (CH were applied to fruits and plants of bell pepper as mixtures. Bioactive compounds, antioxidant activity, and quality parameters were evaluated. The assessed elicitor cocktail leads to an increase in the variables evaluated (P ≤ 0.05 when applied to mature fruits after harvest, whereas the lowest values were observed in the treatment applied to immature fruits. Therefore, the application of the elicitor cocktail to harvested mature fruits is recommended in order to improve bioactive compounds and the antioxidant activity of sweet bell peppers.

  1. Significance of Increasing n-3 PUFA Content in Pork on Human Health.

    Ma, Xianyong; Jiang, Zongyong; Lai, Chaoqiang


    Evidence for the health-promoting effects of food rich in n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) is reviewed. Pork is an important meat source for humans. According to a report by the US Department of Agriculture ( ), the pork consumption worldwide in 2011 was about 79.3 million tons, much higher than that of beef (48.2 million tons). Pork also contains high levels of unsaturated fatty acids relative to ruminant meats (Enser, M., Hallett, K., Hewett, B., Fursey, G. A. J. and Wood, J. D. (1996) . Fatty acid content and composition of English beef, lamb, and pork at retail. Meat Sci. 44:443-458). The available literature indicates that the levels of eicosatetraenoic and docosahexaenoic in pork may be increased by fish-derived or linseed products, the extent of which being dependent on the nature of the supplementation. Transgenic pigs and plants show promise with high content of n-3 PUFA and low ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids in their tissues. The approaches mentioned for decreasing n-6/n-3 ratios have both advantages and disadvantages. Selected articles are critically reviewed and summarized.

  2. Efeito do Halotano sobre a Gestação e a Viabilidade Embrionária em Ratos - Estudo Experimental/Effect of Halothane on Pregnancy and Embryonic Viability in Rats - Experimental Study

    Carlos Eduardo Domingues


    exposure to halothane. Group 2: (n=5 rats exposed to halothane during estrous period. Groups 3: (n=5 rats exposed to halothane in 8th to 10th day of pregnancy. Group 4: (n=5 rats exposed to halothane in 11th to 13th days of pregnancy, and Group 5: (n=5 14th to 16th days. The animals were exposed to halothane (0.8% for 30 minutes with 100% oxygen. The offspring of the groups was analyzed according to size, weight, morphological and umbilical cord length and number of live births in each group. Results were expressed as mean +- standard deviation, followed by Tukey test. Results: morphological changes in different periods of pregnancy and changes in weight, size and length of the cord in group 2 (3.05±0.10 cm, 3.17±0.17 g and 2.57±0.12 cm being significant (p<0.005. Conclusion: halothane did not affect the fertility of the animals studied, but promoted the appearance of morphological changes in the first period of pregnancy, showing the risk of teratogenicity and therefore the embryonic infeasibility.

  3. Light Fractionation Significantly Increases the Efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy Using BF-200 ALA in Normal Mouse Skin.

    H.S. de Bruijn (Riette); S. Brooks (Sander); A. van der Ploeg-van den Heuvel (Angélique); T.L.M. ten Hagen (Timo); E.R.M. de Haas (Ellen); D.J. Robinson (Dominic)


    markdownabstractBACKGROUND: Light fractionation significantly increases the efficacy of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) based photodynamic therapy (PDT) using the nano-emulsion based gel formulation BF-200. PDT using BF-200 ALA has recently been clinically approved and is under investigation in several

  4. Triglyceride content in remnant lipoproteins is significantly increased after food intake and is associated with plasma lipoprotein lipase.

    Nakajima, Katsuyuki; Tokita, Yoshiharu; Sakamaki, Koji; Shimomura, Younosuke; Kobayashi, Junji; Kamachi, Keiko; Tanaka, Akira; Stanhope, Kimber L; Havel, Peter J; Wang, Tao; Machida, Tetsuo; Murakami, Masami


    Previous large population studies reported that non-fasting plasma triglyceride (TG) reflect a higher risk for cardiovascular disease than TG in the fasting plasma. This is suggestive of the presence of higher concentration of remnant lipoproteins (RLP) in postprandial plasma. TG and RLP-TG together with other lipids, lipoproteins and lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in both fasting and postprandial plasma were determined in generally healthy volunteers and in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) after consuming a fat load or a more typical moderate meal. RLP-TG/TG ratio (concentration) and RLP-TG/RLP-C ratio (particle size) were significantly increased in the postprandial plasma of both healthy controls and CAD patients compared with those in fasting plasma. LPL/RLP-TG ratio demonstrated the interaction correlation between RLP concentration and LPL activity The increased RLP-TG after fat consumption contributed to approximately 90% of the increased plasma TG, while approximately 60% after a typical meal. Plasma LPL in postprandial plasma was not significantly altered after either type of meal. Concentrations of RLP-TG found in the TG along with its particle size are significantly increased in postprandial plasma compared with fasting plasma. Therefore, non-fasting TG determination better reflects the presence of higher RLP concentrations in plasma. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. St. John's wort significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of methotrexate in rats

    Yang, Shih-Ying [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Juang, Shin-Hun [Graduate Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Tsai, Shang-Yuan; Chao, Pei-Dawn Lee [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Hou, Yu-Chi, E-mail: [School of Pharmacy, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Medical Research, China Medical University Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)


    St. John's wort (SJW, Hypericum perforatum) is one of the popular nutraceuticals for treating depression. Methotrexate (MTX) is an immunosuppressant with narrow therapeutic window. This study investigated the effect of SJW on MTX pharmacokinetics in rats. Rats were orally given MTX alone and coadministered with 300 and 150 mg/kg of SJW, and 25 mg/kg of diclofenac, respectively. Blood was withdrawn at specific time points and serum MTX concentrations were assayed by a specific monoclonal fluorescence polarization immunoassay method. The results showed that 300 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of MTX by 163% and 60%, respectively, and 150 mg/kg of SJW significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} of MTX by 55%. In addition, diclofenac enhanced the C{sub max} of MTX by 110%. The mortality of rats treated with SJW was higher than that of controls. In conclusion, coadministration of SJW significantly increased the systemic exposure and toxicity of MTX. The combined use of MTX with SJW would need to be with caution. -- Highlights: ► St. John's wort significantly increased the AUC{sub 0−t} and C{sub max} of methotrexate. ► Coadministration of St. John's wort increased the exposure and toxicity of methotrexate. ► The combined use of methotrexate with St. John's wort will need to be with caution.

  6. Significant social events and increasing use of life-sustaining treatment: trend analysis using extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as an example.

    Chen, Yen-Yuan; Chen, Likwang; Huang, Tien-Shang; Ko, Wen-Je; Chu, Tzong-Shinn; Ni, Yen-Hsuan; Chang, Shan-Chwen


    Most studies have examined the outcomes of patients supported by extracorporeal membrane oxygenation as a life-sustaining treatment. It is unclear whether significant social events are associated with the use of life-sustaining treatment. This study aimed to compare the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan with that in the world, and to examine the influence of significant social events on the trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use in Taiwan. Taiwan's extracorporeal membrane oxygenation uses from 2000 to 2009 were collected from National Health Insurance Research Dataset. The number of the worldwide extracorporeal membrane oxygenation cases was mainly estimated using Extracorporeal Life Support Registry Report International Summary July 2012. The trend of Taiwan's crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was compared with that of the rest of the world. Each trend of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use was examined using joinpoint regression. The measurement was the crude annual incidence rate of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use. Each of the Taiwan's crude annual incidence rates was much higher than the worldwide one in the same year. Both the trends of Taiwan's and worldwide crude annual incidence rates have significantly increased since 2000. Joinpoint regression selected the model of the Taiwan's trend with one joinpoint in 2006 as the best-fitted model, implying that the significant social events in 2006 were significantly associated with the trend change of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use following 2006. In addition, significantly social events highlighted by the media are more likely to be associated with the increase of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use than being fully covered by National Health Insurance. Significant social events, such as a well-known person's successful extracorporeal membrane oxygenation use highlighted by the mass media, are associated with the use of

  7. A study on directions of significant efficiency increase of rock fracture by tools equipped with super hard inserts from composite

    Dvornikov, L. T.; Klishin, V. I.; Nikitenko, S. M.; Korneyev, V. A.; Korneyev, P. A.


    In the paper the directions of a significant increase in effectiveness of mine rocks destruction by tools equipped with super hard inserts from composite materials are reviewed and justified. Designs of mining drill bits with the cutting insert in the form of elliptical Cassinian oval and the asymmetric ring cleaves are suggested. Versions of laboratory stand constructions are developed in order to determine the power consumption of rock destruction.

  8. Depletion of CD25+ cells during acute toxoplasmosis does not significantly increase mortality in Swiss OF1 mice

    Haroon Akbar


    Full Text Available The interleukin (IL-2R alpha chain (CD25 is expressed on regulatory T cells (Treg, which constitute more than 85% of the CD25+ T cell population in a naïve mouse. CD25 is also expressed on effector T cells in mice suffering from an acute infection by the obligate intracellular protozoan parasite, Toxoplasma gondii. Lethal toxoplasmosis is accompanied by a significant loss of Treg in mice naturally susceptible to toxoplasmosis. The present study was done to explore the role of Treg cells using an anti-CD25 antibody-mediated depletion in mice naturally resistant to toxoplasmosis. Although a significant decrease in the percentage of Treg cells was observed following anti-CD25 monoclonal antibody injections, the depletion of CD25+ cells during acute toxoplasmosis did not significantly increase the mortality of Swiss OF1 mice and no significant difference was observed in the brain parasitic load between the mice in the depleted-infected and isotype-infected groups. We found no significant difference between the titres of total IgG in the sera of the mice from the two groups in the chronic phase. However, CD25+ cells depletion was followed by significantly higher levels of IL-12 in the serum of depleted mice than in that of mice injected with the isotype control antibody.

  9. Reduced brain levels of DHEAS in hepatic coma patients: significance for increased GABAergic tone in hepatic encephalopathy.

    Ahboucha, Samir; Talani, Giuseppe; Fanutza, Tomas; Sanna, Enrico; Biggio, Giovanni; Gamrani, Halima; Butterworth, Roger F


    Increased neurosteroids with allosteric modulatory activity on GABA(A) receptors such as 3α-5α tertrahydroprogesterone; allopregnanolone (ALLO), are candidates to explain the phenomenon of "increased GABAergic tone" in hepatic encephalopathy (HE). However, it is not known how changes of other GABA(A) receptor modulators such as dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS) contribute to altered GABAergic tone in HE. Concentrations of DHEAS were measured by radioimmunoassay in frontal cortex samples obtained at autopsy from 11 cirrhotic patients who died in hepatic coma and from an equal number of controls matched for age, gender, and autopsy delay intervals free from hepatic or neurological diseases. To assess whether reduced brain DHEAS contributes to increased GABAergic tone, in vitro patch clamp recordings in rat prefrontal cortex neurons were performed. A significant reduction of DHEAS (5.81±0.88 ng/g tissue) compared to control values (9.70±0.79 ng/g, puremic coma (12.56 ng/g tissue) were within the control range. Increasing ALLO enhances GABAergic tonic currents concentration-dependently, but increasing DHEAS reduces these currents. High concentrations of DHEAS (50 μM) reduce GABAergic tonic currents in the presence of ALLO, whereas reduced concentrations of DHEAS (1 μM) further stimulate these currents. These findings demonstrate that decreased concentrations of DHEAS together with increased brain concentrations of ALLO increase GABAergic tonic currents synergistically; suggesting that reduced brain DHEAS could further increase GABAergic tone in human HE. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Development of a gas chamber for detecting broiler chicken halothane sensitivity and PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat formation

    Denis Fabrício Marchi


    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the use of a halothane to screen broiler chickens prone to develop PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat through a special gas chamber connected to a veterinarian anaesthetic apparatus developed in our laboratory. Anaesthesia was induced with approx. 3.0% halothane at a flow rate of 6.0 Lm-1 in pure oxygen for 5 min. Commercial male broilers (n=342 aged 46 days old were evaluated and classified as either halothane sensitive (HAL+ or insensitive (HAL-, depending on the leg rigidity response. Approximately 27.5% (n=94 of broilers were HAL+ and 72.5% (n=248 were HAL-. This is a simple and rapid technique to evaluate broiler sensitivity to halothane and identify broilers prone to develop PSE meat. The occurrence of PSE meat in HAL insensitive broiler chicken samples suggests that other factors are related to PSE occurrence.O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar o uso do halotano para avaliar e identificar frangos propensos ao desenvolvimento de carnes PSE (Pálida, Flácida, Exsudativa por meio de uma câmara desenvolvida em nossos laboratórios. Esta foi conectada a um equipamento de anestesia veterinária e a anestesia foi então induzida com aproximadamente 3,0% de halotano a um fluxo de 6,0 L/min em puro oxigênio. A sensibilidade de três frangos foi avaliada simultaneamente. Os frangos de linhagem comercial (n=352 com 46 dias de idade foram expostos à 3,0% de halotano por 5 min e classificados como halotano sensível (HAL + e não-sensível (HAL -, baseado no enrijecimento dos seus membros inferiores. Aproximadamente 27,5% (n=94 frangos foram HAL+ e 72,5% (n=248 HAL-. Amostras do músculo Pectoralis major (n=75 foram coletadas após o abate dos animais para as medidas de pH e cor, determinadas nos filés mantidos a 4 C por 24 h postmortem. Frangos HAL+ apresentaram maior porcentagem de carnes PSE quando comparadas ao grupo HAL-. Este é um teste simples e rápido para a avaliação da sensibilidade

  11. Significantly increased concentration of soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor in the blood of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease.

    Yeh, Yuan-Hung; Wang, Po-Hui; Lin, Long-Yau; Tee, Yi-Torng; Chou, Ming-Chih; Yang, Shun-Fa; Tsai, Hsiu-Ting


    To determine expression levels of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), soluble urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in plasma and to identify gene polymorphisms specific to patients with pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) and healthy controls. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism were used to measure plasma levels and polymorphisms in uPA, suPAR, and PAI-1 among seventy healthy controls and 64 PID patients before and after they received routine treatment protocols. The levels of plasma uPA (ng/ml) and soluble suPAR (pg/ml) were significantly increased in PID patients (uPA: 0.57±0.03; suPAR: 1372.04±68.20) when compared to that in normal controls (uPA: 0.55±0.06, p=0.002; suPAR: 1192.46±51.98, p=0.04); moreover, suPAR decreased significantly after treatment when compared to levels noted in the same patients (1220.06±58.14; p=0.003) after they received treatment. The increased expression of suPAR was significantly correlated with WBC counts (r=0.382, p=0.002, n=64) in blood as well as the plasma levels of CRP (r=0.441, ppelvic inflammatory disease. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Analysis of a large dataset of mycorrhiza inoculation field trials on potato shows highly significant increases in yield.

    Hijri, Mohamed


    An increasing human population requires more food production in nutrient-efficient systems in order to simultaneously meet global food needs while reducing the environmental footprint of agriculture. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) have the potential to enhance crop yield, but their efficiency has yet to be demonstrated in large-scale crop production systems. This study reports an analysis of a dataset consisting of 231 field trials in which the same AMF inoculant (Rhizophagus irregularis DAOM 197198) was applied to potato over a 4-year period in North America and Europe under authentic field conditions. The inoculation was performed using a liquid suspension of AMF spores that was sprayed onto potato seed pieces, yielding a calculated 71 spores per seed piece. Statistical analysis showed a highly significant increase in marketable potato yield (ANOVA, P < 0.0001) for inoculated fields (42.2 tons/ha) compared with non-inoculated controls (38.3 tons/ha), irrespective of trial year. The average yield increase was 3.9 tons/ha, representing 9.5 % of total crop yield. Inoculation was profitable with a 0.67-tons/ha increase in yield, a threshold reached in almost 79 % of all trials. This finding clearly demonstrates the benefits of mycorrhizal-based inoculation on crop yield, using potato as a case study. Further improvements of these beneficial inoculants will help compensate for crop production deficits, both now and in the future.

  13. GSTT1 Null Genotype Significantly Increases the Susceptibility to Urinary System Cancer: Evidences from 63,876 Subjects.

    Wang, Ying; He, Jing; Ma, Tian-Jiao; Lei, Wei; Li, Feng; Shen, Han; Shen, Zhen-Ya


    GSTT1 gene plays an important role in detoxification and clearance of reactive oxygen species(ROS). A null variant in this gene has been demonstrated to confer cancer susceptibility. Although many studies have demonstrated the association between GSTT1 null polymorphism and urinary system cancer susceptibility, several publications reported opposite conclusions. For better understanding the effects of this polymorphism on the risk of urinary system cancer, a updated meta-analysis was performed with a total of 26,666 cases and 37,210 controls extracted from 117 studies, by following the latest meta-analysis guidelines (PRISMA). The results suggested that the GSTT1 null genotype was significantly associated with an increased risk of urinary system cancer (OR=1.13, 95%CI=1.05-1.22). Furthermore, stratified analyses by the type of cancer, ethnicity, source of control and quality score presented a significantly increased risk associated with GSTT1 null genotype in bladder and prostate cancer subgroup, Caucasians and Indians subgroup, population-based(PB) subgroup, medium quality and low quality subgroup. Overall, our meta-analysis suggested that GSTT1 null genotype is a potential cancer susceptibility variant. Well-designed and large-cohort studies are needed to confirm the association between GSTT1 null genotype and urinary system cancer risk.

  14. Significance of increasing poverty levels for determining late-stage breast cancer diagnosis in 1990 and 2000.

    Barry, Janis; Breen, Nancy; Barrett, Michael


    We examine the association between late-stage breast cancer diagnosis and residential poverty in Detroit, Atlanta, and San Francisco in 1990 and 2000. We tested whether residence in census tracts with increasing levels of poverty were associated with increased odds of a late-stage diagnosis in 1990 and 2000 and found that it was. To test this, we linked breast cancer cases from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results cancer registries with poverty data from the census. Tracts were grouped into low, moderate, and high poverty based on the percentage of households reporting income below the poverty level. While late-stage breast cancer rates and the number of women living in high and moderate-poverty areas declined absolutely between 1990 and 2000, estimates from our combined three-city model showed that odds of a late-stage diagnosis remained stubbornly elevated in increasingly poor areas in both years. Non-Hispanic black women faced higher odds of a late-stage diagnosis relative to non-Hispanic white women in both years. In separate regressions for each city, the odds ratios affirm that combining data across cities may be misleading. In 1990 and 2000, only women living in moderately poor neighborhoods of San Francisco faced elevated odds, while in Detroit women in both moderate- and high-poverty areas faced increased likelihood of late-stage diagnosis. In Atlanta, none of the poverty measures were significant in 1990 or 2000. In our test of physician supply on stage, an increase in the number of neighborhood primary care doctor's offices was associated with decreased odds of a late-stage diagnosis only for Detroit residents and for non-Hispanic whites in the three-city model.

  15. The adipokine leptin increases skeletal muscle mass and significantly alters skeletal muscle miRNA expression profile in aged mice

    Hamrick, Mark W., E-mail: [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Herberg, Samuel; Arounleut, Phonepasong [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); He, Hong-Zhi [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Shiver, Austin [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Qi, Rui-Qun [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Zhou, Li [Henry Ford Immunology Program, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Dermatology, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Department of Internal Medicine, Henry Ford Health System, Detroit, MI (United States); Isales, Carlos M. [Department of Cellular Biology and Anatomy, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Institute of Molecular Medicine and Genetics, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA (United States); and others


    Research highlights: {yields} Aging is associated with muscle atrophy and loss of muscle mass, known as the sarcopenia of aging. {yields} We demonstrate that age-related muscle atrophy is associated with marked changes in miRNA expression in muscle. {yields} Treating aged mice with the adipokine leptin significantly increased muscle mass and the expression of miRNAs involved in muscle repair. {yields} Recombinant leptin therapy may therefore be a novel approach for treating age-related muscle atrophy. -- Abstract: Age-associated loss of muscle mass, or sarcopenia, contributes directly to frailty and an increased risk of falls and fractures among the elderly. Aged mice and elderly adults both show decreased muscle mass as well as relatively low levels of the fat-derived hormone leptin. Here we demonstrate that loss of muscle mass and myofiber size with aging in mice is associated with significant changes in the expression of specific miRNAs. Aging altered the expression of 57 miRNAs in mouse skeletal muscle, and many of these miRNAs are now reported to be associated specifically with age-related muscle atrophy. These include miR-221, previously identified in studies of myogenesis and muscle development as playing a role in the proliferation and terminal differentiation of myogenic precursors. We also treated aged mice with recombinant leptin, to determine whether leptin therapy could improve muscle mass and alter the miRNA expression profile of aging skeletal muscle. Leptin treatment significantly increased hindlimb muscle mass and extensor digitorum longus fiber size in aged mice. Furthermore, the expression of 37 miRNAs was altered in muscles of leptin-treated mice. In particular, leptin treatment increased the expression of miR-31 and miR-223, miRNAs known to be elevated during muscle regeneration and repair. These findings suggest that aging in skeletal muscle is associated with marked changes in the expression of specific miRNAs, and that nutrient

  16. Medication of /-tetrahydropalmatine significantly ameliorates opiate craving and increases the abstinence rate in heroin users: a pilot study

    Zheng YANG; Yong-cong SHAO; Shi-jiang LI; Jian-lin QI; Mei-jie ZHANG; Wei HAO; Guo-zhang JIN


    Aim: Drug addiction is a chronic brain disease with constant relapse requiring long-term treatment. New pharmacological strategies focus on the development of an effective antirelapse drug. This study examines the effects of levo-tetrahydropalmatine (l-THP) on reducing heroin craving and increasing the absti-nence rate among heroin-dependent patients. Methods: In total, 120 heroin-de-pendent patients participated in the randomized, double-blinded, and placebo-controlled study using l-THP treatment. The participants remained in a ward during a 4-week period of l-THP treatment, followed by 4 weeks of observation after treatment. The patients were followed for 3 months after discharge. Out-come measures are the measured severity of the protracted abstinence withdrawal syndrome (PAWS) and the abstinence rate. Results: Four weeks of l-THP treat-ment significantly ameliorated the severity of PAWS, specifically, somatic syndrome, mood states, insomnia, and drug craving, in comparison to the placebo group. Based on the 3 month follow-up observation, participants who survived the initial 2 weeks of I-THP medication and remained in the trial program had a significantly higher abstinence rate of 47.8% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 33%-67%) than the 15.2% in the placebo group (95% CI: 7%-25%), according to a log-rank test (P<0.0005). Conclusion: l-THP significantly ameliorated PAWS, espe-cially reducing drug craving. Furthermore, it increased the abstinence rate among heroin users. These results support the potential use of l-THP for the treatment of heroin addiction.

  17. Effect of fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,in infertile men with significantly increased testicular mast cells

    CayaS; ApaDD


    Aim:To investigate the role of fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,on semen quality in the treatment of infertile men.Methods:The study included 16 Turkish idiopathic infertile men with azoospermia or oligozoospermia who underwent testicular biopsy to examine maxt cells containing tryptase.In all patients,a complete metical history,clinical examination,semen analysis and serum hormone assay were carried out.The biopsy specimens were immunohistochemically stained with antihuman tryptase for mast cells.The number of total mast cells per seminiferous tubule was calculated and recorded as mast cell index.The patients were divided into two groups according to their mast cell index:the higher (≥1,n=9) and the lower (<1,n=7) index groups.Fexofenadine was administered orally at a dose of 180mg/day for 4 to 9 months.Pre-and post-treatment semen parameters,including total motile sperm counts(TMC) were recorded and compared.spontaneous pregnancies after the treatment were registered.Results:There was no statistically significant difference in TMC between the pre-treatment and post-treatment values in patients with higher and lower mast cell index(P≥0.05).In both groups,nobody had a significant response to the treatment and there was no spontaneous pregnancy after the treatment.Conclusion:Althought testicular dysfunction is closely associated with increased number of testicular mast cells,fexofenadine,a mast cell blocker,appears not having any benefit in the treatment of Turkish infertile men with a significant increase in testicular mast cells.

  18. Prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation in newly diagnosed multiple myeloma: results of a prospective DCE-MRI study

    Merz, Maximilian; Hillengass, Jens [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Moehler, Thomas M.; Ritsch, Judith; Delorme, Stefan [Department of Radiology, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Baeuerle, Tobias [University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Department of Radiology, Erlangen (Germany); Zechmann, Christian M. [Rinecker Proton Therapy, Muenchen (Germany); Wagner, Barbara; Hose, Dirk [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); Jauch, Anna [University of Heidelberg, Institute of Human Genetics, Heidelberg (Germany); Kunz, Christina; Hielscher, Thomas [German Cancer Research Center, Department of Biostatistics, Heidelberg (Germany); Laue, Hendrik [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Goldschmidt, Hartmut [University of Heidelberg, Department of Hematology, Oncology and Rheumatology, Heidelberg (Germany); National Center for Tumor Diseases, Heidelberg (Germany)


    Aim of this prospective study was to investigate prognostic significance of increased bone marrow microcirculation as detected by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) for survival and local complications in patients with multiple myeloma (MM). We performed DCE-MRI of the lumbar spine in 131 patients with newly diagnosed MM and analysed data according to the Brix model to acquire amplitude A and exchange rate constant k{sub ep}. In 61 patients a second MRI performed after therapy was evaluated to assess changes in vertebral height and identify vertebral fractures. Correlation analysis revealed significant positive association between beta2-microglobulin as well as immunoparesis with DCE-MRI parameters A and k{sub ep}. Additionally, A was negatively correlated with haemoglobin levels and k{sub ep} was positively correlated with LDH levels. Higher baseline k{sub ep} values were associated with decreased vertebral height in a second MRI (P = 0.007) and A values were associated with new vertebral fractures in the lower lumbar spine (P = 0.03 for L4). Pre-existing lytic bone lesions or remission after therapy had no impact on the occurrence of vertebral fractures. Multivariate analysis revealed that amplitude A is an independent adverse risk factor for overall survival. DCE-MRI is a non-invasive tool with significance for systemic prognosis and vertebral complications. (orig.)

  19. Activating killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) and their cognate HLA ligands are significantly increased in autism.

    Torres, Anthony R; Westover, Jonna B; Gibbons, Cole; Johnson, Randall C; Ward, David C


    Killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptor (KIR) proteins are expressed on natural killer (NK) cells and appear important in innate and adaptive immunity. There are about 14 KIR genes on chromosome 19q13.4, composed of those that inhibit and those that activate NK cell killing. Haplotypes have different combinations of these genes meaning that not all genes are present in a subject. There are two main classes of cognate human leukocyte antigen (HLA) ligands (HLA-Bw4 and HLA-C1/C2) that bind to the inhibitory/activating receptors. As a general rule, the inhibitory state is maintained except when virally infected or tumor cells are encountered; however, both increased activation and inhibition states have been associated with susceptibility and protection against numerous disease states including cancer, arthritis, and psoriasis. Utilizing DNA from 158 Caucasian subjects with autism and 176 KIR control subjects we show for the first time a highly significant increase in four activating KIR genes (2DS5, 3DS1, 2DS1 and 2DS4) as measured by chi square values and odds ratios. In addition, our data suggests a highly significant increase in the activating KIR gene 2DS1 and its cognate HLA-C2 ligand (2DS1+C2; p = 0.00003 [Odds ratio = 2.87]). This information ties together two major immune gene complexes, the human leukocyte complex and the leukocyte receptor complex, and may partially explain immune abnormalities observed in many subjects with autism.

  20. Neurite outgrowth is significantly increased by the simultaneous presentation of Schwann cells and moderate exogenous electric fields.

    Koppes, Abigail N; Seggio, Angela M; Thompson, Deanna M


    Axonal extension is influenced by a variety of external guidance cues; therefore, the development and optimization of a multi-faceted approach is probably necessary to address the intricacy of functional regeneration following nerve injury. In this study, primary dissociated neonatal rat dorsal root ganglia neurons and Schwann cells were examined in response to an 8 h dc electrical stimulation (0-100 mV mm(-1)). Stimulated samples were then fixed immediately, immunostained, imaged and analyzed to determine Schwann cell orientation and characterize neurite outgrowth relative to electric field strength and direction. Results indicate that Schwann cells are viable following electrical stimulation with 10-100 mV mm(-1), and retain a normal morphology relative to unstimulated cells; however, no directional bias is observed. Neurite outgrowth was significantly enhanced by twofold following exposure to either a 50 mV mm(-1) electric field (EF) or co-culture with unstimulated Schwann cells by comparison to neurons cultured alone. Neurite outgrowth was further increased in the presence of simultaneously applied cues (Schwann cells + 50 mV mm(-1) dc EF), exhibiting a 3.2-fold increase over unstimulated control neurons, and a 1.2-fold increase over either neurons cultured with unstimulated Schwann cells or the electrical stimulus alone. These results indicate that dc electric stimulation in combination with Schwann cells may provide synergistic guidance cues for improved axonal growth relevant to nerve injuries in the peripheral nervous system.

  1. Increased expression of long intergenic non-coding RNA LINC00152 in gastric cancer and its clinical significance.

    Pang, Qianqian; Ge, Jiaxin; Shao, Yongfu; Sun, Weiliang; Song, Haojun; Xia, Tian; Xiao, Bingxiu; Guo, Junming


    It has been known that differential expression of long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) plays critical roles in carcinogenesis. However, the significance of lncRNA, especially long intergenic ncRNA (lincRNA, the main type of lncRNA family), in the diagnosis of gastric cancer is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the expression level of LINC00152, a newfound lincRNA, in gastric carcinoma and its clinical association. The expression of LINC00152 in 71 pairs of tumorous and adjacent normal tissues from patients with gastric cancer was detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. And then, the potential associations between its level in gastric cancer tissue and the clinicopathological features were analyzed. Finally, a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was constructed for differentiating patients with gastric cancer from patients with benign gastric diseases. The results showed that the expression level of LINC00152 in gastric carcinoma was significantly increased, compared with matched normal tissue (P=0.045) and normal mucosa from health control (P=0.004), respectively. Levels of LINC00152 in gastric cancer cell lines, BGC-823, MGC-803, and SGC-7901, were significantly higher than those in human normal gastric epithelial cell line GES-1. In addition, high expression of LINC00152 was correlated with invasion (P=0.042). LINC00152 levels in gastric juice from patients with gastric cancer were further found significantly higher than those from normal controls (P=0.002). Moreover, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was up to 0.645 (95 % CI=0.559-0.740, P=0.003). This study highlights that lincRNA LINC00152 might be a novel biomarker for predicting gastric cancer.

  2. The GIP/GIPR axis is functionally linked to GH-secretion increase in a significant proportion of gsp(-) somatotropinomas.

    Regazzo, Daniela; Losa, Marco; Albiger, Nora; Terreni, Maria Rosa; Vazza, Giovanni; Ceccato, Filippo; Emanuelli, Enzo; Denaro, Luca; Scaroni, Carla; Occhi, Gianluca


    Objective: Glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide receptor (GIPR) overexpression has been recently described in a proportion of gsp(-) somatotropinomas and suggested to be associated with the paradoxical increase of GH (GH-PI) during an oral glucose load. Design and Methods: This study was aimed at linking the GIP/GIPR pathway to GH secretion in 25 somatotropinomas-derived primary cultures and correlating molecular with clinical features in acromegalic patients. Given the impairment of the GIPR/GIPR axis in acromegaly, an additional aim was to assess the effect of GH/IGF-1 stimulation on GIP expression in the enteroendocrine cell line STC-1. Results: nearly 80% of GIPR-expressing somatotropinomas, all of them negative for gsp mutations, show increased GH secretion upon GIP stimulation, higher sensitivity to forskolin but not to somatostatin analogues. Beside increased frequency of GH-PI, GIPR overexpression does not appear to affect acromegalic patients' clinical features. In STC-1 cells transfected with GIP promoter-driven luciferase vector, IGF-1 but not GH induced dose-dependent increase in luciferase activity. Conclusions: we demonstrate that GIPR mediates the GH-PI in a significant proportion of gsp(-) acromegalic patients. In these cases the stimulatory effect of IGF-I on GIP promoter support the hypothesis of a functional GH-IGF1-GIP axis. Further studies based on larger cohorts and the development of a stable transgenic model with inducible GIPR overexpression targeted to pituitary somatotroph lineage will be mandatory to establish the real role of GIPR in the pathogenesis of somatotropinomas.

  3. Evaluation of halothane as stressor agent in poultry / Avaliação do halotano como agente estressor em frangos

    Massami Shimokomaki


    Full Text Available Studies have been demonstrating in poultry, the existence of at least two causes for the formation of PSE meat: genetic through the sensibility towards halothane and the environmental factor in particular the temperature as the main factor. Thus the objective of this work was to evaluate halothane as stressor agent for broiler concomitantly to evaluating the PSE incidence by submitting these birds to thermal stress. In this experiment, 24 broilers of commercial lineage were divided in 6 animals for 4 treatments: HHH, broilers submitted to halothane test and slaughtered 1h after this test; HET broilers submitted to halothane at 35°C/1h after 48h of halothane test followed by the birds slaughtering; EET, broilers submitted to thermal stress and slaughtered immediately after this treatment, and finally the control treatment (CCC where broilers were not submitted to halothane test nor to thermal stress as control. The initial pH of Pectoralis major m, was evaluated 30 min post mortem and the pH final, color, (L*, a*, b* water holding capacity (WHC, and R value analysis were carried out after 24h of storage of fillet samples at 40C. The pH24h was higher (p ? 0.05 for CCC samples in comparison to other treatments and R value was higher for birds under HET and EET treatments in comparison to CCC (p ? 0.05 suggesting that the rigor mortis was more rapid in samples from birds submitted to thermal stress. The HHH, HET, and EET treatments presented 4 birds each with PSE meat and 2 broilers from CCC treatment originated PSE meat showing the influence not only halothane but also the thermal stress over broilers welfare. Finally, results demonstrated that halothane is a stressor agent as well as the thermal stress and both promoted dramatic biochemical changes bringing about the formation of broiler PSE meat. Resultados vêm mostrando uma direta relação entre a sensibilidade ao halotano e a ocorrência de filés PSE em aves, que pode ser originado pela

  4. HIV-1 structural proteins serve as PAMPs for TLR2 heterodimers significantly increasing infection and innate immune activation

    Kenneth Lee Rosenthal


    Full Text Available Immune activation is critical to HIV infection and pathogenesis; however, our understanding of HIV innate immune activation remains incomplete. Recently we demonstrated that soluble TLR2 (sTLR2 physically inhibited HIV-induced, NFκB activation and inflammation, as well as HIV-1 infection. In light of these findings, we hypothesized that HIV-1 structural proteins may serve as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs for cellular TLR2 heterodimers. These studies made use of primary human T cells and TZMbl cells stably transformed to express TLR2 (TZMbl-2. Our results demonstrated that cells expressing TLR2 showed significantly increased proviral DNA compared to cells lacking TLR2, and mechanistically this may be due to a TLR2-mediated increased CCR5 expression. Importantly, we show that HIV-1 structural proteins, p17, p24, and gp41 act as viral PAMPs signalling through TLR2 and its heterodimers leading to significantly increased immune activation via the NFκB signaling pathway. Using co-immunoprecipitation and a dot blot method, we demonstrated direct protein interactions between these viral PAMPs and TLR2, while only p17 and gp41 bound to TLR1. Specifically, TLR2/1 heterodimer recognized p17 and gp41, while p24 lead to immune activation through TLR2/6. These results were confirmed using TLR2/1 siRNA knock down assays which ablated p17 and gp41-induced cellular activation and through studies of HEK293 cells expressing selected TLRs. Interestingly, our results show in the absence of TLR6, p24 bound to TLR2 and blocked p17 and gp41-induced activation, thus providing a novel mechanism by which HIV-1 can manipulate innate sensing. Taken together, our results identified, for the first time, novel HIV-1 PAMPs that play a role in TLR2-mediated cellular activation and increased proviral DNA. These findings have important implications for our fundamental understanding of HIV-1 immune activation and pathogenesis, as well as HIV-1 vaccine development.

  5. Increase of electrodermal activity of heart meridian during physical exercise: the significance of electrical values in acupuncture and diagnostic importance.

    Pontarollo, Francesco; Rapacioli, Giuliana; Bellavite, Paolo


    Electric field measurements of skin potential and electrical currents are physiological indicators of electrodermal activity (EDA) and have been associated with a variety of sensory, cognitive and emotional stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the EDA at some hand acupoints before, during and after a physical exercise. EDA of eight points located at the corner of fingernails of hands was measured in 10 healthy young volunteers before, during and after a 14-min acute exercise in a bicycle ergometer. In pre-exercise resting state the parameters were stable and similar between the 8 different tested points, while during exercise a significant increase of current (from 1000-2000 to 4000-8000 nA) was observed, with the maximal values related to the point located on the ulnar side of the little finger, at the base of the nail, corresponding to the Shao chong (HT9) of heart meridian. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The presence of a sponsoring embryo in a batch of poor quality thawed embryos significantly increases pregnancy and implantation rate.

    Lightman, A; Kol, S; Wayner, V; Vertman, D; Manor, D; Itskovitz-Eldor, J


    To evaluate quantitatively the effect of one good-quality (sponsoring) embryo in a batch of low-quality thawed embryos on the implantation and pregnancy rates (PR). Retrospective analysis of data. Tertiary care center IVF clinic affiliated with a university medical school. Between March 1988 and April 1995, 392 IVF patients underwent a total of 440 thawing and ET cycles of 1,436 multicellular embryos. Implantation, clinical pregnancy, and multiple pregnancy rates. In the absence of sponsoring embryos in the thawed batch of embryos, a PR of 9.8% with an implantation rate of 3.1% was achieved. In the presence of a single sponsoring embryo, the PR nearly doubled (18.2%), with a significantly higher implantation rate of 7.0%. Only singleton pregnancies were achieved in the absence of sponsoring embryos compared with 21.7% multiple pregnancies in the single sponsoring embryo group. The presence of a sponsoring embryo in a batch of poor quality thawed embryos is an important factor that significantly increased pregnancy and implantation rates. The optimal strategy for planning batches of multicellular frozen embryos is to include at least one sponsoring embryo in each batch when possible. We speculate that the sponsoring embryo may favorably influence the chances of low-quality embryos to undergo successful implantation.

  7. Unequivocal detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic Ozone Hole through significant increases in atmospheric layers with minimum ozone

    de Laat, Jos; van Weele, Michiel; van der A, Ronald


    An important new landmark in present day ozone research is presented through MLS satellite observations of significant ozone increases during the ozone hole season that are attributed unequivocally to declining ozone depleting substances. For many decades the Antarctic ozone hole has been the prime example of both the detrimental effects of human activities on our environment as well as how to construct effective and successful environmental policies. Nowadays atmospheric concentrations of ozone depleting substances are on the decline and first signs of recovery of stratospheric ozone and ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole have been observed. The claimed detection of significant recovery, however, is still subject of debate. In this talk we will discuss first current uncertainties in the assessment of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole by using multi-variate regression methods, and, secondly present an alternative approach to identify ozone hole recovery unequivocally. Even though multi-variate regression methods help to reduce uncertainties in estimates of ozone recovery, great care has to be taken in their application due to the existence of uncertainties and degrees of freedom in the choice of independent variables. We show that taking all uncertainties into account in the regressions the formal recovery of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole cannot be established yet, though is likely before the end of the decade (before 2020). Rather than focusing on time and area averages of total ozone columns or ozone profiles, we argue that the time evolution of the probability distribution of vertically resolved ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole contains a better fingerprint for the detection of ozone recovery in the Antarctic ozone hole. The advantages of this method over more tradition methods of trend analyses based on spatio-temporal average ozone are discussed. The 10-year record of MLS satellite measurements of ozone in the Antarctic ozone hole shows a

  8. A comparative study of induction, maintenance and recovery characteristics of sevoflurane and halothane anaesthesia in pediatric patients (6 months to 6 years

    Shruti Redhu


    Conclusion: We conclude that induction with sevoflurane in nitrous oxide and oxygen leads to fast loss of consciousness and provides ideal conditions for managing the airway without supplemental opioids or muscle relaxants with haemodynamic stability and is therefore a reasonable alternative to halothane for paediatric patients.

  9. Hypoalbuminemia is significantly associated with increased clearance time of high dose methotrexate in patients being treated for lymphoma or leukemia.

    Reiss, Samantha N; Buie, Larry W; Adel, Nelly; Goldman, Debra A; Devlin, Sean M; Douer, Dan


    As a weak acid, methotrexate (MTX) is bound to serum albumin and has variable protein binding. The purpose of this study was to assess serum albumin's relationship with MTX pharmacokinetics by comparing MTX clearance and toxicities between patients with normal serum albumin to those with hypoalbuminemia. This single-center retrospective study included adult patients with leukemia or lymphoma who received their first MTX at a dose ≥1 g/m(2). Hypoalbuminemia was defined as serum albumin ≤3.4 g/dL. MTX clearance was defined as the first documented time the MTX level ≤0.05 μM. Fisher's exact tests and Wilcoxon rank sum tests were used to examine differences in toxicities, and Cox proportional hazard regression was used to assess relationship with time to clearance. Of 523 patients identified, 167 patients were evaluable. One hundred thirty-five patients had normal serum albumin and 32 had hypoalbuminemia. Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a higher proportion of patients experiencing edema, ascites or pleural effusions (34 vs. 12 %, p = 0.006), and the concomitant use of nephrotoxic agents (41 vs. 20 %, p = 0.021). Hypoalbuminemia was associated with a significantly longer time to MTX clearance (median 96 vs. 72 h, p = 0.004). In addition, patients with hypoalbuminemia had a higher proportion of hyperbilirubinemia and significantly longer hospitalization (median 14 vs. 5 days, p clearance and increased length of hospitalization. High dose MTX is safe to administer in patients with low albumin levels, with appropriate leucovorin rescue, and good supportive care.

  10. Levels of vitamin C In the blood plasma patients treated with coronary artery bypass grafting increases significantly after surgery.

    Kleszczewski, Tomasz; Modzelewska, Beata; Lisowska, Anna; Buzun, Leszek; Kleszczewska, Ewa


    One strong risk factor of coronary artery disease (CAD), which affects the levels of vitamin C in the blood is cigarette smoking. The supplementary effects of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) is smoking cessation by patients. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the level of vitamin C in the blood plasma one day before and one month after CABG. Human blood were collected from 20 patients (men); 1day before and 1 month after CABG. All patients were smoker and after CABG they declared their not smoking. The concentration of vitamin C in the blood plasma was assayed by FIA method with spectrophotometric detection. The mean value of the vitamin C concentration 1day before CABG was 12.36±2.84μmol/L (mean±SD), 1 month after CABG 40.07±10.95μmol/L (mean±SD). The average increase in the concentration of vitamin C was 3.27±0.73 times (mean±SD) and showed significant positive correlations (Pearson r=0.657, p=0.002). It should be consider incorporating the recommendations of preoperative smoking cessation for at least one month prior to CABG and/or additional supplementation. In addition it would be relevant to monitor the level of vitamin C in the patients' blood in the preoperative period.

  11. Edge effect and significant increase of the superconducting transition onset temperature of 2D superconductors in flat and curved geometries

    Wong, Chi Ho; Lortz, Rolf


    In this paper, we present a simple method to model the curvature activated phonon softening in a 2D superconducting layer. The superconducting transition temperature Tc in the case of a 2D rectangular sheet, a hollow cylinder and a hollow sphere of one coherence length thickness is calculated by the quantum mechanical electron-phonon scattering matrix, and a series of collective lattice vibrations in the surface state. We will show that being extremely thin in a flat rectangular shape is not enough to significantly enhance the Tc through phonon softening. However, if a curvature is added, Tc can be strongly enhanced. The increase in Tc with respect to the bulk is greatest in a hollow sphere, intermediate in a hollow cylinder and weakest for the rectangular sheet, when systems of identical length scale are considered. In addition, we find that the edge effect of such a 2D sheet has a strong broadening effect on Tc in addition to the effect of order parameter phase fluctuations.

  12. Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems



    The awareness of the problem of the scarcity of water of high quality has strongly changed the approach of wastewater treatment. Currently, there is an increasing need for the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and to recover valuable products and energy from the wastewater. Because microbiological treatment methods are, only to a limited part, able to satisfy these needs, the role and significance of physical/chemical pro-cesses in wastewater treatment are gaining more and more interest. The specific future role and aim of the various physical/chemical treatment processes can be categorized in five groups: improvement of the perform-ance of microbiological treatment processes, achieve-ment of the high quality required for reuse of the effluent, recovery of valuable components and energy from the wastewater for beneficial reuse, desalination of brackish water and seawater, and treatment of con-centrated liquid or solid waste residues produced in a wastewater treatment process. Development of more environmentally sustainable wastewater treatment chains in which physical/chemical processes play a cru-cial role, also requires application of process control and modeling strategies. This is briefly introduced by the elaboration of treatment scenarios for three specific wastewaters.

  13. Efeito do genótipo halotano e de diferentes sistemas de produção na qualidade da carne suína Effect of the halothane genes and rearing systems on meat quality of pork

    Ana Maria Bridi


    polymerase chain reaction (PCR amplification of the critical region of the ryanodine receptor and subsequent restricion of the amplifield fragment by the restriction fragment lengh polymorfism (RFLP technique. The pH at 45 minutes and 24 hours after slaughter was measured on the Longissimus dorsi and Semimembranosus muscles. At the laboratory, the Longissimus dorsi muscle was used for the evaluation of the color, marbling, drip loss, defrosting loss and cooking loss and shear force. The muscle of heterozygous pigs for the halothane gene had lower pH and higher drip loss and the incidence of the PSE condition in this genotype was three times higher. The rearing system did not affect the initial and ultimate pH or water holding capacity. Indoor reared pigs had greater frequency of PSE carcass. The interaction between halothane genotypes and rearing systems had no significant effect on any trait studied.


    José Henrique Saraiva Borges


    yet. Considering the increased use of ketamine, it is important to evaluate its cardiovascular and respiratory effects in halothane anesthetized horses. To conclude, S(+-ketamine 0.01mg/kg/min. continuous rate infusion did not induce additive cardiovascular and respiratory depression in halothane anesthetized horses.

    KEY WORDS: S(+-ketamine, horses, halothane, continuous rate infusion.

  15. 七氟醚氟烷异氟醚对犬心脏功能影响的临床比较%The clinical comparison among effects of Sevoflurane, Halothane and Isoflurane on the heart of dogs

    熊惠军; SabineTacke; 等


    To evaluate cardial effects of sevoflurane,compared with Halothane and Isofulrane,the study was carried out on 86 cardiopulmonary healthy dogs,which were taken to the veterinary hospital for elective surgery.All dogs were intravenously premedicated with l-methadone and diazepam.The surgical plane of anaesthesia was maintained with 1.5 vol% Sevoflurane,1.0 vol% Sevoflurane with 66.7% nitrous oxide,1.0 vol% halothane or 1.5 vol% Isoflurane respectively.All dogs were ventilated under control. Arrhythmia was not seen in any group.The decrease of heart rate during anaesthesia was lower in the group Sevoflurane(4.73%) than Isoflurane (9.74) and Halothane (10.23%).The indirect systolic and diastolic blood pressure increased slightly in the groups Sevoflurane (systolic 3.38%/diastolic 11.93%),Halothane (6.09%/9.09%) or Isoflurane (4.82%/6.25%).During Sevoflurane/nitrous oxide-anaesthesia the indirect systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased (6.84%/5.73%).Sevoflurane was clinicly proved to be a firstly chosen volatile anaesthetic agent.%为评价七氟醚对心脏功能的影响,并与氟烷和异氟醚作比较,对动物医院就诊、心肺功能正常、拟作手术治疗的86例患犬进行麻醉试验。所有犬均以l-美散痛和安定作为麻醉前给药。分别以1.5%七氟醚、1.0%七氟醚与66.7%笑气、1.0%氟烷、1.5%异氟醚维持手术麻醉,并作人工呼吸。各组均未观察到心律异常。手术麻醉期间,七氟醚组犬心率降幅(4.73%)低于异氟醚组(9.74%)或氟烷组(10.23%)。七氟醚组、氟烷组和异氟醚组的收缩压/舒张压轻度升高(七氟醚3.38%/11.93%,氟烷6.09%/9.09%,异氟醚4.82%/6.25%)。而七氟醚与笑气组的收缩压/舒张压则降低(6.84%/5.73%)。证实七氟醚应为临床首选的吸入麻醉剂。

  16. Marrying Step Feed with Secondary Clarifier Improvements to Significantly Increase Peak Wet Weather Treatment Capacity: An Integrated Methodology.

    Daigger, Glen T; Siczka, John S; Smith, Thomas F; Frank, David A; McCorquodale, J A


      The need to increase the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of the City of Akron, Ohio, Water Reclamation Facility (WRF) provided the opportunity to test an integrated methodology for maximizing the peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity of activated sludge systems. An initial investigation, consisting of process modeling of the secondary treatment system and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the existing relatively shallow secondary clarifiers (3.3 and 3.7 m sidewater depth in 30.5 m diameter units), indicated that a significant increase in capacity from 416 000 to 684 000 m3/d or more was possible by adding step feed capabilities to the existing bioreactors and upgrading the existing secondary clarifiers. One of the six treatment units at the WRF was modified, and an extensive 2-year testing program was conducted to determine the total peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity achievable. The results demonstrated that a peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity approaching 974 000 m3/d is possible as long as secondary clarifier solids and hydraulic loadings could be separately controlled using the step feed capability provided. Excellent sludge settling characteristics are routinely experienced at the City of Akron WRF, raising concerns that the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity could not be maintained should sludge settling characteristics deteriorate for some reason. Computational fluid dynamics analysis indicated that the impact of the deterioration of sludge settling characteristics could be mitigated and the identified peak wet weather secondary treatment capacity maintained by further use of the step feed capability provided to further reduce secondary clarifier solids loading rates at the identified high surface overflow rates. The results also demonstrated that effluent limits not only for total suspended solids (TSS) and five-day carbonaceous biochemical oxygen demand (cBOD5) could be

  17. The Intracranial Volume Pressure Response in Increased Intracranial Pressure Patients: Clinical Significance of the Volume Pressure Indicator


    Background For patients suffering from primary brain injury, monitoring intracranial pressure alone is not enough to reflect the dynamic intracranial condition. In our previous study, a segment of the pressure-volume curve can be expressed by the parabolic regression model with single indicator “a”. The aim of this study is to evaluate if the indicator “a” can reflect intracranial conditions. Methods Patients with traumatic brain injury, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage, and/or hydrocephalus who had external ventricular drainage from January 2009 to February 2010 were included. The successive volume pressure response values were obtained by successive drainage of cerebral spinal fluid from intracranial pressure 20–25 mm Hg to 10 mm Hg. The relationship between withdrawn cerebral spinal fluid volume and intracranial pressure was analyzed by the parabolic regression model with single parameter “a”. Results The overall mean for indicator “a” was 0.422 ± 0.046. The mean of “a” in hydrocephalus was 0.173 ± 0.024 and in severe intracranial mass with slender ventricle, it was 0.663 ± 0.062. The two extreme intracranial conditions had a statistical significant difference (phydrocephalus. Brain computed tomography should be performed early if a rapid elevation of indicator “a” is detected, as it can reveal some ongoing intracranial pathology prior to clinical deterioration. Increased intracranial pressure was frequently observed in patients with intracranial pathology. The progression can be differentiated using the pattern of the volume pressure indicator. PMID:27723794

  18. Note: significant increase to the temporal resolution of 2D X-ray detectors using a novel beam chopper system.

    Küchemann, Stefan; Mahn, Carsten; Samwer, Konrad


    The investigation of short time dynamics using X-ray scattering techniques is commonly limited either by the read out frequency of the detector or by a low intensity. In this paper, we present a chopper system, which can increase the temporal resolution of 2D X-ray detectors by a factor of 13. This technique only applies to amorphous or polycrystalline samples due to their circular diffraction patterns. Using the chopper, we successfully increased the temporal resolution up to 5.1 ms during synchrotron experiments. For the construction, we provide a mathematical formalism, which, in principle, allows an even higher increase of the temporal resolution.

  19. Presence of anomalous coronary seen on angiogram is not associated with increased risk of significant coronary artery disease.

    Suryanarayana, Prakash; Kollampare, Shubha; Riaz, Irbaz Bin; Lee, Justin; Husnain, Muhammad; Luni, Faraz Khan; Movahed, Mohammad Reza


    It is unclear if anomalous coronary arteries are at higher risk for atherosclerosis. The link between anomalous coronary artery and early coronary artery disease has been suggested. The aim of this study is to determine whether the coronary artery anomaly predisposes to development of significant coronary disease. Using retrospective chart review, patients with documented anomalous coronary arteries recognized during coronary angiography between years 2000 to 2007 were analyzed. Prevalence of significant atherosclerotic coronary artery disease (defined as more than 50% luminal narrowing) was compared between normal and anomalous coronaries. A total of 147 patients with anomalous coronary arteries were found. Right coronary artery was the most common anomalous artery 128 of 148 (86.5%) in our dataset. There was no difference in the occurrence of atherosclerosis between anomalous and nonanomalous coronaries. Significant atherosclerosis was present in 59 of the 148 anomalous coronary arteries (37.8%), and 112 of the 293 nonanomalous coronary arteries (38.2%, p = 0.9). On the basis of our study, there is no evidence that anomalous coronary arteries predispose to significant coronary artery disease in comparison to normal coronary arteries.

  20. Increasing significance of advanced physical/chemical processes in the development and application of sustainable wastewater treatment systems

    Rulkens, W.H.


    The awareness of the problem of the scarcity of water of high quality has strongly changed the approach of wastewater treatment. Currently, there is an increasing need for the beneficial reuse of treated wastewater and to recover valuable products and energy from the wastewater. Because microbiologi

  1. An adverse lipid profile and increased levels of adiposity significantly predict clinical course after a first demyelinating event.

    Tettey, Prudence; Simpson, Steve; Taylor, Bruce; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Lucas, Robyn M; Dwyer, Terence; Kostner, Karam; van der Mei, Ingrid Af


    To investigate the prospective associations between adiposity and lipid-related variables and conversion to multiple sclerosis (MS), time to subsequent relapse and progression in disability. A cohort of 279 participants with a first clinical diagnosis of central nervous system demyelination was prospectively followed to 5-year review. Height, weight, waist and hip circumference were measured, and serum samples taken for measurement of lipids and apolipoproteins. Survival analysis was used for conversion to MS and time to relapse, and linear regression for annualised change in disability (Expanded Disability Status Scale). Higher body mass index (BMI; adjusted HR (aHR): 1.22 (1.04 to 1.44) per 5 kg/m(2) increase), hip circumference (aHR: 1.32 (1.12 to 1.56) per 10 cm increase) and triglyceride levels (aHR: 1.20 (1.03 to 1.40) per unit increase) were associated with increased risk of subsequent relapse, while adiposity and lipid-related measures were not associated with conversion to MS. In addition, higher BMI (β: 0.04 (0.01 to 0.07) per 5 kg/m(2) increase), hip circumference (β: 0.04 (0.02 to 0.08) per 10 cm increase), waist circumference (β: 0.04 (0.02 to 0.07) per 10 cm increase), total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein ratio (TC/HDL ratio; β: 0.05 (0.001 to 0.10) and non-HDL; β: 0.04 (0.001 to 0.08) at study entry) were associated with a higher subsequent annual change in disability. Higher levels of adiposity, non-HDL and TC/HDL ratio were prospectively associated with a higher rate of disability progression, and higher adiposity and triglycerides were associated with relapse but not with conversion to MS. Improving the lipid profile and losing weight into the healthy range could reduce the accumulation of disability. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Regulated expression of an isopentenyltransferase gene (IPT) in peanut significantly improves drought tolerance and increases yield under field conditions.

    Qin, Hua; Gu, Qiang; Zhang, Junling; Sun, Li; Kuppu, Sundaram; Zhang, Yizheng; Burow, Mark; Payton, Paxton; Blumwald, Eduardo; Zhang, Hong


    Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot plants. This report extends the earlier findings in tobacco and rice to peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.), an important oil crop and protein source. Regulated expression of IPT in peanut significantly improved drought tolerance in both laboratory and field conditions. Transgenic peanut plants maintained higher photosynthetic rates, higher stomatal conductance and higher transpiration than wild-type control plants under reduced irrigation conditions. More importantly, transgenic peanut plants produced significantly higher yields than wild-type control plants in the field, indicating a great potential for the development of crops with improved performance and yield in water-limited areas of the world.

  3. Love is the triumph of the imagination: Daydreams about significant others are associated with increased happiness, love and connection.

    Poerio, Giulia L; Totterdell, Peter; Emerson, Lisa-Marie; Miles, Eleanor


    Social relationships and interactions contribute to daily emotional well-being. The emotional benefits that come from engaging with others are known to arise from real events, but do they also come from the imagination during daydreaming activity? Using experience sampling methodology with 101 participants, we obtained 371 reports of naturally occurring daydreams with social and non-social content and self-reported feelings before and after daydreaming. Social, but not non-social, daydreams were associated with increased happiness, love and connection and this effect was not solely attributable to the emotional content of the daydreams. These effects were only present when participants were lacking in these feelings before daydreaming and when the daydream involved imagining others with whom the daydreamer had a high quality relationship. Findings are consistent with the idea that social daydreams may function to regulate emotion: imagining close others may serve the current emotional needs of daydreamers by increasing positive feelings towards themselves and others.

  4. Tumorigenic lung tumorospheres exhibit stem-like features with significantly increased expression of CD133 and ABCG2

    Zhao, Wensi; Luo, Yi; Li, Boyi; Zhang, Tao


    Accumulating evidence supports the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in human tumors, and the successful certification of CSCs may lead to the identification of therapeutic targets, which are more effective for the treatment of cancer. The use of spherical cancer models has increased in popularity in cancer stem cell investigations. Tumorospheres, which are used as a model of CSCs and are established in serum-free medium supplemented with growth factors under non-adherent conditions, are ...

  5. 'Knowledge for better health' revisited - the increasing significance of health research systems: a review by departing Editors-in-Chief.

    Hanney, Stephen R; González-Block, Miguel A


    How can nations organise research investments to obtain the best bundle of knowledge and the maximum level of improved health, spread as equitably as possible? This question was the central focus of a major initiative from WHO led by Prof Tikki Pang, which resulted in a range of developments, including the publication of a conceptual framework for national health research systems - Knowledge for better health - in 2003, and in the founding of the journal Health Research Policy and Systems (HARPS). As Editors-in-Chief of the journal since 2006, we mark our retirement by tracking both the progress of the journal and the development of national health research systems. HARPS has maintained its focus on a range of central themes that are key components of a national health research system in any country. These include building capacity to conduct and use health research, identifying appropriate priorities, securing funds and allocating them accountably, producing scientifically valid research outputs, promoting the use of research in polices and practice in order to improve health, and monitoring and evaluating the health research system. Some of the themes covered in HARPS are now receiving increased attention and, for example, with the assessment of research impact and development of knowledge translation platforms, the journal has covered their progress throughout that expansion of interest. In addition, there is increasing recognition of new imperatives, including the importance of promoting gender equality in health research if benefits are to be maximised. In this Editorial, we outline some of the diverse and developing perspectives considered within each theme, as well as considering how they are held together by the growing desire to build effective health research systems in all countries.From 2003 until mid-June 2017, HARPS published 590 articles on the above and related themes, with authors being located in 76 countries. We present quantitative data tracing

  6. Significantly increased risk of cardiovascular disease among patients with gallstone disease: a population-based cohort study.

    Muideen Tunbosun Olaiya

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether gallstone disease (GD increases the risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD in a large population-based cohort. METHODS: A study population including 6,981 patients with GD was identified from The Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database between 2004 and 2005. GD patients were defined as patients with principal discharge diagnoses of cholelithiasis using the ICD-9-CM code 574. 27,924 patients without GD were randomly selected and matched for age and gender. All patients were followed for 6 years or until diagnosis for CVD. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to assess the risk of developing CVD with adjustment for age, gender and co-morbid conditions. RESULTS: During the six years follow-up period, 935 patients with GD and 2,758 patients without GD developed CVD. Patients with GD had an elevated risk of CVD (HR, 1.32; 95% CI, 1.22-1.43 when compared with those without GD. Similar relationship was observed when CVD was categorized i.e. stroke (HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.01-1.32, coronary heart disease (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.28-1.58 and heart failure (HR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.00-1.73. When GD was classified according to the level of severity, using patients without GD as reference, the risks of CVD were elevated in patients with non-severe GD (HR, 1.34; 95% CI, 1.24-1.46 as well as those with severe GD (HR, 1.20, 95% CI, 1.02-1.40, after adjusting for age, gender and comorbidities. In age-stratified analysis, patients aged 18-40 years with GD were at higher risk of developing CVD (HR, 1.42; 95% CI, 1.09-1.84 than older GD patients. CONCLUSION: This study found an increased risk of CVD in patients diagnosed with GD. The excess risk was particularly high in younger GD patients. Prevention of GD could help reduce the risk of developing CVD, and the better effect could be achieved for the younger age groups.

  7. Recombinant interleukin-2 significantly increases the survival of mice with peritonitis, but not acute Staphylococcus aureus peritoneal infection.

    Shadrin, O V; Kaufman, O Y; Dronova, O M; Bykovskaya, S N


    The effect of recombinant interleukin 2 (rIL-2) on survival of mice with peritonitis and acute Staphylococcus aureus strain 5/2 infection was studied. rIL-2 was ineffective in the case of acute infection when administered simultaneously with LD95 dose of bacteria. The antibiotics (gentamycin or a combination of penicillin and streptomycin) administered in the same fashion cured 100% of animals. rIL-2 proved to be a potent healing agent in the two of three models of S aureus peritonitis. In this case animals received bacteria at days 0 and 2, 4, or 6. rIL-2 was injected at day 0 (group 1), days 0 and 2 (group 2), and days 0, 2, and 4 (group 3). Treatment with rIL-2 was ineffective in group 1; however, in groups 2 and 3 rIL-2 increased the survival up to 90% (in comparison with 30% in the untreated animals of group 2 and 64% in group 3). On the contrary, administration of antibiotics instead of rIL-2 in the group 3 decreased survival to 25%. The perspectives of rIL-2 use in the treatment of bacterial peritonitis, including purous ones, and the cases complicated by immunodepression, are discussed.

  8. High Dose Atorvastatin Associated with Increased Risk of Significant Hepatotoxicity in Comparison to Simvastatin in UK GPRD Cohort.

    Alan T Clarke

    Full Text Available Occasional risk of serious liver dysfunction and autoimmune hepatitis during atorvastatin therapy has been reported. We compared the risk of hepatotoxicity in atorvastatin relative to simvastatin treatment.The UK GPRD identified patients with a first prescription for simvastatin [164,407] or atorvastatin [76,411] between 1997 and 2006, but with no prior record of liver disease, alcohol-related diagnosis, or liver dysfunction. Incident liver dysfunction in the following six months was identified by biochemical value and compared between statin groups by Cox regression model adjusting for age, sex, year treatment started, dose, alcohol consumption, smoking, body mass index and comorbid conditions.Moderate to severe hepatotoxicity [bilirubin >60μmol/L, AST or ALT >200U/L or alkaline phosphatase >1200U/L] developed in 71 patients on atorvastatin versus 101 on simvastatin. Adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] for all atorvastatin relative to simvastatin was 1.9 [95% confidence interval 1.4-2.6]. High dose was classified as 40-80mg daily and low dose 10-20mg daily. Hepatotoxicity occurred in 0.44% of 4075 patients on high dose atorvastatin [HDA], 0.07% of 72,336 on low dose atorvastatin [LDA], 0.09% of 44,675 on high dose simvastatin [HDS] and 0.05% of 119,732 on low dose simvastatin [LDS]. AHRs compared to LDS were 7.3 [4.2-12.7] for HDA, 1.4 [0.9-2.0] for LDA and 1.5 [1.0-2.2] for HDS.The risk of hepatotoxicity was increased in the first six months of atorvastatin compared to simvastatin treatment, with the greatest difference between high dose atorvastatin and low dose simvastatin. The numbers of events in the analyses were small.

  9. Alterações cardiovasculares de gatos submetidos à toracotomia intercostal, pré-medicados com associação de tramadol, butorfanol e atropina e anestesiados com propofol e halotano Cardiovascular changes in cats submitted to intercostal thoracotomy, premedication with association tramadol, butorphanol, atropine, anesthetised with propofol and halothane

    Juliana Tabarelli Brondani


    ventilation. All cats were submitted to lateral intercostal thoracotomy for an autogenic pericardium graft implantation in the diaphragm. Variables studied were heart rate (bpm, hemoglobin oxygen saturation (%, systolic arterial pressure (mmHg, and halothane vaporization (%. Time for data collection were 20 minutes after premedication (TMPA, 10 minutes after induction and every 10 minutes up to the end of the surgical procedure (T10 to T100. Data were analyzed with ANOVA and Bonferroni's test (p<0.05. Results demonstrated statistically significant reduction in arterial systolic pressure and heart rate, however, kept within the physiologic variation parameter to felines. Hemoglobin oxygen saturation was close to 100% in all times. Halothane vaporization decreased significantly from T30 to T100, staying for most of the surgical time below the minim alveolar concentration for cats. In conclusion the assotiation tramadol (2.0mg kg-1, butorphanol (0.4mg kg-1 and atropine (0.044mg kg-1 in the premedication of cats anesthetised with propofol (5.0mg kg-1 and halothane, intramuscularly, produces minimal changes cardiovasculares, don't produce sedation and promote analgesia satisfactory for lateral intercostal thoracotomy.

  10. Changes in rocket salad phytochemicals within the commercial supply chain: Glucosinolates, isothiocyanates, amino acids and bacterial load increase significantly after processing.

    Bell, Luke; Yahya, Hanis Nadia; Oloyede, Omobolanle Oluwadamilola; Methven, Lisa; Wagstaff, Carol


    Five cultivars of Eruca sativa and a commercial variety of Diplotaxis tenuifolia were grown in the UK (summer) and subjected to commercial growth, harvesting and processing, with subsequent shelf life storage. Glucosinolates (GSL), isothiocyanates (ITC), amino acids (AA), free sugars, and bacterial loads were analysed throughout the supply chain to determine the effects on phytochemical compositions. Bacterial load of leaves increased significantly over time and peaked during shelf life storage. Significant correlations were observed with GSL and AA concentrations, suggesting a previously unknown relationship between plants and endemic leaf bacteria. GSLs, ITCs and AAs increased significantly after processing and during shelf life. The supply chain did not significantly affect glucoraphanin concentrations, and its ITC sulforaphane significantly increased during shelf life in E. sativa cultivars. We hypothesise that commercial processing may increase the nutritional value of the crop, and have added health benefits for the consumer.

  11. Nitric oxide (NO) is an endogenous anticonvulsant but not a mediator of the increase in cerebral blood flow accompanying bicuculline-induced seizures in rats

    Wang, Qian; Theard, M A; Pelligrino, D A;


    ) is NO an endogenous anticonvulsant or proconvulsant substance? and (2) is the cerebral blood flow (CBF) increase accompanying bicuculline (BC)-induced seizures mediated by NO? The experiments were performed in 300-400-g Wistar rats anesthetized with 0.6% halothane and 70% N2O/30% O2. CBF was measured using...

  12. Comparison of the cardiopulmonary effects of anesthesia maintained by continuous infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine with anesthesia maintained by inhalation of halothane in horses.

    McMurphy, Rose M; Young, Lesley E; Marlin, David J; Walsh, Karen


    To compare cardiopulmonary responses during anesthesia maintained with halothane and responses during anesthesia maintained by use of a total intravenous anesthetic (TIVA) regimen in horses. 7 healthy adult horses (1 female, 6 geldings). Each horse was anesthetized twice. Romifidine was administered IV, and anesthesia was induced by IV administration of ketamine. Anesthesia was maintained for 75 minutes by administration of halothane (HA) or IV infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine (TIVA). The order for TIVA or HA was randomized. Cardiopulmonary variables were measured 40, 60, and 75 minutes after the start of HA orTIVA. Systolic, diastolic, and mean carotid arterial pressures, velocity time integral, and peak acceleration of aortic blood flow were greater, and systolic, diastolic, and mean pulmonary arterial pressure were lower at all time points for TIVA than for HA. Pre-ejection period was shorter and ejection time was longer for TIVA than for HA. Heart rate was greater for HA at 60 minutes. Minute ventilation and alveolar ventilation were greater and inspiratory time was longer for TIVA than for HA at 75 minutes. The PaCO2 was higher at 60 and 75 minutes for HA than forTIVA. Horses receiving a constant-rate infusion of romifidine, guaifenesin, and ketamine maintained higher arterial blood pressures than when they were administered HA. There was some indication that left ventricular function may be better during TIVA, but influences of preload and afterload on measured variables could account for some of these differences.

  13. Significant Increase in Hydrogen Photoproduction Rates and Yields by Wild-Type Algae is Detected at High Photobioreactor Gas Phase Volume (Fact Sheet)


    This NREL Hydrogen and Fuel Cell Technical Highlight describes how hydrogen photoproduction activity in algal cultures can be improved dramatically by increasing the gas-phase to liquid-phase volume ratio of the photobioreactor. NREL, in partnership with subcontractors from the Institute of Basic Biological Problems in Pushchino, Russia, demonstrated that the hydrogen photoproduction rate in algal cultures always decreases exponentially with increasing hydrogen partial pressure above the culture. The inhibitory effect of high hydrogen concentrations in the photobioreactor gas phase on hydrogen photoproduction by algae is significant and comparable to the effect observed with some anaerobic bacteria.

  14. Editorial Commentary: Big Data Suggest That Because of a Significant Increased Risk of Postoperative Infection, Steroid Injection Is Not Recommended After Ankle Arthroscopy.

    Brand, Jefferson C


    A recent study addressing infection rate after intra-articular steroid injection during ankle arthroscopy gives pause to this practice, with an odds ratio of 2.2 in the entire population that was injected with a steroid simultaneously with ankle arthroscopy compared with patients who did not receive an ankle injection. Big data, used in the study upon which the Editor comments here, suggest that because of a significant increased risk of postoperative infection, steroid injection is not recommended after ankle arthroscopy.

  15. Estudo comparativo entre sevofluorano, halotano e isofluorano em Gallus domesticus Comparite evaluation with sevoflurane, halothane and isoflurane in Gallus domesticus

    Luciana Dambrosio Guimarães


    Full Text Available Foram utilizados 30 frangos com 20 semanas de idade, pesando em média 2,90 ± 0,65kg divididos aleatoriamente em três grupos. A indução da anestesia foi realizada com máscara facial artesanal conectada ao sistema de Maggil Modificado, utilizando entre 3,0 e 3,5 vezes a dose anestésica mínima (DAM de cada agente e fluxo diluente de O2 de 2l/min, sendo que posteriormente os animais foram intubados e mantidos com valores de aproximadamente 1,7DAM durante 65 minutos. O isofluorano causou maior depressão respiratória e hipotensão; o halotano proporcionou maiores valores de pressão arterial e temperatura corporal e o sevofluorano, menor depressão respiratória e hipotensão em relação ao grupo do isofluorano, sendo considerado o agente mais indicado para a utilização em aves. A indução e recuperação foram mais rápidas com o sevofluorano, embora sem diferença significativa estatisticamente.For the comparison 30 twenty-week-old chicken were used. They weigh na averdage of 2.90 ± 0.65kg aleatorily divided into 3 groups. The anesthetic induction was accomplished with a home-made facial mask connected with the modified circuit of Maggil using values between 3.0 e 3.5 a minimal anesthetic dose (MAD for each agent. Posteriorly, the animals were intubated and anesthesia was maintained with values approximately 1.7DAM during 65 minutes. Isoflurane caused further respiratory depression and hypotension when it is compared to the other two anesthetic agents. The group of halothane presented higher values of blood pressure and body temperature and the group of sevoflurane, lower respiratory depression and hypotension in relation to the group of isoflurane. The induction and recuperation were faster with the sevoflurane, although without expressive diference statistically. The sevoflurane is the most indicated anesthetic agent.

  16. Endosperm-specific co-expression of recombinant soybean ferritin and Aspergillus phytase in maize results in significant increases in the levels of bioavailable iron.

    Drakakaki, Georgia; Marcel, Sylvain; Glahn, Raymond P; Lund, Elizabeth K; Pariagh, Sandra; Fischer, Rainer; Christou, Paul; Stoger, Eva


    We have generated transgenic maize plants expressing Aspergillus phytase either alone or in combination with the iron-binding protein ferritin. Our aim was to produce grains with increased amounts of bioavailable iron in the endosperm. Maize seeds expressing recombinant phytase showed enzymatic activities of up to 3 IU per gram of seed. In flour paste prepared from these seeds, up to 95% of the endogenous phytic acid was degraded, with a concomitant increase in the amount of available phosphate. In seeds expressing ferritin in addition to phytase, the total iron content was significantly increased. To evaluate the impact of the recombinant proteins on iron absorption in the human gut, we used an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. We found that phytase in the maize seeds was associated with increased cellular iron uptake, and that the rate of iron uptake correlated with the level of phytase expression regardless of the total iron content of the seeds. We also investigated iron bioavailability under more complex meal conditions by adding ascorbic acid, which promotes iron uptake, to all samples. This resulted in a further increase in iron absorption, but the effects of phytase and ascorbic acid were not additive. We conclude that the expression of recombinant ferritin and phytase could help to increase iron availability and enhance the absorption of iron, particularly in cereal-based diets that lack other nutritional components.

  17. Efeitos do modo ventilatório sobre variáveis hemogasométricas em equinos submetidos à mudança de decúbito durante a anestesia geral inalatória com halotano Effects of the ventilatory regimen on arterial blood gas variables in horses that underwent a change in body position during halothane anesthesia

    P.A. Sá


    Full Text Available Compararam-se os efeitos da ventilação espontânea (V E e controlada (V C em equinos submetidos à mudança de decúbito durante anestesia. Dezesseis animais foram equitativamente divididos em dois grupos: V E e V C. Os procedimentos cirúrgicos foram iniciados com os animais em decúbito lateral esquerdo (DLE e, após 75 minutos, os animais foram reposicionados em decúbito lateral direito (DLD. Análises hemogasométricas do sangue arterial foram realizadas após 30 e 75 minutos com os animais posicionados em cada decúbito (M1 e M2 no DLE e M3 e M4 no DLD, respectivamente. Durante a V E, observaram-se hipercapnia (PaCO2 >45mmHg, acidose respiratória (pH The effects of spontaneous (SV and controlled ventilation (CV were compared in horses undergoing changes in body position during anesthesia. Sixteen animals were equally distributed in two groups: SV and CV. All surgical procedures were commenced on left lateral recumbency (LLR and 75 minutes later the animals were repositioned on right lateral recumbency (RLR. Arterial blood gas analyses were performed at 30 and 75 minutes after each recumbency (M1 and M2 for LLR and M3 and M4 for RLR. Hypercapnia (PaCO2 >45mmHg, respiratory acidosis (pH <7.35, and significant decrease in PaO2 after 75min of change in body position (M4: 205.8±124.7mmHg in comparison to PaO2 values before the change of position (M1: 271.8±84.8mmHg were observed during SV. When compared to the SV group, CV resulted in significantly higher PaO2 levels (52 to 96% increase. It was concluded that the change in the body position in spontaneously ventilating halothane-anesthetized horses causes impairment in arterial oxygenation. The use of CV since the beginning of anesthesia prevents the respiratory acidosis and maintains arterial oxygen levels that are closer to values expected during the use of 100% O2.

  18. Significant association between glycemic status and increased estimated postglomerular resistance in nondiabetic subjects - study of inulin and para-aminohippuric acid clearance in humans.

    Yasumoto, Mari; Tsuda, Akihiro; Ishimura, Eiji; Uedono, Hideki; Ohno, Yoshiteru; Ichii, Mitsuru; Ochi, Akinobu; Nakatani, Shinya; Mori, Katsuhito; Uchida, Junji; Emoto, Masanori; Nakatani, Tatsuya; Inaba, Masaaki


    We investigated whether glomerular hemodynamic parameters in nondiabetic subjects, including healthy subjects, are associated with glycemic status indices, by simultaneous measurement of inulin (Cin) and para-aminohippuric acid (CPHA) clearance. Twenty-six subjects (age 49.5 ± 13.3 years; 13 men and 13 women; 14 healthy subjects and 12 subjects with mild proteinuria) were enrolled. Cin and CPAH were measured simultaneously. All 26 subjects were nondiabetics. Estimated preglomerular resistance, estimated postglomerular resistance, and estimated glomerular hydrostatic pressure (Pglo) were calculated according to Gomez' formula. Pglo correlated significantly and positively with hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) in both healthy subjects (r = 0.532, P = 0.0498) and subjects with mild proteinuria (r = 0.681, P = 0.015). While there was no significant correlation between estimated preglomerular resistance and HbA1c, estimated postglomerular resistance correlated significantly and positively with HbA1c both in healthy subjects (r = 0.643, P = 0.013) and subjects with mild proteinuria (r = 0.589, P = 0.044). Glomerular filtration fraction, estimated Pglo and estimated postglomerular resistance in total subjects were associated significantly with HbA1c after adjustment for age, gender, and body mass index. These results demonstrate that, even in nondiabetic subjects, glycemic status is associated with estimated postglomerular resistance, but not estimated preglomerular resistance. It is suggested that increased estimated postglomerular resistance associated with higher HbA1c levels, even within the normal range, causes increased estimated Pglo, leading to increased FF. Thus, hemodynamic abnormalities associated with higher HbA1c levels may be related to glomerular hypertension, even in nondiabetic subjects.

  19. The polymorphism interleukin-8 -251A/T is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancers from a meta-analysis.

    Wang, Ziliang; Liu, Yang; Yang, Lina; Yin, Sheng; Zang, Rongyu; Yang, Gong


    Emerging evidences show that interleukin-8 (IL-8) has important regulatory functions in tumorigenesis. IL-8 -251A/T is a single nucleotide polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-8 gene and affects IL-8 production. Analysis of previous studies on the association of -251A/T polymorphism with different cancer types remained to be illustrated. To further assess the effect of -251A/T polymorphism on cancer risks, we performed this meta-analysis, up to November 2013, of 12,917 cases with different cancer types and 17,689 controls from 47 published case-control designed studies. Statistical analyses were performed using STATA 11.0 software. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of associations. ORs with 95 % CIs for IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism and cancer were estimated using fixed- and random-effects models when appropriate. Significantly increased risks were found in overall under the models of A allele vs. T allele, AA vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT. Significantly elevated risks were observed in breast cancer under the models of A allele vs. T allele, AT vs. TT, AA/AT vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT, and in nasopharyngeal carcinoma under the models of AT vs. TT, AA/AT vs. TT, and AA vs. AT/TT. We found that significantly elevated risks were observed in the Asian population and hospital-based studies in all comparison models. Thus, this meta-analysis indicates that IL-8 -251A/T polymorphism is associated with a significantly increased risk of cancers and may provide evidence-based medical certificate to study the cancer susceptibility.

  20. Sunitinib significantly suppresses the proliferation, migration, apoptosis resistance, tumor angiogenesis and growth of triple-negative breast cancers but increases breast cancer stem cells.

    Chinchar, Edmund; Makey, Kristina L; Gibson, John; Chen, Fang; Cole, Shelby A; Megason, Gail C; Vijayakumar, Srinivassan; Miele, Lucio; Gu, Jian-Wei


    The majority of triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are basal-like breast cancers. However there is no reported study on anti-tumor effects of sunitinib in xenografts of basal-like TNBC (MDA-MB-468) cells. In the present study, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, MCF-7 cells were cultured using RPMI 1640 media with 10% FBS. Vascular endothelia growth factor (VEGF) protein levels were detected using ELISA (R & D Systams). MDA-MB-468 cells were exposed to sunitinib for 18 hours for measuring proliferation (3H-thymidine incorporation), migration (BD Invasion Chamber), and apoptosis (ApopTag and ApoScreen Anuexin V Kit). The effect of sunitinib on Notch-1 expression was determined by Western blot in cultured MDA-MB-468 cells. 10(6) MDA-MB-468 cells were inoculated into the left fourth mammary gland fat pad in athymic nude-foxn1 mice. When the tumor volume reached 100 mm(3), sunitinib was given by gavage at 80 mg/kg/2 days for 4 weeks. Tumor angiogenesis was determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Breast cancer stem cells (CSCs) isolated from the tumors were determined by flow cytometry analysis using CD44(+)/CD24(-) or low. ELISA indicated that VEGF was much more highly expressed in MDA-MB-468 cells than MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7 cells. Sunitinib significantly inhibited the proliferation, invasion, and apoptosis resistance in cultured basal like breast cancer cells. Sunitinib significantly increased the expression of Notch-1 protein in cultured MDA-MB-468 or MDA-MB-231 cells. The xenograft models showed that oral sunitinib significantly reduced the tumor volume of TNBCs in association with the inhibition of tumor angiogeneisis, but increased breast CSCs. These findings support the hypothesis that the possibility should be considered of sunitinib increasing breast CSCs though it inhibits TNBC tumor angiogenesis and growth/progression, and that effects of sunitinib on Notch expression and hypoxia may increase breast cancer stem cells. This work provides the groundwork for an

  1. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S.; Do, Ly V.; Purdy, James A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States); Chen, Allen M., E-mail: [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of California, Davis, Sacramento, CA (United States)


    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 {+-} 1.5 cm{sup 3}. With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  2. Addition of a third field significantly increases dose to the brachial plexus for patients undergoing tangential whole-breast therapy after lumpectomy.

    Stanic, Sinisa; Mathai, Mathew; Mayadev, Jyoti S; Do, Ly V; Purdy, James A; Chen, Allen M


    Our goal was to evaluate brachial plexus (BP) dose with and without the use of supraclavicular (SCL) irradiation in patients undergoing breast-conserving therapy with whole-breast radiation therapy (RT) after lumpectomy. Using the standardized Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG)-endorsed guidelines delineation, we contoured the BP for 10 postlumpectomy breast cancer patients. The radiation dose to the whole breast was 50.4 Gy using tangential fields in 1.8-Gy fractions, followed by a conedown to the operative bed using electrons (10 Gy). The prescription dose to the SCL field was 50.4 Gy, delivered to 3-cm depth. The mean BP volume was 14.5 ± 1.5 cm(3). With tangential fields alone, the median mean dose to the BP was 0.57 Gy, the median maximum dose was 1.93 Gy, and the irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 0%. When the third (SCL field) was added, the dose to the BP was significantly increased (P = .01): the median mean dose to the BP was 40.60 Gy, and the median maximum dose was 52.22 Gy. With 3-field RT, the median irradiated volume of the BP receiving 40, 45, and 50 Gy was 83.5%, 68.5%, and 24.6%, respectively. The addition of the SCL field significantly increases dose to the BP. The possibility of increasing the risk of BP morbidity should be considered in the context of clinical decision making.

  3. Clinical significance of increased cerebellar default-mode network connectivity in resting-state patients with drug-naive somatization disorder

    Wang, Houliang; Guo, Wenbin; Liu, Feng; Chen, Jindong; Wu, Renrong; Zhang, Zhikun; Yu, Miaoyu; Li, Lehua; Zhao, Jingping


    Abstract The cerebellum has been proven to be connected to the brain network, as in the default-mode network (DMN), among healthy subjects and patients with psychiatric disorders. However, whether or not abnormal cerebellar DMN connectivity exists and what its clinical significance is among drug-naive patients with somatization disorder (SD) at rest remain unclear. A total of 25 drug-naive patients with SD and 28 healthy controls were enrolled for a resting-state scan. The imaging data were analyzed using the seed-based functional connectivity (FC) method. Compared with the controls, patients with SD showed increased left/right Crus I-left/right angular gyrus (AG) connectivity and Lobule IX-left superior medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC) connectivity. The FC values of the left/right Crus I-right AG connectivity of the patients were positively correlated with their scores in the somatization subscale of the symptom checklist-90 (Scl-90). A trend level of correlations was observed between the FC values of the left Crus I-left AG connectivity of the patients and their scores for the somatization subscale of Scl-90, as well as between the FC values of their Lobule IX-left superior MPFC connectivity and their scores for the Eysenck personality questionnaire (EPQ) extraversion. Our findings show the increased cerebellar DMN connectivity in patients with SD and therefore highlight the importance of the DMN in the neurobiology of SD. Increased cerebellar DMN connectivities are also correlated with their somatization severity and personality, both of which bear clinical significance. PMID:27428190

  4. The In Vitro Mass-Produced Model Mycorrhizal Fungus, Rhizophagus irregularis, Significantly Increases Yields of the Globally Important Food Security Crop Cassava

    Ceballos, Isabel; Ruiz, Michael; Fernández, Cristhian; Peña, Ricardo


    The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is formed between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant roots. The fungi provide the plant with inorganic phosphate (P). The symbiosis can result in increased plant growth. Although most global food crops naturally form this symbiosis, very few studies have shown that their practical application can lead to large-scale increases in food production. Application of AMF to crops in the tropics is potentially effective for improving yields. However, a main problem of using AMF on a large-scale is producing cheap inoculum in a clean sterile carrier and sufficiently concentrated to cheaply transport. Recently, mass-produced in vitro inoculum of the model mycorrhizal fungus Rhizophagus irregularis became available, potentially making its use viable in tropical agriculture. One of the most globally important food plants in the tropics is cassava. We evaluated the effect of in vitro mass-produced R. irregularis inoculum on the yield of cassava crops at two locations in Colombia. A significant effect of R. irregularis inoculation on yield occurred at both sites. At one site, yield increases were observed irrespective of P fertilization. At the other site, inoculation with AMF and 50% of the normally applied P gave the highest yield. Despite that AMF inoculation resulted in greater food production, economic analyses revealed that AMF inoculation did not give greater return on investment than with conventional cultivation. However, the amount of AMF inoculum used was double the recommended dose and was calculated with European, not Colombian, inoculum prices. R. irregularis can also be manipulated genetically in vitro, leading to improved plant growth. We conclude that application of in vitro R. irregularis is currently a way of increasing cassava yields, that there is a strong potential for it to be economically profitable and that there is enormous potential to improve this efficiency further in the future. PMID:23950975

  5. Unusual prostate carcinoma characterized by extensive metastasis, significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen, and neuroendocrine differentiation: a case report

    HU Yuxin; YE Juan; JIANG Ying; ZHANG Qin-fang; WU Yue-long; CHEN Yue-yu


    @@ Some rare variants of prostate carcinoma have been described in recent years.1-3 In this article we report a man with uncommon prostate carcinoma with the following three pathological characteristics: (a) extensive metastasis to bone and lymph nodes of the abdomen, pelvis, and supraclavicular area; (b) significantly increased serum level of prostatic-specific antigen (PSA) as high as 1800 ng/ml; and (c) partial neuroendocrine differentiation in cancer tissue. The patient died 7 months after pathological diagnosis or 22 months after appearance of initial signs. This case has drawn our attention to the fact that pathological diversity of prostate neoplasm might easily lead to misdiagnosis or to delayed diagnosis, and moreover, reasonable therapy for such a case should be based on a thorough investigation. On the other hand, early initiation of appropriate treatment of advanced neuroendocrine carcinoma may improve the prognosis.

  6. Immunization of teenagers with a fifth dose of reduced DTaP-IPV induces high levels of pertussis antibodies with a significant increase in opsonophagocytic activity.

    Aase, Audun; Herstad, Tove Karin; Merino, Samuel; Bolstad, Merete; Sandbu, Synne; Bakke, Hilde; Aaberge, Ingeborg S


    Waning vaccine-induced immunity against Bordetella pertussis is observed among adolescents and adults. A high incidence of pertussis has been reported in this population, which serves as a reservoir for B. pertussis. A fifth dose of reduced antigen of diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine was given as a booster dose to healthy teenagers. The antibody activity against B. pertussis antigens was measured prior to and 4 to 8 weeks after the booster by different assays: enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) of IgG and IgA against pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), IgG against pertactin (PRN), opsonophagocytic activity (OPA), and IgG binding to live B. pertussis. There was a significant increase in the IgG activity against PT, FHA, and PRN following the booster immunization (P antibodies against FHA and PRN contribute the most to the OPA and IgG binding.

  7. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students’ Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease

    Simon, Uwe K.; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas


    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries’ schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14–17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14–17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula. PMID:26919557

  8. A Three-Lesson Teaching Unit Significantly Increases High School Students' Knowledge about Epilepsy and Positively Influences Their Attitude towards This Disease.

    Simon, Uwe K; Gesslbauer, Lisa; Fink, Andreas


    Epilepsy is not a regular topic in many countries' schools. Thus many people harbor misconceptions about people suffering from this disease. It was our aim to a) examine what grade ten students know and believe about epilepsy, and b) to develop and test a teaching unit to improve their knowledge and attitude. The test group comprised eight grade ten classes from six different Austrian high schools (54 girls and 51 boys aged 14-17), the control group (no intervention) five grade ten classes from the same schools (26 girls and 37 boys aged 14-17). The teaching unit consisted of three 45-min lessons using different methods and material. Changes in knowledge about and attitude towards epilepsy as a result of the intervention were psychometrically assessed in a pre-test intervention post-test design (along with a follow-up assessment two months after the intervention) by means of a questionnaire capturing different facets of epilepsy-related knowledge and attitude. Across all knowledge/attitude domains, students of the test group had a significantly improved knowledge about and a more positive attitude towards epilepsy and people suffering from it after the teaching unit. However, starting levels were different between the five knowledge/attitude domains tested. Medical background knowledge was lowest and consequently associated with the highest increase after the intervention. This study shows that epilepsy-related knowledge of many grade ten high school students is fragmentary and that some harbor beliefs and attitudes which require improvement. Our comprehensive but concise teaching unit significantly increased knowledge about epilepsy and positively influenced attitude towards individuals with epilepsy. Thus we recommend implementing this unit into regular school curricula.

  9. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Rivinius R


    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  10. Putative floral brood-site mimicry, loss of autonomous selfing, and reduced vegetative growth are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae).

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V


    The drivers of angiosperm diversity have long been sought and the flower-arthropod association has often been invoked as the most powerful driver of the angiosperm radiation. We now know that features that influence arthropod interactions cannot only affect the diversification of lineages, but also expedite or constrain their rate of extinction, which can equally influence the observed asymmetric richness of extant angiosperm lineages. The genus Asarum (Aristolochiaceae; ∼100 species) is widely distributed in north temperate forests, with substantial vegetative and floral divergence between its three major clades, Euasarum, Geotaenium, and Heterotropa. We used Binary-State Speciation and Extinction Model (BiSSE) Net Diversification tests of character state distributions on a Maximum Likelihood phylogram and a Coalescent Bayesian species tree, inferred from seven chloroplast markers and nuclear rDNA, to test for signal of asymmetric diversification, character state transition, and extinction rates of floral and vegetative characters. We found that reduction in vegetative growth, loss of autonomous self-pollination, and the presence of putative fungal-mimicking floral structures are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum. No significant difference in model likelihood was identified between symmetric and asymmetric rates of character state transitions or extinction. We conclude that the flowers of the Heterotropa clade may have converged on some aspects of basidiomycete sporocarp morphology and that brood-site mimicry, coupled with a reduction in vegetative growth and the loss of autonomous self-pollination, may have driven diversification within Asarum. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Incorporating biologic measurements (SF(2), CFE) into a tumor control probability model increases their prognostic significance: a study in cervical carcinoma treated with radiation therapy.

    Buffa, F M; Davidson, S E; Hunter, R D; Nahum, A E; West, C M


    To assess whether incorporation of measurements of surviving fraction at 2 Gy (SF(2)) and colony-forming efficiency (CFE) into a tumor control probability (tcp) model increases their prognostic significance. Measurements of SF(2) and CFE were available from a study on carcinoma of the cervix treated with radiation alone. These measurements, as well as tumor volume, dose, and treatment time, were incorporated into a Poisson tcp model (tcp(alpha,rho)). Regression analysis was performed to assess the prognostic power of tcp(alpha,rho) vs. the use of either tcp models with biologic parameters fixed to best-fit estimates (but incorporating individual dose, volume, and treatment time) or the use of SF(2) and CFE measurements alone. In a univariate regression analysis of 44 patients, tcp(alpha,rho) was a better prognostic factor for both local control and survival (p CFE alone (p = 0.015 for local control, p = 0.38 for survival). In multivariate analysis, tcp(alpha,rho) emerged as the most important prognostic factor for local control (p CFE was still a significant independent prognostic factor for local control, whereas SF(2) was not. The sensitivities of tcp(alpha,rho) and SF(2) as predictive tests for local control were 87% and 65%, respectively. Specificities were 70% and 77%, respectively. A Poisson tcp model incorporating individual SF(2), CFE, dose, tumor volume, and treatment time was found to be the best independent prognostic factor for local control and survival in cervical carcinoma patients.

  12. Loading of the knee during 3.0 T MRI is associated with significantly increased medial meniscus extrusion in mild and moderate osteoarthritis

    Stehling, Christoph, E-mail: [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Department of Clinical Radiology, University of Muenster, Muenster (Germany); Souza, Richard B. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States); Graverand, Marie-Pierre Hellio Le; Wyman, Bradley T. [Pfizer Inc. New London, CT (United States); Li, Xiaojuan; Majumdar, Sharmila; Link, Thomas M. [Musculoskeletal and Quantitative Imaging Group (MQIR), Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA (United States)


    Purpose: Standard knee MRI is performed under unloading (ULC) conditions and not much is known about changes of the meniscus, ligaments or cartilage under loading conditions (LC). The aim is to study the influence of loading of different knee structures at 3 Tesla (T) in subjects with osteoarthritis (OA) and normal controls. Materials and methods: 30 subjects, 10 healthy and 20 with radiographic evidence of OA (10 mild and 10 moderate) underwent 3 T MRI under ULC and LC at 50% body weight. All images were analyzed by two musculoskeletal radiologists identifying and grading cartilage, meniscal, ligamentous abnormalities. The changes between ULC and LC were assessed. For meniscus, cartilage and ligaments the changes of lesions, signal and shape were evaluated. In addition, for the meniscus changes in extrusion were examined. A multivariate regression model was used for correlations to correct the data for the impact of age, gender, BMI. A paired T-Test was performed to calculate the differences in meniscus extrusion. Results: Subjects with degenerative knee abnormalities demonstrated significantly increased meniscus extrusion under LC when compared to normal subjects (p = 0.0008-0.0027). Subjects with knee abnormalities and higher KL scores showed significantly more changes in lesion, signal and shape of the meniscus (80% (16/20) vs. 20% (2/10); p = 0.0025), ligaments and cartilage during LC. Conclusion: The study demonstrates that axial loading has an effect on articular cartilage, ligament, and meniscus morphology, which is more significant in subjects with degenerative disease and may serve as an additional diagnostic tool for disease diagnosis and assessing progression in subjects with knee OA.

  13. Significant increase of salivary testosterone levels after single therapeutic transdermal administration of testosterone: suitability as a potential screening parameter in doping control.

    Thieme, Detlef; Rautenberg, Claudia; Grosse, Joachim; Schoenfelder, Martin


    The legally defensible proof of the abuse of endogenous steroids in sports is currently based on carbon isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS), i.e. a comparison between (13)C/(12)C ratios of diagnostic precursors and metabolites of testosterone. The application of this technique requires a chromatographic baseline separation of respective steroids prior to IRMS detection and hence laborious sample pre-processing of the urinary steroid extracts including clean up by solid-phase extraction and/or liquid chromatography. Consequently, an efficient pre-selection of suspicious control urine samples is essential for appropriate follow up confirmation by IRMS and effective doping control. Two single transdermal administration studies of testosterone (50 mg Testogel® and Testopatch® at 3.8 mg in 16 h, respectively) were conducted and resulting profiles of salivary testosterone and urinary steroid profiles and corresponding carbon isotope ratios were determined. Conventional doping control markers (testosterone/epitestosterone ratio, threshold concentrations of androsterone, etiocholanolone, or androstanediols) did not approach or exceed critical thresholds. In contrast to these moderate variations, the testosterone concentration in oral fluid increased from basal values (30-142 pg/mg) to peak concentrations above 1000 pg/mg. It is likely that this significant increase in oral fluid is due to a pulsatile elevation of free (protein unbound) circulating testosterone after transdermal administration and may be assumed to represent a more diagnostic marker for transdermal testosterone administration.

  14. Changes in epidemiologic features of testicular germ cell cancer: age at diagnosis and relative frequency of seminoma are constantly and significantly increasing.

    Ruf, Christian G; Isbarn, Hendrik; Wagner, Walter; Fisch, Margit; Matthies, Cord; Dieckmann, Klaus-Peter


    Testicular germ cell tumors (GCTs) have their incidence peak in the third and fourth decades of life. Histologically, GCTs comprise of seminoma and nonseminoma at almost equal proportions with a slight preponderance of nonseminoma in most of the major series. Since decades, there is a shift toward decreasing age at presentation. Recently, there are suggestions of a reversal of the age trend, and also, the histologic subtype ratio appears to shift toward seminoma. We retrospectively looked to our patient populations to verify these recent trends. A total of 2,482 patients with histologically proven GCT diagnosed between 1976 and 2010 were retrospectively evaluated regarding the year of diagnosis, histology of primary tumor, and age at presentation. Patients were categorized according to the following time periods of treatment: before 1990, 1990 to 1994, 1995 to 1999, 2000 to 2004, and 2005 to 2010. Mean age and relative proportion of seminoma were compared among patient categories by employing the chi-square test and analysis of variance, respectively. The mean age significantly increased from 28 to 36 years. The age difference between the 2 histologic subtypes remained constant between 6 and 8 years during the entire observation period. The relative proportion of seminoma continuously increased from 30.9% to 56% (P seminoma is constantly increasing at the expense of nonseminoma. The reasons for these developments are obscure. However, 2 old theories regarding the pathogenesis of GCT may receive support from our results: first, the theory of divergent pathogenetic pathways of seminoma and nonseminoma and second, the involvement of postnatal environmental factors in the pathogenesis of GCTs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Emerged HA and NA mutants of the pandemic influenza H1N1 viruses with increasing epidemiological significance in Taipei and Kaohsiung, Taiwan, 2009-10.

    Chuan-Liang Kao

    Full Text Available The 2009 influenza pandemic provided an opportunity to observe dynamic changes of the hemagglutinin (HA and neuraminidase (NA of pH1N1 strains that spread in two metropolitan areas--Taipei and Kaohsiung. We observed cumulative increases of amino acid substitutions of both HA and NA that were higher in the post-peak than in the pre-peak period of the epidemic. About 14.94% and 3.44% of 174 isolates had one and two amino acids changes, respective, in the four antigenic sites. One unique adaptive mutation of HA2 (E374K was first detected three weeks before the epidemic peak. This mutation evolved through the epidemic, and finally emerged as the major circulated strain, with significantly higher frequency in the post-peak period than in the pre-peak (64.65% vs 9.28%, p<0.0001. E374K persisted until ten months post-nationwide vaccination without further antigenic changes (e.g. prior to the highest selective pressure. In public health measures, the epidemic peaked at seven weeks after oseltamivir treatment was initiated. The emerging E374K mutants spread before the first peak of school class suspension, extended their survival in high-density population areas before vaccination, dominated in the second wave of class suspension, and were fixed as herd immunity developed. The tempo-spatial spreading of E374K mutants was more concentrated during the post-peak (p = 0.000004 in seven districts with higher spatial clusters (p<0.001. This is the first study examining viral changes during the naïve phase of a pandemic of influenza through integrated virological/serological/clinical surveillance, tempo-spatial analysis, and intervention policies. The vaccination increased the percentage of E374K mutants (22.86% vs 72.34%, p<0.001 and significantly elevated the frequency of mutations in Sa antigenic site (2.36% vs 23.40%, p<0.001. Future pre-vaccination public health efforts should monitor amino acids of HA and NA of pandemic influenza viruses isolated at

  16. Hydroxyl radical generation caused by the reaction of singlet oxygen with a spin trap, DMPO, increases significantly in the presence of biological reductants.

    Nishizawa, Chiho; Takeshita, Keizo; Ueda, Jun-ichi; Mizuno, Michiko; Suzuki, Kazuo T; Ozawa, Toshihiko


    Photosensitizers newly developed for photodynamic therapy of cancer need to be assessed using accurate methods of measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS). Little is known about the characteristics of the reaction of singlet oxygen (1O2) with spin traps, although this knowledge is necessary in electron spin resonance (ESR)/spin trapping. In the present study, we examined the effect of various reductants usually present in biological samples on the reaction of 1O2 with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DMPO). The ESR signal of the hydroxyl radical (*OH) adduct of DMPO (DMPO-OH) resulting from 1O2-dependent generation of *OH strengthened remarkably in the presence of reduced glutathione (GSH), 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (Trolox), ascorbic acid, NADPH, etc. A similar increase was observed in the photosensitization of uroporphyrin (UP), rose bengal (RB) or methylene blue (MB). Use of 5-(diethoxyphosphoryl)-5-methyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide (DEPMPO) as a spin trap significantly lessened the production of its *OH adduct (DEPMPO-OH) in the presence of the reductants. The addition of DMPO to the DEPMPO-spin trapping system remarkably increased the signal intensity of DEPMPO-OH. DMPO-mediated generation of *OH was also confirmed utilizing the hydroxylation of salicylic acid (SA). These results suggest that biological reductants enhance the ESR signal of DMPO-OH produced by DMPO-mediated generation of *OH from 1O2, and that spin trap-mediated *OH generation hardly occurs with DEPMPO.

  17. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis) meals in West African women.

    Koréissi-Dembélé, Yara; Fanou-Fogny, Nadia; Moretti, Diego; Schuth, Stephan; Dossa, Romain A M; Egli, Ines; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D


    Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16), using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP) and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat), each fortified with (57)Fe or (58)Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut) to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed), with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio) to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU) per g (whole wheat). Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C). Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI) iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8) in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9) in FWFP (Pporridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  18. Dephytinisation with intrinsic wheat phytase and iron fortification significantly increase iron absorption from fonio (Digitaria exilis meals in West African women.

    Yara Koréissi-Dembélé

    Full Text Available Low iron and high phytic acid content make fonio based meals a poor source of bioavailable iron. Phytic acid degradation in fonio porridge using whole grain cereals as phytase source and effect on iron bioavailability when added to iron fortified fonio meals were investigated. Grains, nuts and seeds collected in Mali markets were screened for phytic acid and phytase activity. We performed an iron absorption study in Beninese women (n = 16, using non-dephytinised fonio porridge (FFP and dephytinised fonio porridge (FWFP; 75% fonio-25% wheat, each fortified with (57Fe or (58Fe labeled FeSO4. Iron absorption was quantified by measuring the erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes. Phytic acid varied from 0.39 (bambara nut to 4.26 g/100 g DM (pumpkin seed, with oilseeds values higher than grains and nuts. Phytase activity ranged from 0.17±1.61 (fonio to 2.9±1.3 phytase unit (PU per g (whole wheat. Phytic acid was almost completely degraded in FWFP after 60 min of incubation (pH≈5.0, 50°C. Phytate∶iron molar ratios decreased from 23.7∶1 in FFP to 2.7∶1 in FWFP. Iron fortification further reduced phytate∶iron molar ratio to 1.9∶1 in FFP and 0.3∶1 in FWFP, respectively. Geometric mean (95% CI iron absorption significantly increased from 2.6% (0.8-7.8 in FFP to 8.3% (3.8-17.9 in FWFP (P<0.0001. Dephytinisation of fonio porridge with intrinsic wheat phytase increased fractional iron absorption 3.2 times, suggesting it could be a possible strategy to decrease PA in cereal-based porridges.

  19. Treatment of rheumatoid arthritis with tumor necrosis factor inhibitors may predispose to significant increase in tuberculosis risk: a multicenter active-surveillance report.

    Gómez-Reino, Juan J; Carmona, Loreto; Valverde, Vicente Rodríguez; Mola, Emilio Martín; Montero, Maria Dolores


    The long-term safety of therapeutic agents that neutralize tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is uncertain. Recent evidence based on spontaneous reporting shows an association with active tuberculosis (TB). We undertook this study to determine and describe the long-term safety of 2 of these agents, infliximab and etanercept, in rheumatic diseases based on a national active-surveillance system following the commercialization of the drugs. We analyzed the safety data actively collected in the BIOBADASER (Base de Datos de Productos Biológicos de la Sociedad Española de Reumatología) database, which was launched in February 2000 by the Spanish Society of Rheumatology. For the estimation of TB risk, the annual incidence rate in patients treated with these agents was compared with the background rate and with the rate in a cohort of patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) assembled before the era of anti-TNF treatment. Seventy-one participating centers sent data on 1,578 treatments with infliximab (86%) or etanercept (14%) in 1,540 patients. Drug survival rates (reported as the cumulative percentage of patients still receiving medication) for infliximab and etanercept pooled together were 85% and 81% at 1 year and 2 years, respectively. Instances of discontinuation were essentially due to adverse events. Seventeen cases of TB were found in patients treated with infliximab. The estimated incidence of TB associated with infliximab in RA patients was 1,893 per 100,000 in the year 2000 and 1,113 per 100,000 in the year 2001. These findings represent a significant increased risk compared with background rates. In the first 5 months of 2002, after official guidelines were established for TB prevention in patients treated with biologics, only 1 new TB case was registered (in January). Therapy with infliximab is associated with an increased risk of active TB. Proper measures are needed to prevent and manage this adverse event.

  20. Precision intrauterine contraception may significantly increase continuation of use: a review of long-term clinical experience with frameless copper-releasing intrauterine contraception devices

    Wildemeersch D


    Full Text Available Dirk Wildemeersch,1 Ansgar Pett,2 Sohela Jandi,2 Thomas Hasskamp,3 Patrick Rowe,4 Marc Vrijens5 1Gynecological Outpatient Clinic and IUD Training Center, Ghent, Belgium; 2Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Berlin, Germany; 3Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Münster, Germany; 4Formely IUD Research Group at the UNDP/UNFPA/WHO/World Bank Special Programme of Research, Development and Research Training in Human Reproduction, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland; 5Gynecological Outpatient Clinic, Ghent, Belgium Objective: The purpose of this paper is to review the experience with the frameless, anchored, GyneFix copper-releasing intrauterine contraceptive devices (IUCDs/IUDs (Contrel Europe, Belgium, and to demonstrate their high acceptability and low rate of discontinuation of use, which could contribute to current efforts that aim to reduce radically the high number of unintended pregnancies and induced abortions, particularly in young women. Materials and methods: This paper is based on studies that examined the differences in uterine volume and cavity size, related to age and parity, and on original clinical research data and practical experience with frameless copper IUDs, as well as on literature data on the IUD–endometrial cavity relationship of conventional IUDs, with special reference to side effects and user discontinuation. Results: The mean transverse diameter in nulliparous and parous women is significantly less than the length of the transverse arm of the TCu380A IUD (ParaGard, Duramed, NY, USA or the levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena, Bayer, Germany. Small, frameless, flexible, and unidimensional copper IUDs appear to be well tolerated, with less impact on menstrual bleeding, resulting in low discontinuation rates when compared with standard-size conventional IUDs, which often result in increased expulsion rates, complaints of pain and erratic or increased menstrual bleeding, and subsequent high rates of

  1. The Clinical Significance of Increased Serum Proinflammatory Cytokines, C-Reactive Protein, and Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate in Patients with Hidradenitis Suppurativa

    D. Jiménez-Gallo


    Full Text Available Objectives. To assess inflammatory serum markers including serum proinflammatory cytokines, C-reactive protein (CRP, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR according to the clinical inflammatory activity of patients with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS. Patients and Methods. Seventy-four patients with HS were studied based on the Hidradenitis Suppurativa-Physician Global Assessment (HS-PGA score and Hurley staging system. Proinflammatory cytokines were measured using a multiplex cytokine assay. Twenty-two healthy volunteers were recruited. Results. Serum interleukin- (IL- 6, IL-23, soluble tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α receptor I (sTNF-RI, CRP, and ESR were different in the patients with HS compared with those in the healthy controls (P0.25, P<0.05. The levels of IL-6 (r=0.53, P<0.001, CRP (r=0.54, P<0.001, and ESR (r=0.60, P<0.001 were especially well correlated with clinical inflammatory activity based on HS-PGA scores. The levels of IL-6, IL-8, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, CRP, and ESR were significantly elevated according to Hurley staging system. Conclusions. Serum proinflammatory cytokines, CRP, and ESR are increased in relation to the clinical inflammatory activity of patients with HS compared with healthy controls. Serum IL-6, CRP, and ESR are effective biomarkers for evaluating the severity of HS.

  2. High-dose cholecalciferol supplementation significantly increases peripheral CD4⁺ Tregs in healthy adults without negatively affecting the frequency of other immune cells.

    Prietl, Barbara; Treiber, Gerlies; Mader, Julia K; Hoeller, Evelyne; Wolf, Michael; Pilz, Stefan; Graninger, Winfried B; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara M; Pieber, Thomas R


    Regulatory T cells (Tregs) play a central role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. Animal and in vitro studies suggest that vitamin D is involved in reducing the risk of autoimmunity by modulating Tregs. In a double-blind, placebo controlled study in 60 healthy volunteers, we assessed the effect of a 12-week high-dose oral cholecalciferol supplementation (140,000 IU/month) on the number and function of CD4(pos)CD25(high)FoxP3(pos)CD127(dim) Tregs. We also assessed the clinical safety of the supplementation and the effect on the frequency of other immune cells such as monocytes, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, natural killer T cells, B cells and subgroups of T cells. We also tested the in vitro effect of cholecalciferol on Tregs in human cell cultures. By using FACS analysis, ex vivo suppressive co-cultures and apoptosis assays, we were able to show that a cholecalciferol supplementation leads to significantly increased numbers of peripheral Tregs in vivo. Tregs function and the frequency of other immune cells remained unchanged, and no clinically relevant safety concerns were found. The in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells to cholecalciferol also supported our in vivo findings. Our results indicate a substantial effect of a supplementation with inactive vitamin D on the immune system of healthy humans in vivo and provide a rationale for future studies to investigate the immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases.

  3. In vitro exposure to the herbicide atrazine inhibits T cell activation, proliferation, and cytokine production and significantly increases the frequency of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells.

    Thueson, Lindsay E; Emmons, Tiffany R; Browning, Dianna L; Kreitinger, Joanna M; Shepherd, David M; Wetzel, Scott A


    The herbicide atrazine (2-chloro-4-[ethylamino]-6-[isopropylamino]-s-triazine) is the most common water contaminant in the United States. Atrazine is a phosphodiesterase inhibitor and is classified as an estrogen disrupting compound because it elevates estrogen levels via induction of the enzyme aromatase. Previous studies have shown that atrazine exposure alters the function of innate immune cells such as NK cells, DC, mast cells, and macrophages. In this study we have examined the impact of in vitro atrazine exposure on the activation, proliferation, and effector cytokine production by primary murine CD4(+) T lymphocytes. We found that atrazine exposure significantly inhibited CD4(+) T cell proliferation and accumulation as well as the expression of the activation markers CD25 and CD69 in a dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, the effects were more pronounced in cells from male animals. These effects were partially mimicked by pharmacological reagents that elevate intracellular cAMP levels and addition of exogenous rmIL-2 further inhibited proliferation and CD25 expression. Consistent with these findings, atrazine exposure during T cell activation resulted in a 2- to 5-fold increase in the frequency of Foxp3(+) CD4(+) T cells. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail:

  4. Pathological concentration of zinc dramatically accelerates abnormal aggregation of full-length human Tau and thereby significantly increases Tau toxicity in neuronal cells.

    Hu, Ji-Ying; Zhang, De-Lin; Liu, Xiao-Ling; Li, Xue-Shou; Cheng, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Jie; Du, Hai-Ning; Liang, Yi


    A pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease and other tauopathies is the formation of neurofibrillary tangles mainly composed of bundles of fibrils formed by microtubule-associated protein Tau. Here we study the effects of Zn(2+) on abnormal aggregation and cytotoxicity of a pathological mutant ΔK280 of full-length human Tau. As revealed by Congo red binding assays, transmission electron microscopy, immunofluorescence, Western blot, and immunogold electron microscopy, pathological concentration of Zn(2+) dramatically accelerates the fibrillization of ΔK280 both in vitro and in SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. As evidenced by annexin V-FITC apoptosis detection assay and MTT reduction assay, pathological concentration of Zn(2+) remarkably enhances ΔK280 fibrillization-induced apoptosis and toxicity in SH-SY5Y cells. Substitution of Cys-291 and Cys-322 with Ala, however, essentially eliminates such enhancing effects of Zn(2+) on the fibrillization and the consequent cytotoxicity of ΔK280. Furthermore, Zn(2+) is co-localized with and highly enriched in amyloid fibrils formed by ΔK280 in SH-SY5Y cells. The results from isothermal titration calorimetry show that Zn(2+) binds to full-length human Tau by interacting with Cys-291 and Cys-322, forming a 1:1 Zn(2+)-Tau complex. Our data demonstrate that zinc dramatically accelerates abnormal aggregation of human Tau and significantly increases Tau toxicity in neuronal cells mainly via bridging Cys-291 and Cys-322. Our findings could explain how pathological zinc regulates Tau aggregation and toxicity associated with Alzheimer disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. 乳腺癌细胞Twist和Trkb的表达及其意义%Increased Expression of Twist and Trkb in Breast Cancer and Their Clinical Significance

    欧武陵; 胡胜; 余伟江; 吴月兵


    Objective: To study the expression of Twist and Trkb in human breast cancers, and to investigate the role of Twist and Trkb in breast cancer progression, metastasis, and prognosis.Methods: The MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line was cultured under mammosphere forming conditions and implanted into nude mice. RT-PCR technique was used to measure the expression of Twist and Trkb mRNA in the tissue samples from 14 nude mice and 86 human human breast tumors. Results: In the nude mice implanted with breast cancer cells, the level of the Twist and Trkb mRNA in the samples from metastasis tissues was higher than that of primary tissues (the relative OD value of Twist and Trkb mRNA was 2. 1±0.2 vs 1.4±0.2,2.3±0. 4 vs 1.5±0.3;t =2.4, 2.8;P=0.03, 0. 02 respectively). In human tumor samples, the level of the Twist and Trkb mRNA of lymph node metastasis was higher than that of breast tissues (1.67±0. 32 vs 0.83±0.23, 1.58±0.41 vs 0.65±0.24 respectively;t=2.6,P=0.02; t=3.01, P=0.01). The level of the Twist and Trkb mRNA of breast cancers was higher than that of primary tissues (2.38±0.22 vs 1.84±0. 43, 2. 17±0. 41 vs 1.62±0. 32 respectively;t=3. 23, P=0. 01; t= 2.84, P=0.03). The expression of Twist and Trkb was significantly correlated with clinical stages, tumor lymph node metastasis and loss of differentiation (all P<0.05). However, there was no correlation between Twist or Trkb mRNA levels and age or tumor size (all P>0. 05). Increased expression of Twist correlated with shorter overall survival ([28.4 ± 2.2] vs [32.7 ± 2.4] months, LogRank= 3.88, P = 0. 037), while no significant correlations were observed between increased expression of Trkb and shorter overall survival([29.9±2.6] vs [31.5±2. 5] months, LogRank= 2.46, P=0. 08). Conclusion: Expression of Twist and Trkb associate with breast cancer infiltration and metastasis, and increased expression of Twist may implicate in breast cancer prognosis.%目的:探讨乳腺癌细胞Twist和Trkb的表达及

  6. 七氟烷、氯胺酮静吸复合用于小儿腹股沟斜疝修补术的效果及不良反应分析%Clinical Effect and Adverse Reaction of the Combination of Intravenous and Inhalation Anesthesia of Seven Halothane and Ketamine on Pediatric Inguinal Hernia Repair

    袁桂婵; 王汉和; 彭长征


    Objective To analyse and investigate the clinical effect and adverse reactions of the combination of intravenous and inhalation anesthesia of seven halothane and ketamine on pediatric inguinal hernia repair. Methods 90 cases of children received inguinal hernia repair in our hospital from December 2011 to March 2014 were selected and randomly divided into observation group and control group, with 45 cases in each group. The observation group was given intravenous inhalation anesthesia combined seven halothane with ketamine, while the control group received seven halothane anesthesia. The anesthesia effects and the adverse reactions of the two groups were compared and analyzed. Results The recovery time and conscious time of the control group were significantly shorter than those of the observation group, with statistical significant difference (P<0.05);the adverse reactions of the observation group was 12 cases, accounted for 20.00%, while the control group was 27 cases, accounted for 60.00%, with statistical significant difference (P<0.05). Conclusions Seven halothanehas and ketamine have obvious anesthesia effects on pediatric inguinal hernia repair, and combined anesthesia effectively reduce the occurrence of adverse reactions in children, which is worthy of clinical application.%目的:分析和探讨七氟烷、氯胺酮静吸复合用于小儿腹股沟斜疝修补术的临床效果及不良反应情况。方法将我院2012年12月至2014年3月收治的90例行腹股沟斜疝修补术的患儿随机分为观察组和对照组,每组45例。观察组给予七氟烷、氯胺酮静吸麻醉,对照组采用七氟烷进行麻醉,对两组患儿的麻醉效果及不良反应情况进行比较和分析。结果对照组患儿的苏醒时间和清醒时间均显著短于观察组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05),观察组出现12例不良反应,占20.00%,对照组出现27例不良反应,占60.00%,两组患儿不良

  7. Community reinforcement training for family and significant others of drug abusers: a unilateral intervention to increase treatment entry of drug users.

    Kirby, K C; Marlowe, D B; Festinger, D S; Garvey, K A; La Monaca, V


    We randomly assigned 32 concerned family members and significant others (FSOs) of drug users (DUs) to a community reinforcement training intervention or a popular 12-step self-help group. We measured problems arising from the DU's behavior, social functioning of the DU and FSO, and mood of the FSO at baseline and 10 weeks later. We also monitored the FSOs' treatment attendance and treatment entry of the DUs. The treatment groups showed equal reductions from baseline to follow-up in problems and improvements in social functioning and mood of the FSO. However the community reinforcement intervention was significantly better at retaining FSOs in treatment and inducing treatment entry of the DUs.

  8. Experimentally-induced immune activation in natural hosts of SIV induces significant increases in viral replication and CD4+ T cell depletion

    Ribeiro, Ruy M [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    Chronically SIVagm-infected African green monkeys (AGMs) have a remarkably stable non-pathogenic disease course, with levels of immune activation in chronic SIVagm infection similar to those observed in uninfected monkeys and stable viral loads (VLs) for long periods of time. In vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or an IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (Ontak) to chronically SIVagm-infected AGMs triggered increases in immune activation and subsequently of viral replication and depletion of intestinal CD4{sup +} T cells. Our study indicates that circulating microbial products can increase viral replication by inducing immune activation and increasing the number of viral target cells, thus demonstrating that immune activation and T cell prolifeation are key factors in AIDS pathogenesis.

  9. Co-downregulation of the hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase and coumarate 3-hydroxylase significantly increases cellulose content in transgenic alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Tong, Zongyong; Li, Heng; Zhang, Rongxue; Ma, Lei; Dong, Jiangli; Wang, Tao


    Lignin is a component of the cell wall that is essential for growth, development, structure and pathogen resistance in plants, but high lignin is an obstacle to the conversion of cellulose to ethanol for biofuel. Genetically modifying lignin and cellulose contents can be a good approach to overcoming that obstacle. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) is rich in lignocellulose biomass and used as a model plant for the genetic modification of lignin in this study. Two key enzymes in the lignin biosynthesis pathway-hydroxycinnamoyl -CoA:shikimate hydroxycinnamoyl transferase (HCT) and coumarate 3-hydroxylase (C3H)-were co-downregulated. Compared to wild-type plants, the lignin content in the modified strain was reduced by 38%, cellulose was increased by 86.1%, enzyme saccharification efficiency was increased by 10.9%, and cell wall digestibility was increased by 13.0%. The modified alfalfa exhibited a dwarf phenotype, but normal above ground biomass. This approach provides a new strategy for reducing lignin and increasing cellulose contents and creates a new genetically modified crop with enhanced value for biofuel. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The significance of the European beaver (Castor fibre activity for the process of renaturalization of river valleys in the era of increasing

    Kusztal Piotr


    Full Text Available Changes in the environment that are caused by the activity of beavers bring numerous advantages. They affect the increase in biodiversity, contribute to improving the condition of cleanliness of watercourses, improve local water relations and restore the natural landscape of river valleys.

  11. Efeitos do halotano, isoflurano e sevoflurano nas respostas cardiovasculares ao pinçamento aórtico infra-renal: estudo experimental em cães Efectos del halotano, isoflurano y sevoflurano en las respuestas cardiovasculares al pinzamiento aórtico infra-renal: estudio experimental en perros Effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane on cardiovascular responses to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping: experimental study in dogs

    Flora Margarida Barra Bisinotto


    OBJECTIVES: Infrarenal aortic cross-clamping is associated to cardiovascular effects. This study aimed at analyzing the effects of halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane on cardiovascular function of dogs following infrarenal aortic cross-clamping. METHODS: Thirty mongrel dogs were randomly divided in three groups, according to equipotent (0.75 MAC inhaled anesthetic doses: GH (n = 10 - 0.67% halothane; GI (n = 10 - 0.96% isoflurane; and GS (n = 10 - 1.8% sevoflurane. All dogs were submitted to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping for 30 minutes. Hemodynamic parameters were measured at control (C, at 15 (Ao15 and 30 (Ao30 minutes of aortic cross-clamping, and immediately (DAo and 15 (DAo15 minutes after aortic unclamping. RESULTS: In all groups, infrarenal aortic cross-clamping significantly increased mean blood pressure, right atrial pressure, cardiac index, stroke volume index, left ventricular work index and right ventricular work index. Pulmonary artery pressure significantly increased during cross-clamping in GI and GS groups while pulmonary capillary wedge pressure significantly increased in GH and GI groups. After aortic unclamping all hemodynamic parameters have returned to control levels with the exception of cardiac and stroke volume indices which remained high, followed by systemic vascular resistance index decrease. There have been no significant differences among groups in studied attributes, except for heart rate which was always lower in GH group as compared to other groups during and after infrarenal aortic cross-clamping. CONCLUSIONS: In dogs under our experimental conditions, equipotent concentrations (0.75 MAC of inhalational halothane, isoflurane and sevoflurane have not attenuated cardiovascular responses to infrarenal aortic cross-clamping.

  12. Avaliação comparativa entre a anestesia geral com halotano e isoflurano sobre a pressão arterial em cães Comparartive evaluation of the general anesthesia with halothane and isoflurane on the arterial pressure in dogs

    Cláudio Corrêa Natalini


    isoflurane in group II. In both groups, nitrous oxide and oxygen in a 2:1 ratio was used as diluent for the inhalant. After 15 minutes of inhalation anesthesia, arterial blood pressures were recorded with a noninvasive blood pressure monitor in 15 minutes intervals for 90 minutes. Statistical analyses showed that there was a significant difference in systolic and diastolic pressures after 45 minutes. Differences in heart rate were not significant. In dos, general anesthesia with isoflurane maintained higher arterial blood pressures than those anesthetized with halothane which produced arterial hipotension from 45 to 75 minutes of anesthesia.

  13. Increased levels of IL-6 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with chronic schizophrenia — significance for activation of the kynurenine pathway

    Schwieler, Lilly; Larsson, Markus K.; Skogh, Elisabeth; Kegel, Magdalena E.; Orhan, Funda; Abdelmoaty, Sally; Finn, Anja; Bhat, Maria; Samuelsson, Martin; Lundberg, Kristina; Dahl, Marja-Liisa; Sellgren, Carl; Schuppe-Koistinen, Ina; Svensson, Camilla I.; Erhardt, Sophie; Engberg, Göran


    Background Accumulating evidence indicates that schizophrenia is associated with brain immune activation. While a number of reports suggest increased cytokine levels in patients with schizophrenia, many of these studies have been limited by their focus on peripheral cytokines or confounded by various antipsychotic treatments. Here, well-characterized patients with schizophrenia, all receiving olanzapine treatment, and healthy volunteers were analyzed with regard to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) levels of cytokines. We correlated the CSF cytokine levels to previously analyzed metabolites of the kynurenine (KYN) pathway. Methods We analyzed the CSF from patients and controls using electrochemiluminescence detection with regard to cytokines. Cell culture media from human cortical astrocytes were analyzed for KYN and kynurenic acid (KYNA) using high-pressure liquid chromatography or liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Results We included 23 patients and 37 controls in our study. Patients with schizophrenia had increased CSF levels of interleukin (IL)-6 compared with healthy volunteers. In patients, we also observed a positive correlation between IL-6 and the tryptophan:KYNA ratio, indicating that IL-6 activates the KYN pathway. In line with this, application of IL-6 to cultured human astrocytes increased cell medium concentration of KYNA. Limitations The CSF samples had been frozen and thawed twice before analysis of cytokines. Median age differed between patients and controls. When appropriate, all present analyses were adjusted for age. Conclusion We have shown that IL-6, KYN and KYNA are elevated in patients with chronic schizophrenia, strengthening the idea of brain immune activation in patients with this disease. Our concurrent cell culture and clinical findings suggest that IL-6 induces the KYN pathway, leading to increased production of the N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor antagonist KYNA in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:25455350

  14. Seed-Specific Expression of a Lysine-Rich Protein Gene, GhLRP, from Cotton Significantly Increases the Lysine Content in Maize Seeds

    Jing Yue


    Full Text Available Maize seed storage proteins are a major source of human and livestock consumption. However, these proteins have poor nutritional value, because they are deficient in lysine and tryptophan. Much research has been done to elevate the lysine content by reducing zein content or regulating the activities of key enzymes in lysine metabolism. Using the naturally lysine-rich protein genes, sb401 and SBgLR, from potato, we previously increased the lysine and protein contents of maize seeds. Here, we examined another natural lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton, which increased the lysine content of transgenic maize seeds at levels varying from 16.2% to 65.0% relative to the wild-type. The total protein content was not distinctly different, except in the six transgenic lines. The lipid and starch levels did not differ substantially in Gossypium hirsutum L. lysine-rich protein (GhLRP transgenic kernels when compared to wild-type. The agronomic characteristics of all the transgenic maize were also normal. GhLRP is a high-lysine protein candidate gene for increasing the lysine content of maize. This study provided a valuable model system for improving maize lysine content.

  15. Partial depletion of CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory cells significantly increases morbidity during acute phase Toxoplasma gondii infection in resistant BALB/c mice.

    Morampudi, Vijay; De Craeye, Stephane; Le Moine, Alain; Detienne, Sophie; Braun, M Y; D'Souza, Sushila


    CD4(+)CD25(+)Foxp3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cells, are known to regulate responses to infectious agents. Here we compared disease progression in BALB/c and C57BL/6(B6) mice infected perorally with Toxoplasma gondii for 7 days and examined the affect of partial depletion of Treg cells in these mice. BALB/c mice were seen to be resistant to peroral infection whereas B6 mice were susceptible in terms of mortality. Although the depletion of Treg cells before infection had no effect on the survival of B6 or BALB/c mice, it resulted in increased parasite burdens in BALB/c mice, especially in the lamina propria, but not in B6 mice. Pro-inflammatory cytokines were also increased in Treg cells depleted BALB/c mice as compared to B6 mice. In addition Treg cell depleted BALB/c mice displayed increased ileal histopathology compared to their non-treated counterparts. These findings provide evidence for the contribution of Treg cells, in the resistance of BALB/c mice against peroral T. gondii infection.

  16. Seed-specific expression of a lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton significantly increases the lysine content in maize seeds.

    Yue, Jing; Li, Cong; Zhao, Qian; Zhu, Dengyun; Yu, Jingjuan


    Maize seed storage proteins are a major source of human and livestock consumption. However, these proteins have poor nutritional value, because they are deficient in lysine and tryptophan. Much research has been done to elevate the lysine content by reducing zein content or regulating the activities of key enzymes in lysine metabolism. Using the naturally lysine-rich protein genes, sb401 and SBgLR, from potato, we previously increased the lysine and protein contents of maize seeds. Here, we examined another natural lysine-rich protein gene, GhLRP, from cotton, which increased the lysine content of transgenic maize seeds at levels varying from 16.2% to 65.0% relative to the wild-type. The total protein content was not distinctly different, except in the six transgenic lines. The lipid and starch levels did not differ substantially in Gossypium hirsutum L. lysine-rich protein (GhLRP) transgenic kernels when compared to wild-type. The agronomic characteristics of all the transgenic maize were also normal. GhLRP is a high-lysine protein candidate gene for increasing the lysine content of maize. This study provided a valuable model system for improving maize lysine content.

  17. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation

    Korzeneva, Inna B., E-mail: [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Kostuyk, Svetlana V.; Ershova, Liza S. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation); Osipov, Andrian N. [Federal Medial and Biological Center named after Burnazyan of the Federal Medical and Biological Agency (FMBTz named after Burnazyan of FMBA), Moscow (Russian Federation); State Research Center - Burnasyan Federal Medical Biophysical Center of Federal Medical Biological Agency, Zhivopisnaya, 46, Moscow, 123098 (Russian Federation); Zhuravleva, Veronika F.; Pankratova, Galina V. [Russian Federal Nuclear Center – All-Russian Research Institute of Experimental Physics (RFNC-VNIIEF) 607190, Sarov, 37 Mira ave., Nizhniy Novgorod Region (Russian Federation); Porokhovnik, Lev N.; Veiko, Natalia N. [Research Centre for Medical Genetics, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, 115478 Moscow, 1 Moskvorechye str. (Russian Federation)


    Highlights: • The chronic exposure to low-dose IR induces DSBs in human lymphocytes (TM index). • Exposure to IR decreases the level of human circulating DNA (cfDNA index). • IR induces an increase of DNase1 activity (DNase1 index) in plasma. • IR induces an increase of the level of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA index) in plasma. • The ratio cfDNA/(DNase 1 × Ab DNA × TM) is a potential marker of human exposure to IR. - Abstract: The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism’s cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1 × Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab

  18. Nontraditional approaches to first-in-human studies to increase efficiency of drug development: will microdose studies make a significant impact?

    Boyd, R A; Lalonde, R L


    Much has been written recently about low productivity in the pharmaceutical industry and the high cost of drug development. Over a 10-year period ending in 2000, only approximately 11% of compounds tested in humans across 10 large pharmaceutical companies were eventually approved for marketing in the United States and/or Europe. Attrition was highest during phase II (62%) but still significant in phase III (45%) and at the time of registration (23%). Clearly, given the high cost and time required for clinical development, these late-stage failures are unsustainable.

  19. Increased numbers of Australian Indigenous nurses would make a significant contribution to 'closing the gap' in Indigenous health: what is getting in the way?

    West, Roianne; Usher, Kim; Foster, Kim


    The provision of a well trained and culturally safe health workforce is critical to the alleviation of health inequities for Australian Indigenous peoples. Educating and graduating significant numbers of Indigenous registered nurses is one way the 'Close the Gap' initiative succeeds. Indigenous nurses bring a set of unique skills, knowledge and understanding to health service delivery. Their contribution has the potential to enhance future outcomes for Indigenous people by improving access to health services, ensure services are culturally appropriate and respectful, and assist non-Indigenous nurses to deliver culturally appropriate care. This paper discusses the background to the current numbers of Indigenous undergraduate nursing students enrolled in and completing tertiary nursing courses, with a focus on Queensland nursing programs. A range of identified barriers impede Indigenous nursing students' successful completion of their studies. We propose recommendations for education, research and employment to help overcome these problems, and ensure greater Indigenous participation in the nursing workforce.

  20. iNKT/CD1d-antitumor immunotherapy significantly increases the efficacy of therapeutic CpG/peptide-based cancer vaccine.

    Corgnac, Stéphanie; Perret, Rachel; Zhang, Lianjun; Mach, Jean-Pierre; Romero, Pedro; Donda, Alena


    Therapeutic cancer vaccines aim to boost the natural immunity against transformed cancer cells, and a series of adjuvants and co-stimulatory molecules have been proposed to enhance the immune response against weak self-antigens expressed on cancer cells. For instance, a peptide/CpG-based cancer vaccine has been evaluated in several clinical trials and was shown in pre-clinical studies to favor the expansion of effector T versus Tregs cells, resulting in a potent antitumor activity, as compared to other TLR ligands. Alternatively, the adjuvant activity of CD1d-restricted invariant NKT cells (iNKT) on the innate and adaptive immunity is well demonstrated, and several CD1d glycolipid ligands are under pre-clinical and clinical evaluation. Importantly, additive or even synergistic effects have been shown upon combined CD1d/NKT agonists and TLR ligands. The aim of the present study is to combine the activation and tumor targeting of activated iNKT, NK and T cells. Activation and tumor targeting of iNKT cells via recombinant α-galactosylceramide (αGC)-loaded CD1d-anti-HER2 fusion protein (CD1d-antitumor) is combined or not with OVA peptide/CpG vaccine. Circulating and intratumoral NK and H-2Kb/OVA-specific CD8 responses are monitored, as well as the state of activation of dendritic cells (DC) with regard to activation markers and IL-12 secretion. The resulting antitumor therapy is tested against established tumor grafts of B16 melanoma cells expressing human HER2 and ovalbumin. The combined CD1d/iNKT antitumor therapy and CpG/peptide-based immunization leads to optimized expansion of NK and OVA-specific CD8 T cells (CTLs), likely resulting from the maturation of highly pro-inflammatory DCs as seen by a synergistic increase in serum IL-12. The enhanced innate and adaptive immune responses result in higher tumor inhibition that correlates with increased numbers of OVA-specific CTLs at the tumor site. Antibody-mediated depletion experiments further demonstrate that in

  1. Human circulating plasma DNA significantly decreases while lymphocyte DNA damage increases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma-neutron and tritium β-radiation.

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Liza S; Osipov, Andrian N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N


    The blood plasma of healthy people contains cell-fee (circulating) DNA (cfDNA). Apoptotic cells are the main source of the cfDNA. The cfDNA concentration increases in case of the organism's cell death rate increase, for example in case of exposure to high-dose ionizing radiation (IR). The objects of the present research are the blood plasma and blood lymphocytes of people, who contacted occupationally with the sources of external gamma/neutron radiation or internal β-radiation of tritium N = 176). As the controls (references), blood samples of people, who had never been occupationally subjected to the IR sources, were used (N = 109). With respect to the plasma samples of each donor there were defined: the cfDNA concentration (the cfDNA index), DNase1 activity (the DNase1 index) and titre of antibodies to DNA (the Ab DNA index). The general DNA damage in the cells was defined (using the Comet assay, the tail moment (TM) index). A chronic effect of the low-dose ionizing radiation on a human being is accompanied by the enhancement of the DNA damage in lymphocytes along with a considerable cfDNA content reduction, while the DNase1 content and concentration of antibodies to DNA (Ab DNA) increase. All the aforementioned changes were also observed in people, who had not worked with the IR sources for more than a year. The ratio cfDNA/(DNase1×Ab DNA × TM) is proposed to be used as a marker of the chronic exposure of a person to the external low-dose IR. It was formulated the assumption that the joint analysis of the cfDNA, DNase1, Ab DNA and TM values may provide the information about the human organism's cell resistivity to chronic exposure to the low-dose IR and about the development of the adaptive response in the organism that is aimed, firstly, at the effective cfDNA elimination from the blood circulation, and, secondly - at survival of the cells, including the cells with the damaged DNA. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Yearly variation of spontaneous somatic mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9 grown outdoors, which showed a significant increase after the Chernobyl accident.

    Ichikawa, S; Nakano, A; Kenmochi, M; Yamamoto, I; Murai, M; Takahashi, E; Yamaguchi, A; Watanabe, K; Tomiyama, M; Sugiyama, K; Yogo, A; Yazaki, T; Okumura, M; Shima, N; Satoh, M; Yoshimoto, M; Xiao, L Z


    Scoring of spontaneous somatic pink mutation frequency in the stamen hairs of Tradescantia clone KU 9, a heterozygote for flower color (blue/pink; the blue color being dominant), was carried out for 11 years on plants grown outdoors, during the period of May 11-31 (for 3 weeks) in every year from 1982 to 1992. Weekly and yearly variations of the spontaneous mutation frequency were observed, and such variations could mostly be correlated to the difference in temperature. That is, the mutation frequency was generally higher in the weeks and years when the temperature was relatively low, showing the strongest negative correlation with the average minimum temperature. The variations were also correlated to the diurnal temperature difference, the mutation frequency being higher with larger diurnal temperature difference in general. However, the mutation frequency observed in 1986 was exceptionally higher than that expected from the temperature for this year, and was very significantly higher than for other years. The scoring of mutation frequency was thus continued in 1986 for an additional 4 weeks (June 1-28), and it was confirmed that such higher mutation frequencies lasted for 6 weeks in total. The exceptionally high mutation frequency seemed to be related to the radioactive fallout which occurred in early to mid May of 1986, even in Japan, after the serious nuclear reactor accident at Chernobyl, and also to the biological concentrations of radioactive nuclides which subsequently occurred, although it was difficult to conclude this definitely. The mutation frequency in 1987 was second highest, and was also significantly higher than the lowest mutation frequency observed in 1990.

  3. Knockout of the DNA ligase IV homolog gene in the sphingoid base producing yeast Pichia ciferrii significantly increases gene targeting efficiency.

    Schorsch, Christoph; Köhler, Tim; Boles, Eckhard


    The yeast Pichia ciferrii produces large quantities of the sphingoid base tetraacetyl phytosphingosine (TAPS) and is an interesting platform organism for the biotechnological production of sphingolipids and ceramides. Ceramides have attracted great attention as a specialty ingredient for moisture retention and protection of the skin in the cosmetics industry. First attempts have been started to metabolically engineer P. ciferrii for improved production of TAPS and other sphingoid bases. However, rational metabolic engineering of P. ciferrii is difficult due to a low gene targeting efficiency. In eukaryotes, two major pathways coexist, which are responsible for genomic DNA integration, homologous recombination (HR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ). Integration via HR is targeted, while NHEJ involves ectopic (non-targeted) integration depending on a ligation step mediated by DNA ligase IV (Lig4). Here, we demonstrate a dramatical increase in gene targeting efficiency in a P. ciferrii lig4 knockout strain, deficient in NHEJ. Furthermore, a quick and easy to use freeze-thaw method was developed to transform P. ciferrii with high efficiency. Owing to the ability of targeting genomic DNA integration our results pave the way for further genetic and metabolic engineering approaches with P. ciferrii by means of knocking out or overexpressing predestinated genes.

  4. Heterozygous carriers of the I171V mutation of the NBS1 gene have a significantly increased risk of solid malignant tumours.

    Nowak, Jerzy; Mosor, Maria; Ziółkowska, Iwona; Wierzbicka, Malgorzta; Pernak-Schwarz, Monika; Przyborska, Marta; Roznowski, Krzysztof; Pławski, Andrzej; Słomski, Ryszard; Januszkiewicz, Danuta


    Homozygous mutation 657del5 within the NBS1 gene is responsible for the majority of Nijmegen breakage syndrome (NBS) cases. NBS patients are characterised by increased susceptibility to malignancies mainly of lymphoid origin. Recently it has been postulated that heterozygous carriers of 657del5 NBS1 mutation are at higher risk of cancer development. The aim of the study was to analyse the frequency of I171V mutation in NBS1 gene in 270 women with breast cancer, 176 patients with larynx cancer, 81 with second primary tumours of head and neck, 131 with colorectal carcinoma and 600 healthy individuals. I171V mutation was present in 17 cancer patients compared with only one in healthy individuals. This constitutes 2.58% in studied patients with malignancies and 0.17% in the control group (P=0.0002; relative risk 1.827; odds ratio 15.886; 95% confidence interval 2.107-119.8). Since DNA was isolated from non malignant cells, all mutations found in cancer patients appeared to be of germinal origin. It can be concluded that NBS1 allele I171V may be a general susceptibility gene in solid tumours.

  5. Targeting CXCR1/2 Significantly Reduces Breast Cancer Stem Cell Activity and Increases the Efficacy of Inhibiting HER2 via HER2-dependent and -independent Mechanisms

    Singh, Jagdeep K.; Farnie, Gillian; Bundred, Nigel J.; Simões, Bruno M; Shergill, Amrita; Landberg, Göran; Howell, Sacha; Clarke, Robert B.


    Purpose Breast cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) are an important therapeutic target as they are predicted to be responsible for tumour initiation, maintenance and metastases. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is upregulated in breast cancer and associated with poor prognosis. Breast cancer cell line studies indicate that IL-8 via its cognate receptors, CXCR1 and CXCR2, is important in regulating breast CSC activity. We investigated the role of IL-8 in the regulation of CSC activity using patient-derived breast cancers and determined the potential benefit of combining CXCR1/2 inhibition with HER2-targeted therapy. Experimental design CSC activity of metastatic and invasive human breast cancers (n=19) was assessed ex vivo using the mammosphere colony forming assay. Results Metastatic fluid IL-8 level correlated directly with mammosphere formation (r=0.652; P<0.05; n=10). Recombinant IL-8 directly increased mammosphere formation/self-renewal in metastatic and invasive breast cancers (n=17). IL-8 induced activation of EGFR/HER2 and downstream signalling pathways and effects were abrogated by inhibition of SRC, EGFR/HER2, PI3K or MEK. Furthermore, lapatinib inhibited the mammosphere-promoting effect of IL-8 in both HER2-positive and negative patient-derived cancers. CXCR1/2 inhibition also blocked the effect of IL-8 on mammosphere formation and added to the efficacy of lapatinib in HER2-positive cancers. Conclusions These studies establish a role for IL-8 in the regulation of patient-derived breast CSC activity and demonstrate that IL-8/CXCR1/2 signalling is partly mediated via a novel SRC and EGFR/HER2-dependent pathway. Combining CXCR1/2 inhibitors with current HER2-targeted therapies has potential as an effective therapeutic strategy to reduce CSC activity in breast cancer and improve the survival of HER2-positive patients. PMID:23149820

  6. Yeast-Derived β-1,3-Glucan Substrate Significantly Increased the Diversity of Methanogens DuringIn vitro Fermentation of Porcine Colonic Digesta

    LUO Yu-heng; LI Hua; LUO Jun-qiu; ZHANG Ke-ying


    Theβ-1,3-glucan from yeast has been extensively examined for its immuno-enhancing effects in animals. However, investigation on the relationship amongβ-glucan, gut microbiota and immune-modulating effects remains limited particularly in pigs. Considering the critical roles of gut methanogens in the microbial fermentation, energy metabolism and disease resistance, we investigated the phylogenetic diversity of methanogens from fermented cultures of porcine colonic digesta with (G) or without (N) yeastβ-glucan based on sequences of the archaeal 16S rRNA gene. A total of 145 sequences in the G library were assigned into 8 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) with the majority of sequences (114/145) related to strainsMethanobrevibactermillerae orMethanobrevibactergottschalkii with high identities ranging from 97.9 to 98.6%, followed by 23 sequences toMethanobrevibacter ruminantium, 2 sequences toMethanobrevibactersmithii and one sequence toMethanobrevibacter wolinii. The 142 sequences in the N library were assigned to 2 OTUs with most sequences (127/142) related to strainsM.millerae orM.gottschalkii with sequence identities ranging from 97.9 to 98.5%, and 15 sequences related toM.gottschalkiiwith 97.9% identity. Shannon diversity index showed that the G library exhibited signiifcantly higher archaeal diversity (P<0.05) and Libshuff analysis indicated the differences in the community structure between the two libraries were signiifcant (P<0.0001). In conclusion, the current study provides evidence that addition of yeast β-glucan signiifcantly increased the diversity of methanogens inin vitro fermented porcine colonic digesta.

  7. High fasting blood glucose and obesity significantly and independently increase risk of breast cancer death in hormone receptor-positive disease.

    Minicozzi, Pamela; Berrino, Franco; Sebastiani, Federica; Falcini, Fabio; Vattiato, Rosa; Cioccoloni, Francesca; Calagreti, Gioia; Fusco, Mario; Vitale, Maria Francesca; Tumino, Rosario; Sigona, Aurora; Budroni, Mario; Cesaraccio, Rosaria; Candela, Giuseppa; Scuderi, Tiziana; Zarcone, Maurizio; Campisi, Ildegarda; Sant, Milena


    We investigated the effect of fasting blood glucose and body mass index (BMI) at diagnosis on risk of breast cancer death for cases diagnosed in five Italian cancer registries in 2003-2005 and followed up to the end of 2008. For 1607 Italian women (≥15 years) with information on BMI or blood glucose or diabetes, we analysed the risk of breast cancer death in relation to glucose tertiles (≤84.0, 84.1-94.0, >94.0 mg/dl) plus diabetic and unspecified categories; BMI tertiles (≤23.4, 23.5-27.3, >27.3 kg/m(2), unspecified), stage (T1-3N0M0, T1-3N+M0 plus T4anyNM0, M1, unspecified), oestrogen (ER) and progesterone (PR) status (ER+PR+, ER-PR-, ER and PR unspecified, other), age, chemotherapy and endocrine therapy, using multiple regression models. Separate models for ER+PR+ and ER-PR- cases were also run. Patients often had T1-3N0M0, ER+PR+ cancers and received chemotherapy or endocrine therapy; only 6% were M1 and 17% ER-PR-. Diabetic patients were older and had more often high BMI (>27 kg/m(2)), ER-PR-, M1 cancers than other patients. For ER+PR+ cases, with adjustment for other variables, breast cancer mortality was higher in women with high BMI than those with BMI 23.5-27.3 kg/m(2) (hazard ratio (HR)=2.9, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.2-6.9). Breast cancer mortality was also higher in women with high (>94 mg/dl) blood glucose compared to those with glucose 84.1-94.0mg/dl (HR=2.6, 95% CI 1.2-5.7). Our results provide evidence that in ER+PR+ patients, high blood glucose and high BMI are independently associated with increased risk of breast cancer death. Detection and correction of these factors in such patients may improve prognosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Site-directed immobilization of a genetically engineered anti-methotrexate antibody via an enzymatically introduced biotin label significantly increases the binding capacity of immunoaffinity columns.

    Davenport, Kaitlynn R; Smith, Christopher A; Hofstetter, Heike; Horn, James R; Hofstetter, Oliver


    In this study, the effect of random vs. site-directed immobilization techniques on the performance of antibody-based HPLC columns was investigated using a single-domain camelid antibody (VHH) directed against methotrexate (MTX) as a model system. First, the high flow-through support material POROS-OH was activated with disuccinimidyl carbonate (DSC), and the VHH was bound in a random manner via amines located on the protein's surface. The resulting column was characterized by Frontal Affinity Chromatography (FAC). Then, two site-directed techniques were explored to increase column efficiency by immobilizing the antibody via its C-terminus, i.e., away from the antigen-binding site. In one approach, a tetra-lysine tail was added, and the antibody was immobilized onto DSC-activated POROS. In the second site-directed approach, the VHH was modified with the AviTag peptide, and a biotin-residue was enzymatically incorporated at the C-terminus using the biotin ligase BirA. The biotinylated antibody was subsequently immobilized onto NeutrAvidin-derivatized POROS. A comparison of the FAC analyses, which for all three columns showed excellent linearity (R(2)>0.999), revealed that both site-directed approaches yield better results than the random immobilization; the by far highest efficiency, however, was determined for the immunoaffinity column based on AviTag-biotinylated antibody. As proof of concept, all three columns were evaluated for quantification of MTX dissolved in phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Validation using UV-detection showed excellent linearity in the range of 0.04-12μM (R(2)>0.993). The lower limit of detection (LOD) and lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) were found to be independent of the immobilization strategy and were 40nM and 132nM, respectively. The intra- and inter-day precision was below 11.6%, and accuracy was between 90.7% and 112%. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the AviTag-system in chromatography, and the first

  9. Significant Reduction in Mitral Regurgitation Volume Is the Main Contributor for Increase in Systolic Forward Flow in Patients with Functional Mitral Regurgitation after Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Hemodynamic Analysis Using Echocardiography.

    Itabashi, Yuji; Shibayama, Kentaro; Mihara, Hirotsugu; Utsunomiya, Hiroto; Berdejo, Javier; Arsanjani, Reza; Siegel, Robert; Chakravarty, Tarun; Jilaihawi, Hasan; Makkar, Raj R; Shiota, Takahiro


    Reduction in mitral regurgitation (MR) after transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has previously been reported. However, the hemodynamic effects of TAVR in patients with MR have not been previously evaluated. We analyzed 571 patients who underwent TAVR from December 2010 to December 2013. We studied 20 patients with moderate or severe preprocedural functional mitral regurgitation (FMR) who also had a follow-up transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) examination between 90 and 360 days (median 213 days) after TAVR (Significant FMR Group). We also studied age- and gender-matched 20 patients with mild or lesser MR (Nonsignificant MR Group). Left ventricular functional measurements were assessed using echocardiography before and after TAVR. Left ventricular outflow tract stroke volume measurements using pulsed-wave Doppler (SVLVOT ) were calculated as a representative of systolic forward flow, and stroke volume by the Simpson's method (SVSimpson ) was calculated as a parameter of degree of LV contraction. MR grade improved in 22 of 40 patients after TAVR. In both groups, BNP level decreased, left ventricular ejection fraction increased, and SVLVOT increased after TAVR. SVSimpson increased in the Nonsignificant MR Group and remained unchanged in the Significant FMR Group. Vena contracta width of MR (MRVC) decreased in the Significant FMR Group. Using multivariable analysis in the Significant FMR Group, the increase in SVLVOT significantly correlated with the decrease in MRVC (P FMR. In these patients, increase in SVLVOT after TAVR was associated with decrease in severity of MR. © 2015, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Prolongation of inhibitory postsynaptic currents by pentobarbitone, halothane and ketamine in CA1 pyramidal cells in rat hippocampus.

    Gage, P W; Robertson, B


    Spontaneous inhibitory postsynaptic currents (i.p.s.cs) were recorded in voltage-clamped CA1 neurones in rat hippocampal slices. The exponential decay of i.p.s.cs was prolonged by concentrations of sodium pentobarbitone as low as 50 microM. With concentrations up to 100 microM, there was no change in the amplitude or rise time of the currents but current amplitude was depressed at 200 microM. The prolongation of currents increased with drug concentration within the range tested (50 to 200 mic...

  11. Attenuation of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction in acute oleic acid lung injury--significance of vasodilator prostanoids.

    Yamaguchi, K; Mori, M; Kawai, A; Asano, K; Takasugi, T; Umeda, A; Yokoyama, T


    To assess a significant role of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction, HPV, on maintaining the gas exchange efficiency in acute lung injury, 24 mongrel dogs were treated with intravenously injecting 0.07 ml/kg of oleic acid. Hemodynamic and gas-exchange parameters were investigated at varied inspired O2 concentration, FIO2. To know a possible contribution of vasoactive prostanoids in regulating vascular reactivity under these circumstances, observations were repeated after infusion of indomethacin. The impairment of gas exchange in injured lungs was examined by measuring the fractional retention, R, of the gas in arterial blood. For this evaluation, a normal saline containing five foreign inert gases such as sulfur hexafluoride, SF6, ethane, cyclopropane, halothane and diethyl ether was infused at a constant rate through a peripheral vein. After a steady state was established, the expired gas was collected and the samples of both arterial and mixed venous blood were simultaneously taken for the inert-gas analysis. The concentrations of the indicator gases in the samples were measured in terms of a gas chromatograph equipped with an electron capture detector for SF6 and a flame ionization detector for the other four gases. Although pulmonary vascular resistance, PVR, after injecting oleic acid at FIO2 0.60 was significantly smaller than that obtained at FIO2 0.21, cardiac output, QT as well as extravascular lung water were not different between the two conditions. R value for the indicator gas was consistently lower at FIO2 0.60 irrespective of the gas species. As increasing FIO2, R estimate concerning SF6, RSF6, rational index of the fractional blood flow perfusing shunt area, decreased significantly. Administration of indomethacin caused the rise in PVR without an appreciable change in either QT or extravascular lung water but a considerable diminution in R value for the inert gas. RSF6 after infusion of indomethacin decreased from 0.35 to 0.27, accompanied by a

  12. Novel Cell-Ess ® supplement used as a feed or as an initial boost to CHO serum free media results in a significant increase in protein yield and production

    Adam Elhofy


    Full Text Available Many metrics, including metabolic profiles, have been used to analyze cell health and optimize productivity. In this study, we investigated the ability of a lipid supplement to increase protein yield. At a concentration of 1% (v/v the lipid supplement caused a significant increase in protein titer (1118 ± 65.4 ng 105 cells−1 days−1 when compared to cultures grown in the absence of supplementation (819.3 ± 38.1 ng 105 cells−1 days−1; p < 0.05. This equated to a 37% increase in productivity. Furthermore, metabolic profiles of ammonia, glutamate, lactate, and glucose were not significantly altered by the polar lipid supplement. In a separate set of experiments, using the supplement as a feed resulted in 2 notable effects. The first was a 25% increase in protein titer. The second was an extension of peak protein production from 1 day to 2 days. These results suggest that lipid supplementation is a promising avenue for enhancing protein production. In addition, our results also suggest that an increase in protein production may not necessarily require a change in the metabolic state of the cells.

  13. 严重糖尿病酮症酸中毒引发 BNP 明显升高1例%Severe diabetic ketoacidosis triggered the BNP increased significantly:A case report

    吕树泉; 刘爱茹; 张淑芳; 苏秀海; 郭瑞卿


    ABSTRACT:A male patient at age of 35 years was admitted to the hospital,because of nausea, vomiting 3 days, increased with upper abdominal pain 10 hours of admission. A healthy. Physical examination, blood pressure is low, the skin is dry, the deep breathing, slow reaction, increased heart rate, cold limbs. Laboratory examination of metabolic acidosis, blood glucose increased significantly, urine ketone body positive, abnormal cardiac enzyme, BNP increased significantly. A diagnosis of type 1 diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis.%患者男,35岁,因恶心、呕吐3天,加重伴上腹疼痛10小时入院。既往体健。入院查体,血压低,皮肤干燥,呼吸深大,反应迟钝,心率增快,四肢冰冷。实验室检查代谢性酸中毒,血糖明显升高,尿酮体阳性,心肌酶异常, BNP 明显升高。诊断为1型糖尿病、糖尿病酮症酸中毒。

  14. Long-term omeprazole and esomeprazole treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and epithelial growth factor receptor expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression

    Istvan Hritz; Laszlo Herszenyi; Bela Molnar; Zsolt Tulassay; Laszlo Pronai


    AIM: To study the effect of proton pump inhibitor (PPI)treatment on patients with reflux esophagitis and its in vivo effect on apoptosis, p53- and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression.METHODS: After informed consent was obtained, gastric biopsies of the antrum were taken from patients with reflux oesophagitis prior to and after 6 mo of 20 mg omeprazole (n = 14) or 40 mg esomeprazole (n = 12) therapy.Patients did not take any other medications known to affect the gastric mucosa. All patients were Helicobacter pylori negative as confirmed by rapid urease test and histology,respectively. Cell proliferation, apoptosis, EGFR, and p53expression were measured by immunohistochemical techniques. At least 600 glandular epithelial cells were encountered and results were expressed as percentage of total cells counted. Was considered statistically significant.RESULTS: Although there was a trend towards increase of cell proliferation and EGFR expression both in omeprazole and esomeprazole treated group, the difference was not statistically significant. Neither apoptosis nor p53 expression was affected.CONCLUSION: Long-term PPI treatment does not significantly increase gastric epithelial cell proliferation and EGFR expression and has no effect on apoptosis and p53 expression.

  15. Age-related increase in food spilling by laboratory mice may lead to significant overestimation of actual food consumption: implications for studies on dietary restriction, metabolism, and dose calculations.

    Starr, Marlene E; Saito, Hiroshi


    It is widely accepted that food consumption in humans declines with advanced age; however, data from mice remain controversial. Based on our previous observation that mice spill a considerable amount of food while eating, we hypothesized that increased food spillage in old mice masks actual food intake. To investigate whether mice exhibit age-associated declines in food consumption, we evaluated the actual food consumption of C57BL/6 mice at various ages by measuring both the amount of food in the food receptacle and the amount dropped to the cage bottom during feeding. We found that old mice dropped significantly more food (36% ± 8%) than young mice (18% ± 5%), which led to overestimations of food consumption, particularly in old mice. Although actual food consumption decreased in very old mice, food intake per body weight did not significantly change. These findings suggest that caution should be taken to accurately quantify food consumption by aged animals.

  16. The highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)2A receptor antagonist, EMD 281014, significantly increases swimming and decreases immobility in male congenital learned helpless rats in the forced swim test.

    Patel, Jignesh G; Bartoszyk, Gerd D; Edwards, Emmeline; Ashby, Charles R


    We examined the effect of the highly selective 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)(2A) receptor antagonist 7-[4-[2-(4-fluoro-phenyl)-ethyl]-piperazine-1-carbonyl]-1H-indole-3-carbonitrile HCl (EMD 281014) in congenital learned helpless male rats in the forced swim test. The administration of EMD-281014 (0.3-30 mg/kg i.p.) to congenital learned helpless rats dose-dependently and significantly (at 10 and 30 mg/kg) decreased immobility and increased swimming compared to vehicle-treated animals. Thus, EMD 281014 produces effects in the forced swim test resembling those of antidepressants.

  17. Solitary Inhibition of the Breast Cancer Resistance Protein Efflux Transporter Results in a Clinically Significant Drug-Drug Interaction with Rosuvastatin by Causing up to a 2-Fold Increase in Statin Exposure.

    Elsby, Robert; Martin, Paul; Surry, Dominic; Sharma, Pradeep; Fenner, Katherine


    The intestinal efflux transporter breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP) restricts the absorption of rosuvastatin. Of the transporters important to rosuvastatin disposition, fostamatinib inhibited BCRP (IC50 = 50 nM) and organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1; IC50 > 10 μM), but not organic anion transporter 3, in vitro, predicting a drug-drug interaction (DDI) in vivo through inhibition of BCRP only. Consequently, a clinical interaction study between fostamatinib and rosuvastatin was performed (and reported elsewhere). This confirmed the critical role BCRP plays in statin absorption, as inhibition by fostamatinib resulted in a significant 1.96-fold and 1.88-fold increase in rosuvastatin area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and Cmax, respectively. An in vitro BCRP inhibition assay, using polarized Caco-2 cells and rosuvastatin as probe substrate, was subsequently validated with literature inhibitors and used to determine BCRP inhibitory potencies (IC50) of the perpetrator drugs eltrombopag, darunavir, lopinavir, clopidogrel, ezetimibe, fenofibrate, and fluconazole. OATP1B1 inhibition was also determined using human embryonic kidney 293-OATP1B1 cells versus estradiol 17β-glucuronide. Calculated parameters of maximum enterocyte concentration [Igut max], maximum unbound hepatic inlet concentration, transporter fraction excreted value, and determined IC50 value were incorporated into mechanistic static equations to compute theoretical increases in rosuvastatin AUC due to inhibition of BCRP and/or OATP1B1. Calculated theoretical increases in exposure correctly predicted the clinically observed changes in rosuvastatin exposure and suggested intestinal BCRP inhibition (not OATP1B1) to be the mechanism underlying the DDIs with these drugs. In conclusion, solitary inhibition of the intestinal BCRP transporter can result in clinically significant DDIs with rosuvastatin, causing up to a maximum 2-fold increase in exposure, which may warrant

  18. Significant increase in HBV, HCV, HIV and syphilis infections among blood donors in West Bengal, Eastern India 2004-2005: Exploratory screening reveals high frequency of occult HBV infection

    Prasun Bhattacharya; Partha Kumar Chandra; Sibnarayan Datta; Arup Banerjee; Subhashish Chakraborty; Krishnan Rajendran; Subir Kumar Basu; Sujit Kumar Bhattacharya; Runu Chakravarty


    AIM: To evaluate the prevalence of markers of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) among blood donors in Kolkata, Eastern India for two consecutive years and to conduct a pilot study to explore the presence of HBV DNA among hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative but anti-HBc positive blood donors.METHODS: Seroprevalence of HBsAg, anti-HCV and anti-HIV was studied among 113051 and 106695 voluntary blood donors screened in 2004 and 2005,respectively. Moreover, a pilot study on 1027 HBsAg negative donors was carried out for evaluating the presence of HBV DNA by PCR on HBsAg negative/antiHBc positive donors.RESJLTS: A statistically significant increase in the prevalence of HBV (1448 vs 1768, P < 0.001), HIV (262vs 374, P < 0.001), HCV (314 vs 372, P = 0.003) and syphilis (772 vs 853, P = 0.001) infections was noted among blood donors of Kolkata West Bengal in 2005 as compared to 2004. Moreover, the exploratory study on 1027 HBsAg negative donors revealed that 188 (18.3%) of them were anti-HBc positive out of which 21% were positive for HBV DNA.CONCLUSION: The findings of this study underscore the significantly increasing endemicity of hepatitis viruses, syphilis and HIV among the voluntary blood donors of our community. The pilot study indicates a high rate of prevalence of HBV DNA among HBsAg negative/anti-HBc positive donors and thus emphasizes the need for a more sensitive and stringent screening algorithm for blood donations.

  19. Choosing Outcomes of Significance.

    Spady, William G.


    Outcomes are high-quality, culminating demonstrations of significant learning in context. The High Success Network uses the "Demonstration Mountain" to differentiate among three major "learning zones" and six different forms of learning demonstrations that increase in complexity, generalizability, and significance, along with…

  20. Neither moderate hypoxia nor mild hypoglycaemia alone causes any significant increase in cerebral [Ca2+]i: only a combination of the two insults has this effect. A 31P and 19F NMR study.

    Badar-Goffer, R S; Thatcher, N M; Morris, P G; Bachelard, H S


    (1) The energy state and free intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) of superfused cortical slices were measured in moderate hypoxia (approximately 65 microM O2), in mild hypoglycaemia (0.5 mM glucose), and in combinations of the two insults using 19F and 31P NMR spectroscopy. (2) Neither hypoxia nor hypoglycaemia alone caused any significant change in [Ca2+]i. Hypoxia caused a 40% fall in phosphocreatine (PCr) content but not in ATP level, and hypoglycaemia produced a slight fall in both (as expected from previous studies). These changes in the energy state recovered on return to control conditions. (3) A combined sequential insult (hypoxia, followed by hypoxia plus hypoglycaemia) produced a 100% increase in [Ca2+]i and a decrease in PCr level to approximately 25% of control. The reverse combined sequential insult (hypoglycaemia, followed by hypoglycaemia plus hypoxia) had the same effect. On return to control conditions there was some decrease in [Ca2+]i and a small increase in PCr content, but neither recovered to control levels. (4) Exposure of the tissue to the combined simultaneous insult (hypoxia plus hypoglycaemia) immediately after the control spectra had been recorded resulted in a fivefold increase in [Ca2+]i and a similar decrease in PCr level to 20-25% of control. There was little if any change of [Ca2+]i or PCr level on return to control conditions. (5) These results are discussed in terms of metabolic adaptation of some but not all of the cortical cells to the single type of insult, which renders the tissues less vulnerable to the combined insult.

  1. 氟烷与氯化琥珀胆碱联用致恶性高热死亡%Death from malignant hyperthermia due to halothane combined with succinylcholine chloride

    王太亮; 秦志一


    A 36-year-old male underwent local resection of hemangioma of liver under general anesthesia. Physical examination showed the following results:body temperature was 36. 0 ℃,heart rate 71 beats/min,breathing rate 14 breathes/min,blood pressure 120/82 mmHg. The patient received induced anesthesia with 1. 5% halothane. And then received intravenous administration of midazolam,esmolol, propofol,remifentanil,suxamethonium chloride,and vecuronium bromide,successively. The patient's hepatic hemangioma was resected smoothly. He developed high fever(40℃),his heart rate was 140 beats/min,blood pressure 96/52 mmHg 90 minutes later. The anaesthetist considered as malignant hyperthermia due to halothane combined succinylcholine chloride. Halothane was withdrawn immediately. He underwent comprehensive treatments immediately,including physical cooling;correcting acidosis,hyperkalemia,and arrhythmia;elevating blood pressure;diuresis,protection of renal function,and synchronous direct current cardioversion. The patient developed ventricular tachycardia, arrhythmia, cardiac arrest, and high temperature( >42 ℃),successively during the treatment. Finally,the patient died despite resuscitation attempts about 3 hours after malignant hyperthermia occurred.%1例36岁男性患者全身麻醉下行肝血管瘤局部剜除术。术前体温36.0℃,心率71次/min,呼吸14次/min,血压120/82 mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)。行1.5%氟烷吸入诱导麻醉,之后依次静脉给予咪达唑仑、艾司洛尔、丙泊酚、瑞芬太尼、氯化琥珀胆碱和维库溴铵。血管瘤顺利切除。手术进行至90 min时,患者突发高热,体温40.0℃,心率140次/min,血压96/52 mmHg。麻醉师考虑为氟烷联用氯化琥珀胆碱所致的恶性高热。立即停用氟烷,给予物理降温,纠正酸中毒、高血钾、心律失常,升压,利尿,保护肾功能,以及同步直流电复律等对症救治。抢救过程中患者先后出现室性

  2. Serum hCG-β levels of postovulatory day 12 and 14 with the sequential application of hCG-β fold change significantly increased predictability of pregnancy outcome after IVF-ET cycle.

    Sung, Nayoung; Kwak-Kim, Joanne; Koo, H S; Yang, K M


    To investigate hCG-β level on postovulatory day (POD) 12 and its fold increase as predictors for pregnancy outcome after in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles. A retrospective cohort study was performed in total 1408 fresh and 598 frozen cycles between November 2008 and October 2011, which resulted in biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, or live birth of singleton pregnancy. The serum hCG-β levels of POD 12 and 14 were compared among biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, and live birth groups. The cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 hCG-β levels and the degree of hCG-β increase from POD 12 to 14 were determined for each pregnancy outcome. POD 12 and 14 hCG-β levels stratified based on pregnancy outcomes were significantly different among the biochemical pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, and live birth in both fresh and frozen cycles. Serum hCG-β levels of POD 12 and 14 and the fold increase of hCG-β levels from POD 12 to 14 significantly predict pregnancy outcomes after fresh and frozen cycles. Among these, the cutoff value of POD 14 hCG-β had the highest sensitivity and positive predictive value (PPV). In fresh cycles, the cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 serum hCG-β levels for clinical pregnancies were 30.2 mIU/mL (sensitivity 81.3 %, specificity 79.6 %, and PPV 92.3 %) and 70.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 88.4 %, specificity 85.2 %, and PPV 94.7 %). In pregnancies with POD 12 serum hCG-β levels ≥30.2 mIU/mL, the cutoff level of increase of hCG-β for clinical pregnancy was 2.56 (sensitivity 73.6 %, specificity 72.4 %, and PPV 97.8 %). Sequential application of cutoff values such as POD 12 hCG-β and fold increase of hCG-β improved predictability of pregnancy outcome as compared with that of POD 12 hCG-β alone. The cutoff values of POD 12 and 14 serum hCG-β levels for live birth were 40.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 75.2 %, specificity 72.6 %, PPV 78.9 %) and 104.5 mIU/mL (sensitivity 80.3 %, specificity 74.1 %, PPV 80.8 %). In the frozen

  3. In Vivo Imaging Reveals Significant Tumor Vascular Dysfunction and Increased Tumor Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α Expression Induced by High Single-Dose Irradiation in a Pancreatic Tumor Model.

    Maeda, Azusa; Chen, Yonghong; Bu, Jiachuan; Mujcic, Hilda; Wouters, Bradly G; DaCosta, Ralph S


    To investigate the effect of high-dose irradiation on pancreatic tumor vasculature and microenvironment using in vivo imaging techniques. A BxPC3 pancreatic tumor xenograft was established in a dorsal skinfold window chamber model and a subcutaneous hind leg model. Tumors were irradiated with a single dose of 4, 12, or 24 Gy. The dorsal skinfold window chamber model was used to assess tumor response, vascular function and permeability, platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium, and tumor hypoxia for up to 14 days after 24-Gy irradiation. The hind leg model was used to monitor tumor size, hypoxia, and vascularity for up to 65 days after 24-Gy irradiation. Tumors were assessed histologically to validate in vivo observations. In vivo fluorescence imaging revealed temporary vascular dysfunction in tumors irradiated with a single dose of 4 to 24 Gy, but most significantly with a single dose of 24 Gy. Vascular functional recovery was observed by 14 days after irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, irradiation with 24 Gy caused platelet and leukocyte adhesion to the vascular endothelium within hours to days after irradiation. Vascular permeability was significantly higher in irradiated tumors compared with nonirradiated controls 14 days after irradiation. This observation corresponded with increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α in irradiated tumors. In the hind leg model, irradiation with a single dose of 24 Gy led to tumor growth delay, followed by tumor regrowth. Irradiation of the BxPC3 tumors with a single dose of 24 Gy caused transient vascular dysfunction and increased expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α. Such biological changes may impact tumor response to high single-dose and hypofractionated irradiation, and further investigations are needed to better understand the clinical outcomes of stereotactic body radiation therapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [Diagnostic significance of multiparametric MRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy of the prostate in patients with increased PSA levels and negative standard biopsy results to detect significant prostate cancer - Correlation with the Gleason score. Korrelation mit dem Gleason Score].

    Hoffmann, Manuela; Hoffmann, Manuela A; Wieler, Helmut J; Jakobs, Frank M; Taymoorian, Kasra; Gerhards, Arnd; Miederer, Matthias; Schreckenberger, Mathias


    To increase diagnostic precision and to reduce overtreatment of low-risk malignant disease, multiparametric MRI (mpMRI) combined with ultrasound (US) fusion guided biopsy of the prostate were performed. In 99 male patients with increased PSA plasma levels and previous negative standard biopsy procedures, mpMRI was carried out followed by US fusion guided perineal biopsy. PI-RADS-Data (PS) of mpMRI and histopathological Gleason score (GS) were categorized and statistically compared. Lesions in 72/99 (73 %) of patients were determined to be suspect of malignancy, based on a PS 4 or 5. In 33/99 (33 %) of patients, malignancy could not be confirmed by histopathology. With regard to the remaining 66 patients with previous negative biopsy results, 42 (64 %) were diagnosed with a low-grade carcinoma (GS 6, 7a) and 24 (36 %) with a high-grade carcinoma (GS ≥ 7b). The proportion of corresponding results in mpMRI (PS 4-5) when a high-grade carcinoma had been detected, was 21/24 (88 %), which related to a sensitivity of 88 % and a negative predictive value (NPV) of 85 % (p = 0,002). In addition, 35 of 42 patients (83%), graded PS 4-5 in mpMRI, were diagnosed with low-grade carcinoma-positive (p < 0,001). Sensitivity to differentiation between low- and high-grade carcinomas (GS ≤ 7a vs. ≥ 7b) by means of PS was 88 % with a NPV of 70 % (p = 0,74). Our results suggest that mpMRI combined with US-fusion guided biopsy is able to detect considerably higher rates of clinically relevant prostate malignancies compared to conventional diagnostic procedures. However, no statistical significance could be shown regarding the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas. It is hoped that the hybrid methods PSMA-PET/CT or PSMA-PET/MRI will lead to the next optimization step in the differentiation between high- and low-grade carcinomas which so far has been unsatisfactory.

  5. 儿童真菌性肠炎患者血清IL-27增高及其意义%Clinical significance of increased serum IL-27 in children with mycosis intestinalis

    程娟娟; 潘敏; 韩志君; 葛小丽


    Objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of serum IL-27 on children with mycosis intestinalis. Methods The serum level of IL-27 and PCT of 89 children with mycosis intestinalis, 61 viralgastroenteritis and 41 healthy volunteers were detected by ELJSA. The association between IL-27 and white blood cell count and PCT was analysed. The diagnostic value of IL-27 on children with mycosis intestinalis was evaluated by receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curve analysis. Results The level of serum IL-27 was significantly increased in children with mycosis intestinalis than that of viral intestinalis group and healthy control group ( P <0.01). The level of serum IL-27 positive correlated with PCT, was observed in children with mycosis intestinalis. Area under cure (AUC) confirmed by ROC analysis was 0.82 (95% Confidence interval (CI): 0.63-0. 89) for IL-27. At the best cut-off value of 0. 82 pg/ml, the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of IL-27 are 0.75 and 0.79 respectively. Conclusions Serum IL-27 has high diagnostic performance for children with mycosis intestinalis, which should be an early biomarker for children with mycosis intestinalis.%目的 评价血清IL-27对儿童真菌性肠炎的诊断价值.方法 收集89例儿童真菌性肠炎,61例儿童病毒性肠炎和41例健康对照者的临床资料及血清.酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)检测血清中IL-27和降钙素原(Procalcitionin,PCT)的水平,全自动血球分析仪检测各项白细胞参数,分析IL-27与白细胞计数和PCT的相关性,采用受试者工作曲线(ROC)法评价血清IL-27对儿童真菌性肠炎患者的诊断价值.结果 儿童真菌性肠炎患者血清IL-27水平较儿童病毒性肠炎组和健康对照组显著增高(P<0.01),儿童真菌性肠炎患者IL-27的水平与白细胞计数无显著相关性(R=-0.198,P>0.05),与PCT水平呈显著正相关(R=0.419,P<0.01).IL-27诊断儿童真菌性肠炎的ROC曲线下面积为0.82(95%可信区间:0.63~0.89,P<0

  6. Significant increase of Curie temperature and large piezoelectric coefficient in Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O3-0.5(Ba0.70Ca0.30)TiO3 nanofibers

    Fu, Bi; Yang, Yaodong; Gao, Kun; Wang, Yaping


    Ba(Ti0.80Zr0.20)O3-0.5(Ba0.7Ca0.3)TiO3 (abbreviated as BTZ-0.5BCT) is a piezoelectric ceramic with a high piezoelectric coefficient d33 (˜620 pC N-1) and has been regarded as one of the most promising candidates to replace PZT-based materials (200-710 pC N-1). However, its Curie temperature TC is relatively low (93 °C) limiting its application. In this letter, we found a temperature dependent Raman spectrum in BTZ-0.5BCT nanofibers (NFs), demonstrating a diffused tetragonal-to-cubic phase transition at 300 °C. This means that the TC of the NFs is nearly 207 °C higher than that of the normal bulk material. The increased TC is considered to be associated with the size effect of BTZ-0.5BCT nanoceramic subunits and the nanoporous nature of the fiber, resulting in discontinuous physical properties. The variation of the ferro/piezoelectricity over the fiber surface is attributed to the polycrystalline structure. The d33 (173.32 pm V-1) is improved in terms of the decreased Q factor result in an increase in d33 of 236.54 pm V-1 after polarization. With a high TC and a very large d33, BTZ-0.5BCT NFs are capable of providing electromechanical behavior used in moderate temperatures.

  7. Human circulating ribosomal DNA content significantly increases while circulating satellite III (1q12) content decreases under chronic occupational exposure to low-dose gamma- neutron and tritium beta-radiation.

    Korzeneva, Inna B; Kostuyk, Svetlana V; Ershova, Elizaveta S; Skorodumova, Elena N; Zhuravleva, Veronika F; Pankratova, Galina V; Volkova, Irina V; Stepanova, Elena V; Porokhovnik, Lev N; Veiko, Natalia N

    A single exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) results in an elevated cell-free DNA (cfDNA) content in the blood plasma. In this case, the cfDNA concentration can be a marker of the cell death in the organism. However, a chronic exposure to a low-dose IR enhances both the endonuclease activity and titer of antibodies to DNA in blood plasma, resulting in a decrease of the total concentration of circulating cfDNA in exposed people. In this case, the total cfDNA concentration should not be considered as a marker of the cell death in an exposed body. We assumed that a pool of the cfDNA circulating in the exposed people contains DNA fragments, which are resistant to a double-strand break formation in the environment of the elevated plasma endonuclease activity, and can be accumulated in the blood plasma. In order to test this hypothesis, we studied the content of GC-rich sequences (69%GC) of the transcribed region of human ribosomal repeat (rDNA), as well as the content of AT-rich repeat (63%AT) of satellite III (1q12) in the cfDNA samples obtained from 285 individuals. We have found that a chronic exposure to gamma-neutron radiation (N=88) and tritium β-radiation (N=88) evokes an increase of the rDNA content (RrDNA index) and a decrease of the satellite III content (RsatIII index) in the circulating cfDNA as compared with the cfDNA of non-exposed people (N=109). Such index that simultaneously displays both the increase of rDNA content and decrease of satellite III content in the cfDNA (RrDNA/RsatIII) can be recommended as a marker of chronic processes in the body that involve the elevated cell death rate and/or increased blood plasma endonuclease activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Increased frequency of dicentric chromosomes in therapy-related MDS and AML compared to de novo disease is significantly related to previous treatment with alkylating agents and suggests a specific susceptibility to chromosome breakage at the centromere.

    Andersen, M K; Pedersen-Bjergaard, J


    Dicentric chromosomes are observed in many malignant diseases including myelodysplasia (MDS) and acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and have often been observed in a subset of these diseases, namely therapy-related MDS (t-MDS) and AML (t-AML). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) with centromere-specific probes, we investigated the frequency and type of dicentric chromosomes in 180 consecutive patients with t-MDS and t-AML and in 231 consecutive patients with de novo MDS and AML, whose karyotypes had been studied previously by conventional G-banding. Twenty-seven out of 180 patients with t-MDS or t-AML presented dicentric chromosomes compared to only seven out of 231 patients with de novo disease (P = 0.00003). A dic(1q;7p) was observed in 10 cases, a dic(5p;17q) was observed in six cases, whereas various isodicentric chromosomes were observed in six cases. Excluding these six cases with isodicentrics, all 25 patients with dicentric chromosomes had involvement of at least one of the chromosome arms 1q, 5p, or 7p resulting in monosomy for 5q or 7q, and/or trisomy for 1q. Patients with dicentric chromosomes presented significantly more often as t-MDS compared to patients without dicentrics (P = 0.046), and the presence of a dicentric chromosome was significantly related to previous therapy with alkylating agents (P = 0.026). Thus, only one out of 27 patients with a dicentric chromosome had not previously received an alkylating agent. A specific susceptibility to breakage at the centromere after exposure to alkylating agents is suggested and may explain the frequent loss of whole chromosomes, in particular chromosomes 5 and 7 in t-MDS and t-AML, if the breaks are not followed by rejoining. Leukemia (2000) 14, 105-111.

  9. Preimplantation genetic screening for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization significantly increases implantation rates and clinical pregnancy rates in patients undergoing in vitro fertilization with poor prognosis

    Gaurav Majumdar


    Full Text Available CONTEXT: A majority of human embryos produced in vitro are aneuploid, especially in couples undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF with poor prognosis. Preimplantation genetic screening (PGS for all 24 chromosomes has the potential to select the most euploid embryos for transfer in such cases. AIM: To study the efficacy of PGS for all 24 chromosomes by microarray comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH in Indian couples undergoing IVF cycles with poor prognosis. SETTINGS AND DESIGN: A retrospective, case–control study was undertaken in an institution-based tertiary care IVF center to compare the clinical outcomes of twenty patients, who underwent 21 PGS cycles with poor prognosis, with 128 non-PGS patients in the control group, with the same inclusion criterion as for the PGS group. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Single cells were obtained by laser-assisted embryo biopsy from day 3 embryos and subsequently analyzed by array CGH for all 24 chromosomes. Once the array CGH results were available on the morning of day 5, only chromosomally normal embryos that had progressed to blastocyst stage were transferred. RESULTS: The implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate (PR per transfer were found to be significantly higher in the PGS group than in the control group (63.2% vs. 26.2%, P = 0.001 and 73.3% vs. 36.7%, P = 0.006, respectively, while the multiple PRs sharply declined from 31.9% to 9.1% in the PGS group. CONCLUSIONS: In this pilot study, we have shown that PGS by array CGH can improve the clinical outcome in patients undergoing IVF with poor prognosis.

  10. Software Tool for Significantly Increasing Airport Throughput Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA's Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) Airportal effort seeks to optimize aircraft surface movements through approaches that could double or...

  11. Otters Increasing - Threats Increasing

    Andreas Kranz


    Full Text Available In some parts of Central Europe populations of otters are apparently increasing. Until recently, no research was being conducted on the ecology of otters in mainly artificial habitats like fish farms. Otters are not only a new source of conflict requiring species management, but appear once again threatened by illegal hunting. Austria is dealing with this problem using compensation for otter damage, electric fencing and translocation of problem otters. Despite a rise in illegal killing, Austria does not formally recognise this as a threat.

  12. Meaning and significance of

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela


    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  13. Significant NRC Enforcement Actions

    Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...

  14. Significance Testing Without Truth


    ICES REPORT 12-34 August 2012 Significance testing without truth by William Perkins, Mark Tygert, and Rachel Ward The Institute for Computational...testing without truth , ICES REPORT 12-34, The Institute for Computational Engineering and Sciences, The University of Texas at Austin, August 2012...2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2012 to 00-00-2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Significance testing without truth 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b

  15. A Significant Play

    梁海光; 陈明


    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  16. Significant Tsunami Events

    Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.


    Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website

  17. Significant Scales in Community Structure

    Traag, V A; Van Dooren, P


    Many complex networks show signs of modular structure, uncovered by community detection. Although many methods succeed in revealing various partitions, it remains difficult to detect at what scale some partition is significant. This problem shows foremost in multi-resolution methods. We here introduce an efficient method for scanning for resolutions in one such method. Additionally, we introduce the notion of "significance" of a partition, based on subgraph probabilities. Significance is independent of the exact method used, so could also be applied in other methods, and can be interpreted as the gain in encoding a graph by making use of a partition. Using significance, we can determine "good" resolution parameters, which we demonstrate on benchmark networks. Moreover, optimizing significance itself also shows excellent performance. We demonstrate our method on voting data from the European Parliament. Our analysis suggests the European Parliament has become increasingly ideologically divided and that nationa...

  18. A Significant Step Forward


    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  19. The Significance of Science

    Pielke, R.


    Whether global warming, terrestrial carbon sinks, ecosystem functioning, genetically modified organisms, cloning, vaccination or chemicals in the environment, science is increasingly the battlefield on which political advocates, not least lawyers and commercial interests, manipulate `facts' to their preferred direction, which fosters the politicization of science. Debate putatively over science increasingly relies on tactics such as ad hominem attacks and criticism of process (for example, peer review or sources of funding), through paid advertisements, press releases and other publicity campaigns. As political battles are waged through `science', many scientists are willing to adopt tactics of demagoguery and character assassination as well as, or even instead of, reasoned argument, as in aspects of debate over genetically modified crops or global warming. Science is becoming yet another playing field for power politics, complete with the trappings of media spin and a win-at-all-costs attitude. Sadly, much of what science can offer policymakers, and hence society, is lost. This talk will use cases from the atmospheric sciences as points of departure to explore the politicization of science from several perspectives and address questions such as: Is it a problem? For whom and what outcomes? What are the alternatives to business-as-usual?

  20. Predicting significant torso trauma.

    Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen


    Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.

  1. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Saugstad, L F


    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  2. A significant resource

    Umana, E.; Suarez, J.A.; Santon, D.G.


    The paper discusses Colombia's aims to enhance coal export levels in order to increase its world market share. The objectives set by the Colombian mining authorities include: achieving and sustaining a share of 10% in the world's thermal coal market commercialised by sea; attaining a 20% share of Colombia's energy basket by 2010; modernising small and medium-sized coal mines located in regions other than northern Colombia (Guajira-Cesar complex), in order to make them sustainable at technical, economic and environmental levels; maintaining and enhancing the transport and shipping infrastructure; and encouraging private, national and foreign capital involvement in the country's coal projects. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 3 photos.

  3. Interaction between inhalational anaesthetics and enoximone on isolated heart muscle.

    Miralles, F S; Carceles, M D; Laorden, M L


    1. The present study describes the effects of halothane or isoflurane on enoximone activity in the isolated left atria of the rat. 2. Concentration-response curves were obtained for the positive inotropic effects of enoximone on electrically stimulated left atria. 3. Enoximone significantly (P < 0.01) increased the contractile force (56% maximum) with all the concentrations tested (10(-9) -10(-3) M). 4. When halothane (1.5% v/v) was present in the organ bath, the maximum effect obtained with enoximone (9%) was significantly lower than that obtained with enoximone alone. 5. Similar results were obtained with enoximone in the presence of halothane plus diltiazem. Isoflurane (1.5% v/v) did not significantly modify the maximum effect obtained with enoximone alone. 6. The administration of diltiazem antagonized the positive inotropic effects of enoximone in the presence of isoflurane or halothane. 7. These results shows that halothane, but not isoflurane, decreased the potency of enoximone on the isolated left atria and suggests that this effect may be mediated by the blocking of the influx of extracellular calcium through voltage-dependent calcium channels inhibited by diltiazem.

  4. Homeopathy: statistical significance versus the sample size in experiments with Toxoplasma gondii

    Ana Lúcia Falavigna Guilherme


    Full Text Available Introduction: Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis that represents a serious public health problem, caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which affects 20-90% of the world human population [1,2]. It is a serious problem especially when considering the congenital transmission due to congenital sequels. Treatment with highly diluted substances is one of the alternative/complementary medicines most employed in the world [3,4]. The current ethical rules regarding the number of animals used in animal experimental protocols with the use of more conservative statistical methods [5] can not enhance the biological effects of highly diluted substances observed by the experience of the researcher. Aim: To evaluate the minimum number of animals per group to achieve a significant difference among the groups of animals treated with biotherapic T. gondii and infected with the protozoan regarding the number of cysts observed in the brain. Material and methods: A blind randomized controlled trial was performed using eleven Swiss male mice, aged 57 days, divided into two groups: BIOT-200DH - treated with biotherapic (n=6 and CONTROL - treated with hydroalcoholic solution 7% (n=7.The animals of the group BIOT-200DH were treated for 3 consecutive days in a single dose 0.1ml/dose/day. The animals of BIOT – 200DH group were orally infected with 20 cysts of ME49-T. gondii. The animals of the control group were treated with cereal alcohol 7% (n=7 for 3 consecutive days and then were infected with 20 cysts of ME49 -T. gondii orally. The biotherapic 200DH T. gondii was prepared with homogenized mouse brain, with 20 cysts of T. gondii / 100μL according to the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia [6] in laminar flow. After 60 days post-infection the animals were killed in a chamber saturated with halothane, the brains were homogenized and resuspended in 1 ml of saline solution. Cysts were counted in 25 ml of this suspension, covered with a 24x24 mm coverglass

  5. [Hypertriglyceridemia: concept and clinical significance].

    Hirano, Tsutomu


    Hypertriglyceridemia is a common lipid disorder as well as hypercholesterolemia. However clinical significance of hypertriglyceridemia is not fully understood because of its heterogeneous lipoprotein phenotypes and complex etiology. Severe hypertriglyceridemia increases the risk for pancreatitis, whereas mild or moderate hypertriglyceridemia may be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Patients with hypertriglyceridemia are usually accompanied by other cardiovascular related disorders, such as central obesity, type 2 diabetes, and liver steatosis. Ectopic fat accumulation is often seen in hypertriglyceridemic subjects and various organ injuries are developed by the lipotoxicity. Hypertriglyceridemia is strongly associated with remnant lipoprotein accumulation, increased small dense LDL, and low HDL-cholesterol. All these lipid abnormalities are recognized as cardiovascular risk factors. The pathophysiology of lipoprotein metabolism related to the hypertriglyceridemia is summarized in this brief review.

  6. Price increase


    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced, as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  7. Price increase


    Please take note that after five years of stable prices at Restaurant No 1 a price increase will come into force on 1st January 2006. This increase has been agreed after discussions between the CSR (Comité de Surveillance des Restaurants) and the catering company Novae and will reflect the inflation rate of the last few years. In addition, a new children's menu will be introduced as well as 'Max Havelaar' fair-trade coffee at a price of 1.70 CHF.

  8. Nimodipine posttreatment does not increase blood flow in rats with focal cortical ischemia.

    Dirnagl, U; Jacewicz, M; Pulsinelli, W


    We used laser-Doppler flowmetry to study the effect of nimodipine administered after the onset of focal cortical ischemia on regional cerebral blood flow in 16 halothane-anesthetized, mechanically ventilated Wistar rats. We selected the Wistar rats strain since it would provide a wide range of ischemia severities to test the vascular response to nimodipine. Laser-Doppler probes continuously recorded regional cerebral blood flow at two or three sites over the parietal cortex (dura intact) while brain temperature was regulated at 37 degrees C. Occlusion of the right middle cerebral and common carotid arteries reduced cerebral blood flow to a mean of 38% (range 13-77%) of baseline. Thirty minutes later, either 2 micrograms/kg/min nimodipine (n = 8) or its vehicle, polyethylene glycol 400 (n = 8), was administered by a continuous intravenous infusion. Over 60 minutes of treatment, both the nimodipine-treated and vehicle-treated groups showed a trivial (3%) mean increase in cerebral blood flow. Nimodipine failed to augment cerebral blood flow regardless of whether the cortex was severely, moderately, or mildly ischemic.

  9. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta


    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  10. Monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    Kyle, Robert A; Vincent Rajkumar, S


    Summary Significant advances have been made in our understanding of the natural history, pathogenesis, mechanisms of progression and prognosis of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS...

  11. Comparação entre a lidocaína e a acupuntura no tratamento da taquicardia ventricular induzida com dopamina em equinos anestesiados com halotano Comparative study between lidocaine and acupunture in the treatment of ventricular tachycardia induced by dopamine in horses anesthetized with halothane

    J.J. Cárdenas


    Full Text Available Os efeitos da lidocaina e da acupuntura nos pontos bilaterais associados ao pericárdio 6 (Pc6-Neiguan e ao coração 7 (C7-Shenmen, no tratamento da taquicardia ventricular (TV induzida por dopamina em equinos anestesiados com halotano, foram avaliados e comparados. Seis equinos, distribuídos em três grupos: grupo-controle (GC, grupo tratado com acupuntura (GA e grupo tratado com lidocaína (GL, foram anestesiados três vezes cada, com intervalo de uma semana entre cada anestesia. Avaliaram-se os parâmetros cardiovasculares (frequência cardíaca, pressão arterial e eletrocardiografia, os respiratórios (frequência respiratória, capnografía, saturação de hemoglobina e hemogasometria e o escore de recuperação. A dose arritmogênica da dopamina (DAD foi determinada a partir da infusão de 70µg/kg/min IV durante 10 minutos, sem interrupção, preenchendo o critério arritmogênico: quatro ou mais complexos ventriculares prematuros seguidos, com duração de pelo menos 15 segundos ou TV sustentada. O tempo médio de aparecimento da DAD ou da TV foi de 6,05±0,45 minutos nos animais não tratados, e a TV se reverteu espontaneamente aos 2,7±0,2 minutos. O grupo tratado com acupuntura reverteu a TV no tempo médio de 1,8±0,2 (PThe effects of lidocaine and acupuncture in the associated bilateral points, i.e. pericardium 6 (Pc 6- Neiguan and heart 7 (H7 - Shenmen, on the ventricular tachycardia (VT induced by dopamine were evaluated in horses anesthetized with halothane. Six horses were distributed in three groups: control group (CG, acupuncture treated group (AG, and lidocaine treated group (LG. They were anesthetized three times each one using halothane with one week interval between each anesthesic procedure. Cardiovascular (heart rate, arterial pressure, and ECG and respiratory (respiratory rate, capnometry, hemoglobin saturation, and blood gas analysis parameters and recovery score were evaluated. The arrhythmogenic dose of dopamine

  12. Factors significantly increasing or inhibiting early stages of malignant melanoma (M.M.) and non-invasive evaluation of new treatment by ingestion and external application of optimal doses of the most effective anti-M.M. substances: haritaki, cilantro, vitamin D3, nori, EPA with DHA, & application of special (+) solar energy stored paper, which reduced the M.M. active area & asbestos rapidly.

    Omura, Yoshiaki; Jones, Marilyn; Duvvi, Harsha; Paluch, Kamila; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro; Ohki, Motomu


    Sterilizing the pre-cancer skin of malignant melanoma (M.M.) with 70% Isopropyl alcohol intensified malignancy & the malignant response extended to surrounding normal looking skin, while sterilizing with 80% (vodka) or 12% (plum wine) ethyl alcohol completely inhibited M.M. in the area (both effects lasted for about 90 minutes initially). Burnt food (bread, vegetables, meat, and fish), a variety of smoked & non-smoked fish-skin, many animal's skin, pepper, Vitamin C over 75 mg, mango, pineapple, coconut, almond, sugars, Saccharine & Aspartame, garlic, onion, etc & Electromagnetic field from cellular phones worsened M.M. & induced abnormal M.M. response of surrounding skin. We found the following factors inhibit early stage of M.M. significantly: 1) Increasing normal cell telomere, by taking 500 mg Haritaki, often reached between 400-1150 ng& gradually diminished, but the M.M. response was completely inhibited until normal cell telomeres are reduced to 150 ng, which takes 6-8 hours. More than 70 mg Vitamin C, Orange Juice, & other high Vitamin C containing substances shouldn't be taken because they completely inhibit the effects of Haritaki. 2) We found Chrysotile asbestos & Tremolite asbestos (% of the Chrysotile amount) coexist. A special Cilantro tablet was used to remove asbestos & some toxic metals. 3) Vitamin D3 400 I.U. has a maximum inhibiting effect on M.M. but 800 I.U. or higher promotes malignancy. 4) Noricontaining Iodine, etc., was used. 5) EPA 180 mm with DHA 120 mg was most effectively used after metastasis to the surrounding skin was eliminated. When we combined 1 Cilantro tablet & Vitamin D3 400 I.U. withsmall Nori pieces & EPA with DHA, the effect of complete inhibition of M.M. lasted 9-11 hours. When these anti-M.M.substances (Haritaki, Vitamin D3, Cilantro, Nori, EPA. with DHA) were taken together, the effect lasted 12-14 hoursand M.M. involvement in surrounding normal-looking skin disappeared rapidly & original dark brown or black are as

  13. Significance Tests for Periodogram Peaks

    Frescura, F A M; Frank, B S


    We discuss methods currently in use for determining the significance of peaks in the periodograms of time series. We discuss some general methods for constructing significance tests, false alarm probability functions, and the role played in these by independent random variables and by empirical and theoretical cumulative distribution functions. We also discuss the concept of "independent frequencies" in periodogram analysis. We propose a practical method for estimating the significance of periodogram peaks, applicable to all time series irrespective of the spacing of the data. This method, based on Monte Carlo simulations, produces significance tests that are tailor-made for any given astronomical time series.

  14. The significance of task significance: Job performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions.

    Grant, Adam M


    Does task significance increase job performance? Correlational designs and confounded manipulations have prevented researchers from assessing the causal impact of task significance on job performance. To address this gap, 3 field experiments examined the performance effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance. In Experiment 1, fundraising callers who received a task significance intervention increased their levels of job performance relative to callers in 2 other conditions and to their own prior performance. In Experiment 2, task significance increased the job dedication and helping behavior of lifeguards, and these effects were mediated by increases in perceptions of social impact and social worth. In Experiment 3, conscientiousness and prosocial values moderated the effects of task significance on the performance of new fundraising callers. The results provide fresh insights into the effects, relational mechanisms, and boundary conditions of task significance, offering noteworthy implications for theory, research, and practice on job design, social information processing, and work motivation and performance.

  15. Increased Expression and Clinical Significance of Th22 Cells and Th17 Cells in the Peripheral Blood of Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis and Rheumatoid Arthritis%强直性脊椎炎和类风湿性关节炎患者外周血中Th22和Th17细胞含量上升及临床意义

    郭勇; 朱海波


    目的:研究强直性脊椎炎(AS)和类风湿性关节炎(RA)患者外周血中Th1细胞、Th17细胞和Th22细胞的表达,为进一步探讨AS和RA的发病机制提供新的理论依据。方法采用流式细胞术测定38例AS患者、40例RA患者及30名健康体检者外周血中Th1细胞、Th17细胞及Th22细胞的含量。结果AS患者Th17和Th22细胞的含量分别为(3.78±1.93)%、(1.63±0.53)%,RA患者Th17和Th22的含量分别为(3.66±1.84)%、(1.58±0.65)%。结果显示,与健康对照相比, AS和RA患者的Th17和Th22细胞的含量差异都有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论AS和RA患者外周血中Th22细胞和Th17细胞含量上升,提示Th22细胞和Th17细胞与AS和RA的发病机制有关。%Objective To investigate the expression of Th1 cells, Th17 cells and Th22 cells in peripheral blood from patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and provide the reference for the further research of AS and RA pathological mechanism. Methods A total of 38 AS, 40 RA and 30 healthy subjects were enrolled in the research. The expression percentages of Th1, Th22 and Th17 cells were determined by flow cytometry. Results The expression of Th17 and Th22 cells in AS patients were (3.78±1.93)%, (1.63±0.53)%respectively, while in RA patients, they were (3.66±1.84)%and (1.58±0.65)%, respectively. The results showed that the expressions of Th17 and Th22 cells in AS patients were significantly higher than those of healthy controls (P<0.05), as well as RA patients. Conclusion The expression of Th17 and Th22 cells were increased in peripheral blood from patients with AS and patients with RA. These findings suggest that Th17 cells and Th22 cells may be implicated in the pathogenesis of AS and RA.

  16. Astronomical Significance of Ancient Monuments

    Simonia, I.


    Astronomical significance of Gokhnari megalithic monument (eastern Georgia) is considered. Possible connection of Amirani ancient legend with Gokhnari monument is discussed. Concepts of starry practicality and solar stations are proposed.

  17. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  18. Significance analysis of prognostic signatures.

    Andrew H Beck

    Full Text Available A major goal in translational cancer research is to identify biological signatures driving cancer progression and metastasis. A common technique applied in genomics research is to cluster patients using gene expression data from a candidate prognostic gene set, and if the resulting clusters show statistically significant outcome stratification, to associate the gene set with prognosis, suggesting its biological and clinical importance. Recent work has questioned the validity of this approach by showing in several breast cancer data sets that "random" gene sets tend to cluster patients into prognostically variable subgroups. This work suggests that new rigorous statistical methods are needed to identify biologically informative prognostic gene sets. To address this problem, we developed Significance Analysis of Prognostic Signatures (SAPS which integrates standard prognostic tests with a new prognostic significance test based on stratifying patients into prognostic subtypes with random gene sets. SAPS ensures that a significant gene set is not only able to stratify patients into prognostically variable groups, but is also enriched for genes showing strong univariate associations with patient prognosis, and performs significantly better than random gene sets. We use SAPS to perform a large meta-analysis (the largest completed to date of prognostic pathways in breast and ovarian cancer and their molecular subtypes. Our analyses show that only a small subset of the gene sets found statistically significant using standard measures achieve significance by SAPS. We identify new prognostic signatures in breast and ovarian cancer and their corresponding molecular subtypes, and we show that prognostic signatures in ER negative breast cancer are more similar to prognostic signatures in ovarian cancer than to prognostic signatures in ER positive breast cancer. SAPS is a powerful new method for deriving robust prognostic biological signatures from clinically

  19. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry


    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  20. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.


    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  1. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.


    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  2. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Yongxiang Lu


    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  3. Significance evaluation in factor graphs

    Madsen, Tobias; Hobolth, Asger; Jensen, Jens Ledet


    Background Factor graphs provide a flexible and general framework for specifying probability distributions. They can capture a range of popular and recent models for analysis of both genomics data as well as data from other scientific fields. Owing to the ever larger data sets encountered...... in genomics and the multiple-testing issues accompanying them, accurate significance evaluation is of great importance. We here address the problem of evaluating statistical significance of observations from factor graph models. Results Two novel numerical approximations for evaluation of statistical....... Conclusions The applicability of saddlepoint approximation and importance sampling is demonstrated on known models in the factor graph framework. Using the two methods we can substantially improve computational cost without compromising accuracy. This contribution allows analyses of large datasets...

  4. Which Reconstruction Results are Significant?


    other significant result is due to Tutte [17]. Tutte’s Theorem: The characteristic polynomial of a graph can be reconstructed. Equivalently, two...hypomorphic graphs must have the same characteristic polynomial . Several points should be noted concerning this theorem: 1. The derivative of the...characteristic polynomial is the sum of the char- acteristic polynomials of the vertex-deleted subgraphs. Thus the characteristic polynomials of hypomorphic

  5. Significant Workplace Change: Perspectives of Survivors

    Kohut, Ann Marie


    The ever-increasing pace of workplace change is well documented in the literature, yet little is known about how an individual adapts to significant change in the workplace. Continuous learning is key to successful adaptation; however, are employees' adaptation to change influenced by their approaches to learning? The purpose of this study was to…

  6. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.


    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  7. Health significance of metal exposures

    Grandjean, Philippe


    focus on existing web-based resources for further reading New information on community-based participatory research Timely new chapter on bioterrorism and preparedness Additional insights on the amelioration of disease-producing lifestyles Research-enhancing lists and catalogs based on federal and other......, and policy issues, including critical lessons learned from the SARS epidemic, the most recent perspectives on monkey pox, plus an increased emphasis on West Nile Virus Restructured infectious and communicable disease section that reflects the emergence of many emerging and recrudescent conditions Greater...

  8. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    Fortnow, Lance


    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  9. Engineering Significant of Swelling Soils

    Behzad Kalantari


    Full Text Available This study describes some of the most important swelling characters of expansive soils when used as foundation materials to support various types of civil engineering structures. Expansive soils are considered among difficult foundation materials and expand upon wetting and shrink upon losing moisture. They are considered problematic soils for architectural and civil engineers. These types of soils may cause minor to major structural damages to pavements as well as buildings. It is therefore essential to detect swelling soils from non-problematic foundation soils before any civil engineering projects are constructed over or adjacent to them. The study begins with definition of expansive soils and shows its distributions in the world as well as the basic causes for swelling potential that these type of soils poses. It is also shown that, the most probable depth of expansion to check for possible swelling potential for swelling soils is soil’s active zone. This zone is the most upper depth of expansive soil and it may extend up to 20 ft. (6 m below ground level. The moisture content of soil through active zone varies during different seasons while in lower part of expansive soil the moisture content stays constant during hot and cold season. Among various methods to check for swelling potential, plastic index and liquid limits are two most crucial factors, as these factors tend to increase, the swelling potential increase as well.

  10. The significance of constitutional values

    HN Nisihara


    Full Text Available This article addresses the question of the meaning and legal significance of constitutional values in contemporary times. The article attends also to related questions namely, what constitute “constitutional values” and what are the limitations of the meaning afforded to this notion. Attention is paid in the particular, to freedom, equality and democracy as value-neutral criteria of fairness and government neutrality with reference to the South African and German contexts as well as to value-neutrality as a culturally conditioned value. The author concludes with a cosmopolitan view of freedom and the right to peace with reference to the constitutional texts of Japan and the United States.

  11. The significance of small streams

    Wohl, Ellen


    Headwaters, defined here as first- and secondorder streams, make up 70%‒80% of the total channel length of river networks. These small streams exert a critical influence on downstream portions of the river network by: retaining or transmitting sediment and nutrients; providing habitat and refuge for diverse aquatic and riparian organisms; creating migration corridors; and governing connectivity at the watershed-scale. The upstream-most extent of the channel network and the longitudinal continuity and lateral extent of headwaters can be difficult to delineate, however, and people are less likely to recognize the importance of headwaters relative to other portions of a river network. Consequently, headwaters commonly lack the legal protections accorded to other portions of a river network and are more likely to be significantly altered or completely obliterated by land use.

  12. Quassinoids and Their Chemotaxonomic Significance

    Anakshi Khare


    Full Text Available The quassinoids are a group of complex, highly oxygenated, degraded triterpene mostly found in Simaroubaceae family. Two quassinoids (degraded triterpenes, 1 and 2 were isolated first time from the stem bark of Ailanthus excelsa. Compound 1 is C19 quassinoid. C19 quassinoid derived biogenetically from a C20 quassinoid, via a 1,2 –dioxo derivative. The structural elucidation is based on the analysis of spectroscopic data. Interest in these quassinoids has increased enormously in recent years due in part to the finding of the American National Cancer Institute that these compounds display marked antileukamic activity. The ways in which plants interact with other organisms in an environment are complex. Ailanthus also produces toxins in its root, bark and leaves. These toxins inhibit the growth of other plants. The isolated quassinoids are currently being studied as a possible source of a natural herbicide. Extracts of this plant have anti-insect activity and anti-tuberculosis activity.

  13. Significance of oxygen transport through aquaporins

    Zwiazek, Janusz J.; Xu, Hao; Tan, Xiangfeng; Navarro-Ródenas, Alfonso; Morte, Asunción


    Aquaporins are membrane integral proteins responsible for the transmembrane transport of water and other small neutral molecules. Despite their well-acknowledged importance in water transport, their significance in gas transport processes remains unclear. Growing evidence points to the involvement of plant aquaporins in CO2 delivery for photosynthesis. The role of these channel proteins in the transport of O2 and other gases may also be more important than previously envisioned. In this study, we examined O2 permeability of various human, plant, and fungal aquaporins by co-expressing heterologous aquaporin and myoglobin in yeast. Two of the most promising O2-transporters (Homo sapiens AQP1 and Nicotiana tabacum PIP1;3) were confirmed to facilitate O2 transport in the spectrophotometric assay using yeast protoplasts. The over-expression of NtPIP1;3 in yeasts significantly increased their O2 uptake rates in suspension culture. In N. tabacum roots subjected to hypoxic hydroponic conditions, the transcript levels of the O2-transporting aquaporin NtPIP1;3 significantly increased after the seven-day hypoxia treatment, which was accompanied by the increase of ATP levels in the apical root segments. Our results suggest that the functional significance of aquaporin-mediated O2 transport and the possibility of controlling the rate of transmembrane O2 transport should be further explored. PMID:28079178

  14. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.


    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  15. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Taha, Kamal


    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  16. Efectividad de la tecnología Safetac® en la disminución del dolor asociado a las heridas: un factor significativo en la demora de la cicatrización y en el incremento en los costes Effectiveness of Safetac® technology for reducing wound-related pain: a significant factor in delayed healing and increased treatment costs

    Richard White


    Full Text Available El dolor es una experiencia común en las personas con heridas tanto agudas como crónicas. El dolor relacionado con las heridas puede ser intenso, afectar adversamente al funcionamiento físico, prolongar el tiempo de cicatrización, causar aflicción psicológica y reducir la calidad de vida del paciente. Los procedimientos de cambio de apósitos son, a menudo, el aspecto más doloroso del cuidado de las heridas. Se sabe que el cambio de algunos apósitos adhesivos y secos causa traumatismo y dolor. La prevención/minimización de estos efectos debería ser un objetivo clave en la provisión del cuidado de las heridas, si bien no lo es siempre. Muchos clínicos parecen ignorar todavía el dolor relacionado con las heridas, el efecto perjudicial que puede tener en la cicatrización y los remedios disponibles. Además, existen también serias implicaciones en relación con el coste que deben considerarse.Pain is a common experience for people with both acute and chronic wounds. Wound-related pain can be intense, adversely affect physical functioning, prolong the time to healing, cause psychological distress and reduce patient quality of life. Dressing change procedures are often the most painful aspect of wound care. The removal of some adhesive dressings and dry dressings are known to cause trauma and pain. The prevention / minimisation of these unwanted effects should be a key objective in the provision of wound care, but this is not always so. Many clinicians remain unaware of wound-related pain, the detrimental effect that it can have on healing, and the available remedies. There are also significant cost implications to consider.

  17. [Health significance of inhaled particles].

    Gillissen, A; Gessner, C; Hammerschmidt, S; Hoheisel, G; Wirtz, H


    Particulates refer to particles, dust, dirt, soot and aerosol mists that has suspended in the surrounding air. They may consist of solids of various forms including fibres or liquids. Long term exposure to silicon dioxide containing dusts (crystalline silica: quartz, tridymite, cristobalite, coesite, stishovite) may cause pneumoconiosis in the form of acute or/either chronic silicosis. Asbestos refers to a divers family of crystalline hydrated fibrous siliates typically exhibiting a greater tha 3:1 length ot diameter ratio. It is subdivided into serpentine (Chrysotile) and amphibole (crocidolite, amosite, anthophyllite, tremolite, actinolite). Exposure to asbestos fibres may cause lung fibrosis and promote cancer of the lung or the pleura. Besides the induction of malignant diseases dust exposure may result in obstructive as well as restrictive lung diseases which may be compensate in case of the recognition as a occupational diseases. Other occupational exposures leading to pneumoconiosis are caused be talc, or metals including aluminium containing dusts. Also the group of man-made mineral (MMMFs) or vitreous fibres (MMVFs), including glass wool, rock wool, slag wool, glass filaments, microfibres, refractory ceramic fibres are bioactive under certain experimental conditions. Although it has been shown that MMMFs may cause malignancies when injected intraperitoneally in high quantities in rodents, inhalation trials and human studies could not reproduce these results in the same precision. Fine particles (particulate matter = PM) comprise one of the most widespread and harmful air pollutants in the industrialized world. PM may cause worsening of asthma and other respiratory diseases, reduce lung function development in children, potentially increased the risk of premature death in the elderly and enhance mortality from cardiac diseases. Because of the small size PM2.5 is seen to be even more hazardous than PM10.

  18. [Stress echocardiography: development and significance].

    Attenhofer, C; Ritter, M; Jenni, R


    Exercise electrocardiography is still the primary method used in the non-invasive assessment of coronary artery disease. Stress echocardiography is now being increasingly used as a more sensitive adjunct technique to assess ischemia. Ischemia provoked by stress can induce reversible wall motion abnormalities which are disclosed by cross-sectional 2-dimensional echocardiography and standard projections. The types of stress used are physical exercise (bicycle, treadmill), atrial pacing or pharmacologic stimulation. In the latter, the catecholamine dobutamine has emerged as preferable to the vasodilators dipyridamole and adenosine. The diagnostic accuracy of dobutamine stress echocardiography is comparable to that of bicycle or treadmill exercise echocardiography, but dobutamine stress echocardiography is technically simpler and can be performed in patients unable to exercise. Its sensitivity in diagnosing ischemic or viable myocardium is comparable to that of nuclear methods, MRI or PET. In contrast to nuclear methods, stress echocardiography is however free of radiation. In the assessment of patients with coronary artery disease, stress echocardiography has been shown to be valuable for diagnosis, preoperative risk stratification and determination of prognosis. Furthermore, low dose dobutamine echocardiography can be used to detect viable myocardium. Despite these very promising aspects of the method, there are recognized disadvantages and limitations: stress echocardiography is very time-consuming and operator-dependent; its sensitivity correlates strongly with the number of studies performed; analysis of wall motion is performed qualitatively on a purely subjective level, and hence lacks the objectivity of a quantitative approach. These factors emphasize the need for intensive research to render stress echocardiographic analysis more objective. Automatic boundary detection of left ventricular endocardium, color-Doppler-based tissue imaging and three

  19. Different instructions during the ten-meter walking test determined significant increases in maximum gait speed in individuals with chronic hemiparesis Diferentes instruções durante teste de velocidade de marcha determinam aumento significativo na velocidade máxima de indivíduos com hemiparesia crônica

    Lucas R. Nascimento


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of different instructions for the assessment of maximum walking speed during the ten-meter walking test with chronic stroke subjects. METHODS: Participants were instructed to walk under four experimental conditions: (1 comfortable speed, (2 maximum speed (simple verbal command, (3 maximum speed (modified verbal command-"catch a bus" and (4 maximum speed (verbal command + demonstration. Participants walked three times in each condition and the mean time to cover the intermediate 10 meters of a 14-meter corridor was registered to calculate the gait speed (m/s. Repeated-measures ANOVAs, followed by planned contrasts, were employed to investigate differences between the conditions (α=5%. Means, standard deviations and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated. RESULTS: The mean values for the four conditions were: (1 0.74m/s; (2 0.85 m/s; (3 0.93 m/s; (4 0.92 m/s, respectively, with significant differences between the conditions (F=40.9; pOBJETIVO: Avaliar os efeitos de diferentes instruções para avaliação da velocidade de marcha máxima de indivíduos hemiparéticos durante o teste de caminhada de 10 metros. MÉTODOS: Os indivíduos deambularam em quatro condições experimentais: (1 velocidade habitual, (2 velocidade máxima (comando verbal simples, (3 velocidade máxima (comando verbal modificado: pegar ônibus, (4 velocidade máxima (comando verbal + demonstração. Solicitou-se a cada participante que deambulasse três vezes em cada condição, e a média do tempo necessário para percorrer os 10 metros intermediários de um corredor de 14 metros foi utilizada para cálculo da velocidade (m/s. A ANOVA de medidas repetidas, com contrastes pré-planejados, foi utilizada para comparação dos dados (α=5%, sendo apresentados valores de média, desvio-padrão e intervalos de confiança (IC de 95%. RESULTADOS: As médias de velocidade para as quatro condições foram: (1 0,74m/s; (2 0,85m/s; (3 0,93m/s; (4

  20. The feature and significance of increased concentration of SP- A and TNF-α in BALF of early stage pneumoconiosis%早期煤工尘肺支气管肺泡灌洗液中SP-A 及TNF-α含量的变化


    The increasing concentrations of SP-A and T NF-α in BALF may be effective markers for diagnosing coal dust exposure.

  1. 隐球菌性脑膜炎患者中Th17细胞相关细胞因子的高表达及其临床意义%The increased serum Th17 related cytokine concentration in patients with cryptococcal meningitis and its clinical significance

    黄元兰; 康敏荣; 胡志德; 闫伟; 邓安梅


    patients with poor prognosis factors ,including higher cerebrospinal fluid protein level and cryptococcal antigen titer ,lower cerebrospinal fluid glucose concentration and increased cerebrospinal fluid open pressure .Conclusion IL‐17A and IL‐22 were involved in the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningitis and may be a potential prognosis biomarker for cryptococcal meningitis.

  2. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.


    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  3. Gastric siderosis: patterns and significance.

    Marginean, Esmeralda C; Bennick, Michael; Cyczk, Jan; Robert, Marie E; Jain, Dhanpat


    Recently, we encountered 2 cases of diffuse iron deposition in gastric antral and fundic glandular epithelium, which in 1 patient eventually led to the diagnosis of hemochromatosis. Gastric mucosal siderosis (GS) has previously been described in hemochromatosis patients, alcoholics, and in association with iron medications. However, the prevalence of various patterns of iron deposition in the gastric mucosa and their clinical significance have not been studied in detail. The 2 index cases mentioned above and 500 additional consecutive gastric biopsies examined over a period of 8 months at our institution were stained for iron by the Prussian blue method. In addition, all patients with genetic hemochromatosis diagnosed by liver biopsy in our department between 1998 and 2003 who also had gastric biopsies were identified from the surgical pathology files and included in the study (n = 3). The location of iron deposition [stromal cells (endothelium, fibroblasts, macrophages), glandular epithelium, or extracellular] was recorded and subjectively graded as 1+ to 3+ according to the severity of deposition within the mucosa. Relevant histologic changes (inflammation, presence of H. pylori, ulceration) and clinical features were reviewed. Three patterns of GS were identified: A) "nonspecific GS" with predominant iron deposition in the stromal cells including macrophages, and focally in epithelium; B) "iron-pill gastritis" with often mild gastritis and reactive gastropathy type changes, and mostly extracellular deposition with focal stromal cells and epithelial deposition; and C) predominant deposition in antral and fundic glandular epithelium. Of the 500 cases studied, a total of 18 (3.6%) cases were found to have GS. Of these 18 cases, 11 (2.2%) showed pattern A, 4 (0.8%) showed pattern B, and 3 (0.6%) showed pattern C. The GS in patterns A and B was always focal or patchy (1+ to 2+), whereas in pattern C it was generally diffuse and strong (2+ to 3+). A history of oral

  4. Halothane genotype and pork production. 2 Processed pork products

    pigs showed an improved net bacon yield and lower moisture loss during processing (2.5 .... added to deboned minced pork ... backs were weighed and placed in a freeze drier for 72 h, ... The exposed surface of the meat of. Ingredients. Quantity. Water. 260 g/kg ..... points of view on the condition and meat quality of pigs for.

  5. Innovative trend significance test and applications

    Şen, Zekai


    Hydro-climatological time series might embed characteristics of past changes concerning climate variability in terms of shifts, cyclic fluctuations, and more significantly in the form of trends. Identification of such features from the available records is one of the prime tasks of hydrologists, climatologists, applied statisticians, or experts in related topics. Although there are different trend identification and significance tests in the literature, they require restrictive assumptions, which may not be existent in the structure of hydro-climatological time series. In this paper, a method is suggested with statistical significance test for trend identification in an innovative manner. This method has non-parametric basis without any restrictive assumption, and its application is rather simple with the concept of sub-series comparisons that are extracted from the main time series. The method provides privilege for selection of sub-temporal half periods for the comparison and, finally, generates trend on objective and quantitative manners. The necessary statistical equations are derived for innovative trend identification and statistical significance test application. The application of the proposed methodology is suggested for three time series from different parts of the world including Southern New Jersey annual temperature, Danube River annual discharge, and Tigris River Diyarbakir meteorology station annual total rainfall records. Each record has significant trend with increasing type in the New Jersey case, whereas in other two cases, decreasing trends exist.

  6. Meaning reconstruction in bereavement: sense and significance.

    Hibberd, Rachel


    Recently there has been growing empirical and theoretical attention to the role of meaning in grief along with increased recognition of the need for more sophisticated definitions of meaning. The present article highlights philosophical issues inherent in the study of meaning and grief reviews the place of meaning in current theories of grief and provides a brief overview of the ways that meaning has been operationalized by grief researchers, including sense-making, benefit finding, identity change, and purpose in life. It is argued that, in our focus on the ways mourners make sense of loss, we have neglected an important aspect of meaning: life significance. Life significance is the felt perception that some aspect of one's life experience "matters." The construct is explored as a potentially important outcome of bereavement; mourners may lose life significance along with their lost loved one, or they may develop new avenues to life significance as they confront mortality and rebuild shattered worldviews. Related literature, such as appreciation of life as a facet of posttraumatic growth, is surveyed for clues as to the role of life significance in grief. Suggestions for future study are offered.

  7. A Low-Technology Strategy for Increasing Engagement of Students with Autism and Significant Learning Needs

    Carnahan, Christi; Basham, James; Musti-Rao, Shobana


    Active engagement is critical to promote learning for students with autism. Although evidence-based strategies exist for promoting engagement for individual students with autism, there are few strategies designed for use with small groups. This study used an ABCAC design to assess the effects of a low-technology use strategy, namely interactive…

  8. Doses and risks from uranium are not increased significantly by interactions with natural background photon radiation.

    Tanner, R J; Eakins, J S; Jansen, J T M; Harrison, J D


    The impact of depleted uranium (DU) on human health has been the subject of much conjecture. Both the chemical and radiological aspects of its behaviour in the human body have previously been investigated in detail, with the radiological impact being assumed to be linked to the alpha decay of uranium. More recently, it has been proposed that the accumulation in tissue of high-Z materials, such as DU, may give rise to enhanced local energy deposition in the presence of natural background photon radiation due to the high photoelectric interaction cross sections of high-Z atoms. It is speculated that, in addition to producing short-range photoelectrons, these events will be followed by intense Auger and Coster-Kronig electron emission, thereby causing levels of cell damage that are unaccounted for in conventional models of radiological risk. In this study, the physical and biological bases of these claims are investigated. The potential magnitudes of any effect are evaluated and discussed, and compared with the risks from other radiological or chemical hazards. Monte Carlo calculations are performed to estimate likely energy depositions due to the presence of uranium in human tissues in photon fields: whole body doses, organ doses in anthropomorphic phantoms and nano-/micro-dosimetric scenarios are each considered. The proposal is shown generally to be based on sound physics, but overall the impact on human health is expected to be negligible.

  9. Creating knowledge structures in the pharmaceutical industry: the increasing significance of virtual organisation.

    Salazar, A; Howells, J


    This paper explores the specific trend and challenges facing the pharmaceutical industry regarding the exploitation of Internet e-commerce technology and virtual organisation to develop and maintain competitive advantage. There are two important facets of the current trend. One is the rapid development of a complex network of alliances between the established pharmaceutical companies and the specialised biotechnology company start-ups. The other is the rapid growth of internet e-commerce companies dedicated to developing specialised technological platforms for acquiring and selling genetic and biochemical knowledge. The underlying challenge is how big pharmaceutical companies can emulate some of the innovation processes of smaller biotechnology company start-ups, and how they can appropriate and applied new technological knowledge on the development of new drugs. Pharmaceutical companies in order to retain competitive advantage need to continuously monitor all aspects of knowledge management with regard to the R&D and manufacturing process (as well as customer management and marketing). Technological change and organisational restructuring should be aimed at boosting the capacity of large firms to innovate rapidly.

  10. New U.S. SEC rules on oil and gas disclosure may increase reserves significantly

    Schollnberger, Wolfgang E.


    The US Security Exchange Commission (SEC) released its updated rules and regulations concerning the disclosure and reporting of oil and gas reserves on Dec 29, 2008; they were published in their final form in the US Federal Register on January 14, 2009. The bipartisan Commission voted unanimously in favor of these new rules, which will go into effect on January 1, 2010. The new rules are important, because they directly or indirectly affect oil and gas companies worldwide. Companies that are registered or operating in the US, or whose shares are traded on US stock exchanges fall directly under these rules. However, in today's global economy the valuation of virtually all oil and gas companies and their ability to raise capital is affected by SEC rules. The author was part of an expert group advising the SEC on formulating the new rules. In this article, a short summary of the most important changes is given and own comments are included. The article follows the wording of the SEC very closely to allow the interested reader to easily refer back to the complete SEC document. (orig.)


    Marija Andjelković Pešić


    Full Text Available This paper points out some challenges Serbian economy is facing at the beginning of the XXIcentury. Based on the fact that the quality, both in theory and practice, has been promoted as the mostimportant dimension of competitiveness, improvement of quality stands out as the primary task ofenterprises in Serbia. In the last part of the paper there are some results of the research, conductedwith purpose of identifying opportunities for improving the quality of business in Serbian economy.The authors have been trying to establish the connection between Serbia’s competitiveness ratingaccording to research results of confidential institutions (World Bank’s Report on Business, GlobalCompetitiveness Report 2010-2011 and presence of quality management concepts and tools inbusiness practice in Serbia. The intention of the authors is to present the research results and toindicate the possibilities for improving competitiveness of Serbian economy, primarily throughimplementation of modern management concepts and models. The one that is suggested in this paperis the Six Sigma concept.

  12. Meeting increased demand.

    Blair, Andrew


    New Zealand is a little country with a little economy but with a population that's rapidly aging. New Zealand's population is only 4.3 million people. It's GDP is only $US58.6 billion (2002). New Zealand's expenditure on health as a percentage of GDP is not out of line with that of other countries. As a nation we have been increasing expenditure on health over recent years. In 1990 we spent 7% of GDP on health. In 1995 that increased to 7.65% and is now 8.3%. However, in per capita terms our expenditure on health does not compare so well with like countries. The size of New Zealand's economy is restricting what our country spends on health. Health is already the second highest demand on the New Zealand tax dollar. The tolerance of New Zealanders would be challenged if a Government attempted to increase taxes further to meet the growing demands for expenditure on health, but at the same time the population's expectations are increasing. This is the challenging situation we face today. What lies ahead? Like all industrialized countries New Zealand is facing an aging population. The population below age 40 is decreasing, but it is increasing significantly over that age. 16% of the population is currently aged over 60. By 2051 this proportion will almost double to just over 31%. Coupled with the aging population is increased awareness and expectations, as access to options for treatment and technology becomes readily accessible to the population through such media as the internet. The extent of the impact of the aging population can be clearly represented by focusing on one specialty such as orthopaedics. The New Zealand Orthopaecic Association undertook a study in July 2003 which concluded (among other things) that as a result of the projected aging of the population, over the next 50 years: Musculo-skeletal operations will increase by over 30%. The number of hip replacements will nearly double. The incidence of osteoporosis will increase by a massive 201%. The number

  13. Statistical significance of cis-regulatory modules

    Smith Andrew D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is becoming increasingly important for researchers to be able to scan through large genomic regions for transcription factor binding sites or clusters of binding sites forming cis-regulatory modules. Correspondingly, there has been a push to develop algorithms for the rapid detection and assessment of cis-regulatory modules. While various algorithms for this purpose have been introduced, most are not well suited for rapid, genome scale scanning. Results We introduce methods designed for the detection and statistical evaluation of cis-regulatory modules, modeled as either clusters of individual binding sites or as combinations of sites with constrained organization. In order to determine the statistical significance of module sites, we first need a method to determine the statistical significance of single transcription factor binding site matches. We introduce a straightforward method of estimating the statistical significance of single site matches using a database of known promoters to produce data structures that can be used to estimate p-values for binding site matches. We next introduce a technique to calculate the statistical significance of the arrangement of binding sites within a module using a max-gap model. If the module scanned for has defined organizational parameters, the probability of the module is corrected to account for organizational constraints. The statistical significance of single site matches and the architecture of sites within the module can be combined to provide an overall estimation of statistical significance of cis-regulatory module sites. Conclusion The methods introduced in this paper allow for the detection and statistical evaluation of single transcription factor binding sites and cis-regulatory modules. The features described are implemented in the Search Tool for Occurrences of Regulatory Motifs (STORM and MODSTORM software.

  14. Boiling significantly promotes photodegradation of perfluorooctane sulfonate.

    Lyu, Xian-Jin; Li, Wen-Wei; Lam, Paul K S; Yu, Han-Qing


    The application of photochemical processes for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) degradation has been limited by a low treatment efficiency. This study reports a significant acceleration of PFOS photodegradation under boiling condition compared with the non-boiling control. The PFOS decomposition rate increased with the increasing boiling intensity, but declined at a higher hydronium level or under oxygenation. These results suggest that the boiling state of solution resulted in higher effective concentrations of reactants at the gas-liquid interface and enhanced the interfacial mass transfer, thereby accelerating the PFOS decomposition. This study broadens our knowledge of PFOS photodegradation process and may have implications for development of efficient photodegradation technologies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Increasing Childhood Influenza Vaccination

    Nowalk, Mary Patricia; Lin, Chyongchiou J.; Hannibal, Kristin; Reis, Evelyn C.; Gallik, Gregory; Moehling, Krissy K.; Huang, Hsin-Hui; Allred, Norma J.; Wolfson, David H.; Zimmerman, Richard K.


    Background Since the 2008 inception of universal childhood influenza vaccination, national rates have risen more dramatically among younger children than older children and reported rates across racial/ethnic groups are inconsistent. Interventions may be needed to address age and racial disparities to achieve the recommended childhood influenza vaccination target of 70%. Purpose To evaluate an intervention to increase childhood influenza vaccination across age and racial groups. Methods In 2011–2012, 20 primary care practices treating children were randomly assigned to Intervention and Control arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial to increase childhood influenza vaccination uptake using a toolkit and other strategies including early delivery of donated vaccine, in-service staff meetings, and publicity. Results The average vaccination differences from pre-intervention to the intervention year were significantly larger in the Intervention arm (n=10 practices) than the Control arm (n=10 practices), for children aged 2–8 years (10.2 percentage points (pct pts) Intervention vs 3.6 pct pts Control) and 9–18 years (11.1 pct pts Intervention vs 4.3 pct pts Control, p<0.05), for non-white children (16.7 pct pts Intervention vs 4.6 pct pts Control, p<0.001), and overall (9.9 pct pts Intervention vs 4.2 pct pts Control, p<0.01). In multi-level modeling that accounted for person- and practice-level variables and the interactions among age, race and intervention, the likelihood of vaccination increased with younger age group (6–23 months), white race, commercial insurance, the practice’s pre-intervention vaccination rate, and being in the Intervention arm. Estimates of the interaction terms indicated that the intervention increased the likelihood of vaccination for non-white children in all age groups and white children aged 9–18 years. Conclusions A multi-strategy intervention that includes a practice improvement toolkit can significantly improve influenza

  16. Yohimbine increases human salivary secretion.

    Chatelut, E; Rispail, Y; Berlan, M; Montastruc, J L


    The effect of oral yohimbine (14 mg) on salivary secretion was evaluated in healthy volunteers. Yohimbine significantly increased salivary secretion when compared with placebo. This effect was significant from 60 min until 180 min after administration under our experimental conditions. Yohimbine (or alpha 2-adrenoceptor blocking agents) could have a potential interest in the treatment of dry mouths. PMID:2789932

  17. The origins and significance of contemporary terrorism

    Cooper, B. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada)


    Terrorism has been the subject of many presidential and prime ministerial statements over the years. Sixteen weeks before the attacks on the World Trade Centre and the Pentagon, the American Secretary of State, referred to a report that indicated an 8 per cent increase in international terrorist attacks during year 2000 and stated that terrorism shows the dark side of globalization. Of the 423 recorded attacks, 200 were directed against the United States. This paper emphasizes three points to understand the significance of terrorism. First, it is necessary to understand the context within which terrorist acts are carried out, namely the modern world in its spiritual and its material dimensions. It is also necessary to understand the direction and trajectory of recent trends in terrorism and what can be done to stop it. 97 refs.

  18. [Pathogenesis and significance of diabetic dyslipidemia].

    Zeman, M; Zák, A


    Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus are at the higher risk of development of on arteriosclerosis based cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological studies have shown that diabetic dislipidemia with hypertriglyceridemia, presence of small dense LDL subfraction, low concentration of HDL-cholesterol and increased postprandial lipemia can represent a serious threat. Several studies have found significant decrease of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality after a treatment of diabetic dislipidemia, namely by statins and fibrates. Contemporary therapeutic algorhithms of European and American professional societies for the hyperlipidemia treatment classify diabetes mellitus as an equivalent of already developed complication of atherosclerosis. Our article presents pathophysiology of the diabetic dislipidemia, recommended target values of pasma lipids in diabetic patients and an overview of present possibilities of pharmacotherapy of the diabetic dislipidemia.

  19. Biotechnological significance of toxic marine dinoflagellates.

    Camacho, F Garcia; Rodríguez, J Gallardo; Mirón, A Sánchez; García, M C Cerón; Belarbi, E H; Chisti, Y; Grima, E Molina


    Dinoflagellates are microalgae that are associated with the production of many marine toxins. These toxins poison fish, other wildlife and humans. Dinoflagellate-associated human poisonings include paralytic shellfish poisoning, diarrhetic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning, and ciguatera fish poisoning. Dinoflagellate toxins and bioactives are of increasing interest because of their commercial impact, influence on safety of seafood, and potential medical and other applications. This review discusses biotechnological methods of identifying toxic dinoflagellates and detecting their toxins. Potential applications of the toxins are discussed. A lack of sufficient quantities of toxins for investigational purposes remains a significant limitation. Producing quantities of dinoflagellate bioactives requires an ability to mass culture them. Considerations relating to bioreactor culture of generally fragile and slow-growing dinoflagellates are discussed. Production and processing of dinoflagellates to extract bioactives, require attention to biosafety considerations as outlined in this review.

  20. Increasing diversity in radiologic technology.

    Carwile, Laura


    Diversity is increasingly important in the radiologic technology workplace. For significant changes to occur in work force diversity, educators must first recruit and retain students from a wide variety of backgrounds. This article examines personality, race and gender as factors affecting career choice and how educators can use these factors to increase diversity in their programs. An overview of the ASRT's efforts to improve diversity within the profession is presented, along with suggestions for developing effective recruitment and retention plans to increase diversity.

  1. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S


    An estimated 1049 million persons harbour T. trichiura, including 114 million preschool-age children and 233 million school-age children. The prevalence of T. trichiura is high and may reach 95% in children in many parts of the world where protein energy malnutrition and anaemias are also prevalent and access to medical care and educational opportunities is often limited. The Trichuris dysentery syndrome (TDS) associated with heavy T. trichiura, which includes chronic dysentery, rectal prolapse, anaemia, poor growth, and clubbing of the fingers constitutes an important public health problem, as do lighter but still heavy infections, even if not strictly TDS, especially in children. The profound growth stunting in TDS can be reversed by repeated treatment for the infection and, initially, oral iron. However findings from Jamaica strongly suggest that the significant developmental and cognitive deficits seen are unlikely to disappear without increasing the positive psychological stimulation in the child's environment. The severe stunting in TDS now appears likely to be a reaction at least in part to a chronic inflammatory response and concomitant decreases in plasma insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), increases in tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in the lamina propria of the colonic mucosa and peripheral blood (which likely decrease appetite and intake of all nutrients) and a decrease in collagen synthesis. Improvements in cognitive performance have been found after treatment for relatively heavy infections (without chronic dysentery) in school-going children; it is unclear precisely how much T. trichiura interferes with children's ability to access educational opportunities, but treatment of infections whenever possible is obviously sensible. The blood loss that can occur in T. trichiura infection is likely to contribute to anaemia, particularly if the child also harbours hookworm, malaria and/or has a low intake of dietary iron. Community control is

  2. Comparison Of The Direct Costs, Length Of Recovery, And Incidence Of Post Operative Anti Emetic Use After Anesthesia Induction With Propofol Or A 1:1 Mixture Of Thiopental And Propofol


    Caucasian pediatric patients (Runcie, Mackenzie, Arthur, & Morton, 1993). Propofol is associated with a feeling of well being during recovery (Jakobsson...showed the least hemodynamic changes in pediatric patients versus induction with thiopental, propofol , or halothane followed by halothane maintenance...Blagrove, McCallum, & Bromley, 1997). Chinese pediatric patients experienced significantly greater drops in blood pressure with propofol (Aun, Sung

  3. Vitronectin significantly influences prognosis in osteosarcoma.

    Shi, Kai; Lan, Rui-Long; Tao, Xuan; Wu, Chao-Yang; Hong, Hai-Feng; Lin, Jian-Hua


    Vitronectin (Vn), a multifunctional adhesive protein, is found in association with tumor progression, angiogenesis and metastasis in a variety of (human) tumors. But no studies concerning its correlation to osteosarcoma prognosis were found. Hence, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of Vitronectin (Vn) in osteosarcoma. Here, we studied the expression of VN in the tumor tissues from 67 patients with osteosarcoma and 20 patients with osteochondroma using immunohistochemistry and estimated the effects of VN expression in osteosarcoma on progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) using the Kaplan-Meier curve and COX proportional hazards regression model. Increased expression of VN in osteosarcoma tissue compared to no VN expression in osteochondroma tissue was shown in immunohistochemical assay. No associations were observed between VN expression and osteosarcoma patients' gender (P = 0.675), age (P = 0.813), tumor size (P = 0.436), histologic subtype (P = 0.0.543) or tumor location (P = 0.456). Univariate survival analysis demonstrated significant correlations of high VN expression with shorter PFS (P = 0.002) and OS (P = 0.001); multivariate survival analysis revealed high VN expression as a significant independent prognostic indicator for shorter PFS (HR 2.788, P = 0.003) and OS (HR2.817, P = 0.003). In conclusion, the high expression of VN in tumor cells independently indicated poor clinical prognosis in patients with osteosarcoma, other than large tumor size and non-neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy, suggesting that VN may serve as a potential therapeutic target in osteosarcoma.

  4. Increasing Possibilities of Nanosuspension

    Kumar Bishwajit Sutradhar


    Full Text Available Nowadays, a very large proportion of new drug candidates emerging from drug discovery programmes are water insoluble and thus poorly bioavailable. To avoid this problem, nanotechnology for drug delivery has gained much interest as a way to improve the solubility problems. Nano refers to particles size range of 1–1000 nm. The reduction of drug particles into the submicron range leads to a significant increase in the dissolution rate and therefore enhances bioavailability. Nanosuspensions are part of nanotechnology. This interacts with the body at subcellular (i.e., molecular scales with a high degree of specificity and can be potentially translated into targeted cellular and tissue-specific clinical applications designed to achieve maximal therapeutic efficacy with minimal side effects. Production of drugs as nanosuspensions can be developed for drug delivery systems as an oral formulation and nonoral administration. Here, this review describes the methods of pharmaceutical nanosuspension production including advantages and disadvantages, potential benefits, characterization tests, and pharmaceutical applications in drug delivery.


    F Z Zangeneh


    Full Text Available "nPsoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition characterized by inflamed and scaly lesions of skin. Whilst the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not known, psychological stress has been implicated as a potential trigger in the onset and exacerbation of the condition. Psychiatric and psychological factors play an important role in at least 30% of dermatologic disorder and pathophysiologic link between psychological stress (PS and disease expression remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated PS-induced alterations in permeability barrier homeostasis, mediated by increased endogenous glucocorticoids. As activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA is critical to a successful stress response, we investigated this in patients with psoriasis. This study was performed on 55 patients (40 females and 15 males visited our clinic for treatment of psoriasis in pharmacology department. We measured the rate of activation of HPA by hormonal changes. These patients displayed higher fasting blood sugar (FBS, epinephrine (Ep, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, aldosterone, prolactin, growth hormone and estradiol hormones value but diminished cortisol and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF. These results show that HPA and psychoneuroendocrine hormones have a significant role in psoriasis.

  6. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala


    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis.

  7. Significance of duon mutations in cancer genomes

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Smith, Kyle S.; Flinders, Colin; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; de, Subhajyoti


    Functional mutations in coding regions not only affect the structure and function of the protein products, but may also modulate their expression in some cases. This class of mutations, recently dubbed “duon mutations” due to their dual roles, can potentially have major impacts on downstream pathways. However their significance in diseases such as cancer remain unclear. In a survey covering 4606 samples from 19 cancer types, and integrating allelic expression, overall mRNA expression, regulatory motif perturbation, and chromatin signatures in one composite index called REDACT score, we identified potential duon mutations. Several such mutations are detected in known cancer genes in multiple cancer types. For instance a potential duon mutation in TP53 is associated with increased expression of the mutant allelic gene copy, thereby possibly amplifying the functional effects on the downstream pathways. Another potential duon mutation in SF3B1 is associated with abnormal splicing and changes in angiogenesis and matrix degradation related pathways. Our findings emphasize the need to interrogate the mutations in coding regions beyond their obvious effects on protein structures.

  8. Evolutionary significance of ageing in the wild.

    Kowald, Axel; Kirkwood, Thomas B L


    Human lifespan has risen dramatically over the last 150 years, leading to a significant increase in the fraction of aged people in the population. Until recently it was believed that this contrasted strongly with the situation in wild populations of animals, where the likelihood of encountering demonstrably senescent individuals was believed to be negligible. Over the recent years, however, a series of field studies has appeared that shows ageing can also be observed for many species in the wild. We discuss here the relevance of this finding for the different evolutionary theories of ageing, since it has been claimed that ageing in the wild is incompatible with the so-called non-adaptive (non-programmed) theories, i.e. those in which ageing is presumed not to offer a direct selection benefit. We show that a certain proportion of aged individuals in the population is fully compatible with the antagonistic pleiotropy and the disposable soma theories, while it is difficult to reconcile with the mutation accumulation theory. We also quantify the costs of ageing using life history data from recent field studies and a range of possible metrics. We discuss the merits and problems of the different metrics and also introduce a new metric, yearly death toll, that aims directly at quantifying the deaths caused by the ageing process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Phenotypic plasticity: molecular mechanisms and adaptive significance.

    Kelly, Scott A; Panhuis, Tami M; Stoehr, Andrew M


    Phenotypic plasticity can be broadly defined as the ability of one genotype to produce more than one phenotype when exposed to different environments, as the modification of developmental events by the environment, or as the ability of an individual organism to alter its phenotype in response to changes in environmental conditions. Not surprisingly, the study of phenotypic plasticity is innately interdisciplinary and encompasses aspects of behavior, development, ecology, evolution, genetics, genomics, and multiple physiological systems at various levels of biological organization. From an ecological and evolutionary perspective, phenotypic plasticity may be a powerful means of adaptation and dramatic examples of phenotypic plasticity include predator avoidance, insect wing polymorphisms, the timing of metamorphosis in amphibians, osmoregulation in fishes, and alternative reproductive tactics in male vertebrates. From a human health perspective, documented examples of plasticity most commonly include the results of exercise, training, and/or dieting on human morphology and physiology. Regardless of the discipline, phenotypic plasticity has increasingly become the target of a plethora of investigations with the methodological approaches utilized ranging from the molecular to whole organsimal. In this article, we provide a brief historical outlook on phenotypic plasticity; examine its potential adaptive significance; emphasize recent molecular approaches that provide novel insight into underlying mechanisms, and highlight examples in fishes and insects. Finally, we highlight examples of phenotypic plasticity from a human health perspective and underscore the use of mouse models as a powerful tool in understanding the genetic architecture of phenotypic plasticity.

  10. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs

    Chindelevitch Leonid


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. Results First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds. Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical

  11. 儿童期精神分裂症患者的双眼竞争: 意识和潜意识状态下对人际交往信息的认知加工过程%Conclusions: The non-significant increase in the attention children with schizophrenia paid to images depicting interpersonal relationships suggests, but does not prove, that the illness is associated with impairments in the cognitive processing of social

    王美娟; 李春波; 赵金萍; 钱洁; 朱怡康; 杨志; 蒋毅; 王继军; 杜亚松; 翁旭初


    Background: Childhood schizophrenia is a severe mental disorder that is believed to affect both conscious and unconscious cognitive functioning, but there have been few studies that have assessed this.Objective: Develop a version of the binocular rivalry test that will assess the conscious and unconscious cognitive processing of interpersonal information and use this test to determine whether or not social cognition is impaired in children with schizophrenia.Methods: Thirty images of three types - with no persons, with 2-3 persons and with 4+ persons - were selected for use in a binocular rivalry test that presented the images both in an interocularly suppressed (unconscious) format and an unsuppressed (conscious) format. Fifteen children under 16 years of age with schizophrenia who had prominent delusional symptoms and 15 healthy children were administered the test. Accuracy rates (in assessing the left or right orientation of a patch presented immediately after the target images) and reaction times were compared between patients and controls.Results: For all types of pictures, the accuracy of patients was less than that of controls, though the differences were only significant in two of the twelve comparisons assessed. Compared to controls, patients showed a non-significant increase in the attention paid to images with people in them compared to images without people in them, both for conscious and unconscious presentations of the images. We did not find any relationship between the severity of psychotic symptoms in the patients and the degree of impairment in the cognitive processing of images. When asked to assess the attributes of the images, patients reported significantly higher levels of happiness depicted in images with 2-3 people than controls.%背景:儿童期精神分裂是一种严重的精神障碍,有理论认为其认知功能无论是意识水平还是潜意识水平都存在异常.但目前尚无针对儿童期精神分裂的潜意识认知功能

  12. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Calogero Caruso


    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  13. Effect of increased

    Carreira , C.; Heldal, M.; Bratbak, G.


    Atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) has increased since the pre-industrial period and is predicted to continue to increase throughout the twenty-first century. The ocean is a sink for atmospheric CO2 and increased CO2 concentration will change the carbonate equilibrium of seawater and result in lower c

  14. Increasing Mobility Confidence

    ... Español In Your Area NPF Shop Increasing Mobility Confidence To increase your confidence moving, you have to move! Make Text Smaller ... It might seem counterintuitive, but to increase your confidence moving, you have to move! Build physical activity ...

  15. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  16. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.


    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  17. On combining significances. Some trivial examples

    Krasnikov, N V


    For Poisson distribution $Pois(n, \\lambda)$ with $\\lambda \\gg 1$, $n \\gg 1$ we propose to determine significance as $S = \\frac{n_{obs}-\\lambda}{\\sqrt{\\lambda}}$. The significance $S$ coincides up to sign with often used significance. For experiments which measure the same quantities the natural but not unique rule for significance combining is $S_{comb}(S_1, S_2) = \\frac{S_1\\sigma_1+S_2\\sigma_2}{\\sqrt{\\sigma^2_1+\\sigma^2_2}}$, where $\\sigma_1$ and $\\sigma_2$ are variations. We also propose the rule for significances combining for the case with systematic errors.

  18. Development of Quantitative Framework for Event Significance Evaluation

    Lee, Durk Hun; Kim, Min Chull [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Inn Seock [ISSA Technology, Maryland (United States)


    There is an increasing trend in quantitative evaluation of the safety significance of operational events using Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) technique. An integrated framework for evaluation of event significance has been developed by Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS), which consists of an assessment hierarchy and a number of matrices. The safety significance of various events, e.g., internal or external initiating events that occurred during at-power or shutdown conditions, can be quantitatively analyzed using this framework, and then, the events rated according to their significance. This paper briefly describes the basic concept of the integrated quantitative framework for evaluation of event significance, focusing on the assessment hierarchy

  19. Increasing Positive Interactive Classroom Behavior.

    Kotcher, Elaine; Doremus, Richard R.

    During the spring of 1972 training workshops for 88 elementary and secondary teachers of the Great Neck Public Schools held to examine four hypotheses: 1) workshops in training teachers to observe classroom behavior would significantly increase these same teachers' positive classroom interactive behaviors consisting of teacher, pupil-pupil,…

  20. Studying and Classification of the Most Significant Malicious Software

    Gharibi, Wajeb


    As the cost of information processing and Internet accessibility falls, most organizations are becoming increasingly vulnerable to potential cyber threats which its rate has been dramatically increasing every year in recent times. In this paper, we study, discuss and classify the most significant malicious software: viruses, Trojans, worms, adware and pornware which have made step forward in the science of Virology.

  1. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan


    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  2. How do we make sense of significance?

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone


    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons...

  3. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  4. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  5. Diminished brain synaptic plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase activity in rats with streptozocin-induced diabetes: association with reduced anesthetic requirements.

    Janicki, P K; Horn, J L; Singh, G; Franks, W T; Franks, J J


    Recent evidence suggests that chronic hyperglycemia may inhibit plasma membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase (PMCA) in cells from several tissues. Inhalational anesthetics (IA) can inhibit brain synaptic PMCA activity. We proposed that diabetic rats may manifest chronic inhibition of brain synaptic PMCA and thus provide a model for testing the hypothesis that synaptic PMCA plays a key role in IA pharmacodynamics. Ca2+ pumping activity of PMCA was measured in cerebral synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) vesicles prepared from rats with streptozocin (STZ)-induced diabetes and from control, normoglycemic rats. Dose requirements for halothane and xenon were estimated in treated and untreated rats. Brain PMCA activity in hyperglycemic rats was depressed by about 8.4%, compared to controls. In vitro glycation also caused a significant decrease in PMCA pumping activity. Halothane requirement for STZ-hyperglycemic rats was dramatically reduced to about 65% of control. Xenon requirement was also significantly reduced, to 88% of control. Correlation of IA dose with percent glycated hemoglobin for each rat revealed a strong association between reduced requirements for halothane or xenon and increased protein glycation. These results indicate that inhibition of brain synaptic PMCA in chronically hyperglycemic rats is associated with a significant reduction in IA requirement.

  6. Increasing SLEDed Linac Gradient

    Farkas, Zoltan D


    This note will show how to increase the SLED [1] gradient by varying Q{sub e}, the external Q of the SLED cavity, by increasing its Q{sub 0} and by increasing the compression ratio. If varying the external Q is to be effective, then the copper losses should be small so that Q{sub 0} >> Q{sub e}. Methods of varying Q{sub e} will be indicated but no experimental data will be presented. If we increase the klystron pulse width from 3.5 to 5 {micro}S and increase Q{sub 0} from the present 100000 to 300000, then the gradient increases by 19% and the beam energy increases from 50 to 60 GeV. This note will also discuss SLED operation at 11424 MHz, the NLC frequency. Without Q{sub e} switching, using SLED at 11424 MHz increases the SLAC gradient from 21 MV/m to 34 MV/m, and at the same repetition rate, uses about 1/5 of rf average power. If we also double the compression ratio, we reach 47 MV/m and over 100 GeV beam energy.

  7. Asymptotic Distributions for Tests of Combined Significance.

    Becker, Betsy Jane

    This paper discusses distribution theory and power computations for four common "tests of combined significance." These tests are calculated using one-sided sample probabilities or p values from independent studies (or hypothesis tests), and provide an overall significance level for the series of results. Noncentral asymptotic sampling…

  8. A Differentiated Program: Significant Curriculum Adaptations.

    Alonso, Juan A.


    This article describes a model for curricular adaptations for gifted students. A distinction is made between non-significant curriculum adaptations that can be easily made by the regular teacher and significant curriculum adaptations that involve deep changes in aims, content, and evaluation criteria. (Contains references.) (DB)

  9. The Vernier Caliper and Significant Figures.

    Oberhofer, E. S.


    Misconceptions occur because the caliper is often read with the same significant figures as a meter stick; however, the precision of the vernier caliper is greater than the precision of a meter stick. Clarification of scale reading, precision of both tools, and significant figures are discussed. (JN)

  10. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per


    threshold if the trial is stopped early or if interim analyses have been conducted; (4) adjust the confidence intervals and the P-values for multiplicity due to number of outcome comparisons; and (5) assess clinical significance of the trial results. CONCLUSIONS: If the proposed five-step procedure...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore......, assessment of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials deserves more rigour in order to become more valid. METHODS: Several methodologies for assessing the statistical and clinical significance of intervention effects in randomised clinical trials were considered. Balancing simplicity...




    Full Text Available The roles of trace elements especially copper and zinc in carcinogenesis in relation to disease activity have shown useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumor in the digestive organ. Keeping this in consideration, the study was conducted on 140 subjects either sex out of which 35 normal adults and 105 gastrointestinal (GI cancer patients. The follow up study was further undertaken and values of serum Cu and Zn of the same patients before and after surgery were recorded. The study showed that there was significant elevation (p<0.01 of serum copper levels before surgery and serum copper levels were deceased significantly (p<0.05 after surgery. Serum Zn level was found significantly (p<0.05 lower in GI cancer patients while the Zn level was increased significantly (p<0.01 after surgery. There was significant increase (p<0.01 in Cu/ Zn ratio of GI cancer patients before surgery in contrast to the control. The serum copper level in patients of GI cancer decreased significantly after surgery resulting normalization of metabolic process. A significant increase in serum Zn levels have been observed after treatment of the patients. The Cu/ Zn ratio decreased significantly after the surgery. These observations clearly indicate that serum Cu, Zn and Cu/ Zn ratio are useful in estimating the extent and prognosis of malignant tumors in digestive organs

  12. Clinical significance of Bacillus species isolated from blood cultures.

    Weber, D J; Saviteer, S M; Rutala, W A; Thomann, C A


    To determine the clinical significance of blood isolates of Bacillus, we reviewed all blood cultures obtained at North Carolina Memorial Hospital between 1981 and 1985. Over the five-year study period the number of patients (incidence per 10,000 hospital admissions) from whom Bacillus was isolated increased from 4.97 in 1981 to 12.5 in 1985. The incidence per 1,000 blood cultures also increased from 1.12 in 1981 to 2.33 in 1985. Review of the medical records of 78 of the 95 patients (82%) with positive cultures allowed retrospective classification of five isolates (6.4%) as clinically significant, 33 isolates (42.3%) as possibly significant, and 40 isolates (51.3%) as nonsignificant. Underlying diseases in patients with clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia included burn trauma in two, leukemia in one, carcinoma in one, and gastrointestinal hemorrhage in one. All isolates judged to be clinically significant and the majority of possibly significant isolates were B cereus. We conclude that the isolation of Bacillus species from blood cultures is clinically significant in 5% to 10% of cases, that the incidence of Bacillus bacteremia is increasing, and that burn trauma should be added to the list of conditions known to predispose to clinically significant Bacillus bacteremia.

  13. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard


    This paper discusses and defines the achievement of significance in design science research. We review the values and processes of old-science and how this mode of science attacks the complexity of scientific knowledge production through analysis. We then explain how new-science attacks...... the complexity of scientific knowledge production through synthesis. The work argues that significance of the new-science contribution in design science can be obfuscated when wrapped in old-science. This understanding helps reveal how new-science, such as design science research, constitutes its significance...

  14. Increasing Public Expenditure

    Ammar Ben Zaed


    This article aims to analyze and interpret the phenomenon of increased public expenditures and test explanatory theories as well as to analyze Abstract the relationship between public spending and GDP...

  15. Increasing Public Library Productivity.

    Samuelson, Howard


    Suggests ways of improving productivity for public libraries faced with increased accountability, dwindling revenues, and continuing inflation. Techniques described include work simplification, work analysis, improved management, and employee motivation. (RAA)

  16. Increased intracranial pressure

    ... patient's bedside in an emergency room or hospital. Primary care doctors may sometimes spot early symptoms of increased intracranial pressure such as headache, seizures, or other nervous system problems. An MRI ...

  17. How do we make sense of significance?

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone


    sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons......' sense-making, including important differences in the way individuals screen and scope. These patterns concern what we notice, how fast we frame the choice, and when we are critical about the provided information. The indications provide a basis for reflections on practice and on how to organise EA...

  18. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  19. Significant communities in large sparse networks

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Derlen, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin


    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Just...

  20. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)


    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  1. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    Marrocco, Geraldine F


    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care. Copyright 2014, SLACK Incorporated.

  2. Significance of Studies of Stylistics and Rhetoric



    Stylistics is a scientific study of style. It is a mode of encoding and decoding language and can be associated with various fields. In this paper,we talk about the great significances of stylistic and rhetoric studies. It refers to great help in expressing and understanding languages;in combining the linguistics and literary criticism and linguistics;great help in promoting and developing computer science and information technology;great significance in sharing heritage of human civilizations.

  3. Therapeutic Non Thermal Plasma, Significance and Challenges

    Wameath Sh. Abdul-Majeed


    Full Text Available Plasma is an electrically neutral, highly ionized gas that consists of several species (electrons, ions, reactive species, and UV light and classified into localized thermal equilibrium (LTE plasmas and non-localized thermal equilibrium (n-LTE plasmas. In LTE plasmas, the electron temperature exists in equilibrium with the gas temperature. In contrast, the electron temperature in (n- LTE plasmas can reach temperatures of 1-10 (eV while the gas temperature is kept as low as room temperature, which makes it useful for a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. ozone generation, surface treatment, .., etc. In the past decade, non thermal (cold atmospheric pressure plasmas were developed and emerged as a promising new tool for medical applications as it’s proved to be more selective in its application (e.g. selective killing of microbes. Accordingly, developments of cold atmospheric plasma devices led to the possibility to apply plasma species to heat-sensitive surfaces (e.g. human skin with precise tuning, controllability and without damage of surrounding tissue. On this basis, medical plasma proved effective for skin sterilization, wound healing and tissue regeneration, cancer treatment, malignant cell apoptosis and blood coagulation. Moreover, cold plasma is known to inactivate a wide range of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores and biofilms. Therefore it has been considered a very efficient alternative to superficially applied antibiotics or disinfectants. It’s worth noting that histological evaluation for the skin treated with atmospheric cold plasma showed that no morphological changes and no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis were detectable after plasma treatment. Other studies denoted that a limited increase in the number of DNA double-strand breaks was observed in plasma-treated excised human skin. However, varieties of a new generation handheld and battery-operated devices makes it difficult to interpret the

  4. Hypoxia: Exposure Time Until Significant Performance Effects


    questionnaire which confirmed compliance with pre-established alcohol, caffeine , supplement, and medication usage standards given during consent and...the median reaction times and the third quartile reaction times evokes a relatively recent concept that is primarily associated with sleep ...face of increasing physiological demand, but cannot sustain it. For example, when the need for sleep is high, the level of attention will increase to

  5. Exploding Increase of Population

    Kim, J.H. [Sunmoon University, Chonan (Korea)


    Until 1650, the population of the world did not increase properly. According to studies of the demography, the annual increase rate of the world population during 2500 years, from 850 B.C. to 1650 A.D., was just 0.07%. Currently, however, the world population, which has exceptionally rapidly increased from 1900, is more than 6 billion as of 2000. After World War II, especially, the increase rate of the population has risen to about 1.8%, so we can use the word, explosion of the population. The explosion of the population accompanies the increase of energy consumption. The energy production of every year cannot sufficiently meet the energy demand, so we can face the grand energy crisis someday. The date might be a someday after 2020. According to the future forecasting of Shell, one of the majors, the peak of oil supply will be between 2015 and 2020. Unless the alternative energy is developed, the whole world will suffer the serious oil crisis.

  6. Increased urinary orosomucoid excretion

    Christiansen, M S; Iversen, K; Larsen, C T


    , impaired left ventricular function and endothelial dysfunction in patients with type 2 diabetes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional study of 41 patients with type 2 diabetes (17 patients with normal UOER and 24 with increased UOER) with no history of cardiovascular disease and 21 healthy...... controls. Urinary orosomucoid was measured using a particle-enhanced immunoturbidimetric assay. Plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM) were measured using ELISA. Endothelial function measured as vasodilatory capacity...... of the brachial artery and echocardiography were done in all participants. RESULTS: Patients with diabetes and increased UOER had subclinically increased serum orosomucoid (pprotein (CRP) (p

  7. Increasing mobile radiography productivity.

    Wong, Edward; Lung, Ngan Tsz; Ng, Kris; Jeor, Patrick


    Mobile radiography using computed radiography (CR) cassettes is a common equipment combination with a workflow bottleneck limited by location of CR readers. Advent of direct digital radiography (DDR) mobile x-ray machines removes this limitation by immediate image review and quality control. Through the use of key performance indicators (KPIs), the increase in efficiency can be quantified.

  8. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  9. Social significance of community structure: statistical view.

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J


    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p-value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  10. The Philosophical Significance of Universal Grammar

    Hinzen, Wolfram


    Throughout its long history, the project of a science of grammar has always been an inherently philosophical one, in which the study of grammar was taken to have special epistemological significance. I ask why 20th and 21st century inquiry into Universal Grammar (UG) has largely lost this dimension, a fact that I argue is partially responsible for…

  11. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    Kupczynski, Marian


    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophole was not closed in the experiment testing local realism in which a significant violation of Eberhard inequality was found. We are not surprised that Bell type inequalities are violated since if the contextual character of quantum observables is properly taken into account these inequalities cannot be proven. However in order to trust the significance of the violation sample homogeneity loophole must be closed. Therefore we repeat after Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng that sample homogeneity loophole is probably just the ...

  12. Can Educationally Significant Learning Be Assessed?

    Stolz, Steven A.


    This article argues that assessment is a central feature of teaching, particularly as a means to determine whether what has been taught has been learnt. However, I take issue with the current trend in education which places a significant amount of emphasis upon large-scale public testing, which in turn has exacerbated the…

  13. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    Li, Hui-Jia; Daniels, Jasmine J.


    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks that can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of a partitioned community structure is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a framework to analyze the significance of a social community. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of the nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using a log-likelihood score, the tightness of the community can be derived. Based on the distribution of community tightness, we establish a connection between p -value theory and network analysis, and then we obtain a significance measure of statistical form . Finally, the framework is applied to both benchmark networks and real social networks. Experimental results show that our work can be used in many fields, such as determining the optimal number of communities, analyzing the social significance of a given community, comparing the performance among various algorithms, etc.

  14. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Cassell, Macgorine A.


    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  15. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  16. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)


    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  17. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argues...

  18. Significance of Literature in Foreign Language Teaching

    Babaee, Ruzbeh; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Bt Wan


    This research aims to consider literature as a significant tool for teaching fundamental language skills including speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reasons for the use of literature in language classrooms and major factors for choosing appropriate kinds of literary texts in such classes should be highlighted in order to make readers aware…

  19. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin


    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his...

  20. Sharing data increases citations

    Drachen, Thea Marie; Ellegaard, Ole; Larsen, Asger Væring


    This paper presents some indications to the existence of a citation advantage related to sharing data using astrophysics as a case. Through bibliometric analyses we find a citation advantage for astrophysical papers in core journals. The advantage arises as indexed papers are associated with data...... by bibliographical links, and consists of papers receiving on average significantly more citations per paper per year, than do papers not associated with links to data....

  1. Competitive Intelligence: Significance in Higher Education

    Barrett, Susan E.


    Historically noncompetitive, the higher education sector is now having to adjust dramatically to new and increasing demands on numerous levels. To remain successfully operational within the higher educational market universities today must consider all relevant forces which can impact present and future planning. Those institutions that were…

  2. Significant Decline in Celebrity Usage in Advertising

    Schimmelpfennig, Christian; Hollensen, Svend


    Over the decades, the use of celebrities in advertising has increased. Research suggests that in western countries between 20% and 30% of all advertising used celebrities in the late 1990s. During the past 10 years, however, the use of celebrities in advertising has plunged. This paper discusses...

  3. Public health significance of elevated homocysteine.

    Selhub, Jacob


    Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid whose metabolism stands at the intersection of two pathways: remethylation, which requires folic acid and vitamin B12 coenzymes; and transsulfuration, which requires pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, the vitamin B6 coenzyme. Data from a number of laboratories suggest that mild elevations of homocysteine in plasma are a risk factor for occlusive vascular disease. In the Framingham studies, we have shown that plasma homocysteine concentration is inversely related to the intake and plasma levels of folate and vitamin B6 as well as vitamin B12 plasma levels. Almost two-thirds of the prevalence of high homocysteine is attributable to low vitamin status or intake. Elevated homocysteine concentrations in plasma are a risk factor for prevalence of extracranial carotid-artery stenosis > or = 25% in both men and women. Prospectively elevated plasma homocysteine is associated with increased total and cardiovascular mortality, increased incidence of stroke, increased incidence of dementia and Alzheimer's disease, increased incidence of bone fracture, and higher prevalence of chronic heart failure. It was also shown that elevated plasma homocysteine is a risk factor for preeclampsia and maybe neural tube defects (NTD). This multitude of relationships between elevated plasma homocysteine and diseases that afflict the elderly, pregnant women, and the embryo points to the existence ofa common denominator which may be responsible for these diseases. Whether this denominator is homocysteine itself or homocysteine is merely a marker, remains to be determined.

  4. Increasing income inequality

    Frederiksen, Anders; Poulsen, Odile

    In recent decades most developed countries have experienced an increase in income inequality. In this paper, we use an equilibrium search framework to shed additional light on what is causing an income distribution to change. The major benefit of the model is that it can accommodate shocks...... to the skill composition in the market, employee bargaining power and productivity. Further, when our model is subjected to skill-upgrading and changes in employee bargaining power, it is capable of predicting the recent changes observed in the Danish income distribution. In addition, the model emphasizes...... that shocks to the employees' relative productivity, i.e., skill-biased technological change, are unlikely to have caused the increase in income inequality....

  5. Pemex increasing offshore activity

    Beachy, D.


    Although austere by boom-year standards, Mexico's National Energy Program for 1984-1988 calls for forty wildcats and 90 to 144 development wells off the coast, primarily in the prolific Campeche Bay area. Platform additions will include nine drilling platforms, each for twelve wells, and eight eight platforms to drill injection wells. Additionally, 7 production, 6 accomodation, 6 linkage and 8 compression platforms and 13 tetrapods will be installed. The main objectives of the plan are energy self-sufficiency through the turn of the century, and energy diversification, savings and productivity. The most controversial portion of Mexico's energy program is that calling for nuclear energy development. The energy program lists three basic goals in hydrocarbon production: continuing research on better techniques of secondary recovery; increasing capacity for refining primary and secondary crude products and improving production of heavy crudes; and increasing storage capacity and installing pipelines capable of carrying a greater volume of crude.

  6. Market Expects Demand Increase


    In the recent releasing Textile Industry Invigorating Plan,"givingattention to both domestlc and overseas markets"is put into a keyposition.Under a series policies,such as increasing the tax rebaterate for textile and garment exports,and granting loan for SME,thefurther development of this industry is expectative.Otherwise,weshould know that it costs time for demand driving.This need ourpatients.The only questionis how much time we have to wait.

  7. Alarming increase in refugees.


    Over the past decade and half there has been an alarming worldwide increase in refugees. The total rose form 2.8 million in 1976 to 8.2 million in 1980, to 17.3 million in 1990. Africa's refugees rose from 1.2 million in 1976 to 5.6 million in 1990. Asia's increase over this period was much more rapid--from a mere 180,000 to 8 million. In the Americas the numbers more than trebled, from 770,000 to 2.7 million. Europe was the smallest increase, from 570,000 to 894,000. International law defines a refugee as someone outside of their own country, who has a well-founded fear of persecution because of their political or religious beliefs or ethnic origin, and who cannot turn to their own country for protection. Most refugees are genuine by this definition. The increase reflects, in part, fallout from the cold war. Ethiopia, Mozambique and Angola accounted for almost 1/2 of Africa's refugees; Afghanistan alone for 3/4 of Asia's total. They fled, for the most part, from 1 poor country into another, where they added to shortages of land and fuelwood, and intensified environmental pressure. Malawi, 1 of the poorest countries in the world, is sheltering perhaps as many as 750,000 refugees from the war in Mozambique. But among these refugees--especially among those who turned to the rich countries for asylum--were an increasing number of people who were not suffering political persecution. Driven out of their homes by the collapse of their environment or economic despair, and ready to take any means to get across borders, they are a new category: economic and environmental refugees. The most spectacular attempts hit the television screens: the Vietnamese boat people, ships festooned with Albanians. Behind the headlines there was a growing tide of asylum seekers. The numbers rose 10-fold in Germany from 1983 to 1990. In Switzerland they multiplied by 4 times. In Europe, as a whole, they grew from 71,000 in 1983 to an estimated 550,000 in 1990. In 1990 the numbers threatened to

  8. On significance of VLBI/Gaia offsets

    Petrov, L


    We have cross matched the Gaia Data Release 1 secondary dataset that contains positions of 1.14 billion objects against the most complete to date catalogue of VLBI positions of 11.4 thousand sources, almost exclusively active galactic nuclei. We found 6,064 matches, i.e. 53% radio objects. The median uncertainty of VLBI positions is a factor of 4 smaller than the median uncertainties of their optical counterparts. Our analysis shows that the distribution of normalized arc lengths significantly deviates from Rayleighian shape with an excess of objects with small normalized arc lengths and with a number of outliers. We found that 8% matches have radio optical offsets significant at 99% confidence level. Therefore, we conclude there exists a population of objects with genuine offsets between centroids of radio and optical emission.


    Yu-Jia Hu


    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  10. Social significance of community structure: Statistical view

    Li, Hui-Jia


    Community structure analysis is a powerful tool for social networks, which can simplify their topological and functional analysis considerably. However, since community detection methods have random factors and real social networks obtained from complex systems always contain error edges, evaluating the significance of community structure partitioned is an urgent and important question. In this paper, integrating the specific characteristics of real society, we present a novel framework analyzing the significance of social community specially. The dynamics of social interactions are modeled by identifying social leaders and corresponding hierarchical structures. Instead of a direct comparison with the average outcome of a random model, we compute the similarity of a given node with the leader by the number of common neighbors. To determine the membership vector, an efficient community detection algorithm is proposed based on the position of nodes and their corresponding leaders. Then, using log-likelihood sco...

  11. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    Erasmus, Christiaan, E-mail: [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Kok, Schalk [Advanced Mathematical Modelling, CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hindley, Michael P. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)


    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  12. Cross wavelet analysis: significance testing and pitfalls

    D. Maraun


    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a detailed evaluation of cross wavelet analysis of bivariate time series. We develop a statistical test for zero wavelet coherency based on Monte Carlo simulations. If at least one of the two processes considered is Gaussian white noise, an approximative formula for the critical value can be utilized. In a second part, typical pitfalls of wavelet cross spectra and wavelet coherency are discussed. The wavelet cross spectrum appears to be not suitable for significance testing the interrelation between two processes. Instead, one should rather apply wavelet coherency. Furthermore we investigate problems due to multiple testing. Based on these results, we show that coherency between ENSO and NAO is an artefact for most of the time from 1900 to 1995. However, during a distinct period from around 1920 to 1940, significant coherency between the two phenomena occurs.

  13. Representativeness and significance factors in ESP texts

    Alejandro Curado Fuentes


    Full Text Available The development of communicative approaches and strategies in specialized discourse has led to revising notions of representative and significant language . Particularly in the work with academic genres, in science and technology (EST settings such as our own institution, the need for determining these factors is ever growing. The application of empirical resources such as specific language corpora, in fact, becomes convenient. In this paper, the aim is to specify the type of corpus linguistic representativeness and significance sought in the case of teaching English to our groups of Computer Science students. In that scope, we present data and samples on which to base our suggestions and claims regarding the exploitation of textual material.

  14. Respiratory neuroplasticity - Overview, significance and future directions.

    Fuller, David D; Mitchell, Gordon S


    Neuroplasticity is an important property of the neural system controlling breathing. However, our appreciation for its importance is still relatively new, and we have much to learn concerning different forms of plasticity, their underlying mechanisms, and their biological and clinical significance. In this brief review, we discuss several well-studied models of respiratory plasticity, including plasticity initiated by inactivity in the respiratory system, intermittent and sustained hypoxia, and traumatic injury to the spinal cord. Other aspects of respiratory plasticity are considered in other contributions to this special edition of Experimental Neurology on respiratory plasticity. Finally, we conclude with discussions concerning the biological and clinical significance of respiratory motor plasticity, and areas in need of future research effort.

  15. Significance testing as perverse probabilistic reasoning

    Westover Kenneth D


    Full Text Available Abstract Truth claims in the medical literature rely heavily on statistical significance testing. Unfortunately, most physicians misunderstand the underlying probabilistic logic of significance tests and consequently often misinterpret their results. This near-universal misunderstanding is highlighted by means of a simple quiz which we administered to 246 physicians at two major academic hospitals, on which the proportion of incorrect responses exceeded 90%. A solid understanding of the fundamental concepts of probability theory is becoming essential to the rational interpretation of medical information. This essay provides a technically sound review of these concepts that is accessible to a medical audience. We also briefly review the debate in the cognitive sciences regarding physicians' aptitude for probabilistic inference.

  16. Evaluative meaning and its cultural significance

    Drazdauskiene, Maria Liudvika


    In the framework of traditional descriptive semantics, evaluative meaning is defined as an aspect of affective meaning. By virtue of its general positive and negative evaluation, evaluative meaning finds its place in the compartment of interpersonal meaning in functional linguistics. The concept of evaluative meaning is also in agreement with the categorisation of meaning in contemporary stylistics. Having stated its spread and disagreement with logic, the cultural significance of...

  17. Small colony variants and their clinical significance

    Venkataramana Venkataramana


    Full Text Available Among the many factors that contribute to bacterial colonization, persistence and development of infection, the ability of microorganisms to form small colony variants (SCVs assumes great significance. Although bacteria require intrinsic virulence factors to cause pathogenesis, some of them regularly evolve mechanisms to evade immune mechanisms, become resistant to antibiotics, and sustain in the human/animal cells to cause chronic infections. This mini review highlights the recent advances in the study of SCVs.

  18. Significance testing testate amoeba water table reconstructions

    Payne, Richard J.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; van Bellen, Simon; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Booth, Robert K.; Charman, Dan J.; Ellershaw, Megan R.; Gilbert, Daniel; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Malysheva, Elena A.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Mazei, Yuri; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Turner, T. Edward; Telford, Richard J.


    Transfer functions are valuable tools in palaeoecology, but their output may not always be meaningful. A recently-developed statistical test ('randomTF') offers the potential to distinguish among reconstructions which are more likely to be useful, and those less so. We applied this test to a large number of reconstructions of peatland water table depth based on testate amoebae. Contrary to our expectations, a substantial majority (25 of 30) of these reconstructions gave non-significant results (P > 0.05). The underlying reasons for this outcome are unclear. We found no significant correlation between randomTF P-value and transfer function performance, the properties of the training set and reconstruction, or measures of transfer function fit. These results give cause for concern but we believe it would be extremely premature to discount the results of non-significant reconstructions. We stress the need for more critical assessment of transfer function output, replication of results and ecologically-informed interpretation of palaeoecological data.

  19. Characteristics, dynamics and significance of marine snow

    Alldredge, Alice L.; Silver, Mary W.

    Macroscopic aggregates of detritus, living organisms and inorganic matter known as marine snow, have significance in the ocean both as unique, partially isolated microenvironments and as transport agents: much of surface-derived matter in the ocean fluxes to the ocean interior and the sea floor as marine snow. As microhabitats, marine snow aggregates contain enriched microbial communities and chemical gradients within which processes of photosynthesis, decomposition, and nutrient regeneration occur at highly elevated levels. Microbial communities associated with marine snow undergo complex successional changes on time scales of hours to days which significantly alter the chemical and biological properties of the particles. Marine snow can be produced either de novo by living plants and animals especially as mucus feeding webs of zooplankton, or by the biologically-enhanced physical aggregation of smaller particles. By the latter pathway, microaggregates, phytoplankton, fecal pellets, organic debris and clay-mineral particles collide by differential settlement or physical shear and adhere by the action of various, biologically-generated, organic compounds. Diatom flocculation is a poorly understood source of marine snow of potential global significance. Rates of snow production and breakdown are not known but are critical to predicting flux and to understanding biological community structure and transformations of matter and energy in the water column. The greatest challenge to the study of marine snow at present is the development of appropriate technology to measure abundances and characteristics of aggregates in situ.

  20. Least significant qubit algorithm for quantum images

    Sang, Jianzhi; Wang, Shen; Li, Qiong


    To study the feasibility of the classical image least significant bit (LSB) information hiding algorithm on quantum computer, a least significant qubit (LSQb) information hiding algorithm of quantum image is proposed. In this paper, we focus on a novel quantum representation for color digital images (NCQI). Firstly, by designing the three qubits comparator and unitary operators, the reasonability and feasibility of LSQb based on NCQI are presented. Then, the concrete LSQb information hiding algorithm is proposed, which can realize the aim of embedding the secret qubits into the least significant qubits of RGB channels of quantum cover image. Quantum circuit of the LSQb information hiding algorithm is also illustrated. Furthermore, the secrets extracting algorithm and circuit are illustrated through utilizing control-swap gates. The two merits of our algorithm are: (1) it is absolutely blind and (2) when extracting secret binary qubits, it does not need any quantum measurement operation or any other help from classical computer. Finally, simulation and comparative analysis show the performance of our algorithm.

  1. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC

    Brosnan Robert J


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Methods Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801 was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Results Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P  Conclusions Glycine receptor antagonism increases NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  2. [Measurement and clinical significance of cervical lordosis].

    Zhang, Yu-ting; Wang, Xiang; Zhan, Hong-sheng


    Measurement of cervical lordosis is the basic method for evaluating cervical function, and important reference for determine treatment decision. However, how to choose appropriate measurement in accordance with different situation, as well as the relationship among these methods is not clear. An increasing number of studies suggested that different measurements could directly affect the judgment of cervical lordosis. Therefore, comparative study of cervical vertebrae plays an important role in clinical treatment for cervical spondylosis under different cervical curvature conditions.

  3. Significant differences in cross cultural negotiations

    Luminita Vochita


    This paper analyses the importance of different factors that influences cross cultural negotiations. Learning about the components of a cross cultural negotiation process to increase negotiators’ success in avoiding barriers and failures in the international business arena is one of the most challenging achievements of the negotiators in the global environment. In the second part, the paper focuses on the one of the most important componenet of cross cultural business negotiations: difference...

  4. Encouraging generic use can yield significant savings.

    Zimmerman, Christina


    Key findings. (1) Zero copayment for generic drugs is the greatest influencer of generic statin utilization. (2) Both higher copayments for generic drugs and lower copayments for competing brands are associated with a decreased probability of using generic statins. (3) Prior authorization and step therapy requirements for brand-name statins are associated with an increased use of generic drugs. (4) Greater use of generic statins should reduce costs for patients, plans, and Medicare.


    Mu Xueping


    @@ After half a year's gestation and adjustment, the State Administration of Taxation finally set new tax rate of petroleum resources. Notification issued by the Ministry of Finance and the State Administration of Taxation said the petroleum resources tax standard would be lifted nationwide, after the tax rate adjustment, tax on crude oil would be increased to RMB 14-30 yuan per ton and that on natural gas to RMB 7-15 yuan per thousand cubic meters. The new tax rate has been effective nationwide since July 1.

  6. Increasing Inflationary Pressure

    Guo Yan


    @@ China's CPI rose to 8.7 percent in February after hitting 7.1 percent in January,creating a 12-year high,the National Bureau of Statistics said.The figure exceeded market expectations,as the Bank of China,the country's secondlargest lender,had predicted a rise of only 8.3 percent.The Consumer Price Index (CPI)is the main gauge of inflation,andthe high CPI over the last two months has put pressure on the government to take action to curb the price increases,and added even more diffculty to the task of reining in this year's inflation rate.

  7. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis : Clinical significance and pathogenesis

    de Knegt, RJ


    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of liver disease resembling alcoholic liver disease in a patient who does not consume significant amounts of alcohol. Since its first description in 1980 it has been recognized with increasing frequency. The natural course is relatively benign, but live

  8. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis : Clinical significance and pathogenesis

    de Knegt, RJ


    Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a form of liver disease resembling alcoholic liver disease in a patient who does not consume significant amounts of alcohol. Since its first description in 1980 it has been recognized with increasing frequency. The natural course is relatively benign, but live

  9. Mood dependence of perceived criticism : A significant null finding

    Gerlsma, Coby; de Ruiter, Naomi M. P.; Kingma, Willem


    Five decades of research have shown that the quality of one's interactions with significant others, as captured in the expressed emotion (EE) concept, affects the course of various psychiatric and medical complaints. The key EE-component, interpersonal criticism, is increasingly assessed with the

  10. Mood dependence of perceived criticism : A significant null finding

    Gerlsma, Coby; de Ruiter, Naomi M. P.; Kingma, Willem


    Five decades of research have shown that the quality of one's interactions with significant others, as captured in the expressed emotion (EE) concept, affects the course of various psychiatric and medical complaints. The key EE-component, interpersonal criticism, is increasingly assessed with the si

  11. Significance of CSF-LDH in various types of meningitis

    Vekaria, Parul N; Jasani, Jasmin H; Dhruva, Gauravi; Kotadia, Tarun


    The cerebrospinal fluid concentration of Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) was studied in patients with pyogenic and tubercular meningitis. Significant increase in LDH level (P<0.001) were observed in the test group when compared to the control group. LDH may  useful in differentiating viral from other meningitis. It may act as corroborative evidence of meningitis.

  12. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)


    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  13. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Kai Kammers


    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  14. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Lusso Paolo


    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  15. Significance of Jane Eyre' s Independence



    Jane Eyre, by far the best known of Charlotte Bronte' s literary production, published 1847. Jane, the heroine, a governess's rebelliousness, her hate ot servility, her insistence on equality with her master, and her declaration that she has a right to feelings and passions that impresses me most. This paper, from what Jane Eyre experiences and what she thinks about the happenings, analyses Jane Eyreg independent characters and spirits in five segments each with its own setting: Gateshead, Lowood, Thnmfield, Moor House, Femdean, points out the significance of Jane Eyre's independence in her ages.

  16. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivaties in perfumes

    Rastogi, Suresh Chandra; Johansen, Jeanne Duus


    in perfumes/aftershaves. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. RESULTS: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. CONCLUSIONS: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization....

  17. Significance of Conflict Talk in interpersonal Relationships

    柯建华; 罗丹


    Conflict talks occur in almost every field of human life such as medicine, school, court, and some other social organizations where the interaction results are of much significance to the conversationalists, or in others words, to their status in the organization and honor in the society. A lot of conflicts go unresolved. Oppositional exchanges in a conflict may be used by participants to achieve certain goals, for instance, exploring and developing verbal skills as candidates in a debate competition do, and maintaining social hierarchies within groups or organizations such as leaders giving orders in an institution. Dealing with conflict helps to promote interpersonal relationships.

  18. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism



    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  19. Hippocampal sharp waves: their origin and significance.

    Buzsáki, G


    This study investigated the spatial distribution and cellular-synaptic generation of hippocampal sharp waves (SPW) in the dorsal hippocampus of the awake rat. Depth analyses of SPWs were performed by stepping the recording electrode in 82.5 microns increments. SPWs were present during slow wave sleep, awake immobility, drinking, grooming and eating (0.01-2/s). The largest negative SPWs were recorded from the middle part of the stratum radiatum of CA1, the stratum lucidum of CA3, the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus and from layer I of the subiculum, in that order. The polarity of the SPWs was positive in layers II-IV of the subiculum, in stratum oriens and stratum pyramidale of CA1 and CA3, and in the hilus of the dentate gyrus. The electrical gradients across the null zones of the field SPWs were as large as 8-14 mV/mm. SPWs were associated with population bursts of pyramidal cells and increased discharges of interneurons and granule cells. During the SPW the excitability of granule cells and pyramidal cells to afferent volleys increased considerably. Picrotoxin and atropine and aspiration lesion of the fimbria-fornix increased either the amplitude or the frequency of SPWs. Diazepam and Nembutal could completely abolish SPWs. It is suggested that: hippocampal SPWs are triggered by a population burst of CA3 pyramidal cells as a result of temporary disinhibition from afferent control; and field SPWs represent summed extracellular PSPs of CA1 and subicular pyramidal cells, and dentate granular cells induced by the Schaffer collaterals and the associational fibers of hilar cells, respectively. The relevance of the physiological SPWs to epileptic interictal spikes and long-term potentiation is discussed.

  20. Hemodynamic significance of internal carotid artery disease

    Schroeder, T


    . Examination of periorbital flow direction or oculoplethysmography could be used as a screening procedure. Negative tests most certainly rule out any severe pressure gradient across the stenosis, irrespective of the luminal reduction. A positive result, on the other hand, should be further quantified since...... cerebral hemodynamics in terms of increased flow through the reconstructed vessel and elimination of pressure gradients. The cerebral blood flow, though remains unchanged in the majority of patients, at least when measured at baseline. Only in those patients with a reduction in perfusion pressure can...

  1. The significance of neuroscience for philosophy.

    Churchland, Patricia Smith; Phil, B


    The ground is shifting under the traditional approaches to problems in the philosophy of mind. Earlier doctrines concerning the independence of cognition from the brain now appear untenable. As neuroscience uncovers more about the organization and dynamics of the brain, it becomes increasingly evident that theories about our nature must be informed by neuroscientific data. Consistent with this progress, we may expect that philosophical problems about the mind will be productively addressed and perhaps radically transformed by a convergence of neuroscientific, psychological and computational research.

  2. Significance and popularity in music production

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D. P.; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio


    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. `Significant' or `influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  3. Significance and popularity in music production.

    Monechi, Bernardo; Gravino, Pietro; Servedio, Vito D P; Tria, Francesca; Loreto, Vittorio


    Creative industries constantly strive for fame and popularity. Though highly desirable, popularity is not the only achievement artistic creations might ever acquire. Leaving a longstanding mark in the global production and influencing future works is an even more important achievement, usually acknowledged by experts and scholars. 'Significant' or 'influential' works are not always well known to the public or have sometimes been long forgotten by the vast majority. In this paper, we focus on the duality between what is successful and what is significant in the musical context. To this end, we consider a user-generated set of tags collected through an online music platform, whose evolving co-occurrence network mirrors the growing conceptual space underlying music production. We define a set of general metrics aiming at characterizing music albums throughout history, and their relationships with the overall musical production. We show how these metrics allow to classify albums according to their current popularity or their belonging to expert-made lists of important albums. In this way, we provide the scientific community and the public at large with quantitative tools to tell apart popular albums from culturally or aesthetically relevant artworks. The generality of the methodology presented here lends itself to be used in all those fields where innovation and creativity are in play.

  4. Elenoside increases intestinal motility

    E Navarro; SJ Alonso; R Navarro; J Trujillo; E Jorge


    AIM: To study the effects of elenoside, an arylnaphthalene lignan from Justicia hyssopifolia, on gastrointestinal motility in vivo and in vitro in rats.METHODS: Routine in vivo experimental assessments were catharsis index, water percentage of boluses,intestinal transit, and codeine antagonism. The groups included were vehicle control (propylene glycol-ethanolplant oil-tween 80), elenoside (i.p. 25 and 50 mg/kg),cisapride (i.p. 10 mg/kg), and codeine phosphate (intragastric route, 50 mg/kg). In vitro approaches used isolated rat intestinal tissues (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum). The effects of elenoside at concentrations of 3.2× 10-4, 6.4 × 10-4 and 1.2 × 10-3 mol/L, and cisapride at 10-6 mol/L were investigated.RESULTS: Elenoside in vivo produced an increase in the catharsis index and water percentage of boluses and in the percentage of distance traveled by a suspension of activated charcoal. Codeine phosphate antagonized the effect of 25 mg/kg of elenoside. In vitro, elenoside in duodenum, jejunum and ileum produced an initial decrease in the contraction force followed by an increase.Elenoside resulted in decreased intestinal frequency in duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. The in vitro and in vivo effects of elenoside were similar to those produced by cisapride.CONCLUSION: Elenoside is a lignan with an action similar to that of purgative and prokinetics drugs.Elenoside, could be an alternative to cisapride in treatment of gastrointestinal diseases as well as a preventive therapy for the undesirable gastrointestinal effects produced by opioids used for mild to moderate pain.

  5. [Affective disorders. The significance of psychotherapeutic approaches].

    Berger, M; Brakemeier, E L; Klesse, C; Schramm, E


    The use of psychotherapeutic strategies is essential in the treatment of affective disorders. Psychotherapy proved to be at least equivalent to antidepressant medication in the treatment of mild to moderate depression. In severe cases, the combination of both treatments is considered by guidelines to be the standard treatment. Psychotherapeutic approaches show a longer latency than antidepressants; however, the effects are longer lasting. Regarding the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy sobering results have been published recently. Therefore, the further development of psychotherapy deserves special attention. Cognitive behavioral therapy and interpersonal therapy provide the highest evidence. The empirical basis for psychodynamic psychotherapies is still limited. In the treatment of chronic depression a new approach--cognitive behavioral analysis system of psychotherapy--is gaining importance. There is a trend towards an increasing specification of psychotherapy for distinct subgroups of depressed patients. Challenges for the future include increasing treatment efficacy, investigating mechanisms of efficacy and predictors for a differential indication, and making effective approaches generally available to all patients.

  6. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Karabasil Neđeljko


    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  7. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen


    In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances......, there are differences between images captured during daytime and nighttime, especially significant changes in building appearances between seasons because of the differences in light setting. To date, these large temporal variation issues have not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore focus...... on constructing a system that deals with the temporal difference factors in recognizing urban buildings. In order to build such a system, two main criteria are raised, namely the efficiency of the recognition algorithm and the speed for interactive search purpose. For recognition purpose, we exploit the MOPS...

  8. Human error: A significant information security issue

    Banks, W.W.


    One of the major threats to information security human error is often ignored or dismissed with statements such as {open_quotes}There is not much we can do about it.{close_quotes} This type of thinking runs counter to reality because studies have shown that, of all systems threats, human error has the highest probability of occurring and that, with professional assistance, human errors can be prevented or significantly reduced Security analysts often overlook human error as a major threat; however, other professionals such as human factors engineers are trained to deal with these probabilistic occurrences and mitigate them. In a recent study 55% of the respondents surveyed considered human error as the most important security threat. Documentation exists to show that human error was a major cause of the consequences suffered at Three Mile Island, Chernobyl, Bhopal, and the Exxon tanker, Valdez. Ironically, causes of human error can usually be quickly and easily eliminated.


    Elena RUSE


    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  10. CNOOC Sales Revenues Rise Significantly in 2008


    @@ China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC),the country's third largest oil and gas producer,saw its full year sales revenues of 2008 rose 22.4 percent from a year ago to 98.3 billion yuan (US$14.37 billion).By the end of 2008,the total assets of the company were 428.5 billion yuan,up 267 percent from five years earlier.The company's listed ann CNOOC Ltd.said in mid-January it planed to lift its 2009 crude and gas production by 16 percent to 18 percent,as some significant projects are expected to come online this year.Total production will be 225 million to 231 million barrels of oil equivalent (BOE),compared with the estimated production of 194 million to 196 million BOE for 2008.

  11. On Imaginative Criminology and Its Significance

    Jon Frauley


    Full Text Available In growing numbers criminologists are discovering the value of imaginative and creative approaches for enquiry. There is now a critical mass of criminological work that engages substantively and theoretically with cultural artefacts such as film, fiction, music, dance, art, photography and cultural institutions. In doing so these works highlight criminology’s persistent epistemological and methodological weaknesses. The broad and fragmented “imaginative criminology” movement offers a challenge to an orthodox criminology that is guided by the coercive and constraining bureaucratic categories of criminal justice administration and the criminal law. Imaginative criminology displaces these as the governing categories of criminological thought and practice. Drawing on the work of Pierre Bourdieu, Louis Althusser, and C. Wright Mills this paper considers the movement’s epistemological significance and the challenge posed to criminological orthodoxy.

  12. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter



    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  13. Significant new quantitative EGG patterns in fibromyalgia

    Jorge Navarro López


    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: We analyzed the EEG recordings of a sample of fibromyalgia patients, with the goal of looking for new, more objective indicators on the diagnosis and severity assessment of this pathology, and looking also to establish the relationship of these new indicators with different psychological and neuropsychiatric tests. Methods: We compared the EEG recordings of a group of 13 fibromyalgia patients with a normalized database built into the software of the equipment used (Neuronic, and also with a control group of 13 individuals; both groups were selected under the same criteria of inclusion-exclusion. Patients and controls underwent quantitative EEG (eyes closed, according to international 10-20 EEG system and were specifically evaluated throughout various neuropsychiatric and psychological questionnaires. Results: We obtained the absolute powers of QEEG (quantitative for the different electrode sites and frequency bands, we determined the corresponding values of the deviation from normal (Z-scores, and estimated various indicators and ratios, as well as correlations with the results of psychological tests. Interestingly, the ratios of theta and beta frequencies in relation with alpha appear as one of the most relevant indicators of the severity of the pathology; significant differences were also found in the peak frequency (maximum power per Hz of the alpha band, and in the frequency peak of the total spectrum. Conclusions: The consistency of the abnormal EEG patterns of fibromyalgia patients revealed the presence of systemic dysfunction at the central nervous system level, beyond possible peripheral anomalies and specific tissue pathologies. Among the indicators and benchmarks achieved, the most important changes concern the frequencies theta, alpha and beta, and still more significant were the values of their ratios in the comparison between patients and controls. The relative values of peak frequencies are also of

  14. Immunophenotyping in leukemia and its diagnostic significance

    S. B. Kresno


    Full Text Available The identification of cell surface markers, defined as clusters of differentiation antigens (CD’s could be used to classify and sub-classify leukemia. Although the same antigens are expressed on normal cells, the phenotype on malignant cells are aberrantly and frequently asynchronously expressed and may be present in combinations not observed in normal blood or bone marrow. Aberrant expression of surface antigens corresponds with poor therapeutic response and short survival. Additional surface marker analysis complementary to morphologic evaluation and cytochemical staining has greatly improved our ability to characterize hematologic malignancies. A review and illustration on the diagnostic significance of immunophenotyping in leukemia will be presented. Data from 225 patients having complete assessments including morphology, cytochemistry and immunophenotyping in the period of 1994-2001 were collected and analyzed. Based on morphologic evaluation and cytochemistry, the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia were established in 51.1% and 48.9% of cases, respectively. Based on immunophenotyping AML was found in 49.0% of the cases. ALL could be classified into 4.9% pre-B-ALL, 18.7% B-ALL, and 14.7% T-ALL. Cases expressing cross-lineage antigens were found in 12.7%. The prognostic significance of these aberrant expression of antigens for those cases has yet to be established but some of the cases responded poorly to therapy. Immunophenotyping provides the tool to: 1 distinguish normal from clonal populations of leukemic cells; 2 define lineage and reveal the stage of maturation; 3 identify inappropriate expression of lineage associated antigens; 4 provides more informations to establish diagnosis and prognosis compared to standard methods. (Med J Indones 2004; 13: 195-202 Keywords: Immunophenotyping, clusters of differentiation antigens, lineage associated antigens

  15. The significance of the integumentary profile.

    Satravaha, S; Schlegel, K D


    Profile analysis was performed on 180 Thai female subjects with ages ranging from 16 to 21 years. Seventy were of Chinese origin. The determination of the profile analysis mean values was based on the methods of Schwarz, Subtelny, Ricketts, Burstone, and Schwartz. The results were compared to Caucasian standards and to the findings of our previous study on a Javanese population. For the profile forms, our investigated groups showed mainly prognathic faces (75% to 84%). A "shift backward" profile flow dominated. We found a "prognathic face" combined with a "shift backward" in 50% to 60% of the Asian subjects analyzed. Our soft-tissue profile results (approximately 165 +/- 6 degrees) showed less convexity than that of the Caucasians and there was no significant difference in overall profile between the 2 Thai groups (approximately 134 +/- 5 degrees); this is in the range given by Subtelny (141 degrees to 131 degrees) except for that of the Javanese subjects. For the lip analysis, we listed a posterior position or a lip position upon the esthetic line between 60% to 70% of both Thai groups with respect to the upper lip and only 28% to 33% for the lower lip. The Javanese group, however, showed 90% anterior position of the upper lip and 93% of the lower lip to this line. It is significant that proper blending of the integumentary profile produces an esthetically pleasing face and this varies in different ethnic groups. A good combination could even make a "prognathic face shift backward" very acceptable as illustrated by a profile analysis of Miss Thailand, 1984.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Quantifying the Clinical Significance of Cannabis Withdrawal

    Allsop, David J.; Copeland, Jan; Norberg, Melissa M.; Fu, Shanlin; Molnar, Anna; Lewis, John; Budney, Alan J.


    Background and Aims Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV). This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. Methods and Results A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p = 0.0001). Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p = 0.03). Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p = 0.001). Conclusions Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes. PMID:23049760

  17. [Epidemiological significance of the metabolic syndrome].

    Horáková, D; Azeem, K; Dumbrovská, L; Vlčková, J; Horák, V; Kollárová, H

    From an epidemiological point of view, the metabolic syndrome is a group of risk factors causally, rather than coincidentally, related to insulin resistance. The metabolic syndrome is a condition with relatively high prevalence rates in both the Czech Republic and in other developed countries. There is a clear trend of increasing prevalence in both sexes depending on age. In the Czech Republic, the syndrome is less common in females (25.5%) than in males (37.6%). Epidemiological studies found white (Europoid race) males to be at higher risk due to abdominal obesity. The definition of the metabolic syndrome has evolved over time and helps to identify individuals at high risk of developing cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, hence the use of the term cardiometabolic syndrome. Early detection of metabolic syndrome symptoms including insulin resistance should be performed mainly by general practitioners as part of regular check-ups.

  18. Increased NMDA receptor inhibition at an increased Sevoflurane MAC.

    Brosnan, Robert J; Thiesen, Roberto


    Sevoflurane potently enhances glycine receptor currents and more modestly decreases NMDA receptor currents, each of which may contribute to immobility. This modest NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at a minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) could be reciprocally related to large potentiation of other inhibitory ion channels. If so, then reduced glycine receptor potency should increase NMDA receptor antagonism by sevoflurane at MAC. Indwelling lumbar subarachnoid catheters were surgically placed in 14 anesthetized rats. Rats were anesthetized with sevoflurane the next day, and a pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was measured in duplicate using a tail clamp method. Artificial CSF (aCSF) containing either 0 or 4 mg/mL strychnine was then infused intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-infusion baseline sevoflurane MAC was measured. Finally, aCSF containing strychnine (either 0 or 4 mg/mL) plus 0.4 mg/mL dizocilpine (MK-801) was administered intrathecally at 4 μL/min, and the post-dizocilpine sevoflurane MAC was measured. Pre-infusion sevoflurane MAC was 2.26%. Intrathecal aCSF alone did not affect MAC, but intrathecal strychnine significantly increased sevoflurane requirement. Addition of dizocilpine significantly decreased MAC in all rats, but this decrease was two times larger in rats without intrathecal strychnine compared to rats with intrathecal strychnine, a statistically significant (P MAC. The magnitude of anesthetic effects on a given ion channel may therefore depend on the magnitude of its effects on other receptors that modulate neuronal excitability.

  19. Increasing orUnderselling ?

    Guo Yan


    The downgrade of sovereignty credit rating of the United States causes new concerns on US treasury bonds.According to the report issued recently by Treasury Ministry of United States,China as the largest oversea holding country of US treasury bonds continues to buy US treasury bonds,with an increase of 5.7 billion US dollars in June,marking the third month in line.Till now,China has US treasury bonds up to a new record of 1,165.5 billion US dollars,which amounts to 26% of the oversea holding US treasury bonds,based on market estimation,followed by Japan (20%),UK (8%),Brazil (5%)and Russia (3%).However,in sharp contrast to China,other countries are underselling us treasury bonds,particularly Russia.Data shows that since October 2010,Russia has been selling US treasury bonds for eight months in line,up to 38% of their holdings.Now Russia only holds 111 billion US dollars of US treasury bond.Why the countries take totally different attitudes towards to US treasury bonds? Tne reporter interviewed the experts from China and Russia for more details.

  20. Stress increases periodontal inflammation



    This study aimed to examine the effect of chronic restraint stress (RS) on the severity of experimental periodontal disease in rats. A total of 32 male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were divided into four groups: i) Rats receiving two treatment regimens, chronic stress induced by movement restriction in acrylic cylinders for 1–1.5 h daily and induction of experimental periodontal disease, using a nylon ligature which was placed around the first left mandibular molars (n=8); ii) induction of periodontal disease, without RS (n=8); iii) RS (n=8) and iv) control (n=8). After 15 days, blood samples were obtained, and blood glucose levels and the corticosterone concentration were measured as stress markers. The severity of periodontal disease was analyzed according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation, leading to compromise of the teeth involved. Chronic stress was induced with movement restriction (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) and increased the severity (P≤0.05, Mann-Whitney U-test) of experimental perio dontal disease in rats, according to the level of gingival and bone inflammation around the first left mandibular molars. The results of the present study showed that RS modulates periodontal inflammation and that the rat model described herein is suitable for investigating the association between stress and periodontal disease. PMID:23226743

  1. Prognostic significance of erythropoietin in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

    Thilo Welsch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin (Epo administration has been reported to have tumor-promoting effects in anemic cancer patients. We investigated the prognostic impact of endogenous Epo in patients with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC. METHODOLOGY: The clinico-pathological relevance of hemoglobin (Hb, n = 150, serum Epo (sEpo, n = 87 and tissue expression of Epo/Epo receptor (EpoR, n = 104 was analyzed in patients with PDAC. Epo/EpoR expression, signaling, growth, invasion and chemoresistance were studied in Epo-exposed PDAC cell lines. RESULTS: Compared to donors, median preoperative Hb levels were reduced by 15% in both chronic pancreatitis (CP, p<0.05 and PDAC (p<0.001, reaching anemic grade in one third of patients. While inversely correlating to Hb (r = -0.46, 95% of sEPO values lay within the normal range. The individual levels of compensation were adequate in CP (observed to predicted ratio, O/P = 0.99 but not in PDAC (O/P = 0.85. Strikingly, lower sEPO values yielding inadequate Epo responses were prominent in non-metastatic M0-patients, whereas these parameters were restored in metastatic M1-group (8 vs. 13 mU/mL; O/P = 0.82 vs. 0.96; p<0.01--although Hb levels and the prevalence of anemia were comparable. Higher sEpo values (upper quartile ≥ 16 mU/ml were not significantly different in M0 (20% and M1 (30% groups, but were an independent prognostic factor for shorter survival (HR 2.20, 10 vs. 17 months, p<0.05. The pattern of Epo expression in pancreas and liver suggested ectopic release of Epo by capillaries/vasa vasorum and hepatocytes, regulated by but not emanating from tumor cells. Epo could initiate PI3K/Akt signaling via EpoR in PDAC cells but failed to alter their functions, probably due to co-expression of the soluble EpoR isoform, known to antagonize Epo. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Higher sEPO levels counteract anemia but worsen outcome in PDAC patients. Further trials are required to clarify how overcoming a sEPO threshold

  2. Increased mortality in narcolepsy.

    Ohayon, Maurice M; Black, Jed; Lai, Chinglin; Eller, Mark; Guinta, Diane; Bhattacharyya, Arun


    To evaluate the mortality rate in patients with narcolepsy. Data were derived from a large database representative of the US population, which contains anonymized patient-linked longitudinal claims for 173 million individuals. Symphony Health Solutions (SHS) Source Lx, an anonymized longitudinal patient dataset. All records of patients registered in the SHS database between 2008 and 2010. None. Identification of patients with narcolepsy was based on ≥ 1 medical claim with the diagnosis of narcolepsy (ICD-9 347.xx) from 2002 to 2012. Dates of death were acquired from the Social Security Administration via a third party; the third party information was encrypted in the same manner as the claims data such that anonymity is ensured prior to receipt by SHS. Annual all-cause mortality rates for 2008, 2009, and 2010 were calculated retrospectively for patients with narcolepsy and patients without narcolepsy in the database, and standardized mortality ratios (SMR) were calculated. Mortality rates were also compared with the general US population (Centers for Disease Control data). SMRs of the narcolepsy population were consistent over the 3-year period and showed an approximate 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. The narcolepsy population had consistently higher mortality rates relative to those without narcolepsy across all age groups, stratified by age decile, from 25-34 years to 75+ years of age. The SMR for females with narcolepsy was lower than for males with narcolepsy. Narcolepsy was associated with approximately 1.5-fold excess mortality relative to those without narcolepsy. While the cause of this increased mortality is unknown, these findings warrant further investigation.


    Qing-bo Fan; Ming-ying Gai; Jian-qiu Yang; Fei-fei Xing


    Objective To explore fetal arrhythmia clinical significance and its correlation with fetal prognosis.Methods Twenty-six cases of fetal arrhythmia detected among 12 799 pregnant women recorded over a ten-year period in Peking Uinon Medical College (PUMC) Hospital were reviewed retrospectively. Fetal arrhythmia was diagnosed by fetal auscultation, ultrasonography, electric fetal heart monitoring, and fetal echocardiography.Results Twenty-six fetuses were documented with fetal arrhythmia (3 tachycardia, 4 bradycardia, 19 normal heart rate with irregular fetal cardiac rhythm). The incidence of fetal arrhythmia in our hospital was 0.2%. They were diagnosed at the average of 35 weeks' gestation (15 to 41 weeks). Twenty-two cases were diagnosed by antenatal fetal auscultation, 1 case was diagnosed by ultrasonography, and 3 cases were diagnosed by electric fetal heart monitoring. Fetal echocardiograms were performed on 17 fetuses, 6 cases (35.3%) of which showed that ventricular premature beats with normal structure of fetal heart.All neonates survived postnatally and 24 of them (92.3%) were followed up. Echocardiograms were performed for 16 neonates and 2 of them were identified as atrial septal defects with normal heart rhythms. The results of follow-up showed that the two patients had no apparent clinical manifestation. The echocardiogram showed that atrial septal defect obliterated already.Conclusion The prognosis is well for most of the fetuses with arrhythmias, with low incidence of heart deformation.

  4. [The significance of meat quality in marketing].

    Kallweit, E


    Food quality in general and meat quality in particular are not only evaluated by means of objective quality traits but the entire production process is gaining more attention by the modern consumer. Due to this development quality programs were developed to define the majority of the processes in all production and marketing steps which are again linked by contracts. Not all of these items are quality relevant, but are concessions to ethic principles (animal welfare etc.). This is demonstrated by the example of Scharrel-pork production. The price differentiation at the pork market is still influenced predominantly by quantitative carcass traits. On the European market quality programs still are of minor significance. Premiums which are paid for high quality standards are more or less compensated by higher production costs and lower lean meat percentages, which must be expected in stress susceptible strains. The high efforts to establish quality programs, however, help to improve the quality level in general, and secure the market shares for local producers.

  5. Novalike Cataclysmic Variables are Significant Radio Emitters

    Coppejans, Deanne L; Miller-Jones, James C A; Rupen, Michael P; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Groot, Paul J


    Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. RW Sex, V603 Aql and the old nova TT Ari were detected in both of the epochs, while V1084 Her was not detected (to a $3\\sigma$ upper-limit of 7.8 $\\mu\\rm{Jy}\\,\\rm{beam}^{-1}$). These observations clearly show that the sensitivity of previous surveys was typically too low to detect these objects and that non-magnetic CVs can indeed be significant radio emitters. The three detected sources show a range of properties, including flaring and variability on both short ($\\sim$200 s) and longer-term (days) time-scales, as well as circular polarization level...

  6. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    Mikito; Inokuchi; Sho; Otsuki; Yoshitaka; Fujimori; Yuya; Sato; Masatoshi; Nakagawa; Kazuyuki; Kojima


    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer(GC),although outcomes remain unfavorable.Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed,and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC.Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor,c-MET(MET),play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells.Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC.This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC.Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or smallmolecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells.These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC.

  7. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel


    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology).

  8. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others


    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  9. Object caching in corvids: incidence and significance.

    Jacobs, Ivo F; Osvath, Mathias; Osvath, Helena; Mioduszewska, Berenika; von Bayern, Auguste M P; Kacelnik, Alex


    Food caching is a paramount model for studying relations between cognition, brain organisation and ecology in corvids. In contrast, behaviour towards inedible objects is poorly examined and understood. We review the literature on object caching in corvids and other birds, and describe an exploratory study on object caching in ravens, New Caledonian crows and jackdaws. The captive adult birds were presented with an identical set of novel objects adjacent to food. All three species cached objects, which shows the behaviour not to be restricted to juveniles, food cachers, tool-users or individuals deprived of cacheable food. The pattern of object interaction and caching did not mirror the incidence of food caching: the intensely food caching ravens indeed showed highest object caching incidence, but the rarely food caching jackdaws cached objects to similar extent as the moderate food caching New Caledonian crows. Ravens and jackdaws preferred objects with greater sphericity, but New Caledonian crows preferred stick-like objects (similar to tools). We suggest that the observed object caching might have been expressions of exploration or play, and deserves being studied in its own right because of its potential significance for tool-related behaviour and learning, rather than as an over-spill from food-caching research. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: CO3 2013. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. The measure and significance of Bateman's principles.

    Collet, Julie M; Dean, Rebecca F; Worley, Kirsty; Richardson, David S; Pizzari, Tommaso


    Bateman's principles explain sex roles and sexual dimorphism through sex-specific variance in mating success, reproductive success and their relationships within sexes (Bateman gradients). Empirical tests of these principles, however, have come under intense scrutiny. Here, we experimentally show that in replicate groups of red junglefowl, Gallus gallus, mating and reproductive successes were more variable in males than in females, resulting in a steeper male Bateman gradient, consistent with Bateman's principles. However, we use novel quantitative techniques to reveal that current methods typically overestimate Bateman's principles because they (i) infer mating success indirectly from offspring parentage, and thus miss matings that fail to result in fertilization, and (ii) measure Bateman gradients through the univariate regression of reproductive over mating success, without considering the substantial influence of other components of male reproductive success, namely female fecundity and paternity share. We also find a significant female Bateman gradient but show that this likely emerges as spurious consequences of male preference for fecund females, emphasizing the need for experimental approaches to establish the causal relationship between reproductive and mating success. While providing qualitative support for Bateman's principles, our study demonstrates how current approaches can generate a misleading view of sex differences and roles.

  11. The clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction.

    Biondi, Bernadette; Cooper, David S


    Subclinical thyroid disease (SCTD) is defined as serum free T(4) and free T(3) levels within their respective reference ranges in the presence of abnormal serum TSH levels. SCTD is being diagnosed more frequently in clinical practice in young and middle-aged people as well as in the elderly. However, the clinical significance of subclinical thyroid dysfunction is much debated. Subclinical hyper- and hypothyroidism can have repercussions on the cardiovascular system and bone, as well as on other organs and systems. However, the treatment and management of SCTD and population screening are controversial despite the potential risk of progression to overt disease, and there is no consensus on the thyroid hormone and thyrotropin cutoff values at which treatment should be contemplated. Opinions differ regarding tissue effects, symptoms, signs, and cardiovascular risk. Here, we critically review the data on the prevalence and progression of SCTD, its tissue effects, and its prognostic implications. We also examine the mechanisms underlying tissue alterations in SCTD and the effects of replacement therapy on progression and tissue parameters. Lastly, we address the issue of the need to treat slight thyroid hormone deficiency or excess in relation to the patient's age.

  12. Death, Catastrophe, and the Significance of Tragedy

    Jennifer Ballengee


    Full Text Available This NANO note will examine the tension between representation, memorial, and the catastrophe of death that emerges in the space of tragedy, as the problem arises in two quite different works: Oedipus at Colonus, a fairly typical fifth-century Greek tragedy, and Falling Man, Don DeLillo’s novel that, in its attempt to address the events of 9/11, reflects in form and subject matter many of Aristotle’s terms of tragic representation. It is not the intent of this note to engage with the recent proliferation of work in “performance theory.” Rather than being concerned with an imagined exchange between audience and actor, this study examines how the supplementary relationship of gesture and speech in tragedy disrupts the public/private distinction, and how this articulation effects and enables the public memorialization of death. Thus, this paper will consider the representation of death as an event whose catastrophic, and somewhat mysterious, collision of the public and the private lends it its tragic significance.

  13. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M.A.


    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically. PMID:23961108

  14. Pseudogene redux with new biological significance.

    Salmena, Leonardo


    The study of pseudogenes, originally dismissed as genomic relics of evolutionary selection, has seen a resurgence in scientific literature, in addition to being a peculiar topic of discussion in theological debates. For a long time, pseudogenes have been touted as a beacon of natural selection and a definitive proof of evolution due to the slow mutation rate that differentiated them from their parental genes and ultimately caused their genetic demise as functional genes. It now seems that "creationists" have co-opted some recent reports identifying unheralded biological functions to pseudogens and other noncoding RNAs as evidence to undermine the existence of evolution and supporting intelligent design. This issue of Methods in Molecular Biology focused on pseudogenes will certainly not end, nor enter this debate; however, scientists who are also genomics and pseudogene enthusiasts will certainly appreciate that many scientists are thinking about these particular genetic elements in new and interesting ways. With this new interest in a biological significance and "non-junk" role for pseudogenes and other noncoding RNAs, new methods and approaches are being developed to unlock the mystery of these ancient artifacts we know as pseudogenes. In this brief introductory chapter we highlight the renewed interest in pseudogenes and review a rationale for intensification of pseudogene-related research.

  15. Augustine, his sermons, and their significance

    Johannes Van Oort


    Full Text Available Augustine’s sermons provide a unique source in explaining his influence from the 5th century onwards as a theologian and pastor, a minister of the Word preached and celebrated in the sacrament. Of particular value in this regard are his sermons on the Psalms. Issues of authenticity are also considered in this article. The influence of Augustine’s sermons was widespread through their tradition and adaptation by others. A substantial and reliable corpus of his sermons is available today. As a pastor, Augustine was anxious to challenge heresy in his preaching, especially to confront the Donatists, Manichaeans and Pelagians. His preaching is considered in the wider context of congregational worship with its origins in the synagogue. Of special importance are his preaching techniques, while his doctrine of ‘the inner teacher’ (magister interior is equally significant. Essential elements of Augustine’s theory and practice became influential in the early days of the Protestant Reformation (Luther, Calvin and others. The author briefly touches on the question of their relevance for today’s congregational worship.

  16. Significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences

    Gaur Ajay


    Full Text Available Nanotechnology refers broadly to a field of applied science and technology whose unifying theme is the control of matter on the molecular level in scales smaller than 1 µm, normally 1-100 nm, and the fabrication of devices within that size range. Two main approaches are used in nanotechnology. In the "bottom-up" approach, materials and devices are built from molecular components, which assemble themselves chemically by principles of molecular recognition. In the "top-down" approach, nano-objects are constructed from larger entities without atomic-level control. In addition, as the need for the development of new medicines is pressing, and given the inherent nanoscale functions of the biological components of living cells, nanotechnology has been applied to diverse medical fields such as oncology, cardiovascular medicine, and in treatment of other chronic diseases. Indeed, nanotechnology is being used to refine discovery of biomarkers, molecular diagnostics, and drug discovery and drug delivery, which could be applicable to management of these patients. In this review, we will focus upon significance of nanotechnology in medical sciences, as well as the plausible side effects related to their use.

  17. Taxonomic significance of trichomes micromorphology in cucurbits.

    Ali, Mohammad Ajmal; Al-Hemaid, Fahad M A


    Studies on trichomes micromorphology using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) were undertaken in 23 species with one variety under 13 genera of the family Cucurbitaceae (viz., Benincasa hispida (Thunb.) Cogn., Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai, Cucumis melo var. agrestis Naudin, Cucumis sativus L., Diplocyclos palmatus (L.) C. Jeffrey, Edgaria dargeelingensis C.B. Clarke, Gynostemma burmanicum King ex Chakr., Gynostemma pentaphyllum (Thunb.) Makino, Gynostemma pubescens (Gagnep.) C.Y. Wu, Hemsleya dipterygia Kuang & A.M. Lu, Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl., Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb., Luffa cylindrica M. Roem., Luffa echinata Roxb., Melothria heterophylla (Lour.) Cogn., Melothria leucocarpa (Blume) Cogn., Melothria maderspatana (L.) Cogn., Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw., Thladiantha cordifolia (Blume) Cogn., Trichosanthes cucumerina L., T. cucumerina var. anguina (L.) Haines, Trichosanthes dioica Roxb., Trichosanthes lepiniana (Naudin) Cogn. and T. tricuspidata Lour.). The trichomes in the family Cucurbitaceae vary from unicellular to multicellular, conical to elongated, smooth to ridges, with or without flattened disk at base and cyctolithic appendages, thin to thick walled, curved at apices to blunt. Trichomes micromorphology in the family Cucurbitaceae was found significant taxonomically.

  18. Measurement and significance of sperm morphology

    Roelof Menkveld; Cas AG Holleboom; Johann PT Rhemrev


    The measurement or evaluation and clinical significance of human sperm morphology has always been and still is a controversial aspect of the semen analysis for the determination of a male's fertility potential.In this review the background of the development of the evaluation criteria for sperm morphology will be discussed.Aspects of criticism on the strict criteria definition and use of the criteria for sperm morphology evaluation will be discussed as well as possible reasons for the decline in normal sperm morphology values and how we can compromise for this phenomenon resulting in the very low normal reference value as published in the 2010 WHO manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.One of the possible solutions may be to give more attention to a limited number of abnormal sperm morphology categories and the inclusion of sperm morphology patterns.It is concluded in this review that if done correctly and with care and with strict application of existing guidelines as outlined in the 2010 WHO manual,sperm morphology measurement still has a very important role to play in the clinical evaluation of male fertility potential.

  19. Identification of sequence motifs significantly associated with antisense activity

    Peek Andrew S


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Predicting the suppression activity of antisense oligonucleotide sequences is the main goal of the rational design of nucleic acids. To create an effective predictive model, it is important to know what properties of an oligonucleotide sequence associate significantly with antisense activity. Also, for the model to be efficient we must know what properties do not associate significantly and can be omitted from the model. This paper will discuss the results of a randomization procedure to find motifs that associate significantly with either high or low antisense suppression activity, analysis of their properties, as well as the results of support vector machine modelling using these significant motifs as features. Results We discovered 155 motifs that associate significantly with high antisense suppression activity and 202 motifs that associate significantly with low suppression activity. The motifs range in length from 2 to 5 bases, contain several motifs that have been previously discovered as associating highly with antisense activity, and have thermodynamic properties consistent with previous work associating thermodynamic properties of sequences with their antisense activity. Statistical analysis revealed no correlation between a motif's position within an antisense sequence and that sequences antisense activity. Also, many significant motifs existed as subwords of other significant motifs. Support vector regression experiments indicated that the feature set of significant motifs increased correlation compared to all possible motifs as well as several subsets of the significant motifs. Conclusion The thermodynamic properties of the significantly associated motifs support existing data correlating the thermodynamic properties of the antisense oligonucleotide with antisense efficiency, reinforcing our hypothesis that antisense suppression is strongly associated with probe/target thermodynamics, as there are no enzymatic

  20. [Significance and limitations of first generation biofuels].

    Gabrielle, Benoît


    Formerly on the margins of the European agricultural landscape, liquid biofuels for transport have recently come into sharp focus with the help of three drivers: the depletion of oil resources and the political motto of energy independence, international negotiations on climate, and finally - in Europe at least - the overhaul of the common agricultural policy underpinning the need to diversify this sector. This political purpose has led to aggressive development targets in both Europe and the United States, implying a nearly ten-fold increase of biofuel production within ten years. This article introduces the current biofuel production technologies (so-called ;first generation'), whose common marker is the reliance on the storage organs of agricultural plants. This implies a relatively strong demand in arable areas, along with only moderately positive energy and environmental advantages compared to fossil fuels. 'Second generation' biofuels, which are based on generic biomass (ligno-cellulose) are expected to overcome these limitations, but will not be deployed on the market for another ten years.

  1. Acetylation of woody lignocellulose: significance and regulation

    Prashant Mohan-Anupama Pawar


    Full Text Available Non-cellulosic cell wall polysaccharides constitute approximately one quarter of usable biomass for human exploitation. In contrast to cellulose, these components are usually substituted by O-acetyl groups, which affect their properties and interactions with other polymers, thus affecting their solubility and extractability. However, details of these interactions are still largely obscure. Moreover, polysaccharide hydrolysis to constituent monosaccharides, is hampered by the presence of O-acetyl groups, necessitating either enzymatic (esterase or chemical de-acetylation, increasing the costs and chemical consumption. Reduction of polysaccharide acetyl content in planta is a way to modify lignocellulose towards improved saccharification. In this review we: 1 summarize literature on lignocellulose acetylation in different tree species, 2 present data and current hypotheses concerning the role of O-acetylation in determining woody lignocellulose properties, 3 describe plant proteins involved in lignocellulose O-acetylation, 4 give examples of microbial enzymes capable to de-acetylate lignocellulose, and 5 discuss prospects for exploiting these enzymes in planta to modify xylan acetylation.

  2. Monkeypox virus: ecology and public health significance.

    Khodakevich, L; Jezek, Z; Messinger, D


    Recent investigations have revealed that monkeypox virus infections occur with a high prevalence in several species of squirrels belonging to the genus Funisciurus, less frequently in squirrels of the genus Heliosciurus, and rarely in forest-dwelling primates. These squirrels commonly inhabit the secondary forests around human settlements in the rural areas of Zaire, especially where oil palms are grown, and are rare in the primary rain forest.Human infection with monkeypox virus occurs most frequently in the 5-9-year-old age group, particularly in small villages where the children hunt and eat squirrels and other small mammals. As the populations are now increasing in number and can no longer feed on wild life alone for their animal protein requirements, the development of animal husbandry as a source of meat will certainly decrease the risk and the incidence of human monkeypox, even in areas where monkeypox virus is present in the local population of squirrels.Although population growth and economic development in western and central Africa will probably reduce the risk of human infection with monkeypox virus, visitors to these areas who are likely to come into contact with wild animals should be offered smallpox vaccination as a protection.

  3. Biostratigraphical significance of the Devonian Sinoleperditiini (Ostracoda)

    WANG Shangqi; PENG Jinlan


    The Tribe Sinoleperditiini (Ostracoda), which is mainly distributed in South China and its adjacent areas, is a single natural group of the Leperditiidae, characterized by the development of a trailing chevron muscle scar. This tribe is known only from the Devonian and ranges through most of the Devonian. The evolutionary trends within the Sinoleperditiini have been well documented and are exemplified by changes in the trailing chevron muscle scar. The main evolutionary change is a tendency of the trailing chevron muscle scar to extend ventrally through time, as demonstrated by the increasing ratio (th/ah) of the vertical height of the trailing chevron muscle scar (th) to that of the adductor muscle scar (ah). The recent discovery of a sinoleperditiine assemblage (th/ah values available) in the middle-upper Lower Emsian Shanglun Formation allows to propose a sinoleperditiine biostratigraphical sequence for the Devonian. This sequence contains 11 assemblages (th/ah value available for each assemblage), which cover all the 7 Devonian stages and some substages. This sequence is particularly useful for correlating and dating Devonian rocks in the littoral clastic, lagoonal and restricted or semirestricted carbonate platform facies where these ostracodes are most abundant and other fossils are uncommon.

  4. Interactions of trace elements: clinical significance.

    Brewer, G J; Hill, G M; Dick, R D; Prasad, A S; Cossack, Z T


    We examined interaction of the trace element zinc with copper and lead. In sickle cell anemia, the usual situation is one of mild to moderate zinc deficiency owing to renal loss of zinc. Zinc deficiency seems to produce a mild overburden of copper and an increased ceruloplasmin level, probably by enhancing copper absorption. With zinc therapy, this process is reversed. Pharmacological doses of zinc, when administered in a way to ensure effectiveness (without food) will usually lead to copper deficiency. We have taken advantage of the copper-depleting effect of zinc to design a new therapy for Wilson's disease. Zinc, by inducing intestinal metallothionein, inhibits absorption of copper from food, and inhibits reabsorption of endogenously secreted copper, thereby producing a negative copper balance in Wilson's disease. Once we are certain that zinc blocks accumulation of copper in the liver of Wilson's disease patients, zinc therapy will be available as one approach for treating this fatal disease. The animal literature indicates that zinc protects against lead toxicity when both elements are given orally, no doubt through the intestinal metallothionein mechanism. In preliminary experiments in rats, we have not been able to show that toxicity from lead that arrives into the body through a nonoral route is affected by oral zinc supplements.

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid stasis and its clinical significance.

    Whedon, James M; Glassey, Donald


    We hypothesize that stasis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs commonly and is detrimental to health. Physiologic factors affecting the normal circulation of CSF include cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor influences. The CSF maintains the electrolytic environment of the central nervous system (CNS), influences systemic acid-base balance, serves as a medium for the supply of nutrients to neuronal and glial cells, functions as a lymphatic system for the CNS by removing the waste products of cellular metabolism, and transports hormones, neurotransmitters, releasing factors, and other neuropeptides throughout the CNS. Physiologic impedance or cessation of CSF flow may occur commonly in the absence of degenerative changes or pathology and may compromise the normal physiologic functions of the CSF. CSF appears to be particularly prone to stasis within the spinal canal. CSF stasis may be associated with adverse mechanical cord tension, vertebral subluxation syndrome, reduced cranial rhythmic impulse, and restricted respiratory function. Increased sympathetic tone, facilitated spinal segments, dural tension, and decreased CSF flow have been described as closely related aspects of an overall pattern of structural and energetic dysfunction in the axial skeleton and CNS. Therapies directed at affecting CSF flow include osteopathic care (especially cranial manipulation), craniosacral therapy, chiropractic adjustment of the spine and cranium, Network Care (formerly Network Chiropractic), massage therapy (including lymphatic drainage techniques), yoga, therapeutic breath-work, and cerebrospinal fluid technique. Further investigation into the nature and causation of CSF stasis, its potential effects upon human health, and effective therapies for its correction is warranted.

  6. Are studies reporting significant results more likely to be published?

    Koletsi, Despina; Karagianni, Anthi; Pandis, Nikolaos; Makou, Margarita; Polychronopoulou, Argy; Eliades, Theodore


    Our objective was to assess the hypothesis that there are variations of the proportion of articles reporting a significant effect, with a higher percentage of those articles published in journals with impact factors. The contents of 5 orthodontic journals (American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics, Angle Orthodontist, European Journal of Orthodontics, Journal of Orthodontics, and Orthodontics and Craniofacial Research), published between 2004 and 2008, were hand-searched. Articles with statistical analysis of data were included in the study and classified into 4 categories: behavior and psychology, biomaterials and biomechanics, diagnostic procedures and treatment, and craniofacial growth, morphology, and genetics. In total, 2622 articles were examined, with 1785 included in the analysis. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were applied with statistical significance as the dependent variable, and whether the journal had an impact factor, the subject, and the year were the independent predictors. A higher percentage of articles showed significant results relative to those without significant associations (on average, 88% vs 12%) for those journals. Overall, these journals published significantly more studies with significant results, ranging from 75% to 90% (P = 0.02). Multivariate modeling showed that journals with impact factors had a 100% increased probability of publishing a statistically significant result compared with journals with no impact factor (odds ratio [OR], 1.99; 95% CI, 1.19-3.31). Compared with articles on biomaterials and biomechanics, all other subject categories showed lower probabilities of significant results. Nonsignificant findings in behavior and psychology and diagnosis and treatment were 1.8 (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.51-2.67) and 3.5 (OR, 3.50; 95% CI, 2.27-5.37) times more likely to be published, respectively. Journals seem to prefer reporting significant results; this might be because of authors

  7. Coliforms in processed mango: significance and control.

    O'Connor-Shaw, R E; Guthrie, J A; Dunlop, K J; Roberts


    The aims of this investigation were to enumerate coliforms in fresh mangoes, puree, cheeks, and cheeks-in-puree in order to determine the source of these organisms in the processed products, to determine methods for their control, and to identify coliforms isolated from cheeks-in-puree to determine whether they have any public health significance. Product from four processors was tested on two occasions. The retail packs of cheeks-in-puree having the highest coliform counts were those in which raw puree was added to the cheeks. Coliform counts in these samples ranged between 1.4 x 10(3) and 5.4 x 10(4) cfu/g. Pasteurisation reduced the coliform count of raw puree to Klebsiella pneumoniae using the ATB 32E Identification System. Klebsiella strains were tested for growth at 10 degrees C, faecal coliform response, and fermentation of D-melizitose, to differentiate the three phenotypically similar strains, K. pneumoniae, K. terrigena and K planticola. Results indicated that 41% of K. pneumoniae isolates gave reactions typical of K. pneumoniae. A further 44% of strains gave an atypical reaction pattern for these tests and were designed 'psychrotrophic' K. pneumoniae. Klebsiella pneumoniae counts of between 2.1 x 10(3) and 4.9 x 10(4) cfu/g were predicted to occur in the retail packs of mango cheeks-in-puree produced by the processors who constituted this product with raw puree. In view of the opportunistic pathogenic nature of K. pneumoniae, its presence in these products is considered undesirable and steps, such as pasteurisation of puree, should be taken in order to inactivate it.

  8. Practical significance of weld strength matching

    Sloterdijk, W. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands); Schipaanboord, W.N. [N.V. Nederlandse Gasunie, Groningen (Netherlands)


    Defect tolerance in welds in pipelines constructed in modern high strength material depends on the balance in strength between weld material and pipe material. The Guidelines on the assessment of girth weld defects published by the European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) define in Tier 2 defect limits assuming that the (actual) weld metal yield strength is equal or greater than the yield strength of the parent material. The defect limits according to Tier 2 exceed the defect limits in `workmanship standards` (l>25 mm). Nevertheless, the draft European welding standard EN 288 does not yet require a test to measure and verify the weld metal yield strength. Gasunie has performed a test program with the aim to look at the practical significance of weld strength matching in a strain controlled situation and to verify the relevance of limits given in the European welding and line pipe codes, in combination with the EPRG Guidelines. It is concluded that the results of the tests confirm the defect acceptance limits according to Tier 2 of the EPRG Guidelines. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Zulaessigkeit von Fehlern in Rundschweissnaehten in Rohrleitungen aus modernen hochfesten Baustaehlen haengt von dem Verhaeltnis der Werkstofffestigkeit des Schweissgutes zu der des Grundwerkstoffs ab. Die von der European Pipeline Research Group (EPRG) veroeffentlichte Richtlinie zur Bewertung von Schweissnahtfehlern gibt in der zweiten Bewertungsstufe (Tier 2) Werte fuer zulaessige Schweissnahtfehlergroessen unter der Bedingung an, dass die Dehngrenze des Schweissgutes groesser oder gleich der Dehngrenze des Grundwerkstoffs ist. Die nach Tier 2 zulaessigen Fehler sind groesser als die in `Good-workmanship`-Regelwerken angegebenen Fehlerlaenge (l>25 mm). Demgegenueber fehlt im Entwurf der europaeischen Schweissnorm EN 288 bislang ein solcher Dehngrenzennachweis. Gasunie hat ein Versuchsprogramm durchgefuehrt, um die Bedeutung der Schweissgutfestigkeit bei dehnungskontrollierter Belastung sowie

  9. Increased expression of heat shock protein 105 in rat uterus of early pregnancy and its significance in embryo implantation

    Hu Zhao-Yuan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Heat shock proteins (Hsps are a set of highly conserved proteins, Hsp105, has been suggested to play a role in reproduction. Methods Spatio-temporal expression of Hsp105 in rat uterus during peri-implantation period was examined by immunohistochemistry and Western blot, pseudopregnant uterus was used as control. Injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into pregnant rat uteri was carried out to look at effect of Hsp105 on embryo implantation. Results Expression of Hsp105 was mainly in the luminal epithelium on day 1 of pregnancy, and reached a peak level on day 5, whereas in stroma cells, adjacent to the implanting embryo, the strongest expression of Hsp105 was observed on day 6. The immunostaining profile in the uterus was consistent with that obtained by Western blot in the early pregnancy. In contrast, no obvious peak level of Hsp105 was observed in the uterus of pseudopregnant rat on day 5 or day 6. Furthermore, injection of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides to Hsp105 into the rat uterine horn on day 3 of pregnancy obviously suppressed the protein expression as expected and reduced number of the implanted embryos as compared with the control. Conclusion Temporal and spatial changes in Hsp105 expression in pregnant rat uterus may play a physiological role in regulating embryo implantation.

  10. A Significant Increase of RNAi Efficiency in Human Cells by the CMV Enhancer with a tRNAlys Promoter

    Ma Weiwei


    Full Text Available RNA interference (RNAi is the process of mRNA degradation induced by double-stranded RNA in a sequence-specific manner. Different types of promoters, such as U6, H1, tRNA, and CMV, have been used to control the inhibitory effect of RNAi expression vectors. In the present study, we constructed two shRNA expression vectors, respectively, controlled by tRNAlys and CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoters. Compared to the vectors with tRNAlys or U6 promoter, the vector with a CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter silenced pokemon more efficiently on both the mRNA and the protein levels. Meanwhile, the silencing of pokemon inhibited the proliferation of MCF7 cells, but the induction of apoptosis of MCF7 cells was not observed. We conclude that the CMV enhancer-tRNAlys promoter may be a powerful tool in driving intracellular expression of shRNA which can efficiently silence targeted gene.

  11. Regulated Expression of an Isopentenyltransferase Gene (IPT) in Peanut Significantly Improves Drought Tolerance and Increases Yield Under Field Conditions.

    Isopentenyltransferase (IPT) is a critical enzyme in the cytokinin biosynthetic pathway. The expression of IPT under the control of a maturation- and stress-induced promoter was shown to delay stress-induced plant senescence that resulted in an enhanced drought tolerance in both monocot and dicot p...

  12. Echinococcus granulosus: pre-culture of protoscoleces in vitro significantly increases development and viability of secondary hydatid cysts in mice.

    Zhang, Wen-Bao; Jones, Malcolm K; Li, Jun; McManus, Donald P


    We describe a method for obtaining improved secondary infections of Echinococcus granulosus that involves culturing protoscolex larvae in vitro prior to inoculation into mice. This approach provides a far superior method for obtaining secondary echinococcosis infections in mice compared with the traditional method of direct inoculation of protoscoleces (PSC) where the majority of parasites are killed by the host. We obtained a high rate of recovery both in terms of secondary cyst numbers and their viability. After 50 weeks post-infection (p.i.), brood capsules were formed and the first PSC developed in each of the capsules. After 56 weeks p.i., the fastest developing brood capsule contained four PSC. The approach will prove valuable for investigating parasite development and the host-parasite interaction in secondary echinococcosis.

  13. Italian Credit Mobility Students Significantly Increase Their Alcohol Intake, Risky Drinking and Related Consequences During the Study Abroad Experience.

    Aresi, Giovanni; Moore, Simon; Marta, Elena


    To examine changes in alcohol intake and consequences in Italian students studying abroad. Italian exchange students planning to study abroad were invited to report on their drinking and alcohol-related negative consequences before and after their time abroad. After excluding those who abstained throughout, data on 121 students were analysed and showed that they tended to consume more alcohol and experience more alcohol-related negative consequences compared to their pre-departure levels. The added alcohol risk of study abroad for Italian students merits consideration of possible opportunities for intervention. © The Author 2016. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  14. DOD Operational Testing: Oversight Has Resulted in Few Significant Disputes and Limited Program Cost and Schedule Increases


    14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT Same as Report (SAR) 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 38 19a...DOT&E Director, Operational Test and Evaluation FOT&E Follow-on operational test and evaluation FSST Full ship shock trial IOT &E, doctrine, tactics, survivability or operational security , vulnerability, and threat. Operational suitability defines the Background

  15. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.;


    The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can b...

  16. The impact of a grain of sand: increasing production speed in flexible risers generates significant savings in gas production

    Bokhorst, E. van; Blokland, H.


    Deep-sea oil and gas production normally involves the use of flexible risers that comprise a metal carcass with a large number of enveloping layers that safeguard the integrity of the pipe system. The flexible risers are hung from a floating platform and may be supported by several floating buoys to

  17. Does a single cup of caffeinated drink significantly increase blood pressure in young adults?: A randomised controlled trial

    Teng, Cheong Lieng; Lim, Wee Yang; Chua, Chen Zhi; Teo, Richard Soon Kiat; Lin, Kenny Tze Hoe; Yeoh, Jie Cong


    Background: Previous studies have shown that the blood pressure elevating effect of acute caffeine consumption was variable because of the heterogeneity of study participants, dosage of caffeine and study designs. Objective...

  18. Drying increases intracellular partitioning of amphiphilic substances into the lipid phase. Impact On membrane permeability and significance for desiccation tolerance

    Golovina; Hoekstra; Hemminga


    Previously we proposed that endogenous amphiphilic substances may partition from the aqueous cytoplasm into the lipid phase during dehydration of desiccation-tolerant organ(ism)s and vice versa during rehydration. Their perturbing presence in membranes could thus explain the transient leakage from imbibing organisms. To study the mechanism of this phenomenon, amphiphilic nitroxide spin probes were introduced into the pollen of a model organism, Typha latifolia, and their partitioning behavior during dehydration and rehydration was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In hydrated pollen the spin probes mainly occurred in the aqueous phase; during dehydration, however, the amphiphilic spin probes partitioned into the lipid phase and had disappeared from the aqueous phase below 0.4 g water g-1 dry weight. During rehydration the probes reappeared in the aqueous phase above 0.4 g water g-1 dry weight. The partitioning back into the cytoplasm coincided with the decrease of the initially high plasma membrane permeability. A charged polar spin probe was trapped in the cytoplasm during drying. Liposome experiments showed that partitioning of an amphiphilic spin probe into the bilayer during dehydration caused transient leakage during rehydration. This was also observed with endogenous amphipaths that were extracted from pollen, implying similar partitioning behavior. In view of the fluidizing effect on membranes and the antioxidant properties of many endogenous amphipaths, we suggest that partitioning with drying may be pivotal to desiccation tolerance, despite the risk of imbibitional leakage.

  19. Determination of relative CMRO2 from CBF and BOLD changes: significant increase of oxygen consumption rate during visual stimulation

    Kim, S.G.; Rostrup, Egill; Larsson, H.B.


    be estimated during neural activity using a reference condition obtained with known CMRO2 change. In this work, nine subjects were studied at a magnetic field of 1.5 T; each subject underwent inhalation of a 5% carbon dioxide gas mixture as a reference and two visual stimulation studies. Relative CBF and BOLD......The blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) effect in functional magnetic resonance imaging depends on at least partial uncoupling between cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) changes. By measuring CBF and BOLD simultaneously, the relative change in CMRO2 can...

  20. Two Minute Training in Class Significantly Increases the Use of Professional Formatting in Student to Faculty Email Correspondence

    Aguilar-Roca, Nancy; Williams, Adrienne; Warrior, Rahul; O'Dowd, Diane K.


    Many university faculty value email as an important tool for communicating with colleagues, but express frustration with a high incidence of unprofessional email correspondence from students. The goals of this study were to document the frequency of specific formatting mistakes that contribute to faculty's unfavorable perception of student emails…