WorldWideScience

Sample records for halophytic origin expression

  1. The interactive effects of mercury and selenium on metabolic profiles, gene expression and antioxidant enzymes in halophyte Suaeda salsa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoli; Lai, Yongkai; Sun, Hushan; Wang, Yiyan; Zou, Ning

    2016-04-01

    Suaeda salsa is the pioneer halophyte in the Yellow River Delta and was consumed as a popular vegetable. Mercury has become a highly risky contaminant in the sediment of intertidal zones of the Yellow River Delta. In this work, we investigated the interactive effects of mercury and selenium in S. salsa on the basis of metabolic profiling, antioxidant enzyme activities and gene expression quantification. Our results showed that mercury exposure (20 μg L(-1)) inhibited plant growth of S. salsa and induced significant metabolic responses and altered expression levels of INPS, CMO, and MDH in S. salsa samples, together with the increased activities of antioxidant enzymes including SOD and POD. Overall, these results indicated osmotic and oxidative stresses, disturbed protein degradation and energy metabolism change in S. salsa after mercury exposures. Additionally, the addition of selenium could induce both antagonistic and synergistic effects including alleviating protein degradation and aggravating osmotic stress caused by mercury. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Generation and Analysis of Expressed Sequence Tags (ESTs from Halophyte Atriplex canescens to Explore Salt-Responsive Related Genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingtao Li

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Little information is available on gene expression profiling of halophyte A. canescens. To elucidate the molecular mechanism for stress tolerance in A. canescens, a full-length complementary DNA library was generated from A. canescens exposed to 400 mM NaCl, and provided 343 high-quality ESTs. In an evaluation of 343 valid EST sequences in the cDNA library, 197 unigenes were assembled, among which 190 unigenes (83.1% ESTs were identified according to their significant similarities with proteins of known functions. All the 343 EST sequences have been deposited in the dbEST GenBank under accession numbers JZ535802 to JZ536144. According to Arabidopsis MIPS functional category and GO classifications, we identified 193 unigenes of the 311 annotations EST, representing 72 non-redundant unigenes sharing similarities with genes related to the defense response. The sets of ESTs obtained provide a rich genetic resource and 17 up-regulated genes related to salt stress resistance were identified by qRT-PCR. Six of these genes may contribute crucially to earlier and later stage salt stress resistance. Additionally, among the 343 unigenes sequences, 22 simple sequence repeats (SSRs were also identified contributing to the study of A. canescens resources.

  3. Enhanced salt stress tolerance of rice plants expressing a vacuolar H+-ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) gene from the halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora Löisel

    Science.gov (United States)

    The physiological role of a vacuolar ATPase subunit c1 (SaVHAc1) from a halophyte grass Spartina alterniflora was studied through its expression in rice. The SaVHAc1– expressing plants showed enhanced tolerance to salt stress than the wild-type plants, mainly through adjustments in early stage and p...

  4. HALOPHYTIC VEGETATION OF IRAN: TOWARDS A SYNTAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AKHANI

    2004-05-01

    shrub communities along sandy coasts of Persian Gulf and Oman sea Sphaerocomion Bucheri and communities of Zygophyllum qatarense and Heliotropium bacciferum and (12: Unclassified halophytic communities: Herbaceous perennial and hemicryptophyte ha10phytic communities of secondary origin.

  5. HALOPHYTIC VEGETATION OF IRAN: TOWARDS A SYNTAXONOMICAL CLASSIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. AKHANI

    2004-01-01

    shrub communities along sandy coasts of Persian Gulf and Oman sea Sphaerocomion Bucheri and communities of Zygophyllum qatarense and Heliotropium bacciferum and (12: Unclassified halophytic communities: Herbaceous perennial and hemicryptophyte ha10phytic communities of secondary origin.

  6. Genome structures and halophyte-specific gene expression of the extremophile thellungiella parvula in comparison with Thellungiella salsuginea (Thellungiella halophila) and arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Dongha

    2010-09-10

    The genome of Thellungiella parvula, a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), is being assembled using Roche-454 sequencing. Analyses of a 10-Mb scaffold revealed synteny with Arabidopsis, with recombination and inversion and an uneven distribution of repeat sequences. T. parvula genome structure and DNA sequences were compared with orthologous regions from Arabidopsis and publicly available bacterial artificial chromosome sequences from Thellungiella salsuginea (previously Thellungiella halophila). The three-way comparison of sequences, from one abiotic stress-sensitive species and two tolerant species, revealed extensive sequence conservation and microcolinearity, but grouping Thellungiella species separately from Arabidopsis. However, the T. parvula segments are distinguished from their T. salsuginea counterparts by a pronounced paucity of repeat sequences, resulting in a 30% shorter DNA segment with essentially the same gene content in T. parvula. Among the genes is SALT OVERLY SENSITIVE1 (SOS1), a sodium/proton antiporter, which represents an essential component of plant salinity stress tolerance. Although the SOS1 coding region is highly conserved among all three species, the promoter regions show conservation only between the two Thellungiella species. Comparative transcript analyses revealed higher levels of basal as well as salt-induced SOS1 expression in both Thellungiella species as compared with Arabidopsis. The Thellungiella species and other halophytes share conserved pyrimidine-rich 5\\' untranslated region proximal regions of SOS1 that are missing in Arabidopsis. Completion of the genome structure of T. parvula is expected to highlight distinctive genetic elements underlying the extremophile lifestyle of this species. © American Society of Plant Biologists.

  7. Identification of salt-induced genes from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte through expressed sequence tags analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bhavanath; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Reddy, Palakolanu Sudhakar; Lal, Sanjay; Sopory, Sudhir K; Reddy, Malireddy K

    2009-04-01

    Salinity severely affects plant growth and development causing crop loss worldwide. We have isolated a large number of salt-induced genes as well as unknown and hypothetical genes from Salicornia brachiata Roxb. (Amaranthaceae). This is the first description of identification of genes in response to salinity stress in this extreme halophyte plant. Salicornia accumulates salt in its pith and survives even at 2 M NaCl under field conditions. For isolating salt responsive genes, cDNA subtractive hybridization was performed between control and 500 mM NaCl treated plants. Out of the 1200 recombinant clones, 930 sequences were submitted to the NCBI database (GenBank accession: EB484528 to EB485289 and EC906125 to EC906292). 789 ESTs showed matching with different genes in NCBI database. 4.8% ESTs belonged to stress-tolerant gene category and approximately 29% ESTs showed no homology with known functional gene sequences, thus classified as unknown or hypothetical. The detection of a large number of ESTs with unknown putative function in this species makes it an interesting contribution. The 90 unknown and hypothetical genes were selected to study their differential regulation by reverse Northern analysis for identifying their role in salinity tolerance. Interestingly, both up and down regulation at 500 mM NaCl were observed (21 and 10 genes, respectively). Northern analysis of two important salt tolerant genes, ASR1 (Abscisic acid stress ripening gene) and plasma membrane H+ATPase, showed the basal level of transcripts in control condition and an increase with NaCl treatment. ASR1 gene is made full length using 5' RACE and its potential role in imparting salt tolerance is being studied.

  8. A Heavy Metal-Associated Protein (AcHMA1 from the Halophyte, Atriplex canescens (Pursh Nutt., Confers Tolerance to Iron and Other Abiotic Stresses When Expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin-Hua Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Many heavy metals are essential for metabolic processes, but are toxic at elevated levels. Metal tolerance proteins provide resistance to this toxicity. In this study, we identified and characterized a heavy metal-associated protein, AcHMA1, from the halophyte, Atriplex canescens. Sequence analysis has revealed that AcHMA1 contains two heavy metal binding domains. Treatments with metals (Fe, Cu, Ni, Cd or Pb, PEG6000 and NaHCO3 highly induced AcHMA1 expression in A. canescens, whereas NaCl and low temperature decreased its expression. The role of AcHMA1 in metal stress tolerance was examined using a yeast expression system. Expression of the AcHMA1 gene significantly increased the ability of yeast cells to adapt to and recover from exposure to excess iron. AcHMA1 expression also provided salt, alkaline, osmotic and oxidant stress tolerance in yeast cells. Finally, subcellular localization of an AcHMA1/GFP fusion protein expressed in tobacco cells showed that AcHMA1 was localized in the plasma membrane. Thus, our results suggest that AcHMA1 encodes a membrane-localized metal tolerance protein that mediates the detoxification of iron in eukaryotes. Furthermore, AcHMA1 also participates in the response to abiotic stress.

  9. Growing halophytes floating at sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Radulovich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater shortages are increasingly limiting both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. To expand possibilities for controlled plant production without using land nor freshwater, we cultivated potted halophytes floating at sea that were provided with rain- and seawater. Plantlets of two mangroves (Avicennia germinans and Rhizophora mangle and plants of two herbaceous species, sea purslane (Sesuvium portulacastrum and salt couch grass (Sporobolus virginicus were grown in near-coastal tropical Pacific waters of Costa Rica for 733 days. There were a total of 504 rainless days, including two dry periods of ca. 150 d long each, evidencing prolonged and exclusive reliance on seawater. Pots with a sandy soil mixture and the transplanted plants were placed on low-cost wooden floating rafts with their lower end perforated and immersed for capillary rise of water. Free seawater entry and exit through the bottom from bobbing with waves, which also occasionally added water from the top, effectively controlled soil salinity build-up even during the rainless seasons. Continuous leaching made necessary frequent fertilizer addition. No water deficit symptoms were observed and midday canopy temperature during rainless periods was not significantly different between species or from air temperature. With all-year-round growth, height increase of mangrove plantlets ranged from 208.1 to 401.5 mm yr−1. Fresh biomass production of sea purslane and the grass was 10.9 and 3.0 kg m−2 yr−1 respectively. High yield, edibility and protein content of 10.2% dry weight established sea purslane as a potential crop. While further research is needed, the method evidenced to be a viable plant production option of potentially far-reaching applications.

  10. ADAPTIVE STRATEGIES OF THE HALOPHYTE POPULATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Z. Glukhov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Studies of the adaptive strategies of halophytes at different levels of their organization are important not only for assessment of their health condition and prognosticating their future behaviors, but also for testing potential suitability of technogenic edaphotopes for plant growth without making additional analyses. We investigated the population structure and morphological variation of three halophilic Gypsophyla L. species which actively spread in different technogenic ecotopes of Ukraine by methods generally accepted in ecology and phytocenology. By the type of strategy populations of species of the genus Gypsophila in technogenic edaphotopes can change the primary type of strategy for the secondary, or gain the stress-tolerant type, mainly due to the changes of parameters of seed productivity. The studied populations are stable with predominance of individuals which reached the prereproductive and reproductive stages of their development. At the organism level the species differ by phenotypic plasticity revealing in compensatory development of vegetative and generative organs. This reflects not only in absolute values of parameters of features, but also when calculating the coefficients of divergence, variation, as well as the vitality classes in populations.By the adaptive strategy halophytes are candidates for use in local phytoremediation of disturbed lands.

  11. Accumulation of cadmium by halophytic and non-halophytic Juncus species

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaněk, Tomáš; Moťková, Kateřina; Podlipná, Radka

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2016), s. 415-423 ISSN 2197-0025 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10028; GA MPO FR-TI3/778 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : plant-responses * salt-tolerance * heavy-metals * salinity tolerance * abiotic stress * rice seedlings * amino-acids * proline * phytoremediation * detoxification * Halophyte * Cadmium accumulation * Proline * Juncus gerardii * Juncus inflexus Subject RIV: DJ - Water Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 1.045, year: 2016

  12. Coping With Metal Toxicity – Cues From Halophytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganesh C. Nikalje

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Being the native flora of saline soil, halophytes are well studied for their salt tolerance and adaptation mechanism at the physiological, biochemical, molecular and metabolomic levels. However, these saline habitats are getting contaminated due to various anthropogenic activities like urban waste, agricultural runoff, mining, industrial waste that are rich in toxic metals and metalloids. These toxic metals impose detrimental effects on growth and development of most plant species. Halophytes by virtue of their tolerance to salinity also show high tolerance to heavy metals which is attributed to the enhanced root to shoot metal translocation and bioavailability. Halophytes rapidly uptake toxic ions from the root and transport them toward aerial parts by using different transporters which are involved in metal tolerance and homeostasis. A number of defense related physiological and biochemical strategies are known to be crucial for metal detoxification in halophytes however; there is paucity of information on the molecular regulators. Understanding of the phenomenon of cross-tolerance of salinity with other abiotic stresses in halophytes could very well boost their potential use in phytoremediation. In this article, we present an overview of heavy metal tolerance in case of halophytes, associated mechanisms and cross-tolerance of salinity with other abiotic stresses.

  13. Comparative transcriptome analysis of the Asteraceae halophyte Karelinia caspica under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Liao, Maoseng; Chang, Dan; Zhang, Fuchun

    2014-12-17

    Much attention has been given to the potential of halophytes as sources of tolerance traits for introduction into cereals. However, a great deal remains unknown about the diverse mechanisms employed by halophytes to cope with salinity. To characterize salt tolerance mechanisms underlying Karelinia caspica, an Asteraceae halophyte, we performed Large-scale transcriptomic analysis using a high-throughput Illumina sequencing platform. Comparative gene expression analysis was performed to correlate the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation at the molecular level. Total sequence reads generated by pyrosequencing were assembled into 287,185 non-redundant transcripts with an average length of 652 bp. Using the BLAST function in the Swiss-Prot, NCBI nr, GO, KEGG, and KOG databases, a total of 216,416 coding sequences associated with known proteins were annotated. Among these, 35,533 unigenes were classified into 69 gene ontology categories, and 18,378 unigenes were classified into 202 known pathways. Based on the fold changes observed when comparing the salt stress and control samples, 60,127 unigenes were differentially expressed, with 38,122 and 22,005 up- and down-regulated, respectively. Several of the differentially expressed genes are known to be involved in the signaling pathway of the plant hormone ABA, including ABA metabolism, transport, and sensing as well as the ABA signaling cascade. Transcriptome profiling of K. caspica contribute to a comprehensive understanding of K. caspica at the molecular level. Moreover, the global survey of differentially expressed genes in this species under salt stress and analyses of the effects of salt stress and ABA regulation will contribute to the identification and characterization of genes and molecular mechanisms underlying salt stress responses in Asteraceae plants.

  14. Potential Use of Halophytes to Remediate Saline Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirza Hasanuzzaman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinity is one of the rising problems causing tremendous yield losses in many regions of the world especially in arid and semiarid regions. To maximize crop productivity, these areas should be brought under utilization where there are options for removing salinity or using the salt-tolerant crops. Use of salt-tolerant crops does not remove the salt and hence halophytes that have capacity to accumulate and exclude the salt can be an effective way. Methods for salt removal include agronomic practices or phytoremediation. The first is cost- and labor-intensive and needs some developmental strategies for implication; on the contrary, the phytoremediation by halophyte is more suitable as it can be executed very easily without those problems. Several halophyte species including grasses, shrubs, and trees can remove the salt from different kinds of salt-affected problematic soils through salt excluding, excreting, or accumulating by their morphological, anatomical, physiological adaptation in their organelle level and cellular level. Exploiting halophytes for reducing salinity can be good sources for meeting the basic needs of people in salt-affected areas as well. This review focuses on the special adaptive features of halophytic plants under saline condition and the possible ways to utilize these plants to remediate salinity.

  15. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Avinash; Tanna, Bhakti

    2017-01-01

    Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile , and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters ( NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase ), ion channels (Cl - , Ca 2+ , aquaporins), antioxidant encoding genes ( APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD ) and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes). It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  16. Halophytes: Potential Resources for Salt Stress Tolerance Genes and Promoters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Mishra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes have demonstrated their capability to thrive under extremely saline conditions and thus considered as one of the best germplasm for saline agriculture. Salinity is a worldwide problem, and the salt-affected areas are increasing day-by-day because of scanty rainfall, poor irrigation system, salt ingression, water contamination, and other environmental factors. The salinity stress tolerance mechanism is a very complex phenomenon, and some pathways are coordinately linked for imparting salinity tolerance. Though a number of salt responsive genes have been reported from the halophytes, there is always a quest for promising stress-responsive genes that can modulate plant physiology according to the salt stress. Halophytes such as Aeluropus, Mesembryanthemum, Suaeda, Atriplex, Thellungiella, Cakile, and Salicornia serve as a potential candidate for the salt-responsive genes and promoters. Several known genes like antiporters (NHX, SOS, HKT, VTPase, ion channels (Cl−, Ca2+, aquaporins, antioxidant encoding genes (APX, CAT, GST, BADH, SOD and some novel genes such as USP, SDR1, SRP etc. were isolated from halophytes and explored for developing stress tolerance in the crop plants (glycophytes. It is evidenced that stress triggers salt sensors that lead to the activation of stress tolerance mechanisms which involve multiple signaling proteins, up- or down-regulation of several genes, and finally the distinctive or collective effects of stress-responsive genes. In this review, halophytes are discussed as an excellent platform for salt responsive genes which can be utilized for developing salinity tolerance in crop plants through genetic engineering.

  17. Mining Halophytes for Plant Growth-Promoting Halotolerant Bacteria to Enhance the Salinity Tolerance of Non-halophytic Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Etesami

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Salinity stress is one of the major abiotic stresses limiting crop production in arid and semi-arid regions. Interest is increasing in the application of PGPRs (plant growth promoting rhizobacteria to ameliorate stresses such as salinity stress in crop production. The identification of salt-tolerant, or halophilic, PGPRs has the potential to promote saline soil-based agriculture. Halophytes are a useful reservoir of halotolerant bacteria with plant growth-promoting capabilities. Here, we review recent studies on the use of halophilic PGPRs to stimulate plant growth and increase the tolerance of non-halophytic crops to salinity. These studies illustrate that halophilic PGPRs from the rhizosphere of halophytic species can be effective bio-inoculants for promoting the production of non-halophytic species in saline soils. These studies support the viability of bioinoculation with halophilic PGPRs as a strategy for the sustainable enhancement of non-halophytic crop growth. The potential of this strategy is discussed within the context of ensuring sustainable food production for a world with an increasing population and continuing climate change. We also explore future research needs for using halotolerant PGPRs under salinity stress.

  18. A Deep Learning Perspective on the Origin of Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Breuer, Ran; Kimmel, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Facial expressions play a significant role in human communication and behavior. Psychologists have long studied the relationship between facial expressions and emotions. Paul Ekman et al., devised the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) to taxonomize human facial expressions and model their behavior. The ability to recognize facial expressions automatically, enables novel applications in fields like human-computer interaction, social gaming, and psychological research. There has been a tremend...

  19. A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C.

    2014-01-01

    A bio-thermic seawater desalination system using halophytes was developed and successfully tested. A greenhouse as part of a test rig, with different sorts of mangroves, was installed. Measurements showed promising results concerning fresh water relative yielding rates up to 1.4 kg/h/m2 (leaf

  20. Interdependence of cell growth and gene expression: origins and consequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Matthew; Gunderson, Carl W; Mateescu, Eduard M; Zhang, Zhongge; Hwa, Terence

    2010-11-19

    In bacteria, the rate of cell proliferation and the level of gene expression are intimately intertwined. Elucidating these relations is important both for understanding the physiological functions of endogenous genetic circuits and for designing robust synthetic systems. We describe a phenomenological study that reveals intrinsic constraints governing the allocation of resources toward protein synthesis and other aspects of cell growth. A theory incorporating these constraints can accurately predict how cell proliferation and gene expression affect one another, quantitatively accounting for the effect of translation-inhibiting antibiotics on gene expression and the effect of gratuitous protein expression on cell growth. The use of such empirical relations, analogous to phenomenological laws, may facilitate our understanding and manipulation of complex biological systems before underlying regulatory circuits are elucidated.

  1. Original article Expression of Estrogen Alpha and Beta Receptors in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mn

    Immunohistochemical Analysis ... Seven PCa cases contained foci of high-grade prostate intraepithelial neoplasia ... Immunohistochemistry was used to test the protein expression of ER-α and ER-β ... interactions of estrogens and ER as well.

  2. Modeling Halophytic Plants in APEX for Sustainable Water and Agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeRuyter, T.; Saito, L.; Nowak, B.; Rossi, C.; Toderich, K.

    2013-12-01

    A major problem for irrigated agricultural production is soil salinization, which can occur naturally or can be human-induced. Human-induced, or secondary salinization, is particularly a problem in arid and semi-arid regions, especially in irrigated areas. Irrigated land has more than twice the production of rainfed land, and accounts for about one third of the world's food, but nearly 20% of irrigated lands are salt-affected. Many farmers worldwide currently seasonally leach their land to reduce the soil salt content. These practices, however, create further problems such as a raised groundwater table, and salt, fertilizer, and pesticide pollution of nearby lakes and groundwater. In Uzbekistan, a combination of these management practices and a propensity to cultivate 'thirsty' crops such as cotton has also contributed to the Aral Sea shrinking nearly 90% by volume since the 1950s. Most common agricultural crops are glycophytes that have reduced yields when subjected to salt-stress. Some plants, however, are known as halophytic or 'salt-loving' plants and are capable of completing their life-cycle in higher saline soil or water environments. Halophytes may be useful for human consumption, livestock fodder, or biofuel, and may also be able to reduce or maintain salt levels in soil and water. To assess the potential for these halophytes to assist with salinity management, we are developing a model that is capable of tracking salinity under different management practices in agricultural environments. This model is interdisciplinary as it combines fields such as plant ecology, hydrology, and soil science. The US Department of Agriculture (USDA) model, Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX), is being augmented with a salinity module that tracks salinity as separate ions across the soil-plant-water interface. The halophytes Atriplex nitens, Climacoptera lanata, and Salicornia europaea are being parameterized and added into the APEX model database. Field sites

  3. Alternate-Fueled Flight: Halophytes, Algae, Bio-, and Synthetic Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic and biomass fueling are now considered to be near-term aviation alternate fueling. The major impediment is a secure sustainable supply of these fuels at reasonable cost. However, biomass fueling raises major concerns related to uses of common food crops and grasses (some also called "weeds") for processing into aviation fuels. These issues are addressed, and then halophytes and algae are shown to be better suited as sources of aerospace fuels and transportation fueling in general. Some of the history related to alternate fuels use is provided as a guideline for current and planned alternate fuels testing (ground and flight) with emphasis on biofuel blends. It is also noted that lessons learned from terrestrial fueling are applicable to space missions. These materials represent an update (to 2009) and additions to the Workshop on Alternate Fueling Sustainable Supply and Halophyte Summit at Twinsburg, Ohio, October 17 to 18, 2007.

  4. Influences of Different Halophyte Vegetation on Soil Microbial Community at Temperate Salt Marsh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Doongar R; Kim, Jinhyun; Kang, Hojeong

    2018-04-01

    Salt marshes are transitional zone between terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems, occupied mainly by halophytic vegetation which provides numerous ecological services to coastal ecosystem. Halophyte-associated microbial community plays an important role in the adaptation of plants to adverse condition and also affected habitat characteristics. To explore the relationship between halophytes and soil microbial community, we studied the soil enzyme activities, soil microbial community structure, and functional gene abundance in halophytes- (Carex scabrifolia, Phragmites australis, and Suaeda japonica) covered and un-vegetated (mud flat) soils at Suncheon Bay, South Korea. Higher concentrations of total, Gram-positive, Gram-negative, total bacterial, and actinomycetes PLFAs (phospholipid fatty acids) were observed in the soil underneath the halophytes compared with mud flat soil and were highest in Carex soil. Halophyte-covered soils had different microbial community composition due to higher abundance of Gram-negative bacteria than mud flat soil. Similar to PLFA concentrations, the increased activities of β-glucosidase, cellulase, phosphatase, and sulfatase enzymes were observed under halophyte soil compared to mud flat soil and Carex exhibited highest activities. The abundance of archaeal 16S rRNA, fungal ITS, and denitrifying genes (nirK, nirS, and nosZ) were not influenced by the halophytes. Abundance bacterial 16S rRNA and dissimilatory (bi)sulfite (dsrA) genes were highest in Carex-covered soil. The abundance of functional genes involved in methane cycle (mcrA and pmoA) was not affected by the halophytes. However, the ratios of mcrA/pmoA and mcrA/dsrA increased in halophyte-covered soils which indicate higher methanogenesis activities. The finding of the study also suggests that halophytes had increased the microbial and enzyme activities, and played a pivotal role in shaping microbial community structure.

  5. The development of halophyte-based agriculture: past and present.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura, Yvonne; Eshel, Amram; Pasternak, Dov; Sagi, Moshe

    2015-02-01

    Freshwater comprises about a mere 2·5% of total global water, of which approximately two-thirds is locked into glaciers at the polar ice caps and on mountains. In conjunction with this, in many instances irrigation with freshwater causes an increase in soil salinity due to overirrigation of agricultural land, inefficient water use and poor drainage of unsuitable soils. The problem of salinity was recognized a long time ago and, due to the importance of irrigated agriculture, numerous efforts have been devoted towards improving crop species for better utilization of saline soils and water. Irrigating plants with saline water is a challenge for practitioners and researchers throughout the world. Recruiting wild halophytes with economic potential was suggested several decades ago as a way to reduce the damage caused by salinization of soil and water. A range of cultivation systems for the utilization of halophytes have been developed, for the production of biofuel, purification of saline effluent in constructed wetlands, landscaping, cultivation of gourmet vegetables, and more. This review critically analyses past and present halophyte-based production systems in the context of genetics, physiology, agrotechnical issues and product value. There are still difficulties that need to be overcome, such as direct germination in saline conditions or genotype selection. However, more and more research is being directed not only towards determining salt tolerance of halophytes, but also to the improvement of agricultural traits for long-term progress. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Face expressive lifting (FEL): an original surgical concept combined with bipolar radiofrequency

    OpenAIRE

    Divaris, Marc; Blugerman, Guillermo; Paul, Malcolm D.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aging can lead to changes in facial expressions, transforming the positive youth expression of happiness to negative expressions as sadness, tiredness, and disgust. Local skin distension is another consequence of aging, which can be difficult to treat with rejuvenation procedures. The “face expressive lifting” (FEL) is an original concept in facial rejuvenation surgery. On the one hand, FEL integrates established convergent surgical techniques aiming to correct the age-related nega...

  7. Halophytes, Algae, and Bacteria Food and Fuel Feedstocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Bushnell, D. M.

    2009-01-01

    The constant, increasing demand for energy, freshwater, and food stresses our ability to meet these demands within reasonable cost and impact on climate while sustaining quality of life. This environmental Triangle of Conflicts between energy, food, and water--while provoked by anthropogenic monetary and power struggles--can be resolved through an anthropogenic paradigm shift in how we produce and use energy, water, and food. With world population (6.6 billion) projected to increase 40 percent in 40 to 60 yr, proper development of saline agriculture and aquaculture is required, as 43 percent of the Earth's landmass is arid or semi-arid and 97 percent of the Earth's water is seawater. In light of this, we seek fuel alternatives in plants that thrive in brackish and saltwater with the ability to survive in arid lands. The development and application of these plants (halophytes) become the primary focus. Herein we introduce some not-so-familiar halophytes and present a few of their benefits, cite a few research projects (including some on the alternatives algae and bacteria), and then set theoretical limits on biomass production followed by projections in terms of world energy demands. Based on diverse arid lands with a total size equivalent to the Sahara Desert (8.6(exp 8) ha, or 2.1(exp 9) acres), these projections show that halophyte agriculture and algae systems can provide for the projected world energy demand.

  8. Salt tolerance of halophytes, research questions reviewed in the perspective of saline agriculture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rozema, J.; Schat, H.

    2013-01-01

    Halophytes of the lower coastal salt marsh show increased salt tolerance, and under high salinity they grow faster than upper marsh species. We could not show reduced growth rate of halophytes compared with glycophytes when grown under non-saline conditions. This indicates limited energy costs

  9. The SbASR-1 gene cloned from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Bhavanath; Lal, Sanjay; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Yadav, Sweta Kumari; Agarwal, Pradeep K

    2012-12-01

    Salinity severely affects plant growth and development. Plants evolved various mechanisms to cope up stress both at molecular and cellular levels. Halophytes have developed better mechanism to alleviate the salt stress than glycophytes, and therefore, it is advantageous to study the role of different genes from halophytes. Salicornia brachiata is an extreme halophyte, which grows luxuriantly in the salty marshes in the coastal areas. Earlier, we have isolated SbASR-1 (abscisic acid stress ripening-1) gene from S. brachiata using cDNA subtractive hybridisation library. ASR-1 genes are abscisic acid (ABA) responsive, whose expression level increases under abiotic stresses, injury, during fruit ripening and in pollen grains. The SbASR-1 transcript showed up-regulation under salt stress conditions. The SbASR-1 protein contains 202 amino acids of 21.01-kDa molecular mass and has 79 amino acid long signatures of ABA/WDS gene family. It has a maximum identity (73 %) with Solanum chilense ASR-1 protein. The SbASR-1 has a large number of disorder-promoting amino acids, which make it an intrinsically disordered protein. The SbASR-1 gene was over-expressed under CaMV 35S promoter in tobacco plant to study its physiological functions under salt stress. T(0) transgenic tobacco seeds showed better germination and seedling growth as compared to wild type (Wt) in a salt stress condition. In the leaf tissues of transgenic lines, Na(+) and proline contents were significantly lower, as compared to Wt plant, under salt treatment, suggesting that transgenic plants are better adapted to salt stress.

  10. Salt Induces Features of a Dormancy-Like State in Seeds of Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum, a Halophytic Relative of Arabidopsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yana Kazachkova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The salinization of land is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide. Halophytes adapted to high levels of salinity are likely to possess useful genes for improving crop tolerance to salt stress, as well as providing a food source on marginal lands. However, despite being salt-tolerant plants, the seeds of many halophytes will not germinate on saline soils, yet little is understood regarding biochemical and gene expression changes underlying salt-mediated inhibition of halophyte seed germination. We have used the halophytic Arabidopsis relative model system, Eutrema (Thellungiella salsugineum to explore salt-mediated inhibition of germination. We show that E. salsugineum seed germination is inhibited by salt to a far greater extent than in Arabidopsis, and that this inhibition is in response to the osmotic component of salt exposure. E. salsugineum seeds remain viable even when germination is completely inhibited, and germination resumes once seeds are transferred to non-saline conditions. Moreover, removal of the seed coat from salt-treated seeds allows embryos to germinate on salt-containing medium. Mobilization of seed storage reserves is restricted in salt-treated seeds, while many germination-associated metabolic changes are arrested or progress to a lower extent. Salt-exposed seeds are further characterized by a reduced GA/ABA ratio and increased expression of the germination repressor genes, RGL2, ABI5 and DOG1. Furthermore, a salt-mediated increase in expression of a LATE EMBRYOGENESIS ABUNDANT gene and accretion of metabolites involved in osmoprotection indicates induction of processes associated with stress tolerance, and accumulation of easily mobilized carbon reserves. Overall, our results suggest that salt inhibits E. salsugineum seed germination by inducing a seed state with molecular features of dormancy while a physical constraint to radicle emergence is provided by the seed coat layers. This seed state could facilitate

  11. Exploration for the Salinity Tolerance-Related Genes from Xero-Halophyte Atriplex canescens Exploiting Yeast Functional Screening System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Yu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant productivity is limited by salinity stress, both in natural and agricultural systems. Identification of salt stress-related genes from halophyte can provide insights into mechanisms of salt stress tolerance in plants. Atriplex canescens is a xero-halophyte that exhibits optimum growth in the presence of 400 mM NaCl. A cDNA library derived from highly salt-treated A. canescens plants was constructed based on a yeast expression system. A total of 53 transgenic yeast clones expressing enhanced salt tolerance were selected from 105 transformants. Their plasmids were sequenced and the gene characteristics were annotated using a BLASTX search. Retransformation of yeast cells with the selected plasmids conferred salt tolerance to the resulting transformants. The expression patterns of 28 of these stress-related genes were further investigated in A. canescens leaves by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. In this study, we provided a rapid and robust assay system for large-scale screening of genes for varied abiotic stress tolerance with high efficiency in A. canescens.

  12. Towards saving freshwater: halophytes as unconventional feedstuffs in livestock feed: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abd El-Hack, Mohamed E; Samak, Dalia H; Noreldin, Ahmed E; Arif, Muhammad; Yaqoob, Hilal S; Swelum, Ayman A

    2018-04-26

    Water represents 71% of all earth area and about 97% of this water is salty water. So, only 3% of the overall world water quantity is freshwater. Human can benefit only from 1% of this water and the remaining 2% freeze at both poles of earth. Therefore, it is important to preserve the freshwater through increasing the plants consuming salty water. The future prosperity of feed resources in arid and semi-arid countries depends on economic use of alternative resources that have been marginalized for long periods of time, such as halophytic plants, which are one such potential future resource. Halophyte plants can grow in high salinity water and soil and to some extent during drought. The growth of these plants depends on the contact of the salted water with plant roots as in semi-desert saline water, mangrove swamps, marshes, and seashores. Halophyte plants need high levels of sodium chloride in the soil water for growth, and the soil water must also contain high levels of salts, as sodium hydroxide or magnesium sulfate. There are many uses for halophyte plants, including feed for animals, vegetables, drugs, sand dune stabilizers, wind shelter, soil cover, wetland cultivation, laundry detergents, and paper production. This paper will focus on the use of halophytes as a feed additive for animals. In spite of the good nutritional value of halophytes, some anti-nutritional factors as nitrates, nitrite complexes, tannins, glycosides, phenolic compounds, saponins, oxalates, and alkaloids may be present in some of them. The presence of such anti-nutritional agents makes halophytes unpalatable to animals, which tends to reduce feed intake and nutrient use. Therefore, the negative effects of these plants on animal performance are the only objection against using halophytes in animal feed diets. This review article highlights the beneficial impact of considering halophytes in animal feeding on saving freshwater and illustrates its nutritive value for livestock from different

  13. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McKeown, Peter C

    2011-08-12

    Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs) displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination). We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag) which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i) their size and (ii) which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1 seeds was

  14. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wennblom Trevor J

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized in flowering plants, mostly in Arabidopsis thaliana. Identification of additional imprinted loci in flowering plants by genome-wide screening for parent-of-origin specific uniparental expression in seed tissues will facilitate our understanding of the origins and functions of imprinted genes in flowering plants. Results cDNA-AFLP can detect allele-specific expression that is parent-of-origin dependent for expressed genes in which restriction site polymorphisms exist in the transcripts derived from each allele. Using a genome-wide cDNA-AFLP screen surveying allele-specific expression of 4500 transcript-derived fragments, we report the identification of 52 maternally expressed genes (MEGs displaying parent-of-origin dependent expression patterns in Arabidopsis siliques containing F1 hybrid seeds (3, 4 and 5 days after pollination. We identified these MEGs by developing a bioinformatics tool (GenFrag which can directly determine the identities of transcript-derived fragments from (i their size and (ii which selective nucleotides were added to the primers used to generate them. Hence, GenFrag facilitates increased throughput for genome-wide cDNA-AFLP fragment analyses. The 52 MEGs we identified were further filtered for high expression levels in the endosperm relative to the seed coat to identify the candidate genes most likely representing novel imprinted genes expressed in the endosperm of Arabidopsis thaliana. Expression in seed tissues of the three top-ranked candidate genes, ATCDC48, PDE120 and MS5-like, was confirmed by Laser-Capture Microdissection and qRT-PCR analysis. Maternal-specific expression of these genes in Arabidopsis thaliana F1

  15. Gene expression profiles help identify the Tissue of Origin for metastatic brain cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VandenBerg Scott R

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Metastatic brain cancers are the most common intracranial tumor and occur in about 15% of all cancer patients. In up to 10% of these patients, the primary tumor tissue remains unknown, even after a time consuming and costly workup. The Pathwork® Tissue of Origin Test (Pathwork Diagnostics, Redwood City, CA, USA is a gene expression test to aid in the diagnosis of metastatic, poorly differentiated and undifferentiated tumors. It measures the expression pattern of 1,550 genes in these tumors and compares it to the expression pattern of a panel of 15 known tumor types. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of the Tissue of Origin Test in the diagnosis of primary sites for metastatic brain cancer patients. Methods Fifteen fresh-frozen metastatic brain tumor specimens of known origins met specimen requirements. These specimens were entered into the study and processed using the Tissue of Origin Test. Results were compared to the known primary site and the agreement between the two results was assessed. Results Fourteen of the fifteen specimens produced microarray data files that passed all quality metrics. One originated from a tissue type that was off-panel. Among the remaining 13 cases, the Tissue of Origin Test accurately predicted the available diagnosis in 12/13 (92.3% cases. Discussion This study demonstrates the accuracy of the Tissue of Origin Test when applied to predict the tissue of origin of metastatic brain tumors. This test could be a very useful tool for pathologists as they classify metastatic brain cancers.

  16. Origin,

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur de Vargas Giorgi

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This essay tightens the “origin” concept, its manifestation through puzzles and their relationship to techniques of reproduction. Contrary to the hegemonic critique of aesthetic and cultural objects – critique that, settled on the appearance and notions of identity, tradition, canon, etc., undervalues the reproductions of "originals" –, the aim is to deliver these objects from formal hierarchization dispositives, that is, release them of what is ideal and positively imposed, so that the reproducibility is potentiated as producer of singularities, of apparitions. The effort is to keep the undecided character of puzzles (bodies, texts, images in which the origin is manifest, so that the logic of the spectacle is reverted into sense opening, instance in which the aesthetic becomes a “performance” before contemporary complexity. With the reproducibility, an origin survives in passage: continually restored, but incomplete, present in trace, in absence.

  17. Glyceride structure and sterol composition of SOS-7 halophyte oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Shami, S. M.

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available Glyceride structure of SOS-7 halophyte oil was studied using the lipase hydrolysis technique. This halophyte sample was obtained from 1988 harvest planted in Ghardaka, on the border of the Red Sea, Egypt. The oilseed was ground and extracted for its oil using commercial hexane in Soxhlet extractor. The unsaturated fatty acids were found centralized in the 2-position of triglycerides, whereas oleic and linolenic acids showed more preference for this position. It was found that P3 was the major component of GS3, whereas P2L and PStL; PL2, POL and StL2 are predominating among GS2U and GSU3 respectively. L3 manifested itself as the principal constituent of GU3 type. Sterol composition of the halophyte oil was determined by GLC as TMS derivative. It was found that the oil contains campsterol, β-sitosterol, stigmasterol and 7-stigmasterol of which 7-stigmasterol is the major sterol and constitute 52.4%.

    Se ha estudiado usando la técnica de hidrólisis mediante lipasa la estructura glicerídica de aceite de halofito SOS-7. Esta muestra de halofito fue obtenida a partir de una cosecha de 1988 plantada en Ghardaka, en la orilla del Mar Rojo, Egipto. Para la extracción del aceite de la semilla molida se utilizó hexano comercial en extractor Soxhlet. Los ácidos grasos insaturados se encontraron centralizados en la posición 2 de los triglicéridos, siendo los ácidos oleico y linolénico los que mostraron mayor preferencia por esta posición. Se encontró que P3 fue el componente mayoritario de GS3, mientras que P2L y PStL; PL2 POL y StL2 son los predominantes para GS2U y GSU3 respectivamente. L3 se manifestó como el principal constituyente de los GU3. La composición esterólica del aceite de halofito se determinó por GLC como derivados del

  18. Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chen, F.-A. [Department of Pharmacy, Tajen University, Yanpu, Pingtung 907, Taiwan (China); Hsu, Minna J. [Department of Biological Sciences, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung 80424, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hsumin@mail.nsysu.edu.tw

    2008-09-15

    Mangrove and halophytic plants occur along the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, south India and these plants have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. However, little is known on the toxic levels of heavy metals found in mangrove and halophytic plants that are used in traditional medicine in India. To understand heavy metal toxicity, we investigated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in leaves collected from eight mangroves and five halophytes in the protected Pichavaram mangrove forest reserve in Tamil Nadu State, south India. Data presented in this paper describe the impact of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential/environmentally toxic trace metals (Hg, Pb and Sn) in mangrove and halophytic medicinal plants. The concentrations of Pb among 13 plant species were higher than the normal range of contamination reported for plants. The average concentration of Hg in the halophytic plants (0.43 {+-} 0.37 {mu}g/g) was seven times higher than mangrove plants (0.06 {+-} 0.03 {mu}g/g) and it indicated pollutants from industrial sources affecting halophytes more than mangroves. - Metal effects occur in India's mangrove ecosystem.

  19. Threat of heavy metal pollution in halophytic and mangrove plants of Tamil Nadu, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agoramoorthy, Govindasamy; Chen, F.-A.; Hsu, Minna J.

    2008-01-01

    Mangrove and halophytic plants occur along the coastal areas of Tamil Nadu, south India and these plants have been used in traditional medicine for centuries. Heavy metals are known to pose a potential threat to terrestrial and aquatic biota. However, little is known on the toxic levels of heavy metals found in mangrove and halophytic plants that are used in traditional medicine in India. To understand heavy metal toxicity, we investigated the bioconcentration factors (BCF) of heavy metals in leaves collected from eight mangroves and five halophytes in the protected Pichavaram mangrove forest reserve in Tamil Nadu State, south India. Data presented in this paper describe the impact of essential (Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn and Zn) and non-essential/environmentally toxic trace metals (Hg, Pb and Sn) in mangrove and halophytic medicinal plants. The concentrations of Pb among 13 plant species were higher than the normal range of contamination reported for plants. The average concentration of Hg in the halophytic plants (0.43 ± 0.37 μg/g) was seven times higher than mangrove plants (0.06 ± 0.03 μg/g) and it indicated pollutants from industrial sources affecting halophytes more than mangroves. - Metal effects occur in India's mangrove ecosystem

  20. Face expressive lifting (FEL): an original surgical concept combined with bipolar radiofrequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Divaris, Marc; Blugerman, Guillermo; Paul, Malcolm D

    2014-01-01

    Aging can lead to changes in facial expressions, transforming the positive youth expression of happiness to negative expressions as sadness, tiredness, and disgust. Local skin distension is another consequence of aging, which can be difficult to treat with rejuvenation procedures. The "face expressive lifting" (FEL) is an original concept in facial rejuvenation surgery. On the one hand, FEL integrates established convergent surgical techniques aiming to correct the age-related negative facial expressions. On the other hand, FEL incorporates novel bipolar RF technology aiming to correct local skin distension. One hundred twenty-six patients underwent FEL procedure. Facial expression and local skin distension were assessed with 2 years follow-up. There was a correction of negative facial expression for 96 patients (76 %) and a tightening of local skin distension in 100 % of cases. FEL is an effective procedure taking into account and able to correct both age-related negative changes in facial expression and local skin distension using radiofrequency. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study.

  1. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin.

    OpenAIRE

    Smits, A.; Funa, K.; Vassbotn, F. S.; Beausang-Linder, M.; af Ekenstam, F.; Heldin, C. H.; Westermark, B.; Nistér, M.

    1992-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is known to stimulate the proliferation of connective tissue-derived cells in vitro. Less is known about its functions in vivo, and the role of PDGF in the development of human tumors has not been clarified. The authors have investigated the occurrence of PDGF and PDGF receptors in a series of proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. High expression of PDGF beta-receptor mRNA and protei...

  2. Origin, timing, and gene expression profile of adventitious rooting in Arabidopsis hypocotyls and stems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welander, Margareta; Geier, Thomas; Smolka, Anders; Ahlman, Annelie; Fan, Jing; Zhu, Li-Hua

    2014-02-01

    Adventitious root (AR) formation is indispensable for vegetative propagation, but difficult to achieve in many crops. Understanding its molecular mechanisms is thus important for such species. Here we aimed at developing a rooting protocol for direct AR formation in stems, locating cellular AR origins in stems and exploring molecular differences underlying adventitious rooting in hypocotyls and stems. In-vitro-grown hypocotyls or stems of wild-type and transgenic ecotype Columbia (Col-0) of Arabidopsis thaliana were rooted on rooting media. Anatomy of AR formation, qRT-PCR of some rooting-related genes and in situ GUS expression were carried out during rooting from hypocotyls and stems. We developed a rooting protocol for AR formation in stems and traced back root origins in stems by anatomical and in situ expression studies. Unlike rooting in hypocotyls, rooting in stems was slower, and AR origins were mainly from lateral parenchyma of vascular bundles and neighboring starch sheath cells as well as, to a lesser extent, from phloem cap and xylem parenchyma. Transcript levels of GH3-3, LBD16, LBD29, and LRP1 in hypocotyls and stems were similar, but transcript accumulation was delayed in stems. In situ expression signals of DR5::GUS, LBD16::GUS, LBD29::GUS, and rolB::GUS reporters in stems mainly occurred at the root initiation sites, suggesting their involvement in AR formation. We have developed an efficient rooting protocol using half-strength Lepoivre medium for studying AR formation in stems, traced back the cellular AR origins in stems, and correlated expression of rooting-related genes with root initiation sites.

  3. Gene expression signature of normal cell-of-origin predicts ovarian tumor outcomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Merritt

    Full Text Available The potential role of the cell-of-origin in determining the tumor phenotype has been raised, but not adequately examined. We hypothesized that distinct cells-of-origin may play a role in determining ovarian tumor phenotype and outcome. Here we describe a new cell culture medium for in vitro culture of paired normal human ovarian (OV and fallopian tube (FT epithelial cells from donors without cancer. While these cells have been cultured individually for short periods of time, to our knowledge this is the first long-term culture of both cell types from the same donors. Through analysis of the gene expression profiles of the cultured OV/FT cells we identified a normal cell-of-origin gene signature that classified primary ovarian cancers into OV-like and FT-like subgroups; this classification correlated with significant differences in clinical outcomes. The identification of a prognostically significant gene expression signature derived solely from normal untransformed cells is consistent with the hypothesis that the normal cell-of-origin may be a source of ovarian tumor heterogeneity and the associated differences in tumor outcome.

  4. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes between Original Breast Cancer and Xenograft Using Machine Learning Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deling Wang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX model is a cutting-edge approach for drug research on breast cancer. However, PDX still exhibits differences from original human tumors, thereby challenging the molecular understanding of tumorigenesis. In particular, gene expression changes after tissues are transplanted from human to mouse model. In this study, we propose a novel computational method by incorporating several machine learning algorithms, including Monte Carlo feature selection (MCFS, random forest (RF, and rough set-based rule learning, to identify genes with significant expression differences between PDX and original human tumors. First, 831 breast tumors, including 657 PDX and 174 human tumors, were collected. Based on MCFS and RF, 32 genes were then identified to be informative for the prediction of PDX and human tumors and can be used to construct a prediction model. The prediction model exhibits a Matthews coefficient correlation value of 0.777. Seven interpretable interactions within the informative gene were detected based on the rough set-based rule learning. Furthermore, the seven interpretable interactions can be well supported by previous experimental studies. Our study not only presents a method for identifying informative genes with differential expression but also provides insights into the mechanism through which gene expression changes after being transplanted from human tumor into mouse model. This work would be helpful for research and drug development for breast cancer.

  5. Identification of Differentially Expressed Genes between Original Breast Cancer and Xenograft Using Machine Learning Algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Deling; Li, Jia-Rui; Zhang, Yu-Hang; Chen, Lei; Huang, Tao; Cai, Yu-Dong

    2018-03-12

    Breast cancer is one of the most common malignancies in women. Patient-derived tumor xenograft (PDX) model is a cutting-edge approach for drug research on breast cancer. However, PDX still exhibits differences from original human tumors, thereby challenging the molecular understanding of tumorigenesis. In particular, gene expression changes after tissues are transplanted from human to mouse model. In this study, we propose a novel computational method by incorporating several machine learning algorithms, including Monte Carlo feature selection (MCFS), random forest (RF), and rough set-based rule learning, to identify genes with significant expression differences between PDX and original human tumors. First, 831 breast tumors, including 657 PDX and 174 human tumors, were collected. Based on MCFS and RF, 32 genes were then identified to be informative for the prediction of PDX and human tumors and can be used to construct a prediction model. The prediction model exhibits a Matthews coefficient correlation value of 0.777. Seven interpretable interactions within the informative gene were detected based on the rough set-based rule learning. Furthermore, the seven interpretable interactions can be well supported by previous experimental studies. Our study not only presents a method for identifying informative genes with differential expression but also provides insights into the mechanism through which gene expression changes after being transplanted from human tumor into mouse model. This work would be helpful for research and drug development for breast cancer.

  6. THE GENESIS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS TYPES AS THE BASIS OF ECOLOGICAL EXPANSION OF HALOPHYTIC PLANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyurko O.Ye.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The C3, C4, and CAM photosynthesis types are considerably differed by CO2 absorption intensity, its biochemistry, saturation level, water productivity, biological productivity, and other different features, which secure the plants survival at stress and extreme conditions. The aim of current research was to discover the photosynthesis peculiarities at halophytic plants species (Salicornia europaea L., Halimione pedunculata, Artemisia santonica L., Plantago lanceolata L. by salinity at model and natural conditions, and to generalize data in historical aspect. It was constituted that S. europaea L. was characterized by C3 photosynthesis passage which was switched on CAM CO2 fixation under soil salinity conditions till 4-4,5 %, but glycophyte A.santonica was immanent C4assimilation way of aspartate type.Analysis of literature data and own research allows to find out that in majority the C3photosynthesis dependence from environmental factors described by determinate curve with matched mathematical expression. It was suggested to generalize the data by Lagrange polynomial. The obtained results proved that the pattern of photosynthesis evolution is: C3 → C4 → CAM with commute possibilities: C3 → CAM; C4 → CAM.

  7. Identification of Novel and Conserved miRNAs from Extreme Halophyte, Oryza coarctata, a Wild Relative of Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Debnath, Ananda Bhusan

    2015-01-01

    Oryza coarctata, a halophyte and wild relative of rice, is grown normally in saline water. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that play pivotal roles in every domain of life including stress response. There are very few reports on the discovery of salt-responsive miRNAs from halophytes. In this study, two small RNA libraries, one each from the control and salt-treated (450 mM NaCl for 24 h) leaves of O. coarctata were sequenced, which yielded 338 known and 95 novel miRNAs. Additionally, we used publicly available transcriptomics data of O. coarctata which led to the discovery of additional 48 conserved miRNAs along with their pre-miRNA sequences through in silico analysis. In total, 36 known and 7 novel miRNAs were up-regulated whereas, 12 known and 7 novel miRNAs were down-regulated under salinity stress. Further, 233 and 154 target genes were predicted for 48 known and 14 novel differentially regulated miRNAs respectively. These targets with the help of gene ontology analysis were found to be involved in several important biological processes that could be involved in salinity tolerance. Relative expression trends of majority of the miRNAs as detected by real time-PCR as well as predicted by Illumina sequencing were found to be coherent. Additionally, expression of most of the target genes was negatively correlated with their corresponding miRNAs. Thus, the present study provides an account of miRNA-target networking that is involved in salinity adaption of O. coarctata.

  8. Sex expression and floral diversity in Jatropha curcas: a population study in its center of origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriano-Anaya, María de Lourdes; Pérez-Castillo, Edilma; Salvador-Figueroa, Miguel; Ruiz-González, Sonia; Vázquez-Ovando, Alfredo; Grajales-Conesa, Julieta

    2016-01-01

    Sex expression and floral morphology studies are central to understand breeding behavior and to define the productive potential of plant genotypes. In particular, the new bioenergy crop Jatropha curcas L. has been classified as a monoecious species. Nonetheless, there is no information about its reproductive diversity in the Mesoamerican region, which is considered its center of origin and diversification. Thus, we determined sex expression and floral morphology in J. curcas populations from southern Mexico and Guatemala. Our results showed that most of J. curcas specimens had typical inflorescences with separate sexes (monoecious); meanwhile, the rest were atypical (gynoecious, androecious, andromonoecious, androgynomonoecious). The most important variables to group these populations, based on a discriminant analysis, were: male flower diameter, female petal length and male nectary length. From southern Mexico “Guerrero” was the most diverse population, and “Centro” had the highest variability among the populations from Chiapas. A cluster analysis showed that the accessions from southern Mexico were grouped without showing any correlation with the geographical origin, while those accessions with atypical sexuality were grouped together. To answer the question of how informative are floral morphological traits compared to molecular markers, we perform a Mantel correlation test between the distance matrix generated in this study and the genetic distance matrix (AFLP) previously reported for the same accessions. We found significant correlation between data at the level of accessions. Our results contribute to design genetic improvement programs by using sexually and morphologically contrasting plants from the center of origin. PMID:27257548

  9. Biophysical analysis of water filtration phenomenon in the roots of halophytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Lee, Sang Joon

    2015-11-01

    The water management systems of plants, such as water collection and water filtration have been optimized through a long history. In this point of view, new bio-inspired technologies can be developed by mimicking the nature's strategies for the survival of the fittest. In this study, the biophysical characteristics of water filtration process in the roots of halophytes are experimentally investigated in the plant hydrodynamic point of view. To understand the functional features of the halophytes 3D morphological structure of their roots are analyzed using advanced bioimaging techniques. The surface properties of the roots of halophytes are also examined Based on the quantitatively analyzed information, water filtration phenomenon in the roots is examined. Sodium treated mangroves are soaked in sodium acting fluorescent dye solution to trace sodium ions in the roots. In addition, in vitroexperiment is carried out by using the roots. As a result, the outermost layer of the roots filters out continuously most of sodium ions. This study on developing halophytes would be helpful for understanding the water filtration mechanism of the roots of halophytes and developing a new bio inspired desalination system. This research was financially supported by the National Research Foundation (NRF) of Korea (Contract grant number: 2008-0061991).

  10. Do Halophytes Really Require Salts for Their Growth and Development? An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nicusor GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants found exclusively in habitats with high levels of soil salinity. It is generally assumed that salt stress is the most important limiting factor for plant growth in natural saline environments, and that halophytes have developed specific adaptations to elevated salinity which make them unfitted to grow in the absence of salt, thus explaining their distribution in nature. To address experimentally this question, two halophytic species (Inula crithmoides L. and Plantago crassifolia Forssk. and a maritime dune species (Medicago marina L. were grown in the greenhouse for several weeks in different substrates: peat, vegetable garden soil, saline soil and sand from maritime dunes. Measurements of growth parameters number of leaves, plant length, fresh and dry weights showed that all three species grew much better on the salt-free and nutrient-rich substrates, peat and garden soil, than on saline soil and dune sand. These results indicate that salts are not compulsorily required for development of halophytic species, and suggest that limitation of water and nutrients, rather than soil salinity per se, are the most important restrictive factors for plant growth in saline habitats. The distribution of halophytes in nature is probably dependent on their limited ability to compete with glycophytes in non-saline areas, while remaining highly competitive under environmental conditions stressful for non-tolerant species.

  11. Do Halophytes Really Require Salts for Their Growth and Development? An Experimental Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Nicusor GRIGORE

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants found exclusively in habitats with high levels of soil salinity. It is generally assumed that salt stress is the most important limiting factor for plant growth in natural saline environments, and that halophytes have developed specific adaptations to elevated salinity which make them unfitted to grow in the absence of salt, thus explaining their distribution in nature. To address experimentally this question, two halophytic species (Inula crithmoides L. and Plantago crassifolia Forssk. and a maritime dune species (Medicago marina L. were grown in the greenhouse for several weeks in different substrates: peat, vegetable garden soil, saline soil and sand from maritime dunes. Measurements of growth parameters � number of leaves, plant length, fresh and dry weights � showed that all three species grew much better on the salt-free and nutrient-rich substrates, peat and garden soil, than on saline soil and dune sand. These results indicate that salts are not compulsorily required for development of halophytic species, and suggest that limitation of water and nutrients, rather than soil salinity per se, are the most important restrictive factors for plant growth in saline habitats. The distribution of halophytes in nature is probably dependent on their limited ability to compete with glycophytes in non-saline areas, while remaining highly competitive under environmental conditions stressful for non-tolerant species.

  12. Multiple embryonic origins of nitric oxide synthase-expressing GABAergic neurons of the neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza eMagno

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Cortical GABAergic interneurons in rodents originate in three subcortical regions: the medial ganglionic eminence (MGE, the lateral/caudal ganglionic eminence (LGE/CGE and the preoptic area (POA. Each of these neuroepithelial precursor domains contributes different interneuron subtypes to the cortex. nNOS-expressing neurons represent a heterogenous population of cortical interneurons. We examined the development of these cells in the mouse embryonic cortex and their abundance and distribution in adult animals. Using genetic lineage tracing in transgenic mice we find that nNOS type I cells originate only in the MGE whereas type II cells have a triple origin in the MGE, LGE/CGE and POA. The two populations are born at different times during development, occupy different layers in the adult cortex and have distinct neurochemical profiles. nNOS neurons are more numerous in the adult cortex than previously reported and constitute a significant proportion of the cortical interneuron population. Our data suggest that the heterogeneity of nNOS neurons in the cortex can be attributed to their multiple embryonic origins which likely impose distinct genetic specification programs.

  13. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Results Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Conclusions Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of

  14. Evolutionary origins, molecular cloning and expression of carotenoid hydroxylases in eukaryotic photosynthetic algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Hongli; Yu, Xiaona; Wang, Yan; Cui, Yulin; Li, Xueqin; Liu, Zhaopu; Qin, Song

    2013-07-08

    Xanthophylls, oxygenated derivatives of carotenes, play critical roles in photosynthetic apparatus of cyanobacteria, algae, and higher plants. Although the xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway of algae is largely unknown, it is of particular interest because they have a very complicated evolutionary history. Carotenoid hydroxylase (CHY) is an important protein that plays essential roles in xanthophylls biosynthesis. With the availability of 18 sequenced algal genomes, we performed a comprehensive comparative analysis of chy genes and explored their distribution, structure, evolution, origins, and expression. Overall 60 putative chy genes were identified and classified into two major subfamilies (bch and cyp97) according to their domain structures. Genes in the bch subfamily were found in 10 green algae and 1 red alga, but absent in other algae. In the phylogenetic tree, bch genes of green algae and higher plants share a common ancestor and are of non-cyanobacterial origin, whereas that of red algae is of cyanobacteria. The homologs of cyp97a/c genes were widespread only in green algae, while cyp97b paralogs were seen in most of algae. Phylogenetic analysis on cyp97 genes supported the hypothesis that cyp97b is an ancient gene originated before the formation of extant algal groups. The cyp97a gene is more closely related to cyp97c in evolution than to cyp97b. The two cyp97 genes were isolated from the green alga Haematococcus pluvialis, and transcriptional expression profiles of chy genes were observed under high light stress of different wavelength. Green algae received a β-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway from host organisms. Although red algae inherited the pathway from cyanobacteria during primary endosymbiosis, it remains unclear in Chromalveolates. The α-xanthophylls biosynthetic pathway is a common feature in green algae and higher plants. The origination of cyp97a/c is most likely due to gene duplication before divergence of green algae and higher plants

  15. Origination, expansion, evolutionary trajectory, and expression bias of AP2/ERF superfamily in Brassica napus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoming Song

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The AP2/ERF superfamily, one of the most important transcription factor families, plays crucial roles in response to biotic and abiotic stresses. So far, a comprehensive evolutionary inference of its origination and expansion has not been available. Here, we identified 515 AP2/ERF genes in B. napus, a neo-tetraploid forming ~7500 years ago, and found that 82.14% of them were duplicated in the tetraploidization. A prominent subgenome bias was revealed in gene expression, tissue-specific, and gene conversion. Moreover, a large-scale analysis across plants and alga suggested that this superfamily could have been originated from AP2 family, expanding to form other families (ERF, and RAV. This process was accompanied by duplicating and/or alternative deleting AP2 domain, intragenic domain sequence conversion, and/or by acquiring other domains, resulting in copy number variations, alternatively contributing to functional innovation. We found that significant positive selection occurred at certain critical nodes during the evolution of land plants, possibly responding to changing environment. In conclusion, the present research revealed origination, functional innovation, and evolutionary trajectory of the AP2/ERF superfamily, contributing to understanding their roles in plant stress tolerance.

  16. Land degradation and halophytic plant diversity of milleyha wetland ecosystem (samandag-hatay), Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altay, V.

    2012-01-01

    Investigations were undertaken during 2010-2011 to study effect of human induced land degradation on structure of some halophytic plant communities. Over all 183 taxa of vascular plant were recorded. Out of these 76 were of typical halophytes. The dominant plant taxa were; Phragmites australis, Halimione portulacoides and Bolboschoenus maritimus. The threatened categories of these taxa were identified from the Red Data Book of Turkey together with their distribution. The impact of degradation on the habitats due to land use for agriculture, organic and inorganic waste disposal and housing for tourisitc purposes were identified and conservation measures were outlined in this study. (author)

  17. EFFECT OF EXOGENOUS ABSCISIC ACID ON GROWTH AND BIOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE HALOPHYTE SUAEDA MARITIMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anbarasi G.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Different types of phytohormones are being extensively used to alleviate the adverse effect of salinity stress on plant growth. Among those, Abscisic acid (ABA is a plant stress hormone and one of the most important signaling molecules in plants. Drought and salinity activate De-novo abscisic acid synthesis prevent further water loss by evaporation through stomata, mediated by changes in the guard cell turgor pressure. Under osmotic stress abscisic acid induce the accumulation of protein involved in the biosynthesis of osmolites which increasing the stress tolerance of plant. In addition, exogenous application of ABA enhances the tolerance of plants or plant cells to cold, heat, drought, anoxia and heavy metal stresses. This study was carried out to study the exogenous abscisic (ABA acid induced regulatory role on the growth, water content, protein content, chlorophyll content, osmolyte accumulation and protein profiling through SDS PAGE in a halophyte, Suaeda maritima. The osmolyte accumulation of proline and glycine betaine was found to be more in 50 µM ABA concentrations. The protein profiling through SDS PAGE revealed that ̴ 66KDa proteins was not expressed in the control plant and in 10μM ABA treated plants. Interestingly, the ABA treatment induced a new protein of 14.2KDa in 10μM concentration. The ABA treated plants with concentrations 50μM, 100μM and 150μM showed changes in the expression of protein in abundance than the control and 10μM ABA treated plants. The findings in this study indicate that among all the concentrations, 50μM ABA concentration treated plants exhibited higher growth rate.

  18. Phytoremediation potential of some halophytic species for soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, S; Nandwal, A S; Angrish, R; Arya, S S; Kumar, N; Sharma, S K

    2016-01-01

    Phytoremediation potential of six halophytic species i.e. Suaeda nudiflora, Suaeda fruticosa, Portulaca oleracea, Atriplex lentiformis, Parkinsonia aculeata and Xanthium strumarium was assessed under screen house conditions. Plants were raised at 8.0, 12.0, 16.0, and 20.0 dSm(-1) of chloride-dominated salinity. The control plants were irrigated with canal water. Sampling was done at vegetative stage (60-75 DAS). About 95 percent seed germination occurred up to 12 dSm(-1) and thereafter declined slightly. Mean plant height and dry weight plant(-1) were significantly decreased from 48.71 to 32.44 cm and from 1.73 to 0.61g plant(-1) respectively upon salinization. Na(+)/K(+) ratio (0.87 to 2.72), Na(+)/ Ca(2+) + Mg(2+) (0.48 to 1.54) and Cl(-)/SO4(2-) (0.94 to 5.04) ratio showed increasing trend. Salinity susceptibility index was found minimum in Suaeda fruticosa (0.72) and maximum in Parkinsonia aculeata (1.17). Total ionic content also declined and magnitude of decline varied from 8.51 to 18.91% at 8 dSm(-1) and 1.85 to 7.12% at 20 dSm(-1) of salinity. On the basis of phytoremediation potential Suaeda fruticosa (1170.02 mg plant(-1)), Atriplex lentiformis (777.87 mg plant(-1)) were the best salt hyperaccumulator plants whereas Xanthium strumarium (349.61 mg plant(-1)) and Parkinsonia aculeata (310.59 mg plant(-1)) were the least hyperaccumulator plants.

  19. Expression of platelet-derived growth factor and its receptors in proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smits, A; Funa, K; Vassbotn, F S; Beausang-Linder, M; af Ekenstam, F; Heldin, C H; Westermark, B; Nistér, M

    1992-03-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is known to stimulate the proliferation of connective tissue-derived cells in vitro. Less is known about its functions in vivo, and the role of PDGF in the development of human tumors has not been clarified. The authors have investigated the occurrence of PDGF and PDGF receptors in a series of proliferative disorders of fibroblastic origin using immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization techniques. High expression of PDGF beta-receptor mRNA and protein was found in the malignant tumors, and also in some benign lesions, such as dermatofibroma. In all these cases, benign as well as malignant, the PDGF B-chain mRNA, and less clearly, the PDGF A-chain mRNA, were coexpressed with the beta-receptor. In contrast, high expression of PDGF alpha-receptor mRNA was only found in fully malignant lesions, i.e., malignant fibrous histiocytoma. These data indicate that an autocrine growth stimulation via the PDGF beta-receptor could occur in an early phase of tumorigenesis, and may be a necessary but insufficient event for the progression into fully malignant human connective tissue lesions.

  20. Facing the challenge of sustainable bioenergy production: Could halophytes be part of the solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debez, Ahmed; Belghith, Ikram; Friesen, Jan; Montzka, Carsten; Elleuche, Skander

    2017-01-01

    Due to steadily growing population and economic transitions in the more populous countries, renewable sources of energy are needed more than ever. Plant biomass as a raw source of bioenergy and biofuel products may meet the demand for sustainable energy; however, such plants typically compete with food crops, which should not be wasted for producing energy and chemicals. Second-generation or advanced biofuels that are based on renewable and non-edible biomass resources are processed to produce cellulosic ethanol, which could be further used for producing energy, but also bio-based chemicals including higher alcohols, organic acids, and bulk chemicals. Halophytes do not compete with conventional crops for arable areas and freshwater resources, since they grow naturally in saline ecosystems, mostly in semi-arid and arid areas. Using halophytes for biofuel production may provide a mid-term economically feasible and environmentally sustainable solution to producing bioenergy, contributing, at the same time, to making saline areas - which have been considered unproductive for a long time - more valuable. This review emphasises on halophyte definition, global distribution, and environmental requirements. It also examines their enzymatic valorization, focusing on salt-tolerant enzymes from halophilic microbial species that may be deployed with greater advantage compared to their conventional mesophilic counterparts for faster degradation of halophyte biomass.

  1. Effect of saline water irrigation on seed germination and early seedling growth of the halophyte quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Panuccio, M.R.; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Saleem Akhtar, Saqib

    2014-01-01

    with their high protein content and unique amino acid composition. Although the species has been described as a facultative halophyte, and its tolerance to salt stress has been investigated, its physiological and molecular responses to seawater (SW) and other salts have not been studied. We evaluated the effects...... been carried out to investigate the mechanisms used by quinoa, a facultative halophytic species, in order to cope with high salt levels at various stages of its develop- ment. Quinoa is regarded as one of the crops that might sustain food security in this century, grown primarily for its edible seeds...... of SW and different salts on seed germination, seedling emergence and the antioxidative pathway of quinoa. Seeds were germi- nated in Petri dishes and seedlings grown in pots with SW solutions (25, 50, 75 and 100 %) and NaCl, CaCl2, KCl and MgCl2 individually, at the concentrations in which...

  2. Radionuclides transfer into halophytes growing in tidal salt marshes from the Southwest of Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luque, Carlos J.; Vaca, Federico; García-Trapote, Ana; Hierro, Almudena; Bolívar, Juan P.; Castellanos, Eloy M.

    2015-01-01

    Estuaries are sinks of materials and substances which are released directly into them or transported from rivers that drain the basin. It is usual to find high organic matter loads and fine particles in the sediments. We analyzed radionuclide concentrations ("2"1"0Po, "2"3"0Th, "2"3"2Th, "2"3"4U, "2"3"8U, "2"2"6Ra, "2"2"8Th, "2"2"8Ra, "4"0K) in sediments and three different organs (roots, stems and leaves) of three species of halophytes plants (Spartina maritima, Spartina densiflora and Sarcocornia perennis). The study was carried out in two tidal salt marshes, one polluted by U-series radionuclides and another nearby that was unpolluted and was used as a control (or reference) area. The Tinto River salt marsh shows high levels of U-series radionuclides coming from mining and industrial discharges. On the contrary, the unperturbed Piedras River salt marsh is located about 25 km from the Tinto marsh, and shows little presence of contaminants and radionuclides. The results of this work have shown that natural radionuclide concentrations (specially the U-isotopes) in the Tinto salt marsh sediments are one order of magnitude higher than those in the Piedras marsh. These radionuclide enhancements are reflected in the different organs of the plants, which have similar concentration increases as the sediments where they have grown. Finally, the transfer factor (TF) of the most polluted radionuclides (U-isotopes and "2"1"0Po) in the Tinto area are one order of magnitude higher than in the Piedras area, indicating that the fraction of each radionuclide in the sediment originating from the pollution is more available for the plants than the indigenous fraction. This means that the plants of the salt marshes are unhelpful as bioindicators or for the phytoremediation of radionuclides. - Highlights: • Radionuclides were analyzed in sediments and plants in unpolluted salt marshes. • Plants uptake radionuclides in all organs in both salt marshes. • The transfer factors

  3. The Arabidopsis halophytic relative Thellungiella halophila tolerates nitrogen-limiting conditions by maintaining growth, nitrogen uptake, and assimilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth; Barak, Simon; Rothstein, Steven J

    2008-07-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms regulating nitrogen (N) use efficiency is required to reduce excessive input of N fertilizers while maintaining acceptable crop yields under limited N supply. Studying plant species that are naturally adapted to low N conditions could facilitate the identification of novel regulatory genes conferring better N use efficiency. Here, we show that Thellungiella halophila, a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grows better than Arabidopsis under moderate (1 mm nitrate) and severe (0.4 mm nitrate) N-limiting conditions. Thellungiella exhibited a lower carbon to N ratio than Arabidopsis under N limitation, which was due to Thellungiella plants possessing higher N content, total amino acids, total soluble protein, and lower starch content compared with Arabidopsis. Furthermore, Thellungiella had higher amounts of several metabolites, such as soluble sugars and organic acids, under N-sufficient conditions (4 mm nitrate). Nitrate reductase activity and NR2 gene expression in Thellungiella displayed less of a reduction in response to N limitation than in Arabidopsis. Thellungiella shoot GS1 expression was more induced by low N than in Arabidopsis, while in roots, Thellungiella GS2 expression was maintained under N limitation but was decreased in Arabidopsis. Up-regulation of NRT2.1 and NRT3.1 expression was higher and repression of NRT1.1 was lower in Thellungiella roots under N-limiting conditions compared with Arabidopsis. Differential transporter gene expression was correlated with higher nitrate influx in Thellungiella at low (15)NO(3)(-) supply. Taken together, our results suggest that Thellungiella is tolerant to N-limited conditions and could act as a model system to unravel the mechanisms for low N tolerance.

  4. Modeling salt movement and halophytic crop growth on marginal lands with the APEX model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goehring, N.; Saito, L.; Verburg, P.; Jeong, J.; Garrett, A.

    2016-12-01

    Saline soils negatively impact crop productivity in nearly 20% of irrigated agricultural lands worldwide. At these saline sites, cultivation of highly salt-tolerant plants, known as halophytes, may increase productivity compared to conventional salt-sensitive crops (i.e., glycophytes), thereby increasing the economic potential of marginal lands. Through a variety of mechanisms, halophytes are more effective than glycophytes at excluding, accumulating, and secreting salts from their tissues. Each mechanism can have a different impact on the salt balance in the plant-soil-water system. To date, little information is available to understand the long-term impacts of halophyte cultivation on environmental quality. This project utilizes the Agricultural Policy/Environmental Extender (APEX) model, developed by the US Department of Agriculture, to model the growth and production of two halophytic crops. The crops being modeled include quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa), which has utilities for human consumption and forage, and AC Saltlander green wheatgrass (Elymus hoffmannii), which has forage utility. APEX simulates salt movement between soil layers and accounts for the salt balance in the plant-soil-water system, including salinity in irrigation water and crop-specific salt uptake. Key crop growth parameters in APEX are derived from experimental growth data obtained under non-stressed conditions. Data from greenhouse and field experiments in which quinoa and AC Saltlander were grown under various soil salinity and irrigation salinity treatments are being used to parameterize, calibrate, and test the model. This presentation will discuss progress on crop parameterization and completed model runs under different salt-affected soil and irrigation conditions.

  5. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and tr...

  6. On the distribution and evaluation of Na, Mg and Cl in leaves of selected halophytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pongrac, Paula; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Regvar, Marjana [Department of Biology, Biotechnical Faculty, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Kaligarič, Mitja [Department of Biology, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Koroška c. 160, SI-2000 Maribor (Slovenia); Vavpetič, Primož; Kelemen, Mitja; Grlj, Nataša [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Shelef, Oren; Golan-Goldhirsh, Avi; Rachmilevitch, Shimon [French Associates Institute for Agriculture and Biotechnology of Drylands, The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research (BIDR), Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, 84990 Midreshet Ben-Gurion (Israel); Pelicon, Primož, E-mail: primoz.pelicon@ijs.si [Jožef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2013-07-01

    Diverse physiological, biochemical and morphological adaptations enable plants to survive in extreme saline environments where osmotic and ionic stresses limit growth and development. Halophytes are salt-tolerant plants that can withstand extraordinarily high levels of Na and Cl in their leaves. The tissue and cellular distribution patterns of salt ions can be linked to the underlying mechanisms of salt tolerance. Application of fast, reliable, multi-elemental and quantitative techniques such as micro-proton-induced X-ray emission (micro-PIXE) will significantly contribute to and accelerate studies of plant salt tolerance, especially as micro-PIXE also provides spatially resolved quantitative data for light elements, such as Na and Mg. The spatial concentration distributions of Na, Mg, Cl, K, P and S in leaves of four halophytes (Bassia indica, Atriplex prostrata, Spartina maritima and Limonium angustifolium) were determined using micro-PIXE, to study the salt-tolerance strategies of the selected halophytes. Different distribution patterns of the studied elements were seen in the leaves; however, in all four of these plant species, Na was excluded from photosynthetically active chlorophyl tissues. With the exception of L. angustifolium, Cl, P and S contents (representing chloride, phosphate and sulphate ionic forms, respectively) did not ensure charge balance in the leaves, which suggests other anionic compounds, such as nitrate and organic anions, have crucial roles in maintaining electroneutrality in these halophytes. By increasing soil salinisation worldwide, the possibility to reliably complement spatial distributions of Na, Mg, Cl, K, P and S with plant structural morphology will contribute significantly to our understanding of plant tolerance mechanisms at the tissue and cell levels. In addition, these kinds of studies are of particular value for designing crop plants with high salt tolerance and for the development of phytoremediation technologies.

  7. Biophysical and biochemical constraints imposed by salt stress:Learning from halophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo eDuarte

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Soil salinization is one of the most important factors impacting plant productivity. About 3.6 billion of the world’s 5.2 billion ha of agricultural dryland have already suffered erosion, degradation and salinization. Halophytes typically are considered as plants able to complete their life cycle in environments where the salt concentration is 200 mM NaCl or higher. Different strategies are known to overcome salt stress, as adaptation mechanisms from this type of plants. Salinity adjustment is a complex phenomenon characterized by both biochemical and biophysical adaptations. As photosynthesis is a prerequisite for biomass production, halophytes adapted their electronic transduction pathways and the entire energetic metabolism to overcome the salt excess. The maintenance of ionic homeostasis is in the basis of all cellular stress in particular in terms of redox potential and energy transduction. In the present work the biophysical mechanisms underlying energy capture and transduction in halophytes are discussed alongside with their relation to biochemical mechanisms, integrating data from photosystem light harvesting complexes, electronic transport chains to the quinone pools, carbon harvesting and energy dissipation metabolism.

  8. Manipulating the antioxidant capacity of halophytes to increase their cultural and economic value through saline cultivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boestfleisch, Christian; Wagenseil, Niko B; Buhmann, Anne K; Seal, Charlotte E; Wade, Ellie Merrett; Muscolo, Adele; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2014-08-13

    Halophytes, salt-tolerant plants, are a source of valuable secondary metabolites with potential economic value. The steady-state pools of many stress-related metabolites are already enhanced in halophytes when compared with glycophytes, but growth under conditions away from the optimum can induce stress and consequently result in changes to secondary metabolites such as antioxidants. However, direct evidence for increasing the concentration of valuable secondary metabolites as a consequence of altering the salinity of the growing environment still remains equivocal. To address this, we analysed a range of metabolites with antioxidant capacity (including total phenols, flavonoids, ascorbate, reduced/oxidized glutathione and reactive oxygen species scavenging enzymes) in seedlings and plants from different families (Amaranthaceae, Brassicaceae, Plantaginaceae and Rhizophoraceae) and habitats grown under different salt concentrations. We show that it is possible to manipulate the antioxidant capacity of plants and seedlings by altering the saline growing environment, the length of time under saline cultivation and the developmental stage. Among the species studied, the halophytes Tripolium pannonicum, Plantago coronopus, Lepidium latifolium and Salicornia europaea demonstrated the most potential as functional foods or nutraceuticals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  9. [Isolation, identification and characterization of ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Songshan; Liu, Yanping; Zhao, Lei

    2010-11-01

    We Isolated and characterized 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria from halophyte Suaeda salsa to understand the interactions between endophytes and halophyte. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria were isolated from root, stalk and leaf of Suaeda salsa and were identified based on morphological, physiological-biochemical properties, API and 16S rRNA sequence analysis. Isolates were evaluated for their ACC deaminase, antifungal, protease activity, siderophores and phytohormones, such as indole-3-acetic acid, gibberellic acid and abscisic acid production, as well as atmospheric nitrogen fixation and phosphate solubilization. Four ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria strains named as LP11, SS12, TW1 and TW2 were isolated and identified as Pseudomonas oryzihabitans, Pseudomonas sp., Pantoea agglomerans and Pseudomonas putida respectively. All the strains possessed the phosphate-solubilizing ability and could produce siderophores and phytohormones more or less. None of them could fix atmospheric nitrogen or produce protease. Only strain SS12 showed antagonism against two phytopathogenic fungi viz Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. conglutinans and F. oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum. ACC deaminase-containing endophytic bacteria of Pseudomonas sp. and Pantoea sp. isolated from halophyte Suaeda salsa have abundant biological characteristics related to plant growth promotion, stress homeostasis regulation and biocontrol activity.

  10. The timing of GIGANTEA expression during day/night cycles varies with the geographical origin of Arabidopsis accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Montaigu, Amaury; Coupland, George

    2017-07-03

    Latitudinal clines in circadian rhythms have consistently been described in various plant species, with the most recent examples appearing in soybean cultivars and in monkey flower natural populations. These latitudinal clines provide evidence that natural variation in circadian rhythms is adaptive, but it is still unclear what adaptive benefits this variation confers, particularly because circadian rhythms are not usually measured in day/night conditions that reflect those experienced by organisms in nature. Here, we report that daily rhythms of GIGANTEA expression respond to day length in a way that depends on the latitude of origin of Arabidopsis accessions. We additionally extend previous findings by confirming that natural variation in GI expression affects growth related traits, and alters the expression of different target genes. The results support the idea that natural variation in daily rhythms of expression have broad effects on plant development and are of potential adaptive value.

  11. Beyond our origin: adding social context to an explanation of sex differences in emotion expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Vigil's socio-relational framework of sex differences in emotional expressiveness emphasizes general sex differences in emotional responding, but largely ignores the social context in which emotions are expressed. There is much empirical evidence showing that sex differences in emotion displays are

  12. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H⁺-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The activity of H(+)-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na(+) exclusion via Na(+)/H(+) exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H(+)-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. The kinetics of salt-induced net H(+), Na(+) and K(+) fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (-144 ± 3·3, -138 ± 5·4 and -128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H(+) efflux, Na(+) efflux and K(+) retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H(+) efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H(+)-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant's ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative membrane potential values and to

  13. Rapid regulation of the plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity is essential to salinity tolerance in two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis and Chenopodium quinoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, Jayakumar; Rodrigo-Moreno, Ana; Lai, Diwen; Xie, Yanjie; Shen, Wenbiao; Shabala, Sergey

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims The activity of H+-ATPase is essential for energizing the plasma membrane. It provides the driving force for potassium retention and uptake through voltage-gated channels and for Na+ exclusion via Na+/H+ exchangers. Both of these traits are central to plant salinity tolerance; however, whether the increased activity of H+-ATPase is a constitutive trait in halophyte species and whether this activity is upregulated at either the transcriptional or post-translation level remain disputed. Methods The kinetics of salt-induced net H+, Na+ and K+ fluxes, membrane potential and AHA1/2/3 expression changes in the roots of two halophyte species, Atriplex lentiformis (saltbush) and Chenopodium quinoa (quinoa), were compared with data obtained from Arabidopsis thaliana roots. Key Results Intrinsic (steady-state) membrane potential values were more negative in A. lentiformis and C. quinoa compared with arabidopsis (−144 ± 3·3, −138 ± 5·4 and −128 ± 3·3 mV, respectively). Treatment with 100 mm NaCl depolarized the root plasma membrane, an effect that was much stronger in arabidopsis. The extent of plasma membrane depolarization positively correlated with NaCl-induced stimulation of vanadate-sensitive H+ efflux, Na+ efflux and K+ retention in roots (quinoa > saltbush > arabidopsis). NaCl-induced stimulation of H+ efflux was most pronounced in the root elongation zone. In contrast, H+-ATPase AHA transcript levels were much higher in arabidopsis compared with quinoa plants, and 100 mm NaCl treatment led to a further 3-fold increase in AHA1 and AHA2 transcripts in arabidopsis but not in quinoa. Conclusions Enhanced salinity tolerance in the halophyte species studied here is not related to the constitutively higher AHA transcript levels in the root epidermis, but to the plant’s ability to rapidly upregulate plasma membrane H+-ATPase upon salinity treatment. This is necessary for assisting plants to maintain highly negative

  14. Ancient origin of placental expression in the growth hormone genes of anthropoid primates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papper, Zack; Jameson, Natalie M; Romero, Roberto; Weckle, Amy L; Mittal, Pooja; Benirschke, Kurt; Santolaya-Forgas, Joaquin; Uddin, Monica; Haig, David; Goodman, Morris; Wildman, Derek E

    2009-10-06

    In anthropoid primates, growth hormone (GH) genes have undergone at least 2 independent locus expansions, one in platyrrhines (New World monkeys) and another in catarrhines (Old World monkeys and apes). In catarrhines, the GH cluster has a pituitary-expressed gene called GH1; the remaining GH genes include placental GHs and placental lactogens. Here, we provide cDNA sequence evidence that the platyrrhine GH cluster also includes at least 3 placenta expressed genes and phylogenetic evidence that placenta expressed anthropoid GH genes have undergone strong adaptive evolution, whereas pituitary-expressed GH genes have faced strict functional constraint. Our phylogenetic evidence also points to lineage-specific gene gain and loss in early placental mammalian evolution, with at least three copies of the GH gene present at the time of the last common ancestor (LCA) of primates, rodents, and laurasiatherians. Anthropoid primates and laurasiatherians share gene descendants of one of these three copies, whereas rodents and strepsirrhine primates each maintain a separate copy. Eight of the amino-acid replacements that occurred on the lineage leading to the LCA of extant anthropoids have been implicated in GH signaling at the maternal-fetal interface. Thus, placental expression of GH may have preceded the separate series of GH gene duplications that occurred in catarrhines and platyrrhines (i.e., the roles played by placenta-expressed GHs in human pregnancy may have a longer evolutionary history than previously appreciated).

  15. Wnt and TGF-beta expression in the sponge Amphimedon queenslandica and the origin of metazoan embryonic patterning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maja Adamska

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available The origin of metazoan development and differentiation was contingent upon the evolution of cell adhesion, communication and cooperation mechanisms. While components of many of the major cell signalling pathways have been identified in a range of sponges (phylum Porifera, their roles in development have not been investigated and remain largely unknown. Here, we take the first steps toward reconstructing the developmental signalling systems used in the last common ancestor to living sponges and eumetazoans by studying the expression of genes encoding Wnt and TGF-beta signalling ligands during the embryonic development of a sponge.Using resources generated in the recent sponge Amphimedon queenslandica (Demospongiae genome project, we have recovered genes encoding Wnt and TGF-beta signalling ligands that are critical in patterning metazoan embryos. Both genes are expressed from the earliest stages of Amphimedon embryonic development in highly dynamic patterns. At the time when the Amphimedon embryos begin to display anterior-posterior polarity, Wnt expression becomes localised to the posterior pole and this expression continues until the swimming larva stage. In contrast, TGF-beta expression is highest at the anterior pole. As in complex animals, sponge Wnt and TGF-beta expression patterns intersect later in development during the patterning of a sub-community of cells that form a simple tissue-like structure, the pigment ring. Throughout development, Wnt and TGF-beta are expressed radially along the anterior-posterior axis.We infer from the expression of Wnt and TGF-beta in Amphimedon that the ancestor that gave rise to sponges, cnidarians and bilaterians had already evolved the capacity to direct the formation of relatively sophisticated body plans, with axes and tissues. The radially symmetrical expression patterns of Wnt and TGF-beta along the anterior-posterior axis of sponge embryos and larvae suggest that these signalling pathways

  16. Adiponectin and Its Receptors Are Differentially Expressed in Human Tissues and Cell Lines of Distinct Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Jasinski-Bergner

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adiponectin is secreted by adipose tissue and exerts high abundance and an anti-inflammatory potential. However, only little information exists about the expression profiles of adiponectin and its recently identified receptor CDH13 in non-tumorous human tissues and their association to clinical parameters. Methods: The expression levels of adiponectin and CDH13 were analyzed in heart, liver, kidney, spleen, skin, blood vessels, peripheral nerve and bone marrow of 21 human body donors, in 12 human cell lines, and in purified immune effector cell populations of healthy blood donors by immunohistochemistry, Western-blot, and semi-quantitative PCR. The obtained results were then correlated to clinical parameters, including age, sex and known diseases like cardiovascular and renal diseases. Results: Adiponectin expression in renal corpuscles was significantly higher in humans with known renal diseases. A coordinated expression of adiponectin and CDH13 was observed in the myocard. High levels of adiponectin could be detected in the bone marrow, in certain lymphoid tumor cell lines and in purified immune effector cell populations of healthy donors, in particular in cytotoxic T cells. Conclusion: For the first time, the expression profiles of adiponectin and CDH13 are analyzed in many human tissues in correlation to each other and to clinical parameters.

  17. Reduced Tonoplast Fast-Activating and Slow-Activating Channel Activity Is Essential for Conferring Salinity Tolerance in a Facultative Halophyte, Quinoa1[C][W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Pottosin, Igor

    2013-01-01

    Halophyte species implement a “salt-including” strategy, sequestering significant amounts of Na+ to cell vacuoles. This requires a reduction of passive Na+ leak from the vacuole. In this work, we used quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa) to investigate the ability of halophytes to regulate Na+-permeable slow-activating (SV) and fast-activating (FV) tonoplast channels, linking it with Na+ accumulation in mesophyll cells and salt bladders as well as leaf photosynthetic efficiency under salt stress. Our data indicate that young leaves rely on Na+ exclusion to salt bladders, whereas old ones, possessing far fewer salt bladders, depend almost exclusively on Na+ sequestration to mesophyll vacuoles. Moreover, although old leaves accumulate more Na+, this does not compromise their leaf photochemistry. FV and SV channels are slightly more permeable for K+ than for Na+, and vacuoles in young leaves express less FV current and with a density unchanged in plants subjected to high (400 mm NaCl) salinity. In old leaves, with an intrinsically lower density of the FV current, FV channel density decreases about 2-fold in plants grown under high salinity. In contrast, intrinsic activity of SV channels in vacuoles from young leaves is unchanged under salt stress. In vacuoles of old leaves, however, it is 2- and 7-fold lower in older compared with young leaves in control- and salt-grown plants, respectively. We conclude that the negative control of SV and FV tonoplast channel activity in old leaves reduces Na+ leak, thus enabling efficient sequestration of Na+ to their vacuoles. This enables optimal photosynthetic performance, conferring salinity tolerance in quinoa species. PMID:23624857

  18. Gene expression profiling in chemoresistant variants of three cell lines of different origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsson, Anders; Vallon-Christensson, Johan; Strand, Carina

    2005-01-01

    lines (K562 leukemia, MCF-7 breast cancer and S1 colon cancer) with acquired resistance against five cytostatic drugs; daunorubicin (DNR), doxorubicin (DOX), vincristine (VCR), etoposide (VP) and mitoxantrone (MX). RESULTS: The resistant cell lines clustered together based on their type of origin...... was also seen in, e.g., GSTs, topoisomerases, caveolins, annexins and CD44. CONCLUSION: These results will constitute a platform for further studies on specific pathways and biological processes involved in chemotherapy resistance....

  19. General expressions and physical origin of the coupling coefficient of arbitrary tuned coupled electromagnetic resonators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y. [School of Engineering and Information Technology, University of New South Wales, Canberra (Australia); Tervo, Richard J. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 Canada (Canada); Mattar, Saba M., E-mail: mattar@unb.ca [Chemistry Department, University of New Brunswick, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5A3 Canada (Canada)

    2015-11-21

    The theory and operation of various devices and systems, such as wireless power transfer via magnetic resonant coupling, magneto-inductive wave devices, magnetic resonance spectroscopy probes, and metamaterials can rely on coupled tuned resonators. The coupling strength is usually expressed in terms of the coupling coefficient κ, which can have electrical κ{sub E} and/or magnetic κ{sub M} components. In the current article, general expressions of κ are derived. The relation between the complex Poynting equation in its microscopic form and κ is made and discussed in detail. It is shown that κ can be expressed in terms of the interaction energy between the resonators' modes. It thus provides a general form that combines the magnetic and electric components of κ. The expressions make it possible to estimate the frequencies and fields of the coupled modes for arbitrarily oriented and spaced resonators. Thus, enabling the calculation of system specific parameters such as the transfer efficiency of wireless power transfer systems, resonator efficiency for electron spin resonance probes, and dispersion relations of magneto-inductive and stereo-metamaterials structures.

  20. General expressions and physical origin of the coupling coefficient of arbitrary tuned coupled electromagnetic resonators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.; Tervo, Richard J.; Mattar, Saba M.

    2015-01-01

    The theory and operation of various devices and systems, such as wireless power transfer via magnetic resonant coupling, magneto-inductive wave devices, magnetic resonance spectroscopy probes, and metamaterials can rely on coupled tuned resonators. The coupling strength is usually expressed in terms of the coupling coefficient κ, which can have electrical κ E and/or magnetic κ M components. In the current article, general expressions of κ are derived. The relation between the complex Poynting equation in its microscopic form and κ is made and discussed in detail. It is shown that κ can be expressed in terms of the interaction energy between the resonators' modes. It thus provides a general form that combines the magnetic and electric components of κ. The expressions make it possible to estimate the frequencies and fields of the coupled modes for arbitrarily oriented and spaced resonators. Thus, enabling the calculation of system specific parameters such as the transfer efficiency of wireless power transfer systems, resonator efficiency for electron spin resonance probes, and dispersion relations of magneto-inductive and stereo-metamaterials structures

  1. Identification of neurons that express ghrelin receptors in autonomic pathways originating from the spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, John B; Cho, Hyun-Jung; Hunne, Billie; Hirayama, Haruko; Callaghan, Brid P; Lomax, Alan E; Brock, James A

    2012-06-01

    Functional studies have shown that subsets of autonomic preganglionic neurons respond to ghrelin and ghrelin mimetics and in situ hybridisation has revealed receptor gene expression in the cell bodies of some preganglionic neurons. Our present goal has been to determine which preganglionic neurons express ghrelin receptors by using mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the control of the promoter for the ghrelin receptor (also called growth hormone secretagogue receptor). The retrograde tracer Fast Blue was injected into target organs of reporter mice under anaesthesia to identify specific functional subsets of postganglionic sympathetic neurons. Cryo-sections were immunohistochemically stained by using anti-EGFP and antibodies to neuronal markers. EGFP was detected in nerve terminal varicosities in all sympathetic chain, prevertebral and pelvic ganglia and in the adrenal medulla. Non-varicose fibres associated with the ganglia were also immunoreactive. No postganglionic cell bodies contained EGFP. In sympathetic chain ganglia, most neurons were surrounded by EGFP-positive terminals. In the stellate ganglion, neurons with choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity, some being sudomotor neurons, lacked surrounding ghrelin-receptor-expressing terminals, although these terminals were found around other neurons. In the superior cervical ganglion, the ghrelin receptor terminals innervated subgroups of neurons including neuropeptide Y (NPY)-immunoreactive neurons that projected to the anterior chamber of the eye. However, large NPY-negative neurons projecting to the acini of the submaxillary gland were not innervated by EGFP-positive varicosities. In the celiaco-superior mesenteric ganglion, almost all neurons were surrounded by positive terminals but the VIP-immunoreactive terminals of intestinofugal neurons were EGFP-negative. The pelvic ganglia contained groups of neurons without ghrelin receptor terminal innervation and other groups with

  2. Molecular responses and expression analysis of genes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haloxylon ammodendron (C.A Mey.) Bunge is a xero-halophytic desert shrub with excellent drought resistance and salt tolerance. To decipher the molecular responses involved in its drought resistance, the cDNA-AFLP (amplified fragment length polymorphism) technique was employed to identify genes expressed ...

  3. Gene expression analysis of zebrafish melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium reveals indicators of biological function and developmental origin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles W Higdon

    Full Text Available In order to facilitate understanding of pigment cell biology, we developed a method to concomitantly purify melanocytes, iridophores, and retinal pigmented epithelium from zebrafish, and analyzed their transcriptomes. Comparing expression data from these cell types and whole embryos allowed us to reveal gene expression co-enrichment in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, as well as in melanocytes and iridophores. We found 214 genes co-enriched in melanocytes and retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating the shared functions of melanin-producing cells. We found 62 genes significantly co-enriched in melanocytes and iridophores, illustrative of their shared developmental origins from the neural crest. This is also the first analysis of the iridophore transcriptome. Gene expression analysis for iridophores revealed extensive enrichment of specific enzymes to coordinate production of their guanine-based reflective pigment. We speculate the coordinated upregulation of specific enzymes from several metabolic pathways recycles the rate-limiting substrate for purine synthesis, phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate, thus constituting a guanine cycle. The purification procedure and expression analysis described here, along with the accompanying transcriptome-wide expression data, provide the first mRNA sequencing data for multiple purified zebrafish pigment cell types, and will be a useful resource for further studies of pigment cell biology.

  4. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-08-19

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  5. Silicon alleviates deleterious effects of high salinity on the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis; Davy, Anthony J

    2013-02-01

    The non-essential element silicon is known to improve plant fitness by alleviating the effects of biotic and abiotic stresses, particularly in crops. However, its possible role in the exceptional tolerance of halophytes to salinity has not been investigated. This study reports the effect of Si supply on the salinity tolerance of the halophytic grass Spartina densiflora; plants were treated with NaCl (0-680 mM), with or without silicon addition of 500 μM, in a glasshouse experiment. Plant responses were examined using growth analysis, combined with measurements of gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. In addition, tissue concentrations of aluminium, calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, sodium, phosphorus and silicon were determined. Although high salinity decreased growth, this effect was alleviated by treatment with Si. Improved growth was associated with higher net photosynthetic rate (A), and greater water-use efficiency (WUE). Enhanced A at high salinity could be explained by beneficial effects of Si on the photochemical apparatus, and on chlorophyll concentrations. Ameliorative effects of Si were correlated with reduced sodium uptake, which was unrelated to a reduction in the transpiration rate, since Si-supplemented plants had higher stomatal conductances (G(s)). These plants also had higher tissue concentrations of essential nutrients, suggesting that Si had a positive effect on the mineral nutrient balance in salt-stressed plants. Si appears to play a significant role in salinity tolerance even in a halophyte, which has other, specific salt-tolerance mechanisms, through diverse protective effects on the photosynthetic apparatus, water-use efficiency and mineral nutrient balance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Halophytic Companion Plants Improve Growth and Physiological Parameters of Tomato Plants Grown under Salinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karakas, S.; Cullu, M. A.; Kaya, C.; Dikilitas, M.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity becomes a major concern when soil salt concentration becomes excessive in growth medium. Halophytes are capable of accumulating high concentrations of NaCl in their tissues, thus using halophytic plants in crop rotations or even in mixed cropping systems may be a promising management practices to mitigate salt stress related yield loses. Salinity induced yield losses and related physiological parameters on tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. SC2121) grown with or without halophytic companion plants (SalsolasodaL. and Portulacaoleracea L.) were investigated in pot experiment. Treatments consist of four soil type (collected from Harran plain-Turkey) with similar physical properties but varying in salinity level: electrical conductivity (EC): 0.9, 4.2, 7.2, and 14.1 dS m/sup -1/. The reduction in plant total dry weight was 24, 19, and 48 percent in soils with slight (4.2dS m/sup -1/), moderate (7.2 dS m/sup -1/) and high (14.1 dS m/sup -1/) salinity as compared to non-saline soil (0.9 dS m/sup -1/), respectively. Leaf content of proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POX) enzyme activity increased with increasing level of salinity. In tomato plants grown in consociation with Salsolasoda, salinity induced DM decrease was only 6, 12 and 28% in soils with slight, moderate and high salinity as compared to non-saline soil, respectively. However, when Portulaca oleracea used as companion plant, no significant change in biomass or fruit yield was observed. This study showed that mixed planting with Salsolasodain high saline soils may be an effective phyto-remediation technique that may secure yield formation and quality of tomato. (author)

  7. CD30 ligand is frequently expressed in human hematopoietic malignancies of myeloid and lymphoid origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gattei, V; Degan, M; Gloghini, A; De Iuliis, A; Improta, S; Rossi, F M; Aldinucci, D; Perin, V; Serraino, D; Babare, R; Zagonel, V; Gruss, H J; Carbone, A; Pinto, A

    1997-03-15

    CD30 ligand (CD30L) is a type-II membrane glycoprotein capable of transducing signals leading to either cell death or proliferation through its specific counterstructure CD30. Although several lines of evidence indicate that CD30L plays a key role as a paracrine- or autocrine-acting surface molecule in the deregulated cytokine cascade of Hodgkin's disease, little is known regarding its distribution and biologic significance in other human hematopoietic malignancies. By analyzing tumor cells from 181 patients with RNA studies and immunostaining by the anti-CD30L monoclonal antibody M80, we were able to show that human hematopoietic malignancies of different lineage and maturation stage display a frequent and broad expression of the ligand. CD30L mRNA and surface protein were detected in 60% of acute myeloid leukemias (AMLs), 54% of B-lineage acute lymphoblastic leukemias (ALLs), and in a consistent fraction (68%) of B-cell lymphoproliferative disorders. In this latter group, hairy cell leukemia and high-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) expressed a higher surface density of CD30L as compared with B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia and low-grade B-NHL. Purified plasmacells from a fraction of multiple myeloma patients also displayed CD30L mRNA and protein. A more restricted expression of CD30L was found in T-cell tumors that was mainly confined to neoplasms with an activated peripheral T-cell phenotype, such as T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia, peripheral T-NHL, and adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma. In contrast, none of the T-lineage ALLs analyzed expressed the ligand. In AML, a high cellular density of CD30L was detected in French-American-British M3, M4, and M5 phenotypes, which are directly associated with the presence on tumor cells of certain surface structures, including the p55 interleukin-2 receptor alpha-chain, the alpha(M) (CD11b) chain of beta2 integrins, and the intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (CD54). Analysis of normal hematopoietic cells

  8. Differing House Finch Cytokine Expression Responses to Original and Evolved Isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michal Vinkler

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG in free-living house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus, which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host–pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes (IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15, and CXCLi2, syn. IL8L. These assays were then used to describe cytokine transcription profiles in a panel of 15 house finch tissues collected at three distinct time points during MG infection. Based on initial screening that indicated strong pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during MG infection at the periorbital sites in particular, we selected two key house finch tissues for further characterization: the nictitating membrane, i.e., the internal eyelid in direct contact with MG, and the Harderian gland, the secondary lymphoid tissue responsible for regulation of periorbital immunity. We characterized cytokine responses in these two tissues for 60 house finches experimentally inoculated either with media alone (sham or one of two MG isolates: the earliest known pathogen isolate from house finches (VA1994 or an evolutionarily more derived isolate collected in 2006 (NC2006, which is known to be more virulent. We show that the more derived and virulent isolate NC2006, relative to VA1994, triggers stronger local inflammatory cytokine signaling, with peak cytokine expression generally occurring 3–6 days following MG inoculation. We also found that the extent of pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta signaling was correlated with conjunctival

  9. Differing House Finch Cytokine Expression Responses to Original and Evolved Isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinkler, Michal; Leon, Ariel E; Kirkpatrick, Laila; Dalloul, Rami A; Hawley, Dana M

    2018-01-01

    The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in free-living house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus ), which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host-pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes ( IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15 , and CXCLi2 , syn. IL8L ). These assays were then used to describe cytokine transcription profiles in a panel of 15 house finch tissues collected at three distinct time points during MG infection. Based on initial screening that indicated strong pro-inflammatory cytokine expression during MG infection at the periorbital sites in particular, we selected two key house finch tissues for further characterization: the nictitating membrane, i.e., the internal eyelid in direct contact with MG, and the Harderian gland, the secondary lymphoid tissue responsible for regulation of periorbital immunity. We characterized cytokine responses in these two tissues for 60 house finches experimentally inoculated either with media alone (sham) or one of two MG isolates: the earliest known pathogen isolate from house finches (VA1994) or an evolutionarily more derived isolate collected in 2006 (NC2006), which is known to be more virulent. We show that the more derived and virulent isolate NC2006, relative to VA1994, triggers stronger local inflammatory cytokine signaling, with peak cytokine expression generally occurring 3-6 days following MG inoculation. We also found that the extent of pro-inflammatory interleukin 1 beta signaling was correlated with conjunctival MG loads

  10. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Kumar Chaturvedi

    Full Text Available Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13 showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl, osmotic (PEG and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++ stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  11. The SbMT-2 gene from a halophyte confers abiotic stress tolerance and modulates ROS scavenging in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Patel, Manish Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Jha, Bhavanath

    2014-01-01

    Heavy metals are common pollutants of the coastal saline area and Salicornia brachiata an extreme halophyte is frequently exposed to various abiotic stresses including heavy metals. The SbMT-2 gene was cloned and transformed to tobacco for the functional validation. Transgenic tobacco lines (L2, L4, L6 and L13) showed significantly enhanced salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) tolerance compared to WT plants. Transgenic lines did not show any morphological variation and had enhanced growth parameters viz. shoot length, root length, fresh weight and dry weight. High seed germination percentage, chlorophyll content, relative water content, electrolytic leakage and membrane stability index confirmed that transgenic lines performed better under salt (NaCl), osmotic (PEG) and metals (Zn++, Cu++ and Cd++) stress conditions compared to WT plants. Proline, H2O2 and lipid peroxidation (MDA) analyses suggested the role of SbMT-2 in cellular homeostasis and H2O2 detoxification. Furthermore in vivo localization of H2O2 and O2-; and elevated expression of key antioxidant enzyme encoding genes, SOD, POD and APX evident the possible role of SbMT-2 in ROS scavenging/detoxification mechanism. Transgenic lines showed accumulation of Cu++ and Cd++ in root while Zn++ in stem under stress condition. Under control (unstressed) condition, Zn++ was accumulated more in root but accumulation of Zn++ in stem under stress condition suggested that SbMT-2 may involve in the selective translocation of Zn++ from root to stem. This observation was further supported by the up-regulation of zinc transporter encoding genes NtZIP1 and NtHMA-A under metal ion stress condition. The study suggested that SbMT-2 modulates ROS scavenging and is a potential candidate to be used for phytoremediation and imparting stress tolerance.

  12. The relationship between silicon availability, and growth and silicon concentration of the salt marsh halophyte Spartina anglica

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bakker, N.; Hemminga, M.A.; Van Soelen, J.

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of silicon concentrations of various halophytes from salt marshes in the S.W. Netherlands shows that the silicon concentration of Spartina anglica (Gramineae) is relatively high. To study the influence of dissolved Si concentrations on growth and plant tissue concentrations of S. anglica,

  13. Soil Microbial Community Structure Evolution along Halophyte Succession in Bohai Bay Wetland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyang Cong

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is urgent to recover Bohai Bay costal wetland ecosystem because of covering a large area of severe saline-alkali soil. To explore the relationship between halophyte herbaceous succession and microbial community structure, we chose four local communities which played an important role in improving soil microenvironment. We performed phospholipid fatty acid analysis, measured soil parameters, and evaluated shifts of microbial community structure. Results showed that microbial community structure changed significantly along succession and bacteria community was dominant. Total phospholipid fatty acid content increased in different successional stages but decreased with depth, with similar variations in bacterial and fungal biomass. Soil organic carbon and especially total nitrogen were positively correlated with microbial biomass. Colonization of pioneering salt-tolerant plants Suaeda glauca in saline-alkali bare land changed total soil microorganism content and composition. These results showed that belowground processes were strongly related with aboveground halophyte succession. Fungal/bacterial ratio, Gram-negative/Gram-positive bacteria ratio, total microbial biomass, and fungi and bacteria content could indicate the degree of succession stages in Bohai Bay wetland ecosystem. And also these findings demonstrated that microbial community biomass and composition evolved along with vegetation succession environmental variables.

  14. Effect of extraction solvents on polyphenols and antioxidant activity of medicinal halophytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qasim, M.; Aziz, I.; Gul, B.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the most effective solvent for extraction of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of medicinally important coastal halophytes (Thespesia populneoides, Salvadora persica, Ipomoea pes-caprae, Suaeda fruticosa and Pluchea lanceolata) known for high antioxidant potential. Five different solvents (water, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, acetone and chloroform) were used to quantify polyphenols including total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoid (TFC) and proanthocyanidin contents (PC) and antioxidant capacity using DPPH radical scavenging and Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) activities. Among solvents of different polarities 80% methanol appeared most effective for polyphenol extraction. Thespesia populneoides had the highest polyphenols (TPC, TFC and PC) followed by Salvadora persica. Highest antioxidant activity was also found in T. populneoides and S. persica using the same solvent (80% methanol) which appeared better than synthetic antioxidants (BHA and BHT). The correlation analyses of each solvent showed strong to weak relationships among all studied parameters with maximum values (r and R2) in methanol followed by ethanol and water. Weaker correlation of acetone and chloroform indicates low capacity of these solvents both for polyphenol extraction and antioxidant activity. Our results reveal that aqueous methanol extracts of coastal halophytes had comparatively higher antioxidant activity than commercial antioxidants which indicate both their prospective efficacy and potential to replace synthetic derivatives from edible and medicinal products. (abstract)

  15. Stoichiometric variation of halophytes in response to changes in soil salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, X; Gao, Y; Wang, D; Chen, J; Zhang, F; Zhou, J; Yan, X; Li, Y

    2017-05-01

    Variation in soil salt may change the stoichiometry of a halophyte by altering plant ecophysiology, and exert different influences on various plant organs, which has potentially important consequences for the nutrition of consumers as well as nutrient cycling in a saline ecosystem. Using a greenhouse pot experiment, we investigated the effect of salinity variability on the growth and stoichiometry of different organs of Suaeda glauca and Salicornia europaea - two dominant species of important ecological and economic value in the saline ecosystem. Our results showed that appropriate salt stimulated the growth of both species during the vigorous growth period, while high salt suppressed growth. Na significantly increased with increased salt in the culture, whereas concentrations of other measured elements and K:Na ratio for both species significantly decreased at low salt treatments, and became more gradual under higher salt conditions. Furthermore, with the change of salt in culture, variations in leaf (degenerated leaf for S. europaea, considered as young stem) stoichiometry, except N:P ratio, were large and less in stems (old stems for S. europaea) than in roots, reflecting physiological and biochemical reactions in the leaf in response to salt stress, supported by sharp changes in trends. These results suggest that appropriate saline conditions can enhance biological C fixation of halophytes; however, increasing salt could affect consumer health and decrease cycling of other nutrients in saline ecosystems. © 2017 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance of salt marsh rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, Harry N

    1970-09-01

    The role of succulent halophytes in the water balance and ecology of salt marsh rodents is dependent upon an evaluation of the composition of the available sources and the physiological properties of their potential consumers. Studies of the osmotic properties of succulent halophytes from southern California coastal salt marshes are presented, together with experiments regarding the utilization of Common Pickleweed (Salicornia virginica L.) by indigenous populations of cricetid rodents (harvest mouse Reithrodontomys megalotis limicola Von Bloecker, and meadow-mouse Microtus californicus stephensi Von Bloecker). These data are discussed in relation to other available information concerning the ecology of coastal salt marshes, particularly in western North America.Extruded sap of Common Pickleweed was found to have a mean total osmotic pressure (TOP) of 1,450 mOsm/liter, with an average chloride ion content of 876 mEq/liter (about 70% of the TOP). A related species, Salicornia subterminale, had a slightly lower TOP (1,300 mOsm/liter), of which about 29% was accounted for by chloride ion concentration. Sea Blight (Suaeda fruticosa) was the only species in which the TOP correlated with the distance from the tide level; sap TOP increased away from the lagoon's edge. In both Sea Blight and Common Pickle weed, TOP was not directly related to chloride content, indicating the importance of other osmotically active solutes.Harvest mice were placed on three experimental regimes: 1) millet seeds only, 2) pickleweed only, and 3) pickleweed and millet seed. Meadow mice were tested on the last regime only. Harvest mice survived best on a strict millet seed diet; when Salicornia was consumed to a detectable extent, the mice did not survive. Meadow mice, however, could survive using Salicornia as a dietary source in conjunction with seeds. Kidney electrolyte concentrating abilities indicated that harvest mice should be able to utilize pickleweed; this was not confirmed in my

  17. Expression of recombinant staphylokinase, a fibrin-specific plasminogen activator of bacterial origin, in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerszberg, Aneta; Wiktorek-Smagur, Aneta; Hnatuszko-Konka, Katarzyna; Łuchniak, Piotr; Kononowicz, Andrzej K

    2012-03-01

    One of the most dynamically developing sectors of green biotechnology is molecular farming using transgenic plants as natural bioreactors for the large scale production of recombinant proteins with biopharmaceutical and therapeutic values. Such properties are characteristic of certain proteins of bacterial origin, including staphylokinase. For many years, work has been carried out on the use of this protein in thrombolytic therapy. In this study, transgenic Solanum tuberosum plants expressing a CaMV::sak-mgpf-gusA gene fusion, were obtained. AGL1 A. tumefaciens strain was used in the process of transformation. The presence of the staphylokinase gene was confirmed by PCR in 22.5% of the investigated plants. The expression of the fusion transgene was detected using the β-glucuronidase activity assay in 32 putative transgenic plants. Furthermore, on the basis of the GUS histochemical reaction, the transgene expression pattern had a strong, constitutive character in seven of the transformants. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of a protein extract from the SAK/PCR-positive plants, revealed the presence of a119 kDa protein that corresponds to that of the fusion protein SAK-mGFP-GUSA. Western blot analysis, using an antibody against staphylokinase, showed the presence of the staphylokinase domain in the 119 kDa protein in six analyzed transformants. However, the enzymatic test revealed amidolytic activity characteristic of staphylokinase in the protein extract of only one plant. This is the first report on a Solanum tuberosum plant producing a recombinant staphylokinase protein, a plasminogen activator of bacterial origin.

  18. Antiprogestin mifepristone inhibits the growth of cancer cells of reproductive and non-reproductive origin regardless of progesterone receptor expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tieszen, Chelsea R; Goyeneche, Alicia A; Brandhagen, BreeAnn N; Ortbahn, Casey T; Telleria, Carlos M

    2011-01-01

    Mifepristone (MF) has been largely used in reproductive medicine due to its capacity to modulate the progesterone receptor (PR). The study of MF has been expanded to the field of oncology; yet it remains unclear whether the expression of PR is required for MF to act as an anti-cancer agent. Our laboratory has shown that MF is a potent inhibitor of ovarian cancer cell growth. In this study we questioned whether the growth inhibitory properties of MF observed in ovarian cancer cells would translate to other cancers of reproductive and non-reproductive origin and, importantly, whether its efficacy is related to the expression of cognate PR. Dose-response experiments were conducted with cancer cell lines of the nervous system, breast, prostate, ovary, and bone. Cultures were exposed to vehicle or increasing concentrations of MF for 72 h and analysed for cell number and cell cycle traverse, and hypodiploid DNA content characteristic of apoptotic cell death. For all cell lines, expression of steroid hormone receptors upon treatment with vehicle or cytostatic doses of MF for 24 h was studied by Western blot, whereas the activity of the G1/S regulatory protein Cdk2 in both treatment groups was monitored in vitro by the capacity of Cdk2 to phosphorylate histone H1. MF growth inhibited all cancer cell lines regardless of tissue of origin and hormone responsiveness, and reduced the activity of Cdk2. Cancer cells in which MF induced G1 growth arrest were less susceptible to lethality in the presence of high concentrations of MF, when compared to cancer cells that did not accumulate in G1. While all cancer cell lines were growth inhibited by MF, only the breast cancer MCF-7 cells expressed cognate PR. Antiprogestin MF inhibits the growth of different cancer cell lines with a cytostatic effect at lower concentrations in association with a decline in the activity of the cell cycle regulatory protein Cdk2, and apoptotic lethality at higher doses in association with increased

  19. Antiprogestin mifepristone inhibits the growth of cancer cells of reproductive and non-reproductive origin regardless of progesterone receptor expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortbahn Casey T

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mifepristone (MF has been largely used in reproductive medicine due to its capacity to modulate the progesterone receptor (PR. The study of MF has been expanded to the field of oncology; yet it remains unclear whether the expression of PR is required for MF to act as an anti-cancer agent. Our laboratory has shown that MF is a potent inhibitor of ovarian cancer cell growth. In this study we questioned whether the growth inhibitory properties of MF observed in ovarian cancer cells would translate to other cancers of reproductive and non-reproductive origin and, importantly, whether its efficacy is related to the expression of cognate PR. Methods Dose-response experiments were conducted with cancer cell lines of the nervous system, breast, prostate, ovary, and bone. Cultures were exposed to vehicle or increasing concentrations of MF for 72 h and analysed for cell number and cell cycle traverse, and hypodiploid DNA content characteristic of apoptotic cell death. For all cell lines, expression of steroid hormone receptors upon treatment with vehicle or cytostatic doses of MF for 24 h was studied by Western blot, whereas the activity of the G1/S regulatory protein Cdk2 in both treatment groups was monitored in vitro by the capacity of Cdk2 to phosphorylate histone H1. Results MF growth inhibited all cancer cell lines regardless of tissue of origin and hormone responsiveness, and reduced the activity of Cdk2. Cancer cells in which MF induced G1 growth arrest were less susceptible to lethality in the presence of high concentrations of MF, when compared to cancer cells that did not accumulate in G1. While all cancer cell lines were growth inhibited by MF, only the breast cancer MCF-7 cells expressed cognate PR. Conclusions Antiprogestin MF inhibits the growth of different cancer cell lines with a cytostatic effect at lower concentrations in association with a decline in the activity of the cell cycle regulatory protein Cdk2, and

  20. Violence against Teachers in Comprehensive Schools: Reasons of Origin, Forms of Expression and Outcome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-04-01

    because it destroys the basis of trust and cooperation without which the effective education process of knowledge communication and its acceptance is hardly possible. Reduction of pupils’ violence against teachers is not only the matter of school. In order to reduce the expression of violence against teachers the society should support changing the attitude towards the importance of teacher’s job, as well as state institutions making appropriate decisions concerning material evaluation of teacher’s job, and also the teacher himself doing his job honestly and with responsibility and always ready to understand the needs of modern youth and to react creatively.

  1. C-reactive protein expression is up-regulated in apical lesions of endodontic origin in association with interleukin-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, Mauricio; Dezerega, Andrea; Bordagaray, María José; Reyes, Montserrat; Vernal, Rolando; Melgar-Rodríguez, Samantha; Ciuchi, Pía; Paredes, Rodolfo; García-Sesnich, Jocelyn; Ahumada-Montalva, Pablo; Hernández, Marcela

    2015-04-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is the prototype component of acute-phase proteins induced ultimately by interleukin (IL)-6 in the liver, but it is unknown whether periradicular tissues locally express CRP. The present study aimed to identify whether CRP messenger RNA synthesis occurs in situ within apical lesions of endodontic origin (ALEOs) and healthy periodontal ligament and its association with IL-6 and to determine their protein levels and tissue localization. Patients with asymptomatic apical periodontitis and healthy volunteers presenting at the School of Dentistry, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile, were enrolled. ALEOs and healthy teeth were obtained and processed for either immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescence to assess IL-6 and CRP tissue localization, whereas healthy periodontal ligaments were processed as controls for real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction for their RNA expression levels and multiplex assay to determine their protein levels. Statistic analysis was performed using the unpaired t test or Mann-Whitney test according to data distribution and Pearson correlation. IL-6 and CRP were synthesized in ALEOs, whereas their RNA expression and protein levels were significantly higher when compared with healthy periodontal ligament. IL-6 and CRP immunolocalized to the inflammatory cells, vascular endothelial cells, and mesenchymal cells. Both, IL-6 and CRP colocalized in ALEOs, and a positive correlation was found between their expression levels (P periodontal ligament and up-regulated in ALEOs along with higher protein levels. Given their pleiotropic effects, IL-6 and CRP protein levels in apical tissues might partially explain the development and progression of ALEOs as well as potentially asymptomatic apical periodontitis-associated systemic low-grade inflammation. Copyright © 2015 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Connection Between the Originality Level of Pupils' Visual Expression in Visual Arts Lessons and Their Level of Tolerance for Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Huzjak

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to examine the connection between the originality level in children's expression during visual art lessons and their level of tolerance for difference. The participants comprised primary school pupils from grades one, two and three, a total of 110. It was confirmed that there was a statistically significant difference between the pupils who had an introduction to the lesson using the didactic model of visual problembased teaching and those who had not. Learning and setting art terminology, the analysis of motifs and explanation, as well as demonstration of art techniques resulted in a higher level of creativity in visual performance, as well as a higher level of tolerance. It can be concluded that, with the proper choice of didactic models in teaching the visual arts, a wide range of pupil attitudes and beliefs can be improved.

  3. Environmental change in a Mediterranean salt marsh wetland: ecological drivers of halophytes diversity along flooding frequency gradients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricia María Rodríguez-González

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Coastal wetlands are among most threatened ecosystems, owing to the intense human activity concentrated in shoreline areas together with the expected sea level rise resultant from climate change. Salt marshes are wetlands which are inundated twice daily by the sea, thus tightly dependent on frequency and duration of submergence. Identifying the factors that determine the diversity, distribution and abundance of halophyte species in salt marshes will help retaining their conservation status and adopt anticipate management measures, and this will ultimately contribute to preserve marshland biodiversity and ecological services. Reserva Natural de Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António (RNSCMVRSA is a natural reserve located in South Eastern Portugal, comprising the tidal area of Guadiana River mouth. In spite of their great ecological value, salt marsh ecosystems in this region have suffered intense anthropic disturbance, namely hydrologic alterations and vegetation removal to gain soils for agriculture and salt intensive production. The present study aimed at characterizing the halophyte diversity in the RNSCMVRSA salt marshes and determining their major ecological correlates. The end-point is to implement, afterward, a sustainable cultivation of autochthonous halophyte plants, with economic value, in the abandoned saltpans and degraded rangelands. This project will contribute to the conservation of halophyte diversity, promote environmental requalification, and provide an economic alternative for local populations, enabling the reduction of unregulated harvest of halophyte plant populations. Field sampling strategy included a preliminary survey of local vegetation diversity and floristic inventories of halophyte communities in plots established across the existing environmental heterogeneity in order to span the whole variation gradients of the species presence and abundance. The abiotic characterization of halophyte communities included a

  4. Expression and Evolution of Short Wavelength Sensitive Opsins in Colugos: A Nocturnal Lineage That Informs Debate on Primate Origins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Gillian L; Lim, Norman T-L; Neitz, Maureen; Peichl, Leo; Dominy, Nathaniel J

    2013-01-01

    A nocturnal activity pattern is central to almost all hypotheses on the adaptive origins of primates. This enduring view has been challenged in recent years on the basis of variation in the opsin genes of nocturnal primates. A correspondence between the opsin genes and activity patterns of species in Euarchonta-the superordinal group that includes the orders Primates, Dermoptera (colugos), and Scandentia (treeshrews)-could prove instructive, yet the basic biology of the dermopteran visual system is practically unknown. Here we show that the eye of the Sunda colugo ( Galeopterus variegatus ) lacks a tapetum lucidum and has an avascular retina, and we report on the expression and spectral sensitivity of cone photopigments. We found that Sunda colugos have intact short wavelength sensitive (S-) and long wavelength sensitive (L-) opsin genes, and that both opsins are expressed in cone photoreceptors of the retina. The inferred peak spectral sensitivities are 451 and 562 nm, respectively. In line with adaptation to nocturnal vision, cone densities are low. Surprisingly, a majority of S-cones coexpress some L-opsin. We also show that the ratio of rates of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions of exon 1 of the S-opsin gene is indicative of purifying selection. Taken together, our results suggest that natural selection has favored a functional S-opsin in a nocturnal lineage for at least 45 million years. Accordingly, a nocturnal activity pattern remains the most likely ancestral character state of euprimates.

  5. The use of halophytic plants for salt phytoremediation in constructed wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzi, Abolfazl; Borghei, Seyed Mehdi; Vossoughi, Manouchehr

    2017-07-03

    This research studied the use of constructed wetlands (CWs) to reduce water salinity. For this purpose, three halophytic species of the Chenopodiaceae family (Salicornia europaea, Salsola crassa, and Bienertia cycloptera) that are resistant to saline conditions were planted in the CWs, and experiments were conducted at three different salinity levels [electrical conductivity (EC)∼2, 6, 10 dS/m]. EC and concentrations of calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and chlorine (Cl) were measured before and after phytoremediation with a retention time of 1 week. The results suggested that these plants were able to grow well and complete their life cycles at all the salinity levels within this study. Moreover, these plants reduced the measured parameters to acceptable levels. Therefore, these plants can be considered good options for salt phytoremediation.

  6. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by Sesuvium portulacastrum l. a salt marsh halophyte from tannery effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayyappan, Durai; Sathiyaraj, Ganesan; Ravindran, Konganapuram Chellappan

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the sources for remediation of heavy metals and salts from tannery effluent using salt marsh halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. From the results observed, in tannery effluent treated soil from 1 kg dry weight of plant sample, Sesuvium portulacastrum accumulated 49.82 mg Cr, 22.10 mg Cd, 35.10 mg Cu and 70.10 mg Zn and from 1 g dry weight of the plant sample, 246.21 mg Na Cl. Cultivation of Sesuvium portulacastrum significantly reduced the EC, pH and SAR levels in tannery effluent and salt treated soil and correspondingly increased in plant sample after 125 days of cultivation. In conclusion, Sesuvium portulacastrum was an efficient in accumulating heavy metals such as Chromium, Cadmium, Copper and Zinc, sodium and chloride maximum through its leaves when compared to stem and root. The finding of these bioacccumulation studies indicates that Sesuvium portulacastrum could be used for phytoremediation of tannery effluent contaminated field.

  7. Effect of saline soil parameters on endo mycorrhizal colonisation of dominant halophytes in four Hungarian sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuzy, A.; Biro, B.; Toth, T.

    2010-07-01

    Soil and root samples were collected from the rhizosphere of dominant halophytes (Artemisia santonicum, Aster tripolium, Festuca pseudovina, Lepidium crassifolium, Plantago maritima and Puccinellia limosa) at four locations with saline soils in Hungary. The correlations- between arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) fungal colonisation parameters (% colonisation, % arbuscules) and soil physical, chemical and biological parameters were determined Endomycorrhiza colonisation was found to be negatively correlated with the electric conductivity of the soil paste, the salt-specific ion concentrations and the cation exchange capacity, showing the sensitivity of AM fungi at increasing salt concentrations, independently of the types of salt-specific anions. A positive correlation was detected between the mycorrhiza colonisation and the abundance of oligotroph bacteria known to be the less variable and more stable (k-strategist) group. This fact and the negative correlation found with the humus content underlines the importance of nutrient availability and the limitations of the symbiotic interactions in stressed saline or sodic soils. (Author) 29 refs.

  8. Deficit irrigation of a landscape halophyte for reuse of saline waste water in a desert city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, E.P.; Mckeon, C.; Gerhart, V.; Nagler, P.L.; Jordan, F.; Artiola, J.

    2009-01-01

    Saline waste waters from industrial and water treatment processes are an under-utilized resource in desert urban environments. Management practices to safely use these water sources are still in development. We used a deeprooted native halophyte, Atriplex lentiformis (quailbush), to absorb mildly saline effluent (1800 mg l-1 total dissolved solids, mainly sodium sulfate) from a water treatment plant in the desert community of Twentynine Palms, California. We developed a deficit irrigation strategy to avoid discharging water past the root zone to the aquifer. The plants were irrigated at about one-third the rate of reference evapotranspiration (ETo) calculated from meteorological data over five years and soil moisture levels were monitored to a soil depth of 4.7 m at monthly intervals with a neutron hydroprobe. The deficit irrigation schedule maintained the soil below field capacity throughout the study. Water was presented on a more or less constant schedule, so that the application rates were less than ETo in summer and equal to or slightly greater than ETo in winter, but the plants were able to consume water stored in the profile in winter to support summer ET. Sodium salts gradually increased in the soil profile over the study but sulfate levels remained low, due to formation of gypsum in the calcic soil. The high salt tolerance, deep roots, and drought tolerance of desert halophytes such as A. lentiformis lend these plants to use as deficit-irrigated landscape plants for disposal of effluents in urban setting when protection of the aquifer is important. ?? 2008 Elsevier B.V.

  9. Phytostabilisation of severely contaminated mine tailings using halophytes and field addition of organic and inorganic amendments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, T; Bernal, M P; Clemente, R

    2017-07-01

    Phytostabilisation strategies have proven to be an efficient remediation option for mine tailings, but the adequate plant species and amendments have to be carefully selected. A remediation experiment was carried out at the semi-field level in tailings (pH 3.2, ≈1100, 4700 and 5000 mg kg -1 of As, Pb and Zn, respectively) from the mining district of La Unión-Cartagena (SE Spain). A red mud derivative (Fe/Al oxides), its combination with compost, and hydrated lime (Ca hydroxide) were applied in field plots of 0.25 m 2 . After four months of field stabilisation, tailings were transferred unaltered to a plant growth facility, and Atriplex halimus and Zygophyllum fabago (halophytes) were sown. Three months later, trace element (TE) solubility, plant accumulation and chemical speciation in the tailings pore water were studied. In unamended tailings, soluble TEs concentrations were very high (e.g., 40 mg Zn l -1 ), the dominant species being free ions and SO 4 2- - complexes (>70%). The addition of amendments increased tailings pH (6.7-7), reduced TEs solubility and extractability (>80-99%) and changed the dominant species of soluble Al, Cu, Pb and Zn to hydroxides and/or organo-metallic complexes, but increased slightly the extractable As and soluble Tl concentrations. Plants were able to grow only in amended tailings, and both species presented low levels of Al, As, Cd and Zn. Therefore, the use of combined red mud derivative and compost and halophytes was shown to be a good phytostabilisation strategy, although the dose applied must be carefully chosen in order to avoid possible solubilisation of As and Tl. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Validation of reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR normalization in Suaeda aralocaspica, an annual halophyte with heteromorphism and C4 pathway without Kranz anatomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Cao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR is a powerful analytical technique for the measurement of gene expression, which depends on the stability of the reference gene used for data normalization. Suaeda aralocaspica, an annual halophyte with heteromorphic seeds and possessing C4 photosynthesis pathway without Kranz anatomy, is an ideal plant species to identify stress tolerance-related genes and compare relative expression at transcriptional level. So far, no molecular information is available for this species. In the present study, six traditionally used reference genes were selected and their expression stability in two types of seeds of S. aralocaspica under different experimental conditions was evaluated. Three analytical programs, geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper, were used to assess and rank the stability of reference gene expression. Results revealed that although some reference genes may display different transcriptional profiles between the two types of seeds, β-TUB and GAPDH appeared to be the most suitable references under different developmental stages and tissues. GAPDH was the appropriate reference gene under different germination time points and salt stress conditions, and ACTIN was suitable for various abiotic stress treatments for the two types of seeds. For all the sample pools, β-TUB served as the most stable reference gene, whereas 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA performed poorly and presented as the least stable genes in our study. UBQ seemed to be unsuitable as internal control under different salt treatments. In addition, the expression of a photosynthesis-related gene (PPDK of C4 pathway and a salt tolerance-related gene (SAT of S. aralocaspica were used to validate the best performance reference genes. This is the first systematic comparison of reference gene selection for qRT-PCR work in S. aralocaspica and these data will facilitate further studies on gene expression in this species

  11. High dendritic expression of Ih in the proximity of the axon origin controls the integrative properties of nigral dopamine neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Dominique; Seutin, Vincent

    2015-11-15

    The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih is expressed in dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra, but the subcellular distribution of the current and its role in synaptic integration remain unknown. We used cell-attached patch recordings to determine the localization profile of Ih along the somatodendritic axis of nigral dopamine neurons in slices from young rats. Ih density is higher in axon-bearing dendrites, in a membrane area close to the axon origin, than in the soma and axon-lacking dendrites. Dual current-clamp recordings revealed a similar contribution of Ih to the waveform of single excitatory postsynaptic potentials throughout the somatodendritic domain. The Ih blocker ZD 7288 increased the temporal summation in all dendrites with a comparable effect in axon- and non-axon dendrites. The strategic position of Ih in the proximity of the axon may influence importantly transitions between pacemaker and bursting activities and consequently the downstream release of dopamine. Dendrites of most neurons express voltage-gated ion channels in their membrane. In combination with passive properties, active currents confer to dendrites a high computational potential. The hyperpolarization-activated cation current Ih present in the dendrites of some pyramidal neurons affects their membrane and integration properties, synaptic plasticity and higher functions such as memory. A gradient of increasing h-channel density towards distal dendrites has been found to be responsible for the location independence of excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) waveform and temporal summation in cortical and hippocampal pyramidal cells. However, reports on other cell types revealed that smoother gradients or even linear distributions of Ih can achieve homogeneous temporal summation. Although the existence of a robust, slowly activating Ih current has been repeatedly demonstrated in nigral dopamine neurons, its subcellular distribution and precise role in synaptic integration

  12. Rethinking the role of edaphic condition in halophyte vegetation degradation on salt marshes due to coastal defense structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Tian; Cui, Baoshan; Bai, Junhong; Li, Shanze; Zhang, Shuyan

    2018-02-01

    Determining how human disturbance affects plant community persistence and species conservation is one of the most pressing ecological challenges. The large-scale disturbance form defense structures usually have a long-term and potential effect on phytocommunity in coastal saltmarshes. Coastal defense structures usually remove the effect of tidal wave on tidal salt marshes. As a consequence, edaphic factors such as the salinity and moisture contents are disturbed by tidal action blocking. However, few previous studies have explicitly addressed the response of halophyte species persistence and dynamics to the changing edaphic conditions. The understanding of the response of species composition in seed banks and aboveground vegetation to the stress is important to identify ecological effect of coastal defense structures and provide usefully insight into restoration. Here, we conducted a field study to distinguish the density, species composition and relationships of seed bank with aboveground vegetation between tidal flat wetlands with and without coastal defense structures. We also addressed the role of edaphic condition in vegetation degradation caused by coastal defense structures in combination with field monitor and greenhouse experiments. Our results showed the density of the seed bank and aboveground vegetation in the tidal flat without coastal defense structures was significantly lower than the surrounded flat with coastal defense structures. A total of 14 species were founded in the surrounded flat seed bank and 11 species in the tidal flat, but three species were only recorded in aboveground vegetation of the tidal flat which was much lower than 24 aboveground species in the surrounded flat. The absent of species in aboveground vegetation contributed to low germination rate which depend on the edaphic condition. The germination of seeds in the seed bank were inhabited by high soil salinity in the tidal flat and low soil moisture in the surrounded flat. Our

  13. The Arabidopsis Halophytic Relative Thellungiella halophila Tolerates Nitrogen-Limiting Conditions by Maintaining Growth, Nitrogen Uptake, and Assimilation1[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Weretilnyk, Elizabeth; Barak, Simon; Rothstein, Steven J.

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive knowledge of mechanisms regulating nitrogen (N) use efficiency is required to reduce excessive input of N fertilizers while maintaining acceptable crop yields under limited N supply. Studying plant species that are naturally adapted to low N conditions could facilitate the identification of novel regulatory genes conferring better N use efficiency. Here, we show that Thellungiella halophila, a halophytic relative of Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), grows better than Arabidopsis under moderate (1 mm nitrate) and severe (0.4 mm nitrate) N-limiting conditions. Thellungiella exhibited a lower carbon to N ratio than Arabidopsis under N limitation, which was due to Thellungiella plants possessing higher N content, total amino acids, total soluble protein, and lower starch content compared with Arabidopsis. Furthermore, Thellungiella had higher amounts of several metabolites, such as soluble sugars and organic acids, under N-sufficient conditions (4 mm nitrate). Nitrate reductase activity and NR2 gene expression in Thellungiella displayed less of a reduction in response to N limitation than in Arabidopsis. Thellungiella shoot GS1 expression was more induced by low N than in Arabidopsis, while in roots, Thellungiella GS2 expression was maintained under N limitation but was decreased in Arabidopsis. Up-regulation of NRT2.1 and NRT3.1 expression was higher and repression of NRT1.1 was lower in Thellungiella roots under N-limiting conditions compared with Arabidopsis. Differential transporter gene expression was correlated with higher nitrate influx in Thellungiella at low 15NO3− supply. Taken together, our results suggest that Thellungiella is tolerant to N-limited conditions and could act as a model system to unravel the mechanisms for low N tolerance. PMID:18467466

  14. Cell Free DNA of Tumor Origin Induces a 'Metastatic' Expression Profile in HT-29 Cancer Cell Line.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Fűri

    Full Text Available Epithelial cells in malignant conditions release DNA into the extracellular compartment. Cell free DNA of tumor origin may act as a ligand of DNA sensing mechanisms and mediate changes in epithelial-stromal interactions.To evaluate and compare the potential autocrine and paracrine regulatory effect of normal and malignant epithelial cell-related DNA on TLR9 and STING mediated pathways in HT-29 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells and normal fibroblasts.DNA isolated from normal and tumorous colonic epithelia of fresh frozen surgically removed tissue samples was used for 24 and 6 hour treatment of HT-29 colon carcinoma and HDF-α fibroblast cells. Whole genome mRNA expression analysis and qRT-PCR was performed for the elements/members of TLR9 signaling pathway. Immunocytochemistry was performed for epithelial markers (i.e. CK20 and E-cadherin, DNA methyltransferase 3a (DNMT3a and NFκB (for treated HDFα cells.Administration of tumor derived DNA on HT29 cells resulted in significant (p<0.05 mRNA level alteration in 118 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05, including overexpression of metallothionein genes (i.e. MT1H, MT1X, MT1P2, MT2A, metastasis-associated genes (i.e. TACSTD2, MACC1, MALAT1, tumor biomarker (CEACAM5, metabolic genes (i.e. INSIG1, LIPG, messenger molecule genes (i.e. DAPP, CREB3L2. Increased protein levels of CK20, E-cadherin, and DNMT3a was observed after tumor DNA treatment in HT-29 cells. Healthy DNA treatment affected mRNA expression of 613 genes (logFc≥1, p≤0.05, including increased expression of key adaptor molecules of TLR9 pathway (e.g. MYD88, IRAK2, NFκB, IL8, IL-1β, STING pathway (ADAR, IRF7, CXCL10, CASP1 and the FGF2 gene.DNA from tumorous colon epithelium, but not from the normal epithelial cells acts as a pro-metastatic factor to HT-29 cells through the overexpression of pro-metastatic genes through TLR9/MYD88 independent pathway. In contrast, DNA derived from healthy colonic epithelium induced TLR9 and STING signaling

  15. BRD4 Phosphorylation Regulates HPV E2-Mediated Viral Transcription, Origin Replication, and Cellular MMP-9 Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shwu-Yuan Wu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Post-translational modification can modulate protein conformation and alter binding partner recruitment within gene regulatory regions. Here, we report that bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4, a transcription co-factor and chromatin regulator, uses a phosphorylation-induced switch mechanism to recruit E2 protein encoded by cancer-associated human papillomavirus (HPV to viral early gene and cellular matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 promoters. Enhanced MMP-9 expression, induced upon keratinocyte differentiation, occurs via BRD4-dependent recruitment of active AP-1 and NF-κB to their target sequences. This is triggered by replacement of AP-1 family members JunB and JunD by c-Jun and by re-localization of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In addition, BRD4 phosphorylation is critical for E2- and origin-dependent HPV DNA replication. A class of phospho-BRD4-targeting compounds, distinct from the BET bromodomain inhibitors, effectively blocks BRD4 phosphorylation-specific functions in transcription and factor recruitment.

  16. How can we take advantage of halophyte properties to cope with heavy metal toxicity in salt-affected areas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutts, Stanley; Lefèvre, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Background Many areas throughout the world are simultaneously contaminated by high concentrations of soluble salts and by high concentrations of heavy metals that constitute a serious threat to human health. The use of plants to extract or stabilize pollutants is an interesting alternative to classical expensive decontamination procedures. However, suitable plant species still need to be identified for reclamation of substrates presenting a high electrical conductivity. Scope Halophytic plant species are able to cope with several abiotic constraints occurring simultaneously in their natural environment. This review considers their putative interest for remediation of polluted soil in relation to their ability to sequester absorbed toxic ions in trichomes or vacuoles, to perform efficient osmotic adjustment and to limit the deleterious impact of oxidative stress. These physiological adaptations are considered in relation to the impact of salt on heavy metal bioavailabilty in two types of ecosystem: (1) salt marshes and mangroves, and (2) mine tailings in semi-arid areas. Conclusions Numerous halophytes exhibit a high level of heavy metal accumulation and external NaCl may directly influence heavy metal speciation and absorption rate. Maintenance of biomass production and plant water status makes some halophytes promising candidates for further management of heavy-metal-polluted areas in both saline and non-saline environments. PMID:25672360

  17. Soil amendment with halophytes induces physiological changes and reduces root-knot infection in eggplant and okra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waseem M. ABBASI

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne javanica (Treub Chitwood is a soil-borne plant pathogen of roots. Nematode infection results in altered plant growth and physicochemical processes due to gall formation. Many plants contain unique biochemicals that have biocidal properties and offer a potential novel approach to suppress the nematode populations in soil and improve growth of crop plants. In the present study effect of some indigenous halophytic plant species (Tamarix indica Willd, Suaeda fruticosa Forssk and Salsola imbricata (Schultz Dandy were tested against M. javanica. Tested halophytes significantly (P<0.001 reduced egg hatching and caused mortality of second stage juveniles (J2 in vitro. These halophytes when incorporated in soil (0.3, 0.5 and 1% w/w markedly increased growth of eggplant (Solanum melongena L. cv. Black beauty and okra (Abelmoschus esculentus [L.] Moench. cv. Arka anamika and provided control of root-knot infection at higher doses (0.5 and 1%. Amended eggplants and okra showed significant (P<0.001 increase in chlorophylls and decrease in chlorophyll a/b ratio. Protein concentration in leaves of both the plants were increased with 1% amendment of S. fruticosa and S. imbricata. While nucleic acid concentrations were varied with different treatments.  

  18. Secondary metabolites as anti-nutritional factors in locally used halophytic forage/fodder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehsen, S.; Qasim, M.; Abideen, Z.; Rizve, R. F.; Gul, B.; Ansari, R.

    2016-01-01

    Rampant salinity coupled with population explosion necessitates search for suitable alternatives to conventional sources of food both for human and animal consumption. While it may be difficult to change our culinary preferences, training animals to adopt a changed diet of nonconventional salt tolerant plants is easier. Using these wild plants however, requires estimation of undesirable secondary metabolites (SMs) produced during stressful conditions, which may be harmful for health of animals. Some of these anti-nutritional components (total phenols, flavonoids, tannins, nitrates, saponins and oxalates) were determined in 22 halophytes locally used as fodder/forage. Most of the species were perennial shrubs and herbs of an area where environmental conditions like high mean annual temperature (∼35 degree C), low rainfall (< 250mm) with soil mostly dry (average 2 percent moisture) and saline (average EC 13 dSm/sup -1/) supported the growth of halophytes and xerophytes. Values of SMs in the studied plants ranged from 0.13-4.05 percent for total phenols, 0.38-6.99 percent for tannins, 0.15-1.50 percent for flavonoids, 0.10-1.15 percent for nitrates, 0.45-8.68 percent for saponins and 0.36-2.34 percent for oxalates. Most of the species (19) contained low to moderate amount of individual as well as total SMs which were within the non-toxic ranges. However, three species distributed in coastal habitats where average soil salinity (27.67 dSm-1) was considerably higher than inland ones (7.09 dSm-1) had SMs contents above the safe limits. It is evident from these Results that most of these plants contained moderate to low levels of anti-nutritional factors, which lies under the safe limits and hence, could be used as a potential feed source to raise animals, particularly in arid/semiarid areas. Additionally, these plants represents a viable choice as they can be grown without encroaching on agricultural lands and fresh water resources and could promote livestock

  19. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    of the bacterial genes. We have investigated the invasiveness of primary chicken embryo intestinal cells (CEICs) by C. jejuni strains of human and chicken origins and the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as the expression of the bacterial virulence-associated genes during co-cultivation. Results C......-free media from another co-cultivation experiment also increased the expression of the virulence-associated genes in the C. jejuni chicken isolate, indicating that the expression of bacterial genes is regulated by component(s) secreted upon co-cultivation of bacteria and CEICs. Conclusion We show that under...... in vitro culture condition C. jejuni strains of both human and chicken origins can invade avian host cells with a pro-inflammatory response and that the virulence-associated genes of C. jejuni may play a role in this process....

  20. Halophytic plants as a component of a bioregenerative life support system for recycling of NaCl contained in human liquid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    Currently, the closure of matter turnover is one of the urgent problems of bioregenerative life support system (BLSS) designing. The important aspect of the problem is involving of substances contained in liquid and solid exometabolites of humans inhabiting BLSS into intrasystem matter turnover. Recycling of Na+ and Cl- contained in human liquid exometabolites, i.e. urine is acknowledged to be among the main tasks of the matter turnover in BLSS. The ions excreted with urine may be returned to human organism with food. A way to allow this is including edible halophytic plants into the phototrophic compartment of BLSS. Halophytes are defined as plants which can grow on saline soils and produce high biomass under these conditions. Some halophytes can take up high quantities of Na+ and Cl- and accumulate the ions in the shoots or extrude them to leaf surface by means of salt glands. To allow Na+ and Cl- recycling through halophyte utilization, the following principal steps should be accomplished: (i) mineralization of the exometabolites by physicochemical methods; (ii) oxidation of ammonia formed during the exometabolite mineralization to nitrate by nitrifying bacteria, (iii) growing the halophyte on the nutrient solution prepared on the basis of the mineralized exometabolites, (iv) introducing the halophyte green biomass into human food. The present work is devoted to the following problems: (i) selection of a salt-accumulating/extruding halophytic plant suitable for Na+ and Cl- recycling in BLSS and (ii) parameter evaluation of a plant conveyor containing the halophytic plants at various ages. Halophytic plants selected for BLSS should meet the following criteria: (i) ability to grow under 24-hour-illumination, (ii) high productivity, (iii) ability to accumulate Na+ and Cl- in high quantities in shoots or to excrete salts to leaf surface, (iv) edibility, and (v) high nutritive value of the biomass. Relying on these criteria, salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia

  1. Water potential in soil and Atriplex nummularia (phytoremediator halophyte) under drought and salt stresses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo, Hidelblandi Farias; de Souza, Edivan Rodrigues; de Almeida, Brivaldo Gomes; Mulas, Maurizio

    2018-02-23

    Atriplex nummularia is a halophyte widely employed to recover saline soils and was used as a model to evaluate the water potentials in the soil-plant system under drought and salt stresses. Potted plants grown under 70 and 37% of field capacity irrigated with solutions of NaCl and of a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl 2 and CaCl 2 reproducing six electrical conductivity (EC): 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 dS m -1 . After 100 days, total water (Ψ w, plant ) and osmotic (Ψ o, plant ) potentials at predawn and midday and Ψ o, soil , matric potential (Ψ m, soil ) and Ψ w, soil were determined. The type of ion in the irrigation water did not influence the soil potential, but was altered by EC. The soil Ψ o component was the largest contributor to Ψ w, soil . Atriplex is surviving ECs close to 40 dS m -1 due to the decrease in the Ψ w . The plants reached a Ψ w of approximately -8 MPa. The water potentials determined for different moisture levels, EC levels and salt types showed huge importance for the management of this species in semiarid regions and can be used to recover salt affected soils.

  2. Halophyte vegetation influences in salt marsh retention capacity for heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reboreda, Rosa; Cacador, Isabel

    2007-01-01

    We analysed concentrations of Cu, Cd and Pb in above and belowground tissues of the halophyte species Halimione portulacoides and Spartina maritima, as well as in sediments and pore water between the roots in a Tagus estuary salt marsh (Portugal). From these results we calculated the pools of metals in the compartments mentioned above. Relative percentages of accumulation in each pool were also determined. Our aim was to determine how the type of vegetation in the salt marsh affects overall metal retention capacity of the system. It was concluded that areas colonised by H. portulacoides are potential sources of Cu, Cd and Pb to the marsh ecosystem, whereas areas colonised by S. maritima are more effective sinks at least for Cu and Cd. Consequently, S. maritima seems to contribute more effectively to the stabilisation of metals in salt marsh sediments, reducing their availability to the estuarine system. - The type of vegetal cover can affect the overall retention capacity of a salt marsh as well as the functioning of the salt marsh as a sink or source of metals to the estuarine system

  3. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana; Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis

    2010-01-01

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l -1 on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg -1 . The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l -1 Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P N ). Reductions in P N could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  4. Oxygen dynamics during submergence in the halophytic stem succulent Halosarcia pergranulata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ole; Vos, Harrie; Colmer, Timothy David

    2006-01-01

    This study elucidated O2 dynamics in shoots and roots of submerged Halosarcia pergranulata (Salicornioideae), a perennial halophytic stem succulent that grows on flood-prone mudflats of salt lakes. Oxygen within shoots and roots was measured using microelectrodes, for plants when waterlogged...... the roots, at least during the first several hours (the time period measured) after submergence or when light periods followed darkness. The influence of light on tissue O2 dynamics was confirmed in an experiment on a submerged plant in a salt lake in south-western Australia. In the late afternoon, partial...... pressure of O2 (pO2) in the succulent stem was 23.2 kPa (i.e. ~10% above that in the air), while in the roots, it was 6.2-9.8 kPa. Upon sunset, the pO2 in the succulent stems declined within 1 h to below detection, but then showed some fluctuations with the pO2 increasing to at most 2.5 kPa during...

  5. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the edible medicinal halophyte Tamarix gallica L. and related polyphenolic constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ksouri, Riadh; Falleh, Hanen; Megdiche, Wided; Trabelsi, Najla; Mhamdi, Baya; Chaieb, Kamel; Bakrouf, Amina; Magné, Christian; Abdelly, Chedly

    2009-08-01

    Tamarix gallica is a halophytic species having hepatotonic and stimulant properties, as it was traditionally used in the treatment of various liver disorders. Leaf and flower infusion have anti-inflammatory and anti-diarrheic properties. In this work, we have investigated antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of leaf and flower extracts and their phenolic composition. Results showed that flowers exhibit a higher antioxidant activity as compared to the leaves, IC(50) values of the flower extracts are being 1.3 (beta-carotene bleaching) to 19 times (lipid peroxidation inhibition) lower than those for leaves. Accordingly, flower extracts exhibited the highest total phenolic content (135.35 mgGAE/gDW) and RP-HPLC analysis showed that syringic acid, isoquercitin as well as catechin were the major phenolics. Furthermore, Tamarix extracts showed appreciable antibacterial properties against human pathogen strains. The mean inhibition zone was from 0 to 6.5mm when the concentration increased from 2 to 100mg/l. The strongest activity was recorded against Micrococcus luteus and the lowest activity was observed against Escherichia coli. Moreover, organ extracts show a weakly to moderate activity against the tested Candida. These findings suggest that Tamarix may be considered as an interesting source of antioxidants for therapeutic or nutraceutical industries and for food manufactures.

  6. Protein profiling of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Pantoja, Omar

    2012-09-01

    Plant epidermal trichomes are as varied in morphology as they are in function. In the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum, specialized trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) line the surface of leaves and stems, and increase dramatically in size and volume upon plant salt-treatment. These cells have been proposed to have roles in plant defense and UV protection, but primarily in sodium sequestration and as water reservoirs. To gain further understanding into the roles of EBC, a cell-type-specific proteomics approach was taken in which precision single-cell sampling of cell sap from individual EBC was combined with shotgun peptide sequencing (LC-MS/MS). Identified proteins showed diverse biological functions and cellular locations, with a high representation of proteins involved in H(+)-transport, carbohydrate metabolism, and photosynthesis. The proteome of EBC provides insight into the roles of these cells in ion and water homeostasis and raises the possibility that they are photosynthetically active and functioning in Crassulacean acid metabolism. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. NaCl protects against Cd and Cu-induced toxicity in the halophyte Atriplex halimus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bankaji, I.; Sleimi, N.; Gómez-Cadenas, A.; Pérez-Clemente, R.M.

    2016-07-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the extent of Cd- and Cu-induced oxidative stress and the antioxidant response triggered in the halophyte species Atriplex halimus after metallic trace elements exposure. Plants were treated for one month with Cd2+ or Cu2+ (400 µM) in the absence or presence of 200 mM NaCl in the irrigation solution. The interaction between salinity and heavy metal stress was analyzed in relation to plant growth, tissue ion contents (Na+, K+ and Mg2+), oxidative damage and antioxidative metabolism. Data indicate that shoot and root weight significantly decreased as a consequence of Cd2+- or Cu2+-induced stress. Metallic stress leads to unbalanced nutrient uptake by reducing the translocation of K+ and Mg2+ from the root to the shoot. The levels of malondialdehyde increased in root tissue when Cd, and especially Cu, were added to the irrigation solution, indicating that oxidative damage occurred. Results showed that NaCl gave a partial protection against Cd and Cu induced toxicity, although these contaminants had distinct influence on plant physiology. It can be concluded that salinity drastically modified heavy metal absorption and improved plant growth. Salinity also decreased oxidative damage, but differently in plants exposed to Cd or Cu stress.

  8. NATURAL DEVELOPMENT OF THE HALOPHYTE Salicornia bigelovii (TOR. IN COASTAL AREA OF SONORA STATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Omar Rueda Puente

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to increase knowledge about the vegetative structure and environmental conditions, two coastal areas (north and south in Sonora, Mexico, where Salicornia bigelovii develops in natural form were investigated. Based on the abundance of Salicornia, three locations were selected in the two areas. Transects in each of the three sites were developed. The sediments in the northern areas showed higher values compared with the south areas of Sonora in organic matter. Plant biomass, density, height and frequency of occurrence were higher in frequently flooded areas compared to sparsely or less often by the tides. The average total biomass ranged from 2.23 to 6.33 kg (dry weight m-2 and is composed primarily of surface components. The maximum values of biomass of Salicornia were observed in February to May in both areas. The growth of Salicornia bigelovii is influenced mainly by the frequency of flooding, duration of exposure to air during low tide, rainfall, salinity and salt content of the ambient water and sediment, respectively. The carbon content increased with plant age, while protein content decreased by 233.6%. The steady increase in human pressure on coastal areas where Salicornia and other halophytes growth, require immediate protection order to prevent vulnerabilities in their populations.

  9. A spatial pattern analysis of the halophytic species distribution in an arid coastal environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badreldin, Nasem; Uria-Diez, J; Mateu, J; Youssef, Ali; Stal, Cornelis; El-Bana, Magdy; Magdy, Ahmed; Goossens, Rudi

    2015-05-01

    Obtaining information about the spatial distribution of desert plants is considered as a serious challenge for ecologists and environmental modeling due to the required intensive field work and infrastructures in harsh and remote arid environments. A new method was applied for assessing the spatial distribution of the halophytic species (HS) in an arid coastal environment. This method was based on the object-based image analysis for a high-resolution Google Earth satellite image. The integration of the image processing techniques and field work provided accurate information about the spatial distribution of HS. The extracted objects were based on assumptions that explained the plant-pixel relationship. Three different types of digital image processing techniques were implemented and validated to obtain an accurate HS spatial distribution. A total of 2703 individuals of the HS community were found in the case study, and approximately 82% were located above an elevation of 2 m. The micro-topography exhibited a significant negative relationship with pH and EC (r = -0.79 and -0.81, respectively, p < 0.001). The spatial structure was modeled using stochastic point processes, in particular a hybrid family of Gibbs processes. A new model is proposed that uses a hard-core structure at very short distances, together with a cluster structure in short-to-medium distances and a Poisson structure for larger distances. This model was found to fit the data perfectly well.

  10. Accumulation and tolerance characteristics of cadmium in a halophytic Cd-hyperaccumulator, Arthrocnemum macrostachyum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Redondo-Gomez, Susana, E-mail: susana@us.es [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain); Mateos-Naranjo, Enrique; Andrades-Moreno, Luis [Departamento de Biologia Vegetal y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Sevilla, Apartado 1095, 41080 Sevilla (Spain)

    2010-12-15

    The potential of the extreme halophyte Arthrocnemum macrostachyum was examined to determine its tolerance and ability to accumulate cadmium for phytoremediation purposes. A glasshouse experiment was designed to investigate the effect of cadmium from 0 to 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} on the growth and the photosynthetic apparatus of A. macrostachyum by measuring chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, gas exchange and photosynthetic pigment concentrations. We also determined ash, cadmium, calcium, copper, iron, manganese, magnesium, phosphorous, sodium, and zinc concentrations, and C/N ratio. A. macrostachyum demonstrated hypertolerance to cadmium stress; it did not show phytotoxicity at shoot concentration as high as 70 mg kg{sup -1}. The bioaccumulator factors exceeded the critical value (1.0) for all Cd treatments, and the transport factors indicated that this species has higher ability to transfer Cd from roots to shoots at lower Cd concentrations. At 1.35 mmol l{sup -1} Cd A. macrostachyum showed 25% biomass reduction after a month of treatment. Long-term effects of cadmium on the growth were mainly determined by variations in net photosynthetic rate (P{sub N}). Reductions in P{sub N} could be accounted by higher dark respiration and lower pigment concentrations. Finally, A. macrostachyum has the basic characteristics of a Cd-hyperaccumulator and may be useful for restoring Cd-contaminated sites.

  11. Comparison of Seed Germination and Recovery Responses of a Salt Marsh Halophyte Halopeplis Perfoliata to Osmotic and Ionic Treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasool, S. G.; Hameed, A.; Ahmed, M. Z.; Khan, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    Salinity affects seed germination of halophytes by inducing ionic toxicity, osmotic constraint or both. Information about the effects of salinity on seed germination of a large number of halophytes exists, but generally little is known about the basis of salinity-induced germination inhibition. In order to partition salinity effects, we studied seed germination and recovery responses of a coastal salt marsh halophyte halopeplis perfoliata to different isotonic treatments (Psi/sub S/: -0.5, -1.0, -1.5, -2.0 and -2.5, MPa) of various salts and polythylene glycol (PEG) under two light regimes (12-h light photo period and 24-h complete darkness). Highest seed germination was observed in distilled water under 12-h light photo period and reduction in osmotic potential of the solution decreased seed germination. However, some seeds of H. perfoliata could germinate in as low as -2.5 MPa (600 mM NaCl), which is equivalent to seawater salinity. Sea-salt treatment was more inhibitory than isotonic NaCl at the lowest osmotic potential (Psi/sub S/ -2.5 MPa). Generally, chloride salts with lowest Psi/sub S/ inhibited germination more than the isotonic sulfate salts. Comparable germination responses of the seeds in NaCl and isotonic PEG treatments as well as high recovery of germination in un-germinated seeds after alleviation of NaCl salinity indicated prevalence of osmotic constraint. These results thus indicate that the seeds of H. perfoliata could tolerate high levels of a wide variety of salts found in soil. (author)

  12. Remediation of saline soils contaminated with crude oil using the halophyte Salicornia persica in conjunction with hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebadi, Ali; Khoshkholgh Sima, Nayer Azam; Olamaee, Mohsen; Hashemi, Maryam; Ghorbani Nasrabadi, Reza

    2018-05-08

    The negative impact of salinity on plant growth and the survival of rhizosphere biota complicates the application of bioremediation to crude oil-contaminated saline soils. Here, a comparison was made between the remedial effect of treating the soil with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a salinity tolerant hydrocarbon-degrading consortium in conjunction with either the halophyte Salicornia persica or the non-halophyte Festuca arundinacea. The effect of the various treatments on salinized soils was measured by assessing the extent of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) degradation, the soil's dehydrogenase activity, the abundance of the bacteria and the level of phytotoxicity as measured by a bioassay. When a non-salinized soil was assessed after a treatment period of 120 days, the ranking for effectiveness with respect to TPH removal was F. arundinacea > P. aeruginosa > S. persica > no treatment control, while in the presence of salinity, the ranking changed to S. persica > P. aeruginosa > F. arundinacea > no treatment control. Combining the planting of S. persica or F. arundinacea with P. aeruginosa inoculation ("bioaugmentation") boosted the degradation of TPH up to 5-17%. Analyses of the residual oil contamination revealed that long chain alkanes (above C20) were particularly strongly degraded following the bioaugmentation treatments. The induced increase in dehydrogenase activity and the abundance of the bacteria (3.5 and 10 fold respectively) achieved in the bioaugmentation/S. persica treatment resulted in 46-76% reduction in soil phytotoxicity in a saline soil. The indication was that bioaugmentation of halophyte can help to mitigate the adverse effects on the effectiveness of bioremediation in a crude oil-contaminated saline soil. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Insights into Alpha-Hemolysin (Hla) Evolution and Expression among Staphylococcus aureus Clones with Hospital and Community Origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tavares, Ana; Nielsen, Jesper B; Boye, Kit

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Alpha-hemolysin (Hla) is a major virulence factor in the pathogenesis of Staphylococcus aureus infection, being active against a wide range of host cells. Although hla is ubiquitous in S. aureus, its genetic diversity and variation in expression in different genetic backgrounds...... and SCCmec typing. The internal regions of hla and the hla promoter were sequenced and gene expression was assessed by RT-PCR. RESULTS: Alpha-hemolysin encoding- and promoter sequences were diverse, with 12 and 23 different alleles, respectively. Based on phylogenetic analysis, we suggest that hla may have...... in the RNAIII binding site were not associated to hla expression. Although expression rates of hla were in general strain-specific, we observed CA clones showed significantly higher hla expression (p = 0.003) when compared with HA clones. CONCLUSION: We propose that the hla gene has evolved together...

  14. The fibroblast surface markers FAP, anti-fibroblast, and FSP are expressed by cells of epithelial origin and may be altered during epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahounová, Zuzana; Kurfürstová, Daniela; Bouchal, Jan; Kharaishvili, Gvantsa; Navrátil, Jiří; Remšík, Ján; Šimečková, Šárka; Študent, Vladimír; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2017-04-06

    The identification of fibroblasts and cancer-associated fibroblasts from human cancer tissue using surface markers is difficult, especially because the markers used currently are usually not expressed solely by fibroblasts, and the identification of fibroblast-specific surface molecules is still under investigation. It was aimed to compare three commercially available antibodies in the detection of different surface epitopes of fibroblasts (anti-fibroblast, fibroblast activation protein α, and fibroblast surface protein). The specificity of their expression, employing fibroblast cell lines and tumor-derived fibroblasts from breast and prostate tissues was investigated. Both the established fibroblast cell line HFF-1 and ex vivo primary fibroblasts isolated from breast and prostate cancer tissues expressed the tested surface markers to different degrees. Surprisingly, those markers were expressed also by permanent cell lines of epithelial origin, both benign and cancer-derived (breast-cell lines MCF 10A, HMLE and prostate-cell lines BPH-1, DU 145, and PC-3). The expression of fibroblast activation protein α increased on the surface of previously described models of epithelial cells undergoing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition in response to treatment with TGF-β1. To prove the co-expression of the fibroblast markers on cells of epithelial origin, we used freshly dissociated human prostate and breast cancer tissues. The results confirmed the co-expression of anti-fibroblast and fibroblast surface protein on CD31/CD45-negative/EpCAM-positive epithelial cells. In summary, our data support the findings that the tested fibroblast markers are not fibroblast specific and may be expressed also by cells of epithelial origin (e.g., cells undergoing EMT). Therefore, the expression of these markers should be interpreted with caution, and the combination of several epitopes for both positive (anti-fibroblast or fibroblast activation protein α) and negative (Ep

  15. The majority of atypical cpb2 genes in Clostridium perfringens isolates of different domestic animal origin are expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kircanski, Jasmina; Parreira, Valeria R; Whiteside, Samantha; Pei, Yanlong; Prescott, John F

    2012-10-12

    This study examined the prevalence and expression of the "consensus" and the "atypical"cpb2 genes in Clostridium perfringens isolates from cattle, chickens, dogs, goats, horses, pigs and sheep using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis followed by Western blotting. Almost all porcine isolates (12/14) carried and expressed the consensus form of cpb2 but, when present in 108 non-porcine isolates, the gene was usually the atypical form (40 atypical versus 9 consensus). Western blotting showed expression in 30 of 40 (75%) atypical cpb2-positive isolates, considerably more frequently than reported previously. CPB2 was expressed by almost all (20/21) the consensus cpb2-positive isolates, regardless of source. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. nov., a novel endophytic actinomycete isolated from the coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Ke; Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Dai, Chuan-Chao; Liu, Chang-Hong; Li, Wen-Jun; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2012-11-01

    A novel isolate, designated strain KLBMP 1282(T) was isolated from the surface-sterilized leaves of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour., collected from Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east of China. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that this strain belongs to the genus Pseudonocardia, being most closely related to Pseudonocardia kongjuensis LM 157(T) (98.33 %), Pseudonocardia autotrophica IMSNU 20050(T) (97.77 %), Pseudonocardia endophytica YIM 56035(T) (97.63 %), Pseudonocardia ammonioxydans H9 (T) (97.62 %) and Pseudonocardia compacta IMSNU 20111(T) (97.56 %); similarity to other type strains of the genus Pseudonocardia was <97.5 %. Chemotaxonomic data confirmed the affiliation of strain KLBMP 1282(T) to the genus Pseudonocardia. Strain KLBMP 1282(T) contained MK-8(H(4)) as the predominant ubiquinone and iso-C(16:0) as the major fatty acid. The polar lipids detected in strain KLBMP 1282(T) were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannosides, one unknown phospholipid and four unknown glycolipids. The DNA G + C content of strain KLBMP 1282(T) was 73.1 mol %. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations and the phylogenetic analysis, together with the phenotypic and biochemical tests, allowed the differentiation of strain KLBMP 1282(T) from strains of other recognized Pseudonocardia species. Therefore, strain KLBMP 1282(T) represents a novel species of the genus Pseudonocardia, for which the name Pseudonocardia nantongensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1282(T) (=KCTC 29053(T) = NBRC 108677(T)).

  17. Local desalination treatment plant wastewater reuse and evaluation potential absorption of salts by the halophyte plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elham Kalantari

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of arid and semi-arid areas and consequently water scarcity are affected by climate change. This can influence on availability and quality of water while demands on food and water are increasing. As pressure on freshwater is increasing, utilization of saline water in a sustainable approach is inevitable. Therefore, bioremediation using salt tolerant plants that is consistent with sustainable development objectives might be an alternative and effective approach. In this study, saline wastewater from a local desalination treatment plant was utilized to irrigate four halophyte plants, including Aloevera, Tamarix aphylla, Rosmarinus officinalis and Matricaria chamomilla. A field experiment was designed and conducted in Zarrindasht, south of Iran in years 2012-2013 accordingly. Two irrigation treatments consisting of freshwater with salinity of 2.04 dS.m-1 and desalination wastewater with salinity of 5.77dSm-1 were applied. The experiment was designed as a split plot in the form of randomized complete block design (RCB with three replications. The results of variance analysis, ANOVA, on salt concentration in Aloevera showed that there was no significant difference between the effects of two irrigation water qualities except for Na. In Rosmarinus officinalis, only the ratio of K/Na showed a significant difference. None of the examined salt elements showed a significant difference in Tamarix aphylla irrigated with both water qualities. In Matricaria chamomilla, only Mg and K/Na ratio showed a significant difference (Duncan 5%. As a result, no significant difference was observed in salt absorption by the examined plants in treatments which were irrigated by desalination wastewater and freshwater. This could be a good result that encourages the use of similar wastewater to save freshwater in a sustainable system.

  18. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronwyn Jane Barkla

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte and facultative CAM plant Mesembryathemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples was used to identify 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR. Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na and Cl ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggest large alterations in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  19. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples identified 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR). Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na(+) and Cl(-) ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggests large alterations in M. crystallinum epidermal bladder cells.

  20. Making Epidermal Bladder Cells Bigger: Developmental- and Salinity-Induced Endopolyploidy in a Model Halophyte.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Rhodes, Timothy; Tran, Kieu-Nga T; Wijesinghege, Chathura; Larkin, John C; Dassanayake, Maheshi

    2018-06-01

    Endopolyploidy occurs when DNA replication takes place without subsequent mitotic nuclear division, resulting in cell-specific ploidy levels within tissues. In plants, endopolyploidy plays an important role in sustaining growth and development, but only a few studies have demonstrated a role in abiotic stress response. In this study, we investigated the function of ploidy level and nuclear and cell size in leaf expansion throughout development and tracked cell type-specific ploidy in the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum In addition to developmental endopolyploidy, we examined the effects of salinity stress on ploidy level. We focused specifically on epidermal bladder cells (EBC), which are modified balloon-like trichomes, due to their large size and role in salt accumulation. Our results demonstrate that ploidy increases as the leaves expand in a similar manner for each leaf type, and ploidy levels up to 512C were recorded for nuclei in EBC of leaves of adult plants. Salt treatment led to a significant increase in ploidy levels in the EBC, and these cells showed spatially related differences in their ploidy and nuclear and cell size depending on the positions on the leaf and stem surface. Transcriptome analysis highlighted salinity-induced changes in genes involved in DNA replication, cell cycle, endoreduplication, and trichome development in EBC. The increase in cell size and ploidy observed in M. crystallinum under salinity stress may contribute to salt tolerance by increasing the storage capacity for sodium sequestration brought about by higher metabolic activity driving rapid cell enlargement in the leaf tissue and EBC. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  1. Single cell-type comparative metabolomics of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario

    2015-01-01

    One of the remarkable adaptive features of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum are the specialized modified trichomes called epidermal bladder cells (EBC) which cover the leaves, stems, and peduncle of the plant. They are present from an early developmental stage but upon salt stress rapidly expand due to the accumulation of water and sodium. This particular plant feature makes it an attractive system for single cell type studies, with recent proteomics and transcriptomics studies of the EBC establishing that these cells are metabolically active and have roles other than sodium sequestration. To continue our investigation into the function of these unusual cells we carried out a comprehensive global analysis of the metabolites present in the EBC extract by gas chromatography Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF) and identified 194 known and 722 total molecular features. Statistical analysis of the metabolic changes between control and salt-treated samples identified 352 significantly differing metabolites (268 after correction for FDR). Principal components analysis provided an unbiased evaluation of the data variance structure. Biochemical pathway enrichment analysis suggested significant perturbations in 13 biochemical pathways as defined in KEGG. More than 50% of the metabolites that show significant changes in the EBC, can be classified as compatible solutes and include sugars, sugar alcohols, protein and non-protein amino acids, and organic acids, highlighting the need to maintain osmotic homeostasis to balance the accumulation of Na+ and Cl− ions. Overall, the comparison of metabolic changes in salt treated relative to control samples suggests large alterations in M. crystallinum epidermal bladder cells. PMID:26113856

  2. Determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in seeds of coastal halophytic Sueada aegyptica plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahereh Assadi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Suaeda aegyptica (S. aegyptica species belong to the Chenepodiaceae family, the second largest family in the world of plants kingdom. It is indigenous to arid and semi-arid regions of the world and salty coastal zones Persian Gulf of Iran. It is an annual succulent halophyte plant which is characterized by producing oily seeds, high growth rate and large number of biomass. The aim of this study was analysis and determination of oil and fatty acids concentration in the S. aegyptica seed. Material and Methods: The seeds of S. aegyptica were collected form coastal zones of Persian Gulf in Bushehr province, washed and dried. The fatty acids content of the dried seeds were extracted in n-hexane solvent by soxhellet apparatus. The residue of n-hexane in oily phase was evaporated by rotary evaporator and remaining oil was collected for fatty acids analysis. In the presence of potassium hydroxide and BF3 by refluxing for 30 minutes, the methyl ester derivative of fatty acids were produced. Then the resulted derivatives were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC-FID. Results: The seeds of S. aegyptica contains eight fatty acids as: Pelargonic (C9, Capric (C10, Undecylic (C11, Tridecylic (C13, Myristic (C14, Palmitic (C16, Stearic (C18, Linoleic (18:2 and Linolenic (18:3. Average oil content in seeds 014/0 ± 87 / percent. Conclusion: The ratio of unsaturated fatty acids was higher than the saturated ones. Linoleic and Palmitic acids are major unsaturated and saturated fatty acids of S. aegyptica seed respectively.

  3. Increased resistance to a generalist herbivore in a salinity-stressed non-halophytic plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renault, Sylvie; Wolfe, Scott; Markham, John; Avila-Sakar, Germán

    2016-01-01

    Plants often grow under the combined stress of several factors. Salinity and herbivory, separately, can severely hinder plant growth and reproduction, but the combined effects of both factors are still not clearly understood. Salinity is known to reduce plant tissue nitrogen content and growth rates. Since herbivores prefer tissues with high N content, and biochemical pathways leading to resistance are commonly elicited by salt-stress, we hypothesized that plants growing in saline conditions would have enhanced resistance against herbivores. The non-halophyte, Brassica juncea, and the generalist herbivore Trichoplusia ni were used to test the prediction that plants subjected to salinity stress would be both more resistant and more tolerant to herbivory than those growing without salt stress. Plants were grown under different NaCl levels, and either exposed to herbivores and followed by removal of half of their leaves, or left intact. Plants were left to grow and reproduce until senescence. Tissue quality was assessed, seeds were counted and biomass of different organs measured. Plants exposed to salinity grew less, had reduced tissue nitrogen, protein and chlorophyll content, although proline levels increased. Specific leaf area, leaf water content, transpiration and root:shoot ratio remained unaffected. Plants growing under saline condition had greater constitutive resistance than unstressed plants. However, induced resistance and tolerance were not affected by salinity. These results support the hypothesis that plants growing under salt-stress are better defended against herbivores, although in B. juncea this may be mostly through resistance, and less through tolerance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  4. Physiological and proteomic analyses of salt stress response in the halophyte Halogeton glomeratus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Juncheng; Meng, Yaxiong; Li, Baochun; Ma, Xiaole; Lai, Yong; Si, Erjing; Yang, Ke; Xu, Xianliang; Shang, Xunwu; Wang, Huajun; Wang, Di

    2015-04-01

    Very little is known about the adaptation mechanism of Chenopodiaceae Halogeton glomeratus, a succulent annual halophyte, under saline conditions. In this study, we investigated the morphological and physiological adaptation mechanisms of seedlings exposed to different concentrations of NaCl treatment for 21 d. Our results revealed that H. glomeratus has a robust ability to tolerate salt; its optimal growth occurs under approximately 100 mm NaCl conditions. Salt crystals were deposited in water-storage tissue under saline conditions. We speculate that osmotic adjustment may be the primary mechanism of salt tolerance in H. glomeratus, which transports toxic ions such as sodium into specific salt-storage cells and compartmentalizes them in large vacuoles to maintain the water content of tissues and the succulence of the leaves. To investigate the molecular response mechanisms to salt stress in H. glomeratus, we conducted a comparative proteomic analysis of seedling leaves that had been exposed to 200 mm NaCl for 24 h, 72 h and 7 d. Forty-nine protein spots, exhibiting significant changes in abundance after stress, were identified using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization tandem time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS) and similarity searches across EST database of H. glomeratus. These stress-responsive proteins were categorized into nine functional groups, such as photosynthesis, carbohydrate and energy metabolism, and stress and defence response. © 2014 The Authors. Plant, Cell & Environment published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Coping with low nutrient availability and inundation: root growth responses of three halophytic grass species from different elevations along a flooding gradient

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, T.J.; Koutstaal, B.P.; Van Dongen, M.; Nielsen, K.F.

    2001-01-01

    We describe the responses of three halophytic grass species that dominate the low (Spartina anglica), middle (Puccinellia maritima) and high (Elymus pycnanthus) parts of a salt marsh, to soil conditions that are believed to favour contrasting root-growth strategies. Our hypotheses were: (1)

  6. Effect of climate change on halophytic grasslands loss and its impact in the viability of Gopherus flavomarginatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Becerra-López

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The decrease of the habitat is one of the main factors that affect the survival of G. flavomarginatus. This study assesses the halophytic grasslands loss over a period of 30 years in the distribution area of the Bolson tortoise and the effects of climate change on the habitat suitability of these grasslands and its possible impact on this tortoise. Grassland loss was assessed by an analysis of symmetric differences and the habitat suitability model was carried out by the method of overlapping layers raster. Our results showed a grassland loss of 63.7%; however, our current habitat suitability model points out that much of the grassland loss has occurred where the environmental conditions are suitable. These results suggest that anthropic activity is a main factor in the habitat disturbance in the study area. Likewise, the models for years 2050 and 2070 under the criteria RCP 2.6, RCP 4.5, RCP 6.0, suggest that anthropic activity will continue be the main cause of the grassland loss. Therefore, considering the association between the Bolson tortoise and grassland halophyte Hilaria mutica, which comprises around 60% of its diet, the viability of the Bolson tortoise depends largely on strategies aimed at protecting the soil that allow the presence of this grassland.

  7. Seasonal variations in plant water status of four desert halophytes from semi-arid region of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, I.; Gul, B.; Gulzar, S.; Khan, A

    2011-01-01

    Halophytes in arid and semi arid zones of the world are often subjected to extremely variable drought, salinity and temperature. These fluctuations may bring about changes in their osmoregulation and gas exchange responses besides other physiological and biochemical processes. The purpose of this study was to detect temporal changes in plant water status and osmotic adjustment in four desert halophytes viz., Suaeda fruticosa, Heliotropium curassavicum, Haloxylon stocksii and Atriplex stocksii from an inland community at Karachi University Campus. During the dry period (November to January) water and osmotic potentials of all test species increased with higher values in A. stocksii (salt secretor) than those of S. fruticosa and H. stocksii (salt includer) and H. curassavicum (salt excluder). Proline increased substantially and was highest in H. curassavicum followed by A. stocksii in comparison to the two salt includers. The lowering of osmotic potential corresponded to an increase in Na and Cl, lower stomatal conductance and chlorophyll content indicating reduced gas exchange during the dry period. The increase in proline may have little role in osmoreglation but could contribute in scavenging reactive oxygen species. (author)

  8. Germination of dimorphic seeds of the desert annual halophyte Suaeda aralocaspica (Chenopodiaceae), a C4 plant without Kranz anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei; Huang, Zhenying; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Dong, Ming

    2008-11-01

    Suaeda aralocaspica is a C4 summer annual halophyte without Kranz anatomy that is restricted to the deserts of central Asia. It produces two distinct types of seeds that differ in colour, shape and size. The primary aims of the present study were to compare the dormancy and germination characteristics of dimorphic seeds of S. aralocaspica and to develop a conceptual model of their dynamics. Temperatures simulating those in the natural habitat of S. aralocaspica were used to test for primary dormancy and germination behaviour of fresh brown and black seeds. The effects of cold stratification, gibberellic acid, seed coat scarification, seed coat removal and dry storage on dormancy breaking were tested in black seeds. Germination percentage and recovery responses of brown seeds, non-treated black seeds and 8-week cold-stratified black seeds to salt stress were tested. Brown seeds were non-dormant, whereas black seeds had non-deep Type 2 physiological dormancy (PD). Germination percentage and rate of germination of brown seeds and of variously pretreated black seeds were significantly higher than those of non-pretreated black seeds. Exposure of seeds to various salinities had significant effects on germination, germination recovery and induction into secondary dormancy. A conceptual model is presented that ties these results together and puts them into an ecological context. The two seed morphs of S. aralocaspica exhibit distinct differences in dormancy and germination characteristics. Suaeda aralocaspica is the first cold desert halophyte for which non-deep Type 2 PD has been documented.

  9. Water availability and population origin affect the expression of the tradeoff between reproduction and growth in Plantago coronopus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, C. F.; Garcia, M. B.; Ehlers, B. K.

    2013-01-01

    temperature and precipitation. We found that water availability affected the expression of the tradeoff (both phenotypic and genetic) between reproduction and growth, being most accentuated under dry condition. However, populations responded very differently to water treatments. Plants from annual populations...... showed a similar response to drought condition with little variation among maternal families, suggesting a history of selection favouring genotypes with high allocation to reproduction when water availability is low. Plants from annual populations also expressed the highest level of plasticity...... water availability even among geographically close populations....

  10. Diverse effects of lead nitrate on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression of stem cells isolated from a dental origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Mariam; Rahman, Fazliny Abd; Gnanasegaran, Nareshwaran; Govindasamy, Vijayendran; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Musa, Sabri

    2014-01-01

    Lead (Pb(2+)) exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb(2+) toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb(2+) concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM) for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb(2+) on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb(2+) treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb(2+) continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1) and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb(2+) exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.

  11. Diverse Effects of Lead Nitrate on the Proliferation, Differentiation, and Gene Expression of Stem Cells Isolated from a Dental Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Abdullah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb2+ exposure continues to be a significant public health problem. Therefore, it is vital to have a continuous epidemiological dataset for a better understanding of Pb2+ toxicity. In the present study, we have exposed stem cells isolated from deciduous and permanent teeth, periodontal ligament, and bone marrow to five different types of Pb2+ concentrations (160, 80, 40, 20, and 10 µM for 24 hours to identify the adverse effects of Pb2+ on the proliferation, differentiation, and gene expression on these cell lines. We found that Pb2+ treatment altered the morphology and adhesion of the cells in a dose-dependent manner. There were no significant changes in terms of cell surface phenotypes. Cells exposed to Pb2+ continued to differentiate into chondrogenesis and adipogenesis, and a severe downregulation was observed in osteogenesis. Gene expression studies revealed a constant expression of key markers associated with stemness (Oct 4, Rex 1 and DNA repair enzyme markers, but downregulation occurred with some ectoderm and endoderm markers, demonstrating an irregular and untimely differentiation trail. Our study revealed for the first time that Pb2+ exposure not only affects the phenotypic characteristics but also induces significant alteration in the differentiation and gene expression in the cells.

  12. Expression of cagA, virB/D Complex and/or vacA Genes in Helicobacter pylori Strains Originating from Patients with Gastric Diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Szkaradkiewicz

    Full Text Available In order to better understand pathogenicity of Helicobacter pylori, particularly in the context of its carcinogenic activity, we analysed expression of virulence genes: cagA, virB/D complex (virB4, virB7, virB8, virB9, virB10, virB11, virD4 and vacA in strains of the pathogen originating from persons with gastric diseases. The studies were conducted on 42 strains of H. pylori isolated from patients with histological diagnosis of non-atrophic gastritis-NAG (group 1, including subgroup 1 containing cagA+ isolates and subgroup 2 containing cagA- strains, multifocal atrophic gastritis-MAG (group 2 and gastric adenocarcinoma-GC (group 3. Expression of H. pylori genes was studied using microarray technology. In group 1, in all strains of H. pylori cagA+ (subgroup 1 high expression of the gene as well as of virB/D was disclosed, accompanied by moderate expression of vacA. In strains of subgroup 2 a moderate expression of vacA was detected. All strains in groups 2 and 3 carried cagA gene but they differed in its expression: a high expression was detected in isolates of group 2 and its hyperexpression in strains of group 3 (hypervirulent strains. In both groups high expression of virB/D and vacA was disclosed. Our results indicate that chronic active gastritis may be induced by both cagA+ strains of H. pylori, manifesting high expression of virB/D complex but moderate activity of vacA, and cagA- strains with moderate expression of vacA gene. On the other hand, in progression of gastric pathology and carcinogenesis linked to H. pylori a significant role was played by hypervirulent strains, manifesting a very high expression of cagA and high activity of virB/D and vacA genes.

  13. Extensive evolutionary changes in regulatory element activity during human origins are associated with altered gene expression and positive selection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichiro Shibata

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the molecular basis for phenotypic differences between humans and other primates remains an outstanding challenge. Mutations in non-coding regulatory DNA that alter gene expression have been hypothesized as a key driver of these phenotypic differences. This has been supported by differential gene expression analyses in general, but not by the identification of specific regulatory elements responsible for changes in transcription and phenotype. To identify the genetic source of regulatory differences, we mapped DNaseI hypersensitive (DHS sites, which mark all types of active gene regulatory elements, genome-wide in the same cell type isolated from human, chimpanzee, and macaque. Most DHS sites were conserved among all three species, as expected based on their central role in regulating transcription. However, we found evidence that several hundred DHS sites were gained or lost on the lineages leading to modern human and chimpanzee. Species-specific DHS site gains are enriched near differentially expressed genes, are positively correlated with increased transcription, show evidence of branch-specific positive selection, and overlap with active chromatin marks. Species-specific sequence differences in transcription factor motifs found within these DHS sites are linked with species-specific changes in chromatin accessibility. Together, these indicate that the regulatory elements identified here are genetic contributors to transcriptional and phenotypic differences among primate species.

  14. Genome-wide expression analysis offers new insights into the origin and evolution of Physcomitrella patens stress response

    KAUST Repository

    Khraiwesh, Basel

    2015-11-30

    Changes in the environment, such as those caused by climate change, can exert stress on plant growth, diversity and ultimately global food security. Thus, focused efforts to fully understand plant response to stress are urgently needed in order to develop strategies to cope with the effects of climate change. Because Physcomitrella patens holds a key evolutionary position bridging the gap between green algae and higher plants, and because it exhibits a well-developed stress tolerance, it is an excellent model for such exploration. Here, we have used Physcomitrella patens to study genome-wide responses to abiotic stress through transcriptomic analysis by a high-throughput sequencing platform. We report a comprehensive analysis of transcriptome dynamics, defining profiles of elicited gene regulation responses to abiotic stress-associated hormone Abscisic Acid (ABA), cold, drought, and salt treatments. We identified more than 20,000 genes expressed under each aforementioned stress treatments, of which 9,668 display differential expression in response to stress. The comparison of Physcomitrella patens stress regulated genes with unicellular algae, vascular and flowering plants revealed genomic delineation concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general gene family complexity and loss of genes associated with different functional groups.

  15. Deep evolutionary comparison of gene expression identifies parallel recruitment of trans-factors in two independent origins of C4 photosynthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvain Aubry

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available With at least 60 independent origins spanning monocotyledons and dicotyledons, the C4 photosynthetic pathway represents one of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution. The recurrent evolution of this highly complex trait involving alterations to leaf anatomy, cell biology and biochemistry allows an increase in productivity by ∼ 50% in tropical and subtropical areas. The extent to which separate lineages of C4 plants use the same genetic networks to maintain C4 photosynthesis is unknown. We developed a new informatics framework to enable deep evolutionary comparison of gene expression in species lacking reference genomes. We exploited this to compare gene expression in species representing two independent C4 lineages (Cleome gynandra and Zea mays whose last common ancestor diverged ∼ 140 million years ago. We define a cohort of 3,335 genes that represent conserved components of leaf and photosynthetic development in these species. Furthermore, we show that genes encoding proteins of the C4 cycle are recruited into networks defined by photosynthesis-related genes. Despite the wide evolutionary separation and independent origins of the C4 phenotype, we report that these species use homologous transcription factors to both induce C4 photosynthesis and to maintain the cell specific gene expression required for the pathway to operate. We define a core molecular signature associated with leaf and photosynthetic maturation that is likely shared by angiosperm species derived from the last common ancestor of the monocotyledons and dicotyledons. We show that deep evolutionary comparisons of gene expression can reveal novel insight into the molecular convergence of highly complex phenotypes and that parallel evolution of trans-factors underpins the repeated appearance of C4 photosynthesis. Thus, exploitation of extant natural variation associated with complex traits can be used to identify regulators. Moreover, the transcription factors

  16. Deep evolutionary comparison of gene expression identifies parallel recruitment of trans-factors in two independent origins of C4 photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Sylvain; Kelly, Steven; Kümpers, Britta M C; Smith-Unna, Richard D; Hibberd, Julian M

    2014-06-01

    With at least 60 independent origins spanning monocotyledons and dicotyledons, the C4 photosynthetic pathway represents one of the most remarkable examples of convergent evolution. The recurrent evolution of this highly complex trait involving alterations to leaf anatomy, cell biology and biochemistry allows an increase in productivity by ∼ 50% in tropical and subtropical areas. The extent to which separate lineages of C4 plants use the same genetic networks to maintain C4 photosynthesis is unknown. We developed a new informatics framework to enable deep evolutionary comparison of gene expression in species lacking reference genomes. We exploited this to compare gene expression in species representing two independent C4 lineages (Cleome gynandra and Zea mays) whose last common ancestor diverged ∼ 140 million years ago. We define a cohort of 3,335 genes that represent conserved components of leaf and photosynthetic development in these species. Furthermore, we show that genes encoding proteins of the C4 cycle are recruited into networks defined by photosynthesis-related genes. Despite the wide evolutionary separation and independent origins of the C4 phenotype, we report that these species use homologous transcription factors to both induce C4 photosynthesis and to maintain the cell specific gene expression required for the pathway to operate. We define a core molecular signature associated with leaf and photosynthetic maturation that is likely shared by angiosperm species derived from the last common ancestor of the monocotyledons and dicotyledons. We show that deep evolutionary comparisons of gene expression can reveal novel insight into the molecular convergence of highly complex phenotypes and that parallel evolution of trans-factors underpins the repeated appearance of C4 photosynthesis. Thus, exploitation of extant natural variation associated with complex traits can be used to identify regulators. Moreover, the transcription factors that are shared by

  17. Protection of pigs against pandemic swine origin H1N1 influenza A virus infection by hemagglutinin- or neuraminidase-expressing attenuated pseudorabies virus recombinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, Katharina; Lange, Elke; Blohm, Ulrike; Teifke, Jens P; Mettenleiter, Thomas C; Fuchs, Walter

    2015-03-02

    Influenza is an important respiratory disease of pigs, and may lead to novel human pathogens like the 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine-origin influenza virus (SoIV). Therefore, improved influenza vaccines for pigs are required. Recently, we demonstrated that single intranasal immunization with a hemagglutinin (HA)-expressing pseudorabies virus recombinant of vaccine strain Bartha (PrV-Ba) protected pigs from H1N1 SoIV challenge (Klingbeil et al., 2014). Now we investigated enhancement of efficacy by prime-boost vaccination and/or intramuscular administration. Furthermore, a novel PrV-Ba recombinant expressing codon-optimized N1 neuraminidase (NA) was included. In vitro replication of this virus was only slightly affected compared to parental virus. Unlike HA, the abundantly expressed NA was efficiently incorporated into PrV particles. Immunization of pigs with the two PrV recombinants, either singly or in combination, induced B cell proliferation and the expected SoIV-specific antibodies, whose titers increased substantially after boost vaccination. After immunization of animals with either PrV recombinant H1N1 SoIV challenge virus replication was significantly reduced compared to PrV-Ba vaccinated or naïve controls. Protective efficacy of HA-expressing PrV was higher than of NA-expressing PrV, and not significantly enhanced by combination. Despite higher serum antibody titers obtained after intramuscular immunization, transmission of challenge virus to naïve contact animals was only prevented after intranasal prime-boost vaccination with HA-expressing PrV-Ba. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparative Analysis of WUSCHEL-Related Homeobox Genes Revealed Their Parent-of-Origin and Cell Type-Specific Expression Pattern During Early Embryogenesis in Tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuemei Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available WUSCHEL-related homeobox (WOX gene is a plant-specific clade of homeobox transcription factors. Increasing evidences reveal that WOXs play critical roles in early embryogenesis, which involves zygote development, initiation of zygote division, and apical or basal cell lineage establishment. However, how WOXs regulate these developmental events remains largely unknown, and even detailed expression pattern in gametes and early proembryos is not yet available. Here, 13 WOX family genes were identified in Nicotiana tabacum genome. Comparative analysis of 13 WOX family genes with their homologs in Arabidopsis thaliana reveals relatively conserved expression pattern of WUS and WOX5 in shoot/root apical meristem. Whereas variations were also found, e.g., lacking homolog of WOX8 (a marker for suspensor cell in tobacco genome and the expression of WOX2/WOX9 in both apical cell and basal cell. Transient transcriptional activity analysis revealed that WOXs in WUS clade have repressive activities for their target's transcription, whereas WOXs in ancient and intermediate clade have activation activities, giving a molecular basis for the phylogenetic classification of tobacco WOXs into three major clades. Expression pattern analysis revealed that some WOXs (e.g., WOX 13a expressed in both male and female gametes and some WOXs (e.g., WOX 11 and WOX 13b displayed the characteristics of parent-of-origin genes. Interestingly, some WOXs (e.g., WOX2 and WOX9, which are essential for early embryo patterning, were de novo transcribed in zygote, indicating relevant mechanism for embryo pattern formation is only established in zygote right after fertilization and not carried in by gametes. We also found that most WOXs displayed a stage-specific and cell type-specific expression pattern. Taken together, this work provides a detailed landscape of WOXs in tobacco during fertilization and early embryogenesis, which will facilitate the understanding of their specific roles

  19. Creation of Dystrophin Expressing Chimeric Cells of Myoblast Origin as a Novel Stem Cell Based Therapy for Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemionow, M; Cwykiel, J; Heydemann, A; Garcia-Martinez, J; Siemionow, K; Szilagyi, E

    2018-04-01

    Over the past decade different stem cell (SC) based approaches were tested to treat Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD), a lethal X-linked disorder caused by mutations in dystrophin gene. Despite research efforts, there is no curative therapy for DMD. Allogeneic SC therapies aim to restore dystrophin in the affected muscles; however, they are challenged by rejection and limited engraftment. Thus, there is a need to develop new more efficacious SC therapies. Chimeric Cells (CC), created via ex vivo fusion of donor and recipient cells, represent a promising therapeutic option for tissue regeneration and Vascularized Composite Allotransplantation (VCA) due to tolerogenic properties that eliminate the need for lifelong immunosuppression. This proof of concept study tested feasibility of myoblast fusion for Dystrophin Expressing. Chimeric Cell (DEC) therapy through in vitro characterization and in vivo assessment of engraftment, survival, and efficacy in the mdx mouse model of DMD. Murine DEC were created via ex vivo fusion of normal (snj) and dystrophin-deficient (mdx) myoblasts using polyethylene glycol. Efficacy of myoblast fusion was confirmed by flow cytometry and dystrophin immunostaining, while proliferative and myogenic differentiation capacity of DEC were assessed in vitro. Therapeutic effect after DEC transplant (0.5 × 10 6 ) into the gastrocnemius muscle (GM) of mdx mice was assessed by muscle functional tests. At 30 days post-transplant dystrophin expression in GM of injected mdx mice increased to 37.27 ± 12.1% and correlated with improvement of muscle strength and function. Our study confirmed feasibility and efficacy of DEC therapy and represents a novel SC based approach for treatment of muscular dystrophies.

  20. Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang-Xia Wang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The miR-15/107 family comprises a group of 10 paralogous microRNAs (miRNAs, sharing a 5′ AGCAGC sequence. These miRNAs have overlapping targets. In order to characterize the expression of miR-15/107 family miRNAs, we employed customized TaqMan Low-Density micro-fluid PCR-array to investigate the expression of miR-15/107 family members, and other selected miRNAs, in 11 human tissues obtained at autopsy including the cerebral cortex, frontal cortex, primary visual cortex, thalamus, heart, lung, liver, kidney, spleen, stomach and skeletal muscle. miR-103, miR-195 and miR-497 were expressed at similar levels across various tissues, whereas miR-107 is enriched in brain samples. We also examined the expression patterns of evolutionarily conserved miR-15/107 miRNAs in three distinct primary rat brain cell preparations (enriched for cortical neurons, astrocytes and microglia, respectively. In primary cultures of rat brain cells, several members of the miR-15/107 family are enriched in neurons compared to other cell types in the central nervous system (CNS. In addition to mature miRNAs, we also examined the expression of precursors (pri-miRNAs. Our data suggested a generally poor correlation between the expression of mature miRNAs and their precursors. In summary, we provide a detailed study of the tissue and cell type-specific expression profile of this highly expressed and phylogenetically conserved family of miRNA genes.

  1. Origins of domestication and polyploidy in oca (Oxalis Tuberosa: Oxalidaceae). 2. Chloroplast-expressed glutamine synthetase data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emshwiller, Eve; Doyle, Jeff J

    2002-07-01

    In continuing study of the origins of the octoploid tuber crop oca, Oxalis tuberosa Molina, we used phylogenetic analysis of DNA sequences of the chloroplast-active (nuclear encoded) isozyme of glutamine synthetase (ncpGS) from cultivated oca, its allies in the "Oxalis tuberosa alliance," and other Andean Oxalis. Multiple ncpGS sequences found within individuals of both the cultigen and a yet unnamed wild tuber-bearing taxon of Bolivia were separated by molecular cloning, but some cloned sequences appeared to be artifacts of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) recombination and/or Taq error. Nonetheless, three classes of nonrecombinant sequences each joined a different part of the O. tuberosa alliance clade on the ncpGS gene tree. Octoploid oca shares two sequence classes with the Bolivian tuber-bearing taxon (of unknown ploidy level). Fixed heterozygosity of these two sequence classes in all ocas sampled suggests that they represent homeologous loci and that oca is allopolyploid. A third sequence class, found in eight of nine oca plants sampled, might represent a third homeologous locus, suggesting that oca may be autoallopolyploid, and is shared with another wild tuber-bearing species, tetraploid O. picchensis of southern Peru. Thus, ncpGS data identify these two taxa as the best candidates as progenitors of cultivated oca.

  2. Choline but not its derivative betaine blocks slow vacuolar channels in the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa: implications for salinity stress responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottosin, Igor; Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Shabala, Sergey

    2014-11-03

    Activity of tonoplast slow vacuolar (SV, or TPC1) channels has to be under a tight control, to avoid undesirable leak of cations stored in the vacuole. This is particularly important for salt-grown plants, to ensure efficient vacuolar Na(+) sequestration. In this study we show that choline, a cationic precursor of glycine betaine, efficiently blocks SV channels in leaf and root vacuoles of the two chenopods, Chenopodium quinoa (halophyte) and Beta vulgaris (glycophyte). At the same time, betaine and proline, two major cytosolic organic osmolytes, have no significant effect on SV channel activity. Physiological implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2014 Federation of European Biochemical Societies. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Green fluorescent protein expression from recombinant lettuce infectious yellows virus-defective RNAs originating from RNA 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, H H; Tian, T; Medina, V; Falk, B W

    2001-10-10

    Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV) RNA 2 defective RNAs (D RNAs) were compared in protoplasts for their ability to replicate and to express the green fluorescent protein (GFP) from recombinant D RNA constructs. Initially four LIYV D RNAs of different genetic composition were compared, but only two (LIYV D RNA M5 and M18) replicated to high levels. Both of these contained at least two complete ORFs, one being the 3'-terminal ORF encoding P26. Northern hybridization analysis using probes corresponding to 3' regions of LIYV RNA 2 detected the P26 subgenomic RNA from protoplasts infected with LIYV RNAs 1 and 2 or protoplasts inoculated only with RNA 1 plus either the LIYV D RNA M5 or M18, suggesting that these LIYV D RNAs served as templates to generate the P26 subgenomic RNA. The GFP coding region was inserted as an in-frame insertion into the P26 coding region of the LIYV M5 and M18 D RNAs, yielding M5gfp and M18gfp. When transcripts of M5gfp and M18gfp were used to inoculate protoplasts, bright fluorescence was seen only when they were co-inoculated with LIYV RNA 1. The percentage of fluorescent protoplasts ranged from experiment to experiment, but was as high as 5.8%. Time course analyses showed that fluorescence was not detected before 48 h pi, and this correlated with the timing of LIYV RNA 2 and RNA 2 D RNA accumulation, but not with that of LIYV RNA 1. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. Differential activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana

    2013-01-01

    quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa....... These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce......Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow...

  5. Single-cell-type quantitative proteomic and ionomic analysis of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte model plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to identify salt-responsive proteins

    OpenAIRE

    Barkla, Bronwyn J.; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Raymond, Carolyn

    2016-01-01

    Background Epidermal bladder cells (EBC) are large single-celled, specialized, and modified trichomes found on the aerial parts of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Recent development of a simple but high throughput technique to extract the contents from these cells has provided an opportunity to conduct detailed single-cell-type analyses of their molecular characteristics at high resolution to gain insight into the role of these cells in the salt tolerance of the plant. Results In...

  6. Characterization of phenolic compounds from different species of halophytes from Reserva Natural do Sapal de Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António (Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Mafalda R. Almeida; Joana Pacheco

    2014-01-01

    Reserva Natural do Sapal de Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António (RNSCMVRSA) is a natural reserve (SE of Portugal, Algarve region) that has habitats with different saline conditions and great ecological importance. Halophytes are plants that grow in a wide variety of saline habitats, namely in RNSCMVRSA, and can accumulated in their biomass high contents of salt. This plant behavior can increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and consequently, the oxidative stress, cellular ...

  7. [Response characteristics of the field-measured spectrum for the four general types of halophyte and species recognition in the northern slope area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Xiong, Hei-gang; Nurbay, Abdusalih; Luan, Fu-ming

    2011-12-01

    Based on the field-measured Vis-NIR reflectance of four common types of halophyte (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.) Nevski, Sophora alopecuroides L., Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) within given spots in the Northern Slope Area of Tianshan Mountain in Xinjiang, the spectral response characteristics and species recognition of these types of halophyte were analyzed. The results showed that (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) had higher chlorophyll and carotenoid by CARI and SIPI index. (Sophora alopecuroides L. was at a vigorously growing state and had a higher NDVI compared with the other three types of halophyte because of its greater canopy density. But its CARI and SIPI values were lower due to the influence of its flowers. (Sophora alopecuroides L.) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)) had stable REPs and BEPs, but REPs and BEPs of (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski, Aellen, Alhagi sparsifolia shap) whose spectra red shift and spectra blue shift occurred concurrently obviously changed. There was little difference in spectral curves among the four types of halophyte, so the spectrum mixing phenomenon was severe. (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii (L.)Aellen) and (Alhagi sparsifolia shap) could not be separated exactly in a usual R/NIR feature space in remote sensing. Using the stepwise discriminant analysis, five indices were selected to establish the discriminant model, and the model accuracy was discussed using the validated sample group. The total accuracy of the discriminant model was above 92% and (Achnatherum splendens(Trin.)Nevski) and (Camphorosma monspeliaca L. subsp. lessingii(L.)Aellen) could be respectively recognized 100% correctly.

  8. Isolation of Endophytic Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria Associated with the Halophyte Salicornia europaea and Evaluation of their Promoting Activity Under Salt Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shuai; Zhou, Na; Zhao, Zheng-Yong; Zhang, Ke; Wu, Guo-Hua; Tian, Chang-Yan

    2016-10-01

    Several reports have highlighted that many plant growth-promoting endophytic bacteria (PGPE) can assist their host plants in coping with various biotic and abiotic stresses. However, information about the PGPE colonizing in the halophytes is still scarce. This study was designed to isolate and characterize PGPE from salt-accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea grown under extreme salinity and to evaluate in vitro the bacterial mechanisms related to plant growth promotion. A total of 105 isolates were obtained from the surface-sterilized roots, stems, and assimilation twigs of S. europaea. Thirty-two isolates were initially selected for their ability to produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase as well as other properties such as production of indole-3-acetic acid and phosphate-solubilizing activities. The 16S rRNA gene-sequencing analysis revealed that these isolates belong to 13 different genera and 19 bacterial species. For these 32 strains, seed germination and seedling growth in axenically grown S. europaea seedlings at different NaCl concentrations (50-500 mM) were quantified. Five isolates possessing significant stimulation of the host plant growth were obtained. The five isolates were identified as Bacillus endophyticus, Bacillus tequilensis, Planococcus rifietoensis, Variovorax paradoxus, and Arthrobacter agilis. All the five strains could colonize and can be reisolated from the host plant interior tissues. These results demonstrate that habitat-adapted PGPE isolated from halophyte could enhance plant growth under saline stress conditions.

  9. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yadav Narendra

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1 gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC, chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other

  10. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volkov, Vadim

    2015-01-01

    Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarizes current data concerning Na(+) and K(+) concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows choosing specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX, and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between non-selective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is discussed and

  11. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na(+) loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Narendra Singh; Shukla, Pushp Sheel; Jha, Anupama; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2012-10-11

    Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na(+)/H(+) antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na(+) content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na(+) content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na(+) loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K(+) and Ca(2+) content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na(+) efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na(+) content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly. These

  12. The SbSOS1 gene from the extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata enhances Na+ loading in xylem and confers salt tolerance in transgenic tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Soil salinity adversely affects plant growth and development and disturbs intracellular ion homeostasis resulting cellular toxicity. The Salt Overly Sensitive 1 (SOS1) gene encodes a plasma membrane Na+/H+ antiporter that plays an important role in imparting salt stress tolerance to plants. Here, we report the cloning and characterisation of the SbSOS1 gene from Salicornia brachiata, an extreme halophyte. Results The SbSOS1 gene is 3774 bp long and encodes a protein of 1159 amino acids. SbSOS1 exhibited a greater level of constitutive expression in roots than in shoots and was further increased by salt stress. Overexpressing the S. brachiata SbSOS1 gene in tobacco conferred high salt tolerance, promoted seed germination and increased root length, shoot length, leaf area, fresh weight, dry weight, relative water content (RWC), chlorophyll, K+/Na+ ratio, membrane stability index, soluble sugar, proline and amino acid content relative to wild type (WT) plants. Transgenic plants exhibited reductions in electrolyte leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and MDA content in response to salt stress, which probably occurred because of reduced cytosolic Na+ content and oxidative damage. At higher salt stress, transgenic tobacco plants exhibited reduced Na+ content in root and leaf and higher concentrations in stem and xylem sap relative to WT, which suggests a role of SbSOS1 in Na+ loading to xylem from root and leaf tissues. Transgenic lines also showed increased K+ and Ca2+ content in root tissue compared to WT, which reflect that SbSOS1 indirectly affects the other transporters activity. Conclusions Overexpression of SbSOS1 in tobacco conferred a high degree of salt tolerance, enhanced plant growth and altered physiological and biochemical parameters in response to salt stress. In addition to Na+ efflux outside the plasma membrane, SbSOS1 also helps to maintain variable Na+ content in different organs and also affect the other transporters activity indirectly

  13. Salinity tolerance in plants. Quantitative approach to ion transport starting from halophytes and stepping to genetic and protein engineering for manipulating ion fluxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim eVolkov

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Ion transport is the fundamental factor determining salinity tolerance in plants. The Review starts from differences in ion transport between salt tolerant halophytes and salt-sensitive plants with an emphasis on transport of potassium and sodium via plasma membranes. The comparison provides introductory information for increasing salinity tolerance. Effects of salt stress on ion transport properties of membranes show huge opportunities for manipulating ion fluxes. Further steps require knowledge about mechanisms of ion transport and individual genes of ion transport proteins. Initially, the Review describes methods to measure ion fluxes, the independent set of techniques ensures robust and reliable basement for quantitative approach. The Review briefly summarises current data concerning Na+ and K+ concentrations in cells, refers to primary thermodynamics of ion transport and gives special attention to individual ion channels and transporters. Simplified scheme of a plant cell with known transport systems at the plasma membrane and tonoplast helps to imagine the complexity of ion transport and allows to choose specific transporters for modulating ion transport. The complexity is enhanced by the influence of cell size and cell wall on ion transport. Special attention is given to ion transporters and to potassium and sodium transport by HKT, HAK, NHX and SOS1 proteins. Comparison between nonselective cation channels and ion transporters reveals potential importance of ion transporters and the balance between the two pathways of ion transport. Further on the Review describes in detail several successful attempts to overexpress or knockout ion transporters for changing salinity tolerance. Future perspectives are questioned with more attention given to promising candidate ion channels and transporters for altered expression. Potential direction of increasing salinity tolerance by modifying ion channels and transporters using single point mutations is

  14. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    Practices. Problems. Supervision. Primary School. *Corresponding Author: Asrat Dagnew. E-mail: asratboza@yahoo.com tructional support. The relevant and ... vision is one of indispensable system pment. Supervision is a system of that directly concerned on the aff members in a school or other. Original Research ...

  15. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    language in social interaction( Anto et al., 2012; Tessema et al., 2012). While such ..... 10 items on a five-point Likert scale originally developed by Benard et al. (2007). ..... self-confidence, and hold down their anxiety levels. In this study ...

  16. EXPRESS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ancelin, C.; Le, P.; DeSaint-Quentin, S.; Villatte, N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper presents EXPRESS, an expert system developed for the automation of reliability studies. The first part consists in the description of the method for static thermohydraulic systems. In this step, the authors define the knowledge representation based on the two inference engines - ALOUETTE and LCR developed by EDF. They explain all the process to construct a fault tree from a topological and functional description of the system. Numerous examples are exhibited in illustration of the method. This is followed by the lessons derived from the studies performed on some safety systems of the PALUEL nuclear plant. The development of the same approach for electric power systems is described, insisting on the difference resulting from the sequential nature of these systems. Finally, they show the main advantages identified during the studies

  17. The Origin of Language

    OpenAIRE

    Araki,Naoki

    2018-01-01

    There have been a lot of discussions of the origin of language. Some people think that the origin of words is onomatopoeias. Meanwhile, according to expressive theories, the origin of words and language is the innate cries of pain or pleasure produced by nonhuman animals. Others insist that language originated as a means of communication. Another theory holds that a learned vocalization systems, more like birdsong than innate calls, formed a middle term in language evolution. Others claim tha...

  18. Inverse relationship between tumour proliferation markers and connexin expression in a malignant cardiac tumour originating from mesenchymal stem cell engineered tissue in a rat in-vivo model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cathleen eSpath

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recently, we demonstrated the beneficial effects of engineered heart tissues for the treatment of dilated cardiomyopathy in rats. For further development of this technique we started to produce engineered tissue (ET from mesenchymal stem cells. Interestingly, we observed a malignant tumour invading the heart with an inverse relationship between proliferation markers and connexin-expression.Methods: Commercial CD54+/CD90+/CD34-/CD45- bone marrow derived mesenchymal rat stem cells (cBM-MSC, characterized were used for production of mesenchymal stem-cell-ET (MSC-ET by suspending them in a collagen-I, matrigel-mixture and cultivating for 14 days with electrical stimulation. 3 MSC-ET were implanted around the beating heart of adult rats for days. Another 3 MSC-ET were produced from freshly isolated rat bone marrow derived stem cells (sBM-MSC.Results: 3 weeks after implantation of the MSC-ETs the hearts were surgically excised. While in 5/6 cases the ET was clearly distinguishable and was found as a ring containing mostly connective tissue around the heart, in 1/6 the heart was completely surrounded by a huge, undifferentiated, pleomorphic tumour originating from the cMSC-ET (cBM-MSC, classified as a high grade malignant sarcoma. Quantitatively we found a clear inverse relationship between cardiac connexin-expression (Cx43, Cx40 or Cx45 and increased Ki-67 expression (Cx43: p<0.0001, Cx45: p<0.03, Cx40: p<0.014. At the tumour-heart border there were significantly more Ki-67 positive cells (p=0.001, and only 2% Cx45 and Ki-67-expressing cells, while the other connexins were nearly completely absent (p<0.0001.Conclusions and hypothesis: These observations strongly suggest the hypothesis, that invasive tumour growth is accompanied by reduction in connexins. This implicates that gap junction communication between tumour and normal tissue is reduced or absent, which could mean that growth and differentiation signals can not be exchanged.

  19. Native-Invasive Plants vs. Halophytes in Mediterranean Salt Marshes: Stress Tolerance Mechanisms in Two Related Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Hassan, Mohamad; Chaura, Juliana; López-Gresa, María P; Borsai, Orsolya; Daniso, Enrico; Donat-Torres, María P; Mayoral, Olga; Vicente, Oscar; Boscaiu, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in "La Albufera" Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain). The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves-where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles-and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na(+) and Cl(-) contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose) accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly) higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K(+) transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level-estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation-was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides. Based on these results, we

  20. Native-invasive plants vs. halophytes in Mediterranean salt marshes: Stress tolerance mechanisms in two related species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad eAl Hassan

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dittrichia viscosa is a Mediterranean ruderal species that over the last decades has expanded into new habitats, including coastal salt marshes, ecosystems that are per se fragile and threatened by human activities. To assess the potential risk that this native-invasive species represents for the genuine salt marsh vegetation, we compared its distribution with that of Inula crithmoides, a taxonomically related halophyte, in three salt marshes located in ‘La Albufera’ Natural Park, near the city of Valencia (East Spain. The presence of D. viscosa was restricted to areas of low and moderate salinity, while I. crithmoides was also present in the most saline zones of the salt marshes. Analyses of the responses of the two species to salt and water stress treatments in controlled experiments revealed that both activate the same physiological stress tolerance mechanisms, based essentially on the transport of toxic ions to the leaves – where they are presumably compartmentalized in vacuoles – and the accumulation of specific osmolytes for osmotic adjustment. The two species differ in the efficiency of those mechanisms: salt-induced increases in Na+ and Cl- contents were higher in I. crithmoides than in D. viscosa, and the osmolytes (especially glycine betaine, but also arabinose, fructose and glucose accumulated at higher levels in the former species. This explains the (slightly higher stress tolerance of I. crithmoides, as compared to D. viscosa, established from growth inhibition measurements and their distribution in nature. The possible activation of K+ transport to the leaves under high salinity conditions may also contribute to salt tolerance in I. crithmoides. Oxidative stress level – estimated from malondialdehyde accumulation – was higher in the less tolerant D. viscosa, which consequently activated antioxidant responses as a defense mechanism against stress; these responses were weaker or absent in the more tolerant I. crithmoides

  1. Original Researc Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    2015-03-17

    Mar 17, 2015 ... absence of carotenoids pigments (Eriksson et al., 2008). Yellow skin color is the result of the expression of carotenoid pigments in the skins of birds (Smyth, 1990) and according to Eriksson et al. (2008), it is generally considered to be associated with the individual's adaptive fitness reflecting its nutritional ...

  2. Original Research Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RAGHAVENDRA

    expression for propagation of path loss in land and mobile radio services. ... work reviewed; show that empirical path loss models ...... Communications 5(1): 44-51. Ayeni, A.A. ... Journal of Wireless and Mobile Computing 7(6):11. Faruk, N.

  3. Antimicrobial peptides effectively kill a broad spectrum of Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus strains independently of origin, sub-type, or virulence factor expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristensen Hans-Henrik

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Host defense peptides (HDPs, or antimicrobial peptides (AMPs, are important components of the innate immune system that bacterial pathogens must overcome to establish an infection and HDPs have been suggested as novel antimicrobial therapeutics in treatment of infectious diseases. Hence it is important to determine the natural variation in susceptibility to HDPs to ensure a successful use in clinical treatment regimes. Results Strains of two human bacterial pathogens, Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus, were selected to cover a wide range of origin, sub-type, and phenotypic behavior. Strains within each species were equally sensitive to HDPs and oxidative stress representing important components of the innate immune defense system. Four non-human peptides (protamine, plectasin, novicidin, and novispirin G10 were similar in activity profile (MIC value spectrum to the human β-defensin 3 (HBD-3. All strains were inhibited by concentrations of hydrogen peroxide between 0.1% – 1.0%. Sub-selections of both species differed in expression of several virulence-related factors and in their ability to survive in human whole blood and kill the nematode virulence model Caenorhabditis elegans. For L. monocytogenes, proliferation in whole blood was paralleled by high invasion in Caco-2 cells and fast killing of C. elegans, however, no such pattern in phenotypic behavior was observed for S. aureus and none of the phenotypic differences were correlated to sensitivity to HDPs. Conclusion Strains of L. monocytogenes and S. aureus were within each species equally sensitive to a range of HDPs despite variations in subtype, origin, and phenotypic behavior. Our results suggest that therapeutic use of HDPs will not be hampered by occurrence of naturally tolerant strains of the two species investigated in the present study.

  4. Molecular evolution and expression of archosaurian β-keratins: diversification and expansion of archosaurian β-keratins and the origin of feather β-keratins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwold, Matthew J; Sawyer, Roger H

    2013-09-01

    The archosauria consist of two living groups, crocodilians, and birds. Here we compare the structure, expression, and phylogeny of the beta (β)-keratins in two crocodilian genomes and two avian genomes to gain a better understanding of the evolutionary origin of the feather β-keratins. Unlike squamates such as the green anole with 40 β-keratins in its genome, the chicken and zebra finch genomes have over 100 β-keratin genes in their genomes, while the American alligator has 20 β-keratin genes, and the saltwater crocodile has 21 β-keratin genes. The crocodilian β-keratins are similar to those of birds and these structural proteins have a central filament domain and N- and C-termini, which contribute to the matrix material between the twisted β-sheets, which form the 2-3 nm filament. Overall the expression of alligator β-keratin genes in the integument increases during development. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrates that a crocodilian β-keratin clade forms a monophyletic group with the avian scale and feather β-keratins, suggesting that avian scale and feather β-keratins along with a subset of crocodilian β-keratins evolved from a common ancestral gene/s. Overall, our analyses support the view that the epidermal appendages of basal archosaurs used a diverse array of β-keratins, which evolved into crocodilian and avian specific clades. In birds, the scale and feather subfamilies appear to have evolved independently in the avian lineage from a subset of archosaurian claw β-keratins. The expansion of the avian specific feather β-keratin genes accompanied the diversification of birds and the evolution of feathers. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Comparative transcriptome analyses of a late-maturing mandarin mutant and its original cultivar reveals gene expression profiling associated with citrus fruit maturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Characteristics of late maturity in fruit are good agronomic traits for extending the harvest period and marketing time. However, underlying molecular basis of the late-maturing mechanism in fruit is largely unknown. In this study, RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq technology was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs related to late-maturing characteristics from a late-maturing mutant ‘Huawan Wuzishatangju’ (HWWZSTJ (Citrus reticulata Blanco and its original line ‘Wuzishatangju’ (WZSTJ. A total of approximately 17.0 Gb and 84.2 M paried-end reads were obtained. DEGs were significantly enriched in the pathway of photosynthesis, phenylpropanoid biosynthesis, carotenoid biosynthesis, chlorophyll and abscisic acid (ABA metabolism. Thirteen candidate transcripts related to chlorophyll metabolism, carotenoid biosynthesis and ABA metabolism were analyzed using real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR at all fruit maturing stages of HWWZSTJ and WZSTJ. Chlorophyllase (CLH and divinyl reductase (DVR from chlorophyll metabolism, phytoene synthase (PSY and capsanthin/capsorubin synthase (CCS from carotenoid biosynthesis, and abscisic acid 8′-hydroxylase (AB1 and 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED1 from ABA metabolism were cloned and analyzed. The expression pattern of NCED1 indicated its role in the late-maturing characteristics of HWWZSTJ. There were 270 consecutive bases missing in HWWZSTJ in comparison with full-length sequences of NCED1 cDNA from WZSTJ. Those results suggested that NCED1 might play an important role in the late maturity of HWWZSTJ. This study provides new information on complex process that results in the late maturity of Citrus fruit at the transcriptional level.

  6. Cd and Ni transport and accumulation in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum: implication of organic acids in these processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahar eGhnaya

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The implication of organic acids in Cd and Ni translocation was studied in the halophyte species Sesuvium portulacastrum. Citric, fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids were separated and quantified by HPLC technique in shoots, roots and xylem saps of plants grown on nutrient solutions added with 50 µM Cd, 100 µM Ni and the combination of 50 µM Cd + 100 µM Ni. Results showed that Cd had no significant impact on biomass production while Ni and the combination of both metals drastically affected plant development. Cadmium and Ni concentrations in tissues and xylem sap were higher in plants individually exposed to heavy metal application than in those subjected to the combined treatment Cd + Ni, suggesting a possible competition between these metals for absorption. Both metals applied separately or in combination induced an increase in citrate concentration in shoots and xylem sap but a decrease of this concentration in the roots. However a minor relationship was observed between metal application and fumaric, malic and ascorbic acids. Both observations suggest the implication of citric acid in Cd, Ni translocation and shoot accumulation in S. portulacastrum. The relatively high accumulation of citric acid in xylem sap and shoot of S. portulacastrum could be involved in metal chelation and thus contributes to heavy metal tolerance in this species.

  7. Introgression of the SbASR-1 Gene Cloned from a Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Enhances Salinity and Drought Endurance in Transgenic Groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) and Acts as a Transcription Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Vivekanand; Chaturvedi, Amit Kumar; Mishra, Avinash; Jha, Bhavanath

    2015-01-01

    The SbASR-1 gene, cloned from a halophyte Salicornia brachiata, encodes a plant-specific hydrophilic and stress responsive protein. The genome of S. brachiata has two paralogs of the SbASR-1 gene (2549 bp), which is comprised of a single intron of 1611 bp, the largest intron of the  abscisic acid stress ripening [ASR] gene family yet reported. In silico analysis of the 843-bp putative promoter revealed the presence of ABA, biotic stress, dehydration, phytohormone, salinity, and sugar responsive cis-regulatory motifs. The SbASR-1 protein belongs to Group 7 LEA protein family with different amino acid composition compared to their glycophytic homologs. Bipartite Nuclear Localization Signal (NLS) was found on the C-terminal end of protein and localization study confirmed that SbASR-1 is a nuclear protein. Furthermore, transgenic groundnut (Arachis hypogaea) plants over-expressing the SbASR-1 gene constitutively showed enhanced salinity and drought stress tolerance in the T1 generation. Leaves of transgenic lines exhibited higher chlorophyll and relative water contents and lower electrolyte leakage, malondialdehyde content, proline, sugars, and starch accumulation under stress treatments than wild-type (Wt) plants. Also, lower accumulation of H2O2 and O2.- radicals was detected in transgenic lines compared to Wt plants under stress conditions. Transcript expression of APX (ascorbate peroxidase) and CAT (catalase) genes were higher in Wt plants, whereas the SOD (superoxide dismutase) transcripts were higher in transgenic lines under stress. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) confirmed that the SbASR-1 protein binds at the consensus sequence (C/G/A)(G/T)CC(C/G)(C/G/A)(A/T). Based on results of the present study, it may be concluded that SbASR-1 enhances the salinity and drought stress tolerance in transgenic groundnut by functioning as a LEA (late embryogenesis abundant) protein and a transcription factor. PMID:26158616

  8. An original SERPINA3 gene cluster: Elucidation of genomic organization and gene expression in the Bos taurus 21q24 region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouali Ahmed

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The superfamily of serine proteinase inhibitors (serpins is involved in numerous fundamental biological processes as inflammation, blood coagulation and apoptosis. Our interest is focused on the SERPINA3 sub-family. The major human plasma protease inhibitor, α1-antichymotrypsin, encoded by the SERPINA3 gene, is homologous to genes organized in clusters in several mammalian species. However, although there is a similar genic organization with a high degree of sequence conservation, the reactive-centre-loop domains, which are responsible for the protease specificity, show significant divergences. Results We provide additional information by analyzing the situation of SERPINA3 in the bovine genome. A cluster of eight genes and one pseudogene sharing a high degree of identity and the same structural organization was characterized. Bovine SERPINA3 genes were localized by radiation hybrid mapping on 21q24 and only spanned over 235 Kilobases. For all these genes, we propose a new nomenclature from SERPINA3-1 to SERPINA3-8. They share approximately 70% of identity with the human SERPINA3 homologue. In the cluster, we described an original sub-group of six members with an unexpected high degree of conservation for the reactive-centre-loop domain, suggesting a similar peptidase inhibitory pattern. Preliminary expression analyses of these bovSERPINA3s showed different tissue-specific patterns and diverse states of glycosylation and phosphorylation. Finally, in the context of phylogenetic analyses, we improved our knowledge on mammalian SERPINAs evolution. Conclusion Our experimental results update data of the bovine genome sequencing, substantially increase the bovSERPINA3 sub-family and enrich the phylogenetic tree of serpins. We provide new opportunities for future investigations to approach the biological functions of this unusual subset of serine proteinase inhibitors.

  9. Comparison of germination and seed bank dynamics of dimorphic seeds of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata subsp. mongolica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Dechang; Baskin, Carol C.; Baskin, Jerry M.; Yang, Fan; Huang, Zhenying

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Differences in dormancy and germination requirements have been documented in heteromorphic seeds of many species, but it is unknown how this difference contributes to maintenance and regeneration of populations. The primary aim of this study was to compare the seed bank dynamics, including dormancy cycling, of the two seed morphs (black and brown) of the cold desert halophyte Suaeda corniculata and, if differences were found, to determine their influence on regeneration of the species. Method Seeds of the two seed morphs were buried, exhumed and tested monthly for 24 months over a range of temperatures and salinities, and germination recovery and viability were determined after exposure to salinity and water stress. Seedling emergence and dynamics of the soil seed bank were also investigated for the two morphs. Key Results Black seeds had an annual dormancy/non-dormancy cycle, while brown seeds, which were non-dormant at maturity, remained non-dormant. Black seeds also exhibited an annual cycle in sensitivity of germination to salinity. Seedlings derived from black seeds emerged in July and August and those from brown seeds in May. Seedlings were recruited from 2·6 % of the black seeds and from 2·8 % of the brown seeds in the soil, and only 0·5 % and 0·4 % of the total number of black and brown seeds in the soil, respectively, gave rise to seedlings that survived to produce seeds. Salinity and water stress induced dormancy in black seeds and decreased viability of brown seeds. Brown seeds formed only a transient soil seed bank and black seeds a persistent seed bank. Conclusions The presence of a dormancy cycle in black but not in brown seeds of S. corniculata and differences in germination requirements of the two morphs cause them to differ in their germination dynamics. The study contributes to our limited knowledge of dormancy cycling and seed bank formation in species producing heteromorphic seeds. PMID:22975287

  10. The mouse tumor cell lines EL4 and RMA display mosaic expression of NK-related and certain other surface molecules and appear to have a common origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gays, F; Unnikrishnan, M; Shrestha, S; Fraser, K P; Brown, A R; Tristram, C M; Chrzanowska-Lightowlers, Z M; Brooks, C G

    2000-05-15

    As a potential means for facilitating studies of NK cell-related molecules, we examined the expression of these molecules on a range of mouse tumor cell lines. Of the lines we initially examined, only EL4 and RMA expressed such molecules, both lines expressing several members of the Ly49 and NKRP1 families. Unexpectedly, several of the NK-related molecules, together with certain other molecules including CD2, CD3, CD4, CD32, and CD44, were often expressed in a mosaic manner, even on freshly derived clones, indicating frequent switching in expression. In each case examined, switching was controlled at the mRNA level, with expression of CD3zeta determining expression of the entire CD3-TCR complex. Each of the variable molecules was expressed independently, with the exception that CD3 was restricted to cells that also expressed CD2. Treatment with drugs that affect DNA methylation and histone acetylation could augment the expression of at least some of the variable molecules. The striking phenotypic similarity between EL4 and RMA led us to examine the state of their TCRbeta genes. Both lines had identical rearrangements on both chromosomes, indicating that RMA is in fact a subline of EL4. Overall, these findings suggest that EL4 is an NK-T cell tumor that may have retained a genetic mechanism that permits the variable expression of a restricted group of molecules involved in recognition and signaling.

  11. Characterization of phenolic compounds from different species of halophytes from Reserva Natural do Sapal de Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António (Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafalda R. Almeida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Reserva Natural do Sapal de Castro Marim e Vila Real de Santo António (RNSCMVRSA is a natural reserve (SE of Portugal, Algarve region that has habitats with different saline conditions and great ecological importance. Halophytes are plants that grow in a wide variety of saline habitats, namely in RNSCMVRSA, and can accumulated in their biomass high contents of salt. This plant behavior can increase production of reactive oxygen species (ROS and consequently, the oxidative stress, cellular damage and metabolic disorders. In order to protect the cells from ROS, these plants developed an efficient antioxidant system. This system can be constituted by phenolics compounds that have an important effect on oxidative, anti-inflammatory and microbial stability important properties for food, dietary and pharmaceutical industries. Therefore, this work aims to identify the phenolic compounds in biomass of different autochthones halophytes species growing on natural conditions in RNSCMVSRA. Composite samples of Salicornia patula, Salicornia ramosissima, Sarcoccornia fruticosa and Sarcocornia perennis were collected in 2013. Sequential extraction was realized: firstly the plant samples were subjected to soxhlet extraction using dichloromethane and then by a solid-liquid extraction with ethanol. Finally, the main compounds present in each extract were identified by GC-MS (Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The total of phenolic compounds and polyphenolic antioxidants in the extracts was also determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method.

  12. Storage on maternal plants affects light and temperature on requirements during germination in two small seeded halophytes in the arabian deserts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.; Gairola, S.

    2015-01-01

    Seeds are either stored in a soil seed bank or retained on maternal plants until they are released (aerial seed bank). Though there are extensive studies on the germination requirements of seeds in soil banks of saline habitats, studies conducted for halophytes with aerial seed banks are rare. We assessed the impact of aerial and room-temperature storages on the light and temperature requirements during germination in two small-seeded halophytes: Halocnmum strobilaceum having a short-term aerial seed bank (less than one year) and Halopeplis perfoliata having a longer term aerial seed bank (up to two years). Seed storage in the aerial bank reduced the germination in H. strobilaceum, but either increased it (5-months storage) or had no effect (17-months storage) in H. perfoliata. Seeds of both species that were stored in aerial bank germinated to higher percentages in light than in darkness, indicating that considerable portions of the seed populations are light sensitive. Seeds of H. perfoliata attained less than 5.0 percentage germination in darkness at higher temperatures, compared to more than 90.0 percentage in light. The results support the hypothesis that the aerial seed bank is an adaptive strategy for survival in the saline habitats of the two species. (author)

  13. A novel plant-based-sea water culture media for in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the halophyte microbiome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Y. Saleh

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The plant-based-sea water culture medium is introduced to in vitro cultivation and in situ recovery of the microbiome of halophytes. The ice plant (Mesembryanthemum crystallinum was used, in the form of juice and/or dehydrated plant powder packed in teabags, to supplement the natural sea water. The resulting culture medium enjoys the combinations of plant materials as rich source of nutrients and sea water exercising the required salt stress. As such without any supplements, the culture medium was sufficient and efficient to support very good in vitro growth of halotolerant bacteria. It was also capable to recover their in situ culturable populations in the phyllosphere, ecto-rhizosphere and endo-rhizosphere of halophytes prevailing in Lake Mariout, Egypt. When related to the total bacterial numbers measured for Suaeda pruinosa roots by quantitative-PCR, the proposed culture medium increased culturability (15.3–19.5% compared to the conventional chemically-synthetic culture medium supplemented with (11.2% or without (3.8% NaCl. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, representative isolates of halotolerant bacteria prevailed on such culture medium were closely related to Bacillus spp., Halomonas spp., and Kocuria spp. Seed germination tests on 25–50% sea water agar indicated positive interaction of such bacterial isolates with the germination and seedlings’ growth of barley seeds.

  14. Differential Activity of Plasma and Vacuolar Membrane Transporters Contributes to Genotypic Differences in Salinity Tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Bonales-Alatorre

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV and fast (FV tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013 Plant Physiology. This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  15. Differential activity of plasma and vacuolar membrane transporters contributes to genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in a Halophyte Species, Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonales-Alatorre, Edgar; Pottosin, Igor; Shabala, Lana; Chen, Zhong-Hua; Zeng, Fanrong; Jacobsen, Sven-Erik; Shabala, Sergey

    2013-04-29

    Halophytes species can be used as a highly convenient model system to reveal key ionic and molecular mechanisms that confer salinity tolerance in plants. Earlier, we reported that quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), a facultative C3 halophyte species, can efficiently control the activity of slow (SV) and fast (FV) tonoplast channels to match specific growth conditions by ensuring that most of accumulated Na+ is safely locked in the vacuole (Bonales-Alatorre et al. (2013) Plant Physiology). This work extends these finding by comparing the properties of tonoplast FV and SV channels in two quinoa genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. The work is complemented by studies of the kinetics of net ion fluxes across the plasma membrane of quinoa leaf mesophyll tissue. Our results suggest that multiple mechanisms contribute towards genotypic differences in salinity tolerance in quinoa. These include: (i) a higher rate of Na+ exclusion from leaf mesophyll; (ii) maintenance of low cytosolic Na+ levels; (iii) better K+ retention in the leaf mesophyll; (iv) a high rate of H+ pumping, which increases the ability of mesophyll cells to restore their membrane potential; and (v) the ability to reduce the activity of SV and FV channels under saline conditions. These mechanisms appear to be highly orchestrated, thus enabling the remarkable overall salinity tolerance of quinoa species.

  16. Oocyte maturation and origin of the germline as revealed by the expression of Nanos-like in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui; Li, Qi; Yu, Hong; Kong, Lingfeng

    2018-04-13

    Nanos gene plays an important role in germline development in animals. However, the molecular mechanisms involved in germline development in Mollusca, the second largest animal phylum, are still poorly understood. Here we identified the Nanos orthologue from the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas (Cg-Nanos-like), and investigated the expression patterns of Nanos during gametogenesis and embryogenesis in C. gigas. Tissue expression analysis showed that Cg-Nanos-like was specifically expressed in female gonads. During the reproductive cycle, the expression of Cg-Nanos-like mRNA increased matching the seasonal development of the ovarian tissues in diploids, while the expression levels were significantly lower in the ovaries of sterile triploids compared to diploids. High expression of Cg-Nanos-like transcripts were detected in early embryonic stages, while the expression significantly dropped at gastrulation and was barely detectable in veliger stages. In situ hybridization showed that Cg-Nanos-like was expressed at different stages of developing oocytes, whereas positive signals were detected only in spermatogonia during the spermatogenic cycle. These findings indicated that Cg-Nanos-like was involved in the development of germ cells, and maintenance of oocyte maturation. In early embryogenesis, the transcripts were broadly expressed; following gastrulation, the expression was restricted to two cell clumps, which might be the putative primordial germ cells (PGCs) or their precursors. Based on the results, the formation of the PGCs in C. gigas was consistent with the model of transition from epigenesis to preformation. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Frequency of alpha- and beta-haemolysin in Staphylococcus aureus of bovine and human origin - A comparison between pheno- and genotype and variation in phenotypic expression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Larsen, H.D.; Eriksen, N.H.R.

    1999-01-01

    The phenotypic expression of haemolysins and the presence of genes encoding alpha and beta-haemolysin were determined in 105 Sraphylococcus aureus isolates from bovine mastitis, 100 isolates from the nostrils of healthy humans, and 60 isolates from septicaemia in humans. Furthermore, the possible...... change in expression of haemolysins after subcultivation in human and bovine blood and milk was studied in selected isolates. alpha-haemolysin was expressed phenotypically in 39 (37%) of the bovine isolates, in 59 (59%) of the human carrier isolates, and in 40 (67%) of the isolates from septicaemia. beta......-haemolysin was expressed in 76 (72%) bovine, 11 (11%) carrier, and 8 (13%) septicaemia isolates. Significantly more bovine than human isolates expressed beta-haemolysin and significantly fewer expressed alpha-haemolysin. Genotypically, the gene encoding alpha-haemolysin was detected in all isolates. A significant...

  18. Physiological, anatomical and metabolic implications of salt tolerance in the halophyte Salvadora persica under hydroponic culture condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ASISH KUMAR PARIDA

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Salt tolerance mechanism of an extreme halophyte Salvadora persica was assessed by analysing growth, nutrient uptake, anatomical modifications and alterations in levels of some organic metabolites in seedlings imposed to various levels of salinity (0, 250, 500 and 750 mM NaCl under hydroponic culture condition. After 21 days of salt treatment, plant height, leaf area and shoot biomass decreased with increase in salinity whereas the leaf succulence increased significantly with increasing salinity in S. persica. The RWC% of leaf increased progressively in salt-treated seedlings as compared to control. Na+ contents of leaf, stem and root increased in dose-dependent manner whereas there was no significant changes in K+ content. There was significant alterations in leaf, stem and root anatomy by salinity. The thickness of epidermis and spongy parenchyma of leaf increased in salt treated seedlings as compared to control, whereas palisade parenchyma decreased dramatically in extreme salinity (750 mM NaCl. There was a significant reduction in stomatal density and stomatal pore area of leaf with increasing salinity. Anatomical observations of stem showed that the epidermal cells diameter and thickness of cortex decreased by salinity whereas thickness of hypodermal layer, hypodermal cell diameter, pith area and pith cell diameter increased by high salinity. The root anatomy showed an increase in epidermal thickness by salinity whereas diameters of epidermal cells and xylem vessels decreased. Total soluble sugar content remained unchanged at all levels of salinity whereas reducing sugar content increased by 2-fold at high salinity (750 mM NaCl. The starch content of leaf decreased progressively in NaCl treated seedlings as compared to control. Total free amino acid content did not change at low salinity (250 mM, whereas it increased significantly at higher salinity (500 and 750 mM NaCl. The proline content increased in the NaCl treated seedlings as

  19. Unraveling Salt Tolerance Mechanisms in Halophytes: A Comparative Study on Four Mediterranean Limonium Species with Different Geographic Distribution Patterns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Al Hassan

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We have performed an extensive study on the responses to salt stress in four related Limonium halophytes with different geographic distribution patterns, during seed germination and early vegetative growth. The aims of the work were twofold: to establish the basis for the different chorology of these species, and to identify relevant mechanisms of salt tolerance dependent on the control of ion transport and osmolyte accumulation. Seeds were germinated in vitro, in the presence of increasing NaCl concentrations, and subjected to “recovery of germination” tests; germination percentages and velocity were determined to establish the relative tolerance and competitiveness of the four Limonium taxa. Salt treatments were also applied to young plants, by 1-month irrigation with NaCl up to 800 mM; then, growth parameters, levels of monovalent and divalent ions (in roots and leaves, and leaf contents of photosynthetic pigments and common osmolytes were determined in control and stressed plants of the four species. Seed germination is the most salt-sensitive developmental phase in Limonium. The different germination behavior of the investigated species appears to be responsible for their geographical range size: L. narbonense and L. virgatum, widespread throughout the Mediterranean, are the most tolerant and the most competitive at higher soil salinities; the endemic L. santapolense and L. girardianum are the most sensitive and more competitive only at lower salinities. During early vegetative growth, all taxa showed a strong tolerance to salt stress, although slightly higher in L. virgatum and L. santapolense. Salt tolerance is based on the efficient transport of Na+ and Cl− to the leaves and on the accumulation of fructose and proline for osmotic adjustment. Despite some species-specific quantitative differences, the accumulation patterns of the different ions were similar in all species, not explaining differences in tolerance, except for the

  20. Evaluation of the halophyte Salsola soda as an alternative crop for saline soils high in selenium and boron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centofanti, Tiziana; Bañuelos, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Urbanization, industrial development, and intensive agriculture have caused soil contamination and land degradation in many areas of the world. Salinization is one important factor contributing to land degradation and it affects agricultural production and environmental quality. When salinization is combined with soil pollution by trace elements, as it occurs in many arid and semi-arid regions around the world, strategies to phyto-manage pollutants and sustain crop production need to be implemented. In this study, we present the case of saline soils in the West side of Central California which contain naturally-occurring selenium (Se), boron (B), and other salts, such as NaCl, CaCl2, Na2SO4, and Na2SeO4. To sustain crop production on Se- and B-laden arid saline soils, we investigated the potential of the halophyte "agretti" (Salsola soda L.) as an alternative crop. The aim of our greenhouse study was to examine adaptability, B tolerance, and Se accumulation by S. soda grown on soils collected from a typical saline-laden field site located on the West side of the San Joaquin Valley (SJV). Our results showed that S. soda tolerates the saline (EC ∼ 10 dS m(-1)) and B-laden soils (10 mg B L(-1)) of the SJV even with the additional irrigation of saline and B rich water (EC ∼ 3 dS m(-1) and 4 mg B L(-1)). Under these growing conditions, the plant can accumulate high concentrations of Na (80 g Na kg(-1) DW), B (100 mg B kg(-1) DW), and Se (3-4 mg Se kg(-1) DW) without showing toxicity symptoms. Hence, S. soda showed promising potential as a plant species that can be grown in B-laden saline soils and accumulate and potentially manage excessive soluble Se and B in soil. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. High salinity helps the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum in defense against Cd toxicity by maintaining redox balance and photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wali, Mariem; Gunsè, Benet; Llugany, Mercè; Corrales, Isabel; Abdelly, Chedly; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Ghnaya, Tahar

    2016-08-01

    NaCl alleviates Cd toxicity in Sesvium portulacastrum by maintaining plant water status and redox balance, protecting chloroplasts structure and inducing some potential Cd (2+) chelators as GSH and proline. It has been demonstrated that NaCl alleviates Cd-induced growth inhibition in the halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum. However, the processes that mediate this effect are still unclear. In this work we combined physiological, biochemical and ultrastructural studies to highlight the effects of salt on the redox balance and photosynthesis in Cd-stressed plants. Seedlings were exposed to different Cd concentrations (0, 25 and 50 µM Cd) combined with low (0.09 mM) (LS), or high (200 mM) NaCl (HS) in hydroponic culture. Plant-water relations, photosynthesis rate, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, chloroplast ultrastructure, and proline and glutathione concentrations were analyzed after 1 month of treatment. In addition, the endogenous levels of stress-related hormones were determined in plants subjected to 25 µM Cd combined with both NaCl concentrations. In plants with low salt supply (LS), Cd reduced growth, induced plant dehydration, disrupted chloroplast structure and functioning, decreased net CO2 assimilation rate (A) and transpiration rate (E), inhibited the maximum potential quantum efficiency (Fv/Fm) and the quantum yield efficiency (Φ PSII) of PSII, and enhanced the non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). The addition of 200 mM NaCl (HS) to the Cd-containing medium culture significantly mitigated Cd phytotoxicity. Hence, even at similar internal Cd concentrations, HS-Cd plants were less affected by Cd than LS-Cd ones. Hence, 200 mM NaCl significantly alleviates Cd-induced toxicity symptoms, growth inhibition, and photosynthesis disturbances. The cell ultrastructure was better preserved in HS-Cd plants but affected in LS-Cd plants. The HS-Cd plants showed also higher concentrations of reduced glutathione (GSH), proline and jasmonic acid (JA

  2. LgR5 expression and cancer stem cell hypothesis: clue to define the true origin of esophageal adenocarcinomas with and without Barrett's Esophagus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otto Christoph

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Investigation of the expression of an intestinal stem cell marker in esophageal adenocarcinomas (EAC with and without Barrett's Esophagus (BE, with respect to a cancer stem cell (CSC hypothesis. Materials and methods Expression of a putative intestinal stem cell marker LgR5 was analyzed in esophageal cancer specimen (n = 70: 41 EAC with BE, 19 EAC without BE, and n = 10 esophageal squamous-cell carcinomas, ESCC and in the adenocarcinoma cell line OE-33. Ki-67 and Cdx-2 were co-labelled with LgR5 in double staining experiments. Immunhistochemical expression results were confirmed by RT-PCR and correlated with tumor stage and five-year survival rates. Results LgR5was found expressed in 35 of 41 (85% EAC with BE and in 16 of 19 (81% EAC without BE. By contrast, LgR5 was not found to be expressed in ESCC. Quantification of immunolabeling showed 15% LgR5+ cells in EAC with BE, 32% LgR5+ cells in adjacent BE and 13% in EAC without BE. Immunofluorescence double staining experiments with LgR5 and Ki-67 revealed a subpopulation (~5% of proliferating LgR+/Ki-67+ cells. On mRNA-level, expression of LgR5 was higher in BE in comparison to EAC (p = 0.0159. High levels of LgR5 expression in BE associated EAC were associated with poorer survival in univariate analysis. Conclusion The stem cell marker LgR5 is expressed in EAC, irrespective of association with BE, and appears to have negative impact on survival. The subset of proliferating LgR5+ cells (

  3. Colonization by non-pathogenic bacteria alters mRNA expression of cytochromes P450 in originally germ-free mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourová, L; Anzenbacher, P; Lišková, B; Matušková, Z; Hermanová, P; Hudcovic, T; Kozáková, H; Hrnčířová, L; Anzenbacherová, E

    2017-11-01

    Gut microbiota provides a wide range of beneficial function for the host and has an immense effect on the host's health state. It has also been shown that gut microbiome is often involved in the biotransformation of xenobiotics; however, the molecular mechanisms of the interaction between the gut bacteria and the metabolism of drugs by the host are still unclear. To investigate the effect of microbial colonization on messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of liver cytochromes P450 (CYPs), the main drug-metabolizing enzymes, we used germ-free (GF) mice, lacking the intestinal flora and mice monocolonized by non-pathogenic bacteria Lactobacillus plantarum NIZO2877 or probiotic bacteria Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 compared to specific pathogen-free (SPF) mice. Our results show that the mRNA expression of Cyp1a2 and Cyp2e1 was significantly increased, while the expression of Cyp3a11 mRNA was decreased under GF conditions compared to the SPF mice. The both bacteria L. plantarum NIZO2877 and E. coli Nissle 1917 given to the GF mice decreased the level of Cyp1a2 mRNA and normalized it to the control level. On the other hand, the colonization by these bacteria had no effect on the expression of Cyp3a11 mRNA in the liver of the GF mice (which remained decreased). Surprisingly, monocolonization with chosen bacterial strains has shown a different effect on the expression of Cyp2e1 mRNA in GF mice. Increased level of Cyp2e1 expression observed in the GF mice was found also in mice colonized by L. plantarum NIZO2877 ; however, the colonization with probiotic E. coli Nissle 1917 caused a decrease in Cyp2e1 expression and partially restored the SPF mice conditions.

  4. Genetic tracing of the gustatory and trigeminal neural pathways originating from T1R3-expressing taste receptor cells and solitary chemoreceptor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohmoto, Makoto; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Yasuoka, Akihito; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Abe, Keiko

    2008-08-01

    We established transgenic mouse lines expressing a transneuronal tracer, wheat germ agglutinin (WGA), under the control of mouse T1R3 gene promoter/enhancer. In the taste buds, WGA transgene was faithfully expressed in T1R3-positive sweet/umami taste receptor cells. WGA protein was transferred not laterally to the synapse-bearing, sour-responsive type III cells in the taste buds but directly to a subset of neurons in the geniculate and nodose/petrosal ganglia, and further conveyed to a rostro-central region of the nucleus of solitary tract. In addition, WGA was expressed in solitary chemoreceptor cells in the nasal epithelium and transferred along the trigeminal sensory pathway to the brainstem neurons. The solitary chemoreceptor cells endogenously expressed T1R3 together with bitter taste receptors T2Rs. This result shows an exceptional signature of receptor expression. Thus, the t1r3-WGA transgenic mice revealed the sweet/umami gustatory pathways from taste receptor cells and the trigeminal neural pathway from solitary chemoreceptor cells.

  5. Original Misunderstanding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtzman, Alexander

    2009-01-01

    Humorist Josh Billings quipped, "About the most originality that any writer can hope to achieve honestly is to steal with good judgment." Billings was harsh in his view of originality, but his critique reveals a tension faced by students every time they write a history paper. Research is the essence of any history paper. Especially in high school,…

  6. Differential expression of FGF receptors and of myogenic regulatory factors in primary cultures of satellite cells originating from fast (EDL) and slow (Soleus) twitch rat muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martelly, I; Soulet, L; Bonnavaud, S; Cebrian, J; Gautron, J; Barritault, D

    2000-11-01

    In the rat, the fast and slow twitch muscles respectively Extensor digitorum longus (EDL) and Soleus present differential characteristics during regeneration. This suggests that their satellite cells responsible for muscle growth and repair represent distinct cellular populations. We have previously shown that satellite cells dissociated from Soleus and grown in vitro proliferate more readily than those isolated from EDL muscle. Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) are known as regulators of myoblast proliferation and several studies have revealed a relationship between the response of myoblasts to FGF and the expression of myogenic regulatory factors (MRF) of the MyoD family by myoblasts. Therefore, we presently examined the possibility that the satellite cells isolated from EDL and Soleus muscles differ in the expression of FGF receptors (FGF-R) and of MRF expression. FGF-R1 and -R4 were strongly expressed in proliferating cultures whereas FGF-R2 and R3 were not detected in these cultures. In differentiating cultures, only -R1 was present in EDL satellite cells while FGF-R4 was also still expressed in Soleus cells. Interestingly, the unconventional receptor for FGF called cystein rich FGF receptor (CFR), of yet unknown function, was mainly detected in EDL satellite cell cultures. Soleus and EDL satellite cell cultures also differed in the expression MRFs. These results are consistent with the notion that satellite cells from fast and slow twitch muscles belong to different types of myogenic cells and suggest that satellite cells might play distinct roles in the formation and diversification of fast and slow fibres.

  7. Potential use of the facultative halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. as substrate for biogas production cultivated with different concentrations of sodium chloride under hydroponic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcios, Ariel E; Weichgrebe, Dirk; Papenbrock, Jutta

    2016-03-01

    This project analyses the biogas potential of the halophyte Chenopodium quinoa Willd. In a first approach C. quinoa was grown with different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10 and 20 ppt NaCl) and the crop residues were used as substrate for biogas production. In a second approach, C. quinoa was grown with 0, 10, 20 and 30 ppt NaCl under hydroponic conditions and the fresh biomass was used as substrate. The more NaCl is in the culture medium, the higher the sodium, potassium, crude ash and hemicellulose content in the plant tissue whereas the calcium, sulfur, nitrogen and carbon content in the biomass decrease. According to this study, it is possible to produce high yields of methane using biomass of C. quinoa. The highest specific methane yields were obtained using the substrate from the plants cultivated at 10 and 20 ppt NaCl in both experiments. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Salinization of the soil solution decreases the further accumulation of salt in the root zone of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. growing above shallow saline groundwater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharby, Hesham F; Colmer, Timothy D; Barrett-Lennard, Edward G

    2018-01-01

    Water use by plants in landscapes with shallow saline groundwater may lead to the accumulation of salt in the root zone. We examined the accumulation of Na + and Cl - around the roots of the halophyte Atriplex nummularia Lindl. and the impacts of this increasing salinity for stomatal conductance, water use and growth. Plants were grown in columns filled with a sand-clay mixture and connected at the bottom to reservoirs containing 20, 200 or 400 mM NaCl. At 21 d, Na + and Cl - concentrations in the soil solution were affected by the salinity of the groundwater, height above the water table and the root fresh mass density at various soil depths (P soil solution therefore had a feedback effect on further salinization within the root zone. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. A gene expression signature classifying telomerase and ALT immortalization reveals an hTERT regulatory network and suggests a mesenchymal stem cell origin for ALT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lafferty-Whyte, K; Cairney, C J; Will, M B

    2009-01-01

    Telomere length is maintained by two known mechanisms, the activation of telomerase or alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT). The molecular mechanisms regulating the ALT phenotype are poorly understood and it is unknown how the decision of which pathway to activate is made at the cellular le......TERT in different tumour types and normal tissues. We also show evidence to suggest a novel mesenchymal stem cell origin for ALT immortalization in cell lines and mesenchymal tissues....

  10. Cytokine responses in primary chicken embryo intestinal cells infected with Campylobacter jejuni strains of human and chicken origin and the expression of bacterial virulence-associated genes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yiping; Ingmer, Hanne; Madsen, Mogens

    2008-01-01

    Background Campylobacter jejuni is a major cause of inflammatory diarrhoea in humans and is considered a commensal of the gastroenteric tract of the avian host. However, little is known about the interaction between C. jejuni and the avian host including the cytokine responses and the expression...

  11. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administratör

    Original Article. Prevalence of Gall Bladder Stones among Type 2 Diabetic ... Increasing age, female gender, overweight, familial history of the disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus is all associated ... GBS development in diabetics. An Italian ...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... Reproductive development and function in human and other ... sulting solution was filtered and left to stand for three days to ..... male rat brain and pituitary. Brain Res 164,.

  13. Original pedagogues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Christina Haandbæk

    Original pedagogues Distention between competences and originality By Christina Haandbæk Schmidt, ph. d. student Aarhus University, Denmark This presentation concerns a Ph.D. project (Sept. 2012 –Sept. 2015) about pedagogues in day care facilities and their struggles to develop and retain...... shall argue that it is necessary for the pedagogues to know how they are constituted by the regimes of power on one side and on the other side are forced to create themselves. This knowledge could transform pedagogues into what I suggest calling ‘original pedagogues’, who have an authentic, ethic...... and professional autonomy in exercising judgment concerning pedagogical situations. To understand how pedagogues can struggle the distention between being competent and being original the project draws on both Michel Foucault and Charles Taylor as two incompatible theories on modern identity. The study...

  14. Colonization by non-pathogenic bacteria alters mRNA expression of cytochromes P450 in originally germ-free mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jourová, L.; Anzenbacher, P.; Lišková, B.; Matušková, Z.; Hermanová, Petra; Hudcovic, Tomáš; Kozáková, Hana; Hrnčířová, Lucia; Anzenbacherová, E.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 62, č. 6 (2017), s. 463-469 ISSN 0015-5632 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP303/12/0535; GA ČR GA15-07268S Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : HUMAN GUT MICROBIOTA * GENE-EXPRESSION * NISSLE 1917 Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology OBOR OECD: Microbiology Impact factor: 1.521, year: 2016

  15. Phytohormone profiling in relation to osmotic adjustment in NaCl-treated plants of the halophyte tomato wild relative species Solanum chilense comparatively to the cultivated glycophyte Solanum lycopersicum

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gharbi, E.; Martínez, J. L.; Benahmed, H.; Hichri, I.; Dobrev, Petre; Motyka, Václav; Quineta, M.; Lutts, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 258, MAY (2017), s. 77-89 ISSN 0168-9452 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-14649S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : antioxidant enzyme-activities * improves salinity tolerance * enhances salt tolerance * abscisic-acid * water-stress * na+-exclusion * accumulation * ethylene * growth * arabidopsis * Osmotic adjustment * Halophyte * Salinity * Solanum chilense * Hormone * Tomato Subject RIV: EF - Botanics OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 3.437, year: 2016

  16. Genotypic to expression profiling of bovine calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha-2/delta subunit 1 gene, and their association with bovine mastitis among Frieswal (HFX Sahiwal) crossbred cattle of Indian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Rajib; Singh, Umesh; Kumar, Sushil; Kumar, Arun; Singh, Rani; Sengar, Gyanendra; Mann, Sandeep; Sharma, Arjava

    2014-04-03

    Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, alpha-2/delta subunit 1 (CACNA2D1) gene is considered to be an important noncytokine candidate gene influencing mastitis. Scanty of reports are available until today regarding the role play of CACNA2D1 gene on the susceptibility of bovine mastitis. We interrogated the CACNA2D1 G519663A [A>G] SNP by PCR-RFLP among two hundreds Frieswal (HF X Sahiwal) crossbred cattle of Indian origin. Genotypic frequency of AA (51.5, n=101) was comparatively higher than AG (35, n=70) and GG (14.5, n=29). Association of Somatic cell score (SCS) with genotypes revealed that, GG genotypes showing lesser count (less susceptible to mastitis) compare to AA and AG. Relative expression of CACNA2D1 transcript (in milk samples) was significantly higher among GG than AG and AA. Further we have also isolated blood sample from the all groups and PBMCs were cultured from each blood sample as per the standard protocol. They were treated with Calcium channel blocker and the expression level of the CACNA2D1 gene was evaluated by Real Time PCR. Results show that expression level decline in each genotypic group after treatment and expression level of GG are again significantly higher than AA and AG. Thus, it may be concluded that GG genotypic animals are favorable for selecting disease resistant breeds.

  17. ZFP57 maintains the parent-of-origin-specific expression of the imprinted genes and differentially affects non-imprinted targets in mouse embryonic stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riso, Vincenzo; Cammisa, Marco; Kukreja, Harpreet

    2016-01-01

    ZFP57 is necessary for maintaining repressive epigenetic modifications at Imprinting control regions (ICRs). In mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), ZFP57 binds ICRs (ICRBS) and many other loci (non-ICRBS). To address the role of ZFP57 on all its target sites, we performed high-throughput and multi......-locus analyses of inbred and hybrid mouse ESC lines carrying different gene knockouts. By using an allele-specific RNA-seq approach, we demonstrate that ZFP57 loss results in derepression of the imprinted allele of multiple genes in the imprinted clusters. We also find marked epigenetic differences between ICRBS...... the imprinted expression over long distances. At non-ICRBS, ZFP57 inactivation results in acquisition of epigenetic features that are characteristic of poised enhancers, suggesting that another function of ZFP57 in early embryogenesis is to repress cis-acting regulatory elements whose activity is not yet...

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Illnesses of Herod the Great. Francois P Retief, Johan F G Cilliers. Herod the Great, ldumean by birth, was king ofthe Jews from 40 to 4 BC. An able statesman, builder and warrior, he ruthlessly stamped out all perceived opposition to his rule. His last decade was characterised by vicious strife within ...

  19. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. OCCUPATIONAL EXPOSURE OF. INTERNS TO BLOOD IN AN AREA. OF HIGH HIV SEROPREVALENCE. A S Karstaedt, L Pantanowitz. Objective. To determine the epidemiology of work-related exposure to blood among interns. Design. Interns were invited to complete anonymously a questionnaire ...

  20. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. McCarthy D, Amos A, Zimmet P. The rising global burden of diabetes and its complications: estimates and projections to the year 2010. Diabet Med 1997; 14: suppl 5, Sl-585. 2. Zgibor JC, Songer TJ, Kelsey SF, et al. The association of diabetes specialist care with health care practices ...

  1. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. Cost to patients of obtaining treatment for HIV/AIDS in. South Africa. Sydney Rosen, Mpefe Ketlhapile, Ian Sanne, Mary Bachman DeSilva. Background. South Africa is providing antiretroviral (ARV) drugs for HIV I AIDS free of charge in order to increase access for poorer patients and promote ...

  2. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES could be chosen to link to action policy decisions. In the. Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) programme, such a screening test would also remind the health provider to prescribe an iron tonic and to emphasise the importance of a balanced diet. A potential disadvantage of copper ...

  3. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arab Journal of Nephrology and Transplantation. 2013 Sep;6(3):153-60. Original Article. AJNT. Abstract. Introduction: Dense Deposit Disease (DDD) is a devastating renal disease that leads to renal failure within. 10 years of diagnosis in about half of affected patients. In this study, we evaluated the relative prevalence and.

  4. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    One of the concerns among mothers for delivery is labor pain. There are various ... Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences (2017) 6(2): 11-16. © UDS Publishers ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE ..... effective than a placebo during the first stage of.

  5. Original Article

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pezhman Kharazm

    treatment in 32 patients who were admitted in Shohada-E-Tajrish hospital with final diagnosis of AMI from March 1996 to March 2002. ... of the patient and diagnostic studies and early surgical or non surgical intervention is the most ... operative diagnosis of etiology was based on presence of pulse at the origin of mesenteric.

  6. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ORIGINAL ARTICLES. References. 1. UNAIDS. Report on the Global HTV/AIDS Epidemic. Geneva: June 2000. 2. Connor E..\\1, Sperling RS, Gelber R. et al. Reduction of maternal-infant transmission of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 with zidovu dine treatment. N Eng! J Med 1994; 331:1173-1180. 3. Undegren ML ...

  7. Original Research

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A facility based comparative cross-sectional study ... Health care delivery should consider the desire for children by men and .... Socio-Demographic Characteristics of the .... For substitution, children are an important part of marriage, current child needs sibling, original desires .... does not, the only way to avoid the risk of.

  8. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    source of blood supply whilst in developed countries VNRDs are the major source. This study de- termined and ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ..... ferral rate of females in comparison to males as pre- .... nors at blood bank of a medical college,. Australia. Med J Armed Forces 61: 131- 4.

  9. ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    alternatives to conventional care (homoeopathy, chiropractic, acupuncture, etc.), and also recognise the groundswell of interest in and support for inclusion of benefits for services provided by traditional healers. The transition from the original, relatively restricted approach which was concerned with established, mainstream.

  10. Original contributions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hefere

    Original contributions ... Results suggest that there is a significant positive ... psychological abuse, including economic abuse, intimidation, harassment, stalking, damage ... or maintaining the structure and function of the African home (Alio et al., 2011; Jewkes,. Levin ... Revictimisation occurs due to emotional violence and.

  11. Original Copies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2013-01-01

    of similarity by looking at artefactual similarity as the results of prototyping and as a production of simulacra. In this light, the concept of copying turns out to be more than simply a matter of trying to imitate an exotic or prestigious original, and it fundamentally raises the question how different a copy...

  12. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    there are racial and gender differences in the knowledge and awareness of HPV among Guyanese. The study aimed to ... UDS Publishers Limited All Right Reserved 2026-6294. ORIGINAL ... shown that, about 80.0% of women contracted HPV infection before ... 2010), age of initial sexual contact, and lack of symp- toms for ...

  13. Mechanisms of immunological eradication of a syngeneic guinea pig tumor: participation of a component(s) of recipient origin in the expression of systemic adoptive immunity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shu, S.; Fonseca, L.S.; Kato, H.; Zbar, B.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of carrageenan and trypan blue on the expression of adoptive immunity to the syngeneic guinea pig line 10 hepatoma were investigated. Adoptive immunity was assessed by observing dermal tumor growth in recipients of immune cells and by bioassays in which tumor challenge sites were transplanted into secondary hosts. Carrageenan abrogated transferred immunity in treated animals as evidenced by dermal tumor growth and by development of fatal ascites tumors in peritoneal cavities of the secondary hosts. Trypan blue, on the other hand, did not abrogate transferred immunity in treated animals. However, the i.p. bioassay revealed the presence of line 10 cells in the tumor challenge sites 10 days after adoptive transfer. In vitro and in vivo exposure of immune spleen cells to carrageenan or trypan blue had no significant effect on the subsequent adoptive transfer, indicating that the inhibitory activity of these agents cannot be attributed to direct toxicity to immune lymphoid cells. Tumor challenge sites taken from carrageenan or trypan blue-treated animals 5 days after adoptive transfer failed to grow progressively when transplanted s.c. into secondary hosts. This observation suggests the presence of immune cells at tumor challenge sites. Thus, the inhibitory effects were unlikely due to interference with recirculation of the i.v.-transferred immune cells. Adoptive immunity was not influenced in guinea pigs that received a lethal dose of irradiation (500 rads). These results demonstrate that a recipient component(s) sensitive to carrageenan and trypan blue but resistant to radiation is essential to the expression of adoptive immunity

  14. Expression of antigens coded in murine leukemia viruses on thymocytes of allogeneic donor origin in AKR mice following syngeneic or allogeneic bone marrow transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wustrow, T.P.; Good, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Removal of T-lymphocytes from marrow inoculum with monoclonal antibody plus complement permitted establishment of long-lived allogeneic chimeras between C57BL/6 and AKR/J mice. Development of leukemia was prevented for 15 mo. Protection from leukemia occurred with both young (4 wk) and older (4 mo) recipients. AKR mice reconstituted with syngeneic marrow or control AKR mice all developed leukemia-lymphoma before 1 yr of age. During spontaneous lymphomagenesis in AKR mice, amplified expression of gag or env gene-coded virus antigens on the surface of thymocytes preceded leukemia development and evidence for amplification of other virus genes. These changes generally appeared before 6 mo. Similar viral gene expression and viral gene amplification occurred in the thymus and spleen cells of leukemia-resistant chimeric mice. Using monoclonal antibodies to Mr 70,000 glycoprotein epitopes characteristic of ecotropic, xenotropic, or dualtropic viruses, antigens marking each virus form were found on thymocytes of allogeneic 4-wk and 4-mo chimeras as well as on the cells of AKR mice and of AKR mice reconstituted with syngeneic marrow. Flow cytometric analysis showed amplification of the virus genes in mice protected from leukemia-lymphoma by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation from leukemia-resistant mice. Allogeneic chimeras and syngeneically transplanted mice both showed evidence of accelerated viremia and of recombinant virus formation. The findings suggest that an event essential to leukemogenesis which occurs within the AKR lymphoid cells or their environment is lacking in the allogeneic chimeras. The nature of this influence of a resistance gene or genes introduced into AKR mice by allogeneic bone marrow transplantation deserves further study

  15. Maternal 5mCpG Imprints at the PARD6G-AS1 and GCSAML Differentially Methylated Regions Are Decoupled From Parent-of-Origin Expression Effects in Multiple Human Tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela de Sá Machado Araújo

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available A hallmark of imprinted genes in mammals is the occurrence of parent-of-origin-dependent asymmetry of DNA cytosine methylation (5mC of alleles at CpG islands (CGIs in their promoter regions. This 5mCpG asymmetry between the parental alleles creates allele-specific imprinted differentially methylated regions (iDMRs. iDMRs are often coupled to the transcriptional repression of the methylated allele and the activation of the unmethylated allele in a tissue-specific, developmental-stage-specific and/or isoform-specific fashion. iDMRs function as regulatory platforms, built through the recruitment of chemical modifications to histones to achieve differential, parent-of-origin-dependent chromatin segmentation states. Here, we used a comparative computational data mining approach to identify 125 novel constitutive candidate iDMRs that integrate the maximal number of allele-specific methylation region records overlapping CGIs in human methylomes. Twenty-nine candidate iDMRs display gametic 5mCpG asymmetry, and another 96 are candidate secondary iDMRs. We established the maternal origin of the 5mCpG imprints of one gametic (PARD6G-AS1 and one secondary (GCSAML iDMRs. We also found a constitutively hemimethylated, nonimprinted domain at the PWWP2AP1 promoter CGI with oocyte-derived methylation asymmetry. Given that the 5mCpG level at the iDMRs is not a sufficient criterion to predict active or silent locus states and that iDMRs can regulate genes from a distance of more than 1 Mb, we used RNA-Seq experiments from the Genotype-Tissue Expression project and public archives to assess the transcriptional expression profiles of SNPs across 4.6 Mb spans around the novel maternal iDMRs. We showed that PARD6G-AS1 and GCSAML are expressed biallelically in multiple tissues. We found evidence of tissue-specific monoallelic expression of ZNF124 and OR2L13, located 363 kb upstream and 419 kb downstream, respectively, of the GCSAML iDMR. We hypothesize that the GCSAML

  16. Origins, actions and dynamic expression patterns of the neuropeptide VGF in rat peripheral and central sensory neurones following peripheral nerve injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costigan Michael

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The role of the neurotrophin regulated polypeptide, VGF, has been investigated in a rat spared injury model of neuropathic pain. This peptide has been shown to be associated with synaptic strengthening and learning in the hippocampus and while it is known that VGFmRNA is upregulated in dorsal root ganglia following peripheral nerve injury, the role of this VGF peptide in neuropathic pain has yet to be investigated. Results Prolonged upregulation of VGF mRNA and protein was observed in injured dorsal root ganglion neurons, central terminals and their target dorsal horn neurons. Intrathecal application of TLQP-62, the C-terminal active portion of VGF (5–50 nmol to naïve rats caused a long-lasting mechanical and cold behavioral allodynia. Direct actions of 50 nM TLQP-62 upon dorsal horn neuron excitability was demonstrated in whole cell patch recordings in spinal cord slices and in receptive field analysis in intact, anesthetized rats where significant actions of VGF were upon spontaneous activity and cold evoked responses. Conclusion VGF expression is therefore highly modulated in nociceptive pathways following peripheral nerve injury and can cause dorsal horn cell excitation and behavioral hypersensitivity in naïve animals. Together the results point to a novel and powerful role for VGF in neuropathic pain.

  17. Conveyor Cultivation of the Halophytic Plant Salicornia europaea for the Recycling of NaCl from Human Liquid Waste in a Biological Life Support System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balnokin, Yurii; Myasoedov, Nikolay; Popova, Larissa; Tikhomirov, Alexander A.; Ushakova, Sofya; Tikhomirova, Natalia; Lasseur, Christophe; Gros, Jean-Bernard

    One problem in designing bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) is developing technolo-gies to include human liquid and solid waste in intrasystem recycling. A specific task is recycling of NaCl excreted in urine by humans. We showed recently that this could be achieved through inclusion of the salt accumulating halophyte Salicornia europaea in the autotrophic compart-ment of the BLSS (Balnokin et al., ASR, 2010, in press). A model of NaCl circulation in BLSS with inclusion of S. europaea was based on the NaCl turnover in the human -urine -nutrient solution -S. europaea -human cycle. Mineralized urine was used as a basis for preparation of a nutrient solution for the halophyte cultivation. The shoots of the halophyte cultivated in the mineralized urine and containing NaCl could to be used by the BLSS inhabitants in their diets. In this report we describe cultivation of S. europaea which allows turnover of NaCl and produces daily shoot biomass containing Na+ and Cl- in quantities approximately equal to those excreted in daily human urine. The plants were grown in water culture in a climatic chamber under controlled conditions. A solution simulating mineralized urine (SSMU) was used as a basis for preparation of a nutri-ent solution for S. europaea cultivation. For continuous biomass production, seedlings of S. europaea, germinated preliminary in moist sand, were being transferred to the nutrient solu-tion at regular intervals (every two days). Duration of the conveyor operation was 112 days. During the first 56 days, the seedlings were being planted in SSMU diluted by a factor of 1.5 (2/3 SSMU). The same solution was introduced into the growth vessels as volumes of growth medium decreased due to plant transpiration. Starting from the 56th day as conveyor operation was initiated, the plants were being harvested every two days; the solutions from the discharged vessels were mixed with the fresh SSMU and the mixture was introduced into all other growth vessels of

  18. ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... (K-RITH), K-RITH Tower Building, level 3, Nelson R. Mandela School of Medicine, 4001 Dur- ... expression could be a risk factor for TB drug tolerance in patients initiated on treatment. .... three times, and the RFU values presented are the.

  19. The Microstructure Organization and Functional Peculiarities of Euphorbia paralias L. and Polygonum maritimum L. – Halophytic Plants from Dunes of Pomorie Lake (Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.V. Kosakivska

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to investigate the leaf surface microstructure, pigments spectrum, hormones status and lipids composition of halophytes Polygonum maritimum L. and Euphorbia paralias L. that grow under natural conditions on the dunes of Pomorie Lake, (Bulgaria. It was shown that the existence in saline and dry soils provided among others adaptive mechanisms by specific microstructure of leaf. The adaxial and abaxial surfaces of P. maritimum leaves are covered with a dense layer of cuticle wax, stomata are located on the leaf both sides below the cuticle level. In E. paralias the cuticle is also well developed on the adaxial surface of leaf laminas. The epidermis of the leaf lower side is covered with a less dense cuticle layer formed by large wax crystals. This plant has stoma pores only on the abaxial side of small leaves below the cuticle level and they are surrounded with hump-shaped cuticle constructions. A high amount of carotenoids (as compared with that of chlorophylls in P. maritimum leaves indicates that these pigments have a light-collecting function and could transfer an additional energy to chlorophylls. The high performance liquid chromatography method has been used to provide a qualitative and quantitative analysis of hormones. It was shown that in leaves of E. paralias and P. maritimum free abscisic (ABA and conjugated indole-3-acetic (IAA acids prevailed. A high level of active ABA is correlated with the salt tolerance and ability to survive and grow in stress conditions. A high level of conjugated form of IAA demonstrated that activity of this hormone is limited. The cytokinins qualitative and quantitative analyses demonstrated that in E. paralias leaves zeatin forms dominated, and the level of inactive cytokinins (cis-zeatin and zeatin-O-glucoside was much higher than that of active ones (trans-zeatin and zeatin riboside. P. maritinum leaves contained a significant quantity of isopentenyl forms

  20. Application of UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with two-dimensional correlation for insight into DOM fractions from native halophyte soils in a larger estuarine delta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Huaibin; Yu, Huibin; Pan, Hongwei; Gao, Hongjie

    2018-05-01

    UV-visible absorption spectroscopy combined with principal component analysis (PCA) and two-dimensional correlation (2D correlation) is used to trace components of dissolved organic matter (DOM) extracted from soils in a larger estuarine delta and to investigate spatial variations of DOM fractions. Soil samples of different depths were collected from native halophyte soils along a saline gradient, i.e., Suaeda salsa Comm. (SSC), Chenopodium album Comm. (CAC), Phragmites australis Comm. (PAC), and Artemisia selengensis Comm. (ASC). Molecular weights of DOM within the SSC soil profile were the lowest, followed by the CAC, PAC, and ASC soil profiles. Humification degree of DOM within the ASC soil profile was the highest, followed by the PAC, SSC, and CAC soil profiles. DOM within the soil profiles mainly contained phenolic, carboxylic, microbial products, and aromatic and alkyl groups through the PCA, which presented the significant differentiation among the four native halophyte soil profiles. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the SSC soil profile indicated that the variations of the phenolic groups were the largest, followed by the carboxylic groups, microbial products, and humified organic materials according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 → 520 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the CAC soil profiles determined that the decreasing order of the variations was phenolic groups > carboxylic groups > microbial products according the band changing order of 285 → 365 → 425 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the PAC soil profile proved that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the carboxylic groups according to the band changing order of 285 → 365 nm. The 2D UV correlation spectra of DOM within the ASC soil profile demonstrated that the variations of the phenolic groups were larger than those of the other DOM fractions according to the broad cross-peak at

  1. Original Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashok Natarajan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available History that comes to us as a chronology of events is really a collective existence that is evolving through several stages to develop Individuality in all members of the society. The human community, nation states, linguistic groups, local castes and classes, and families are the intermediate stages in development of the Individual. The social process moves through phases of survival, growth, development and evolution. In the process it organizes the consciousness of its members at successive levels from social external manners, formed behavior, value-based character and personality to culminate in the development of Individuality. Through this process, society evolves from physicality to Mentality. The power of accomplishment in society and its members develops progressively through stages of skill, capacity, talent, and ability. Original thinking is made possible by the prior development of thinking that organizes facts into information. The immediate result of the last world war was a shift in reliance from physical force and action to mental conception and mental activity on a global scale. At such times no problem need defy solution, if only humanity recognizes the occasion for thinking and Original Thinking. The apparently insoluble problems we confront are an opportunity to formulate a comprehensive theory of social evolution. The immediate possibility is to devise complete solutions to all existing problems, if only we use the right method of thought development.

  2. Hairy root induction and phytoremediation of textile dye, Reactive green 19A-HE4BD, in a halophyte, Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinayak H. Lokhande

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we report phytoremediation of textile dyes using hairy roots derived through Agrobacterium rhizogenes (NCIM 5140 infection of in vitro leaf and stem explants of a halophyte Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. L. Leaf explants showed higher frequency of hairy root induction (70% than stem explants (30%, and maximum number of roots (leaf 42.3 ± 2.4 and stem 50.3 ± 1.7. Transformed nature of hairy roots was ascertained by amplifying 970 bp region of T-DNA of Ri plasmid. Hairy roots were screened for phytoremediation of various textile dyes and results showed that HRs were able to degrade Reactive green 19A HE4BD upto 98% within 5 days of incubation. Spectrophotometric analysis showed decrease in dye concentration while HPLC and FTIR analysis confirmed its degradation. Seed germination assay demonstrated non-toxic nature of the extracted metabolites. This is the first report on induction of hairy root culture in Sesuvium portulacastrum and phytoremediation of textile dyes.

  3. Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov., an endophytic actinomycete isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Sheng; Bian, Guang-Kai; Tamura, Tomohiko; Zhang, Yue-Ji; Zhang, Wen-Di; Cao, Cheng-Liang; Jiang, Ji-Hong

    2013-08-01

    A novel actinomycete, designated KLBMP 1284(T), was isolated from the surface-sterilized stems of a coastal halophyte Tamarix chinensis Lour. collected from the city of Nantong, Jiangsu Province, east China. The strain was found to have morphological and chemotaxonomic characteristics typical of members of the genus Streptomyces. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequence of strain KLBMP 1284(T) revealed that the strain formed a distinct clade within the phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences and the highest sequence similarity (99.43 %) was to Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to other species of the genus Streptomyces was lower than 97 %. Based on DNA-DNA hybridization values and comparison of morphological and phenotypic data, KLBMP 1284(T) could be distinguished from the closest phylogenetically related species, Streptomyces sulphureus NRRL B-1627(T). Thus, based on these data, it is evident that strain KLBMP 1284(T) represents a novel species of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces halophytocola sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KLBMP 1284(T) (= KCTC 19890(T) = NBRC 108770(T)).

  4. Growth, chlorophyll fluorescence and mineral nutrition in the halophyte Tamarix gallica cultivated in combined stress conditions: Arsenic and NaCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaier, Dhouha Belhaj; Duarte, Bernardo; Bankaji, Insaf; Caçador, Isabel; Sleimi, Noomene

    2015-08-01

    Trace metal elements can cause various environmental and health issues due to their accumulation and integration in the food chain. In the present study, we determined the major toxic effects of arsenic on physiological behaviour of plants. For this propose, several combinations of high salinity and arsenic (As) concentrations were applied to the halophytic shrub, Tamarix gallica, by growing for three months with an irrigation solution supplemented with different concentrations of As (0, 200, 500 and 800M) with and without 200mM NaCl. The effect of the combined stress conditions on growth, physiological patterns and biochemical parameters were also assessed. The results demonstrated that T. gallica is a tolerant plant regarding arsenic. The photosynthesis apparatus Fo, Fm and Fv fluorescence, as well as Fv/Fm were not affected by As nor by As combined with salt. Likewise, pigment and nutrient (K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+)) contents were not affected either. However, the study results revealed that As adversely and significantly influenced the growth with increasing the concentration of As. Despite shoots growth reduction, the present research demonstrates that T. gallica is able to cope with high external concentrations of As (under 500μM) alone or in combination with NaCl. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The Impacts of Soil Fertility and Salinity on Soil Nitrogen Dynamics Mediated by the Soil Microbial Community Beneath the Halophytic Shrub Tamarisk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwaoka, Chikae; Imada, Shogo; Taniguchi, Takeshi; Du, Sheng; Yamanaka, Norikazu; Tateno, Ryunosuke

    2018-05-01

    Nitrogen (N) is one of the most common limiting nutrients for primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. Soil microbes transform organic N into inorganic N, which is available to plants, but soil microbe activity in drylands is sometimes critically suppressed by environmental factors, such as low soil substrate availability or high salinity. Tamarisk (Tamarix spp.) is a halophytic shrub species that is widely distributed in the drylands of China; it produces litter enriched in nutrients and salts that are thought to increase soil fertility and salinity under its crown. To elucidate the effects of tamarisks on the soil microbial community, and thus N dynamics, by creating "islands of fertility" and "islands of salinity," we collected soil samples from under tamarisk crowns and adjacent barren areas at three habitats in the summer and fall. We analyzed soil physicochemical properties, inorganic N dynamics, and prokaryotic community abundance and composition. In soils sampled beneath tamarisks, the N mineralization rate was significantly higher, and the prokaryotic community structure was significantly different, from soils sampled in barren areas, irrespective of site and season. Tamarisks provided suitable nutrient conditions for one of the important decomposers in the area, Verrucomicrobia, by creating "islands of fertility," but provided unsuitable salinity conditions for other important decomposers, Flavobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, by mitigating salt accumulation. However, the quantity of these decomposers tended to be higher beneath tamarisks, because they were relatively unaffected by the small salinity gradient created by the tamarisks, which may explain the higher N mineralization rate beneath tamarisks.

  6. Single cell-type analysis of cellular lipid remodelling in response to salinity in the epidermal bladder cells of the model halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Garibay-Hernández, Adriana; Melzer, Michael; Rupasinghe, Thusitha W T; Roessner, Ute

    2018-05-29

    Salt stress causes dramatic changes in the organization and dynamic properties of membranes, however, little is known about the underlying mechanisms involved. Modified trichomes, known as epidermal bladder cells (EBC), on the leaves and stems of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum can be successfully exploited as a single-cell-type system to investigate salt-induced changes to cellular lipid composition. In this study alterations in key molecular species from different lipid classes highlighted an increase in phospholipid species, particularly those from phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidic acid (PA), where the latter is central to the synthesis of membrane lipids. Triacylglycerol (TG) species decreased during salinity, while there was little change in plastidic galactolipids. EBC transcriptomic and proteomic data mining revealed changes in genes and proteins involved in lipid metabolism and the upregulation of transcripts for PIPKIB, PI5PII, PIPKIII, and PLDδ, suggested the induction of signalling processes mediated by phosphoinositides and PA. TEM and flow cytometry showed the dynamic nature of lipid droplets in these cells under salt stress. Altogether, this work indicates the metabolism of TG might play an important role in EBC response to salinity as either an energy reserve for sodium accumulation and/or driving membrane biosynthesis for EBC expansion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  7. Quench origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devred, A.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper, I shall discuss the quench origins. I shall first establish a method of classification and introduce the notions of conductor-limited and energy-deposited quenches. Next the paper will be devoted to the study of conductor-limited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of plateau and of fraction of short sample. Also the paper will be devoted to the study of energy-deposited quenches, and I shall introduce the notions of training and of minimum energy deposit; I shall then review the possible causes of energy release. Lastly, I shall introduce the notion of operating margin, and I shall indicate how to optimize the operating margin in order to limit the risk of premature quenching. 112 refs., 14 figs

  8. Genome structures and halophyte-specific gene expression of the extremophile thellungiella parvula in comparison with Thellungiella salsuginea (Thellungiella halophila) and arabidopsis

    KAUST Repository

    Oh, Dongha; Dassanayake, Maheshi; Haas, Jeffrey S.; Kropornika, Anna; Wright, Chris L.; D'Urzo, Matilde Paino; Hong, Hyewon; Ali, Shahjahan; Herná ndez, Á lvaro Gonzalez; Lambert, Georgina M.; Inan, Gü nsu; Galbraith, David; Bressan, Ray Anthony; Yun, Daejin; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Cheeseman, John McP; Bohnert, Hans Jü rgen

    2010-01-01

    and an uneven distribution of repeat sequences. T. parvula genome structure and DNA sequences were compared with orthologous regions from Arabidopsis and publicly available bacterial artificial chromosome sequences from Thellungiella salsuginea (previously

  9. Growth platform-dependent and -independent phenotypic and metabolic responses of Arabidopsis and its halophytic relative, Eutrema salsugineum, to salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazachkova, Yana; Batushansky, Albert; Cisneros, Aroldo; Tel-Zur, Noemi; Fait, Aaron; Barak, Simon

    2013-07-01

    Comparative studies of the stress-tolerant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) halophytic relative, Eutrema salsugineum, have proven a fruitful approach to understanding natural stress tolerance. Here, we performed comparative phenotyping of Arabidopsis and E. salsugineum vegetative development under control and salt-stress conditions, and then compared the metabolic responses of the two species on different growth platforms in a defined leaf developmental stage. Our results reveal both growth platform-dependent and -independent phenotypes and metabolic responses. Leaf emergence was affected in a similar way in both species grown in vitro but the effects observed in Arabidopsis occurred at higher salt concentrations in E. salsugineum. No differences in leaf emergence were observed on soil. A new effect of a salt-mediated reduction in E. salsugineum leaf area was unmasked. On soil, leaf area reduction in E. salsugineum was mainly due to a fall in cell number, whereas both cell number and cell size contributed to the decrease in Arabidopsis leaf area. Common growth platform-independent leaf metabolic signatures such as high raffinose and malate, and low fumarate contents that could reflect core stress tolerance mechanisms, as well as growth platform-dependent metabolic responses were identified. In particular, the in vitro growth platform led to repression of accumulation of many metabolites including sugars, sugar phosphates, and amino acids in E. salsugineum compared with the soil system where these same metabolites accumulated to higher levels in E. salsugineum than in Arabidopsis. The observation that E. salsugineum maintains salt tolerance despite growth platform-specific phenotypes and metabolic responses suggests a considerable degree of phenotypic and metabolic adaptive plasticity in this extremophile.

  10. Single-cell-type quantitative proteomic and ionomic analysis of epidermal bladder cells from the halophyte model plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to identify salt-responsive proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, Bronwyn J; Vera-Estrella, Rosario; Raymond, Carolyn

    2016-05-10

    Epidermal bladder cells (EBC) are large single-celled, specialized, and modified trichomes found on the aerial parts of the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum. Recent development of a simple but high throughput technique to extract the contents from these cells has provided an opportunity to conduct detailed single-cell-type analyses of their molecular characteristics at high resolution to gain insight into the role of these cells in the salt tolerance of the plant. In this study, we carry out large-scale complementary quantitative proteomic studies using both a label (DIGE) and label-free (GeLC-MS) approach to identify salt-responsive proteins in the EBC extract. Additionally we perform an ionomics analysis (ICP-MS) to follow changes in the amounts of 27 different elements. Using these methods, we were able to identify 54 proteins and nine elements that showed statistically significant changes in the EBC from salt-treated plants. GO enrichment analysis identified a large number of transport proteins but also proteins involved in photosynthesis, primary metabolism and Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM). Validation of results by western blot, confocal microscopy and enzyme analysis helped to strengthen findings and further our understanding into the role of these specialized cells. As expected EBC accumulated large quantities of sodium, however, the most abundant element was chloride suggesting the sequestration of this ion into the EBC vacuole is just as important for salt tolerance. This single-cell type omics approach shows that epidermal bladder cells of M. crystallinum are metabolically active modified trichomes, with primary metabolism supporting cell growth, ion accumulation, compatible solute synthesis and CAM. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004045.

  11. Searching for new sources of innovative products for the food industry within halophyte aromatic plants: In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic and mineral contents of infusions and decoctions of Crithmum maritimum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Catarina Guerreiro; Barreira, Luísa; da Rosa Neng, Nuno; Nogueira, José Manuel Florêncio; Marques, Cátia; Santos, Tamára F; Varela, João; Custódio, Luísa

    2017-09-01

    Aromatic halophyte plants are an outstanding source of bioactive compounds and natural products with potential use in the food industry. This work reports the in vitro antioxidant activity, toxicity, polyphenolic profile and mineral contents of infusions and decoctions from stems, leaves and flowers of Crithmum maritimum L., an aromatic and edible maritime halophyte (sea fennel). Aspalathus linearis (Burm.f.) Dahlg. (rooibos) herbal tea was used as a reference. Sea fennel's tisanes, particularly from leaves, were rich in phenolic compounds and five of them (p-hydroxybenzoic and ferulic acids, epicatechin, pyrocatechol and 4-hydroxybenzaldehyde) were here described in C. maritimum for the first time. Chlorogenic acid was the dominant phenolic determined. Na was the most abundant mineral in all tisanes followed by Ca and Mg in leaves' tisanes and K in flowers. Sea fennel's samples had a similar antioxidant activity than those from A. linearis, and had no significant toxicity towards four different mammalian cell lines. Altogether, our results suggest that sea fennel can be a source of products and/or molecules for the food industry with antioxidant properties and minerals in the form, for example, of innovative health-promoting herbal beverages. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Proteomic response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to salinity stress: Similarities and differences between a glycophyte and a halophyte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Maršálová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley Hordeum marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defence-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant (LEA family, several chaperones from heat shock protein (HSP family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper (bZIP and nascent polypeptide-associated complex (NAC families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H

  13. Cloning and characterization of the Salicornia brachiata Na(+)/H(+) antiporter gene SbNHX1 and its expression by abiotic stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Anupama; Joshi, Mukul; Yadav, Narendra Singh; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2011-03-01

    Salinity causes multifarious adverse effects to plants. Plants response to salt stress involves numerous processes that function in coordination to alleviate both cellular hyperosmolarity and ion disequilibrium. A Na(+)/H(+) antiporter NHX1 gene has been isolated from a halophytic plant Salicornia brachiata in this study. Predicted amino acid sequence similarity, protein topology and the presence of functional domains conserved in SbNHX1 classify it as a plant vacuolar NHX gene. The SbNHX1 cDNA has an open reading frame of 1,683 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 560 amino acid residues with an estimated molecular mass 62.44 kDa. The SbNHX1 shows high amino acid similarity with other halophytic NHX gene and belongs to Class-I type NHXs. TMpred suggests that SbNHX1 contains 11 strong transmembrane (TM). Real time PCR analysis revealed that SbNHX1 transcript expresses maximum at 0.5 M. Transcript increases gradually by increasing the treatment duration at 0.5 M NaCl, however, maximum expression was observed at 48 h. The overexpression of SbNHX1 gene in tobacco plant showed NaCl tolerance. This study shows that SbNHX1 is a potential gene for salt tolerance, and can be used in future for developing salt tolerant crops.

  14. Tissue- and environmental response-specific expression of 10 PP2C transcripts in Mesembryanthemum crystallinum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyazaki, S; Koga, R; Bohnert, H J; Fukuhara, T

    1999-03-01

    Ten transcripts (Mpc1-10) homologous to protein phosphatases of the 2C family have been isolated from the halophyte Mesembryanthemum crystallinum (common ice plant). Transcripts range in size from 1.6 to 2.6 kb, and encode proteins whose catalytic domains are between 24% and 62% identical to that of the Arabidopsis PP2C, ABI1. Transcript expression is tissue specific. Two isoforms are present only in roots (Mpc1 and Mpc5), three in young leaves (Mpc6, 8 and 9), two in old leaves (Mpc6 and Mpc8), and two in post-flowering leaves (Mpc8 and Mpc9). Mpc2 is strongly expressed in roots and also in seeds, meristematic tissues and mature flowers. Mpc3 is specific for leaf meristems, and Mpc4 is found in root and leaf meristems. Mpc7 is restricted to meristematic tissues. Mpc10 is only present in mature flowers. Mpc2 (in roots and leaves), Mpc5 (in roots) and Mpc8 (weakly in leaves) are induced by salinity stress and drought conditions with different kinetics in different tissues, but other Mpcs are downregulated by stress. Cold stress (4 degrees C) leads to a decline in Mpc5 and Mp6, but low temperature provoked a long-term (days) increase in Mpc2 levels in leaves and a transient increase (less than 24 h) in roots. Four full-length transcripts have been obtained. In each case, after over-expression in E. coli, the isolated proteins exhibited (Mg2+-dependent, okadeic acid-insensitive) protein phosphatase activity, although activity against 32P-phosphocasein varied among different PP2Cs. Determination of tissue developmental and stress response specificity of PP2C will facilitate functional studies of signal-transducing enzymes in this halophytic organism.

  15. Origins of mineral matter in peat marsh and peat bog deposits, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Buendia, A.M. [Unidad Tecnica del Marmol, AIDICO, Cami de Castella, 4, 03660 Novelda, Alicante (Spain); Whateley, M.K.G. [Rio Tinto Technical Services, Castlemead, Lower Castlemead, BS99 7YR Bristol (United Kingdom); Bastida, J.; Urquiola, M.M. [Dpto. Geologia, Univ. Valencia, Dr. Moliner 50. 46100 Burjasot, Valencia (Spain)

    2007-07-02

    The mineralogy of three back-barrier peat marshes (Torreblanca, Benicasim and Moncofar marshes) from Eastern Spain and one peat bog (Orihuela del Tremedal bog) from central east Spain have been investigated, using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) techniques. A combination of XRD methods was used to quantify the mineralogy of dried bulk peat samples. The water source in the peat marshes is both continental and marine. Water is highly mineralised. Water flow is both low and slow (accumulative system). The water source in the peat bog is continental, draining from the hill. The higher concentration of ions in the water of the back-barrier peat marshes leads to a higher concentration of authigenic minerals in the peat marshes compared to the peat bog. Three main mineral origins have been recognized, namely: detrital, syngenetic-epigenetic and biogenic. The more important contribution comes from the detrital system. Biogenic and bio-influenced minerals are the main non-detrital minerals in the peatlands. This paper discusses the biogenic origin of halite (and other minor halides and sulphates, such as, sylvite, carnalite, epsomite, glauberite, mirabilite and anhydrite?) from halophytic plants, as well as amorphous silica (opal-A) from sponge spicules and phytoliths of several plants. Pyrite in the peat bog has both syngenetic and epigenetic origins from plant decomposition and sulphur release. In the peat marsh the pyrite has a syngenetic origin from sulphate reduction (S{sub sulphate} {yields} S{sub pyritic}), and an epigenetic origin in the older peat, from plant decomposition (S{sub organic} {yields} S{sub pyritic}). (author)

  16. Original Article. Toxic effect of sodium fluoride on hydroxyproline level and expression of collagen-1 gene in rat bone and its amelioration by Tamrindus indica L. fruit pulp extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Amit Raj

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fluoride intoxication plays an important role in the development of dental, skeletal and non-skeletal fluorosis. The aim of this study was to ascertain the toxic effect of excessive fluoride ingestion on the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in rat bone and its amelioration by supplementation with Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract. Forty albino rats were randomly assigned to four groups. The first group served as control and received only tap water. The second group received sodium fluoride (200 ppm through drinking water. The third group received T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight alone and the fourth group received the T. indica fruit pulp extract (200 mg/kg body weight along with fluorinated drinking water (200 ppm daily by gavage for a period of 90 days. The level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene using quantitative real time PCR in the tibia bone decreased significantly with continuous exposure to sodium fluoride. Co-administration of T. indica fruit pulp extract during exposure to fluoride through drinking water restored the level of calcium, phosphorus and alkaline phosphatase in serum and the concentration of hydroxyproline in urine. It increased the level of hydroxyproline and expression of type 1 collagen gene in the tibia as compared to untreated fluoride-exposed rats. It is concluded that T. indica fruit pulp extract has an ameliorative potential to protect the bone from fluoride induced collagen damage.

  17. Pluripotency gene expression and growth control in cultures of peripheral blood monocytes during their conversion into programmable cells of monocytic origin (PCMO: evidence for a regulatory role of autocrine activin and TGF-β.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hendrik Ungefroren

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that peripheral blood monocytes can be converted in vitro to a stem cell-like cell termed PCMO as evidenced by the re-expression of pluripotency-associated genes, transient proliferation, and the ability to adopt the phenotype of hepatocytes and insulin-producing cells upon tissue-specific differentiation. However, the regulatory interactions between cultured cells governing pluripotency and mitotic activity have remained elusive. Here we asked whether activin(s and TGF-β(s, are involved in PCMO generation. De novo proliferation of PCMO was higher under adherent vs. suspended culture conditions as revealed by the appearance of a subset of Ki67-positive monocytes and correlated with down-regulation of p21WAF1 beyond day 2 of culture. Realtime-PCR analysis showed that PCMO express ActRIIA, ALK4, TβRII, ALK5 as well as TGF-β1 and the βA subunit of activin. Interestingly, expression of ActRIIA and ALK4, and activin A levels in the culture supernatants increased until day 4 of culture, while levels of total and active TGF-β1 strongly declined. PCMO responded to both growth factors in an autocrine fashion with intracellular signaling as evidenced by a rise in the levels of phospho-Smad2 and a drop in those of phospho-Smad3. Stimulation of PCMO with recombinant activins (A, B, AB and TGF-β1 induced phosphorylation of Smad2 but not Smad3. Inhibition of autocrine activin signaling by either SB431542 or follistatin reduced both Smad2 activation and Oct4A/Nanog upregulation. Inhibition of autocrine TGF-β signaling by either SB431542 or anti-TGF-β antibody reduced Smad3 activation and strongly increased the number of Ki67-positive cells. Furthermore, anti-TGF-β antibody moderately enhanced Oct4A/Nanog expression. Our data show that during PCMO generation pluripotency marker expression is controlled positively by activin/Smad2 and negatively by TGF-β/Smad3 signaling, while relief from growth inhibition is primarily the

  18. Accounting for Fetal Origins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Hansen, Casper Worm; Strulik, Holger

    2017-01-01

    The Fetal Origins hypothesis has received considerable empirical support, both within epidemiology and economics. The present study compares the ability of two rival theoretical frameworks in accounting for the kind of path dependence implied by the Fetal Origins Hypothesis. We argue that while...

  19. Expression of a single siRNA against a conserved region of NP gene strongly inhibits in vitro replication of different Influenza A virus strains of avian and swine origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoppani, Elena; Bassi, Ivan; Dotti, Silvia; Lizier, Michela; Ferrari, Maura; Lucchini, Franco

    2015-08-01

    Influenza A virus is the principal agent responsible of the respiratory tract's infections in humans. Every year, highly pathogenic and infectious strains with new antigenic assets appear, making ineffective vaccines so far developed. The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) opened the way to the progress of new promising drugs against Influenza A virus and also to the introduction of disease resistance traits in genetically modified animals. In this paper, we show that Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cell line expressing short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) cassette, designed on a specific conserved region of the nucleoprotein (NP) viral genome, can strongly inhibit the viral replication of four viral strains sharing the target sequence, reducing the viral mRNA respectively to 2.5×10(-4), 7.5×10(-5), 1.7×10(-3), 1.9×10(-4) compared to the control, as assessed by real-time PCR. Moreover, we demonstrate that during the challenge with a viral strain bearing a single mismatch on the target sequence, although a weaker inhibition is observed, viral mRNA is still lowered down to 1.2×10(-3) folds in the shRNA-expressing clone compared to the control, indicating a broad potential use of this approach. In addition, we developed a highly predictive and fast screening test of siRNA sequences based on dual-luciferase assay, useful for the in vitro prediction of the potential effect of viral inhibition. In conclusion, these findings reveal new siRNA sequences able to inhibit Influenza A virus replication and provide a basis for the development of siRNAs as prophylaxis and therapy for influenza infection both in humans and animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Marxismo original e Utopia

    OpenAIRE

    Nildo Viana

    2016-01-01

    O marxismo original – desenvolvido por Marx e Engels – geralmente é contraposto ao socialismo utópico como se fosse uma recusa absoluta e total. O objetivo do artigo é discutir a relação entre o marxismo original e o socialismo utópico e com a utopia. A tese defendida no artigo é a de que o caráter antiutópico do marxismo original é uma simplificação, pois o que ele realiza é uma suplantação do utopismo, o que significa manter os seus elementos positivos e negar os seus elementos negativos. P...

  1. Libertarianism and Original Appropriation

    OpenAIRE

    Dominiak, Łukasz

    2017-01-01

    The article is devoted to the problem of the structure of libertarian theory of justice. It tries to present a map of the main concepts and principles of this theory and to investigate its possible justifications. It explains such fundamental concepts as original appropriation, homesteading, labour theory of property or first possession theory of original appropriation. The article shows merits and drawbacks of alternative libertarian principles of justice in first acquisition and proposes a ...

  2. Origins: science inspires art

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2011-01-01

    From 8 December 2011 to 17 February 2012, Geneva University's physics faculty will be holding an exhibition called "L'Origine – un voyage entre la Science et l'Art". Thirty artists from Europe and Africa will be exhibiting their work.   The aim of the exhibition is to take the visitor on an imaginary journey to the origins of mankind and to show how science and art approach the same theme from different angles. The works on display will include pieces of Makonde art, a traditional art form native to Mozambique, created by artists of the Nairucu Arts centre. The cultural programme that will run alongside the exhibition will include lectures on contemporary scientific themes aimed at the general public. Visitors will also have the opportunity to discover "L’Origine", a book of poetry by Beatrice Bressan (Ed. Loreleo, Geneva, 2010), which was awarded the third prize in the “Poeti nella società&...

  3. A SNARE-Like Superfamily Protein SbSLSP from the Halophyte Salicornia brachiata Confers Salt and Drought Tolerance by Maintaining Membrane Stability, K(+)/Na(+) Ratio, and Antioxidant Machinery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Dinkar; Yadav, Narendra Singh; Tiwari, Vivekanand; Agarwal, Pradeep K; Jha, Bhavanath

    2016-01-01

    About 1000 salt-responsive ESTs were identified from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata. Among these, a novel salt-inducible gene SbSLSP (Salicornia brachiata SNARE-like superfamily protein), showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that SbSLSP gene is inducible by abiotic stress. The SbSLSP protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharacterized proteins from Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Eucalyptus grandis, and Prunus persica and with SNARE-like superfamily proteins from Zostera marina and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatics analysis predicted a clathrin adaptor complex small-chain domain and N-myristoylation site in the SbSLSP protein. Subcellular localization studies indicated that the SbSLSP protein is mainly localized in the plasma membrane. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we establish that overexpression of SbSLSP resulted in elevated tolerance to salt and drought stress. The improved tolerance was confirmed by alterations in a range of physiological parameters, including high germination and survival rate, higher leaf chlorophyll contents, and reduced accumulation of Na(+) ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, overexpressing lines also showed lower water loss, higher cell membrane stability, and increased accumulation of proline and ROS-scavenging enzymes. Overexpression of SbSLSP also enhanced the transcript levels of ROS-scavenging and signaling enzyme genes. This study is the first investigation of the function of the SbSLSP gene as a novel determinant of salinity/drought tolerance. The results suggest that SbSLSP could be a potential candidate to increase salinity and drought tolerance in crop plants for sustainable agriculture in semi-arid saline soil.

  4. A SNARE-like superfamily protein SbSLSP from the halophyte Salicornia brachiata confers salt and drought tolerance by maintaining membrane stability, K+/Na+ ratio, and antioxidant machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinkar eSingh

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available About 1000 salt-responsive ESTs were identified from an extreme halophyte Salicornia brachiata. Among these, a novel salt-inducible gene SbSLSP, (Salicornia brachiata SNARE-like superfamily protein showed up-regulation upon salinity and dehydration stress. The presence of cis-regulatory motifs related to abiotic stress in the putative promoter region supports our finding that SbSLSP gene is inducible by abiotic stress. The SbSLSP protein showed a high sequence identity to hypothetical/uncharacterised proteins from Beta vulgaris, Spinacia oleracea, Eucalyptus grandis and Prunus persica and with SNARE-like superfamily proteins from Zostera marina and Arabidopsis thaliana. Bioinformatics analysis predicted a clathrin adaptor complex small-chain domain and N-myristoylation site in the SbSLSP protein. Subcellular localisation studies indicated that the SbSLSP protein is mainly localised in the plasma membrane. Using transgenic tobacco lines, we establish that overexpression of SbSLSP resulted in elevated tolerance to salt and drought stress. The improved tolerance was confirmed by alterations in a range of physiological parameters, including high germination and survival rate, higher leaf chlorophyll contents, and reduced accumulation of Na+ ion and reactive oxygen species (ROS. Furthermore, overexpressing lines also showed lower water loss, higher cell membrane stability and increased accumulation of proline and ROS-scavenging enzymes. Overexpression of SbSLSP also enhanced the transcript levels of ROS-scavenging and signalling enzyme genes. This study is the first investigation of the function of the SbSLSP gene as a novel determinant of salinity/drought tolerance. The results suggest that SbSLSP could be a potential candidate to increase salinity and drought tolerance in crop plants for sustainable agriculture in semi-arid saline soil.

  5. Origin of solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''.

  6. Origin of solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pokorny, Z.

    1984-01-01

    The generally accepted concept has it that the Sun and the planets originated almost simultaneously from nebula (the nebular hypothesis). It is assumed that the temperature of the nebula decreased in the direction from the centre which led to the segregation of elements and to the different chemical composition of the individual planets. The planets formed either from the gravitational collapse of part of the nebula or by gradual accretion. In the scenario of the origin of the solar system there are many blank spots, namely as concerns the initial stages of development and the period when the formation of the planets had ''almost been completed''. (Ha)

  7. Authentic, Original, and Valuable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tupasela, Aaro Mikael; Tamminen, Sakari

    2015-01-01

    The idea of genetic authenticity and origin has been an important issue within genetics for decades for scientific, political, and economic reasons. The question of where species and populations come from, as well as the linking of genetic traits to particular geographical locations, has resurfaced....... Using the case of human and non-human genetics to compare and contrast the various facets associated with genetic identity, we seek to develop a broader picture of the ways in which genetics plays an important role in stabilizing categories of origin....

  8. On the origin of comets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendis, A.; Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    Physico-chemical processes leading to the dynamic formation and physical evolution of comets are reviewed in relationship to the various theories that propose solar origins, protoplanetary origins, planetary origins and interstellar origins. Evidence points to the origins of comets by the growth and agglomeration of small particles from gas and dust at very low temperatures at undetermined regions in space.

  9. Headache of cervical origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burguet, J.L.; Wackenheim, A.

    1984-01-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''. (orig.) [de

  10. The origins of AIDS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pepin, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    ... urbanisation, prostitution and large-scale colonial medical campaigns intended to eradicate tropical diseases combined to disastrous effect to fuel the spread of the virus from its origins in Léopoldville to the rest of Africa, the Caribbean and ultimately worldwide. This is an essential new perspective on HIV/ AIDS and on the lessons that must be learned if we are to avoi...

  11. The Origin of Species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwin, Charles

    2005-01-01

    In The Origin of Species Darwin outlined his theory of evolution, which proposed that species had been evolving and differentiating over time under the influence of natural selection. On its publication it became hugely influential, bringing about a seismic shift in the scientific view of humanitys

  12. Origin (?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 1; Issue 3. Origin (?) of the Universe The Big Bang. Jayant V Narlikar. Series Article Volume 1 Issue 3 March 1996 pp 6-12. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/001/03/0006-0012 ...

  13. Original and Derived Judgment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss, Kirsten; Foss, Nicolai Juul; Klein, Peter G.

    and own assets. The entrepreneur's role, then, is to arrange or organize the human and capital assets under his control. We extend this Knightian concept of the firm by developing a theory of delegation under Knightian uncertainty. What we call original judgment belongs exclusively to owners, but owners...

  14. Making cocoa origin traceable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acierno, Valentina; Alewijn, Martin; Zomer, Paul; Ruth, van Saskia M.

    2018-01-01

    More and more attention is paid to sustainability in the cocoa production. Tools that assist in making sustainable cocoa traceable are therefore welcome. In the present study, the applicability of Flow Infusion-Electrospray Ionization- Mass Spectrometry (FI-ESI-MS) to assess the geographical origin

  15. Origin(?) of the Universe

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    weaknesses of the big bang cosmology, conceptual as well as observational. ... They argue that this event marks the origin of the ... a change of the lowest energy state of matter, normally designated as ... Rapid expansion of this kind produces some lasting effects in the universe. .... This attitude coupled with attempted ...

  16. Conscientiousness: Origins in Childhood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Duckworth, Angela L.; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Valiente, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we evaluate developmental and personality research with the aim of determining whether the personality trait of conscientiousness can be identified in children and adolescents. After concluding that conscientiousness does emerge in childhood, we discuss the developmental origins of conscientiousness with a specific focus on…

  17. 66 ORIGINAL ARTICLE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. AFRICAN JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY JAN 2016 ISBN 1595-689X VOL 17 No.1 ..... WOMEN. Social characteristics. No. examined (n = 310). No. positive. (n=30) (%). Education. Illiterate. Primary. Secondary. Tertiary. Occupation. Civil servant. House wife. Students.

  18. The moon's origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, P.; Benz, W.

    1987-01-01

    Planet formation theory is recalled. The different existing hypothesis on the moon's origins are reviewed also to see how much they are compatible with the planet formation theory. Up to now, the giant impact model seems to be the only model to satisfy all the constraints. Computerized simulation results have been presented in colloquiums and their scenarios are recalled [fr

  19. Symbiotic Origin of Aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Edward F; Vatolin, Sergei

    2018-06-01

    Normally aging cells are characterized by an unbalanced mitochondrial dynamic skewed toward punctate mitochondria. Genetic and pharmacological manipulation of mitochondrial fission/fusion cycles can contribute to both accelerated and decelerated cellular or organismal aging. In this work, we connect these experimental data with the symbiotic theory of mitochondrial origin to generate new insight into the evolutionary origin of aging. Mitochondria originated from autotrophic α-proteobacteria during an ancient endosymbiotic event early in eukaryote evolution. To expand beyond individual host cells, dividing α-proteobacteria initiated host cell lysis; apoptosis is a product of this original symbiont cell lytic exit program. Over the course of evolution, the host eukaryotic cell attenuated the harmful effect of symbiotic proto-mitochondria, and modern mitochondria are now functionally interdependent with eukaryotic cells; they retain their own circular genomes and independent replication timing. In nondividing differentiated or multipotent eukaryotic cells, intracellular mitochondria undergo repeated fission/fusion cycles, favoring fission as organisms age. The discordance between cellular quiescence and mitochondrial proliferation generates intracellular stress, eventually leading to a gradual decline in host cell performance and age-related pathology. Hence, aging evolved from a conflict between maintenance of a quiescent, nonproliferative state and the evolutionarily conserved propagation program driving the life cycle of former symbiotic organisms: mitochondria.

  20. Origin of Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Ruth, Ed.

    Intended for use with college students, this booklet contains a traditional Hupa story (in Hupa and English) followed by information to aid in a critical literary analysis of the story and topics for student discussion. The introduction explains that "Origin of Fire"--first written down by P.E. Goddard in 1902 and still told by…

  1. Origins of Rolling Friction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Rod

    2017-01-01

    When a hard object rolls on a soft surface, or vice versa, rolling friction arises from deformation of the soft object or the soft surface. The friction force can be described in terms of an offset in the normal reaction force or in terms of energy loss arising from the deformation. The origin of the friction force itself is not entirely clear. It…

  2. Headache of cervical origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burguet, J L; Wackenheim, A

    1984-08-01

    The authors recall cervical etiologies of headache. They distinguish on the one hand the cervico-occipital region with minor and major malformations and acquired lesions, and on the other hand the middle and inferior cervical segment. They also recall the original structuralist analysis of the cervical spine and give the example of the ''cervical triplet''.

  3. About greenhouse effect origins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrhenius, S.; Chamberlin, Th.; Croll, J.; Fourier, J.; Pouillet, C.; Tyndall, J.

    2009-01-01

    In order to understand and decipher the ecological crisis in progress, an historical prospect of its origins and evolution at the worldwide scale is necessary. This book gathers seven founder articles (including 4 original translations), harbingers of the present day climate change. Written during the 19. century by famous scientists like Joseph Fourier, Claude Pouillet, James Croll, John Tyndall, Svante Arrhenius and Thomas Chamberlin, they relate a century of major progress in the domain of Earth's sciences in praise of these scientists. This book allows to (re)discover these texts: discovery of the greenhouse effect principle (Fourier), determination of solar radiation absorption by the atmosphere (Pouillet), rivalry between the astronomical theory of glacial cycles (Croll) and the carbon dioxide climatic theory (Tyndall), influence of the CO 2 concentration in the atmosphere on the global warming (Arrhenius), and confirmation of the major role of CO 2 in the Earth's temperature regulation (Chamberlin). (J.S.)

  4. Archaeal origin of tubulin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yutin Natalya

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tubulins are a family of GTPases that are key components of the cytoskeleton in all eukaryotes and are distantly related to the FtsZ GTPase that is involved in cell division in most bacteria and many archaea. Among prokaryotes, bona fide tubulins have been identified only in bacteria of the genus Prosthecobacter. These bacterial tubulin genes appear to have been horizontally transferred from eukaryotes. Here we describe tubulins encoded in the genomes of thaumarchaeota of the genus Nitrosoarchaeum that we denote artubulins Phylogenetic analysis results are compatible with the origin of eukaryotic tubulins from artubulins. These findings expand the emerging picture of the origin of key components of eukaryotic functional systems from ancestral forms that are scattered among the extant archaea. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Gáspár Jékely and J. Peter Gogarten.

  5. Origin of family symmetries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilles, Hans Peter

    2012-04-01

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  6. Entrepreneurship: Origins and Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Berglann, Helge; R. Moen, Espen R.; Røed, Knut; Skogstrøm, Jens Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    We examine the origins and outcome of entrepreneurship on the basis of exceptionally comprehensive Norwegian matched worker-firm-owner data. In contrast to most existing studies, our notion of entrepreneurship not only comprises self-employment, but also employment in partly self-owned limited liability firms. Based on this extended entrepreneurship concept, we find that entrepreneurship tends to be profitable. It also raises in-come uncertainty, but the most successful quartile gains much mo...

  7. Origin of family symmetries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilles, Hans Peter [Bonn Univ. (Germany). Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics; Bonn Univ. (Germany). Physikalisches Inst.; Ratz, Michael [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Physik-Department; Vaudrevange, Patrick K.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-04-15

    Discrete (family) symmetries might play an important role in models of elementary particle physics. We discuss the origin of such symmetries in the framework of consistent ultraviolet completions of the standard model in field and string theory. The symmetries can arise due to special geometrical properties of extra compact dimensions and the localization of fields in this geometrical landscape. We also comment on anomaly constraints for discrete symmetries.

  8. Origin of tektites

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Keefe, John A.

    1994-01-01

    The origin of tektites has been obscure because of the following dilemma. The application of physical principles to the data available on tektites points strongly to origin from one or more lunar volcanoes; but few glasses of tektite composition have hitherto been reported from the lunar samples. Instead, the lunar silicic glasses consist chiefly of a material very rich in K2O and poor in MgO. The ratio of K2O/MgO is higher in these glasses than in any tektites reported. The solution of the dilemma seems to come from the study of some recently discovered terrestrial deposits of tektite glass with high values of K2O/MgO at the Cretaceous Tertiary boundary. These glasses are found to be very vulnerable to crystallization into sandine or to alteration to smectite. These end products are known and are more abundant than any terrestrial deposits of tektite glass. It seems possible that, in fact, the moon produces tektite glass, mostly of the high K2O-low MgO type; but on Earth these deposits are destroyed. The much less abundant deposits with lower K and higher Mg are observed because they survive. Other objections to the lunar origin hypothesis appear to be answerable.

  9. Origins Space Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, our completed first mission concept and an introduction to the second concept that will be studied at the study center in 2018. This presentation will also summarize key science drivers and the key study milestones between 2018 and 2020.

  10. Insights into translation and the original text: Thomas Mofolo's Chaka

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper aims to explore the strategies applied during the translation of chosen passages from the original Sesotho text of Chaka by Thomas Mofolo into English. Insights expressed here originate from participation in the translation workshops during the conference on “Translating Mofolo”. Different stages of the ...

  11. Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-14-1-0115 TITLE: Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Kyuson Yun...CA130273 - Cell of Origin and Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype in Medulloblastomas 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-14-1-0115 5c. PROGRAM...hypothesis, we originally proposed to transform neural stem cells (NSCs) and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in vivo by expressing an activated form

  12. Overexpression of EsMcsu1 from the halophytic plant Eutrema salsugineum promotes abscisic acid biosynthesis and increases drought resistance in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, C; Ma, Z Y; Zhu, L; Guo, J S; Zhu, J; Wang, J F

    2015-12-17

    The stress phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays pivotal roles in plants' adaptive responses to adverse environments. Molybdenum cofactor sulfurases influence aldehyde oxidase activity and ABA biosynthesis. In this study, we isolated a novel EsMcsu1 gene encoding a molybdenum cofactor sulfurase from Eutrema salsugineum. EsMcus1 transcriptional patterns varied between organs, and its expression was significantly upregulated by abiotic stress or ABA treatment. Alfalfa plants that overexpressed EsMcsu1 had a higher ABA content than wild-type (WT) plants under drought stress conditions. Furthermore, levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), ion leakage, and malondialdehyde were lower in the transgenic plants than in the WT plants after drought treatment, suggesting that the transgenic plants experienced less ROS-mediated damage. However, the expression of several stress-responsive genes, antioxidant enzyme activity, and osmolyte (proline and total soluble sugar) levels in the transgenic plants were higher than those in the WT plants after drought treatment. Therefore, EsMcsu1 overexpression improved drought tolerance in alfalfa plants by activating a series of ABA-mediated stress responses.

  13. The Origin of Mass

    OpenAIRE

    森岡, 達史

    2013-01-01

    The quark-lepton mass problem and the ideas of mass protection are reviewed. The hierarchy problem and suggestions for its resolution, including Little Higgs models, are discussed. The Multiple Point Principle is introduced and used within the Standard Model to predict the top quark and Higgs particle masses. Mass matrix ans\\"{a}tze are considered; in particular we discuss the lightest family mass generation model, in which all the quark mixing angles are successfully expressed in terms of si...

  14. Origin of superelectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, M.

    1993-01-01

    The origin of superelectrons lies in the atomic nature. Superelectrons are derived from four special electron pair sets of 1s 2 , 2p 6 , 3d 10 , and 4f 14 , which can be represented as 1 S 0 of s-type spin-singlet pairing in the Russel-Saunders term symbol. Tc increases with the increase of the compressive pressure against these spherical electron clouds by the pinch effect due to excess oxygen in cuprate oxide superconductors and the outermost electrons in the superconducting elements, suggesting the increase of the attractive interaction between electrons. (orig.)

  15. The origins of options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smaldino, Paul E; Richerson, Peter J

    2012-01-01

    Most research on decision making has focused on how human or animal decision makers choose between two or more options, posed in advance by the researchers. The mechanisms by which options are generated for most decisions, however, are not well understood. Models of sequential search have examined the trade-off between continued exploration and choosing one's current best option, but still cannot explain the processes by which new options are generated. We argue that understanding the origins of options is a crucial but untapped area for decision making research. We explore a number of factors which influence the generation of options, which fall broadly into two categories: psycho-biological and socio-cultural. The former category includes factors such as perceptual biases and associative memory networks. The latter category relies on the incredible human capacity for culture and social learning, which doubtless shape not only our choices but the options available for choice. Our intention is to start a discussion that brings us closer toward understanding the origins of options.

  16. Fever of unknown origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misaki, Takashi; Matsui, Akira; Tanaka, Fumiko; Okuno, Yoshishige; Mitsumori, Michihide; Torizuka, Tatsurou; Dokoh, Shigeharu; Hayakawa, Katsumi; Shimbo, Shin-ichirou

    1990-01-01

    Gallium-67 scintigraphy is a commonly performed imaging modality in deteting pyrogenic lesions in cases of long-standing inexplainable fever. To re-evaluate the significance of gallium imaging in such cases, a retrospective review was made of 56 scans performed in febrile patients in whom sufficient clinical and laboratory findings were obtained. Gallium scans were true positive in 30 patients, false positive in 3, true negative in 19, and false negative in 4. In the group of true positive, local inflammatory lesions were detected in 23 patients with a final diagnosis of lung tuberculosis, urinary tract infection, and inflammatory joint disease. Abnormal gallium accumulation, as shown in the other 7 patients, provided clues to the diagnosis of generalized disorders, such as hematological malignancies (n=3), systemic autoimmune diseases (n=3), and severe infectious mononucleosis (n=one). In the group of false positive, gallium imaging revealed intestinal excretion of gallium in 2 patients and physiological pulmonary hilar accumulation in one. In the true negative group of 19 patients, fever of unknown origin was resolved spontaneously in 12 patients, and with antibiotics and corticosteroids in 2 and 5 patients, respectively. Four patients having false negative scans were finally diagnosed as having urinary tract infection (n=2), bacterial meningitis (n=one), and polyarteritis (n=one). Gallium imaging would remain the technique of choice in searching for origin of unknown fever. It may also be useful for early diagnosis of systemic disease, as well as focal inflammation. (N.K.)

  17. Egg origin determination efforts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, A.; Futo, I.; Vodila, G.; Palcsu, L.

    2012-01-01

    Complete text of publication follows. As a co-operation with the Poultry Product Board, egg and drinking water samples were received in order to investigate whether the country of origin of the egg can be determined based on its stable isotope composition with the aim of market protection of the Hungarian eggs against the mislabelled foreign ones. The scientific background is that drinking water of egg laying hens is assumed to reflect the composition of regional precipitation, and it is also an input data in the process of egg formation. In the first sampling, altogether 23 sets of egg and drinking water samples were received from different production sites covering the whole area of Hungary. The egg white samples were vacuum distilled and frozen out by liquid nitrogen at -196 deg C. The process was monitored by two vacuum gauges. Water frozen out together with the drinking water samples was measured were measured by a Thermo Finnigan Delta PLUS XP isotope ratio mass spectrometer using a GasBench II peripheral unit equipped with a GC-autosampler. As a second issue, additionally, elemental composition of egg shells were also performed for series of Hungarian, Czech and Polish egg samples by energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence. The drinking waters fit well to the Global Meteoric Water Line indicating their precipitation origin. It was experienced that the water in egg white gets enriched compared to the drinking water (Δ 18 O = -4.9 ± 1.0 per thousand and Δ D = -21.8 ± 6.4 per thousand), however, this shift is independent of the type of the hens, since the mean shifts in the eggs of Tetra and Hy-line hens are similar within error bar. For more depleted drinking water, the shift of the egg white was higher than for more enriched ones. This can be due to the contribution of the nutriment isotopic composition. The water isotope composition of the Hungarian eggs investigated was δ 18 O = -4.8 - -7.3 per thousand and δD = -46.0 - -70.7 per thousand, therefore egg

  18. Human origins: Out of Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-01-01

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200–150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was “discovered” via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent. PMID:19805256

  19. Phylogenetic Origins of Brain Organisers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Robertshaw

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The regionalisation of the nervous system begins early in embryogenesis, concomitant with the establishment of the anteroposterior (AP and dorsoventral (DV body axes. The molecular mechanisms that drive axis induction appear to be conserved throughout the animal kingdom and may be phylogenetically older than the emergence of bilateral symmetry. As a result of this process, groups of patterning genes that are equally well conserved are expressed at specific AP and DV coordinates of the embryo. In the emerging nervous system of vertebrate embryos, this initial pattern is refined by local signalling centres, secondary organisers, that regulate patterning, proliferation, and axonal pathfinding in adjacent neuroepithelium. The main secondary organisers for the AP neuraxis are the midbrain-hindbrain boundary, zona limitans intrathalamica, and anterior neural ridge and for the DV neuraxis the notochord, floor plate, and roof plate. A search for homologous secondary organisers in nonvertebrate lineages has led to controversy over their phylogenetic origins. Based on a recent study in hemichordates, it has been suggested that the AP secondary organisers evolved at the base of the deuterostome superphylum, earlier than previously thought. According to this view, the lack of signalling centres in some deuterostome lineages is likely to reflect a secondary loss due to adaptive processes. We propose that the relative evolutionary flexibility of secondary organisers has contributed to a broader morphological complexity of nervous systems in different clades.

  20. Origins of Mindfulness & Meditation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singla, Rashmi

    2011-01-01

    Mindfulness & meditation are gaining popularity in the Western psychological practice in the past 3-4 decades, especially within psychotherapeutic approaches, health promotion, and stress reduction. The origins and the broader context, however, seem to be overlooked in some of these practices......- mind, centrality of consciousness and meditation as a part of daily conduct are presented. The basic constructs of Buddhism, an integral part of Indian psychology, in relation to mindfulness and meditation, are also delineated as illustrations of these assumptions. The second part reflects...... on the application of the meditative practices through cognitive existential study of mindfulness (Kabat-Zinn, 2003) and a study on the phenomenology of meditation (Madsen, 2007). Both emphasise an experienced instructor, regular practice as a part of daily life, conceptual consciousness understandings...

  1. Origins of adaptive immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liongue, Clifford; John, Liza B; Ward, Alister

    2011-01-01

    Adaptive immunity, involving distinctive antibody- and cell-mediated responses to specific antigens based on "memory" of previous exposure, is a hallmark of higher vertebrates. It has been argued that adaptive immunity arose rapidly, as articulated in the "big bang theory" surrounding its origins, which stresses the importance of coincident whole-genome duplications. Through a close examination of the key molecules and molecular processes underpinning adaptive immunity, this review suggests a less-extreme model, in which adaptive immunity emerged as part of longer evolutionary journey. Clearly, whole-genome duplications provided additional raw genetic materials that were vital to the emergence of adaptive immunity, but a variety of other genetic events were also required to generate some of the key molecules, whereas others were preexisting and simply co-opted into adaptive immunity.

  2. Tonoplast Na+/H+ Antiport Activity and Its Energization by the Vacuolar H+-ATPase in the Halophytic Plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkla, B. J.; Zingarelli, L.; Blumwald, E.; Smith, JAC.

    1995-10-01

    Tonoplast vesicles were isolated from leaf mesophyll tissue of the inducible Crassulacean acid metabolism plant Mesembryanthemum crystallinum to investigate the mechanism of vacuolar Na+ accumulation in this halophilic species. In 8-week-old plants exposed to 200 mM NaCl for 2 weeks, tonoplast H+-ATPase activity was approximately doubled compared with control plants of the same age, as determined by rates of both ATP hydrolysis and ATP-dependent H+ transport. Evidence was also obtained for the presence of an electroneutral Na+/H+ antiporter at the tonoplast that is constitutively expressed, since extravesicular Na+ was able to dissipate a pre-existing transmembrane pH gradient. Initial rates of H+ efflux showed saturation kinetics with respect to extravesicular Na+ concentration and were 2.1-fold higher from vesicles of salt-treated plants compared with the controls. Na+-dependent H+ efflux also showed a high selectivity for Na+ over K+, was insensitive to the transmembrane electrical potential difference, and was more than 50% inhibited by 200 [mu]M N-amidino-3,5-diamino-6-chloropyrazinecarboxamide hydrochloride. The close correlation between increased Na+/H+ antiport and H+-ATPase activities in response to salt treatment suggests that accumulation of the very high concentrations of vacuolar Na+ found in M. crystallinum is energized by the H+ electrochemical gradient across the tonoplast.

  3. Origins of mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilczek, Frank

    2012-10-01

    Newtonian mechanics posited mass as a primary quality of matter, incapable of further elucidation. We now see Newtonian mass as an emergent property. That mass-concept is tremendously useful in the approximate description of baryon-dominated matter at low energy — that is, the standard "matter" of everyday life, and of most of science and engineering — but it originates in a highly contingent and non-trivial way from more basic concepts. Most of the mass of standard matter, by far, arises dynamically, from back-reaction of the color gluon fields of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Additional quantitatively small, though physically crucial, contributions come from the intrinsic masses of elementary quanta (electrons and quarks). The equations for massless particles support extra symmetries — specifically scale, chiral, and gauge symmetries. The consistency of the standard model relies on a high degree of underlying gauge and chiral symmetry, so the observed non-zero masses of many elementary particles ( W and Z bosons, quarks, and leptons) requires spontaneous symmetry breaking. Superconductivity is a prototype for spontaneous symmetry breaking and for mass-generation, since photons acquire mass inside superconductors. A conceptually similar but more intricate form of all-pervasive ( i.e. cosmic) superconductivity, in the context of the electroweak standard model, gives us a successful, economical account of W and Z boson masses. It also allows a phenomenologically successful, though profligate, accommodation of quark and lepton masses. The new cosmic superconductivity, when implemented in a straightforward, minimal way, suggests the existence of a remarkable new particle, the so-called Higgs particle. The mass of the Higgs particle itself is not explained in the theory, but appears as a free parameter. Earlier results suggested, and recent observations at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) may indicate, the actual existence of the Higgs particle, with mass m H

  4. Origins of GEMS Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messenger, S.; Walker, R. M.

    2012-01-01

    Interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) collected in the Earth s stratosphere contain high abundances of submicrometer amorphous silicates known as GEMS grains. From their birth as condensates in the outflows of oxygen-rich evolved stars, processing in interstellar space, and incorporation into disks around new stars, amorphous silicates predominate in most astrophysical environments. Amorphous silicates were a major building block of our Solar System and are prominent in infrared spectra of comets. Anhydrous interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) thought to derive from comets contain abundant amorphous silicates known as GEMS (glass with embedded metal and sulfides) grains. GEMS grains have been proposed to be isotopically and chemically homogenized interstellar amorphous silicate dust. We evaluated this hypothesis through coordinated chemical and isotopic analyses of GEMS grains in a suite of IDPs to constrain their origins. GEMS grains show order of magnitude variations in Mg, Fe, Ca, and S abundances. GEMS grains do not match the average element abundances inferred for ISM dust containing on average, too little Mg, Fe, and Ca, and too much S. GEMS grains have complementary compositions to the crystalline components in IDPs suggesting that they formed from the same reservoir. We did not observe any unequivocal microstructural or chemical evidence that GEMS grains experienced prolonged exposure to radiation. We identified four GEMS grains having O isotopic compositions that point to origins in red giant branch or asymptotic giant branch stars and supernovae. Based on their O isotopic compositions, we estimate that 1-6% of GEMS grains are surviving circumstellar grains. The remaining 94-99% of GEMS grains have O isotopic compositions that are indistinguishable from terrestrial materials and carbonaceous chondrites. These isotopically solar GEMS grains either formed in the Solar System or were completely homogenized in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, the

  5. Factor of originality in advertising

    OpenAIRE

    Ešner, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    The bachelor thesis deals with exploitation of original attitudes in advertising. The thesis solves answers, what role plays the factor of originality in advertising, when and why firms use that factor, how creators work with it, how consumers perceive the factor and what other elements it generally contains. The bachelor thesis qualifies relationship of advertising and originality, describes and probes practical situations, when originality in advertising can be used as a serious competitive...

  6. Looking at our origins

    CERN Document Server

    Nairucu Arts

    2011-01-01

    Exhibition by Nairucu-Arts, in collaboration with the Anthropology Museum Giuseppe Sergi, Università la Sapienza, Roma, Italy and ECOLINT, Campus des Nations. The exhibition comprises: posters (in English and French) intended for a large audience with text from Prof. Giorgio Manzi, Julia Rizzo, Fabio Di Vincenzo, illustrated with art drawings from Carlo Ranzi, Italy. The exhibition will also present drawings from the students of the Art Classes of Karin Bain and Fabien Bruttin at ECOLINT,Geneva. On 2nd March at 5 p.m. you will be welcomed with a drink before the conference that will be given in English at 6 p.m in the CERN Council Room by Wim De Geest, a retired Professor from KUB (Catholic University of Brussels). Title: There's no language like our language, like no language we know. But how did it evolve? A summary in French will be made available for the public. http://association.web.cern.ch/association/en/OtherActivities/Origins.html

  7. Origins of magnetospheric physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Allen, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    The history of the scientific investigation of the earth magnetosphere during the period 1946-1960 is reviewed, with a focus on satellite missions leading to the discovery of the inner and outer radiation belts. Chapters are devoted to ground-based studies of the earth magnetic field through the 1930s, the first U.S. rocket flights carrying scientific instruments, the rockoon flights from the polar regions (1952-1957), U.S. planning for scientific use of artificial satellites (1956), the launch of Sputnik I (1957), the discovery of the inner belt by Explorers I and III (1958), the Argus high-altitude atomic-explosion tests (1958), the confirmation of the inner belt and discovery of the outer belt by Explorer IV and Pioneers I-V, related studies by Sputniks II and III and Luniks I-III, and the observational and theoretical advances of 1959-1961. Photographs, drawings, diagrams, graphs, and copies of original notes and research proposals are provided. 227 references

  8. Moon (Form-Origin)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsiapas, Elias; Soumelidou, Despina; Tsiapas, Christos

    2017-04-01

    When the Earth was formed, it was in a state of burning heat. As time went by, temperature on the planet's surface was falling due to radiation and heat transfer, and various components (crusts) began taking solid form at the Earth's poles. The formation of crusts took place at the Earth's poles, because the stirring of burning and fluid masses on the surface of the Earth was significantly slighter there than it was on the equator. Due to centrifugal force and Coriolis Effect, these solid masses headed towards the equator; those originating from the North Pole followed a south-western course, while those originating from the South Pole followed a north-western course and there they rotated from west to east at a lower speed than the underlying burning and liquid earth, because of their lower initial linear velocity, their solid state and inertia. Because inertia is proportional to mass, the initially larger solid body swept all new solid ones, incorporating them to its western side. The density of the new solid masses was higher, because the components on the surface would freeze and solidify first, before the underlying thicker components. As a result, the western side of the initial islet of solid rocks submerged, while the east side elevated. . As a result of the above, this initial islet began to spin in reverse, and after taking on the shape of a sphere, it formed the "heart" of the Moon. The Moon-sphere, rolling on the equator, would sink the solid rocks that continued to descend from the Earth's poles. The sinking rocks partially melted because of higher temperatures in the greater depths that the Moon descended to, while part of the rocks' mass bonded with the Moon and also served as a heat-insulating material, preventing the descended side of the sphere from melting. Combined with the Earth's liquid mass that covered its emerging eastern surface, new sphere-shaped shells were created, with increased density and very powerful structural cohesion. During the

  9. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  10. Origin of Hawking radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hajicek, P.

    1987-01-01

    In the first part of the paper, the possible influence that quantum corrections could have on the existence and position of an event horizon in a spherically symmetric collapse is studied. A counterexample is constructed proving that the small value of near the gravitational radius does not guarantee the formation of an event horizon. In an exactly solvable model of black-hole evaporation, the spacetime structure is manipulated in the Planck neighborhood of the singularity so that the event horizon is shifted arbitrarily to the future or removed completely. This change in the position of the event horizon has no observable consequences until the retarded time of the end of the black-hole evaporation is reached. However, even in the absence of the event horizon, the Hawking radiation survives. In the second part of the paper, its origin is studied. The old idea is adopted that it is coming from a neighborhood of the so-called ergosphere. The concept of the ergosphere is generalized to nonstationary, spherically symmetric spacetimes using the notion of Hawking quasilocal mass. The boundary of such an ergosphere is shown to coincide with the locus of apparent horizons. It seems, therefore, that the Hawking effect is associated with the apparent rather than the event horizon. An extrapolation of some properties of from a neighborhood of the Schwarzschild horizon to that of an apparent horizon forming in a collapse leads to the result that too much energy is radiated away already before the apparent horizon forms, similarly as in the Boulware scenario of gravitational collapse

  11. Paraganglioma of Prostatic Origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Padilla-Fernández

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Paragangliomas are usually benign tumors arising from chromaffin cells located outside the adrenal gland. Prostatic paraganglioma is an unusual entity in adult patients, with only 10 cases reported in the medical literature. Case Report A 34-year-old male with a history of chronic prostatitis consulted for perineal pain. On digital rectal examination the prostate was enlarged and firm, without nodules. The PSA level was 0.8 ng/mL and the catecholamines in the urine were elevated. On ultrasound a retrovesical 9 cm mass of undetermined origin measuring was present. A PET-CT scan showed a pelvic lesion measuring 9 cm with moderate increase in glucidic metabolism localized in the area of the prostate. A biopsy of the prostate revealed a neuroendocrine tumor, possibly a prostatic paraganglioma. A body scintigraphy with MIBG I-123 ruled out the presence of metastases or multifocal tumor. A radical prostatectomy with excision of the pelvic mass was performed under adrenergic blockade. One year after surgery the patient is asymptomatic and disease free. Discussion/Conclusions Prostatic paraganglioma is a rare, usually benign tumor, which should be considered in the differential diagnosis of prostate tumors in young males. Its diagnosis is based on the determination of catecholamine in blood and 24-hour urine and in imaging studies principally scintigraphy with MIBG I-123. Diagnostic confirmation is by histopathological study. The treatment consists of radical resection under adrenergic blockade and volume expansion. Given the limited number of cases reported, it is difficult to establish prognostic factors. Malignancy is defined by clinical criteria, and requires life long follow-up.

  12. Path Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-06-01

    Traditionally, synchronization of concurrent processes is coded in line by operations on semaphores or similar objects. Path expressions move the...discussion about a variety of synchronization primitives . An analysis of their relative power is found in [3]. Path expressions do not introduce yet...another synchronization primitive . A path expression relates to such primitives as a for- or while-statement of an ALGOL-like language relates to a JUMP

  13. The origin of vertebrate limbs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coates, M I

    1994-01-01

    The earliest tetrapod limbs are polydactylous, morphologically varied and do not conform to an archetypal pattern. These discoveries, combined with the unravelling of limb developmental morphogenetic and regulatory mechanisms, have prompted a re-examination of vertebrate limb evolution. The rich fossil record of vertebrate fins/limbs, although restricted to skeletal tissues, exceeds the morphological diversity of the extant biota, and a systematic approach to limb evolution produces an informative picture of evolutionary change. A composite framework of several phylogenetic hypotheses is presented incorporating living and fossil taxa, including the first report of an acanthodian metapterygium and a new reconstruction of the axial skeleton and caudal fin of Acanthostega gunnari. Although significant nodes in vertebrate phylogeny remain poorly resolved, clear patterns of morphogenetic evolution emerge: median fin origination and elaboration initially precedes that of paired fins; pectoral fins initially precede pelvic fin development; evolving patterns of fin distribution, skeletal tissue diversity and structural complexity become decoupled with increased taxonomic divergence. Transformational sequences apparent from the fish-tetrapod transition are reiterated among extant lungfishes, indicating further directions for comparative experimental research. The evolutionary diversification of vertebrate fin and limb patterns challenges a simple linkage between Hox gene conservation, expression and morphology. A phylogenetic framework is necessary in order to distinguish shared from derived characters in experimental model regulatory systems. Hox and related genomic evolution may include convergent patterns underlying functional and morphological diversification. Brachydanio is suggested as an example where tail-drive patterning demands may have converged with the regulation of highly differentiated limbs in tetrapods.

  14. The origin of ambling horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutke, Saskia; Andersson, Leif; Benecke, Norbert; Sandoval-Castellanos, Edson; Gonzalez, Javier; Hallsson, Jón Hallsteinn; Lõugas, Lembi; Magnell, Ola; Morales-Muniz, Arturo; Orlando, Ludovic; Pálsdóttir, Albína Hulda; Reissmann, Monika; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Mariana B; Ruttkay, Matej; Trinks, Alexandra; Hofreiter, Michael; Ludwig, Arne

    2016-08-08

    Horseback riding is the most fundamental use of domestic horses and has had a huge influence on the development of human societies for millennia. Over time, riding techniques and the style of riding improved. Therefore, horses with the ability to perform comfortable gaits (e.g. ambling or pacing), so-called 'gaited' horses, have been highly valued by humans, especially for long distance travel. Recently, the causative mutation for gaitedness in horses has been linked to a substitution causing a premature stop codon in the DMRT3 gene (DMRT3_Ser301STOP) [1]. In mice, Dmrt3 is expressed in spinal cord interneurons and plays an important role in the development of limb movement coordination [1]. Genotyping the position in 4396 modern horses from 141 breeds revealed that nowadays the mutated allele is distributed worldwide with an especially high frequency in gaited horses and breeds used for harness racing [2]. Here, we examine historic horse remains for the DMRT3 SNP, tracking the origin of gaitedness to Medieval England between 850 and 900 AD. The presence of the corresponding allele in Icelandic horses (9(th)-11(th) century) strongly suggests that ambling horses were brought from the British Isles to Iceland by Norse people. Considering the high frequency of the ambling allele in early Icelandic horses, we believe that Norse settlers selected for this comfortable mode of horse riding soon after arrival. The absence of the allele in samples from continental Europe (including Scandinavia) at this time implies that ambling horses may have spread from Iceland and maybe also the British Isles across the continent at a later date. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Origin of adenocarcinoma in Barrett's esophagus: P53 and Ki67 expression and histopathologic background Origem do adenocarcinoma no esôfago de Barrett: bases histopathológicas e expressão dos genes p53 e Ki67

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Szachnowicz

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Barrett's esophagus is the substitution of squamous epithelium of the distal esophagus by columnar epithelium. Intestinal metaplasia in Barrett's esophagus is considered to be the main risk factor for the development of adenocarcinoma. Diffuse adenocarcinoma and Barrett's esophagus without intestinal metaplasia are rare, and reports on the subject are scarce. PURPOSE AND METHOD: To estimate the prevalence of adenocarcinoma in 297 patients with Barrett's esophagus, during the period of 1990 to 2002, and in 13 patients undergoing surgery, to conduct detailed macroscopic and microscopic analysis, with performance of immunohistochemical tests for p53 and Ki67, correlating the type of tumor with its adjacent epithelium. RESULTS: In our patients with Barrett's esophagus, there was a prevalence of 5.7% of adenocarcinoma. The tumors developed only when the Barrett's esophagus segment was long (>3.0 cm. Tumors were located close to the squamous-columnar junction. The histological study revealed 2 patients (15.4% with Barrett's esophagus adjacent to a tumor with gastric metaplasia without the presence of intestinal metaplasia. Tumors were classified according to Nakamura's classification (23% differentiated pattern, and 77% undifferentiated pattern and to Lauren's classification (61% intestinal and 39% diffuse. The difference is due to the migration of microtubular and foveolar tumors of undifferentiated (gastric pattern in Nakamuras classification to the Lauren's intestinal type. The immunohistochemical test for Ki67 was strongly positive in all the patients, thus evidencing intense cell proliferation in both the columnar epithelium and tumor. Expression of p53 was negative in 67% of the adjacent columnar epithelia and 42% of the tumors, without any correlation between the tissue types. CONCLUSION: Adenocarcinoma develops from mixed columnar epithelium, either intestinal or gastric, showing both the gastric and the intestinal patterns; thus, tumors can

  16. Islet Cells Serve as Cells of Origin of Pancreatic Gastrin-Positive Endocrine Tumors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnavion, Rémy; Teinturier, Romain; Jaafar, Rami

    2015-01-01

    The cells of origin of pancreatic gastrinomas remain an enigma, since no gastrin-expressing cells are found in the normal adult pancreas. It was proposed that the cellular origin of pancreatic gastrinomas may come from either the pancreatic cells themselves or gastrin-expressing cells which have ...

  17. Origins and Impacts of New Mammalian Exons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason J. Merkin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian genes are composed of exons, but the evolutionary origins and functions of new internal exons are poorly understood. Here, we analyzed patterns of exon gain using deep cDNA sequencing data from five mammals and one bird, identifying thousands of species- and lineage-specific exons. Most new exons derived from unique rather than repetitive intronic sequence. Unlike exons conserved across mammals, species-specific internal exons were mostly located in 5′ UTRs and alternatively spliced. They were associated with upstream intronic deletions, increased nucleosome occupancy, and RNA polymerase II pausing. Genes containing new internal exons had increased gene expression, but only in tissues in which the exon was included. Increased expression correlated with the level of exon inclusion, promoter proximity, and signatures of cotranscriptional splicing. Altogether, these findings suggest that increased splicing at the 5′ ends of genes enhances expression and that changes in 5′ end splicing alter gene expression between tissues and between species.

  18. Stable Agrobacterium -mediated transformation of the halophytic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RT-RCR analysis was conducted using salt stressed transgenic plants, and the results suggested that 2-Cys Prx had low transcription levels under non-stressed conditions, and increased transcription after 6 h of 200 mM NaCl stress. This gene continued to demonstrate high levels of transcription until 6 h after withdrawal of ...

  19. Physiological and biochemical responses of halophyte Kalidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-09-21

    Sep 21, 2011 ... Peroxidase (POD) activity was determined by methyl catechol reaction. Fresh leaf tissue (2.5 g) with 4 ml phosphate buffer (50. mM, pH 5.5) was ground into homogenate on ice bath, then centrifugated in 3000 rpm at 4°C for 10 min to get crude extract of. POD. 1 ml of methyl catechol (50 mM) was brought to ...

  20. Analysis of oilseed of Halophytic species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parto Roshandel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Seeds of Atriplex griffithii, Haloxylon ammodendron, Salicornia europaea and Salsola yazdiana were analyzed to determine their potential as sources of edible oil. The quantity of total oil varied from 13.8% in Atriplex griffithii to 20.9% in H. ammodendron. The proportion of unsaturated fatty acids were higher (62-73.8%, with the highest values of α-linoleic acid (18.6%, linoleic acid (28.6% and oleic acid (19.7% in the seeds of A. griffithii, H. ammodendron and S. europaea, respectively. Results of physicochemical evaluation of the extracted oils ranged as follows: iodine values, 99.8-106.5 (g I2/100 g; saponification value, 188-283 (mg KOH/1g of oil; peroxide value, 9-13 (meq./kg and refractive index, 1.4750- 1.4761. Amongst these oilseeds, S. europaea (containing 73.8% unsaturated fatty acids but not erucic acid was the highest in quality for human consumption followed by H. ammodendron.

  1. Origins of narcissism in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brummelman, E.; Thomaes, S.; Nelemans, S.A.; Orobio de Castro, B.; Overbeek, G.; Bushman, B.J.

    2015-01-01

    Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in

  2. The Origins of Soviet Sociolinguistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandist, Craig

    2003-01-01

    Discusses the origins of Soviet sociolinguistics and suggests that the historical significance of the reception and reinterpretation of these ideas is considerable, leading to a reconsideration of the origins of sociolinguistics and the relationship between Marxism and the language sciences in the early years of the Soviet Union. (Author/VWL)

  3. Generating original ideas: The neural underpinning of originality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayseless, Naama; Eran, Ayelet; Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G

    2015-08-01

    One of the key aspects of creativity is the ability to produce original ideas. Originality is defined in terms of the novelty and rarity of an idea and is measured by the infrequency of the idea compared to other ideas. In the current study we focused on divergent thinking (DT) - the ability to produce many alternate ideas - and assessed the neural pathways associated with originality. Considering that generation of original ideas involves both the ability to generate new associations and the ability to overcome automatic common responses, we hypothesized that originality would be associated with activations in regions related to associative thinking, including areas of the default mode network (DMN) such as medial prefrontal areas, as well as with areas involved in cognitive control and inhibition. Thirty participants were scanned while performing a DT task that required the generation of original uses for common objects. The results indicate that the ability to produce original ideas is mediated by activity in several regions that are part of the DMN including the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC). Furthermore, individuals who are more original exhibited enhanced activation in the ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC), which was also positively coupled with activity in the left occipital-temporal area. These results are in line with the dual model of creativity, according to which original ideas are a product of the interaction between a system that generates ideas and a control system that evaluates these ideas. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [The origin of informed consent].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallardi, V

    2005-10-01

    . Therefore, invested with this authority which derived from his professional role and from his very work, he felt it his duty to guide the patient, deciding and for him. The patient is an ignorant person who does not have the knowledge, the intellectual capacity or moral authority to oppose or disagree with the wishes and decisions of the physician who, instead, on account of his doctrine, knows exactly what is goodfor him. In this regard, if we were to speak of consensus concerning the physician's intervention, he would be considered useless in as much as obvious and understood when seeking help. The attitude of the patient towards the physician has always tended to one of strong faith and characterized by psychological subjection borne out by traditions thousands of years old. A patient who was sick, again, as an attitude of respect and gratitude, followed the treatment but never asked for any explanations regarding the therapeutic effects and the physician refrained from taking any initiative to inform the patient or his/her family. Each phenomenon, therefore, has a precise origin, a well-defined history and when its importance tends to significantly condition the activities concerning Man, a desire emerges to learn the origin and the history. As is well known, a trial commenced in Nuremberg, on December 19, 1946, of Nazi doctors and a code was defined in which the judges, all Americans, clearly emphasized a view of medical research and technology: science should never transform or consider human beings as an instrument to be employed for scientific purposes. In actual fact, documents exist providing evidence that a few decades before the drawing up of the Nuremberg Code, the need had been expressed, in Germany itself to somehow make medical interventions and actions legal by means of the use and practice of consensus. The moral and ethical principles in those documents, even if not available as bibliographic references in the English literature, certainly merit, from a

  5. Origin of solar radio waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmr, J.

    1977-01-01

    Solar radiowave radiation amounts to about 10 -7 of the total solar radiation. The solar atmosphere emits radiation of different wavelengths from a fraction of nanometer to kilometer waves. The solar radiowaves are of thermal origin and except for neutral hydrogen emission and solid body radio emission their emission always results from free electrons. The radiowave radiation active components were classified in several types, such as noise storms, flashes, flares, continuum, and flashes lasting for several minutes. The respective types are discussed and their origins shown. The mechanisms are described permitting the formation of radio waves of nonthermal origin, i.e., plasma oscillations, gyromagnetic emission, synchrotron and Cherenkov radiations. (J.P.)

  6. The origins of originality: the neural bases of creative thinking and originality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamay-Tsoory, S G; Adler, N; Aharon-Peretz, J; Perry, D; Mayseless, N

    2011-01-01

    Although creativity has been related to prefrontal activity, recent neurological case studies postulate that patients who have left frontal and temporal degeneration involving deterioration of language abilities may actually develop de novo artistic abilities. In this study, we propose a neural and cognitive model according to which a balance between the two hemispheres affects a major aspect of creative cognition, namely, originality. In order to examine the neural basis of originality, that is, the ability to produce statistically infrequent ideas, patients with localized lesions in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and posterior parietal and temporal cortex (PC), were assessed by two tasks involving divergent thinking and originality. Results indicate that lesions in the mPFC involved the most profound impairment in originality. Furthermore, precise anatomical mapping of lesions indicated that while the extent of lesion in the right mPFC was associated with impaired originality, lesions in the left PC were associated with somewhat elevated levels of originality. A positive correlation between creativity scores and left PC lesions indicated that the larger the lesion is in this area the greater the originality. On the other hand, a negative correlation was observed between originality scores and lesions in the right mPFC. It is concluded that the right mPFC is part of a right fronto-parietal network which is responsible for producing original ideas. It is possible that more linear cognitive processing such as language, mediated by left hemisphere structures interferes with creative cognition. Therefore, lesions in the left hemisphere may be associated with elevated levels of originality. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Gene expression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hildebrand, C.E.; Crawford, B.D.; Walters, R.A.; Enger, M.D.

    1983-01-01

    We prepared probes for isolating functional pieces of the metallothionein locus. The probes enabled a variety of experiments, eventually revealing two mechanisms for metallothionein gene expression, the order of the DNA coding units at the locus, and the location of the gene site in its chromosome. Once the switch regulating metallothionein synthesis was located, it could be joined by recombinant DNA methods to other, unrelated genes, then reintroduced into cells by gene-transfer techniques. The expression of these recombinant genes could then be induced by exposing the cells to Zn 2+ or Cd 2+ . We would thus take advantage of the clearly defined switching properties of the metallothionein gene to manipulate the expression of other, perhaps normally constitutive, genes. Already, despite an incomplete understanding of how the regulatory switch of the metallothionein locus operates, such experiments have been performed successfully

  8. The Influence of Family of Origin Relationships on Career Thoughts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lustig, Daniel C.; Xu, Yonghong Jade; Strauser, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Family of origin relationships are an important influence on career decision-making. The current study investigates the relationship between family cohesion, expressiveness and conflict and dysfunctional career thoughts. The Family Environment Scale-Form R (Moos & Moos, 2009) measured the family environment and the Career Thoughts Inventory…

  9. The Origins of Modernity: Was Autonomous Speech the Critical Factor?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corballis, Michael C.

    2004-01-01

    Although Homo sapiens emerged in Africa some 170,000 years ago, the origins of "modern" behavior, as expressed in technology and art, are attributed to people who migrated out of Africa around 50,000 years ago, creating what has been called a human revolution in Europe and Asia. There is recent evidence that a mutation of the FOXP2 gene (forkhead…

  10. Origines de la nomenclature astrale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchesne-Guillemin, J.

    Within a survey of the Indo-European, Sumero-Babylonian, Greek, Arabic, and modern origins of the names of the constellations, stars, planets, satellites, asteroids, etc., an explanation is offered of the Omega sign used in Greek horoscopes for the lunar nodes but already appearing on Babylonian reliefs. Its origin is traced back to the Sumerian constellations of the Yoke, later called the Dragon.

  11. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szabelski, J.

    1997-01-01

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10 15 eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O 19 eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author)

  12. ORIGIN

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-06

    Aug 6, 2012 ... (ACCORD),1 Action in Diabetes and Vascular disease: preterAx and DiamicroN ... (8-10 years) type 2 diabetes and who had previous. CVD. The ACCORD ... presented at the American Diabetes Association annual meeting in ...

  13. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Origin of Ewing's Sarcoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick P. Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The origin of Ewing's sarcoma is a subject of much debate. Once thought to be derived from primitive neuroectodermal cells, many now believe it to arise from a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC. Expression of the EWS-FLI1 fusion gene in MSCs changes cell morphology to resemble Ewing's sarcoma and induces expression of neuroectodermal markers. In murine cells, transformation to sarcomas can occur. In knockdown experiments, Ewing's sarcoma cells develop characteristics of MSCs and the ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. However, it cannot be concluded that MSCs are the cell of origin. The concept of an MSC still needs to be rigorously defined, and there may be different subpopulations of mesenchymal pluripotential cells. Furthermore, EWS-FLI1 by itself does not transform human cells, and cooperating mutations appear to be necessary. Therefore, while it is possible that Ewing's sarcoma may originate from a primitive mesenchymal cell, the idea needs to be refined further.

  14. Mesenchymal Stem Cells and the Origin of Ewing's Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Patrick P.; Wang, Yongxing; Lozano, Guillermina

    2011-01-01

    The origin of Ewing's sarcoma is a subject of much debate. Once thought to be derived from primitive neuroectodermal cells, many now believe it to arise from a mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Expression of the EWS-FLI1 fusion gene in MSCs changes cell morphology to resemble Ewing's sarcoma and induces expression of neuroectodermal markers. In murine cells, transformation to sarcomas can occur. In knockdown experiments, Ewing's sarcoma cells develop characteristics of MSCs and the ability to differentiate into mesodermal lineages. However, it cannot be concluded that MSCs are the cell of origin. The concept of an MSC still needs to be rigorously defined, and there may be different subpopulations of mesenchymal pluripotential cells. Furthermore, EWS-FLI1 by itself does not transform human cells, and cooperating mutations appear to be necessary. Therefore, while it is possible that Ewing's sarcoma may originate from a primitive mesenchymal cell, the idea needs to be refined further. PMID:20953407

  15. De novo origin of human protein-coding genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Dong Wu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA-seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes.

  16. De Novo Origin of Human Protein-Coding Genes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Dong-Dong; Irwin, David M.; Zhang, Ya-Ping

    2011-01-01

    The de novo origin of a new protein-coding gene from non-coding DNA is considered to be a very rare occurrence in genomes. Here we identify 60 new protein-coding genes that originated de novo on the human lineage since divergence from the chimpanzee. The functionality of these genes is supported by both transcriptional and proteomic evidence. RNA–seq data indicate that these genes have their highest expression levels in the cerebral cortex and testes, which might suggest that these genes contribute to phenotypic traits that are unique to humans, such as improved cognitive ability. Our results are inconsistent with the traditional view that the de novo origin of new genes is very rare, thus there should be greater appreciation of the importance of the de novo origination of genes. PMID:22102831

  17. Cosmic ray: Studying the origin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szabelski, J. [Cosmic Ray Laboratory, Soltan Institute for Nuclear Studies, Lodz (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    Investigations of the origin of cosmic rays are presented. Different methods are discussed: studies of cosmic gamma rays of energy from 30 MeV to about 10{sup 15} eV (since photons point to their places of origin), studies of the mass composition of cosmic rays (because it reflects source morphology), and studies of cosmic rays with energy above 1O{sup 19} eV (for these are the highest energies observed in nature). (author) 101 refs, 19 figs, 7 tabs

  18. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamyan, V.M., E-mail: vadamyan@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Bondarev, V.N., E-mail: bondvic@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Zavalniuk, V.V., E-mail: vzavalnyuk@onu.edu.ua [Department of Theoretical Physics, Odessa I.I. Mechnikov National University, 2 Dvoryanska St., Odessa 65026 (Ukraine); Department of Fundamental Sciences, Odessa Military Academy, 10 Fontanska Road, Odessa 65009 (Ukraine)

    2016-11-11

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  19. Bending sound in graphene: Origin and manifestation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adamyan, V.M.; Bondarev, V.N.; Zavalniuk, V.V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The origin of sound-like dispersion of graphene bending mode is disclosed. • The speed of graphene bending sound is determined. • The renormalized graphene bending rigidity is derived. • The intrinsic corrugations of graphene are estimated. - Abstract: It is proved that the acoustic-type dispersion of bending mode in graphene is generated by the fluctuation interaction between in-plane and out-of-plane terms in the free energy arising with account of non-linear components in the graphene strain tensor. In doing so we use an original adiabatic approximation based on the alleged (confirmed a posteriori) significant difference of sound speeds for in-plane and bending modes. The explicit expression for the bending sound speed depending only on the graphene mass density, in-plane elastic constants and temperature is deduced as well as the characteristics of the microscopic corrugations of graphene. The obtained results are in good quantitative agreement with the data of real experiments and computer simulations.

  20. Evolutionary origin of the turtle shell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyson, Tyler R; Bever, Gabe S; Scheyer, Torsten M; Hsiang, Allison Y; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2013-06-17

    The origin of the turtle shell has perplexed biologists for more than two centuries. It was not until Odontochelys semitestacea was discovered, however, that the fossil and developmental data could be synthesized into a model of shell assembly that makes predictions for the as-yet unestablished history of the turtle stem group. We build on this model by integrating novel data for Eunotosaurus africanus-a Late Guadalupian (∼260 mya) Permian reptile inferred to be an early stem turtle. Eunotosaurus expresses a number of relevant characters, including a reduced number of elongate trunk vertebrae (nine), nine pairs of T-shaped ribs, inferred loss of intercostal muscles, reorganization of respiratory muscles to the ventral side of the ribs, (sub)dermal outgrowth of bone from the developing perichondral collar of the ribs, and paired gastralia that lack both lateral and median elements. These features conform to the predicted sequence of character acquisition and provide further support that E. africanus, O. semitestacea, and Proganochelys quenstedti represent successive divergences from the turtle stem lineage. The initial transformations of the model thus occurred by the Middle Permian, which is congruent with molecular-based divergence estimates for the lineage, and remain viable whether turtles originated inside or outside crown Diapsida. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reflective Practice: Origins and Interpretations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The idea of reflection is central to the theory and practice of learning--especially learning which is grounded in past or current experience. This paper proposes a working definition of reflection and reviews its origins and recent developments. The author also provides an account of "critical reflection", including its rationale and…

  2. Origin of the asteroid belt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wetherill, G.W.

    1989-01-01

    Earlier work and concepts relevant to the origin of the asteroid belt are reviewed and considered in the context of the more general question of solar system origin. Several aspects of asteroidal origin by accumulation of smaller bodies have been addressed by new dynamic studies. Numerical and analytical solutions of the dynamical theory of planetesimal accumulation are characterized by a bifurcation into runaway and nonrunaway solutions. The differences in time scales resulting from runaway and nonrunaway growth can be more important than conventional time scale differences determined by heliocentric distances. This introduces new possibilities, e.g., planetary accumulation may be more rapid at the distance of Jupiter than in the asteroid belt, thus permitting Jupiter to control asteroidal growth. Although alternatives must be seriously considered, the most promising approach to asteroidal origin is one in which the initial surface density of the solar nebula varied smoothly between the terrestrial and giant-planet region. In the absence of external perturbations, it is found that runaway growth of excessively large asteroids would then occur on <1 Myr, but fairly modest external perturbations by Jupiter, Saturn or other perturbers, resulting in eccentricities ∼0.01 may quench runaways, truncate asteroidal growth at their present size, and then initiate the necessary loss of asteroidal material by mutual fragmentation

  3. Social Origin and Graduation Age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klausen, Trond Beldo

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates whether social origin has an impact on graduation age among university students. A large number of social background factors are applied on a large data set of 4 successive cohorts of Danish university graduates born 1960–1975. These are cohorts for whom university...

  4. Climate Drives Polar Bear Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    In their provocative analysis of northern bears (“Nuclear genomic sequences reveal that polar bears are an old and distinct bear lineage,” Reports, 20 April, p. 344), F. Hailer et al. use independent nuclear loci to show that polar bears originated during the middle Pleistocene, rather than during t...

  5. Origin of the Gribov ambiguity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Y.; Kobayashi, M.

    1978-01-01

    It is pointed out that the Gribov ambiguity for the non-abelian transverse gauge field has the same origin as the Johnson-Sudarshan problem for the spin-3/2 field as well as the propagation problem discovered by Velo and Zwanziger. (Auth.)

  6. The Country of Origin Effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Lala; Baldin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyse the country of origin (COO) effect on wine purchase in China by considering a sample from an e-commerce website. The paper contribute to the literature on hedonic pricing by applying this model to the Chinese market and including COO as product attribute....

  7. Nature and origin of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez, J.A.; Jockers, K.

    1983-01-01

    The review examines basic history and morphology, motion, dynamic evolution, physical properties of neutral gaseous matter, vaporization of gases and outflow from the nucleus, chemistry of the coma gases, the comet nucleus, dust particles, solar wind-comet interactions and tail formation and the origin of comets. (U.K.)

  8. Acoustic Center or Time Origin?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staffeldt, Henrik

    1999-01-01

    The paper discusses the acoustic center in relation to measurements of loudspeaker polar data. Also, it presents the related concept time origin and discusses the deviation that appears between positions of the acoustic center found by wavefront based and time based measuring methods....

  9. International Trade: Rules of Origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Vivian C; Martin, Michael F

    2008-01-01

    ...), used to determine the country of origin of merchandise entering the U.S. market, can be very simple, noncontroversial tools of international trade as long as all of the parts of a product are manufactured and assembled primarily in one country...

  10. The Origin of the Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramazanov, Sabir

    . For this purpose, we employ the quadratic maximum likelihood method, and apply it to the search of the statistical anisotropy in the seven-year WMAP data. We confirm the large quadrupole anisotropy detected in V and W bands, which has been argued to originate from systematic eects rather than from cosmology. We...

  11. Cell of origin of transformed follicular lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kridel, Robert; Mottok, Anja; Farinha, Pedro; Ben-Neriah, Susana; Ennishi, Daisuke; Zheng, Yvonne; Chavez, Elizabeth A.; Shulha, Hennady P.; Tan, King; Chan, Fong Chun; Boyle, Merrill; Meissner, Barbara; Telenius, Adele; Sehn, Laurie H.; Marra, Marco A.; Shah, Sohrab P.; Steidl, Christian; Connors, Joseph M.; Scott, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Follicular lymphoma (FL) is an indolent disease but transforms in 2% to 3% of patients per year into aggressive, large cell lymphoma, a critical event in the course of the disease associated with increased lymphoma-related mortality. Early transformation cannot be accurately predicted at the time of FL diagnosis and the biology of transformed FL (TFL) is poorly understood. Here, we assembled a cohort of 126 diagnostic FL specimens including 40 patients experiencing transformation (transformation for at least 5 years. In addition, we assembled an overlapping cohort of 155 TFL patients, including 114 cases for which paired samples were available, and assessed temporal changes of routinely available biomarkers, outcome after transformation, as well as molecular subtypes of TFL. We report that the expression of IRF4 is an independent predictor of early transformation (Hazard ratio, 13.3; P transformation predicts favorable prognosis. Moreover, applying the Lymph2Cx digital gene expression assay for diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) cell-of-origin determination to 110 patients with DLBCL-like TFL, we demonstrate that TFL is of the germinal-center B-cell–like subtype in the majority of cases (80%) but that a significant proportion of cases is of the activated B-cell–like (ABC) subtype (16%). These latter cases are commonly negative for BCL2 translocation and arise preferentially from BCL2 translocation-negative and/or IRF4-expressing FLs. Our study demonstrates the existence of molecular heterogeneity in TFL as well as its relationship to the antecedent FL. PMID:26307535

  12. Foxp3 expression in human cancer cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gourgoulianis Konstantinos I

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Transcription factor forkhead box protein 3 (Foxp3 specifically characterizes the thymically derived naturally occurring regulatory T cells (Tregs. Limited evidence indicates that it is also expressed, albeit to a lesser extent, in tissues other than thymus and spleen, while, very recently, it was shown that Foxp3 is expressed by pancreatic carcinoma. This study was scheduled to investigate whether expression of Foxp3 transcripts and mature protein occurs constitutively in various tumor types. Materials and methods Twenty five tumor cell lines of different tissue origins (lung cancer, colon cancer, breast cancer, melanoma, erythroid leukemia, acute T-cell leukemia were studied. Detection of Foxp3 mRNA was performed using both conventional RT-PCR and quantitative real-time PCR while protein expression was assessed by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry, using different antibody clones. Results Foxp3 mRNA as well as Foxp3 protein was detected in all tumor cell lines, albeit in variable levels, not related to the tissue of origin. This expression correlated with the expression levels of IL-10 and TGFb1. Conclusion We offer evidence that Foxp3 expression, characterizes tumor cells of various tissue origins. The biological significance of these findings warrants further investigation in the context of tumor immune escape, and especially under the light of current anti-cancer efforts interfering with Foxp3 expression.

  13. Historical Development of Origins Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazcano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    Following the publication of the Origin of Species in 1859, many naturalists adopted the idea that living organisms were the historical outcome of gradual transformation of lifeless matter. These views soon merged with the developments of biochemistry and cell biology and led to proposals in which the origin of protoplasm was equated with the origin of life. The heterotrophic origin of life proposed by Oparin and Haldane in the 1920s was part of this tradition, which Oparin enriched by transforming the discussion of the emergence of the first cells into a workable multidisciplinary research program. On the other hand, the scientific trend toward understanding biological phenomena at the molecular level led authors like Troland, Muller, and others to propose that single molecules or viruses represented primordial living systems. The contrast between these opposing views on the origin of life represents not only contrasting views of the nature of life itself, but also major ideological discussions that reached a surprising intensity in the years following Stanley Miller’s seminal result which showed the ease with which organic compounds of biochemical significance could be synthesized under putative primitive conditions. In fact, during the years following the Miller experiment, attempts to understand the origin of life were strongly influenced by research on DNA replication and protein biosynthesis, and, in socio-political terms, by the atmosphere created by Cold War tensions. The catalytic versatility of RNA molecules clearly merits a critical reappraisal of Muller’s viewpoint. However, the discovery of ribozymes does not imply that autocatalytic nucleic acid molecules ready to be used as primordial genes were floating in the primitive oceans, or that the RNA world emerged completely assembled from simple precursors present in the prebiotic soup. The evidence supporting the presence of a wide range of organic molecules on the primitive Earth, including membrane

  14. Expression of the Aeluropus littoralis AlSAP Gene Enhances Rice Yield under Field Drought at the Reproductive Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaura Ghneim-Herrera

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the yields of Oryza sativa L. ‘Nipponbare’ rice lines expressing a gene encoding an A20/AN1 domain stress-associated protein, AlSAP, from the halophyte grass Aeluropus littoralis under the control of different promoters. Three independent field trials were conducted, with drought imposed at the reproductive stage. In all trials, the two transgenic lines, RN5 and RN6, consistently out-performed non-transgenic (NT and wild-type (WT controls, providing 50–90% increases in grain yield (GY. Enhancement of tillering and panicle fertility contributed to this improved GY under drought. In contrast with physiological records collected during previous greenhouse dry-down experiments, where drought was imposed at the early tillering stage, we did not observe significant differences in photosynthetic parameters, leaf water potential, or accumulation of antioxidants in flag leaves of AlSAP-lines subjected to drought at flowering. However, AlSAP expression alleviated leaf rolling and leaf drying induced by drought, resulting in increased accumulation of green biomass. Therefore, the observed enhanced performance of the AlSAP-lines subjected to drought at the reproductive stage can be tentatively ascribed to a primed status of the transgenic plants, resulting from a higher accumulation of biomass during vegetative growth, allowing reserve remobilization and maintenance of productive tillering and grain filling. Under irrigated conditions, the overall performance of AlSAP-lines was comparable with, or even significantly better than, the NT and WT controls. Thus, AlSAP expression inflicted no penalty on rice yields under optimal growth conditions. Our results support the use of AlSAP transgenics to reduce rice GY losses under drought conditions.

  15. The origin of risk aversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ruixun; Brennan, Thomas J; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-12-16

    Risk aversion is one of the most basic assumptions of economic behavior, but few studies have addressed the question of where risk preferences come from and why they differ from one individual to the next. Here, we propose an evolutionary explanation for the origin of risk aversion. In the context of a simple binary-choice model, we show that risk aversion emerges by natural selection if reproductive risk is systematic (i.e., correlated across individuals in a given generation). In contrast, risk neutrality emerges if reproductive risk is idiosyncratic (i.e., uncorrelated across each given generation). More generally, our framework implies that the degree of risk aversion is determined by the stochastic nature of reproductive rates, and we show that different statistical properties lead to different utility functions. The simplicity and generality of our model suggest that these implications are primitive and cut across species, physiology, and genetic origins.

  16. Origins of eponymous orthopaedic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meals, Clifton; Wang, Jeffrey

    2010-06-01

    Orthopaedists make great use of eponymous equipment, however the origins of these tools are unknown to many users. This history enriches, enlightens, and enhances surgical education, and may inspire modern innovation. We explored the origins of common and eponymous orthopaedic equipment. We selected pieces of equipment named for their inventors and in the broadest use by modern orthopaedists. We do not describe specialized orthopaedic implants and instruments owing to the overwhelming number of these devices. The history of this equipment reflects the coevolution of orthopaedics and battlefield medicine. Additionally, these stories evidence the primacy of elegant design and suggest that innovation is often a process of revision and refinement rather than sudden inspiration. Their history exposes surgical innovators as brilliant, lucky, hardworking, and sometimes odd. These stories amuse, enlighten, and may inspire modern orthopaedists to develop creative solutions of their own. The rich history of the field's eponymous instruments informs an ongoing tradition of innovation in orthopaedics.

  17. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, H.

    1981-01-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (approx. 10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (approx. 10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to Dirac's large number hypothesis. (orig.)

  18. Cosmological origin of mass scales

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terazawa, Hidezumi.

    1981-02-01

    We discuss the possibility that spontaneous breakdown of conformal invariance due to the very existence of our universe originates all the mass (or length) scales ranging from the Planck mass (--10 19 GeV) to the Hubble constant (--10 -42 GeV) and suggest that the photon may have a curvature-dependent mass which is as small as 10 -42 GeV. We also present a possible clue to the Dirac's large number hypothesis. (author)

  19. On origin of stellar clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tovmasyan, G.M.

    1977-01-01

    The ratios of the gas component of the mass of young stellar clusters to their stellar mass are considered. They change by more than four orders from one cluster to another. The results are in direct contradiction with the hypothesis of formation of cluster stars from a preliminarily existing gas cloud by its condensation, and they favour the Ambartsumian hypothesis of the joint origin of stars and gas clouds from superdense protostellar matter

  20. Biological origins of color categorization

    OpenAIRE

    Skelton, Alice E.; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T.; Bosten, Jenny M.; Franklin, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants’ categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mappe...

  1. Product Origin and Food Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Delagneau, Bernard

    1987-01-01

    The consumer's knowledge and perception of a product's country of ongm play an important role m food marketing strategies. "Think-national" campaigns are used widelym some EC countries but are not, however, as effective as quantitative restnctions on imports. Surveys and leg1slat10n at both national and EC levels reflect the desire of European consumers for "origin markmg" to appear on food product labels. National stereotypes are frequently adopted by generic and brand advertisers to promote...

  2. On the origin of inertia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culetu, H.

    1990-09-01

    A dynamical origin to the Minkowski geometry is suggested in this paper. The Minkowski internal (-x α x α ) 1/2 plays the role of the fifth dimension. We found the energy-momentum vector p μ (associated to a ''motion in scale'') of a ''free'' relativistic particle in position-dependent. When x i and ''t'' are not independent, we are naturally led to the law of inertia. (author). 10 refs

  3. Origins of Inner Solar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Rebekah Ilene

    2017-06-01

    Over the past couple decades, thousands of extra-solar planetshave been discovered orbiting other stars. The exoplanets discovered to date exhibit a wide variety of orbital and compositional properties; most are dramatically different from the planets in our own Solar System. Our classical theories for the origins of planetary systems were crafted to account for the Solar System and fail to account for the diversity of planets now known. We are working to establish a new blueprint for the origin of planetary systems and identify the key parameters of planet formation and evolution that establish the distribution of planetary properties observed today. The new blueprint must account for the properties of planets in inner solar systems, regions of planetary systems closer to their star than Earth’s separation from the Sun and home to most exoplanets detected to data. I present work combining simulations and theory with data analysis and statistics of observed planets to test theories of the origins of inner solars, including hot Jupiters, warm Jupiters, and tightly-packed systems of super-Earths. Ultimately a comprehensive blueprint for planetary systems will allow us to better situate discovered planets in the context of their system’s formation and evolution, important factors in whether the planets may harbor life.

  4. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Chushiro; Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Miyama, S.M.

    1989-01-01

    The study on the origin of the solar system entered a stage of synthetic and positivistic science around 1960, as the observation and the theory of protostars began to develop, the solar chemical composition became almost definite, and the amounts of chemical and mineralogical data greatly increased. In accordance with this scientific situation, the first research meeting in Japan on the origin of the solar system was held in 1965 at the Research Institute for Fundamental Physics, Kyoto University. It was discussed how a variety of the data on the solar system can be explained in a unified way. Since 1977, the workshop on the origin has been held annually. Through a series of the workshops, so-called Kyoto model has been talked and discussed frequently. For three years from 1985, the workshop in Kyoto was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science and Culture, and one of the main items of this grant was to publish the results of the workshop as the Supplement of the Progress of Theoretical Physics. The chronology of the solar system, the formation processes of protostars, the stability of solar nebulae, the physical processes in solar nebulae, the physical processes related to planetary growth, the growth of planets, and the formation of asteroids and meteorites are described in this book. (K.I.)

  5. Origins Space Telescope: Study Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayyeri, Hooshang; Cooray, Asantha; Origins Space Telescope Study Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, a study in development by NASA in preparation for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Origins is planned to be a large aperture, actively-cooled telescope covering a wide span of the mid- to far-infrared spectrum. Its spectrographs will enable 3D surveys of the sky that will discover and characterize the most distant galaxies, Milky-Way, exoplanets, and the outer reaches of our Solar system. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s. The Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) would like to hear your science needs and ideas for this mission. The team can be contacted at firsurveyor_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu. This presentation will provide a summary of the OST STDT, the OST Study Team based at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, study partners, and the advisory panel to the study. This presentation will also summarize recent activities, including the process used to reach a decision on the mission architecture, the identification of key science drivers, and the key study milestones between 2017 and 2020.

  6. The origins of medical physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duck, Francis A

    2014-06-01

    The historical origins of medical physics are traced from the first use of weighing as a means of monitoring health by Sanctorius in the early seventeenth century to the emergence of radiology, phototherapy and electrotherapy at the end of the nineteenth century. The origins of biomechanics, due to Borelli, and of medical electricity following Musschenbroek's report of the Leyden Jar, are included. Medical physics emerged as a separate academic discipline in France at the time of the Revolution, with Jean Hallé as its first professor. Physiological physics flowered in Germany during the mid-nineteenth century, led by the work of Adolf Fick. The introduction of the term medical physics into English by Neil Arnott failed to accelerate its acceptance in Britain or the USA. Contributions from Newton, Euler, Bernoulli, Nollet, Matteucci, Pelletan, Gavarret, d'Arsonval, Finsen, Röntgen and others are noted. There are many origins of medical physics, stemming from the many intersections between physics and medicine. Overall, the early nineteenth-century definition of medical physics still holds today: 'Physics applied to the knowledge of the human body, to its preservation and to the cure of its illnesses'. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The Origins of the Etruscans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Agostini

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Humanist period there was a development of the historical studies as well as epigraphic and archaeological investigations. It was then that the first hypotheses about the origins of the Etruscans appeared. Yet, the more or less scientific approaches to the question of the origins made their appearance in the eighteenth century and they took three different directions. The one theory assumes an oriental origin, the second one a northern origin and the third one presupposes that the Etruscans are an autochthonous people. The first theory is based on the tradition handed down to us by Herodotus, who narrates the migration of a group of Lydians under the guidance of Tyrrhenos, son of king Atys, and this one would be the reason why the Greeks called the Etruscans “Tyrrhenians”. Although having been rejected by modern criticism, this idea found some support in the discovery of epigraphic material in the Isle of Lemnos, in front of the Lydian seaside. The writing and some linguistic elements of the Lemnian epigraphs are very similar to the language spoken by the Etruscans. Other historians, setting out from the great number of objects of oriental origin and, generally speaking, on the culture of the VII and VI century BC which was strongly influenced by eastern elements, spoke emphatically in favour of an oriental origin. According to the latter historians, such an abundance of eastern cultural elements could only be explained by a mass immigration in Etruria of a people coming from the East. Another theory, based on the archaeological studies of the paleo-ethnologist Luigi Pigorini, hypothesizes a southward migration of Etruscan and Italic peoples coming from the north. These peoples are assumed to have introduced in Italy the ritual of incineration or cremation, which partly ousted inhumation. This theory, which did not enjoy much favour, assumes that the Etruscan element is connected with the Villanovan. The third theory, going back

  8. 17 CFR 200.505 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 200... Information and Material § 200.505 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has the authority to classify any information on an original basis. (b) If a Commission employee originates...

  9. 32 CFR 2001.21 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original classification. 2001.21 Section 2001.21... Markings § 2001.21 Original classification. (a) Primary markings. At the time of original classification... authority. The name and position, or personal identifier, of the original classification authority shall...

  10. Musical emotions: Functions, origins, evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlovsky, Leonid

    2010-03-01

    Theories of music origins and the role of musical emotions in the mind are reviewed. Most existing theories contradict each other, and cannot explain mechanisms or roles of musical emotions in workings of the mind, nor evolutionary reasons for music origins. Music seems to be an enigma. Nevertheless, a synthesis of cognitive science and mathematical models of the mind has been proposed describing a fundamental role of music in the functioning and evolution of the mind, consciousness, and cultures. The review considers ancient theories of music as well as contemporary theories advanced by leading authors in this field. It addresses one hypothesis that promises to unify the field and proposes a theory of musical origin based on a fundamental role of music in cognition and evolution of consciousness and culture. We consider a split in the vocalizations of proto-humans into two types: one less emotional and more concretely-semantic, evolving into language, and the other preserving emotional connections along with semantic ambiguity, evolving into music. The proposed hypothesis departs from other theories in considering specific mechanisms of the mind-brain, which required the evolution of music parallel with the evolution of cultures and languages. Arguments are reviewed that the evolution of language toward becoming the semantically powerful tool of today required emancipation from emotional encumbrances. The opposite, no less powerful mechanisms required a compensatory evolution of music toward more differentiated and refined emotionality. The need for refined music in the process of cultural evolution is grounded in fundamental mechanisms of the mind. This is why today's human mind and cultures cannot exist without today's music. The reviewed hypothesis gives a basis for future analysis of why different evolutionary paths of languages were paralleled by different evolutionary paths of music. Approaches toward experimental verification of this hypothesis in

  11. Development of the nervus terminalis: origin and migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitlock, Kathleen E

    2004-09-01

    The origin of the nervus terminalis is one of the least well understood developmental events involved in generating the cranial ganglia of the forebrain in vertebrate animals. This cranial nerve forms at the formidable interface of the anteriormost limits of migrating cranial neural crest cells, the terminal end of the neural tube and the differentiating olfactory and adenohypophyseal placodes. The complex cellular interactions that give rise to the various structures associated with the sensory placode (olfactory) and endocrine placode (adenohypophysis) surround and engulf this enigmatic cranial nerve. The tortured history of nervus terminalis development (see von Bartheld, this issue, pages 13-24) reflects the lack of consensus on the origin (or origins), as well as the experimental difficulties in uncovering the origin, of the nervus terminalis. Recent technical advances have allowed us to make headway in understanding the origin(s) of this nerve. The emergence of the externally fertilized zebrafish embryo as a model system for developmental biology and genetics has shed new light on this century-old problem. Coupled with new developmental models are techniques that allow us to trace lineage, visualize gene expression, and genetically ablate cells, adding to our experimental tools with which to follow up on studies provided by our scientific predecessors. Through these techniques, a picture is emerging in which the origin of at least a subset of the nervus terminalis cells lies in the cranial neural crest. In this review, the data surrounding this finding will be discussed in light of recent findings on neural crest and placode origins. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. Becquerel and natural origin radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    After a brief presentation of the Becquerel as radioactivity measurement unit, this document briefly explains the origin of natural radioactivity (Earth formation and cosmic rays), gives and comments the evolution of radioactivity of some radionuclides (U 238 and descendants, Th 232 and descendants, K 40 ) between 4.5 billions yeas ago and nowadays. It also gives assessments of natural radioactivity due to radon in the atmosphere and in the soil, of natural radioactivity in building materials, coals, ashes, seawater and food. Some remarkable figures are then given

  13. Origins of the "Western" Constellations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Roslyn M.

    The development of the 48 Greek constellations is analyzed as a complex mixture of cognitive layers deriving from different cultural traditions and dating back to different epochs. The analysis begins with a discussion of the zodiacal constellations, goes on to discuss the stellar lore in Homer and Hesiod, and then examines several theories concerning the origins of the southern non-zodiacal constellations. It concludes with a commentary concerning the age and possible cultural significance of stars of the Great Bear constellation in light of ethnohistorical documentation, folklore, and beliefs related to European bear ceremonialism.

  14. Origin of Scottish oil shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conacher, H R.J.

    1916-12-01

    Oil shales contain two distinct types of organic material, one is comparable to the woody material in coal and the other consists of yellow bodies. When distilled, the latter yields the liquid product typical of oil shale, whereas the woody material produces large amounts of ammonia. The yellow bodies have been described by various investigators as fossil algae, spores, or dried-up globules of petroleum. In this study it was concluded that the yellow bodies were fragments of resins set free by the decay and oxidation of the vegetable matter with which they were originally associated.

  15. Origin of faint blue stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutukov, A.; Iungelson, L.

    1987-01-01

    The origin of field faint blue stars that are placed in the HR diagram to the left of the main sequence is discussed. These include degenerate dwarfs and O and B subdwarfs. Degenerate dwarfs belong to two main populations with helium and carbon-oxygen cores. The majority of the hot subdwarfs most possibly are helium nondegenerate stars that are produced by mass exchange close binaries of moderate mass cores (3-15 solar masses). The theoretical estimates of the numbers of faint blue stars of different types brighter than certain stellar magnitudes agree with star counts based on the Palomar Green Survey. 28 references

  16. The Natural Origins of Content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutto, Daniel; Satne, Glenda Lucila

    2015-01-01

    to be reconceived in terms of explaining the natural origins of content. Second, the pivotal assumption that intentionality is always and everywhere contentful must be abandoned. Reviving and updating Haugeland’s baseball analogy in the light of these changes, we propose ways of redirecting the efforts of players...... on each base of his intentionality All-Star team, enabling them to start functioning effectively as a team. Only then is it likely that they will finally get their innings and maybe, just maybe, even win the game....

  17. Origin of the chemical elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tayler, R J

    1984-05-01

    The subject is discussed in relation to the composition of initially created matter and changes which have occurred during the life history of the universe, with particular reference to our galaxy and nearby galaxies. Headings are: observations of element abundances (stars, gas clouds in our own and nearby galaxies, hot gas in galaxy clusters, the solar system); the originally created matter (Big Bang theory and early nuclear reactions); processes changing observed composition (galactic evolution; nuclear fusion reactions in stellar interiors; chemical composition of a highly evolved massive star); supernovae (production of heavy elements); chemical evolution of the galaxy; production of very heavy elements (s process, r process).

  18. Electronic Computer Originated Mail Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seto, Takao

    Electronic mail originated by computer is exactly a new communication media which is a product of combining traditional mailing with electrical communication. Experimental service of this type of mailing started in June 10, 1985 at Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications. Its location in various communication media, its comparison with facsimile type electronic mailing, and status quo of electronic mailing in foreign countries are described. Then, this mailing is briefed centering around the system organization and the services. Additional services to be executed in near future are also mentioned.

  19. The origin of life at the origin of ageing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currais, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    At first glance, the ageing of unicellular organisms would appear to be different from the ageing of complex, multicellular organisms. In an attempt to describe the nature of ageing in diverse organisms, the intimate links between the origins of life and ageing are examined. Departing from Leslie Orgel's initial ideas on why organisms age, it is then discussed how the potentially detrimental events characteristic of ageing are continuous, cell-autonomous and universal to all organisms. The manifestation of these alterations relies on the balance between their production and cellular renewal. Renewal is achieved not only by repair and maintenance mechanisms but, importantly, by the process of cell division such that every time cells divide ageing-associated effects are diluted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. On the Origin of Heterotrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönheit, Peter; Buckel, Wolfgang; Martin, William F

    2016-01-01

    The theory of autotrophic origins of life posits that the first cells on Earth satisfied their carbon needs from CO2. At hydrothermal vents, spontaneous synthesis of methane via serpentinization links an energy metabolic reaction with a geochemical homologue. If the first cells were autotrophs, how did the first heterotrophs arise, and what was their substrate? We propose that cell mass roughly similar to the composition of Escherichia coli was the substrate for the first chemoorganoheterotrophs. Amino acid fermentations, pathways typical of anaerobic clostridia and common among anaerobic archaea, in addition to clostridial type purine fermentations, might have been the first forms of heterotrophic carbon and energy metabolism. Ribose was probably the first abundant sugar, and the archaeal type III RubisCO pathway of nucleoside monophosphate conversion to 3-phosphoglycerate might be a relic of ancient heterotrophy. Participation of chemiosmotic coupling and flavin-based electron bifurcation--a soluble energy coupling process--in clostridial amino acid and purine fermentations is consistent with an autotrophic origin of both metabolism and heterotrophy, as is the involvement of S(0) as an electron acceptor in the facilitated fermentations of anaerobic heterotrophic archaea. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Origins of narcissism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brummelman, Eddie; Thomaes, Sander; Nelemans, Stefanie A; Orobio de Castro, Bram; Overbeek, Geertjan; Bushman, Brad J

    2015-03-24

    Narcissism levels have been increasing among Western youth, and contribute to societal problems such as aggression and violence. The origins of narcissism, however, are not well understood. Here, we report, to our knowledge, the first prospective longitudinal evidence on the origins of narcissism in children. We compared two perspectives: social learning theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by parental overvaluation) and psychoanalytic theory (positing that narcissism is cultivated by lack of parental warmth). We timed the study in late childhood (ages 7-12), when individual differences in narcissism first emerge. In four 6-mo waves, 565 children and their parents reported child narcissism, child self-esteem, parental overvaluation, and parental warmth. Four-wave cross-lagged panel models were conducted. Results support social learning theory and contradict psychoanalytic theory: Narcissism was predicted by parental overvaluation, not by lack of parental warmth. Thus, children seem to acquire narcissism, in part, by internalizing parents' inflated views of them (e.g., "I am superior to others" and "I am entitled to privileges"). Attesting to the specificity of this finding, self-esteem was predicted by parental warmth, not by parental overvaluation. These findings uncover early socialization experiences that cultivate narcissism, and may inform interventions to curtail narcissistic development at an early age.

  2. Phenomenology in Its Original Sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Manen, Max

    2017-05-01

    In this article, I try to think through the question, "What distinguishes phenomenology in its original sense?" My intent is to focus on the project and methodology of phenomenology in a manner that is not overly technical and that may help others to further elaborate on or question the singular features that make phenomenology into a unique qualitative form of inquiry. I pay special attention to the notion of "lived" in the phenomenological term "lived experience" to demonstrate its critical role and significance for understanding phenomenological reflection, meaning, analysis, and insights. I also attend to the kind of experiential material that is needed to focus on a genuine phenomenological question that should guide any specific research project. Heidegger, van den Berg, and Marion provide some poignant exemplars of the use of narrative "examples" in phenomenological explorations of the phenomena of "boredom," "conversation," and "the meaningful look in eye-contact." Only what is given or what gives itself in lived experience (or conscious awareness) are proper phenomenological "data" or "givens," but these givens are not to be confused with data material that can be coded, sorted, abstracted, and accordingly analyzed in some "systematic" manner. The latter approach to experiential research may be appropriate and worthwhile for various types of qualitative inquiry but not for phenomenology in its original sense. Finally, I use the mythical figure of Kairos to show that the famous phenomenological couplet of the epoché-reduction aims for phenomenological insights that require experiential analysis and attentive (but serendipitous) methodical inquiry practices.

  3. Origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Baracaldo, Patricia

    2015-12-01

    Marine planktonic cyanobacteria contributed to the widespread oxygenation of the oceans towards the end of the Pre-Cambrian and their evolutionary origin represents a key transition in the geochemical evolution of the Earth surface. Little is known, however, about the evolutionary events that led to the appearance of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. I present here phylogenomic (135 proteins and two ribosomal RNAs), Bayesian relaxed molecular clock (18 proteins, SSU and LSU) and Bayesian stochastic character mapping analyses from 131 cyanobacteria genomes with the aim to unravel key evolutionary steps involved in the origin of marine planktonic cyanobacteria. While filamentous cell types evolved early on at around 2,600-2,300 Mya and likely dominated microbial mats in benthic environments for most of the Proterozoic (2,500-542 Mya), marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved towards the end of the Proterozoic and early Phanerozoic. Crown groups of modern terrestrial and/or benthic coastal cyanobacteria appeared during the late Paleoproterozoic to early Mesoproterozoic. Decrease in cell diameter and loss of filamentous forms contributed to the evolution of unicellular planktonic lineages during the middle of the Mesoproterozoic (1,600-1,000 Mya) in freshwater environments. This study shows that marine planktonic cyanobacteria evolved from benthic marine and some diverged from freshwater ancestors during the Neoproterozoic (1,000-542 Mya).

  4. On the origin of structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazek, M.

    1982-01-01

    The appearance of the structure of several probability distributions is clearly demonstrated within the framework of the urn model (where different numbers of particles are allowed to be created or annihilated) modified by the presence of forces which need not lead to creations or annihilations (they influence the results considerably in a different way). This structure appears due to the different values of the force parameters which characterize the aforementioned modifying forces. The explicit expressions for the corresponding probability distributions can be obtained in a relatively simple and constructive way. The connection with the structure of several cross sections (considered as probability distributions) as well as with selforganization is briefly mentioned. (author)

  5. What does originality in research mean? A student's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Mandy

    2014-07-01

    To provide a student's perspective of what it means to be original when undertaking a PhD. A review of the literature related to the concept of originality in doctoral research highlights the subjective nature of the concept in academia. Although there is much literature that explores the issues concerning examiners' views of originality, there is little on students' perspectives. A snowballing technique was used, where a recent article was read, and the references cited were then explored. Given the time constraints, the author recognises that the literature review was not as extensive as a systematic literature review. It is important for students to be clear about what is required to achieve a PhD. However, the vagaries associated with the formal assessment of the doctoral thesis and subsequent performance at viva can cause considerable uncertainty and anxiety for students. Originality in the PhD is a subjective concept and is not the only consideration for examiners. Of comparable importance is the assessment of the student's ability to demonstrate independence of thought and increasing maturity so they can become independent researchers. This article expresses a different perspective on what is meant when undertaking a PhD in terms of originality in the doctoral thesis. It is intended to help guide and reassure current and potential PhD students.

  6. Developmental Origins, Epigenetics, and Equity: Moving Upstream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallack, Lawrence; Thornburg, Kent

    2016-05-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease and the related science of epigenetics redefines the meaning of what constitutes upstream approaches to significant social and public health problems. An increasingly frequent concept being expressed is "When it comes to your health, your zip code may be more important than your genetic code". Epigenetics explains how the environment-our zip code-literally gets under our skin, creates biological changes that increase our vulnerability for disease, and even children's prospects for social success, over their life course and into future generations. This science requires us to rethink where disease comes from and the best way to promote health. It identifies the most fundamental social equity issue in our society: that initial social and biological disadvantage, established even prior to birth, and linked to the social experience of prior generations, is made worse by adverse environments throughout the life course. But at the same time, it provides hope because it tells us that a concerted focus on using public policy to improve our social, physical, and economic environments can ultimately change our biology and the trajectory of health and social success into future generations.

  7. Understanding Measurement in Light of its Origins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen eHumphry

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the course of history, the natural sciences have seen the development of increasingly convenient short-hand symbolic devices for denoting physical quantities. These devices ultimately took the form of physical algebra. However, the convenience of algebra arguably came at a cost—a loss of the clarity of direct insights by Euclid, Galileo and Newton into natural quantitative relations. Physical algebra is frequently interpreted as ordinary algebra; i.e., it is interpreted as though symbols denote (a numbers and operations on numbers, as opposed to (b physical quantities and quantitative relations. The paper revisits the way in which Newton understood and expressed physical definitions and laws. Accordingly, it reviews a compact form of notation that has been used to denote both: (a ratios of physical quantities; and (b compound ratios, involving two or more kinds of quantity. The purpose is to show that it is consistent with historical developments to regard physical algebra as a device for denoting relations among ratios. Understood in the historical context, the objective of measurement is to establish that a physical quantity stands in a specific ratio to another quantity of the same kind. To clarify the meaning of measurement in terms of the historical origins of physics carries basic implications for the way in which measurement is understood and approached. Possible implications for the social sciences are considered.

  8. Intracardiac metastasis originated from chondrosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurea, Nicola; Ragone, Gianluca; Coppola, Carmela; Caronna, Antonietta; Tocchetti, Carlo G; Agozzino, Lucio; Apice, Gaetano; Iaffaioli, Rosario V

    2017-05-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are extremely rare. By comparison, metastatic involvement of the heart is over 20 times more common and has been reported in autopsy series in up to one in five patients dying of cancer. Cardiac metastasis of chondrosarcoma is absolutely not frequent. In the recent literature, a cardiac metastasis from chondrosarcoma has never been described. We report the case of an 18-year-old man with a diagnosis of cardiac metastasis that originated from a left scapular chondrosarcoma. Chondrosarcoma is a skeletal tumor with various grades of malignancy, rapidly evolving, and with a strong tendency to metastasize, with low responsiveness to chemotherapy. The onset of characteristic systemic symptoms in the late stage of the disease led to the diagnosis of a mass localized in the right atrium. Management and differential diagnosis of infective heart lesions were also very complex in a rapidly evolving life-threatening condition.

  9. The Solar System Origin Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Fred M.

    2016-10-01

    A novel theory will be presented based in part on astronomical observations, plasma physics experiments, principles of physics and forensic techniques. The new theory correctly predicts planetary distances with a 1% precision. It accounts for energy production mechanism inside all of the planets including our Earth. A log-log mass-luminosity plot of G2 class stars and solar system planets results in a straight line plot, whose slope implies that a fission rather than a proton-proton fusion energy production is operating. Furthermore, it is a confirmation that all our planets had originated from within our Sun. Other still-born planets continue to appear on the Sun's surface, they are mislabeled as sunspots.

  10. Origin and development of comets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresak, L.

    1989-01-01

    The comets are the most primitive and probably also the oldest members of the solar system. Comet cores are brittle bodies of an irregular shape and of a size of 1 to 10 km whose main component is ice. Around 130 comets move along short-period paths whose aphelia are concentrated in the area of Jupiter. They are in the last stage of development. About 20 comets have periods of 20 to 200 years and feature higher motion stability. Roughly 180 comets have elliptical orbits of a period exceeding 200 years, 200 comets have parabolic and 120 comets have hyperbolic orbits. The most distant comets form the Oort cloud around the solar system consisting of about one billion comets. Comets originated roughly 4.6 thousand million years ago together with planets, probably inside the Oort cloud. (M.D.). 11 figs

  11. Chemical origins of frictional aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yun; Szlufarska, Izabela

    2012-11-02

    Although the basic laws of friction are simple enough to be taught in elementary physics classes and although friction has been widely studied for centuries, in the current state of knowledge it is still not possible to predict a friction force from fundamental principles. One of the highly debated topics in this field is the origin of static friction. For most macroscopic contacts between two solids, static friction will increase logarithmically with time, a phenomenon that is referred to as aging of the interface. One known reason for the logarithmic growth of static friction is the deformation creep in plastic contacts. However, this mechanism cannot explain frictional aging observed in the absence of roughness and plasticity. Here, we discover molecular mechanisms that can lead to a logarithmic increase of friction based purely on interfacial chemistry. Predictions of our model are consistent with published experimental data on the friction of silica.

  12. L’origine, la ferita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filippo Fimiani

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Shutter Island (Paramount Pictures 2010 is a much-criticized and highly debated film. Scorsese, in fact, has been accused of distorting the facts and altering his historical sources. The depictions we see of the Holocaust are false, not based on visual documents, a mix of incompatible evidences and iconographies, an amalgam of irreconcilable informations and representations. The director has created a visual style and a sound design that vacillate between thriller and horror, drama and fantasy, while betraying the medial transparency of the reconstruction and the ethical responsibility of interpretation. The viewer sees and believes in the images of the concentration camp of Dachau which are, in reality, dialectical imaginings of another scene: in these images, constructed according to the clinical and critical vision of Scorsese as cinephile, the past and the repressed return in the present. In our present too. On the one hand, in fact, the viewer participates empathically in the mental images relived and suffered by the protagonist in his post-traumatic hallucinations; on the other hand, the viewer is prompted to recall the pictures quoted or paraphrased from the archives of the imagery of cinema and of the photojournalism of war–in which Pontecorvo, Resnais, Fuller, George Stevens and John Huston live side by side with the RKO horror films of Jacques Tourneur and Mark Robson. For Scorsese, the images of the violence of war and of the horror of extermination cannot be linked to an origin or past that have definitively been concluded. They are more than recorded pictures or concrete evidences: they are clues and symptoms. They come from a conflictual and endless descent of which cinema is the living and ambiguous memory; they are the open wounds of an original struggle between human and inhuman and of man–they still survive, here and now.

  13. Fetal origin of vascular aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shailesh Pitale

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aging is increasingly regarded as an independent risk factor for development of cardiovascular diseases such as atherosclerosis and hypertension and their complications (e.g. MI and Stroke. It is well known that vascular disease evolve over decades with progressive accumulation of cellular and extracellular materials and many inflammatory processes. Metabolic syndrome, obesity and diabetes are conventionally recognized as risk factors for development of coronary vascular disease (CVD. These conditions are known to accelerate ageing process in general and vascular ageing in particular. Adverse events during intrauterine life may programme organ growth and favour disease later in life, popularly known as, ′Barker′s Hypothesis′. The notion of fetal programming implies that during critical periods of prenatal growth, changes in the hormonal and nutritional milieu of the conceptus may alter the full expression of the fetal genome, leading to permanent effects on a range of physiological.

  14. The Origin of the Chemical Elements, 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selbin, Joel

    1973-01-01

    The problem of the origin is inextricably interwoven with such matters as the origin of the universe, the structure and evolution of galaxies, stars and other astronomical objects, and with nuclear physics. (Author/DF)

  15. 19 CFR 10.594 - Originating goods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... States Free Trade Agreement Rules of Origin § 10.594 Originating goods. Except as otherwise provided in... good otherwise satisfies any applicable regional value content or other requirements specified in...

  16. Origin of the solar system. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, A.J.R.

    1978-01-01

    A theory for the origin of the solar system, which is based on ideas of supersonic turbulent convection and indicates the possibility that the original Laplacian hypothesis may by valid, is presented. (Auth.)

  17. ORIGINS AND RAMIFICATIONS OF PHARMACEUTICALS ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perhaps more so than with any other class of pollutants, the occurrence of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPS) in the environment highlights the immediate, intimate, and inseparable connection between the personal activities of individual citizens and their environment. PPCPS, in contrast to other types of pollutants, owe their origins in the environment directly to their worldwide, universal, frequent, highly dispersed, and individually small but cumulative usage by multitudes of individuals - as opposed to the larger, highly delineated, and more controllable industrial manufacturing/usage of most high- volume synthetic chemicals. Many PPCPs (as well as their metabolites and transformation products) can enter the environment following ingestion or application by the user or administration to domestic animals. Disposal of unused/expired PPCPs in landfills and in domestic sewage is another route to the environment. The aquatic environment serves as the major, ultimate receptacle for these chemicals, for which little is known with respect to actual or potential adverse effects. Domestic sewage treatment plants are not designed to remove PPCPS, and the efficiencies with which they are removed vary from nearly complete to ineffective. While PPCPs in the environment (or domestic drinking water) are not regulated, and even though their concentrations are extremely low (ng/L-@Lg/L), the consequences of exposure to multiple compounds having different as w

  18. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakazawa, Kiyoshi; Nakagawa, Yoshitsugu

    1982-01-01

    Many studies on the origin of the solar system have so far been made until now. These are divided into three categories; Cameron's model, Safronov's model and Kyoto model. In Cameron's model, as an initial stage of the formation of the solar system, a massive solar nebula is assumed whose mass is as large as one solar mass. This solar nebula is unstable against gravitational fragmentation, which leads to massive gaseous protoplanets. On the other hand, in both models of Safronov and us, the mass of the nebula is of the order of a few percent of the solar mass or less. However, a significant difference between Safronov's and ours lies in the continuing accumulation process of planetesimals; in the former, the accumulation is assumed to proceed in a gas-free space, but in the latter, the gas drag effect of the solar nebula is fully taken into account on the planetary growth. In this paper, the scenario of Kyoto model is reviewed, which has been developed by Hayashi and his co-workers in Kyoto group for these ten years. We will see that the gas of the solar nebula has played extensively important roles on the various stages of the planetary formation. (author)

  19. Origins of Deconstruction in Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Mosleh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Derrida’s deconstruction is formed in relation to different philosophical movements such as existentialism, phenomenology, and structuralism. In this inquiry, we will search the origin of deconstruction in texts and philosophy of Friedrisch Nietzsche. We will show that Derrida’s thought is a development of Nietzsche’s critic of metaphysical thought. Most important Derridean concepts such as metaphysics of presence, diferrance, and critic of logocentrism are basically Nietzschean. Nietzsche was very pessimistic about philosophical thought and sought a nonphilosophical and nontheoretical thought. He introduced art as a view to the world that is free from limitations of theoretical thought. In Derrida, also, we can see this pessimistic view to philosophical thought, but he insists that this view is formed inside of philosophical thought. He introduced a practical thought instead of theoretical thought and systematically criticized the latter. We will show that Derrida’s deconstruction is an attempt to make a distance from theoretical thought and, thus, is a Nietzschean movement. This is an attempt to find a way in philosophy that does not have to be theoretical an attempt begun in Nietzsche and culminated in Derrida.

  20. Origins of Deconstruction in Nietzsche

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AA Mosleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Derrida’s deconstruction is formed in relation to different philosophical movements such as existentialism, phenomenology, and structuralism. In this inquiry, we will search the origin of deconstruction in texts and philosophy of Friedrisch Nietzsche. We will show that Derrida’s thought is a development of Nietzsche’s critic of metaphysical thought. Most important Derridean concepts such as metaphysics of presence, diferrance, and critic of logocentrism are basically Nietzschean. Nietzsche was very pessimistic about philosophical thought and sought a nonphilosophical and nontheoretical thought. He introduced art as a view to the world that is free from limitations of theoretical thought. In Derrida, also, we can see this pessimistic view to philosophical thought, but he insists that this view is formed inside of philosophical thought. He introduced a practical thought instead of theoretical thought and systematically criticized the latter. We will show that Derrida’s deconstruction is an attempt to make a distance from theoretical thought and, thus, is a Nietzschean movement. This is an attempt to find a way in philosophy that does not have to be theoretical an attempt begun in Nietzsche and culminated in Derrida.

  1. Biological origins of color categorization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Alice E; Catchpole, Gemma; Abbott, Joshua T; Bosten, Jenny M; Franklin, Anna

    2017-05-23

    The biological basis of the commonality in color lexicons across languages has been hotly debated for decades. Prior evidence that infants categorize color could provide support for the hypothesis that color categorization systems are not purely constructed by communication and culture. Here, we investigate the relationship between infants' categorization of color and the commonality across color lexicons, and the potential biological origin of infant color categories. We systematically mapped infants' categorical recognition memory for hue onto a stimulus array used previously to document the color lexicons of 110 nonindustrialized languages. Following familiarization to a given hue, infants' response to a novel hue indicated that their recognition memory parses the hue continuum into red, yellow, green, blue, and purple categories. Infants' categorical distinctions aligned with common distinctions in color lexicons and are organized around hues that are commonly central to lexical categories across languages. The boundaries between infants' categorical distinctions also aligned, relative to the adaptation point, with the cardinal axes that describe the early stages of color representation in retinogeniculate pathways, indicating that infant color categorization may be partly organized by biological mechanisms of color vision. The findings suggest that color categorization in language and thought is partially biologically constrained and have implications for broader debate on how biology, culture, and communication interact in human cognition.

  2. The Origin of Runaway Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogerwerf, R.; de Bruijne, J. H. J.; de Zeeuw, P. T.

    2000-12-01

    Milliarcsecond astrometry provided by Hipparcos and by radio observations makes it possible to retrace the orbits of some of the nearest runaway stars and pulsars to determine their site of origin. The orbits of the runaways AE Aurigae and μ Columbae and of the eccentric binary ι Orionis intersected each other ~2.5 Myr ago in the nascent Trapezium cluster, confirming that these runaways were formed in a binary-binary encounter. The path of the runaway star ζ Ophiuchi intersected that of the nearby pulsar PSR J1932+1059, ~1 Myr ago, in the young stellar group Upper Scorpius. We propose that this neutron star is the remnant of a supernova that occurred in a binary system that also contained ζ Oph and deduce that the pulsar received a kick velocity of ~350 km s-1 in the explosion. These two cases provide the first specific kinematic evidence that both mechanisms proposed for the production of runaway stars, the dynamical ejection scenario and the binary-supernova scenario, operate in nature.

  3. Origin of the solar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alfven, H.

    1976-01-01

    The methodology of the problem of the origin and evolution of the Solar System is analysed and it is pointed out that one can approach it in two different ways. (1) One can postulate that long ago there was a certain more or less likely-state, and then calculate how this developed into the present state. In principle this approach is 'mythological' and it differs from the old myths mainly in the respect that it is formulated in a mathematical way. (2) One can start from the present state and reconstruct increasingly older states. This is what the geologists call the 'actualist approach' and is the only one which can claim to be scientific. The 'Laplacean' type of theories is criticized. There is no indication that there was a 'Laplacean' homogeneous disc as an intermediate state, and there is no acceptable mechanism through which the present solar system could be formed from such a disc. The solar system today has a band structure, the planets as well as the satellites all fall in certain bands characterized by certain values of the gravitational potential. The band structure is explained as a result of the ionization of infalling matter when its velocity has reached the 'critical velocity' for ionization. (Auth.)

  4. Nanogranular origin of concrete creep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandamme, Matthieu; Ulm, Franz-Josef

    2009-06-30

    Concrete, the solid that forms at room temperature from mixing Portland cement with water, sand, and aggregates, suffers from time-dependent deformation under load. This creep occurs at a rate that deteriorates the durability and truncates the lifespan of concrete structures. However, despite decades of research, the origin of concrete creep remains unknown. Here, we measure the in situ creep behavior of calcium-silicate-hydrates (C-S-H), the nano-meter sized particles that form the fundamental building block of Portland cement concrete. We show that C-S-H exhibits a logarithmic creep that depends only on the packing of 3 structurally distinct but compositionally similar C-S-H forms: low density, high density, ultra-high density. We demonstrate that the creep rate ( approximately 1/t) is likely due to the rearrangement of nanoscale particles around limit packing densities following the free-volume dynamics theory of granular physics. These findings could lead to a new basis for nanoengineering concrete materials and structures with minimal creep rates monitored by packing density distributions of nanoscale particles, and predicted by nanoscale creep measurements in some minute time, which are as exact as macroscopic creep tests carried out over years.

  5. Fetal Origin of Sensorimotor Behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Fagard

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to track the fetal origin of infants’ sensorimotor behavior. We consider development as the self-organizing emergence of complex forms from spontaneously generated activity, governed by the innate capacity to detect and memorize the consequences of spontaneous activity (contingencies, and constrained by the sensory and motor maturation of the body. In support of this view, we show how observations on fetuses and also several fetal experiments suggest that the fetus’s first motor activity allows it to feel the space around it and to feel its body and the consequences of its movements on its body. This primitive motor babbling gives way progressively to sensorimotor behavior which already possesses most of the characteristics of infants’ later behavior: repetition of actions leading to sensations, intentionality, some motor control and oriented reactions to sensory stimulation. In this way the fetus can start developing a body map and acquiring knowledge of its limited physical and social environment.

  6. On the Origin of Interoception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceunen, Erik; Vlaeyen, Johan W S; Van Diest, Ilse

    2016-01-01

    Over the course of a century, the meaning of interoception has changed from the restrictive to the inclusive. In its inclusive sense, it bears relevance to every individual via its link to emotion, decision making, time-perception, health, pain, and various other areas of life. While the label for the perception of the body state changes over time, the need for an overarching concept remains. Many aspects can make any particular interoceptive sensation unique and distinct from any other interoceptive sensation. This can range from the sense of agency, to the physical cause of a sensation, the ontogenetic origin, the efferent innervation, and afferent pathways of the tissue involved amongst others. In its overarching meaning, interoception primarily is a product of the central nervous system, a construct based on an integration of various sources, not per se including afferent information. This paper proposes a definition of interoception as based on subjective experience, and pleas for the use of specific vocabulary in addressing the many aspects that contribute to it.

  7. Origin of giant Martian polygons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcgill, George E.; Hills, L. S.

    1992-01-01

    Extensive areas of the Martian northern plains in Utopia and Acidalia planitiae are characterized by 'polygonal terrane'. Polygonal terrane consists of material cut by complex troughs defining a pattern resembling mudcracks, columnar joints, or frost-wedge polygons on earth. However, the Martian polygons are orders of magnitude larger than these potential earth analogues, leading to severe mechanical difficulties for genetic models based on simple analogy arguments. Plate-bending and finite element models indicate that shrinkage of desiccating sediment or cooling volcanics accompanied by differential compaction over buried topography can account for the stresses responsible for polygon troughs as well as the large size of the polygons. Although trough widths and depths relate primarily to shrinkage, the large scale of the polygonl pattern relates to the spacing between topographic elevations on the surface buried beneath polygonal terrane material. Geological relationships favor a sedimentary origin for polygonal terrane material, but our model is not dependent on the specific genesis. Our analysis also suggests that the polygons must have formed at a geologically rapid rate.

  8. The Origins of Human Modernity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert G. Bednarik

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of the human species during a relatively short period in its evolutionary history, the last forty millennia of the Pleistocene. The hitherto dominant hypotheses of “modern” human origins, the replacement and various other “out of Africa” models, have recently been refuted by the findings of several disciplines, and by a more comprehensive review of the archaeological evidence. The complexity of the subject is reconsidered in the light of several relevant frames of reference, such as those provided by niche construction and gene-culture co-evolutionary theories, and particularly by the domestication hypothesis. The current cultural, genetic and paleoanthropological evidence is reviewed, as well as other germane factors, such as the role of neurodegenerative pathologies, the neotenization of humans in their most recent evolutionary history, and the question of cultural selection-based self-domestication. This comprehensive reassessment leads to a paradigmatic shift in the way recent human evolution needs to be viewed. This article explains fully how humans became what they are today.

  9. The Origins Space Telescope (OST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staguhn, Johannes

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies to be submitted by NASA Headquarters to the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. The observatory will provide orders of magnitude improvements in sensitivity over prior missions, in particular for spectroscopy, enabling breakthrough science across astrophysics. The observatory will cover a wavelength range between 5 μm and 600 μm in order to enable the study of the formation of proto-planetary disks, detection of bio-signatures from extra-solar planet's atmospheres, characterization of the first galaxies in the universe, and many more. The five instruments that are currently studied are two imaging far-infrared spectrometers using incoherent detectors, providing up to R 10^5 spectral resolution, one far-infrared infrared heterodyne instrument for even higher spectral resolving powers, one far-infrared continuum imager and polarimeter, plus a mid-infrared coronagraph with imaging and spectroscopy mode. I will describe the scientific and technical capabilities of the observatory with focus on the expected synergies with AtLAST.

  10. Darwin's Book: On the Origin of Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Jonathan

    2013-09-01

    This essay is an interpretation of Charles Darwin's Origin of Species. It focuses on the contents of the Origin as Darwin intended them to be understood and the background to the work, thus revealing the originality (or otherwise) of the work.

  11. Cosmic ray origin: the way ahead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfendale, A W

    2003-01-01

    Despite their discovery being 90 years ago cosmic rays are still characterised by their uncertain masses at high energy and their uncertain origin. This paper deals with the origin problem. The case is put for the majority of the particles being of galactic origin - a generally accepted result. Specific models are put forward for the galactic mechanism and that for the minority extragalactic component

  12. Becoming original : Effects of strategy instruction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Kamp, M.-T.; Admiraal, W.; Rijlaarsdam, G.

    2016-01-01

    Visual arts education focuses on creating original visual art products. A means to improve originality is enhancement of divergent thinking, indicated by fluency, flexibility and originality of ideas. In regular arts lessons, divergent thinking is mostly promoted through brainstorming. In a previous

  13. 46 CFR 503.54 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original classification. 503.54 Section 503.54 Shipping... Program § 503.54 Original classification. (a) No Commission Member or employee has the authority to... classification, it shall be sent to the appropriate agency with original classification authority over the...

  14. 22 CFR 9.4 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original classification. 9.4 Section 9.4 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE GENERAL SECURITY INFORMATION REGULATIONS § 9.4 Original classification. (a) Definition. Original classification is the initial determination that certain information...

  15. 5 CFR 1201.2 - Original jurisdiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original jurisdiction. 1201.2 Section 1201.2 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Jurisdiction and Definitions § 1201.2 Original jurisdiction. The Board's original...

  16. 46 CFR 67.70 - Original owner.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Original owner. 67.70 Section 67.70 Shipping COAST GUARD... Acceptable Title Evidence; Waiver § 67.70 Original owner. The builder's certification described in § 67.99 serves as evidence of the original owner's title to a vessel. ...

  17. 5 CFR 2500.3 - Original classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Original classification. 2500.3 Section... SECURITY REGULATION § 2500.3 Original classification. No one in the Office of Administration has been granted authority for original classification of information. ...

  18. 21 CFR 814.104 - Original applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original applications. 814.104 Section 814.104...) MEDICAL DEVICES PREMARKET APPROVAL OF MEDICAL DEVICES Humanitarian Use Devices § 814.104 Original... applicant. (d) Address for submissions and correspondence. Copies of all original HDEs amendments and...

  19. Becoming Original: Effects of Strategy Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Kamp, Marie-Thérèse; Admiraal, Wilfried; Rijlaarsdam, Gert

    2016-01-01

    Visual arts education focuses on creating original visual art products. A means to improve originality is enhancement of divergent thinking, indicated by fluency, flexibility and originality of ideas. In regular arts lessons, divergent thinking is mostly promoted through brainstorming. In a previous study, we found positive effects of an explicit…

  20. Expressivity in Children's Drawings: A Longitudinal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ives, William

    This paper reports a follow-up study of 5-, 7-, and 9-year-old subjects who had participated in an investigation of the nature of children's and adults' ability to graphically represent expressive qualities (i.e., happy, sad, angry, loud, quiet, hard). In the original study, the use of literal representation (such as a smiling face on a tree) and…

  1. Origin of clear cell carcinoma: nature or nurture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolin, David L; Dinulescu, Daniela M; Crum, Christopher P

    2018-02-01

    A rare but serious complication of endometriosis is the development of carcinoma, and clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas of the ovary are the two most common malignancies which arise from endometriosis. They are distinct diseases, characterized by unique morphologies, immunohistochemical profiles, and responses to treatment. However, both arise in endometriosis and can share common mutations. The overlapping mutational profiles of clear cell and endometrioid carcinomas suggest that their varied histologies may be due to a different cell of origin which gives rise to each type of cancer. Cochrane and colleagues address this question in a recent article in this journal. They show that a marker of ovarian clear cell carcinoma, cystathionine gamma lyase, is expressed in ciliated cells. Similarly, they show that markers of secretory cells (estrogen receptor and methylenetetrahydrofolate dehydrogenase 1) are expressed in ovarian endometrioid carcinoma. Taken together, they suggest that endometrioid and clear cell carcinomas arise from cells related to secretory and ciliated cells, respectively. We discuss Cochrane et al's work in the context of other efforts to determine the cell of origin of gynecological malignancies, with an emphasis on recent developments and challenges unique to the area. These limitations complicate our interpretation of tumor differentiation; does it reflect nature imposed by a specific cell of origin or nurture, by either mutation(s) or environment? Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Origin of hominids: European or African origin, neither or both?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senut, B.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the last twenty years, some scientists have suggested that the African ape and humans lineages emerged in Europe, a scenario known as the “Back to Africa Hypothesis”. Even though hominoids were widespread in Eurasia during the Middle and Upper Miocene due to the tropical conditions which prevailed in this region, we cannot dismiss the fact that they were present in Africa (contra some authors. Actually, they were highly diverse at that same time (at least 10 lineages represented even if the fossil record is less complete than in Eurasia. Postcranial elements from African species suggest that some features of modern hominoids were already present in the Lower and Middle Miocene of Africa and were not restricted to European ones. Considering the available evidence, it is not possible at this stage to favour a European origin over an African one. Hominoids were living in the tropical areas of Northern Africa and Southern Eurasia and faunal exchanges between the two continents occurred throughout the Middle and Upper Miocene, as the Tethys did not act as an effective barrier to interchanges between Europe and Asia.

    Durante los últimos veinte años, algunos científicos han sugerido que los grandes monos africanos y los linajes humanos surgieron en Europa, un escenario conocido como la “ Hipótesis de la vuelta a Africa”. A pesar de que los homínidos se extendieron en Eurasia durante el Mioceno Medio y Superior debido a las condiciones tropicales que prevalecian en esta region, no podemos descartar el hecho de que ellos estuvieron presentes en Africa (contra algunos autores. En realidad, ellos tuvieron una alta diversidad al mismo tiempo (al menos 10 líneas representadas, incluso si el registro fosil es menos completo que el de Eurasia. Elementos postcraneales de especies africanas sugieren que en algunos carácteres los homínidos modernos estaban ya presentes en el Mioceno Inferior y Medio de Africa, no sólo restringidos a

  3. Phylogeographic origin of Helicobacter pylori determines host-adaptive responses upon coculture with gastric epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheh, Alexander; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Merrell, D Scott; Correa, Pelayo; Wilson, Keith T; Fox, James G

    2013-07-01

    While Helicobacter pylori infects over 50% of the world's population, the mechanisms involved in the development of gastric disease are not fully understood. Bacterial, host, and environmental factors play a role in disease outcome. To investigate the role of bacterial factors in H. pylori pathogenesis, global gene expression of six H. pylori isolates was analyzed during coculture with gastric epithelial cells. Clustering analysis of six Colombian clinical isolates from a region with low gastric cancer risk and a region with high gastric cancer risk segregated strains based on their phylogeographic origin. One hundred forty-six genes had increased expression in European strains, while 350 genes had increased expression in African strains. Differential expression was observed in genes associated with motility, pathogenicity, and other adaptations to the host environment. European strains had greater expression of the virulence factors cagA, vacA, and babB and were associated with increased gastric histologic lesions in patients. In AGS cells, European strains promoted significantly higher interleukin-8 (IL-8) expression than did African strains. African strains significantly induced apoptosis, whereas only one European strain significantly induced apoptosis. Our data suggest that gene expression profiles of clinical isolates can discriminate strains by phylogeographic origin and that these profiles are associated with changes in expression of the proinflammatory and protumorigenic cytokine IL-8 and levels of apoptosis in host epithelial cells. These findings support the hypothesis that bacterial factors determined by the phylogeographic origin of H. pylori strains may promote increased gastric disease.

  4. Structural Origins of Silk Piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yucel, Tuna; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L

    2011-02-22

    Uniaxially oriented, piezoelectric silk films were prepared by a two-step method that involved: (1) air drying aqueous, regenerated silk fibroin solutions into films, and (2) drawing the silk films to a desired draw ratio. The utility of two different drawing techniques, zone drawing and water immersion drawing were investigated for processing the silk for piezoelectric studies. Silk films zone drawn to a ratio of λ= 2.7 displayed relatively high dynamic shear piezoelectric coefficients of d(14) = -1.5 pC/N, corresponding to over two orders of magnitude increase in d(14) due to film drawing. A strong correlation was observed between the increase in the silk II, β-sheet content with increasing draw ratio measured by FTIR spectroscopy (C(β)∝ e(2.5) (λ)), the concomitant increasing degree of orientation of β-sheet crystals detected via WAXD (FWHM = 0.22° for λ= 2.7), and the improvement in silk piezoelectricity (d(14)∝ e(2.4) (λ)). Water immersion drawing led to a predominantly silk I structure with a low degree of orientation (FWHM = 75°) and a much weaker piezoelectric response compared to zone drawing. Similarly, increasing the β-sheet crystallinity without inducing crystal alignment, e.g. by methanol treatment, did not result in a significant enhancement of silk piezoelectricity. Overall, a combination of a high degree of silk II, β-sheet crystallinity and crystalline orientation are prerequisites for a strong piezoelectric effect in silk. Further understanding of the structural origins of silk piezoelectricity will provide important options for future biotechnological and biomedical applications of this protein.

  5. Origins of galactic spiral structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piddington, J.H.

    1978-01-01

    Theories of galactic structure are reviewed briefly before comparing them with recent observations. Also reviewed is the evidence for an intergalactic magnetic field and its possible effects on gas concentrations and patterns of star creation, including spiral arms. It is then shown that normal spiral galaxies may be divided into the M51-type and others. The rare M51-type have H I gas arms coincident with unusually filamentary and luminous optical arms; they also have a companion galaxy. The remaining great majority of spirals have no well-defined gas arms and their optical arms are irregular, broader and less luminous; they have no companion galaxy. It appears that without exception the half-dozen or so galaxies whose structures appear to support the density-wave theory show one or more of the characteristics of the rare type of spiral, and that 'the three principal confirmations of the spiral-wave idea' (M51, M81, M101) have companions which may account for their arms. Toomre has rejected this idea on the grounds that his models do not agree with the observed structures. It is shown that these models are inadequate in two major respects, and when replaced by magneto-tidal models using non-uniform gas disks one might expect agreement. The original hydromagnetic model of spiral arms is now reserved for non-interacting galaxies, of which M33 might be taken as a prototype. The model predicts broad or 'massive' optical arms and no corresponding arms of neutral hydrogen, as observed. (Auth.)

  6. Mapping replication origins in yeast chromosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, B J; Fangman, W L

    1991-07-01

    The replicon hypothesis, first proposed in 1963 by Jacob and Brenner, states that DNA replication is controlled at sites called origins. Replication origins have been well studied in prokaryotes. However, the study of eukaryotic chromosomal origins has lagged behind, because until recently there has been no method for reliably determining the identity and location of origins from eukaryotic chromosomes. Here, we review a technique we developed with the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that allows both the mapping of replication origins and an assessment of their activity. Two-dimensional agarose gel electrophoresis and Southern hybridization with total genomic DNA are used to determine whether a particular restriction fragment acquires the branched structure diagnostic of replication initiation. The technique has been used to localize origins in yeast chromosomes and assess their initiation efficiency. In some cases, origin activation is dependent upon the surrounding context. The technique is also being applied to a variety of eukaryotic organisms.

  7. Positive feedback regulation of a Lycium chinense-derived VDE gene by drought-induced endogenous ABA, and over-expression of this VDE gene improve drought-induced photo-damage in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Chunfeng; Ji, Jing; Zhang, Xuqiang; Li, Xiaozhou; Jin, Chao; Guan, Wenzhu; Wang, Gang

    2015-03-01

    Violaxanthin de-epoxidase (VDE) plays an important role in protecting the photosynthetic apparatus from photo-damage by dissipating excessively absorbed light energy as heat, via the conversion of violaxanthin (V) to intermediate product antheraxanthin (A) and final product zeaxanthin (Z) under light stress. We have cloned a VDE gene (LcVDE) from Lycium chinense, a deciduous woody perennial halophyte, which can grow in a large variety of soil types. The amino acid sequence of LcVDE has high homology with VDEs in other plants. Under drought stress, relative expression of LcVDE and the de-epoxidation ratio (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) increased rapidly, and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) also rose. Interestingly, these elevations induced by drought stress were reduced by the topical administration of abamine SG, a potent ABA inhibitor via inhibition of NCED in the ABA synthesis pathway. Until now, little has been done to explore the relationship between endogenous ABA and the expression of VDE genes. Since V serves as a common precursor for ABA, these data support the possible involvement of endogenous ABA in the positive feedback regulation of LcVDE gene expression in L. chinense under drought stress. Moreover, the LcVDE may be involved in modulating the level of photosynthesis damage caused by drought stress. Furthermore, the ratio of (Z+0.5A)/(V+A+Z) and NPQ increased more in transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE gene than the wild types under drought stress. The maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry of PSII (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis decreased more slowly during the stressed period than that in wild types under the same conditions. Furthermore, transgenic Arabidopsis over-expressing LcVDE showed increased tolerance to drought stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. The Historical Origins of Spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Scott

    The idea of spacetime investigated in this chapter, with a view toward understanding its immediate sources and development, is the one formulated and proposed by Hermann Minkowski in 1908. Until recently, the principle source used to form historical narratives of Minkowski's discovery of spacetime has been Minkowski's own discovery account, outlined in the lecture he delivered in Cologne, entitled Space and time [1]. Minkowski's lecture is usually considered as a bona fide first-person narrative of lived events. According to this received view, spacetime was a natural outgrowth of Felix Klein's successful project to promote the study of geometries via their characteristic groups of transformations. Or as Minkowski expressed the same basic thought himself, the theory of relativity discovered by physicists in 1905 could just as well have been proposed by some late-nineteenth-century mathematician, by simply reflecting upon the groups of transformations that left invariant the form of the equation of a propagating light wave. Minkowski's publications and research notes provide a contrasting picture of the discovery of spacetime, in which group theory plays no direct part. In order to relate the steps of Minkowski's discovery, we begin with an account of Poincaré's theory of gravitation, where Minkowski found some of the germs of spacetime. Poincaré's geometric interpretation of the Lorentz transformation is examined, along with his reasons for not pursuing a four-dimensional vector calculus. In the second section, Minkowski's discovery and presentation of the notion of a world line in spacetime is presented. In the third and final section, Poincaré's and Minkowski's diagrammatic interpretations of the Lorentz transformation are compared.

  9. Evolutionary Origin of Antibiotic Resistance, A Historical Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamile Adriana Celis Bustos

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a natural aspect of bacterial evolution that can result from mutations or acquisition of foreign genes. Various views on the origin of this resistance explain the ability of these organisms to acquire new features. Lamarck andDarwin’s theories of evolution have led to experiments designed to explore the origin of bacterial variation and the emergence of new features. These experiments show that antimicrobial resistance is related to mutations in chromosomal genes and/or transfer of extrachromosomal genetic elements that can be expressed based on the antibiotic pressure exerted. The main experiments and findings that seek to explain the phenomenon of antibiotic resistance are reviewed here in.

  10. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S; Learn, Gerald H; Plenderleith, Lindsey J; Malenke, Jordan A; Sundararaman, Sesh A; Ramirez, Miguel A; Crystal, Patricia A; Smith, Andrew G; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M; Morgan, David B; Gonder, Mary K; Kranzusch, Philip J; Walsh, Peter D; Georgiev, Alexander V; Muller, Martin N; Piel, Alex K; Stewart, Fiona A; Wilson, Michael L; Pusey, Anne E; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A; Hart, Terese B; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F; Schneider, Bradley S; Wolfe, Nathan D; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L; Shaw, George M; Rayner, Julian C; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H; Sharp, Paul M

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa.

  11. African origin of the malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weimin; Li, Yingying; Shaw, Katharina S.; Learn, Gerald H.; Plenderleith, Lindsey J.; Malenke, Jordan A.; Sundararaman, Sesh A.; Ramirez, Miguel A.; Crystal, Patricia A.; Smith, Andrew G.; Bibollet-Ruche, Frederic; Ayouba, Ahidjo; Locatelli, Sabrina; Esteban, Amandine; Mouacha, Fatima; Guichet, Emilande; Butel, Christelle; Ahuka-Mundeke, Steve; Inogwabini, Bila-Isia; Ndjango, Jean-Bosco N.; Speede, Sheri; Sanz, Crickette M.; Morgan, David B.; Gonder, Mary K.; Kranzusch, Philip J.; Walsh, Peter D.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Muller, Martin N.; Piel, Alex K.; Stewart, Fiona A.; Wilson, Michael L.; Pusey, Anne E.; Cui, Liwang; Wang, Zenglei; Färnert, Anna; Sutherland, Colin J.; Nolder, Debbie; Hart, John A.; Hart, Terese B.; Bertolani, Paco; Gillis, Amethyst; LeBreton, Matthew; Tafon, Babila; Kiyang, John; Djoko, Cyrille F.; Schneider, Bradley S.; Wolfe, Nathan D.; Mpoudi-Ngole, Eitel; Delaporte, Eric; Carter, Richard; Culleton, Richard L.; Shaw, George M.; Rayner, Julian C.; Peeters, Martine; Hahn, Beatrice H.; Sharp, Paul M.

    2014-01-01

    Plasmodium vivax is the leading cause of human malaria in Asia and Latin America but is absent from most of central Africa due to the near fixation of a mutation that inhibits the expression of its receptor, the Duffy antigen, on human erythrocytes. The emergence of this protective allele is not understood because P. vivax is believed to have originated in Asia. Here we show, using a non-invasive approach, that wild chimpanzees and gorillas throughout central Africa are endemically infected with parasites that are closely related to human P. vivax. Sequence analyses reveal that ape parasites lack host specificity and are much more diverse than human parasites, which form a monophyletic lineage within the ape parasite radiation. These findings indicate that human P. vivax is of African origin and likely selected for the Duffy-negative mutation. All extant human P. vivax parasites are derived from a single ancestor that escaped out of Africa. PMID:24557500

  12. Causation and the origin of life. Metabolism or replication first?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pross, Addy

    2004-06-01

    The conceptual gulf that separates the 'metabolism first' and 'replication first' mechanisms for the emergence of life continues to cloud the origin of life debate. In the present paper we analyze this aspect of the origin of life problem and offer arguments in favor of the 'replication first' school. Utilizing Wicken's two-tier approach to causation we argue that a causal connection between replication and metabolism can only be demonstrated if replication would have preceded metabolism. In conjunction with existing empirical evidence and theoretical reasoning, our analysis concludes that there is no substantive evidence for a 'metabolism first' mechanism for life's emergence, while a coherent case can be made for the 'replication first' group of mechanisms. The analysis reaffirms our conviction that life is an extreme expression of kinetic control, and that the emergence of metabolic pathways can be understood by considering life as a manifestation of 'replicative chemistry'.

  13. On the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulsrud, Russell M.; Zweibel, Ellen G.

    2008-04-01

    and most popular mechanism is the α-Ω mean field dynamo theory developed by a number of people in the late sixties. This theory and its application to galactic magnetic fields is discussed in considerable detail in this review. We point out certain difficulties with this theory that make it seem unlikely that this is the whole story. The main difficulty with this as the only such amplification mechanism is rooted in the fact that, on galactic scales, flux is constant and is frozen in the interstellar medium. This implies that flux must be removed from the galactic discs, as is well recognized by the standard theory. For our Galaxy this turns out to be a major problem, since unless the flux and the interstellar mass are somehow separated, some interstellar mass must also be removed from the deep galactic gravitational well. This is very difficult. It is pointed out that unless the field has a substantial field strength, much larger than that of the seed fields, this separation can hardly happen. And of course, it must if the α-Ω dynamo is to start from the ultra weak seed field. (It is our philosophy, expressed in this review, that if an origin theory is unable to create the magnetic field in our Galaxy it is essentially incomplete.) Thus, it is more reasonable for the first and largest amplification to occur before the Galaxy forms, and the matter embedded in the field is gravitationally trapped. Two such mechanisms are discussed for such a pregalactic origin; (1) they are generated in the turbulence of the protogalaxy and (2) the fields come from giant radio jets. Several arguments against a primordial origin are also discussed, as are ways around them. Our conclusion as to the most likely origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they are first produced at moderate field strengths by primordial mechanisms and then changed and their strength increased to their present value and structure by a galactic disc dynamo. The primordial mechanisms have not yet been

  14. On the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulsrud, Russell M; Zweibel, Ellen G

    2008-01-01

    and most popular mechanism is the α-Ω mean field dynamo theory developed by a number of people in the late sixties. This theory and its application to galactic magnetic fields is discussed in considerable detail in this review. We point out certain difficulties with this theory that make it seem unlikely that this is the whole story. The main difficulty with this as the only such amplification mechanism is rooted in the fact that, on galactic scales, flux is constant and is frozen in the interstellar medium. This implies that flux must be removed from the galactic discs, as is well recognized by the standard theory. For our Galaxy this turns out to be a major problem, since unless the flux and the interstellar mass are somehow separated, some interstellar mass must also be removed from the deep galactic gravitational well. This is very difficult. It is pointed out that unless the field has a substantial field strength, much larger than that of the seed fields, this separation can hardly happen. And of course, it must if the α-Ω dynamo is to start from the ultra weak seed field. (It is our philosophy, expressed in this review, that if an origin theory is unable to create the magnetic field in our Galaxy it is essentially incomplete.) Thus, it is more reasonable for the first and largest amplification to occur before the Galaxy forms, and the matter embedded in the field is gravitationally trapped. Two such mechanisms are discussed for such a pregalactic origin; (1) they are generated in the turbulence of the protogalaxy and (2) the fields come from giant radio jets. Several arguments against a primordial origin are also discussed, as are ways around them. Our conclusion as to the most likely origin of cosmic magnetic fields is that they are first produced at moderate field strengths by primordial mechanisms and then changed and their strength increased to their present value and structure by a galactic disc dynamo. The primordial mechanisms have not yet been

  15. Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations of wolffian origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nistal, Manuel; González-Peramato, Pilar; Serrano, Alvaro; Vega-Perez, Maria; De Miguel, Maria P; Regadera, Javier

    2005-08-01

    Paratesticular cysts with benign epithelial proliferations (BEPs) are rare. Only 10 cases were found in a series of 431 paratesticular cysts and were classified as follows: cystadenoma, 5; papilloma, 2; and hamartoma, 3. Four cystadenomas showed multiple papillae lined by CD10+ epithelial cells with hyperchromatic nuclei. The remaining lesion showed areas with a microcystic, glandular, cribriform pattern, with small, benign glands without atypia. Urothelial papilloma presented BEPs with cytokeratin (CK) 7+ and CD10+ and CK20- umbrella-like cells. The mural papilloma was lined by proliferative cylindrical cells exhibiting strong CK7 and CD10 expression. The 3 Wolffian hamartomas were characterized by strongly CD10+ epithelium surrounded by smooth muscle cells. The consistent CD10 expression in BEPs of paratesticular cysts suggests a Wolffian origin. The differential diagnosis of paratesticular cysts with BEP vs metastatic prostatic and primary borderline or malignant tumors is discussed.

  16. Foundations of an Idea: Galileo and Freedom of Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Beverly

    This paper examines the origins of the principle of free expression as worked out by Galileo. It is intended to supplement standard histories of the development of free expression and to recover its history as part of the political project of postmodernism. The paper resurrects Galileo's encounters with entrenched beliefs in order to position free…

  17. The Relationship between Family Expressiveness and Nonverbal Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Amy G.

    Although research in nonverbal communication is in its seventh decade, the origins of individual differences in nonverbl sensitivity remain. To investigate the relationship between family norms of emotional expression and nonverbal communication, 64 college students completed the Family Expressiveness Questionnaire, were videotaped while…

  18. Modern human origins: progress and prospects.

    OpenAIRE

    Stringer, Chris

    2002-01-01

    The question of the mode of origin of modern humans (Homo sapiens) has dominated palaeoanthropological debate over the last decade. This review discusses the main models proposed to explain modern human origins, and examines relevant fossil evidence from Eurasia, Africa and Australasia. Archaeological and genetic data are also discussed, as well as problems with the concept of 'modernity' itself. It is concluded that a recent African origin can be supported for H. sapiens, morphologically, be...

  19. 75 FR 735 - Original Classification Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... classify information originally as ``Top Secret'' or ``Secret'': TOP SECRET Executive Office of the... Space Administration The Director, Information Security Oversight Office SECRET Executive Office of the...

  20. Schwannoma Originating From the Periphereral Intercostal Nerves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunus Aksoy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Schwannomas are usually solitary, encapsulated, and asymptomatic, benign neurogenic tumors originating from the nerve sheath. Schwannomas rarely show malignant transformation, however, require close monitoring. They are primarily located in the thorax in the costovertebral sulcus, may rarely originate from peripheral intercostal nerves. Less than 10% of primary thoracic neurogenic tumors originate from the peripheral intercostal nerves. The main treatment and diagnosis of schwannomas are complete surgical resection. We report a rare case of a 40-year-old male with asymptomatic schwannoma originating from an intercostal nerve which was found incidentally on his chest X-ray and was treated with surgery.

  1. Country of origin effect on brand perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andreea

    2016-01-01

    During the past two decades there has been a substantial amount of empirical evidence on the country of origin phenomenon. However, marketing scholars have different perspectives and views on how the country of origin effect has impacted the brand perceptions of consumers. This paper presents...... an extensive review of the literature on the COO effect and traces the conceptual development of the country-of-origin construct in order to provide scholars and practitioners with a critical appraisal of the existing research on this topic. By following the grounds of the systematic literature, this study...... seeks to establish a solid base for country-of-origin research review....

  2. The Halo Model of Origin Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Josiassen, Alexander; Lukas, Bryan A.; Whitwell, Gregory J.

    2013-01-01

    National origin has gained importance as a marketing tool for practitioners to sell their goods and services. However, because origin-image research has been troubled by several fundamental limitations, academia has become sceptical of the current status and strategic implications of the concept....... The aim of this paper was threefold, namely, to provide a state-of-the-art review of origin-image research in marketing, develop and empirically test a new origin-image model and, present the implications of the study....

  3. Facial expressions and pair bonds in hylobatids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florkiewicz, Brittany; Skollar, Gabriella; Reichard, Ulrich H

    2018-06-06

    Facial expressions are an important component of primate communication that functions to transmit social information and modulate intentions and motivations. Chimpanzees and macaques, for example, produce a variety of facial expressions when communicating with conspecifics. Hylobatids also produce various facial expressions; however, the origin and function of these facial expressions are still largely unclear. It has been suggested that larger facial expression repertoires may have evolved in the context of social complexity, but this link has yet to be tested at a broader empirical basis. The social complexity hypothesis offers a possible explanation for the evolution of complex communicative signals such as facial expressions, because as the complexity of an individual's social environment increases so does the need for communicative signals. We used an intraspecies, pair-focused study design to test the link between facial expressions and sociality within hylobatids, specifically the strength of pair-bonds. The current study compared 206 hr of video and 103 hr of focal animal data for ten hylobatid pairs from three genera (Nomascus, Hoolock, and Hylobates) living at the Gibbon Conservation Center. Using video footage, we explored 5,969 facial expressions along three dimensions: repertoire use, repertoire breadth, and facial expression synchrony [FES]. We then used focal animal data to compare dimensions of facial expressiveness to pair bond strength and behavioral synchrony. Hylobatids in our study overlapped in only half of their facial expressions (50%) with the only other detailed, quantitative study of hylobatid facial expressions, while 27 facial expressions were uniquely observed in our study animals. Taken together, hylobatids have a large facial expression repertoire of at least 80 unique facial expressions. Contrary to our prediction, facial repertoire composition was not significantly correlated with pair bond strength, rates of territorial synchrony

  4. Approaches to Macroevolution: 1. General Concepts and Origin of Variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, David

    2017-01-01

    Approaches to macroevolution require integration of its two fundamental components, i.e. the origin and the sorting of variation, in a hierarchical framework. Macroevolution occurs in multiple currencies that are only loosely correlated, notably taxonomic diversity, morphological disparity, and functional variety. The origin of variation within this conceptual framework is increasingly understood in developmental terms, with the semi-hierarchical structure of gene regulatory networks (GRNs, used here in a broad sense incorporating not just the genetic circuitry per se but the factors controlling the timing and location of gene expression and repression), the non-linear relation between magnitude of genetic change and the phenotypic results, the evolutionary potential of co-opting existing GRNs, and developmental responsiveness to nongenetic signals (i.e. epigenetics and plasticity), all requiring modification of standard microevolutionary models, and rendering difficult any simple definition of evolutionary novelty. The developmental factors underlying macroevolution create anisotropic probabilities-i.e., an uneven density distribution-of evolutionary change around any given phenotypic starting point, and the potential for coordinated changes among traits that can accommodate change via epigenetic mechanisms. From this standpoint, "punctuated equilibrium" and "phyletic gradualism" simply represent two cells in a matrix of evolutionary models of phenotypic change, and the origin of trends and evolutionary novelty are not simply functions of ecological opportunity. Over long timescales, contingency becomes especially important, and can be viewed in terms of macroevolutionary lags (the temporal separation between the origin of a trait or clade and subsequent diversification); such lags can arise by several mechanisms: as geological or phylogenetic artifacts, or when diversifications require synergistic interactions among traits, or between traits and external events

  5. Dual lineage-specific expression of Sox17 during mouse embryogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choi, Eunyoung; Kraus, Marine R C; Lemaire, Laurence A

    2012-01-01

    Sox17 is essential for both endoderm development and fetal hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) maintenance. While endoderm-derived organs are well known to originate from Sox17-expressing cells, it is less certain whether fetal HSCs also originate from Sox17-expressing cells. By generating a Sox17(GFPC...

  6. Out of Africa: modern human origins special feature: human origins: out of Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tattersall, Ian

    2009-09-22

    Our species, Homo sapiens, is highly autapomorphic (uniquely derived) among hominids in the structure of its skull and postcranial skeleton. It is also sharply distinguished from other organisms by its unique symbolic mode of cognition. The fossil and archaeological records combine to show fairly clearly that our physical and cognitive attributes both first appeared in Africa, but at different times. Essentially modern bony conformation was established in that continent by the 200-150 Ka range (a dating in good agreement with dates for the origin of H. sapiens derived from modern molecular diversity). The event concerned was apparently short-term because it is essentially unanticipated in the fossil record. In contrast, the first convincing stirrings of symbolic behavior are not currently detectable until (possibly well) after 100 Ka. The radical reorganization of gene expression that underwrote the distinctive physical appearance of H. sapiens was probably also responsible for the neural substrate that permits symbolic cognition. This exaptively acquired potential lay unexploited until it was "discovered" via a cultural stimulus, plausibly the invention of language. Modern humans appear to have definitively exited Africa to populate the rest of the globe only after both their physical and cognitive peculiarities had been acquired within that continent.

  7. A Robot with Complex Facial Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Takeno

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The authors believe that the consciousness of humans basically originates from languages and their association-like flow of consciousness, and that feelings are generated accompanying respective languages. We incorporated artificial consciousness into a robot; achieved an association flow of language like flow of consciousness; and developed a robot called Kansei that expresses its feelings according to the associations occurring in the robot. To be able to fully communicate with humans, robots must be able to display complex expressions, such as a sense of being thrilled. We therefore added to the Kansei robot a device to express complex feelings through its facial expressions. The Kansei robot is actually an artificial skull made of aluminum, with servomotors built into it. The face is made of relatively soft polyethylene, which is formed to appear like a human face. Facial expressions are generated using 19 servomotors built into the skull, which pull metal wires attached to the facial “skin” to create expressions. The robot at present is capable of making six basic expressions as well as complex expressions, such as happiness and fear combined.

  8. Consumer ethnocentrism and Country of origin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iacob, Andrea Ioana

    The research on consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin effect is quite substantial in the area of consumer research, but there are competing views as to how low involvement products influence and interact with consumer ethnocentrism and country of origin in a transitional market setting...

  9. Origin of comets - implications for planetary formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weissman, P.R.; Arizona Univ., Tucson)

    1985-01-01

    Primordial and episodic theories for the origin of comets are discussed. The implications of the former type for the origin of the solar system are considered. Candidate sites for the formation of comets are compared. The possible existence of a massive inner Oort cloud is discussed

  10. On the biosynthetic origin of carminic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Silas A.; Kongstad, Kenneth T; Khorsand-Jamal, Paiman

    2018-01-01

    provides solid evidence of a polyketide, rather than a shikimate, origin of coccid pigments. Based on the newly identified compounds, we present a detailed biosynthetic scheme that accounts for the formation of carminic acid (CA) in D. coccus and all described coccid pigments which share a flavokermesic...... distribution suggests a common evolutionary origin for the trait in all coccid dye producing insect species....

  11. 31 CFR 575.311 - Iraqi origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Iraqi origin. 575.311 Section 575.311 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) OFFICE OF FOREIGN... Government of Iraq, or of a business entity located in Iraq. Services of Iraqi origin are not imported into...

  12. 27 CFR 478.44 - Original license.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Original license. 478.44 Section 478.44 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND....44 Original license. (a)(1) Any person who intends to engage in business as a firearms or ammunition...

  13. The Gestural Theory of Language Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, David F.

    2008-01-01

    The idea that iconic visible gesture had something to do with the origin of language, particularly speech, is a frequent element in speculation about this phenomenon and appears early in its history. Socrates hypothesizes about the origins of Greek words in Plato's satirical dialogue, "Cratylus", and his speculation includes a possible…

  14. Express web application development

    CERN Document Server

    Yaapa, Hage

    2013-01-01

    Express Web Application Development is a practical introduction to learning about Express. Each chapter introduces you to a different area of Express, using screenshots and examples to get you up and running as quickly as possible.If you are looking to use Express to build your next web application, ""Express Web Application Development"" will help you get started and take you right through to Express' advanced features. You will need to have an intermediate knowledge of JavaScript to get the most out of this book.

  15. The origin of turtles: a paleontological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Walter G

    2015-05-01

    The origin of turtles and their unusual body plan has fascinated scientists for the last two centuries. Over the course of the last decades, a broad sample of molecular analyses have favored a sister group relationship of turtles with archosaurs, but recent studies reveal that this signal may be the result of systematic biases affecting molecular approaches, in particular sampling, non-randomly distributed rate heterogeneity among taxa, and the use of concatenated data sets. Morphological studies, by contrast, disfavor archosaurian relationships for turtles, but the proposed alternative topologies are poorly supported as well. The recently revived paleontological hypothesis that the Middle Permian Eunotosaurus africanus is an intermediate stem turtle is now robustly supported by numerous characters that were previously thought to be unique to turtles and that are now shown to have originated over the course of tens of millions of years unrelated to the origin of the turtle shell. Although E. africanus does not solve the placement of turtles within Amniota, it successfully extends the stem lineage of turtles to the Permian and helps resolve some questions associated with the origin of turtles, in particular the non-composite origin of the shell, the slow origin of the shell, and the terrestrial setting for the origin of turtles. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Renal artery origins: best angiographic projection angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verschuyl, E J; Kaatee, R; Beek, F J; Patel, N H; Fontaine, A B; Daly, C P; Coldwell, D M; Bush, W H; Mali, W P

    1997-10-01

    To determine the best projection angles for imaging the renal artery origins in profile. A mathematical model of the anatomy at the renal artery origins in the transverse plane was used to analyze the amount of aortic lumen that projects over the renal artery origins at various projection angles. Computed tomographic (CT) angiographic data about the location of 400 renal artery origins in 200 patients were statistically analyzed. In patients with an abdominal aortic diameter no larger than 3.0 cm, approximately 0.5 mm of the proximal part of the renal artery and origin may be hidden from view if there is a projection error of +/-10 degrees from the ideal image. A combination of anteroposterior and 20 degrees and 40 degrees left anterior oblique projections resulted in a 92% yield of images that adequately profiled the renal artery origins. Right anterior oblique projections resulted in the least useful images. An error in projection angle of +/-10 degrees is acceptable for angiographic imaging of the renal artery origins. Patients sex, site of interest (left or right artery), and local diameter of the abdominal aorta are important factors to consider.

  17. After Effects expressions

    CERN Document Server

    Geduld, Marcus

    2013-01-01

    Put the power of Expressions to work in your animations with controls and efficiencies impossible to achieve with traditional keyframing techniques. No programming skills are required. Foundation concepts and skills orient the new designer and serve as a handy reference to the experienced one. Basics of creating expressions, variables, commands, and expression helpers precede the leap into javascript and math essentials for more advanced expressions that include randomness, physical simularions and 3D. Full color illustrations display the scripts and the resulti

  18. Tanzanian food origins and protected geographical indications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    John, Innocensia Festo; Egelyng, Henrik; Lokina, Azack

    2016-01-01

    As the world's population is constantly growing, food security will remain on the policy Agenda, particularly in Africa. At the same time, global food systems experience a new wave focusing on local foods and food sovereignty featuring high quality food products of verifiable geographical origin...... of food origin products in Tanzania that have potential for GI certification. The hypothesis was that there are origin products in Tanzania whose unique characteristics are linked to the area of production. Geographical indications can be useful policy instruments contributing to food security...... the diversity of supply of natural and unique quality products and so contribute to enhanced food security....

  19. Browsing the Origins of Comic Book Superheroes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Tem Frank

    2017-01-01

    This article tries to explore and explain the significance of comic book superheroes and their origins stories. The analysis of the two selected case examples from the sociale video sharing site WatchMojo.com focus on four aspects or theme: Comic book hermeneutics, types of origin, subjectivization...... of superheroes, and, user reactions. These analytical themes are based on an approach combining cultural semiotics, comic book superhero studies, studies in participatory culture, cultural studies and media user studies. The analysis presented provide some evidence to the claim, that superhero origins stories...

  20. [Origin and evolution of human immunodeficiency viruses].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Constantin V

    2009-01-01

    After the diagnosis of the AIDS symptoms, in 1981, and after the discovery of the virus that causes AIDS, in 1983, the virologists have formulated different theories about its origin. Some of them involved natural causes, e.g., HIV origin from SIV strains. Other theories go further to the possibility of a deadly man-made virus escaped from laboratories or voluntary spread by some conspirative organisations. At this moment, the scientists limits themselves to search proofs to sustain the zoonotic origin of HIV from SIV and its accomodation to human body conditions.

  1. Quality of original and biosimilar epoetin products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinks, Vera; Hawe, Andrea; Basmeleh, Abdul H H; Joachin-Rodriguez, Liliana; Haselberg, Rob; Somsen, Govert W; Jiskoot, Wim; Schellekens, Huub

    2011-02-01

    To compare the quality of therapeutic erythropoietin (EPO) products, including two biosimilars, with respect to content, aggregation, isoform profile and potency. Two original products, Eprex (epoetin alpha) and Dynepo (epoetin delta), and two biosimilar products, Binocrit (epoetin alpha) and Retacrit (epoetin zeta), were compared using (1) high performance size exclusion chromatography, (2) ELISA, (3) SDS-PAGE, (4) capillary zone electrophoresis and (5) in-vivo potency. Tested EPO products differed in content, isoform composition, and potency. Of the tested products, the biosimilars have the same or even better quality as the originals. Especially, the potency of originals may significantly differ from the value on the label.

  2. Evolutionary origins of Brassicaceae specific genes in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    lineages. We demonstrate that lineage-specific genes have high tissue specificity and low expression levels across multiple tissues and developmental stages. Finally, stress responsiveness is identified as a distinct feature of Brassicaceae-specific genes; where these LSGs are enriched for genes responsive to a wide range of abiotic stresses. Conclusion Improving our understanding of the origins of lineage-specific genes is key to gaining insights regarding how novel genes can arise and acquire functionality in different lineages. This study comprehensively identifies all of the Brassicaceae-specific genes in Arabidopsis thaliana and identifies how the majority of such lineage-specific genes have arisen. The analysis allows the relative importance (and prevalence) of different evolutionary routes to the genesis of novel ORFs within lineages to be assessed. Insights regarding the functional roles of lineage-specific genes are further advanced through identification of enrichment for stress responsiveness in lineage-specific genes, highlighting their likely importance for environmental adaptation strategies. PMID:21332978

  3. Glucose transporters: expression, regulation and cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RODOLFO A. MEDINA

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Mammalian cells depend on glucose as a major substrate for energy production. Glucose is transported into the cell via facilitative glucose transporters (GLUT present in all cell types. Many GLUT isoforms have been described and their expression is cell-specific and subject to hormonal and environmental control. The kinetic properties and substrate specificities of the different isoforms are specifically suited to the energy requirements of the particular cell types. Due to the ubiquitousness of these transporters, their differential expression is involved in various disease states such as diabetes, ischemia and cancer. The majority of cancers and isolated cancer cell lines over-express the GLUT family members which are present in the respective tissue of origin under non-cancerous conditions. Moreover, due to the requirement of energy to feed uncontrolled proliferation, cancer cells often express GLUTs which under normal conditions would not be present in these tissues. This over-expression is predominantly associated with the likelihood of metastasis and hence poor patient prognosis. This article presents a review of the current literature on the regulation and expression of GLUT family members and has compiled clinical and research data on GLUT expression in human cancers and in isolated human cancer cell lines.

  4. Establishing the experimenting society : The historical origin of social experimentation according to the randomized controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2001-01-01

    This article tl aces the historical origin of social experimentation. It highlights the central role of psychology in establishing the randomized controlled design and its quasi-experimental derivatives. The author investigates the differences in the 19th- and 20th-century meaning of the expression

  5. Testicular dysgenesis syndrome and the origin of carcinoma in situ testis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Si Brask; Kristensen, David Møbjerg; Novotny, Guy W

    2008-01-01

    foetus, but the genetic background may also play a role. The morphological similarity of carcinoma in situ (CIS) cells (the precursor of the majority of invasive testicular cancers) with primordial germ cells and gonocytes, and overlap in expression of protein markers suggests an origin of CIS from...

  6. The functional landscape of mouse gene expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Wen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Large-scale quantitative analysis of transcriptional co-expression has been used to dissect regulatory networks and to predict the functions of new genes discovered by genome sequencing in model organisms such as yeast. Although the idea that tissue-specific expression is indicative of gene function in mammals is widely accepted, it has not been objectively tested nor compared with the related but distinct strategy of correlating gene co-expression as a means to predict gene function. Results We generated microarray expression data for nearly 40,000 known and predicted mRNAs in 55 mouse tissues, using custom-built oligonucleotide arrays. We show that quantitative transcriptional co-expression is a powerful predictor of gene function. Hundreds of functional categories, as defined by Gene Ontology 'Biological Processes', are associated with characteristic expression patterns across all tissues, including categories that bear no overt relationship to the tissue of origin. In contrast, simple tissue-specific restriction of expression is a poor predictor of which genes are in which functional categories. As an example, the highly conserved mouse gene PWP1 is widely expressed across different tissues but is co-expressed with many RNA-processing genes; we show that the uncharacterized yeast homolog of PWP1 is required for rRNA biogenesis. Conclusions We conclude that 'functional genomics' strategies based on quantitative transcriptional co-expression will be as fruitful in mammals as they have been in simpler organisms, and that transcriptional control of mammalian physiology is more modular than is generally appreciated. Our data and analyses provide a public resource for mammalian functional genomics.

  7. On origin of mass and supersymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Shima, Kazunari; Tsuda, Motomu

    2007-01-01

    We show that the nonlinear supersymmetric general relativity gives new insights into the origin of mass and elucidates the mysterious relations between the cosmology and the (low energy) particle physics.

  8. New Step Underground in Universe Origins Quest

    CERN Document Server

    Evans, Robert

    2003-01-01

    Europe's top particle physics research center has taken a major step in its plan to build the world's biggest "particle smasher" which it hopes will eventually unlock the secrets of the origins of the universe (½ page)

  9. Dynamics of comets: their origin and evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carusi, A.; Valsecchi, G.B.

    1985-01-01

    Comets can be considered as remnants of the original population of planetesimals and the study of their origin and dynamical histories can provide insight into the accretion phenomena; the original mass, energy and angular momentum distribution across the solar system; the collisional fragmentation of minor bodies; the impact rates on planets and the nature of impacting bodies. The interaction of comets with other solar system bodies certainly provides one of the best possibilities for a deeper understanding of the dynamics of the whole system, and a challenging test for all theories of celestial mechanics dealing with the gravitational behaviour of multiple-body systems. Comets could also be considered as the last footprints left by the interaction of the protosun and its original galactic environment. (orig.)

  10. ORIGINAL ARTICLE Sonographic gallbladder wall thickness in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ramadan period, which assisted in compliance with fasting. The clinical parameters ... ORIGINAL ARTICLE adequate depth penetration, and is suitable for obese subjects. A 5.0 ... group difference for continuous variables. Chi-square and ...

  11. God particle and origin of mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Hongjian; Kuang Yuping

    2014-01-01

    The new Higgs boson discovered at the CERN LHC could be the God particle expected from the standard model. This revolutionary discovery opens up a new era of exploring the origin of masses for all elementary particles in the universe. It becomes a turning point of the particle physics in 21 th century. This article presents the following: (1) Scientific importance of searching and testing the God particle(s); (2) The history of studying the origin of mass, and why Newton mechanics and Einstein relativity could not resolve the origin of mass; (3) The mysterious vacuum and the mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking; (4) How the God particle was invented and how the LHC might have discovered it; (5) The perspective of seeking the origin of mass and new physics laws. (authors)

  12. Early Planetary Environments and the Origin of

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Archaean-Hadean oceans releasing Hz- The solar flux in the. Hadean and ... universe. However, Rikken and Raupach (2000) have demonstrated that static magnetic field can bias .... origin of life is ho~ did such an interdependent system of.

  13. Origin of the Chernobyl myths and stereotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashilov, A.V.; Borisevich, N.Ya.; Sobolev, O.V.

    2013-01-01

    The article describes the origin of main negative Chernobyl myths and stereotypes in Belarus' society which do not meet the reality, hinder the revival and development processes of affected territories. (authors)

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLE An Assessment of Mathematics Classroom ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bdu

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE. An Assessment of Mathematics Classroom Teaching- ... the study was to assess whether the learning classroom environment was compliant with constructivism. ... of our education system. Applefield ... share control of the design, management, and evaluation ..... development of formative assessment.

  15. Origin and domestication of Lactuca sativa L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de I.M.

    1997-01-01

    The domestication of lettuce, Lactuca sativa L. is described on the basis of literature study. The centre of origin is discussed. A historical survey is made of the distribution of the groups of Lactuca cultivars over the world.

  16. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Academic hospital accreditation strengthens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This case study originated from the combined experiences of the accreditation process of a ... (iv) the benefits of hospital accreditation and quality management. The study ... Tertiary healthcare is in a crisis after nearly 3 decades of neglect,2,3.

  17. Original Research Rotavirus antigen, cytokine, and neutralising ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Clinical Infection, Microbiology and Immunology; University of Liverpool, Liverpool, United Kingdom. 3. .... onset of illness.10 However, we were unable to find original records and thus ..... position paper, 2013:p. 49–64. 12.

  18. The Solar System and Its Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormand, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Presents a brief explanation of the solar system, including planets, asteroids, satellites, comets, planetary orbits, as well as, old and recent cosmogonic theories. Indicates that man is nearer a solution to the origin of the planetary system than ever before.

  19. Quality of Original and Biosimilar Epoetin Products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brinks, V.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/31395979X; Hawe, A.; Basmeleh, A.H.H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337907331; Joachin-Rodriguez, L.; Haselberg, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304822647; Somsen, G.W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/117149357; Jiskoot, W.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/084557397; Schellekens, H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/068406762

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the quality of therapeutic erythropoietin (EPO) products, including two biosimilars, with respect to content, aggregation, isoform profile and potency. Methods: Two original products, Eprex (epoetin alfa) and Dynepo (epoetin delta), and two biosimilar products, Binocrit (epoetin

  20. Neuroglobin over expressing mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raida, Zindy; Hundahl, Christian Ansgar; Nyengaard, Jens R

    2013-01-01

    showed over expression to be confined to primarily the cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and only in neurons. The level and expression pattern of endogenous Neuroglobin was unaffected by insertion of the over expressing Ngb transgene. Neuroglobin over expression resulted in a significant reduction...... previous reports, Neuroglobin over expression is not global but confined to a few well-defined brain regions, and only in neurons. This study confirms previous reports showing a correlation between reduced infarct volume and elevated Neuroglobin levels, but underlines the need to study the likely...

  1. Is supersymmetric origin of monojets viable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandi, S.

    1985-01-01

    The laboratory and cosmological bounds on the masses of the scalar leptons and the photino are used to put constraints on the supersymmetric origin of the CERN monojets. The latest MAC data at PEP exclude the scalar quarks, of masses up to 45 GeV, as the origin of these monojets; the cosmological bounds, for a stable photino, exclude the mass range necessary for the gq production interpretation

  2. Rules of Origin as Commercial Policy Instruments.

    OpenAIRE

    Falvey, Rod; Reed, Geoff

    1997-01-01

    This article examines the role of rules of origin as a commercial policy instrument that targets the input composition of imports. Using a three-country, partial equilibrium structure, we demonstrate conditions under which the imposition of a binding rule will be welfare improving for an importer facing competitive export suppliers. We further show that employing rules of origin in this way would be complementary to, rather than a substitute for, conventional optimal tariffs. Copyright Econom...

  3. NIRS database of the original research database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, Kyoko

    1991-01-01

    Recently, library staffs arranged and compiled the original research papers that have been written by researchers for 33 years since National Institute of Radiological Sciences (NIRS) established. This papers describes how the internal database of original research papers has been created. This is a small sample of hand-made database. This has been cumulating by staffs who have any knowledge about computer machine or computer programming. (author)

  4. Generational Variations in Mexican-Origin Intermarriage

    OpenAIRE

    Cedillo, Rosalio

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation examines intermarriage across generations of the Mexican-origin population in order to better understand how this population is incorporating in U.S. society, and looks at parental migration status and parental nativity as factors that may impede or facilitate intermarriage incorporation. Using data from the Immigration and Intergenerational Mobility in Metropolitan Los Angeles (IIMMLA) survey the research shows that: the majority of intermarriages among the Mexican-origin ...

  5. Origin of stars and structure of galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palous, J.

    1988-01-01

    The substance is described of molecular clouds from interstellar mass and the origin, process and termination of the gravitational collapse are described which lead to the creation of stars. The probability is described of the origin of high-mass and lower-mass stars. The connection is discussed between the creation of stars, molecular clouds and the structure of galaxies. (E.S.). 7 figs

  6. Upheaval Dome, Utah, USA: Impact Origin Confirmed

    OpenAIRE

    Buchner, Elmar; Kenkmann, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Upheaval Dome is a unique circular structure on the Colorado Plateau in SE Utah, the origin of which has been controversially discussed for decades. It has been interpreted as a crypto volcanic feature, a salt diapir, a pinched-off salt diapir, and an eroded impact crater. While recent structural mapping, modeling, and analyses of deformation mechanisms strongly support an impact origin, ultimate proof, namely the documentation of unambiguous shock features, has yet to be successfully provide...

  7. The origin of the elements. Chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tayler, R.J.

    1980-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the questions: how the present chemical composition is related to the original composition of the Universe, and what was the nature of that original composition. In particular, the chemical evolution of the Galaxy is discussed. Section headings are: observations of chemical composition (stars, cosmic gases, galaxies, element abundance); theoretical considerations (nucleosynthesis); cosmological element production (the Hot Big Bang theory); galactic nucleosynthesis. (U.K.)

  8. The origins of language in teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laland, Kevin N

    2017-02-01

    I introduce seven criteria for determining the validity of competing theories for the original function of language. I go on to present a novel explanation that meets all the criteria: language originally evolved to teach kin. I suggest that the use of symbols subsequently generated evolutionary feedback at two levels, in the form of self-modified selection pressures that favored structures in the mind that functioned to manipulate and use symbols with efficiency, and cultural selection on languages for learnability.

  9. Luna 24 origins: some trace element constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovanovic, S.; Jensen, K.J.; Reed, G.W. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Luna 24 basaltic material originated in the particular volume of the lunar crust that produced Apollo 11 and Luna 16 basaltic material; it has the same Cl/sub r//P 2 O 5 signature. Ru--Os contents (Barsukov et al., 1977) and a number of radiogenic age measurements place Luna 24 basalt origins stratigraphically in a layer between those from which Apollo 15 and Apollo 11 and 17 basalts were derived. 20 references

  10. The origin of the universe. Chapter 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciama, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    The observational and theoretical evidence in favour of the Big Bang origin, and the question whether an actually singular origin of the universe can be avoided, are discussed. Sections are headed: the world of galaxies (main facts about galaxies); the recession of the galaxies (red-shift, Hubble's law); the cosmic black body background (behaviour of the Universe in its hot early epochs, nuclear reactions, abundance of hydrogen, helium and deuterium). (U.K.)

  11. Contextualising primate origins--an ecomorphological framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soligo, Christophe; Smaers, Jeroen B

    2016-04-01

    Ecomorphology - the characterisation of the adaptive relationship between an organism's morphology and its ecological role - has long been central to theories of the origin and early evolution of the primate order. This is exemplified by two of the most influential theories of primate origins: Matt Cartmill's Visual Predation Hypothesis, and Bob Sussman's Angiosperm Co-Evolution Hypothesis. However, the study of primate origins is constrained by the absence of data directly documenting the events under investigation, and has to rely instead on a fragmentary fossil record and the methodological assumptions inherent in phylogenetic comparative analyses of extant species. These constraints introduce particular challenges for inferring the ecomorphology of primate origins, as morphology and environmental context must first be inferred before the relationship between the two can be considered. Fossils can be integrated in comparative analyses and observations of extant model species and laboratory experiments of form-function relationships are critical for the functional interpretation of the morphology of extinct species. Recent developments have led to important advancements, including phylogenetic comparative methods based on more realistic models of evolution, and improved methods for the inference of clade divergence times, as well as an improved fossil record. This contribution will review current perspectives on the origin and early evolution of primates, paying particular attention to their phylogenetic (including cladistic relationships and character evolution) and environmental (including chronology, geography, and physical environments) contextualisation, before attempting an up-to-date ecomorphological synthesis of primate origins. © 2016 Anatomical Society.

  12. How to write an original article.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateu Arrom, L; Huguet, J; Errando, C; Breda, A; Palou, J

    2018-05-17

    A correctly drafted original article gives information on what was done, why it was done, how it was done, the result of what was done, and the significance of what was done. Many articles fail to report their results effectively. To describe the characteristics of an original article and to give practical recommendations to prevent the most common errors in our environment. We performed a systematic search of the terms "how to write a scientific article", "structure of the original article" and "publishing an article" in the databases PubMed and SCOPUS. We analysed the structure of an original article and the characteristics of its parts and prepared advice on the publication of an article. The journal's guidelines for authors should be read. It is usual for the original article to follow the IMRAD structure: Introduction, Methods, Results and Discussion. The introduction states briefly why the study was performed. The methods' section should give a detailed explanation of how the study was performed. The results should be clearly presented, with the help of tables, without repeating information. The discussion explains the relevance of the results and contrasts them with those of other authors. Any limitations and a conclusion supported by the results must be included. Writing an original article correctly requires practice and it must be supported by a good research work in order to be published. Copyright © 2018 AEU. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Generalized Expression for Polarization Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Lu; Hahm, T.S.

    2009-01-01

    A general polarization density which consists of classical and neoclassical parts is systematically derived via modern gyrokinetics and bounce-kinetics by employing a phase-space Lagrangian Lie-transform perturbation method. The origins of polarization density are further elucidated. Extending the work on neoclassical polarization for long wavelength compared to ion banana width [M. N. Rosenbluth and F. L. Hinton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 80, 724 (1998)], an analytical formula for the generalized neoclassical polarization including both finite-banana-width (FBW) and finite-Larmor-radius (FLR) effects for arbitrary radial wavelength in comparison to banana width and gyroradius is derived. In additional to the contribution from trapped particles, the contribution of passing particles to the neoclassical polarization is also explicitly calculated. Our analytic expression agrees very well with the previous numerical results for a wide range of radial wavelength.

  14. A Review of Ideas Concerning Life Origin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gindilis, L. M.

    2014-10-01

    Since the times of Antiquity the and for a long time the idea of self-origination of life was the dominant one. It reappeared again after microorganisms were discovered (XVII century). The possibility of abiogenesis at microbial level was discussed for more than a century. Pateur demonstrated that spontaneous origination of microorganisms in sterile broth was due to those same microorganisms transported by dust particles. Thus proving that every form of life originates from the parental life form. So the question arises: how did the first microorganisms appear on the Earth. There are three possible versions: 1) accidental origination of a viable form; 2) primal organisms were transported to the Earth from outer space; 3) they were formed on the Earth in the process of prebiotic chemical evolution. We discuss the problems of prebiotic evolution from simple monomers up to living cells. An important item of nowadays conceptions of life origination is the hypothesis of the ancient world of RNA as possible precursor of life on Earth. The discovery in carbonaceous chondrites of traces of bacterial life evidences the existence of life in the Solar System even before the formation of the Earth. The idea of life as brought to the Earth out of Cosmos originated under the impression of self-origination hypothesis downfall. It went through several stages (Helmholtz, W. Thompson, XIX century; Arrhenius, early XX century; Hoyle and Wickramasinghe, second half of XX century) and presently evokes constantly growing interest. The panspermia theory does not solve the problem of origination of life, only moves it onto other planets. According to V.A. Mazur, the probability of accidental formation of RNA molecule is negligible not only on the Earth, but in the whole Universe over all the time span of its existence. But it is practically equal to unit in the domain formed at the inflation stage of the evolution of the Universe. A.D.Panov considered panspermia in the Galaxy at the level

  15. Comparative genomics of neuroglobin reveals its early origins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Dröge

    Full Text Available Neuroglobin (Ngb is a hexacoordinated globin expressed mainly in the central and peripheral nervous system of vertebrates. Although several hypotheses have been put forward regarding the role of neuroglobin, its definite function remains uncertain. Ngb appears to have a neuro-protective role enhancing cell viability under hypoxia and other types of oxidative stress. Ngb is phylogenetically ancient and has a substitution rate nearly four times lower than that of other vertebrate globins, e.g. hemoglobin. Despite its high sequence conservation among vertebrates Ngb seems to be elusive in invertebrates.We determined candidate orthologs in invertebrates and identified a globin of the placozoan Trichoplax adhaerens that is most likely orthologous to vertebrate Ngb and confirmed the orthologous relationship of the polymeric globin of the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus to Ngb. The putative orthologous globin genes are located next to genes orthologous to vertebrate POMT2 similarly to localization of vertebrate Ngb. The shared syntenic position of the globins from Trichoplax, the sea urchin and of vertebrate Ngb strongly suggests that they are orthologous. A search for conserved transcription factor binding sites (TFBSs in the promoter regions of the Ngb genes of different vertebrates via phylogenetic footprinting revealed several TFBSs, which may contribute to the specific expression of Ngb, whereas a comparative analysis with myoglobin revealed several common TFBSs, suggestive of regulatory mechanisms common to globin genes.Identification of the placozoan and echinoderm genes orthologous to vertebrate neuroglobin strongly supports the hypothesis of the early evolutionary origin of this globin, as it shows that neuroglobin was already present in the placozoan-bilaterian last common ancestor. Computational determination of the transcription factor binding sites repertoire provides on the one hand a set of transcriptional factors that are

  16. Identification of imprinted genes subject to parent-of-origin specific expression in Arabidopsis thaliana seeds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mckeown, P.C.; Laouielle-Duprat, S.; Prins, J.C.P.; Wolff, de P.; Schmid, M.W.; Donoghue, M.T.; Fort, A.; Duszynska, D.; Comte, A.; Lao, N.T.; Wennblom, T.J.; Smant, G.; Köhler, C.; Grossniklaus, U.; Spillane, C.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Epigenetic regulation of gene dosage by genomic imprinting of some autosomal genes facilitates normal reproductive development in both mammals and flowering plants. While many imprinted genes have been identified and intensively studied in mammals, smaller numbers have been characterized

  17. Characterization and Expression of Drug Resistance Genes in MDROs Originating from Combat Wound Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    regions of ancestral eukaryotic genomes based on evolutionary breakpoints or rearrangements [32–34]. These methods would fail to assemble a consensus...Rubio AM, Hotez PJ, Weina PJ. United States military tropical medicine : extraordinary legacy, uncertain future. PLoS Neglect Trop Dis. 2013;7:e2448. doi...Determine bacterial-bacterial interactions - Understand bacterial-Eukaryotic interactions New treatments Share info. Multidrug-resistant Organism Repository and Surveillance Network (MRSN) US ARMY MEDICINE 57

  18. Violence against Teachers in Comprehensive Schools: Reasons of Origin, Forms of Expression and Outcome

    OpenAIRE

    Valdas Pruskus

    2011-01-01

    The violence against teachers discussed in this article is a phenomenon realistically existing in schools and it reflects the processes of modern society and their outcome for the youth as well as the interpersonal value priorities and relation with the surrounding world. This article shows the significantly changed situation in schools and the changed teachers’ work conditions. Teachers working at schools do not feel safe. The pupils’ violence influences not only motivation of teacher’s work...

  19. Words of foreign origin in political discourse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabina Zorčič

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the use of words of foreign origin in Slovenian political discourse. At the outset, this usage is broken down into four groups: the first contains specific phrases and terminology inherent to the political domain; the second contains words of foreign origin generally present in the Slovene language (because of their high frequency of nonexclusivistic use, these words are not of interest to the scope of this investigation; the third contains various words of foreign origin used as affectional packaging for messages with the aim of stimulating the desired interpretation (framing reality; the fourth group, which is the most interesting for our research, is made up of words of foreign origin which could have a marker: + marked, + not necessary, + unwanted, but only if we accept the logic of purism. All the words in this group could be replaced - without any loss of meaning - with their Slovene equivalents. The speakerʼs motivation for using the foreign word is crucial to our discussion. In the framework of Pierre Bourdieuʼs poststructural theory as well as Austinʼs and Searleʼs speech act theory, statistical data is analysed to observe how usage frequency varies in correlation with selected factors which manifest the speakerʼs habitus. We argue that words of foreign origin represent symbolic cultural capital, a kind of added value which functions as credit and as such is an important form of the accumulation of capital.

  20. Origin of life in a digital microcosm

    Science.gov (United States)

    C G, Nitash; LaBar, Thomas; Hintze, Arend; Adami, Christoph

    2017-11-01

    While all organisms on Earth share a common descent, there is no consensus on whether the origin of the ancestral self-replicator was a one-off event or whether it only represented the final survivor of multiple origins. Here, we use the digital evolution system Avida to study the origin of self-replicating computer programs. By using a computational system, we avoid many of the uncertainties inherent in any biochemical system of self-replicators (while running the risk of ignoring a fundamental aspect of biochemistry). We generated the exhaustive set of minimal-genome self-replicators and analysed the network structure of this fitness landscape. We further examined the evolvability of these self-replicators and found that the evolvability of a self-replicator is dependent on its genomic architecture. We also studied the differential ability of replicators to take over the population when competed against each other, akin to a primordial-soup model of biogenesis, and found that the probability of a self-replicator outcompeting the others is not uniform. Instead, progenitor (most-recent common ancestor) genotypes are clustered in a small region of the replicator space. Our results demonstrate how computational systems can be used as test systems for hypotheses concerning the origin of life. This article is part of the themed issue 'Reconceptualizing the origins of life'.