Sample records for haloaryl substituted aminopurines

  1. Microwave assisted synthesis of 6-Substituted aminopurine analogs in water

    Qu, Guirong; Han,Suhui; Zhang,Zhiguang; Geng,Mingwei; Xue, Feng


    Microwave assisted amination of 6-chloropurine derivatives with various amines in water resulted in a "green chemistry" protocol for the preparation of 6-substituted aminopurine analogs in very good yields. Using a simply modified microwave oven with the refluxing apparatus, the amination of the 6-chloro in the purine structure occurred smoothly. 19 known and 16 unknown 6-substituted aminopurine analogs were prepared through nucleophilic aromatic substitution with simple filtration or column ...

  2. IR Vibrational spectra of H-bonded complexes of adenine, 2-aminopurine and 2-aminopurine+ with cytosine and thymine: Quantum-chemical study

    Brovarets', O. O.; Hovorun, D. M.


    Using theoretical study on the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory, we have compared vibrational spectra of 2-aminopurine (as neutral or protonated at N1 atom species) with adenine and H-bonded complexes of 2-aminopurine (as neutral or protoned at N1 atom species) · cytosine or 2-aminopurine · thymine with adenine · cytosine and adenine · thymine base pairs. The nature of the base pairing between adenine, 2-aminopurine, 2-aminopurine+ and cytosine or thymine have been investigated by means of quantum-mechanical calculations. We have investigated the effect of the hydrogen bond formation on the vibrational spectra of the investigated base pairs. The main differences in the vibrational spectra as for bases so for base pairs have been observed in the high-frequency region.

  3. Effect of copper ions on voltammetric signals of aminopurines at a carbon electrode

    Frantisek Jelen


    Full Text Available Electrochemical oxidations of aminopurines (adenine–Ade, 2–aminopurine, 2AP, 2,6–diaminopurine, 2,6–DAP and theircomplexes with Cu(I on carbon electrodes (pencil–PeGE wereinvestigated by means of linear sweep voltammetry (LSV andelimination voltammetry with linear scan (EVLS. We found thatthe Cu(I–purine complex was formed not only by aminopurines butalso by purine. On the other hand the complex is not formed in thecase of imidazol or cytosine. The results showed that carbonelectrodes in connection with EVLS can be an excellent prototypefor cheap and fast working sensor for aminopurines in the presenceof copper.

  4. Attempts to induce mutations in Haemophilus influenzae with the base analogues 5-bromodeoxyuridine and 2-aminopurine

    Kimball, R.F.; Perdue, S.W.


    Attempts were made to induce mutations in Haemophilus influenzae with the base analogues 5-bromodeoxyuridine and 2-aminopurine. These attempts were unsuccessful. Incorporation studies with BrdUrd showed, in agreement with earlier studies on Escherichia coli, that BrdUrd was discriminated against when dThd was also present but was incorporated to essentially the same extent as dThd when only BrdUrd was present. In this latter case, strands fully substituted with BrdUrd were produced, but survival data suggest that bacteria deriving their DNA by replication on such fully substituted templates were inviable. However, bacteria with about 20% of the thymine substituted with bromouracil were usually viable. No mutations could be detected in the descendants of such bacteria. The reasons for this are discussed and it is concluded that in all probability the replication system in species rarely if ever treats incorporated bromouracil as anything except a thymine analogue. The alternative possibility, that the negative results are a consequence of the absence of the reclex (SOS) error-prone repair system in this species, is considered much less likely.

  5. Absorption spectroscopy of adenine, 9-methyladenine, and 2-aminopurine in helium nanodroplets

    S. Smolarek; A.M. Rijs; W.J. Buma; M. Drabbels


    High-resolution absorption spectra of adenine, 9-methyladenine and 2-aminopurine in helium nanodroplets have been recorded. In contrast to molecular beam experiments, large variations in linewidths are observed for adenine and 9-methyladenine. At the same time, the spectrum of 2-aminopurine remains

  6. Structure of the 2-Aminopurine-Cytosine Base Pair Formed in the Polymerase Active Site of the RB69 Y567A-DNA Polymerase

    Reha-Krantz, Linda J.; Hariharan, Chithra; Subuddhi, Usharani; Xia, Shuangluo; Zhao, Chao; Beckman, Jeff; Christian, Thomas; Konigsberg, William (Yale); (Alberta)


    The adenine base analogue 2-aminopurine (2AP) is a potent base substitution mutagen in prokaryotes because of its enhanceed ability to form a mutagenic base pair with an incoming dCTP. Despite more than 50 years of research, the structure of the 2AP-C base pair remains unclear. We report the structure of the 2AP-dCTP base pair formed within the polymerase active site of the RB69 Y567A-DNA polymerase. A modified wobble 2AP-C base pair was detected with one H-bond between N1 of 2AP and a proton from the C4 amino group of cytosine and an apparent bifurcated H-bond between a proton on the 2-amino group of 2-aminopurine and the ring N3 and O2 atoms of cytosine. Interestingly, a primer-terminal region rich in AT base pairs, compared to GC base pairs, facilitated dCTP binding opposite template 2AP. We propose that the increased flexibility of the nucleotide binding pocket formed in the Y567A-DNA polymerase and increased 'breathing' at the primer-terminal junction of A+T-rich DNA facilitate dCTP binding opposite template 2AP. Thus, interactions between DNA polymerase residues with a dynamic primer-terminal junction play a role in determining base selectivity within the polymerase active site of RB69 DNA polymerase.

  7. Effects of base analogues 5-bromouracil and 6-aminopurine on development of zebrafish Danio Rerio

    SAWANT M. S.; ZHANG Shicui; WANG Qingyin


    Zebrafish (Danio rerio) genetic screens allow isolation of a wide array of problems in vertebrate biology. The effects of base analogues 5-bromouracil and 6-aminopurine on the development of zebrafish embryos are reported for the first time in this study. The early development of the zebrafish embryos was little affected by 5-bromouracil and 6-aminopurine, while the late development (organogenesis) was significantly impaired. Embryos exposed to 5-bromouracil mainly showed curled tail, wavy body, golden pigmentation and the mouth with protruding lower jaw. 6-aminopurine-treated embryos had defective anterior structures, curled tails and wavy body. RAPD analysis showed that the majority of 5-bromouracil- and 6-aminopurine-treated larvae and fish shared banding patterns in common with the control, suggesting that most mutagenesis induced by these agents are point mutations. However, some fish derived from 5-bromouracil-treated embryos had golden (gol) pigmentation; and RAPD analysis revealed that their band patterns differed from those of the control.Possibly, 5-bromouracil can occasionally cause relatively extensive changes in the fish genome. The results of this study may provide valuable help for detailed studies of mutagenesis.

  8. On the origin of multiexponential fluorescence decays from 2-aminopurine-labeled dinucleotides.

    Remington, Jacob M; Philip, Abbey M; Hariharan, Mahesh; Kohler, Bern


    The fluorescent probe 2-aminopurine (2Ap) has been used for decades to study local conformational fluctuations in DNA. Steady-state and time-resolved measurements of 2Ap fluorescence have been used to predict specific conformational states through suitable modeling of the quenching of the fluorescence of a 2Ap residue incorporated site-specifically into a DNA strand. The success of this approach has been limited by a lack of understanding of the precise factors responsible for the complex, multiexponential decays observed experimentally. In this study, dinucleotides composed of 2Ap and adenine were studied by the time-correlated single-photon counting technique to investigate the causes of heterogeneous emission kinetics. Contrary to previous reports, we argue that emission from 2Ap that is stacked with a neighboring base contributes negligibly to the emission signals recorded more than 50 ps after excitation, which are instead dominated by emission from unstacked 2Ap. We find that the decay kinetics can be modeled using a continuous lifetime distribution, which arises from the inherent distance dependence of electron transfer rates without the need to postulate a small number of discrete states with decay times derived from multiexponential fits. These results offer a new perspective on the quenching of 2Ap fluorescence and expand the information that can be obtained from experiments.

  9. Folding of the silver aptamer in a DNAzyme probed by 2-aminopurine fluorescence.

    Saran, Runjhun; Yao, Lu; Hoang, Peter; Liu, Juewen


    The RNA-cleaving Ag10c DNAzyme was recently isolated via in vitro selection and it can bind two Ag(+) ions for activity. The Ag10c contains a well-defined Ag(+) binding aptamer as indicated by DMS footprinting. Since aptamer binding is often accompanied with conformational changes, we herein used 2-aminopurine (2AP) to probe its folding in the presence of Ag(+). The Ag10c was respectively labeled with 2AP at three different positions, both in the substrate strand and in the enzyme strand, one at a time. Ag(+)-induced folding was observed at the substrate cleavage junction and the A9 position of the enzyme strand, consistent with aptamer binding. The measured Kd at the A9 position was 18 μM Ag(+) with a Hill coefficient of 2.17, similar to those obtained from the previous cleavage activity based assays. However, labeling a 2AP at the A2 position inhibited the activity and folding. Compared to other metal ions, Ag(+) has a unique sigmoidal folding profile indicative of multiple silver binding cooperatively. This suggests that Ag(+) can induce a local folding in the enzyme loop and this folding is important for activity. This study provides important biophysical insights into this new DNAzyme, suggesting the possibility of designing folding-based biosensors for Ag(+). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. and Société Française de Biochimie et Biologie Moléculaire (SFBBM). All rights reserved.

  10. Charge transfer from 2-aminopurine radical cation and radical anion to nucleobases: A pulse radiolysis study

    Manoj, P. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Mohan, H. [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Mittal, J.P. [Radiation Chemistry and Chemical Dynamics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Manoj, V.M. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India); Aravindakumar, C.T. [School of Chemical Sciences, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam 686 560, Kerala (India)], E-mail:


    Pulse radiolysis study has been carried out to investigate the properties of the radical cation of 2-aminopurine (2AP) and the probable charge transfer from the radical cation and radical anion of 2AP to natural nucleobases in aqueous medium. The radical cation of 2AP was produced by the reaction of sulfate radical anion (SO{sub 4}{sup dot-}). The time resolved absorption spectra obtained by the reaction of SO{sub 4}{sup dot-} with 2AP at neutral pH have two distinct maxima at 380 and 470nm and is assigned to the formation of a neutral radical of the form 2AP-N{sup 2}(-H){sup dot} (k{sub 2}=4.7x10{sup 9}dm{sup 3}mol{sup -1}s{sup -1} at pH 7). This neutral radical is formed from the deprotonation reaction of a very short-lived radical cation of 2AP. The transient absorption spectra recorded at pH 10.2 have two distinct maxima at 400 and 480nm and is assigned to the formation of a nitrogen centered radical (2AP-N(9){sup dot}). As the hole transport from 2AP to guanine is a highly probable process, the reaction of SO{sub 4}{sup dot-} is carried out in the presence of guanosine, adenosine and inosine. The spectrum obtained in the presence of guanosine was significantly different from that in the absence and it showed prominent absorption maxima at 380 and 470nm, and a weak broad maximum centered around 625nm which match well with the reported spectrum of a neutral guanine radical (G(-H){sup dot}). The electron transfer reaction from the radical anion of 2AP to thymine (T), cytidine (Cyd) and uridine (Urd) was also investigated at neutral pH. Among the three pyrimidines, only the transient spectrum in the presence of T gave a significant difference from the spectral features of the electron adduct of 2AP, which showed a prominent absorption maximum at 340nm and this spectrum is similar to the electron adduct spectrum of T. The preferential reduction of thymine by 2AP{sup dot-} and the oxidation of guanosine by 2AP{sup dot+} clearly follow the oxidation

  11. Fluorescence properties of 8-(2-pyridyl)guanine "2PyG" as compared to 2-aminopurine in DNA.

    Dumas, Anaëlle; Luedtke, Nathan W


    Because of their environment-sensitive fluorescence quantum yields, base analogues such as 2-aminopurine (2AP), 6-methylisoxanthopterin (6-MI), and 3-methylisoxanthopterin (3-MI) are widely used in nucleic-acid folding and catalysis assays. Emissions from these guanine mimics are quenched by base-stacking interactions and collisions with purine residues. Fluorescent base analogues that remain highly emissive in folded nucleic acids can provide sensitive means to differentiate DNA/RNA structures by participating in energy transfer from proximal ensembles of unmodified nucleobases. The development of new, highly emissive guanine mimics capable of proper base stacking and base-pairing interactions is an important prerequisite to this approach. Here we report a comparison of the most commonly used probe, 2-aminopurine (2AP), to 8-(2-pyridyl)-2'-deoxyguanosine (2PyG). The photophysical properties of these purine derivatives are very different. 2PyG exhibits enhanced fluorescence quantum yields upon its incorporation into folded nucleic acids--approximately 50-fold brighter fluorescence intensity than 2AP in the context of duplex DNA. Due to its bright fluorescence and compatibility with proper DNA folding, 2PyG can be used to accurately quantify energy-transfer efficiencies, whereas 2AP is much less sensitive to structure-specific trends in energy transfer. When using nucleoside monomers, Stern-Volmer plots of 2AP fluorescence revealed upward curvature of F(0) /F upon titration of guanosine monophoshate (GMP), whereas 2PyG exhibited unusual downward curvature of F(0) /F that resulted in a recovery of fluorescence at high GMP concentrations. These results are consistent with the trends observed for 2PyG- and 2AP-containing oligonucleotides, and furthermore suggest that solutions containing high concentrations of GMP can, in some ways, mimic the high local nucleobase densities of folded nucleic acids.

  12. Mechanism of intramolecular charge transfer in DNA helix as probed by the use of the fluorescent 2-aminopurine

    ZHANG Huijuan; WANG Peng; WANG Xuefei; FENG Juan; XU Sichuan; AI Xicheng; ZHANG Xingkang; ZHANG Jianping


    As a structural analogue of adenine, 2-aminopurine (2Ap) is often used as a fluorescent probe to study the intramolecular charge transfer reaction in DNA. We have designed and synthesized a series of model DNA helix with the variation in the distance between the 2Ap probe and the GGG sequence, and have investigated, by means of picosecond time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy, the effect of the length of the bridge (consisting of a number of transfer dynamics. The fluorescence dynamics of 2Ap exhibited three exponential decay components, the one with a time constant of a few hundred picoseconds is assigned to the intramolecular charge transfer from GGG to 2Ap. Within 2.4 nm of the donor-acceptor separation,the rate of charge transfer decreased exponentially upon increasing the separation, from which the decay factor ,β is determined to be 1.3 nm-1. Beyond 2.4 nm, however, the rate started to increase, this abnormal behavior of charge transfer is interpreted in terms of the match of electronic energies between the I-bridge and the donor/acceptor couple.

  13. Whether 2-aminopurine induces incorporation errors at the DNA replication? A quantum-mechanical answer on the actual biological issue.

    Brovarets', Ol'ha O; Pérez-Sánchez, Horacio


    In this paper, we consider the mutagenic properties of the 2-aminopurine (2AP), which has intrigued molecular biologists, biophysicists and physical chemists for a long time and been widely studied by both experimentalists and theorists. We have shown for the first time using QM calculations, that 2AP very effectively produces incorporation errors binding with cytosine (C) into the wobble (w) C·2AP(w) mispair, which is supported by the N4H⋯N1 and N2H⋯N3 H-bonds and is tautomerized into the Watson-Crick (WC)-like base mispair C*·2AP(WC) (asterisk denotes the mutagenic tautomer of the base), that quite easily in the process of the thermal fluctuations acquires enzymatically competent conformation. 2AP less effectively produces transversions forming the wobble mispair with A base - A·2AP(w), stabilized by the participation of the N6H⋯N1 and N2H⋯N1 H-bonds, followed by further tautomerization A·2AP(w) → A*·2AP(WC) and subsequent conformational transition A*·2AP(WC) → A*·2APsyn thus acquiring enzymatically competent structure. In this case, incorporation errors occur only in those case, when 2AP belongs to the incoming nucleotide. Thus, answering the question posed in the title of the article, we affirm for certain that 2AP induces incorporation errors at the DNA replication. Obtained results are consistent well with numerous experimental data.

  14. A cyclic dinucleotide containing 2-aminopurine is a general fluorescent sensor for c-di-GMP and 3',3'-cGAMP.

    Roembke, Benjamin T; Zhou, Jie; Zheng, Yue; Sayre, David; Lizardo, Allan; Bernard, Laurentee; Sintim, Herman O


    Cyclic dinucleotides have emerged as second messengers that regulate diverse processes in bacteria, as well as regulating the production of type I interferons in metazoans. Fluorescent sensors for these important second messengers are highly sought-after for high-throughput inhibitor discovery, yet most sensors reported to date are not amenable for high-throughput screening purposes. Herein, we demonstrate that a new analog, 3',3'-cG(d2AP)MP, which is a 2-aminopurine (2AP)-containing cyclic dinucleotide, self-associates in the presence of Mn(2+) with an association constant of 120,000 M(-1). 3'3'-cG(d2AP)MP can also form a heterodimer with cGAMP, activator of immune regulator, STING, or the bacterial biofilm regulator, c-di-GMP in the presence of Mn(II). Upon dimer formation, the fluorescence of 3',3'-cG(d2AP)MP is quenched and this provides a convenient method to monitor the enzymatic processing of both DGC and PDE enzymes, opening up several opportunities for the discovery of inhibitors of nucleotide signaling.

  15. Site-Selective Monitoring of the Interaction of the SRA Domain of UHRF1 with Target DNA Sequences Labeled with 2-Aminopurine.

    Greiner, Vanille J; Kovalenko, Lesia; Humbert, Nicolas; Richert, Ludovic; Birck, Catherine; Ruff, Marc; Zaporozhets, Olga A; Dhe-Paganon, Sirano; Bronner, Christian; Mély, Yves


    UHRF1 plays a central role in the maintenance and transmission of epigenetic modifications by recruiting DNMT1 to hemimethylated CpG sites via its SET and RING-associated (SRA) domain, ensuring error-free duplication of methylation profiles. To characterize SRA-induced changes in the conformation and dynamics of a target 12 bp DNA duplex as a function of the methylation status, we labeled duplexes by the environment-sensitive probe 2-aminopurine (2-Ap) at various positions near or far from the central CpG recognition site containing either a nonmodified cytosine (NM duplex), a methylated cytosine (HM duplex), or methylated cytosines on both strands (BM duplex). Steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence indicated that binding of SRA induced modest conformational and dynamical changes in NM, HM, and BM duplexes, with only slight destabilization of base pairs, restriction of global duplex flexibility, and diminution of local nucleobase mobility. Moreover, significant restriction of the local motion of residues flanking the methylcytosine in the HM duplex suggested that these residues are more rigidly bound to SRA, in line with a slightly higher affinity of the HM duplex as compared to that of the NM or BM duplex. Our results are consistent with a "reader" role, in which the SRA domain scans DNA sequences for hemimethylated CpG sites without perturbation of the structure of contacted nucleotides.

  16. Time-resolved fluorescence of 2-aminopurine in DNA duplexes in the presence of the EcoP15I Type III restriction-modification enzyme.

    Ma, Long; Wu, Xiaohua; Wilson, Geoffrey G; Jones, Anita C; Dryden, David T F


    EcoP15I is a Type III DNA restriction and modification enzyme of Escherichia coli. We show that it contains two modification (Mod) subunits for sequence-specific methylation of DNA and one copy of a restriction endonuclease (Res) subunit for cleavage of DNA containing unmethylated target sequences. Previously the Mod2 dimer in the presence of cofactors was shown to use nucleotide flipping to gain access to the adenine base targeted for methylation (Reddy and Rao, J. Mol. Biol. 298 (2000) 597-610.). Surprisingly the Mod2 enzyme also appeared to flip a second adenine in the target sequence, one which was not subject to methylation. We show using fluorescence lifetime measurements of the adenine analogue, 2-aminopurine, that only the methylatable adenine undergoes flipping by the complete Res1Mod2 enzyme and that this occurs even in the absence of cofactors. We suggest that this is due to activation of the Mod2 core by the Res subunit.

  17. Substitutional analysis

    Rutherford, Daniel Edwin


    Classic monograph, suitable for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. Topics include calculus of permutations and tableaux, semi-normal representation, orthogonal and natural representations, group characters, and substitutional equations. 1968 edition.

  18. Sugar Substitutes

    ... drinks. You may also have heard them called "artificial sweeteners" or "non-caloric sweeteners." They can be used ... of nutrition for your body.What sugar substitutes/artificial sweeteners are approved by the FDA?The following sugar ...

  19. Solvent substitution


    The DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Office of Technology Development and the Air Force Engineering and Services Center convened the First Annual International Workshop on Solvent Substitution on December 4--7, 1990. The primary objectives of this joint effort were to share information and ideas among attendees in order to enhance the development and implementation of required new technologies for the elimination of pollutants associated with industrial use of hazardous and toxic solvents; and to aid in accelerating collaborative efforts and technology transfer between government and industry for solvent substitution. There were workshop sessions focusing on Alternative Technologies, Alternative Solvents, Recovery/Recycling, Low VOC Materials and Treatment for Environmentally Safe Disposal. The 35 invited papers presented covered a wide range of solvent substitution activities including: hardware and weapons production and maintenance, paint stripping, coating applications, printed circuit boards, metal cleaning, metal finishing, manufacturing, compliance monitoring and process control monitoring. This publication includes the majority of these presentations. In addition, in order to further facilitate information exchange and technology transfer, the US Air Force and DOE solicited additional papers under a general Call for Papers.'' These papers, which underwent review and final selection by a peer review committee, are also included in this combined Proceedings/Compendium. For those involved in handling, using or managing hazardous and toxic solvents, this document should prove to be a valuable resource, providing the most up-to-date information on current technologies and practices in solvent substitution. Individual papers are abstracted separated.

  20. Sensory Substitution

    Verrillo, Ronald T.

    The idea that the cutaneous surface may be employed as a substitute for the eyes and ears is by no means a modern notion. Although the sense of touch has long been considered as a surrogate for both the visual and auditory modalities, the focus of this chapter will be on the efforts to develop a tactile substitute for hearing, especially that of human speech. The visual system is our primary means of processing information about environmental space such as orientation, distance, direction and size. It is much less effective in making temporal discriminations. The auditory system is unparalleled in processing information that involves rapid sequences of temporal events, such as speech and music. The tactile sense is capable of processing both spatial and temporal information although not as effective in either domain as the eye or the ear.

  1. Substituting complements

    Dari-Mattiacci, G.; Parisi, F.; Heller, M.


    The presence of multiple sellers in the provision of (nonsubstitutable) complementary goods leads to outcomes that are worse than those generated by a monopoly (with a vertically integrated production of complements), a problem known in the economic literature as complementary oligopoly and recently popularized in the legal literature as the tragedy of the anticommons. We ask the following question: how many substitutes for each complement are necessary to render the presence of multiple sell...

  2. Simple, heart-smart substitutions

    Coronary artery disease - heart smart substitutions; Atherosclerosis - heart smart substitutions; Cholesterol - heart smart substitutions; Coronary heart disease - heart smart substitutions; Healthy diet - heart ...

  3. 40 CFR 721.8780 - Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine azo substituted... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8780 Substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl. (a) Chemical substance... substituted pyridine azo substituted phenyl (PMNs P-96-767 and P-96-773) are subject to reporting under...

  4. Medicineringsfejl ved generisk substitution

    Rölfing, Jan


    Generic substitution is a major cause of medical mistakes in the general population. Danish legislation obligates pharmacies to substitute prescribed medicine with the cheapest equivalent formulation, despite variations in product name, packaging, shape and colour. Consequently, medical mistakes ...... occur. Scientific evidence on the consequences of generic substitution is sparse. Call upon fellow health workers to report medical mistakes to the national entities and scientific peers, in order to increase awareness and scientific evidence about the problem....

  5. Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings

    Stefan Pautze


    Full Text Available The class of Cyclotomic Aperiodic Substitution Tilings (CASTs is introduced. Its vertices are supported on the 2 n -th cyclotomic field. It covers a wide range of known aperiodic substitution tilings of the plane with finite rotations. Substitution matrices and minimal inflation multipliers of CASTs are discussed as well as practical use cases to identify specimen with individual dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n , i.e., the tiling contains an infinite number of patches of any size with dihedral symmetry D n or D 2 n only by iteration of substitution rules on a single tile.

  6. Synthesis of substituted pyrazines

    Pagoria, Philip F.; Zhang, Mao Xi


    A method for synthesizing a pyrazine-containing material according to one embodiment includes contacting an iminodiacetonitrile derivative with a base and a reagent selected from a group consisting of hydroxylamine, a hydroxylamine salt, an aliphatic primary amine, a secondary amine, an aryl-substituted alkylamine a heteroaryl-substituted alkyl amine, an alcohol, an alkanolamine and an aryl alcoholamine. Additional methods and several reaction products are presented. ##STR00001##

  7. Empirical codon substitution matrix

    Gonnet Gaston H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Codon substitution probabilities are used in many types of molecular evolution studies such as determining Ka/Ks ratios, creating ancestral DNA sequences or aligning coding DNA. Until the recent dramatic increase in genomic data enabled construction of empirical matrices, researchers relied on parameterized models of codon evolution. Here we present the first empirical codon substitution matrix entirely built from alignments of coding sequences from vertebrate DNA and thus provide an alternative to parameterized models of codon evolution. Results A set of 17,502 alignments of orthologous sequences from five vertebrate genomes yielded 8.3 million aligned codons from which the number of substitutions between codons were counted. From this data, both a probability matrix and a matrix of similarity scores were computed. They are 64 × 64 matrices describing the substitutions between all codons. Substitutions from sense codons to stop codons are not considered, resulting in block diagonal matrices consisting of 61 × 61 entries for the sense codons and 3 × 3 entries for the stop codons. Conclusion The amount of genomic data currently available allowed for the construction of an empirical codon substitution matrix. However, more sequence data is still needed to construct matrices from different subsets of DNA, specific to kingdoms, evolutionary distance or different amount of synonymous change. Codon mutation matrices have advantages for alignments up to medium evolutionary distances and for usages that require DNA such as ancestral reconstruction of DNA sequences and the calculation of Ka/Ks ratios.

  8. Aryl substitution of pentacenes

    Andreas R. Waterloo


    Full Text Available A series of 11 new pentacene derivatives has been synthesized, with unsymmetrical substitution based on a trialkylsilylethynyl group at the 6-position and various aryl groups appended to the 13-position. The electronic and physical properties of the new pentacene chromophores have been analyzed by UV–vis spectroscopy (solution and thin films, thermoanalytical methods (DSC and TGA, cyclic voltammetry, as well as X-ray crystallography (for 8 derivatives. X-ray crystallography has been specifically used to study the influence of unsymmetrical substitution on the solid-state packing of the pentacene derivatives. The obtained results add to our ability to better predict substitution patterns that might be helpful for designing new semiconductors for use in solid-state devices.

  9. Bone substitute biomaterials

    Mallick, K


    Bone substitute biomaterials are fundamental to the biomedical sector, and have recently benefitted from extensive research and technological advances aimed at minimizing failure rates and reducing the need for further surgery. This book reviews these developments, with a particular focus on the desirable properties for bone substitute materials and their potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration. Part I covers the principles of bone substitute biomaterials for medical applications. One chapter reviews the quantification of bone mechanics at the whole-bone, micro-scale, and non-scale levels, while others discuss biomineralization, osteoductivization, materials to fill bone defects, and bioresorbable materials. Part II focuses on biomaterials as scaffolds and implants, including multi-functional scaffolds, bioceramics, and titanium-based foams. Finally, Part III reviews further materials with the potential to encourage bone repair and regeneration, including cartilage grafts, chitosan, inorganic poly...

  10. Currency Substitution in Turkey

    Ismail H. Genc


    Full Text Available We investigated whether the recent depreciations in the Turkish currency (Lira resulted in the currency substitution away from Lira by using quarterly data over the period from 1987:1 to 2000: 2 with M1 and M2 monetary aggregates and income, interest rate and exchange rate. Other than the variety of monetary aggregates, we tried different ways of including the interest rate into the models to ensure the robustness of our results. Our analysis shows that the currency substitution in fact happened with Lira.

  11. Saving Outweighs Substituting



    @@ Energy crisis has become great challenge to the whole world.As the vehicle population keeps soaring in China,effectie countermeasures should be taken timely to deal with global energy crisis.There are two ways out:one is to substitute and one is to save.

  12. Simulating currency substitution bias

    M. Boon (Martin); C.J.M. Kool (Clemens); C.G. de Vries (Casper)


    textabstractThe sign and size of estimates of the elasticity of currency substitution critically depend on the definition of the oppurtunity costs of holding money. We investigate possible biases by means of Monte Carlo experiments, as sufficient real data are not available.

  13. Smart Substitutions for Healthy Cooking

    ... Recognition & Awards Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Smart Substitutions Updated:Dec 16,2016 Healthy eating doesn’ ... mean giving up all the foods you love! Smart substitutions can help you maintain an overall healthy ...

  14. 40 CFR 721.10034 - Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridine coupled with... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10034 Substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted... as substituted pyridine coupled with diazotized substituted nitrobenzonitrile, diazotized...

  15. Thermogram No Substitute for Mammogram

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Thermogram No Substitute for Mammogram Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  16. Substitute Valuations: Generation and Structure

    Hajek, Bruce


    Substitute valuations (in some contexts called gross substitute valuations) are prominent in combinatorial auction theory. An algorithm is given in this paper for generating a substitute valuation through Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, the geometry of the set of all substitute valuations for a fixed number of goods K is investigated. The set consists of a union of polyhedrons, and the maximal polyhedrons are identified for K=4. It is shown that the maximum dimension of the maximal polyhedrons increases with K nearly as fast as two to the power K.

  17. Structure and Substitutions in Fluorapatite

    Leroy N.


    Full Text Available Fluorapatite, Ca10(PO46F2. is a widely spread form of calcium phosphate present particularly in biological material. Human hard tissues contain crystals structurally related to apatite. Fluoride can be found in various natural sources and is also used for its beneficial action in caries prevention. Fluorapatite belongs to the spatial group P63/m (C6h2 and consists of 3 ions: F-, Ca2+, PO43-. In the present paper, we have carried out a crystallographic study of the fluorapatite structure and of the changes induced by the substitutions. The fluorapatite structure and the presence of a large number of ionic bonds make fluorapatite a very suitable host for many substitutents, some of them harmless for the human organism, some not. According to the substitution site, we can describe four types of substitution. The F- substitution, also called Type A substitution, is the main one, and the best known. Only the Ca2+ substitution implies changes in the crystal structure. However, some questions remain, in particular for the PO43- substitution, which is the main substitution present in the biological calcium phosphates.

  18. Currency substitution in Eastern Europe

    van Aarle, B.; Budina, N.


    Monetary instability during the transition process from a command economy to a market economy has induced a considerable increase in currency substitution in Eastern Europe. Currency substitution itself affects monetary stability since it reduces the stability of velocity. This paper investigates cu

  19. Displacement, Substitution, Sublimation: A Bibliography.

    Pedrini, D. T.; Pedrini, Bonnie C.

    Sigmund Freund worked with the mechanisms of displacement, substitution, and sublimation. These mechanisms have many similarities and have been studied diagnostically and therapeutically. Displacement and substitution seem to fit in well with phobias, hysterias, somatiyations, prejudices, and scapegoating. Phobias, prejudices, and scapegoating…

  20. Substitute Teachers: The Professional Contradiction.

    Shreeve, William C.; And Others

    The substitute teacher's public image was investigated by means of an informal survey of part-time and full-time teachers in Washington. Survey results revealed that working conditions appeared to be the largest factor in damaging the self-image of most substitute teachers. The majority of full-time teachers and administrators surveyed were…

  1. Trifluoromethyl-substituted tetrathiafulvalenes

    Olivier Jeannin


    Full Text Available A series of tetrathiafulvalenes functionalized with one or two trifluoromethyl electron-withdrawing groups (EWG is obtained by phosphite coupling involving CF3-substituted 1,3-dithiole-2-one derivatives. The relative effects of the EWG such as CF3, CO2Me and CN on the TTF core were investigated from a combination of structural, electrochemical, spectrochemical and theoretical investigations. Electrochemical data confirm the good correlations between the first oxidation potential of the TTF derivatives and the σmeta Hammet parameter, thus in the order CO2Me 3 3, where, as in TTF itself, the low energy absorption band is essentially attributable to a HOMO→LUMO + 1 transition. Despite relatively high oxidation potentials, these donor molecules with CF3 EWG can be involved in charge transfer complexes or cation radical salts, as reported here for the CF3-subsituted EDT-TTF donor molecule. A neutral charge transfer complex with TCNQ, (EDT-TTF-CF32(TCNQ was isolated and characterized through alternated stacks of EDT-TTF-CF3 dimers and TCNQ in the solid state. A radical cation salt of EDT-TTF-CF3 is also obtained upon electrocrystallisation in the presence of the FeCl4− anion. In this salt, formulated as (EDT-TTF-CF3(FeCl4, the (EDT-TTF-CF3+• radical cations are associated two-by-two into centrosymmetric dyads with a strong pairing of the radical species in a singlet state.

  2. Vitreous substitutes: challenges and directions

    Qian-Ying; Gao; Yue; Fu; Yan-Nian; Hui


    The natural vitreous body has a fine structure and complex functions. The imitation of the natural vitreous body by vitreous substitutes is a challenging work for both researchers and ophthalmologists. Gases, silicone oil, heavy silicone oil and hydrogels, particularly the former two vitreous substitutes are clinically widely used with certain complications. Those, however, are not real artificial vitreous due to lack of structure and function like the natural vitreous body. This article reviews the situations, challenges, and future directions in the development of vitreous substitutes, particularly the experimental and clinical use of a new artificial foldable capsular vitreous body.

  3. Factor substitution in nursing homes.

    Cawley, John; Grabowski, David C; Hirth, Richard A


    This paper studies factor substitution in one important sector: the nursing home industry. Specifically, we measure the extent to which nursing homes substitute materials for labor when labor becomes relatively more expensive. From a policy perspective, factor substitution in this market is important because materials-intensive methods of care are associated with greater risks of morbidity and mortality among nursing home residents. Studying longitudinal data from 1991 to 2000 on nearly every nursing home in the United States, we use the method of instrumental variables (IV) to address measurement error in nursing home wages. The results from the IV models yield evidence of factor substitution: higher nursing home wages are associated with greater use of psychoactive drugs and lower quality.

  4. Nucleophilic Substitution by Benzodithioate Anions.

    Bonnans-Plaisance, Chantal; Gressier, Jean-Claude


    Describes a two-session experiment designed to provide a good illustration of, and to improve student knowledge of, the Grignard reaction and nucleophilic substitution. Discusses the procedure, experimental considerations, and conclusion of this experiment. (CW)

  5. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López


    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals.

  6. On Regular Power-Substitution

    Huanyin CHEN


    The necessary and sufficient conditions under which a ring satisfies regular power-substitution are investigated. It is shown that a ring R satisfies regular power-substitution if and only if a(-~)b in R implies that there exist n ∈ N and a U ∈ GLn(R) such that aU =Ub if and only if for any regular x ∈ R there exist m,n ∈ N and U ∈ GLn(R) such that xmIn = xmUxm, where a(-~)b means that there exists x, y, z ∈ R such that a = ybx, b = xaz and x = xyx = xzx. It is proved that every directly finite simple ring satisfies regular power-substitution. Some applications for stably free R-modules are also obtained.

  7. 40 CFR 721.10040 - Substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acridine naphtha... Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10040 Substituted acridine naphtha substituted... substance identified generically as a substituted acridine naphtha substituted benzamide (PMN P-02-522) is...

  8. 40 CFR 721.2577 - Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine...


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Copper complex of (substituted... Copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted phenyl) disulfonaphthyl azo, amine salt... substances identified generically as copper complex of (substituted sulfonaphthyl azo substituted...

  9. Substituted decision making: elder guardianship.

    Leatherman, Martha E; Goethe, Katherine E


    The goal of this column is to help experienced clinicians navigate the judicial system when they are confronted with requests for capacity evaluations that involve guardianship (conservatorship). The interface between the growing elderly medical population and increasing requests for substituted decision making is becoming more complex. This column will help practicing psychiatrists understand the medical, legal, and societal factors involved in adult guardianship. Such understanding is necessary in order to effectively perform guardianship evaluations and adequately inform courts, patients, and families about the psychiatric diagnoses central to substituted decision making.

  10. Hypoxic radiosensitizers: substituted styryl derivatives.

    Nudelman, A; Falb, E; Odesa, Y; Shmueli-Broide, N


    A number of novel styryl epoxides, N-substituted-styryl-ethanolamines, N-mono and N,N'-bis-(2-hydroxyethyl)-cinnamamides--analogues to the known radiosensitizers RSU-1069, pimonidazole and etanidazole--display selective hypoxic radiosensitizing activity. The styryl group, especially when substituted by electron withdrawing groups, was found to be bioisosteric to the nitroimidazolyl functionality. The most active derivative 2-(2'-nitrophenyl)ethen-1-yl-oxirane 8a displayed a sensitizer enhancement ratio (SER) of 5 relative to misonidazole.

  11. Tax Rates as Strategic Substitutes

    R.A. de Mooij (Ruud); H. Vrijburg (Hendrik)


    textabstractThis paper analytically derives the conditions under which the slope of the tax reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, we show that a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions

  12. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)


    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  13. Tax rates as strategic substitutes

    H. Vrijburg (Hendrik); R.A. de Mooij (Ruud)


    textabstractThis paper analytically derives conditions under which the slope of the tax-reaction function is negative in a classical tax competition model. If countries maximize welfare, a negative slope (reflecting strategic substitutability) occurs under relatively mild conditions. The strategic t

  14. No Substitute Teacher Left behind

    O'Connor, Kevin


    Schools and districts routinely recruit, retain, and support highly qualified teachers to ensure that students receive the best learning opportunities. However, even if one's school employs highly qualified full-time teachers, it is important to acknowledge that substitute teachers also have a significant impact on the education of students. One…

  15. Approaches in Substitution of Organic Solvents

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    In substitution of harmful chemicals or products with less harmful or harmless ones, there are different approaches according to the different situations, the technical requirements to the substitutes, and the goals for the substitution. Three different cases are presented. The substitution process...... may be characterized by two phases, the invention phase and the implementation phase. Different qualifications are needed in the two phases, but a thorough knowledge of the production process in question is necessary in both....

  16. Smart Phones and their Substitutes

    Bødker, Mads; Gimpel, Gregory; Hedman, Jonas


    Drawing on data from a longitudinal field study, this paper investigates the influence of existing, better and stand-alone technology substitutes on the use of smart phones. By applying prospect theory, media richness theory, and business model literature, the purpose of this paper is to improve...... our understanding of the role of substitutes, device content fit issues, and implications for business models by asking the question: What is an effective business model to address the relationship between user preference and the fit of the smart phone and everyday task? The field study data suggest...... the need for business models to recognize that adoption decisions are reference-dependent and strongly influenced by the fit between task and smart phone....

  17. 40 CFR 721.323 - Substituted acrylamide.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted acrylamide. 721.323... Substances § 721.323 Substituted acrylamide. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted acrylamide (PMN P-90-1687) is...

  18. 24 CFR 220.253 - Substitute mortgagors.


    ... Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes § 220.253 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 220.253... the Commissioner's approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b)...

  19. 24 CFR 221.252 - Substitute mortgagors.


    ... Cost Homes § 221.252 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor. The mortgagee may effect the release... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors. 221.252... approval of a substitute mortgagor, as provided by this section. (b) Purchasing mortgagor. The...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  1. Substituted Indoleacetic Acids Tested in Tissue Cultures

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen


    Monochloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot induction in tobacco tissue cultures about as much as IAA. Dichloro substituted IAA inhibited shoot formation less. Other substituted IAA except 5-fluoro- and 5-bromoindole-3-acetic acid were less active than IAA. Callus growth was quite variable...

  2. 40 CFR 721.9820 - Substituted triazole.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted triazole. 721.9820 Section... Substances § 721.9820 Substituted triazole. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as a substituted triazole (PMN P-90-1731)...

  3. Substitution reactions at boron atoms in metallacarboranes

    Bregadze, Vladimir I; Timofeev, Sergei V; Sivaev, Igor B; Lobanova, Irina A [A.N. Nesmeyanov Institute of Organoelement Compounds, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Data on substitution reactions at boron atoms in 10-12-vertex metallacarboranes, which are of fundamental and applied significance, are generalised. The possible mechanisms of substitution reactions and the influence of the metal fragment on substitution positions in the polyhedron are discussed.

  4. 40 CFR 721.8775 - Substituted pyridines.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted pyridines. 721.8775... Substances § 721.8775 Substituted pyridines. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted pyridine (PMN P-84-1219)...

  5. Iridium-Catalyzed Allylic Substitution

    Hartwig, John F.; Pouy, Mark J.

    Iridium-catalyzed asymmetric allylic substitution has become a valuable method to prepare products from the addition of nucleophiles at the more substituted carbon of an allyl unit. The most active and selective catalysts contain a phosphoramidite ligand possessing at least one arylethyl substituent on the nitrogen atom of the ligand. In these systems, the active catalyst is generated by a base-induced cyclometalation at the methyl group of this substituent to generate an iridium metalacycle bound by the COD ligand of the [Ir(COD)Cl]2 precursor and one additional labile dative ligand. Such complexes catalyze the reactions of linear allylic esters with alkylamines, arylamines, phenols, alcohols, imides, carbamates, ammonia, enolates and enolate equivalents, as well as typical stabilized carbon nucleophiles generated from malonates and cyanoesters. Iridium catalysts for enantioselective allylic substitution have also been generated from phosphorus ligands with substituents bound by heteroatoms, and an account of the studies of such systems, along with a description of the development of iridium catalysts is included.

  6. 40 CFR 721.1555 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt.


    ... benzenediazonium salt. 721.1555 Section 721.1555 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.1555 Substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt. (a... generically as a substituted phenyl azo substituted benzenediazonium salt (PMN P-92-652) is subject to...

  7. Biologic and synthetic skin substitutes: An overview

    Halim Ahmad


    Full Text Available The current trend of burn wound care has shifted to more holistic approach of improvement in the long-term form and function of the healed burn wounds and quality of life. This has demanded the emergence of various skin substitutes in the management of acute burn injury as well as post burn reconstructions. Skin substitutes have important roles in the treatment of deep dermal and full thickness wounds of various aetiologies. At present, there is no ideal substitute in the market. Skin substitutes can be divided into two main classes, namely, biological and synthetic substitutes. The biological skin substitutes have a more intact extracellular matrix structure, while the synthetic skin substitutes can be synthesised on demand and can be modulated for specific purposes. Each class has its advantages and disadvantages. The biological skin substitutes may allow the construction of a more natural new dermis and allow excellent re-epithelialisation characteristics due to the presence of a basement membrane. Synthetic skin substitutes demonstrate the advantages of increase control over scaffold composition. The ultimate goal is to achieve an ideal skin substitute that provides an effective and scar-free wound healing.

  8. Cement from magnesium substituted hydroxyapatite.

    Lilley, K J; Gbureck, U; Knowles, J C; Farrar, D F; Barralet, J E


    Brushite cement may be used as a bone graft material and is more soluble than apatite in physiological conditions. Consequently it is considerably more resorbable in vivo than apatite forming cements. Brushite cement formation has previously been reported by our group following the mixture of nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and phosphoric acid. In this study, brushite cement was formed from the reaction of nanocrystalline magnesium-substituted hydroxyapatite with phosphoric acid in an attempt to produce a magnesium substituted brushite cement. The presence of magnesium was shown to have a strong effect on cement composition and strength. Additionally the presence of magnesium in brushite cement was found to reduce the extent of brushite hydrolysis resulting in the formation of HA. By incorporating magnesium ions in the apatite reactant structure the concentration of magnesium ions in the liquid phase of the cement was controlled by the dissolution rate of the apatite. This approach may be used to supply other ions to cement systems during setting as a means to manipulate the clinical performance and characteristics of brushite cements.

  9. Formation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes.

    Dauth, Alexander; Rigling, Carla; Tsoung, Jennifer; Love, Jennifer A


    The preparation of substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes is reported. After exchange of ethylene with a variety of unsymmetrically and symmetrically substituted alkenes, the corresponding rhodium-olefin complexes were oxidized with H2O2 and PhINTs (Ts=p-toluenesulfonyl) to yield the substituted oxa- and azarhodacyclobutanes, respectively. Oxarhodacyclobutanes could be prepared with excellent selectivity for incorporation of the oxygen atom on the more substituted carbon atom of the alkene. At the same time, azarhodacyclobutanes showed good-to-excellent selectivity for heteroatom incorporation on the less substituted carbon. Furthermore, it was shown that steric modifications of the ancillary ligand have a significant influence on the selectivity of Rh-olefin complex formation as well as formation of the substituted azametallacycles.

  10. Trends in Substitution Models of Molecular Evolution

    Miguel eArenas


    Full Text Available Substitution models of evolution describe the process of genetic variation through fixed mutations and constitute the basis of the evolutionary analysis at the molecular level. Almost forty years after the development of first substitution models, highly sophisticated and data-specific substitution models continue emerging with the aim of better mimicking real evolutionary processes. Here I describe current trends in substitution models of DNA, codon and amino acid sequence evolution, including advantages and pitfalls of the most popular models. The perspective concludes that despite the large number of currently available substitution models, further research is required for more realistic modeling, especially for DNA coding and amino acid data. Additionally, the development of more accurate complex models should be coupled with new implementations and improvements of methods and frameworks for substitution model selection and downstream evolutionary analysis.

  11. Currency substitution, portfolio diversification, and money demand

    Freitas, Miguel Lebre de; Veiga, Francisco José


    We extend the Thomas (1985) dynamic optimising model of money demand and currency substitution to the case in which the individual has restricted or no access to foreign currency denominated bonds. In this case Currency Substitution decisions and Asset Substitution decisions are not separable. The results obtained suggest that the significance of an expected exchange rate depreciation term in the demand for domestic money provides a valid test for the presence of currency subst...

  12. Dehalogenation of aromatics by nucleophilic aromatic substitution.

    Sadowsky, Daniel; McNeill, Kristopher; Cramer, Christopher J


    Nucleophilic aromatic substitution has been implicated as a mechanism for both the biotic and abiotic hydrodehalogenation of aromatics. Two mechanisms for the aqueous dehalogenation of aromatics involving nucleophilic aromatic substitution with hydride as a nucleophile are investigated using a validated density functional and continuum solvation protocol. For chlorinated and brominated aromatics, nucleophilic addition ortho to carbon-halogen bonds via an anionic intermediate is predicted to be the preferred mechanism in the majority of cases, while concerted substitution is predicted to be preferred for most fluorinated aromatics. Nucleophilic aromatic substitution reactions with the hydroxide and hydrosulfide anions as nucleophiles are also investigated and compared.

  13. Controversial issues of maternity substitution

    Andy Pușcă


    Full Text Available Substitute maternity consists in a woman carrying a pregnancy (the implant of an embryo, at therequest of a sterile couple, most of the times in exchange of a sum of money, with her commitment tounconditionally give away the newborn after birth to the couple she concluded the agreement with. Manycontroversies emerged in what concerns the contract between the sterile couple and the carrying mother,especially when this contract is by onerous title, which happens in most of the cases. In that a civil contract? Is ita sales contract for the child? Is it a contract to provide services? Is it body marketing? Between total prohibitionand excessive liberalism, the middle way, which is the regulation according to ethical religious, cultural andsocial norms of each community, represents a realistic solution.

  14. Monodromy Substitutions and Rational Blowdowns

    Endo, Hisaaki; van Horn-Morris, Jeremy


    We introduce several new families of relations in the mapping class groups of planar surfaces, each equating two products of right-handed Dehn twists. The interest of these relations lies in their geometric interpretation in terms of rational blowdowns of 4-manifolds, specifically via monodromy substitution in Lefschetz fibrations. The simplest example is the lantern relation, already shown by the first author and Gurtas to correspond to rational blowdown along a -4 sphere; here we give relations that extend that result to realize the "generalized" rational blowdowns of Fintushel-Stern and Park by monodromy subsitution, as well as several of the families of rational blowdowns discovered by Stipsicz-Szab\\'o-Wahl.

  15. Substitution dynamical systems spectral analysis

    Queffélec, Martine


    This volume mainly deals with the dynamics of finitely valued sequences, and more specifically, of sequences generated by substitutions and automata. Those sequences demonstrate fairly simple combinatorical and arithmetical properties and naturally appear in various domains. As the title suggests, the aim of the initial version of this book was the spectral study of the associated dynamical systems: the first chapters consisted in a detailed introduction to the mathematical notions involved, and the description of the spectral invariants followed in the closing chapters. This approach, combined with new material added to the new edition, results in a nearly self-contained book on the subject. New tools - which have also proven helpful in other contexts - had to be developed for this study. Moreover, its findings can be concretely applied, the method providing an algorithm to exhibit the spectral measures and the spectral multiplicity, as is demonstrated in several examples. Beyond this advanced analysis, many...

  16. Photoelectron Spectroscopy of Substituted Phenylnitrenes

    Wijeratne, Neloni R.; Fonte, Maria Da; Wenthold, Paul G.


    Nitrenes are unusual molecular structures with unfilled electronic valences that are isoelectronic with carbenes. Although, both can be generated by either thermal or photochemical decomposition of appropriate precursors they usually exhibit different reactivities. In this work, we carry out spectroscopic studies of substituted phenylnitrene to determine how the introduction of substituents will affect the reactivity and its thermochemical properties. All studies were carried out by using the newly constructed time-of-flight negative ion photoelectron spectrometer (NIPES) at Purdue University. The 355 nm photoelectron spectra of the o-, m-, and p-chlorophenyl nitrene anions are fairly similar to that measured for phenylnitrene anion. All spectra show low energy triplet state and a high energy singlet state. The singlet state for the meta isomer is well-resolved, with a well defined origin and observable vibrational structure. Whereas the singlet states for the ortho and para isomers have lower energy onsets and no resolved structure. The isomeric dependence suggests that the geometry differences result from the resonance interaction between the nitrogen and the substituent. Quinoidal resonance structures are possible for the open-shell singlet states of the o- and p-chlorinated phenyl nitrenes. The advantages of this type of electronic structures for the open-shell singlet states is that the unpaired electrons can be more localized on separate atoms in the molecules, minimizing the repulsion between. Because the meta position is not in resonance with the nitrenes, substitution at that position should not affect the structure of the open-shell singlet state. The measured electron affinities (EA) of the triplet phenylnitrenes are in excellent agreement with the values predicted by electronic structure calculations. The largest EA, 1.82 eV is found for the meta isomer, with para being the smallest, 1.70 eV.

  17. 40 CFR 721.5340 - Substituted benzothiazole-azo-substituted benzoquinoline nickel complex (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted benzothiazole-azo... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5340 Substituted benzothiazole-azo... to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as substituted...



    The Portland cement is equivalently substituted by slag micropowders with various specific areas. The workability,activity and acid-corrosion resistance of the slag-substituted cements are investigated,the activation of gypsum is discussed,also the porosity and pore distribution of mortars of the slag micropowders cement are determined by mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  19. Multisensory integration, sensory substitution and visual rehabilitation

    Proulx, Michael J; Ptito, Maurice; Amedi, Amir


    Sensory substitution has advanced remarkably over the past 35 years since first introduced to the scientific literature by Paul Bach-y-Rita. In this issue dedicated to his memory, we describe a collection of reviews that assess the current state of neuroscience research on sensory substitution...

  20. 24 CFR 235.206 - Substitute mortgagors.


    ... MORTGAGE INSURANCE AND ASSISTANCE PAYMENTS FOR HOME OWNERSHIP AND PROJECT REHABILITATION Contract Rights and Obligations-Homes for Lower Income Families § 235.206 Substitute mortgagors. (a) Selling mortgagor... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitute mortgagors....

  1. Type Substitution for Object-Oriented Programming

    Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff; Palsberg, Jens


    Genericity allows the substitution of types in a class. This is usually obtained through parameterized classes, although they are inflexible since any class can be inherited but is not in itself parameterized. We suggest a new genericity mechanism, type substitution, which is a subclassing concep...

  2. Biomechanical properties of four dermal substitutes

    ZHANG Guo-an; NING Fang-gang; ZHAO Nan-ming


    @@ Many kinds of cell-free dermal substitutes have been developed during the past several years, however,their biomechanical properties, including hysteresis,stress relaxation, creep, and non-linear stress-strain, are still unknown. In this study, we tested these biomechanical characteristics of four dermal substitutes,and compared them with those of fresh human skin (FHS).

  3. Aluminum substitution in goethite in lake ore

    Carlson, L.


    Full Text Available The extent of substitution of Fe by Al in goethite in 32 lake ore samples collected from 11 lakes in Finland varied between 0 and 23 mol-%. The data indicated a negative relationship between Al-substitution and the particle size of lake ore. Differences in the Al-substitution were apparent between sampling sites, suggesting that kinetic and environmental variation in lake ore formation influences the substitution. Non-substituted goethite is formed in coarse-grained sediments with locally high concentrations of Fe due to iron-rich springs. Unit cell edge lengths and volumes of goethite varied as function of Al-subsitution but deviated from the Vegard relationship towards higher values.

  4. Substituted hydroxyapatites with antibacterial properties.

    Kolmas, Joanna; Groszyk, Ewa; Kwiatkowska-Różycka, Dagmara


    Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions) and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  5. Substituted Hydroxyapatites with Antibacterial Properties

    Joanna Kolmas


    Full Text Available Reconstructive surgery is presently struggling with the problem of infections located within implantation biomaterials. Of course, the best antibacterial protection is antibiotic therapy. However, oral antibiotic therapy is sometimes ineffective, while administering an antibiotic at the location of infection is often associated with an unfavourable ratio of dosage efficiency and toxic effect. Thus, the present study aims to find a new factor which may improve antibacterial activity while also presenting low toxicity to the human cells. Such factors are usually implemented along with the implant itself and may be an integral part of it. Many recent studies have focused on inorganic factors, such as metal nanoparticles, salts, and metal oxides. The advantages of inorganic factors include the ease with which they can be combined with ceramic and polymeric biomaterials. The following review focuses on hydroxyapatites substituted with ions with antibacterial properties. It considers materials that have already been applied in regenerative medicine (e.g., hydroxyapatites with silver ions and those that are only at the preliminary stage of research and which could potentially be used in implantology or dentistry. We present methods for the synthesis of modified apatites and the antibacterial mechanisms of various ions as well as their antibacterial efficiency.

  6. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act.


    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women.

  7. Substituted androstanes as aromatase inhibitors

    Levina, Inna S [N.D.Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of steroid aromatase which catalyses the last stage of a multistep biotransformation of cholesterol into estrogens, viz., aromatisation of C{sub 19}-steroids into C{sub 18}-phenolic steroids, are discussed. Compounds of the androstane series which are structurally related to the natural substrate, viz., androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, are the subjects of consideration. The review encompasses problems of synthesis of various substituted androstanes and their aromatase-inhibiting activities and structural requirements for selective specific aromatase inhibitors based on in vitro and in vivo structure-activity studies of compounds synthesised, their biological properties and the results of clinical trials. Special attention is paid to practical applications of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of hormone-dependent mammary and ovarian tumours as well as benign prostatic tumours. In writing this report, the author has used all the information currently available in the chemical, biochemical, endocrinological and medicinal literature as well as in patents. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  8. Substituted androstanes as aromatase inhibitors

    Levina, Inna S.


    The synthesis and structure-activity relationships of inhibitors of steroid aromatase which catalyses the last stage of a multistep biotransformation of cholesterol into estrogens, viz., aromatisation of C19-steroids into C18-phenolic steroids, are discussed. Compounds of the androstane series which are structurally related to the natural substrate, viz., androst-4-ene-3,17-dione, are the subjects of consideration. The review encompasses problems of synthesis of various substituted androstanes and their aromatase-inhibiting activities and structural requirements for selective specific aromatase inhibitors based on in vitro and in vivo structure-activity studies of compounds synthesised, their biological properties and the results of clinical trials. Special attention is paid to practical applications of aromatase inhibitors in the treatment of hormone-dependent mammary and ovarian tumours as well as benign prostatic tumours. In writing this report, the author has used all the information currently available in the chemical, biochemical, endocrinological and medicinal literature as well as in patents. The bibliography includes 173 references.

  9. Inventory Decisions in a Product-Updated System with Component Substitution and Product Substitution

    Yancong Zhou


    Full Text Available Substitution behaviors happen frequently when demands are uncertain in a production inventory system, and it has attracted enough attention from firms. Related researches can be clearly classified into firm-driven substitution and customer-driven substitution. However, if production inventory is stock-out when a firm updates its product, the firm may use a new generation product to satisfy the customer’s demand of old generation product or use updated component to substitute old component to satisfy production demand. Obviously, two cases of substitution exist simultaneously in the product-updated system when an emergent shortage happens. In this paper, we consider a component order problem with component substitution and product substitution simultaneously in a product-updated system, where the case of firm-driven substitution or customer-driven substitution can be reached by setting different values for two system parameters. Firstly, we formulate the problem into a two-stage dynamic programming. Secondly, we give the optimal decisions about assembled quantities of different types of products. Next, we prove that the expected profit function is jointly concave in order quantities and decrease the feasible domain by determining some bounds for decision variables. Finally, some management insights about component substitution and product substitution are investigated by theoretical analysis method.

  10. First principles investigation of substituted strontium hexaferrite

    Dixit, Vivek

    This dissertation investigates how the magnetic properties of strontium hexaferrite change upon the substitution of foreign atoms at the Fe sites. Strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12O19, is a commonly used hard magnetic material and is produced in large quantities (around 500,000 tons per year). For different applications of strontium hexaferrite, its magnetic properties can be tuned by a proper substitution of the foreign atoms. Experimental screening for a proper substitution is a cost-intensive and time-consuming process, whereas computationally it can be done more efficiently. We used the 'density functional theory' a first principles based method to study substituted strontium hexaferrite. The site occupancies of the substituted atoms were estimated by calculating the substitution energies of different configurations. The formation probabilities of configurations were used to calculate the magnetic properties of substituted strontium hexaferrite. In the first study, Al-substituted strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-x AlxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. It was found that at the annealing temperature the non-magnetic Al +3 ions preferentially replace Fe+3 ions from the 12 k and 2a sites. We found that the magnetization decreases and the magnetic anisotropy field increases as the fraction, x of the Al atoms increases. In the second study, SrFe12-xGaxO19 and SrFe12-xInxO19 with x=0.5 and x=1.0 were investigated. In the case of SrFe12-xGaxO19, the sites where Ga+3 ions prefer to enter are: 12 k, 2a, and 4f1. For SrFe12-xInxO19, In+3 ions most likely to occupy the 12k, 4f1 , and 4f2 sites. In both cases the magnetization was found to decrease slightly as the fraction of substituted atom increases. The magnetic anisotropy field increased for SrFe12-xGaxO 19, and decreased for SrFe12-xInxO19 as the concentration of substituted atoms increased. In the third study, 23 elements (M) were screened for their possible substitution in strontium hexaferrite, SrFe12-xMxO 19

  11. Modeling competitive substitution in a polyelectrolyte complex

    Peng, B.; Muthukumar, M., E-mail: [Department of Polymer Science and Engineering, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States)


    We have simulated the invasion of a polyelectrolyte complex made of a polycation chain and a polyanion chain, by another longer polyanion chain, using the coarse-grained united atom model for the chains and the Langevin dynamics methodology. Our simulations reveal many intricate details of the substitution reaction in terms of conformational changes of the chains and competition between the invading chain and the chain being displaced for the common complementary chain. We show that the invading chain is required to be sufficiently longer than the chain being displaced for effecting the substitution. Yet, having the invading chain to be longer than a certain threshold value does not reduce the substitution time much further. While most of the simulations were carried out in salt-free conditions, we show that presence of salt facilitates the substitution reaction and reduces the substitution time. Analysis of our data shows that the dominant driving force for the substitution process involving polyelectrolytes lies in the release of counterions during the substitution.

  12. Determinants of generic drug substitution in Switzerland

    Lufkin Thomas M


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since generic drugs have the same therapeutic effect as the original formulation but at generally lower costs, their use should be more heavily promoted. However, a considerable number of barriers to their wider use have been observed in many countries. The present study examines the influence of patients, physicians and certain characteristics of the generics' market on generic substitution in Switzerland. Methods We used reimbursement claims' data submitted to a large health insurer by insured individuals living in one of Switzerland's three linguistic regions during 2003. All dispensed drugs studied here were substitutable. The outcome (use of a generic or not was modelled by logistic regression, adjusted for patients' characteristics (gender, age, treatment complexity, substitution groups and with several variables describing reimbursement incentives (deductible, co-payments and the generics' market (prices, packaging, co-branded original, number of available generics, etc.. Results The overall generics' substitution rate for 173,212 dispensed prescriptions was 31%, though this varied considerably across cantons. Poor health status (older patients, complex treatments was associated with lower generic use. Higher rates were associated with higher out-of-pocket costs, greater price differences between the original and the generic, and with the number of generics on the market, while reformulation and repackaging were associated with lower rates. The substitution rate was 13% lower among hospital physicians. The adoption of the prescribing practices of the canton with the highest substitution rate would increase substitution in other cantons to as much as 26%. Conclusions Patient health status explained a part of the reluctance to substitute an original formulation by a generic. Economic incentives were efficient, but with a moderate global effect. The huge interregional differences indicated that prescribing behaviours and

  13. Substitution between cars within the household

    De Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan


    .98 and 1.41 for the primary and secondary cars, respectively. Accounting for substitution effects, these figures reduce to, respectively, 0.32 and 0.45. Consistent with substitution behaviour, we find that the fuel price elasticity of fuel demand exceeds the elasticity of kilometre demands with respect...... to the fuel price; the difference strongly increases at the highest deciles of the distribution of kilometre demand. Extending the model to account for driver heterogeneity and the role of car characteristics confirmed the relevance of substitution between cars within the household. We found strong evidence......’ fuel efficiency choices are related to their price sensitivity....

  14. Elasticity of Substitution and Antidumping Measures

    Drud Hansen, Jørgen; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller

    Abstract This paper analyzes the role of the elasticity of substitution for anti-dumping decisions across countries. In monopolistic competition models with cost heterogeneous firms across countries, price differences vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution. Anti-dumping duties should...... therefore also vary inversely with the elasticity of substitution at least for countries which have a strong focus on prices in the determination of their anti-dumping measures. We test this for ten countries from 1990 to 2009 using data on anti-dumping from Chad Bown (2010) and US-data at 8-digit level...

  15. Questioning nuclear waste substitution: a case study.

    Marshall, Alan


    This article looks at the ethical quandaries, and their social and political context, which emerge as a result of international nuclear waste substitution. In particular it addresses the dilemmas inherent within the proposed return of nuclear waste owned by Japanese nuclear companies and currently stored in the United Kingdom. The UK company responsible for this waste, British Nuclear Fuels Limited (BNFL), wish to substitute this high volume intermediate-level Japanese-owned radioactive waste for a much lower volume of much more highly radioactive waste. Special focus is given to ethical problems that they, and the UK government, have not wished to address as they move forward with waste substitution. The conclusion is that waste substitution can only be considered an ethical practice if a set of moderating conditions are observed by all parties. These conditions are listed and, as of yet, they are not being observed.

  16. Synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters

    Lysén, Morten; Hansen, Henriette M; Begtrup, Mikael


    The synthesis of substituted 2-cyanoarylboronic esters is described via lithiation/in situ trapping of the corresponding methoxy-, trifluoromethyl-, fluoro-, chloro-, and bromobenzonitriles. The crude arylboronic esters were obtained in high yields and purities and with good regioselectivities....


    Hisao Kumamoto


    Full Text Available This study investigates the impacts of the degree of currency substitution on nominal exchange rate volatility in seven countries (Indonesia, the Philippines, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Argentina, and Peru. We use the Threshold ARCH model to consider the ratchet effect of currency substitution and sample periods in the 2000s, during which time the economies of the sample countries stabilized, while the U.S. dollar and euro depreciated against other major currencies following the recent global financial crisis. The presented empirical analyses show that the degree of currency substitution has significant positive effects on the conditional variance of the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate in most sample countries. Moreover, a shock to the depreciation rate of the nominal exchange rate has asymmetric effects on the conditional variance, depending on the sign. One possible explanation for these differential effects is the existence of the ratchet effect of currency substitution.

  18. Artificial Sweeteners and Other Sugar Substitutes

    ... in many processed foods and other products, including chocolate, candy, frozen desserts, chewing gum, toothpaste, mouthwash, baked ... sugar substitutes, generally don't offer the same health benefits as do whole foods, such as fruits and ...


    Preferred Customer

    Printed in Ethiopia ... light emitting diodes (OLEDs), organic field effect transistors (OFETs), flexible displays, and sensors [1-3]. ... Influence of substitution on electronic properties of perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximides). Bull. Chem. Soc.

  20. Development of a diesel substitute fuel

    Reiter, Anton; Mair-Zelenka, Philipp [Graz Univ. of Technology (Austria). Inst. of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology; Zeymer, Marc [OMV Refining and Marketing GmbH, Vienna (Austria). MRDI-D Product Development and Innovation


    Substitute fuels composed of few real chemical compounds are an alternative characterisation approach for conventional fuels as opposed to the traditional pseudo-component method. With the algorithm proposed in this paper the generation of such substitutes will be facilitated and well-established thermodynamic methods can be applied for physical property-data prediction. Based on some quality criteria like true boiling-point curve, liquid density, C/H ratio, or cloud point of a target fuel a surrogate which meets these properties is determined by fitting its composition. The application and capabilities of the algorithm developed are demonstrated by means of an exemplary diesel substitute fuel. The substitute mixture obtained can be generated and used for evaluation of property-prediction methods. Furthermore this approach can help to understand the effects of mixing fossil fuels with biogenic compounds. (orig.)

  1. Cohesion in Computer Text Generation: Lexical Substitution.


    substitutions. Paul is able to generate a cohesive text which exhibits the binding of sentences through presupposition dependencies, the marking of old...lexical substitutions, Paul is able to generate a cohesive text - • which exhibits the binding of sentences through presupposition dependencies, the...problem in using these cohesive devices is that it is necessary to guarantee that they are understandable. That is, since these items refer anaphorically

  2. Hyperfine magnetic fields in substituted Finemet alloys

    Brzózka, K., E-mail: [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland); Sovák, P. [P.J. Šafárik University, Institute of Physics (Slovakia); Szumiata, T.; Gawroński, M.; Górka, B. [University of Technology and Humanities in Radom, Department of Physics (Poland)


    Transmission Mössbauer spectroscopy was used to determine the hyperfine fields of Finemet-type alloys in form of ribbons, substituted alternatively by Mn, Ni, Co, Al, Zn, V or Ge of various concentration. The comparative analysis of magnetic hyperfine fields was carried out which enabled to understand the role of added elements in as-quenched as well as annealed samples. Moreover, the influence of the substitution on the mean direction of the local hyperfine magnetic field was examined.

  3. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)


    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  4. Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation

    C. Luis Ramírez-Rojas


    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and Government Revenue from Inflation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the case of an open economy the calculations of revenue-maximing rates of inflation have been made using a restrictive model that assumes that domestic residents can only substitute between domestic money and goods (and real assets. The paper demonstrates that once the effects of currency substitution, so common in developing countries, are taken into account, the inflation rate that maximizes the proceeds of the inflation tax can be quite lower than would be the case when currency substitution is ignored.

  5. A Sequential and Comprehensive Method for Effective Substitute Teaching

    Byer, John L.


    This article dealt with methods for making substitute teaching more effective. The purpose was to articulate a sequential method for maximizing the effectiveness of substitute teaching while providing substitutes with a comprehensive method for diligently and flexibly earning respect and using reflection to continually improve substitute teaching.…

  6. Clarifying substituted judgement: the endorsed life approach.

    Phillips, John; Wendler, David


    A primary goal of clinical practice is to respect patient autonomy. To promote this goal for patients who have lost the ability to make their own decisions, commentators recommend that surrogates make their treatment decisions based on the substituted judgment standard. This standard is commonly interpreted as directing surrogates to make the decision the patient would have made in the circumstances, if the patient were competent. However, recent commentators have argued that this approach--attempting to make the decision the patient would have made if competent--is theoretically problematic, practically infeasible, and ignores the interests of the patient's family and loved ones. These commentators conclude that the substituted judgment standard should be revised significantly, or abandoned altogether. While this response would avoid the cited problems, it also would require substantial changes to clinical practice and would raise significant problems of its own. The present paper thus considers the possibility that the criticisms do not point to problems with the substituted judgment standard itself; instead, they point to problems with the way it is most commonly interpreted. This analysis suggests that the substituted judgment standard need not be dramatically revised or abandoned. Instead, it should be interpreted in a way that effectively promotes respect for the autonomy of incompetent patients. The 'endorsed life' interpretation described here helps clinicians and surrogates to achieve this important goal. To clarify this approach, we explain how it differs from three other recently proposed alternatives to the standard interpretation of the substituted judgment standard.

  7. 40 CFR 721.3063 - Substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (generic name).


    ... phenyl esters (generic name). 721.3063 Section 721.3063 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... esters (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as substituted phenyl azo substituted phenyl esters (PMNs P-95...

  8. Characteristics of fluid substitution in porous rocks

    Li Shengjie


    Analysis of the effect of changes in fluid properties of rocks on the compressional-wave velocity VP and shear-wave velocity Vs is very important for understanding the rock physical properties, especially in oilfield exploration and development.The fluid substitution process was analyzed by using ultrasonic measurement and theoretical calculations.The results showed that the effect of fluid substitution on the rock elastic modulus was mainly controlled by fluid properties, saturation, and confining pressure.For a rock with specific properties and porosity, the result of theoretical prediction for fluid substitution accorded with the experimental result under high confining pressure (higher than 60 MPa for our experimental data), but failed to describe the trend of experimental result under low confining pressure and VP predicted by Gassmann's equation was higher than that measured by experiment.A higher porosity resulted in stronger sensitivity of the bulk modulus of saturated rocks to the change of fluid properties.

  9. Freeze substitution in 3 hours or less.

    McDonald, K L; Webb, R I


    Freeze substitution is a process for low temperature dehydration and fixation of rapidly frozen cells that usually takes days to complete. New methods for freeze substitution have been developed that require only basic laboratory tools: a platform shaker, liquid nitrogen, a metal block with holes for cryotubes and an insulated container such as an ice bucket. With this equipment, excellent freeze substitution results can be obtained in as little as 90 min for cells of small volume such as bacteria and tissue culture cells. For cells of greater volume or that have significant diffusion barriers such as cuticles or thick cell walls, one can extend the time to 3 h or more with dry ice. The 3-h method works well for all manner of specimens, including plants and Caenorhabditis elegans as well as smaller samples. Here, we present the basics of the techniques and some results from Nicotiana leaves, C. elegans adult worms, Escherichia coli and baby hamster kidney tissue culture cells.

  10. Breast milk substitutes in Hong Kong.

    Nelson, E A S; Chan, C W; Yu, C M


    In 1981 the World Health Assembly (WHA) adopted the International Code of Marketing of Breast Milk Substitutes (the Code) to support breastfeeding. Despite improving trends, Hong Kong has low rates of breastfeeding compared to other developed countries. We surveyed companies marketing breast milk substitutes in Hong Kong to determine self-reported adherence to the Code. Companies were informed that individual responses would not be published and seven of nine companies responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents promoted infant and follow-on formula in hospitals and provided free supplies of infant formula to hospitals. Follow-on formula and weaning foods were promoted in shops and to the general public and free samples were given to mothers reflecting a belief that, despite WHA resolutions, follow-on formula is not a breast milk substitute. Transnational companies should follow the Code and subsequent WHA resolutions equally in all countries.

  11. Homological Pisot Substitutions and Exact Regularity

    Barge, Marcy; Jones, Leslie; Sadun, Lorenzo


    We consider one-dimensional substitution tiling spaces where the dilatation (stretching factor) is a degree d Pisot number, and where the first rational Cech cohomology is d-dimensional. We construct examples of such "homological Pisot" substitutions that do not have pure discrete spectra. These examples are not unimodular, and we conjecture that the coincidence rank must always divide a power of the norm of the dilatation. To support this conjecture, we show that homological Pisot substitutions exhibit an Exact Regularity Property (ERP), in which the number of occurrences of a patch for a return length is governed strictly by the length. The ERP puts strong constraints on the measure of any cylinder set in the corresponding tiling space.

  12. Substitution between Cars within the Household

    de Borger, Bruno; Mulalic, Ismir; Rouwendal, Jan

    , respectively. When we do take into account the substitution effect, these figures reduce to, respectively, -0.32 and -0.45. We further estimate an alternative version of the model to test the hypothesis that substitution in response to higher fuel prices will be predominantly from the least to the most fuel...... efficient car, finding partial support for the underlying hypothesis. More importantly, the results of this extended model emphasize the importance of behavioural differences related to the position of the most fuel efficient car in the household, suggesting that households’ fuel efficiency choices...

  13. A New Substitution Cipher - Random-X

    Falguni Patel


    Full Text Available Ciphers are the encryption methods to prepare the algorithm for encryption and decryption. The currently known ciphers are not strong enough to protect the data. A new substitution cipher Random-X that we introduce in this paper can be used for password encryption and data encryption. Random-X cipher is a unique substitution cipher which replaces the units of plaintext with triplets of letters. The beauty of this cipher is that the encrypted string of the same plain text is not always same. This makes it strong and difficult to crack. This paper covers the principle the implementation ideas and testing of Random-X cipher.

  14. Substitution-diffusion based Image Cipher

    Narendra K Pareek


    Full Text Available In this paper, a new image encryption scheme using a secret key of 128-bit size is proposed. In thealgorithm, image is partitioned into several key based dynamic blocks and further, each block passesthrough the eight rounds of diffusion as well as substitution process. In diffusion process, sequences ofblock pixels are rearranged within the block by a zigzag approach whereas block pixels are replaced withanother by using difference calculation of row and column in substitution process. Due to high order ofsubstitution and diffusion, common attacks like linear and differential cryptanalysis are infeasible. Theexperimental results show that the proposed technique is efficient and has high security features.

  15. Simulating an Optimizing Model of Currency Substitution Simulating an Optimizing Model of Currency Substitution

    Leonardo Leiderman


    Full Text Available Simulating an Optimizing Model of Currency Substitution This paper reports simulations based on the parameter estimates of an intertemporal model of currency substitution under nonexpected utility obtained by Bufman and Leiderman (1991. Here we first study the quantitative impact of changes in the degree of dollarization and in the elasticity of currency substitution on government seigniorage. Then, when examine whether the model can account for the comovement of consumption growth and assets' returnr after the 1985 stabilization program, and in particular for the consumption boom of 1986-87. The results are generally encouraging for future applications of optimizing models of currencysubstitution to policy and practical issues.

  16. Ultrasound Promoted Synthesis of Bis(substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl-Substituted Thioureas

    Li Xiao


    Full Text Available A series of novel bis(substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl-substituted thioureas have been synthesized by the reactions of substituted pyrazol-4-ylcarbonyl isothiocyanates with different diamines under ultrasound irradiation and classical heating method at 20-25 °C. In general, substantial improvement in rates and modest yields increases were observed when reactions were carried out under sonication, compared with the classical heating method. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated by elemental and spectral (IR, 1H-NMR analysis.

  17. Capillary Electrophoresis of Substituted Benzoic Acids

    Mills, Nancy S.; Spence, John D.; Bushey, Michelle M.


    A series of substituted benzoic acids (SBAs) are prepared by students. The pKa shift, a result of the electron-withdrawing or electron-donating characteristics of the subsistent is examined in reference to the electrophoretic migration behavior of benzoic acid.

  18. Synthesis of Dialkyl-substituted Terminal Olefin


    Dialkyl-substituted terminal olefins were synthesized from the coupling reaction of αt-olefins which were catalyzed by zirconocene dichloride/methylalumoxane (MAO) catalyst system under mild condition. High yield was gained and no other oligmer was detected. It was found that the ratio of Al/Zr is responsible for the selectivity of product.

  19. Asymmetric Hydrogenation of 3-Substituted Pyridinium Salts

    Renom-Carrasco, Marc; Gajewski, Piotr; Pignataro, Luca; de Vries, Johannes G.; Piarulli, Umberto; Gennari, Cesare; Lefort, Laurent


    The use of an equivalent amount of an organic base leads to high enantiomeric excess in the asymmetric hydrogenation of N-benzylated 3-substituted pyridinium salts into the corresponding piperidines. Indeed, in the presence of Et3N, a Rh-JosiPhos catalyst reduced a range of pyridinium salts with ee

  20. Substitute fluid examinations for liquid manure

    Schrader, Kevin; Riedel, Marco; Eichert, Helmut


    For the farming industry it is essential to use liquid manure as natural fertilizer. Through new agricultural regulation 2015 in Germany the industry must develop new liquid manure spreader systems because the ammonia and methane emission are limited. In a research project the University of Applied Sciences Zwickau and some other industry partners will develop such a new innovative liquid manure spreader. The new liquid manure spreader should use pulsating air to distribute the liquid manure exactly. The pulsating air, which flows through the pipelines, should be analysed at a test station. For examinations at this test station it is important to find another substitute fluid because liquid manure smells strong, is not transparent and is also not homogeneous enough for scientific investigations. Furthermore it is important to ensure that the substitute fluid is, like liquid manure, a non-Newtonian fluid. The substitute fluid must be a shear-thinning substance - this means the viscosity decrease at higher shear rate. Many different samples like soap-water-farragoes, jelly-water-farragoes, agar-water-farragoes, soap-ethanol-farragoes and more are, for the project, examined in regard of their physical properties to find the best substitute fluid. The samples are examined at the rotational viscometer for viscosity at various shear rates and then compared with the viscosity values of liquid manure.

  1. Trends in Autism Prevalence: Diagnostic Substitution Revisited

    Coo, Helen; Ouellette-Kuntz, Helene; Lloyd, Jennifer E. V.; Kasmara, Liza; Holden, Jeanette J. A.; Lewis, M. E. Suzanne


    There has been little evidence to support the hypothesis that diagnostic substitution may contribute to increases in the administrative prevalence of autism. We examined trends in assignment of special education codes to British Columbia (BC) school children who had an autism code in at least 1 year between 1996 and 2004, inclusive. The proportion…

  2. Facile Synthesis of N -Substituted Benzimidazoles

    Kurhade, Santosh; Rossetti, Arianna; Dömling, Alexander


    A particularly mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives was developed. 2-Fluoro-5-nitrophenylisocyanide reacts with a diverse set of primary amines to afford the respective products in moderate to very good yield (35-95%; 20 examples).

  3. 19 CFR 191.32 - Substitution drawback.


    ... provisions of the manufacturing drawback law, on the commercially interchangeable substituted merchandise is..., and liabilities of the predecessor; or (ii) The assets and other business interests of a division... drawback rights, whether vested or contingent. (3) Certifications and required evidence—(i) Records...

  4. Multisensory perceptual learning and sensory substitution.

    Proulx, Michael J; Brown, David J; Pasqualotto, Achille; Meijer, Peter


    One of the most exciting recent findings in neuroscience has been the capacity for neural plasticity in adult humans and animals. Studies of perceptual learning have provided key insights into the mechanisms of neural plasticity and the changes in functional neuroanatomy that it affords. Key questions in this field of research concern how practice of a task leads to specific or general improvement. Although much of this work has been carried out with a focus on a single sensory modality, primarily visual, there is increasing interest in multisensory perceptual learning. Here we will examine how advances in perceptual learning research both inform and can be informed by the development and advancement of sensory substitution devices for blind persons. To allow 'sight' to occur in the absence of visual input through the eyes, visual information can be transformed by a sensory substitution device into a representation that can be processed as sound or touch, and thus give one the potential to 'see' through the ears or tongue. Investigations of auditory, visual and multisensory perceptual learning can have key benefits for the advancement of sensory substitution, and the study of sensory deprivation and sensory substitution likewise will further the understanding of perceptual learning in general and the reverse hierarchy theory in particular. It also has significant importance for the developing understanding of the brain in metamodal terms, where functional brain areas might be best defined by the computations they carry out rather than by their sensory-specific processing role.

  5. Synthesis of enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines

    Bornholdt, Jan; Felding, Jakob; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard


    Enantiopure 3-substituted morpholines were assembled through ring-opening of a N-2-benzothiazolesulfonyl (Bts) activated aziridine with organocuprates followed by a ring annulation reaction with a vinylsulfonium salt under microwave conditions. Deprotection of the N-Bts group proceeds under very ...

  6. Formation enthalpies of peroxy-substituted silanes

    Dibrivnyi, V. N.; Pavlovskii, Yu. P.; van-Chin-Syan, Yu. Ya.


    Enthalpies of combustion and formation of four peroxy-substituted silanes containing one or several peroxide groups bonded directly to the silicon atom were determined experimentally. The [O-(Si)(O)] group contribution and the correction for the pair interaction of peroxide groups were determined.

  7. Facile Synthesis of N -Substituted Benzimidazoles

    Kurhade, Santosh; Rossetti, Arianna; Dömling, Alexander


    A particularly mild and efficient one-pot synthesis of N-substituted benzimidazole derivatives was developed. 2-Fluoro-5-nitrophenylisocyanide reacts with a diverse set of primary amines to afford the respective products in moderate to very good yield (35-95%; 20 examples).

  8. Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation

    Federico A. Sturzeneger


    Full Text Available Currency Substitution and the Regressivity of Inflationary Taxation The purpose of this paper is to show that in the presence of financial adaptation or currency substitution. the inflation tax is extremely regressive. This regressivity arises from the existence of a fixed cost of switching to inflation-proof transactions technologies. This fixed cost makes it optimal only for those agents with sufficiently high incomes to switch out of domestic currency. The effects are illustrated and quantified for a particular case.

  9. Substitution treatment for opioid addicts in Germany

    Gerlach Ralf


    Full Text Available Abstract Background After a long and controversial debate methadone maintenance treatment (MMT was first introduced in Germany in 1987. The number of patients in MMT – first low because of strict admission criteria – increased considerably since the 1990s up to some 65,000 at the end of 2006. In Germany each general practitioner (GP, who has completed an additional training in addiction medicine, is allowed to prescribe substitution drugs to opioid dependent patients. Currently 2,700 GPs prescribe substitution drugs. Psychosocial care should be made available to all MMT patients. Results The results of research studies and practical experiences clearly indicate that patients benefit substantially from MMT with improvements in physical and psychological health. MMT proves successful in attaining high retention rates (65 % to 85 % in the first years, up to 50 % after more than seven years and plays a major role in accessing and maintaining ongoing medical treatment for HIV and hepatitis. MMT is also seen as a vital factor in the process of social re-integration and it contributes to the reduction of drug related harms such as mortality and morbidity and to the prevention of infectious diseases. Some 10 % of MMT patients become drug-free in the long run. Methadone is the most commonly prescribed substitution medication in Germany, although buprenorphine is attaining rising importance. Access to MMT in rural areas is very patchy and still constitutes a problem. There are only few employment opportunities for patients participating in MMT, although regular employment is considered unanimously as a positive factor of treatment success. Substitution treatment in German prisons is heterogeneous in access and treatment modalities. Access is very patchy and the number of inmates in treatment is limited. Nevertheless, substitution treatment plays a substantial part in the health care system provided to drug users in Germany. Conclusion In Germany, a


    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  11. Convergent synthesis of 6-substituted phenanthridines via anionic ring closure

    Lysén, M.; Kristensen, Jesper Langgaard; Vedsø, P.


    Chemical equation presented The addition of organometallic derivatives to the cyano group of 2-(2-fluorophenyl)benzonitrile followed by intramolecular nucleophilic substitution produces 6-substituted phenanthridines. Alkyllithiums, aryllithiums, and sterically nondemanding lithium amides reacted...

  12. Signalization and stimulus-substitution in Pavlov's theory of conditioning.

    García-Hoz, Víctor


    The concept of conditioning as signalization proposed by Ivan P. Pavlov (1927, 1928) is studied in relation to the theory of stimulus-substitution, which is also attributed to him. In the so-called theory of stimulus-substitution a distinction must be made between an empirical principle of substitution and an actual theory of substitution, which can adopt different forms. The Pavlovian theory of substitution--which conceives substitution as a substitution of the unconditioned stimulus (US) by the conditioned stimulus (CS) in the activation of the representation of the former--can be understood as an explanation or model of signalization. Signalization and substitution are answers to different questions, and the level of analysis to which signalization corresponds, is that which concerns the nature of conditioning as an operation of the animal in the environment.

  13. The substitution bias of the consumer price index

    Frenger, Petter


    Abstract: The paper uses elementary consumer theory to propose an inflation independent ratio definition of the substitution bias of the Laspeyres consumer price index, and derives an approximate substitution bias which depends on the size of the price change as measured by a norm in the Laspeyres plane and on the elasticity of substitution in the direction of the price change. This norm or distance measure can be interpreted as a price substitution index which yields useful in...

  14. Design of a thermophotovoltaic battery substitute

    Doyle, Edward F.; Becker, Frederick E.; Shukla, Kailash C.; Fraas, Lewis M.


    Many military platforms that currently use the BA-5590 primary battery or the BB-390A/U rechargeable battery are limited in performance by low storage capacity and long recharge times. Thermo Power Corporation, with team members JX Crystals and Essential Research Inc. is developing an advanced thermophotovoltaic (TPV) battery substitute that will provide higher storage capacity, lower weight, and instantaneous recharging (by refueling). The TPV battery substitute incorporates several advanced design features including: an evacuated and sealed enclosure for the emitter and PV cells to minimize unwanted convection heat transfer from the emitter to PV cells; selective tungsten emitter with a well matched gallium antimonide PV cell receiver; optical filter to recycle nonconvertible radiant energy; and a silicon carbide thermal recuperator to recover thermal energy from exhaust gases.

  15. Generic substitution: issues for problematic drugs.

    Henderson, J D; Esham, R H


    The methodology and criteria for bioequivalence testing have been firmly established by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). For certain drugs with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., digoxin, levothyroxine, warfarin), generic substitution may not be advisable or even allowable, depending on the substitution laws of individual states. Digoxin and levothyroxine tablets are examples of drugs for which no New Drug Applications (NDAs) currently exist. However, commercially available generic products for both of these drugs have not been determined by the FDA to be therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products. Generic versions of warfarin have been approved by the FDA as being therapeutically equivalent to the innovator products, as have generic versions of the rescue inhaler albuterol. Yet, misinformation and myths persist regarding the adequacy and proven reliability of the FDA's determination of bioequivalence for these products.

  16. Text and Voice: Complements, Substitutes or Both?

    Andersson, Kjetil; Foros, Øystein; Steen, Frode


    Text messaging has become an important revenue component for European and Asian mobile operators. We develop a simple model of demand for mobile services incorporating the existence of call externalities and network effects. We show that when incoming messages and calls stimulate outgoing communications, services that are perceived as substitutes, such as mobile text and voice, may evolve into complements in terms of the price effect when the network size becomes large. We esti...

  17. Synthesis of 2-azetidinones substituted coumarin derivative

    Jha Mukesh S.


    Full Text Available α-Naphthol is converted into 4-methylbenzo[h]chromen-2-one by reacting with ethyl acetoacetate in the presence of bismuth trichloride which is then oxidized to 2-oxo-2H-benzo[h]chromene-4-carbaldehyde and then condensed with aromatic primary amines to give Schiff bases (3a-3d. These Schiff bases are then reacted with acid chlorides in the presence of base in toluene to give 1, 3, 4-substituted 2-azetidinones.

  18. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Tandel, Kirtida R.


    Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener) is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, ...

  19. Money and Credit Under Currency Substitution

    Rodriguez, Carlos A.


    This paper examines the effects on the supply of money and credit of a repatriation of foreign assets in an economy subject to currency substitution. In the absence of 100 percent reserve requirements, such a change in the location of deposits, which is not compensated by an increase in money demand, induces a credit boom that works itself out through a transitory current account deficit and real currency appreciation. These results are illustrated with data from the recent experience in Arge...

  20. Photophysics of aminophenyl substituted pyrrolopyrrole cyanines

    Wiktorowski, Simon; Fischer, Georg; Winterhalder, Martin; Daltrozzo, Ewald; Zumbusch, Andreas


    A series of novel pyrrolopyrrole cyanines (PPCys) bearing various aminophenyl substituents at the diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP) core are presented. Compared to their alkoxyphenyl substituted analogues, these dyes feature additional intense electronic transitions of charge-transfer character which give detailed insight into the optical properties of PPCys. The energetic mixing of the involved orbitals has pronounced effects on the absorption and fluorescence behavior. Protonation of the amino fun...

  1. Biological activities of substituted trichostatic acid derivatives

    Cédric Charrier; Joëlle Roche; Jean-Pierre Gesson; Philippe Bertrand


    New substituted trichostatic acid derivatives have been synthesized and evaluated for their biological activities towards the H661 non-small lung cancer cell line. These syntheses were achieved by alkylation of propiophenones to introduce the side chain with a terminal precursor of hydroxamic acid and aminobenzamide derivatives. The first fluorinated derivatives of trichostatic acid are described, such as 6-fluoro trichostatin A, with antiproliferative activities in the micromolar range and with histone deacetylase inhibitory activity.

  2. 40 CFR 203.5 - Suitable substitute decision.


    ... PROGRAMS LOW-NOISE-EMISSION PRODUCTS § 203.5 Suitable substitute decision. (a) If the Administrator... decide whether such product is a suitable substitute for any class or model or product being purchased by... substitute for any product or class of products being purchased by the Federal Government for its use, the...

  3. 40 CFR 721.3080 - Substituted phosphate ester (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phosphate ester (generic... Substances § 721.3080 Substituted phosphate ester (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted phosphate...

  4. 19 CFR 122.86 - Substitution of aircraft.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of aircraft. 122.86 Section 122.86... Substitution of aircraft. (a) Application. The residue cargo procedure applies when an airline must substitute aircraft to reach a destination due to weather conditions or operational factors which prevent an aircraft...

  5. 40 CFR 721.4365 - Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4365 Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (generic). (a) Chemical... as Substituted ethoxylated hydrocarbon (PMN P-99-0313) is subject to reporting under this section...

  6. 40 CFR 721.3435 - Butoxy-substituted ether alkane.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. 721... Substances § 721.3435 Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as butoxy-substituted ether...

  7. 40 CFR 721.10087 - Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10087 Substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted alkyl phosphine oxide (PMN P-06-332) is subject to reporting under this section...

  8. 40 CFR 721.843 - Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.843 Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted phenylazophenylazo, phenol (PMN P-00-0420) is subject to reporting under this...

  9. 40 CFR 721.5350 - Substituted nitrile (generic name).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted nitrile (generic name... Substances § 721.5350 Substituted nitrile (generic name). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted nitrile (PMN P-83...

  10. Substitute Addiction: A Concern for Researchers and Practitioners

    Sussman, Steve; Black, David S.


    An understanding of the role of substitute addictions remains unclear. This article examines the range and possible reward functions of substitute addictions. We suggest that prevention education and treatment need to take into account substitute addictions as an influential aspect of recovery. Research is needed to better understand the…

  11. 40 CFR 721.9573 - Substituted perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide (generic).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9573 Substituted perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide (generic). (a) Chemical... as a substituted perfluoroalkyl sulfonamide (PMN P-98-645) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.562 - Substituted alkylamine salt.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted alkylamine salt. 721.562... Substances § 721.562 Substituted alkylamine salt. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted alkylamine salt (PMN P-85-941...

  13. 40 CFR 721.2025 - Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenylimino carbamate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.2025 Substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative. (a) Chemical... as a substituted phenylimino carbamate derivative (PMN P-91-487) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. Bone graft substitutes: past, present, future.

    Parikh S


    Full Text Available Bone grafts are necessary to provide support, fill voids, and enhance biologic repair of skeletal defects. They are used by orthopaedic surgeons, neurosurgeons, craniofacial surgeons, and periodontists. Bone harvested from donor sites is the gold standard for this procedure. It is well documented that there are limitations and complications from the use of autograft, including the limited quantity and associated chronic donor site pain. Despite the increase in the number of procedures that require bone grafts, there has not been a single ideal bone graft substitute Scientists, surgeons, and medical companies, thus, have a tremendous responsibility to develop biologic alternatives that will enhance the functional capabilities of the bone graft substitute, and potentially reduce or eliminate the need for autograft. This article is an attempt to review the past and existing bone graft substitutes, and future directions of research. The historical data was extracted after thorough review of the literature. The data for the current concepts and future directions was compiled from the Internet, and from direct correspondence with medical companies. Since many products are undergoing clinical trials, and are yet not commercially available, their data cannot be found in literature. The main purpose of this article is to give the reader an idea about the existing market products and products likely to be available in near future.

  15. Composite bone substitutes prepared by two methods

    Lee, Hoe Y.

    A variety of ceramics and polymers exists that can be used as bone substitute materials with desirable properties such as biocompatibility and osteoconductivity. A key feature missing in these bone substitutes, or scaffolds, is the ability to bear loads. This work explored two methods for solving this problem. The first used cancellous bone taken from bovine femoral bone to create a natural scaffold through a heat treating process that eliminated the organic components and sintered the bone minerals, known as hydroxyapatite, together. The strength and Young's modulus of the natural scaffold were greatly improved after polymer infiltration with polymethylmethacrylate. Unfortunately, compression testing revealed that there was not a good interfacial bond between the mineral and polymer phases. The second method employed a freeze-casting technique to create synthetic hydroxyapatite scaffolds that have an aligned lamellar microstructure. By varying the amount of hydroxyapatite in the initial slurry mixture and the cooling rate, synthetic scaffolds with a range of porosities and strengths was produced. The highest solid loading and fastest cooling rate produced a scaffold with a strength and modulus approaching that of cortical bone. Further study is required to produce a two phase composite that is chemically bonded together for optimal performance. The synthetic scaffolds, with their tunable mechanical properties and ease of fabrication, make them a promising material for a load-bearing bone substitute.

  16. Perioperative substitution of anti-epileptic drugs.

    Wichards, Wilma S W; Schobben, Alfred F A M; Leijten, Frans S S


    A common problem in brain and abdominal surgery is the perioperative substitution of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) when patients are temporarily unable to take these drugs orally. We searched the literature for clinical trials with patients or healthy volunteers in whom non-oral formulations of AEDs as substitution were tested. Different search engines, handbooks, expert opinion and our own experience, were used. Pharmaceutical companies were approached for recommendations. This led to three categories of replacement: 1. commercial alternative (n = 10) for clonazepam, diazepam, lacosamide, levetiracetam, lorazepam, midazolam, nitrazepam, phenobarbital, phenytoin, and valproic acid; 2. alternatives that must be prepared (n = 6) for carbamazepine, clobazam, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, primidone, topiramate; 3. no alternative (n = 7) for ethosuccimide, felbamate, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, vigabatrin, zonisamide. Thus, for a substantial number of AEDs, unofficial perioperative treatment strategies need to be followed for lack of alternatives to oral administration. There is little clinical research addressing the equivalence of oral and parenteral formulas. Perioperative substitution of AEDs is an underestimated problem, and may increase the risk of postoperative seizures.

  17. [Substitution in psychogeriatrics. A comparative study in nursing homes and substitution projects in Drenthe].

    Schreurs, M


    Due to a strong increase of the ageing population in the Netherlands there is a growing need for care for psychogeriatric patients. The shortage of beds in psychogeriatric nursing homes has led to the development of substitute care in residential homes for the elderly and in community centers. If substitution is realized in these substitute care projects in the sense that alternative services are delivered for patients who would otherwise have been admitted to nursing homes, the level of impairment and disruptive behaviour should be of the same level in nursing homes and substitute care projects. Groups of patients of three nursing homes, three day-treatment facilities, eight day-care-projects in residential homes for the elderly and seven centers for day-care in the community were compared. Sociodemographic characteristics, behaviour and care-patterns of all 670 patients who were in care on the first of October of 1992 in these services were investigated. An assessment-scale for elderly patients, based on the Stockton Geriatric Rating Scale, was used to investigate behaviour. Substitute care appears to be possible for a limited and specific group of patients. Substitution for the severely disturbed patients (over 40% of the nursing home patients) does not seem to be possible. Due to the development of substitute care for psychogeriatric patients in residential homes for the elderly and centers for day-care in the community, services seem to develop towards more specific and specialized care. We recommend the foundation of a psychogeriatric case register, which allows the study of the transfer of patients across facilities.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. A Simulation Study of Solving Material Substitution Problem

    Yu-Hsin Lin


    Full Text Available The material substitution problem is a critical decision issue in the assembly industry. In practice, this problem is usually solved with managers’ experiences. However, the management objectives of material substitution are various and sometimes there are conflicts between different departments. Therefore, it needs a comprehensive analysis to assess the effectiveness of adopting substitution material under different management objectives. This research uses simulation model to analyze the effectiveness of material substitution policy which includes external substitution, internal substitution and general use of material. Full factorial experimental design was applied to find the performance of proposed material substitution policy, and order quantity, purchase lead-time, due-date variance, order arrival interval, and delay cost were chosen as independent variables. The average flow time, order delay time, order fulfillment rate, and system cost were chosen as dependent variables. Experimental results showed that material substitution policies are significant on all dependent variables. Especially the external substitution policy performed better than the others in the observed four performance indices. Through external substitution policy can improve order fulfillment rate and reduce average flow time. That is, applying external substitution policy can make a great improvement in customer satisfaction which is the most impact factor in satisfying customers under the mass customization environment.

  19. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

    Liliana Rojas-Suarez


    Full Text Available This paper shows that there is a long-run relationship between the expected rate of depreciation in the black-market-exchange rate and the ratio of domestic to foreign money in Peru: that is, the hypothesis of currency substitution can explain the behavior of real holdings of money in Peru. The paper also shows that, while, the importance of currency substitution as a transmission mechanism through which domestic policies affected the dynamics of inflation was relatively small during a period of high but relatively stable inflation (January 1978-85, it became an important factor in the inflation process during the recent hyperinflation episode. Currency Substitution and Inflation in Peru

  20. Cationic Gold Clusters Ligated with Differently Substituted Phosphines: Effect of Substitution on Ligand Reactivity and Binding

    Johnson, Grant E.; Olivares, Astrid M.; Hill, David E.; Laskin, Julia


    We present a systematic study of the effect of the number of methyl (Me) and cyclohexyl (Cy) functional groups in monodentate phosphine ligands on the solution-phase synthesis of ligated sub-nanometer gold clusters and their gas-phase fragmentation pathways. Small mixed ligand cationic gold clusters were synthesized using ligand exchange reactions between pre-formed triphenylphosphine ligated (PPh3) gold clusters and monodentate Me- and Cy-substituted ligands in solution and characterized using electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) and collision-induced dissociation (CID) experiments. Under the same experimental conditions, larger gold-PPh3 clusters undergo efficient exchange of unsubstituted PPh3 ligands for singly Me- and Cy-substituted PPh2Me and PPh2Cy ligands. The efficiency of ligand exchange decreases with an increasing number of Me or Cy groups in the substituted phosphine ligands. CID experiments performed for a series of ligand-exchanged gold clusters indicate that loss of a neutral Me-substituted ligand is preferred over loss of a neutral PPh¬3 ligand while the opposite trend is observed for Cy-substituted ligands. The branching ratio of the competing ligand loss channels is strongly correlated with the electron donating ability of the phosphorous lone pair as determined by the relative proton affinity of the ligand. The results indicate that the relative ligand binding energies increase in the order PMe3 < PPhMe2 < PPh2Me < PPh3< PPh2Cy < PPhCy2< PCy3. Furthermore, the difference in relative ligand binding energies increases with the number of substituted PPh3-mMem or PPh3-mCym ligands (L) exchanged onto each cluster. This study provides the first experimental determination of the relative binding energies of ligated gold clusters containing differently substituted monophosphine ligands, which are important to controlling their synthesis and reactivity in solution. The results also indicate that ligand substitution is an important

  1. Annonaceae substitution rates: a codon model perspective

    Lars Willem Chatrou


    Full Text Available The Annonaceae includes cultivated species of economic interest and represents an important source of information for better understanding the evolution of tropical rainforests. In phylogenetic analyses of DNA sequence data that are used to address evolutionary questions, it is imperative to use appropriate statistical models. Annonaceae are cases in point: Two sister clades, the subfamilies Annonoideae and Malmeoideae, contain the majority of Annonaceae species diversity. The Annonoideae generally show a greater degree of sequence divergence compared to the Malmeoideae, resulting in stark differences in branch lengths in phylogenetic trees. Uncertainty in how to interpret and analyse these differences has led to inconsistent results when estimating the ages of clades in Annonaceae using molecular dating techniques. We ask whether these differences may be attributed to inappropriate modelling assumptions in the phylogenetic analyses. Specifically, we test for (clade-specific differences in rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. A high ratio of nonsynonymous to synonymous substitutions may lead to similarity of DNA sequences due to convergence instead of common ancestry, and as a result confound phylogenetic analyses. We use a dataset of three chloroplast genes (rbcL, matK, ndhF for 129 species representative of the family. We find that differences in branch lengths between major clades are not attributable to different rates of non-synonymous and synonymous substitutions. The differences in evolutionary rate between the major clades of Annonaceae pose a challenge for current molecular dating techniques that should be seen as a warning for the interpretation of such results in other organisms.

  2. Preparation of 7-substituted ginkgolide derivatives

    Vogensen, Stine Byskov; Strømgaard, Kristian; Shindou, Hideo


    of these derivatives as assayed by cloned PAF receptors. In two cases nucleophilic attack on a 7beta-O-triflate ginkgolide B did not lead to the expected products, but gave rise to two unprecedented ginkgolide derivatives, one with a novel rearranged skeleton. Furthermore, standard reduction of 7alpha-azido ginkgolide...... B did not give the expected primary amine, but instead yielded alkylated amines depending on the solvent employed. Pharmacological testing with cloned PAF receptors showed that ginkgolides with 7alpha-substitutents had increased affinity compared to 7beta-substituents, in particular 7alpha...

  3. 3-Substituted 2-phenyl-indoles

    Johansson, Karl Henrik; Jørgensen, T.B.; Gloriam, D.E.


    Privileged structures have been used in drug discovery targeting G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) and other protein classes for more than 20 years. Their rich activity profiles and drug-like characteristics lend themselves to increased productivity in hit identification and lead optimisation......-indoles with a variety of substituents at the indole 3-position. Herein we describe the development of optimised and efficient synthetic routes to a series of new 2-phenyl-indole building blocks 3 to 9 and show that these can be used to generate a broad variety of 3-substituted 2-phenyl-indoles of interest to medicinal...

  4. [Generic and biosimilar drug substitution: a panacea?].

    Daly, M J; Guignard, B; Nendaz, M


    Drugs are the third largest source of expenditure under Switzerland's compulsory basic health insurance. Generics, the price of which should be at least 30 per cent less than the cost of the original drugs, can potentially allow substantial savings. Their approval requires bioequivalence studies and their use is safe, although some factors may influence patients' and physicians' acceptance. The increased substitution of biosimilar drugs for more expensive biotech drugs should allow further cost savings. In an attempt to extend the monopoly granted by the original drug patent, some pharmaceutical companies implement "evergreening" strategies including small modifications of the original substance for which the clinical benefit is not always demonstrated.

  5. Generic substitution, financial interests, and imperfect agency.

    Rischatsch, Maurus; Trottmann, Maria; Zweifel, Peter


    Policy makers around the world seek to encourage generic substitution. In this paper, the importance of prescribing physicians' imperfect agency is tested using the fact that some Swiss jurisdictions allow physicians to dispense drugs on their own account (physician dispensing, PD) while others disallow it. We estimate a model of physician drug choice with the help of drug claim data, finding a significant positive association between PD and the use of generics. While this points to imperfect agency, generics are prescribed more often to patients with high copayments or low incomes.

  6. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery.

    Saxena, S; Gopal, L


    Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil), as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  7. Fluid vitreous substitutes in vitreo retinal surgery

    Saxena Sandeep


    Full Text Available Advances in the surgical instrumentation and vitreoretinal techniques have allowed intraoperative reapproximation of retina to a more normal position. The use of intravitreally injected liquid materials (viscoelastic liquids, liquid perfluorocarbons and silicone oil, as adjunctive agents to vitreo-retinal surgery play an important role in facilitating retinal reattachment. These materials are used as intraoperative instruments to re-establish intraocular volume, assist in separating membranes adherent to the retina, manipulate retinal detachments and mechanically flatten detached retina. Over the longer term, silicone oil maintains intraocular tamponade. One should be cognizant of the potential uses, benefits and risks of each of these vitreous substitutes.

  8. QSAR Studies on 7-Substituted Fluoroquinolones

    XU Ju-Li; GAO Shu-Lin; ZHANG Xiang-Fei; XIE Yi-Ping; HUANG Xiao-Yin; XIE Xiao-Guang


    The PM3 and B3LYP methods were employed to calculate the properties of 18 7-substituted fluoroquinolones.The correlation between biological activity (against gram-positive organisms or gram-negative organisms) and structural properties was obtained by using multiple linear regression (MLR) methods.The best model generated correlates the antibacterial activity with EHOMO and QF8 for gram-positive organisms,and EHOMO and dipole moment for gram-negative organisms,respectively.It suggests that the interaction mechanisms of fluoroquinolons with gram-positive and gram-negative organisms are different.

  9. Constant-Elasticity-of-Substitution Simulation

    Reiter, G.


    Program simulates constant elasticity-of-substitution (CES) production function. CES function used by economic analysts to examine production costs as well as uncertainties in production. User provides such input parameters as price of labor, price of capital, and dispersion levels. CES minimizes expected cost to produce capital-uncertainty pair. By varying capital-value input, one obtains series of capital-uncertainty pairs. Capital-uncertainty pairs then used to generate several cost curves. CES program menu driven and features specific print menu for examining selected output curves. Program written in BASIC for interactive execution and implemented on IBM PC-series computer.




    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Dry eye is a multi-factorial disease; the therapy should improve the symptoms and signs of dry eye as well as address the underlying pathophysiology of the disease. Artificial tear substitutes have been used for treating dry eye syndromes for decades and succeeded in enhancing the comfort of patients. They are currently the main therapy for dry eye and likely to remain the mainstay treatment modality. However, the currently used artificial tears have obvious limitations and its usage has to be personalized based on the patient’s need. This article briefs you on silent features in usage of artificial tears.

  11. Bayesian comparisons of codon substitution models.

    Rodrigue, Nicolas; Lartillot, Nicolas; Philippe, Hervé


    In 1994, Muse and Gaut (MG) and Goldman and Yang (GY) proposed evolutionary models that recognize the coding structure of the nucleotide sequences under study, by defining a Markovian substitution process with a state space consisting of the 61 sense codons (assuming the universal genetic code). Several variations and extensions to their models have since been proposed, but no general and flexible framework for contrasting the relative performance of alternative approaches has yet been applied. Here, we compute Bayes factors to evaluate the relative merit of several MG and GY styles of codon substitution models, including recent extensions acknowledging heterogeneous nonsynonymous rates across sites, as well as selective effects inducing uneven amino acid or codon preferences. Our results on three real data sets support a logical model construction following the MG formulation, allowing for a flexible account of global amino acid or codon preferences, while maintaining distinct parameters governing overall nucleotide propensities. Through posterior predictive checks, we highlight the importance of such a parameterization. Altogether, the framework presented here suggests a broad modeling project in the MG style, stressing the importance of combining and contrasting available model formulations and grounding developments in a sound probabilistic paradigm.

  12. Challenges in drug discovery for thiazolidinedione substitute

    Jian-ping Ye


    Full Text Available Thiazolidinedione (TZD is a powerful insulin sensitizer in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. It acts as a ligand to the nuclear receptor PPARγ (peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma and induces transcription of PPARγ-responsive genes. TZD controls lipid synthesis and storage in adipose tissue, liver and many other tissues through PPARγ. Derivatives of TZD, such as rosiglitazone (Avandia and pioglitazone (Actos, are more powerful than metformin or berberine in insulin sensitization. Although they have common side effects such as weight gain and edema, these did not influence their clinical application in general. However, recent findings of risk for congestive heart failure and bladder cancer have significantly impaired their future in many countries. European countries have prohibited those drugs, and US will terminate application of rosiglitazone in clinics and hospitals. The multiple country actions may mark the end of TZD era. As a result, there is a strong demand for identification of TZD substitute in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In this regard, literature about PPARγ ligands and potential TZD substitute are reviewed in this article. Histone deacetylase (HDAC inhibitor is emphasized as a new class of insulin sensitizer here. Regulators of SIRT1, CREB, NO, p38, ERK and Cdk5 are discussed in the activation of PPARγ.

  13. Sugar substitutes: Health controversy over perceived benefits

    Kirtida R Tandel


    Full Text Available Sugar is an inseparable part of the food we consume. But too much sugar is not ideal for our teeth and waistline. There have been some controversial suggestions that excessive sugar may play an important role in certain degenerative diseases. So artificial sweeteners or artificially sweetened products continue to attract consumers. A sugar substitute (artificial sweetener is a food additive that duplicates the effect of sugar in taste, but usually has less food energy. Besides its benefits, animal studies have convincingly proven that artificial sweeteners cause weight gain, brain tumors, bladder cancer and many other health hazards. Some kind of health related side effects including carcinogenicity are also noted in humans. A large number of studies have been carried out on these substances with conclusions ranging from "safe under all conditions" to "unsafe at any dose". Scientists are divided in their views on the issue of artificial sweetener safety. In scientific as well as in lay publications, supporting studies are often widely referenced while the opposing results are de-emphasized or dismissed. So this review aims to explore the health controversy over perceived benefits of sugar substitutes.

  14. Substitution among exhaustible resources and intergenerational equity

    Hartwick, J.M.


    Hartwick (American Econ. Rev., 66 (Dec. 1977)) showed that implicit in R.M. Solow's model of intergenerational equity and exhaustible resources (Rev. Econ. Studies (Symposium, 1974) 29-46) was the savings-investment rule: society should invest in reproducible capital precisely the current returns from the use of flows of exhaustible resources in order to maintain per capita consumption constant. Population was assumed to remain constant. Solow and Hartwick assumed that there was only one exhaustible resource. Beckmann (American Econ. Rev., 65, 695-99 (Sept 1975)) investigated optimal growth in models with many exhaustible resources. In this paper the case of many exhaustible resources is considered and results are derived on substitution among resources and on the nature of paths of development. One of Beckmann's results on substitution is analyzed. The approach is first to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of general savings functions and then to analyze efficient paths under the assumption of the special savings function referred to above. Results indicate the Solow's existence theorem remains valid for the case of many exhaustible resources and some light is shed on the existence of paths for production functions not of the Cobb-Douglas form. 12 references.

  15. Muon-Substituted Malonaldehyde: Transforming a Transition State into a Stable Structure by Isotope Substitution.

    Goli, Mohammad; Shahbazian, Shant


    Isotope substitutions are usually conceived to play a marginal role on the structure and bonding pattern of molecules. However, a recent study [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 13706-13709; Angew. Chem. 2014, 126, 13925-13929] further demonstrates that upon replacing a proton with a positively charged muon, as the lightest radioisotope of hydrogen, radical changes in the nature of the structure and bonding of certain species may take place. The present report is a primary attempt to introduce another example of structural transformation on the basis of the malonaldehyde system. Accordingly, upon replacing the proton between the two oxygen atoms of malonaldehyde with the positively charged muon a serious structural transformation is observed. By using the ab initio nuclear-electronic orbital non-Born-Oppenheimer procedure, the nuclear configuration of the muon-substituted species is derived. The resulting nuclear configuration is much more similar to the transition state of the proton transfer in malonaldehyde rather than to the stable configuration of malonaldehyde. The comparison of the "atoms in molecules" (AIM) structure of the muon-substituted malonaldehyde and the AIM structure of the stable and the transition-state configurations of malonaldehyde also unequivocally demonstrates substantial similarities of the muon-substituted malonaldehyde to the transition state.

  16. Preparation of 6-Substituted Quinoxaline JSP-1 Inhibitors by Microwave Accelerated Nucleophilic Substitution

    Jingkang Shen


    Full Text Available A small library of 6-aminoquinoxalines has been prepared by nucleophilic substitution of 6-fluoroquinoxaline with amines and nitrogen-containing heterocycles under computer-controlled microwave irradiation. Some compounds were found to be potent inhibitors of JNK Stimulatory Phosphatase-1 (JSP-1 in an in vitro biological assay.

  17. 40 CFR Appendix D to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes


    .... iii. The trade name, charge amount, and, when applicable, the ASHRAE refrigerant numerical designation... Comments Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF HFC-4310mee Acceptable Subject to a 200 ppm time-weighted... Electronics Cleaning w/CFC-113 and MCF Perfluoropolyethers Perfluoropolyethers are acceptable substitutes...

  18. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors Jette Østergaard Rathe1, Pia V. Larsen1, Morten Andersen2, Janus L. Thomsen3, Maja S. Paulsen1, Jens Søndergaard1 1. Research Unit of General Practice, Institute of Public Health, University of Southern Denmark 2. Centre...... substitutable drug. Data were linked with a prescription database. Results We found no associations between generic substitution and, respectively, gender, age, drug group and polypharmacy. Earlier switches of the index drug are statistically significant associated with acceptance of generic substitution...... generics in the antiepileptic and antidepressant groups (antiepileptics OR 0.37 and antidepressants OR 0.53). Conclusion We did not find any patient-related factors associated with generic substitution; however, patients who have once experienced a generic substitution with a specific drug are more likely...

  19. The Search for an Ideal Temporary Skin Substitute: AWBAT

    Woodroof, E. Aubrey


    Objective: The search for an ideal temporary skin substitute is a continuous quest. Without the ability to provide active transport systems powered by adenosine triphosphate or adenosine diphosphate that pump fluid out on demand, all skin substitutes, however effective, would be a compromise. Therefore, the best that any current wound covering design can do is to strive to produce all the other qualities of an ideal skin substitute. Recently developed technology utilized in AW BAT attempts to...

  20. Factor and Organizational Substitutions to Minimize Costs in the Navy


    incorporating such critical issues as risk, time and transaction costs as well as widening the scope of substitutions beyond the simple labour for...than mere labour for capital substitutions if the objective is one of cost minimization. Static input substitution principle that cheaper as an enemy. … There are many costs associated with hedging against China . In terms of military investment, this mission requires ultra- modern

  1. Tissue reaction and material characteristics of four bone substitutes

    Jensen, S S; Aaboe, M; Pinholt, E M


    The aim of the present study was to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the tissue reactions around four different bone substitutes used in orthopedic and craniofacial surgery. Cylinders of two bovine bone substitutes (Endobon and Bio-Oss) and two coral-derived bone substitutes (Pro Osteon 500......-Oss was osseointegrated to a higher degree than the other biomaterials. Material characteristics obtained by diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectrometry analysis and energy-dispersive spectrometry did not explain the differences in biologic behavior....

  2. Management of Substitution in English-Chinese Trans lation



    Substitution is one of the major cohesive devices.Both English and Chinese use substitution.But due to the differences between the two languages,the translation methods adopted should vary according to the situation.This thesis aims to explore the different strategies that can be used in the translation of substitution from English to Chinese in different cases.A contrastive study between the two languages is crucial in this process.

  3. Structure and Aromaticity of AlCO-substituted Semibullvalene

    YAO Wen-Zhi; WU Hai-Shun


    The structures, energies and aromaticity (the nuclear-independent chemical shifts,NICS) of AlCO-substituted semibullvalenes were investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G** level.Similar to BCO-substituted analogues, [2,6]-AlCO-semibullvalene is neutral bishomoaromatic.The NICS values reveal that the aromaticity of AlCO-substituted structures is smaller than that of BCO analogues.

  4. Management of Substitution in English-Chinese Trans lation



    Substitution is one of the major cohesive devices. Both English and Chinese use substitution. But due to the differences between the two languages, the translation methods adopted should vary according to the situation. This thesis aims to explore the different strategies that can be used in the translation of substitution from English to Chinese in different cases. A contrastive study between the two languages is crucial in this process.


    Gabriel Sorin STROE


    Full Text Available Substitutes pose a permanent threat on firms’ products or services in any industry. As the extant literature on strategic analysis is abundant in examples of substitutes for goods and traditional services, the paper aims at analyzing in-depth the concept of substitutes in the case of engineering services industry which is a knowledge-based, project-based, and professional type one. The assessment of the threat of substitutes for these services has been supported by an empirical study among a number of managers of Romanian engineering companies. The paper ends up with a set of conclusions and an invitation to further debate and research.

  6. Clinical review: impact of statin substitution policies on patient outcomes

    Atar, Dan; Carmena, Rafael; Clemmensen, Peter


    , the consequences for primary care are under-researched. Our objective was to review data on intensive statin therapy and generic substitution in patients at high cardiovascular risk. RESULTS: Current treatment guidelines for the prevention of cardiovascular disease are consistent in their recommendations regarding...... and recommended therapeutic targets. CONCLUSIONS: Substitution of generic statins may be cost-saving, particularly at the primary prevention level. However, statin substitution policies have not been adequately studied on a population level. Data raise concern that mandated statin substitution may lead...

  7. Import Substitution in Regional Industrial Production: Theoretical and Practical Aspects

    Yevgeniy Georgievich Animitsa


    Full Text Available The article proves the important role of import substitution in the economic security protection of state and its regions, especially in times of crisis, geopolitical and economical instability. The authors argue that the problem of import substitution is not modern, trendy scientific stream. The issue of displacement of import goods by domestic ones was brought up in famous classic theories of mercantilists. The particular emphasis is placed on the analysis and systematization of different scientific approaches, which are utilized by native and foreign scientists to bring out the matter of “import substitution,” to determine its essential characteristics. The authors suggest their own interpretation of the import substitution notion. In the article, the most significant pro and contra arguments in import substitution policy are defined. The regional aspects in the import substitution are approved: case study — organization of industrial import substitution in the Sverdlovsk region. In the article, the authors analyze the subject matter of the Program “Development of Intraregional Industrial Cooperation and Implementation of an Import Substitution in Branches of Industry in the Sverdlovsk Region.” It is resumed, that active policy of import substitution in the industry may become the driver of regional economic development.

  8. Pharmacy and generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs: missing in action?

    Welty, Timothy E


    Generic substitution of antiepileptic drugs is an issue that is gathering a lot of attention in the neurology community but is not receiving much attention within pharmacy. Several proposals have been drafted that restrict a pharmacist's decision-making in generic substitution. These proposals highlight concerns about the pharmacy community related to generic substitution. Careful consideration needs to be given to these issues by pharmacists and pharmacy professional organizations. Unless pharmacy as a profession takes strong positions in support of a pharmacist's ability to make decisions about pharmacotherapy and addresses many of the pharmacy-related problems of generic substitution, policies that negatively impact pharmacy will be established.

  9. Testosterone Substitution: Current Modalities and Perspectives

    Zitzmann M


    Full Text Available The clinical picture of male hypogonadism is associated with typical symptoms, such as disturbances of mood and cognitive abilities as well as sexual functions; furtheron, a decrease in muscle mass and strength, an accumulation of body fat and osteopenia/osteoporosis are observed. There are indications that insulin sensitivity is mitigated in a state of androgen depletion. In older men, symptoms of androgen deficiency (late-onset hypogonadism may exhibit a differential profile due to accompanying other chronic illnesses. Restoring serum testosterone levels by replacement therapy can markedly attenuate, if not relieve, the clinical picture of hypogonadism. Recently, new treatment modalities have been introduced, which include short-acting transdermal or buccal modalities as well as the long-acting depot preparation of testosterone undecanoate. This review summarises the pathways of diagnosis of male hypogonadism and discusses the various modern methods of initiation and surveillance of testosterone substitution therapy. Future perspectives regarding pharmacogenetic aspects are discussed.

  10. Nanobiotechnology for hemoglobin-based blood substitutes.

    Chang, T M S


    Nanobiotechnology is the assembling of biological molecules into nanodimension complexes. This has been used for the preparation of polyhemoglobin formed by the assembling of hemoglobin molecules into a soluble nanodimension complex. New generations of this approach include the nanobiotechnological assembly of hemoglobin, catalase, and superoxide dismutase into a soluble nanodimension complex. This acts as an oxygen carrier and an antioxidant for those conditions with potential for ischemiareperfusion injuries. Another recent novel approach is the assembling of hemoglobin and fibrinogen into a soluble nanodimension polyhemoglobin-fibrinogen complex that acts as an oxygen carrier with platelet-like activity. This is potentially useful in cases of extensive blood loss requiring massive replacement using blood substitutes, resulting in the need for the replacement of platelets and clotting factors. A further step is the preparation of nanodimension artificial red blood cells that contain hemoglobin and all the enzymes present in red blood cells.

  11. Development of a piezoelectric bone substitute material

    Al-Bader, Y A


    The thesis deals with the preparation and testing of ceramic compositions to be used as bone substitute. The proposed composition consisted of calcium enriched calcium phosphate, kaolin and barium titanate in different ratios. The homogeneous powder mixture was dry pressed at different pressures and fired at temperatures up to 1350 degC for different soaking times. The physical properties of the fired compacts that were tested are bulk density and porosity. These were determined as function of pressing pressure, firing temperature and soaking time for different compositions. The mechanical properties investigated were the ultimate compressive strength and Young's modulus, which were determined for different compositions and forming pressures. The electrical properties investigated were D.C. characteristics (resistivity) and A.C. characteristics (A.C. resistivity, dielectric constant, dielectric loss and loss tangent). The piezoelectric behaviour of the fired compacts was investigated and the piezoelectric coe...

  12. Tertiary fatty amides as diesel fuel substitutes

    Serdari, Aikaterini; Lois, Euripides; Stournas, Stamoulis [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Athens (Greece)


    This paper presents experimental results regarding the impact of adding different tertiary amides of fatty acids to mineral diesel fuel; an assessment of the behaviour of these compounds as possible diesel fuel extenders is also included. Measurements of cetane number, cold flow properties (cloud point, pour point and CFPP), density, kinematic viscosity, flash point and distillation temperatures are reported, while initial experiments concerning the effects on particulate emissions are also described. Most of the examined tertiary fatty amides esters have very good performance and they can be easily prepared from fatty acids (biomass). Such compounds or their blends could be used as mineral diesel fuel or even fatty acid methylesters (FAME, biodiesel) substitutes or extenders. (Author)

  13. Substitutions in dynamics, arithmetics and combinatorics

    Berthé, Valéré; Ferenczi, Sébastien; Mauduit, Christian; Siegel, Anne


    A certain category of infinite strings of letters on a finite alphabet is presented here, chosen among the 'simplest' possible one may build, both because they are very deterministic and because they are built by simple rules (a letter is replaced by a word, a sequence is produced by iteration). These substitutive sequences have a surprisingly rich structure. The authors describe the concepts of quantity of natural interactions, with combinatorics on words, ergodic theory, linear algebra, spectral theory, geometry of tilings, theoretical computer science, diophantine approximation, trancendence, graph theory. This volume fulfils the need for a reference on the basic definitions and theorems, as well as for a state-of-the-art survey of the more difficult and unsolved problems.

  14. Sucrose and sucrose substitutes. Industrial considerations.

    Mackay, D A


    The problem of reducing the sugar content of sugary foods is presented from the food manufacturer's point of view. The distinction is made between the need for artificial sweeteners and the more pressing need for bulking agents with at least some of the technological properties of sugar. In view of the considerable sales success of sugarless confections, accounting for over an estimated 30,000,000 lbs. of sorbitol per annum, the clouded prospect for more general sugar substitution in other food categories is discussed with especial reference to the consequent problems in product claims and nomenclature, and the enormous expense of proving safety and dental claims. Finally, an overview of the competitive consumer and regulatory pressures is given, with an urgent appeal to the dental profession to take the initiative for guiding the food processor to dentally improved foods.

  15. Packing and Disorder in Substituted Fullerenes

    Tummala, Naga Rajesh


    Fullerenes are ubiquitous as electron-acceptor and electron-transport materials in organic solar cells. Recent synthetic strategies to improve the solubility and electronic characteristics of these molecules have translated into a tremendous increase in the variety of derivatives employed in these applications. Here, we use molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to examine the impact of going from mono-adducts to bis- and tris-adducts on the structural, cohesive, and packing characteristics of [6,6]-phenyl-C60-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) and indene-C60. The packing configurations obtained at the MD level then serve as input for density functional theory calculations that examine the solid-state energetic disorder (distribution of site energies) as a function of chemical substitution. The variations in structural and site-energy disorders reflect the fundamental materials differences among the derivatives and impact the performance of these materials in thin-film electronic devices.

  16. Substituted Pyrazinecarboxamides: Synthesis and Biological Evaluation

    Katarina Kralova


    Full Text Available Condensation of the corresponding chlorides of some substituted pyrazine-2-carboxylic acids (pyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid, 5-tert-butylpyrazine-2-carboxylic acid or 5-tert-butyl-6-chloropyrazine-2-carboxylic acid withvarious ring-substituted aminothiazoles or anilines yielded a series of amides. Thesyntheses, analytical and spectroscopic data of thirty newly prepared compounds arepresented. Structure-activity relationships between the chemical structures and the anti-mycobacterial, antifungal and photosynthesis-inhibiting activity of the evaluatedcompounds are discussed. 3,5-Bromo-4-hydroxyphenyl derivatives of substitutedpyrazinecarboxylic acid, 16-18, have shown the highest activity against Mycobacteriumtuberculosis H37Rv (54-72% inhibition. The highest antifungal effect againstTrichophyton mentagrophytes, the most susceptible fungal strain tested, was found for5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(4-methyl-1,3-thiazol-2-ylpyrazine-2-carboxamide (8, MIC =31.25 μmol·mL-1. The most active inhibitors of oxygen evolution rate in spinachMolecules 2006, 11 243 chloroplasts were the compounds 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(5-bromo-2-hydroxyphenyl- pyrazine-2-carboxamide (27, IC50 = 41.9 μmol·L-1 and 5-tert-butyl-6-chloro-N-(1,3- thiazol-2-yl-pyrazine-2-carboxamide (4, IC50 = 49.5 μmol·L-1.

  17. Economy-wide impacts of interfuel substitution: substitution of electricity for imported oil

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.; Lukachinski, J.


    An Energy Input-Output Model is applied to analysis of the long-run effects (to 1985) of higher oil prices in the U.S. economy. Two questions are examined. First, what are the effects of sustained, higher international oil prices. Second, what are the effects of substituting domestic-coal-produced electricity for high-priced foreign oil. Variables examined include capital investment, personal consumption expenditures, exports and imports, labor force, and energy production.

  18. Substitute location : semiotics and perception of substitute location : in fiction film : A Road Movie

    Behrens, Thomas


    Tese de doutoramento, Belas-Artes (Audiovisuais), Universidade de Lisboa, Faculdade de Belas-Artes, 2016 My thesis, the result of an Artistic Research Project, is composed of a theoretical part, which is titled “Semiotics and Perception of Substitute Location in Fiction Film” and a practical work, a Road Movie. The Road Movie will take us through a coordinate system of topics (alienation, assimilation, ideological interpellation, immediacy, etc.) that the theoretical work approaches from...

  19. Arylethynyl Substituted 9,lO-Anthraquinones: Tunable Stokes Shifts by Substitution and Solvent Polarity

    Yang, Jinhua; Dass, Amala; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Panzner, Matthew J.; Tyson, Daniel S.; Kinder, James D.; Leventis, Nicholas


    2-Arylethynyl- and 2,6- and 2,7-diarylethynyl-substituted 9,lO-anthraquinones were synthesized via Sonogashira coupling reactions of 2-bromo-, 2,6-dibromo-, and 2,7-dibromo-9,10- anthraquinone with para-substituted phenylacetylenes. While the redox properties of those compounds are almost insensitive to substitution, their absorption maxima are linearly related to the Hammett constants with different slopes for electron donors and electron acceptors. ABI compounds are photoluminescent both in solution (quantum yields of emission polarity. Maximum Stokes shifts are attained by both electron-donating and -withdrawing groups. This is explained by a destabilization of the HOMO by electron donors and a stabilization of the LUMO by electron acceptors. X-ray crystallographic analysis of, for example, 2,7-bisphenylethynfl- 9,lO-anthraquinone reveals a monoclinic P21In space group and no indication for pi-overlap that would promote quenching, thus explaining emission from the solid state. Representative reduced forms of the title compounds were isolated as stable acetates of the corresponding dihydrs-9,10- anthraquinones. The emission of these compounds is blue-shifted relative to the parent oxidized forms and is attributed to internal transitions in the dihydro-9,lO-anthraquinone core.

  20. [Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid biochemical properties].

    Tsapok, P I; Imbriakov, K V; Chuchkova, M R


    Sugar substitute products impact on oral fluid protein and carbohydrate content, as well as oxidative balance were studied in 60 medical school students in compare with conventional sugar. Sugar intake proved to cause cariesogenic carbohydrate metabolism disorders in oral fluid, intensification of lipoperoxidation and decrease in antioxidation activity. Sugar substitute products help to prevent dental decay.

  1. 16 CFR 300.14 - Substitute label requirement.


    ... AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.14 Substitute label... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitute label requirement. 300.14 Section... product appearing on the stamp, tag, label, or other mark of identification affixed to such product shall...

  2. 76 FR 8666 - Substitution in Case of Death of Claimant


    ... existing claim. However, a substitute would be permitted to raise new theories of entitlement as to the... substitute could raise a previously unraised theory of entitlement, such as secondary service connection...-Connected Disability for Veterans; 64.105, Pension to Veterans Surviving Spouses, and Children; 64.109...

  3. 12 CFR 229.51 - General provisions governing substitute checks.


    ... which a bank has provided the warranties described in § 229.52 is the legal equivalent of an original... indorsements applied by parties that previously handled the check in any form (including the original check, a substitute check, or another paper or electronic representation of such original check or substitute...

  4. Thermal stability of substitutional ag in CdTe

    Jahn, SG; Hofsass, H; Restle, M; Ronning, C; Quintel, H; BharuthRam, K; Wahl, U


    The thermal stability of substitutional Ag in CdTe was deduced from lattice location measurements at different temperatures. Substitutional Ag probe atoms were generated via transmutation doping from radioactive Cd isotopes. The lattice sites of Ag isotopes were determined by measuring the channelin

  5. Substitution as a Device of Grammatical Cohesion in English Contexts

    Mohammad Reza Hasannejad


    Full Text Available The present study set out to investigate the effect of teaching substitution as a kind of grammatical cohesion on the true identification of confusing substitution elements with cohesive or non-cohesive roles in different contexts and also the production of modal, reporting and conditional contexts through clausal substitution acquaintance. To this end, the following procedures were taken. First 120 male and female EFL students were selected from Iranshahr Azad University. Having administered the language proficiency test, researchers selected 80 students as intermediate subjects according to their TOEFL band scores. First, pretests of cohesion identification (substitution and production of modal, reporting and conditional environments were administered to both control and experimental groups. Then, the experimental group was exposed to the teaching of the above-said above-mentioned cohesive device. Finally, post-tests of substitution elements’ identification and modal, reporting and conditional contexts’ production through clausal substitution familiarity were administered. The results showed that cohesive device treatment helped students on the true identification of substitution elements. Another finding proved that EFL students might have no difficulty in learning certain rules or classification of rules and application of their clausal substitution knowledge in creating modal, reporting and conditional contexts. Our findings can have implications for the field of language learning and teaching.

  6. Exploring meat substitutes: consumer experiences and contextual factors

    Elzerman, J.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.


    Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the

  7. Synthesis and antiinflammatory activity of substituted (2-oxochromen-3-ylbenzamides

    Maddi V


    Full Text Available The title compounds were synthesized by condensing 3-aminocoumarin with substituted aromatic acid chlorides. The acid chlorides were prepared from different substituted aromatic carboxylic acids and thionyl chloride. The structures of the compounds were confirmed by IR, NMR spectral data and elemental analysis. The title compounds were found to possess significant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities.

  8. Generic substitution of antihypertensive drugs : does it affect adherence?

    Van Wijk, Boris L G; Klungel, Olaf H; Heerdink, Eibert R; de Boer, Anthonius


    BACKGROUND: Generic substitution is an important opportunity to reduce the costs of pharmaceutical care. However, pharmacists and physicians often find that patients and brand-name manufacturers have doubt about the equivalence of the substituted drug. This may be reflected by decreased adherence to

  9. 40 CFR 75.46 - Missing data substitution criteria.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Missing data substitution criteria. 75... (CONTINUED) CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITORING Alternative Monitoring Systems § 75.46 Missing data substitution criteria. The owner or operator shall demonstrate that all missing data can be accounted for in a...

  10. Sublattice imbalance of substitutionally doped nitrogen in graphene

    Lawlor, James A.; Gorman, Paul D.; Power, Stephen


    Motivated by the recently observed sublattice asymmetry of substitutional nitrogen impurities in CVD grown graphene, we show, in a mathematically transparent manner, that oscillations in the local density of states driven by the presence of substitutional impurities are responsible for breaking t......, but should be present in other impurities. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  11. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.


    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 630.1205 Section 630.1205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Except as provided...

  12. 19 CFR 143.16 - Substitution of warehouse entry.


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substitution of warehouse entry. 143.16 Section 143.16 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT... warehouse entry. The importer may substitute an entry for warehouse at any time within 1 year from the...

  13. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Phenyl Substituted Isoxazolecarboxamides

    LIU Peng-fei; ZHANG Ji-feng; YAN Tao; XIONG Li-xia; LI Zheng-ming


    Thirteen novel phenyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides were synthesized,and their structures were characterized by 1H NMR,elementary analysis and high-resolution mass spectrometry(HRMS) techniques.Their evaluated insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm(Mythimna separata) indicate that the phcnyl substituted isoxazolecarboxamides exhibited moderate insecticidal activities,among which compounds 9c and 9k showed comparatively higher activities.

  14. 40 CFR 721.4596 - Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex.


    ... metal complex. 721.4596 Section 721.4596 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4596 Diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex. (a) Chemical... as a diazo substituted carbomonocyclic metal complex (PMN P-94-1039) is subject to reporting...

  15. What Is Being Masked in Object Substitution Masking?

    Gellatly, Angus; Pilling, Michael; Cole, Geoff; Skarratt, Paul


    Object substitution masking (OSM) is said to occur when a perceptual object is hypothesized that is mismatched by subsequent sensory evidence, leading to a new hypothesized object being substituted for the first. For example, when a brief target is accompanied by a longer lasting display of nonoverlapping mask elements, reporting of target…

  16. Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review ...

    Loan collaterals and collateral substitutes in rural finance: a review. ... Subscription or Fee Access ... Poor farm households and other microentrepreneurs have difficulties in obtaining loans from banks and other financial institutions because ... of non-traditional methods of loan security referred to as collateral substitutes.

  17. Exploring meat substitutes: consumer experiences and contextual factors

    Elzerman, J.E.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.


    Purpose – Meat substitutes can be environmentally more sustainable alternatives to meat. However, the image of these products in The Netherlands is still low. The purpose of this paper is to explore consumers' experiences and sensory expectations of meat substitutes and the appropriateness of the us

  18. 29 CFR 825.207 - Substitution of paid leave.


    ... leave supplement workers' compensation benefits, such as in the case where workers' compensation only.... As of the date workers' compensation benefits cease, the substitution provision becomes applicable... leave pursuant to a disability benefit plan is not unpaid, the provision for substitution of the...

  19. 37 CFR 2.59 - Filing substitute specimen(s).


    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filing substitute specimen(s..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE RULES OF PRACTICE IN TRADEMARK CASES Drawing § 2.59 Filing substitute specimen(s). (a... specimen(s), the applicant must: (1) For an amendment to allege use under § 2.76, verify by affidavit...

  20. 40 CFR 721.5278 - Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt.


    ..., alkali salt. 721.5278 Section 721.5278 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5278 Substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as a substituted naphthalenesulfonic acid, alkali salt (PMN P-95-85) is subject to reporting under...

  1. 40 CFR 721.8900 - Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt.


    ..., alkali salt. 721.8900 Section 721.8900 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.8900 Substituted halogenated pyridinol, alkali salt. (a) Chemical... as substituted halogenated pyridinols, alkali salts (PMNs P-88-1271 and P-88-1272) are subject to...

  2. 40 CFR 721.3565 - Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt.


    ... salt. 721.3565 Section 721.3565 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3565 Ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt. (a) Chemical substance... ethylenediamine, substituted, sodium salt (PMN P-97-328) is subject to reporting under this section for the...

  3. Penentuan Bilangan Iodin pada Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS)

    Situmorang, Dhesy Phatiarma


    Determination has been made of Iodine Value with titration methods in some Cocoa Butter Substitute (CBS) in PT. Palmcoco Laboratories, Medan. Results obtained from the average level of iodine value Cocoa Butter Substitute derives from Medan is 0,21 gr I2/100gr and from Kuala Tanjung is 0,29 gr I2/100gr. 112401022

  4. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    ZHU Peter C; WANG Dei-Haw; LU Kaitao; MANI Neelakandha


    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis (dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid, followed by hydrolysis, The yields were significantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  5. An efficient synthesis of substituted benzene-1,2-dicarboxaldehydes

    ZHU; Peter; C; WANG; Der-Haw; MANI; Neelakandha


    Substituted-benzene-1,2-dicarbaldehydes were synthesized by the reaction of substituted-1,2-bis(dibromomethyl) benzenes with fuming sulfuric acid,followed by hydrolysis. The yields were signifi-cantly improved by introducing solid sodium bicarbonate into the reaction mixture before hydrolysis and workup.

  6. 40 CFR 721.840 - Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons.


    ... hydrocarbons. 721.840 Section 721.840 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.840 Alkyl substituted diaromatic hydrocarbons. (a) Chemical substance... alkyl substituted di-aro-matic hydrocarbons (PMN P-91-710) is subject to reporting under this...


    The use of physical properties and fluid behavior from molecular thermodynamics can lead to better decision making in the design of substitute solvents and can greatly reduce the expense and time required to find substitutes compared to designing solvents by experiment. this pape...

  8. Thermal stability of substitutional ag in CdTe

    Jahn, SG; Hofsass, H; Restle, M; Ronning, C; Quintel, H; BharuthRam, K; Wahl, U


    The thermal stability of substitutional Ag in CdTe was deduced from lattice location measurements at different temperatures. Substitutional Ag probe atoms were generated via transmutation doping from radioactive Cd isotopes. The lattice sites of Ag isotopes were determined by measuring the channelin

  9. Control of Chemical Risks by Substitution of Harmful Substances

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    Substitution of volatile, organic solvents with non-volatile, low-toxic esters of fatty acids for cleaning purposes in offset printing has successfully been implemented in several European countries. Similar substitutions in other industrial cleaning processes seem possible, especially regarding ...

  10. 40 CFR 721.8750 - Halogenated substituted pyridine.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Halogenated substituted pyridine. 721... Substances § 721.8750 Halogenated substituted pyridine. (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses... pyridine (PMN P-86-838) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new uses...




    In this study rheological properties of aqueous solutions of mucin, albumin and mucin-albumin have been investigated in search for saliva substitutes. They were compared with commercially available saliva substitutes on the one hand and natural human saliva on the other hand. For the latter a few me

  12. On substitution right of respondent in civil procedure

    Keča Ranko


    Full Text Available The paper examines set of problems regarding respondent's right to offer alternative performance (substitution right in present Serbian civil procedure. It is evident that this institute has not caused greater interest of theory, although plenty of complex problems arises. Present conception of procedural substitution right which was introduced some ten years ago could be regarded as successful, as it is widens up disponsible rights of litigants. The possibility of establishing procedural substitution right is not attached to in rem claims any more. Statement could be made regarding any non pecuniary claim. Substitution right is also broadened, because respondent could be entitled on any performance, not just payment. However, solution which limits establishing procedural substitution right only in first instance procedure is retained without of particular justification. Paper examines also execution procedure regarding enforcement of judgment consisting the substitution right, as it is fundamentally different in contrast to regulation in contract law and civil procedure, especially in matter of determination of time frame in which debtor can exercise his substitution right This solution could not be regarded as successful, as it open door to abuse of procedural rights harming debtor. Questions regarding court s duty to clarify nature of claimant s statement is also examined. Delivery of goods and payment could be regarded as joinder of claims, but it could also mean in rem claim and statement of substitution right. When needed, court is obliged to clarify statements. At the end, other issues beside quoted are discussed.

  13. Synthesis of new substituted lactones by "click" chemistry

    Riva, Raphaël; Chafaqi, Laila; Jérôme, Robert; Lecomte, Philippe


    Several new oxepan-2-ones substituted by an ester, an ammonium, a hydroxyl, an acrylate and a poly(ethylene oxide) chain, respectively, were synthesized by the Huisgen's [3+2] cycloaddition of duly substituted alkynes onto 5-azidooxepan-2-one. Peer reviewed

  14. Antimony substitution in SmFeAsO

    Schmidt, Daniel; Braun, Hans F. [Universitaet Bayreuth (Germany)


    In the iron based compounds structural and magnetic phase transitions can be suppressed by applying external hydrostatic pressure and superconductivity emerges. Beside hydrostatic pressure, it is possible to apply chemical pressure by the substitution of atoms in the compounds with smaller ones. Such a substitution was successful for example in LaFeAs{sub 1-x}P{sub x}O, where the parent compound shows a structural and a spin-density-wave transition and the P doped samples become superconducting. We are interested in the opposite way and substitute the As by the bigger Sb. In literature, the substitution in the La-1111 compounds was possible up to a substitution level of 40 %. With Sm, instead of La, we used a smaller rare-earth metal. We present the results obtained on polycrystalline samples characterized by Xray powder diffraction and resistivity measurements.

  15. REACH-related substitution within the Danish printing industry

    Larsen, Henrik Fred; Bøg, Carsten; Markussen, Helene

    The accomplishment of the EU REACH regulation will most probably promote substitution within sectors handling a lot of different chemicals like the printing industry. With the aim of being at the cutting edge of this development the Danish EPA together with the Danish printing industry and IPU...... are running a substitution project. A major part of the work has been mapping the presence of chemicals which are potential candidates for substitution (e.g. PBT, CMR, vPvB, EDS) within the Danish printing industry. The mapping comprises a combination of a literature study and an investigation of the actual...... fulfil one or more of the criteria (e.g. CMR, EDS) for the REACH Annex XIV candidate list (authorisation). The paper presents the results of the mapping of chemical candidates and the first results of the actual substitutions. Keywords: REACH, chemicals, substitution, printing industry....

  16. A Group Action Method for Construction of Strong Substitution Box

    Jamal, Sajjad Shaukat; Shah, Tariq; Attaullah, Atta


    In this paper, the method to develop cryptographically strong substitution box is presented which can be used in multimedia security and data hiding techniques. The algorithm of construction depends on the action of a projective general linear group over the set of units of the finite commutative ring. The strength of substitution box and ability to create confusion is assessed with different available analyses. Moreover, the ability of resistance against malicious attacks is also evaluated. The substitution box is examined by bit independent criterion, strict avalanche criterion, nonlinearity test, linear approximation probability test and differential approximation probability test. This substitution box is equated with well-recognized substitution boxes such as AES, Gray, APA, S8, prime of residue, Xyi and Skipjack. The comparison shows encouraging results about the strength of the proposed box. The majority logic criterion is also calculated to analyze the strength and its practical implementation.

  17. Hyperbranched Polycarbosilanes via Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions

    Interrante, L.; Shen, Q.

    Nucleophilic substitution reactions involving organomagnesium (Grignard) [1] and organolithium reagents have been used extensively for many years to form Si—C bonds (see Reaction Scheme 12.1). However, their use for the construction of hyperbranched polymers whose backbone contains, as a major structural component, silicon—carbon bonds, i.e., polycarbosilanes [2] is relatively more recent. (12.1) begin{array}{l} {{R}}_3 {{SiX + MR'}} to {{R}}_3 {{SiR' + MX}} \\ left({{{R,R' = alkyl}} {{or aryl;}} {{M = Mg(X),}} {{Li,}} {{Na}};{{X = halogen, OR''}}} right) \\ This chapter focuses on the application of such nucleophilic substitution reactions toward the synthesis of hyperbranched polycarbosilanes, with particular emphasis on those preparations that have resulted in relatively well characterized products. These syntheses are organized by the type of ABn monomer unit used (see Section 1.2), where A and B refer to the (C)X and (Si)Xn, respectively, functional ends of the monomer unit and where the nature of the coupling reaction leads to entirely or primarily Si—C bond formation. In most cases, these are “one-pot” reactions that employ monomers that bear halogen or alkoxy groups on the C and Si ends of the unit. Indeed, hyperbranched polycarbosilanes have been described, in general, as “obtained in one synthetic step via a random, one-pot polymerization of multifunctional monomers of AB n type” [2]. Treatment of the ABn monomer with either elemental Mg or an organolithium reagent, ideally (but not always) forms a complexed carbanion (the nucleophile) by reaction with the C-X end of the monomer unit, resulting in an intermediate of the type, (XxM)CSiXn, where M = Mg or Li, X = halogen or alkoxy, and x = 1 (Mg) or 0 (Li). Self-coupling of this reagent via reactions of the type shown in Reaction Scheme 12.1 leads to oligomeric and polymeric products that are connected primarily through Si—C bonds and yield an inorganic MXx by-product.

  18. How far can sodium substitute for potassium in red beet?

    Subbarao, G. V.; Wheeler, R. M.; Stutte, G. W.; Levine, L. H.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)


    Sodium (Na) movement between plants and humans is one of the more critical aspects of bioregenerative systems of life support, which NASA is studying for the establishment of long-term bases on the Lunar or Martian surface. This study was conducted to determine the extent to which Na can replace potassium (K) in red beet (Beta vulgaris L. ssp vulgaris) without adversely affecting metabolic functions such as water relations, photosynthetic rates, and thus growth. Two cultivars, Ruby Queen and Klein Bol, were grown for 42 days at 1200 micromoles mol-1 CO2 in a growth chamber using a re-circulating nutrient film technique with 0%, 75%, 95%, and 98% Na substitution for K in a modified half-strength Hoagland solution. Total biomass of Ruby Queen was greatest at 95% Na substitution and equal at 0% and 98% Na substitution. For Klein Bol, there was a 75% reduction in total biomass at 98% Na substitution. Nearly 95% of the total plant K was replaced with Na at 98% Na substitution in both cultivars. Potassium concentrations in leaves decreased from 120 g kg-1 dwt in 0% Na substitution to 3.5 g kg-1 dwt at 98% Na substitution. Leaf chlorophyll concentration, photosynthetic rate, and osmotic potential were not affected in either cultivar by Na substitution for K. Leaf glycinebetaine levels were doubled at 75% Na substitution in Klein Bol, but decreased at higher levels of Na substitution. For Ruby Queen, glycinebetaine levels in leaf increased with the first increase of Na levels and were maintained at the higher Na levels. These results indicate that in some cultivars of red beet, 95% of the normal tissue K can be replaced by Na without a reduction in growth.

  19. 40 CFR Appendix H to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes, Effective May 28, 1999 H Appendix H to Subpart G of Part 82... STRATOSPHERIC OZONE Significant New Alternatives Policy Program Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. H Appendix H to Subpart...

  20. Stereochemistry analysis and comparison of two C(3)-alkyl substituted cyclohexonedicarboxylates with their C(3)-aryl substituted analogues

    Chen, Chao-Yue; Wang, Qi; Zhu, Bing-Long; Zhao, Wen-Jie; Hu, Jin-Song


    Two representative C(3)-alkyl substituted cyclohexonedicarboxylates (4a and 4b) were synthesized and their conformational features were investigated by single crystal X-ray crystallography for the first time. These stereochemistry results of 4a and 4b were compared with those obtained from the earlier research of C(3)-aryl substituted analogues (1-3).

  1. Transamination at the Crossroad of the One-Pot Synthesis of N-Substituted Quinonediimines and C-Substituted Benzobisimidazoles.

    Andeme Edzang, Judicaelle; Chen, Zhongrui; Audi, Hassib; Canard, Gabriel; Siri, Olivier


    A green and very efficient synthesis of N-substituted benzoquinonediimines or C-substituted benzo-bis(imidazole) derivatives is described under similar conditions. The different reaction pathway is only controlled by the nature of the primary amines, which tunes the reactivity of the intermediates.

  2. Pregabalin Abuse amongst Opioid Substitution Treatment Patients.

    McNamara, S; Stokes, S; Kilduff, R; Shine, A


    Pregabalin (Lyrica®) is used in treating epilepsy, nerve pain and anxiety. Pregabalin was initially thought to have a low misuse potential however there are emerging reports of Pregabalin being abused. A study was commenced at the National Drug Treatment Centre's (NDTC) Drug Analysis Laboratory to determine the level of usage of Pregabalin within the addiction services population in Ireland. A total of 498 urine samples representing samples from 440 individual opioid substitution patients, initially screened by immunoassay for drugs of abuse, were subjected to further analysis for Pregabalin by Liquid Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (LC/MS). Of 440 patients tested, 39 tested positive for Pregabalin (9.2%). Only 10 patients from this group were prescribed this drug to our knowledge thus giving an estimated rate of misuse of 7.0%. Other drugs detected in the Pregabalin positive patients were Opiates (31.8%), Cocaine (11.4%), Benzodiazepines (79.5%) and Cannabis (77.8%). Our study confirms that Pregabalin abuse is taking place amongst the addiction services population. We believe that misuse of this prescription drug is a serious emerging issue which should be monitored carefully.

  3. Production of Substitute Natural Gas from Coal

    Andrew Lucero


    The goal of this research program was to develop and demonstrate a novel gasification technology to produce substitute natural gas (SNG) from coal. The technology relies on a continuous sequential processing method that differs substantially from the historic methanation or hydro-gasification processing technologies. The thermo-chemistry relies on all the same reactions, but the processing sequences are different. The proposed concept is appropriate for western sub-bituminous coals, which tend to be composed of about half fixed carbon and about half volatile matter (dry ash-free basis). In the most general terms the process requires four steps (1) separating the fixed carbon from the volatile matter (pyrolysis); (2) converting the volatile fraction into syngas (reforming); (3) reacting the syngas with heated carbon to make methane-rich fuel gas (methanation and hydro-gasification); and (4) generating process heat by combusting residual char (combustion). A key feature of this technology is that no oxygen plant is needed for char combustion.

  4. Gd-substituted Bi-2223 superconductor

    D R Mishra


    The effects of gadolinium doping at calcium site on the normal and super-conducting properties of Bi-2223 system were studied. The Gd-doped (BiPb)-2223 series of specimens, namely Batch I, II and III were sintered at three different sintering temperatures 830, 850 and 895° C respectively. The properties investigated are (1) the normal state resistivity with a view to study metal-to-insulator transition, (2) the XRD patterns of the specimens with a view to study the relative composition of (BiPb)-2212 and (BiPb)-2223 phases and (3) the superconducting fluctuation behaviour (SFB) with a view to determine the effect of doping, if any, on the dimensionality of the fluctuation conductivity of the system. The normal state resistivity of Gd-substituted Bi-2223 specimens shows metallic, semiconducting and insulating behaviour. The c( = 0) values indicate that (BiPb)-2223 phase is responsible for the observed superconducting transitions in Batch I and Batch II specimens with Gd concentrations ≤ 0.7. This observation is further confirmed in the analysis of XRD patterns of these specimens. Gadolinium, being a magnetic impurity, has pair breaking effect near the Fermi level and decreases c( = 0). The analysis of the superconducting fluctuation behaviour (SFB) shows a 2D dimensionality without any cross-over.

  5. Color in Bridge-Substituted Cyanines.

    Olsen, Seth


    Theories of color in cyanine dyes have evolved around the idea of a "resonance" of structures with distinct bonding and charge localization. Understanding the emergence of resonance models from the underlying many-electron problem remains a central issue for these systems. Here, the issue is addressed using a maximum-entropy approach to valence-bond representations of state-averaged complete-active space self-consistent field models. The approach allows calculation of energies and couplings of high-energy valence-bond structures that mediate superexchange couplings and chemical bonding. A series of valence-bond Hamiltonians for a series of bridge-substituted derivatives of Michler's hydrol blue (a monomethine cyanine) is presented. The Hamiltonians are approximated with a simple linear model parametrized by the Brown-Okamoto σp(+) parameter of the bridge substituent. A quantitative lower bound on σp(+), beyond which a resonant cyanine-like ground state will not exist, is presented. The large effective coupling in two-state resonance models emerges from superexchange associated with either covalent bonding or charge-carrier delocalization, with the former contribution significantly the stronger. The results provide ab initio justification for empirical diabatic-state models of methine optical response. They are of general interest for understanding the optoelectronic response in cyanines.

  6. Energy conservation and substitution: refining the objectives

    Foley, G.


    Energy conservation is not a precisely defined concept; consequently, there is a considerable confusion about how to implement it or predict its effects. Reducing dependence on oil should be the central objective of energy policy, but this may not be furthered by generalized conservation strategies. Achieving a reduction in oil dependence requires a balanced policy of conservation and substitution. As governments have reacted against oil price rises and the subsequent inflationary effects with a swing towards monetarism and a harsher reliance upon market forces, the role of oil has become even more important. Reliance upon these policies has not eased the oil blockage upon economic activity; it has made it worse and made the task of providing alternatives to oil more difficult. Market forces have had a wedging, rather than a freeing, effect upon the pattern of energy supply. But the point is that conservation, on its own, does not create the momentum away from oil which is essential. The immediate objective is not to achieve a reduction in the consumption of energy as an end in itself, but as part of a liberation from dependence upon oil. Energy conservation needs to be seen as a servant of this wider objective. 21 references.

  7. Resurrecting extinct interactions with extant substitutes.

    Griffiths, Christine J; Hansen, Dennis M; Jones, Carl G; Zuël, Nicolas; Harris, Stephen


    There is increasing evidence that restoration ecologists should be most concerned with restoring species interactions rather than species diversity per se [1]. Rewilding with taxon substitutes, the intentional introduction of exotic species to replace the ecosystem functions of recently extinct species, is one way to reverse ecosystem dysfunction following the loss of species interactions [2]. This is highly controversial [3], in part because of a lack of rigorous scientific studies [4]. Here we present the first empirical evidence of an in situ rewilding project undertaken as a hypothesis-driven ecosystem management option. On Ile aux Aigrettes, a 25-hectare island off Mauritius, the critically endangered large-fruited endemic ebony, Diospyros egrettarum (Ebenaceae), was seed-dispersal limited after the extinction of all native large-bodied frugivores, including giant tortoises. We introduced exotic Aldabra giant tortoises, Aldabrachelys gigantea, to disperse the ebony seeds. Not only did the tortoises ingest the large fruits and disperse substantial numbers of ebony seeds, but tortoise gut passage also improved seed germination, leading to the widespread, successful establishment of new ebony seedlings. Our results demonstrate that the introduction of these exotic frugivores is aiding the recovery of ebonies. We argue for more reversible rewilding experiments to investigate whether extinct species interactions can be restored.

  8. Carbon dioxide: A substitute for phosgene

    Aresta, M.; Quaranta, E. [Univ. of Bari (Italy)


    One of the many goals of the green chemistry movement is to eliminate the use of phosgene (COCl{sub 2}), an extremely hazardous compound used in many syntheses, including the production of carbamates, organic carbonates, and polymers. One of the most interesting options for eliminating this compound is to replace it with CO{sub 2}. In addition to carbon dioxide`s abundance and benign nature, it has the benefits of recycling carbon and of reducing the amount of CO{sub 2} released into the atmosphere when its use is linked with other processes that emit CO{sub 2}. Several synthetic strategies that do not use phosgene are under development. The authors briefly review the most interesting ones and then expand on the use of CO{sub 2} as a potential building block for organic carbamates, carbonates, and isocyanates. One of these routes, polycarbonate synthesis, is already in industrial-scale operation: PAC Polymers Inc. currently produces CO{sub 2}-epoxide copolymers. The synthesis of carbamates and substituted ureas has been developed, and this process awaits industrial exploitation.

  9. The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization

    Jacek Rostowski


    Full Text Available Allowing currency substitution in a very high inflation helps to maintain the level of output, as, the distortion of the information carried by prices is mitigated. The total (primary plus secondary money supply may increase if currency substitution is permitted. Currency substitution does not even necessarily reduce the real primary money stock. Moreover, the demand for the primary money fragments at very high rates of inflation, which means that the authorities may loose little when they give up the attempt to obtain inflation tax revenue. Currency substitution need be no more expensive, in term of the real resources it consumes, than is indexation. Finally the availability of a second stable currency may reduce the severity of post-stabilization recessions. The Benefit of Currency Substitution during High Inflation and Stabilization

  10. Bayesian selection of nucleotide substitution models and their site assignments.

    Wu, Chieh-Hsi; Suchard, Marc A; Drummond, Alexei J


    Probabilistic inference of a phylogenetic tree from molecular sequence data is predicated on a substitution model describing the relative rates of change between character states along the tree for each site in the multiple sequence alignment. Commonly, one assumes that the substitution model is homogeneous across sites within large partitions of the alignment, assigns these partitions a priori, and then fixes their underlying substitution model to the best-fitting model from a hierarchy of named models. Here, we introduce an automatic model selection and model averaging approach within a Bayesian framework that simultaneously estimates the number of partitions, the assignment of sites to partitions, the substitution model for each partition, and the uncertainty in these selections. This new approach is implemented as an add-on to the BEAST 2 software platform. We find that this approach dramatically improves the fit of the nucleotide substitution model compared with existing approaches, and we show, using a number of example data sets, that as many as nine partitions are required to explain the heterogeneity in nucleotide substitution process across sites in a single gene analysis. In some instances, this improved modeling of the substitution process can have a measurable effect on downstream inference, including the estimated phylogeny, relative divergence times, and effective population size histories.

  11. Structure and Infrared Radiation Properties of Substituted Cordierites

    XU Qing; SONG Chaowen; CHEN Wen; LIU Xiaofang; ZHANG Feng


    Zn2+ - or Ti4+ -substituted cordierites with the nominal compositions of Mg1.6 Zn0.4 Al4 Si5 O18 and Mg1.8 Ti0.2 Al4.4 Si4.6 O18 respectively, were prepared by a conventional solid state reaction method. The structure of the substituted cordierites was characterized by X- ray diffraction (XRD), infrared ( IR ) spectroscopy and 29 Si magic angle spinning ( MAS ) nuclear magnetic resonance ( NMR ). The infrared radiation properties were investigated in the bands within 2.5-25 μm. Compared with the un-substituted cordierite composition ( Mg2 Al4 Si5 O18 ), Zn2+ - or Ti4+ -substituted cordierites show superior infrared properties . XRD and IR results confirm the formation of hexagonal α-cordierite as the main crystal phase for the substituted cordierites. 29 Si MAS NMR result indicates that Zn2+ or Ti4+ substitutions for partial Mg2+ of a- cordierite promoted the ordering of the distribution of Al and Si atoms in T1 ( tetrahedra connecting six-membered rings together with [ MgO6 ] octahedra ) and T2 ( tetraheda forming six- membered rings ) tetrahedral sites. This resulted in a lattice deformation and increased the anharmonicity of polarization vibration, which is responsible for the improvement of infrared radiation properties of the substituted cordierites.

  12. Enhanced osteoconductivity of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite by system instability.

    Sang Cho, Jung; Um, Seung-Hoon; Su Yoo, Dong; Chung, Yong-Chae; Hye Chung, Shin; Lee, Jeong-Cheol; Rhee, Sang-Hoon


    The effect of substituting sodium for calcium on enhanced osteoconductivity of hydroxyapatite was newly investigated. Sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was synthesized by reacting calcium hydroxide and phosphoric acid with sodium nitrate followed by sintering. As a control, pure hydroxyapatite was prepared under identical conditions, but without the addition of sodium nitrate. Substitution of calcium with sodium in hydroxyapatite produced the structural vacancies for carbonate ion from phosphate site and hydrogen ion from hydroxide site of hydroxyapatite after sintering. The total system energy of sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects calculated by ab initio methods based on quantum mechanics was much higher than that of hydroxyapatite, suggesting that the sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite was energetically less stable compared with hydroxyapatite. Indeed, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited higher dissolution behavior of constituent elements of hydroxyapatite in simulated body fluid (SBF) and Tris-buffered deionized water compared with hydroxyapatite, which directly affected low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity by increasing the degree of apatite supersaturation in SBF. Actually, sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite exhibited markedly improved low-crystalline hydroxyl-carbonate apatite forming capacity in SBF and noticeably higher osteoconductivity 4 weeks after implantation in calvarial defects of New Zealand white rabbits compared with hydroxyapatite. In addition, there were no statistically significant differences between hydroxyapatite and sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite on cytotoxicity as determined by BCA assay. Taken together, these results indicate that sodium-substituted hydroxyapatite with structural defects has promising potential for use as a bone grafting material due to its enhanced osteoconductivity compared with hydroxyapatite.

  13. Substitute natural gas from biomass gasification

    Tunaa, Per (Lund Inst. of Technology, Lund (SE))


    Biomass is by many considered as the only alternative to phase-out the usage of fossil fuels such as natural gas and oil especially for the transportation sector where alternative solutions, such as hydrogen fuel cells and batteries, are not yet fully developed. Thermal gasification or other methods such as pyrolysis of the biomass must be applied in order to produce an intermediate product suitable for further upgrading to either gaseous or liquid products. This thesis will evaluate the possibilities of producing, substitute natural gas, (SNG) from biomass gasification by using computer simulation. Three different gasification techniques were evaluated; entrained-flow, fluidized-bed and indirect gasification coupled with two different desulphurisation systems and two methanation processes. The desulphurisation systems were a zinc oxide bed and a Rectisol wash system. Methanation were performed by a series of adiabatic reactors with gas recycling and by an isothermal reactor. The impact on SNG efficiency from system pressure, isothermal methanation temperature and PSA methane recovery were evaluated as well. The results show that the fluidized-bed and the indirect gasifier have the highest SNG efficiency. Furthermore there are little to no difference between the methanation processes and small differences for the gas cleanup systems. SNG efficiencies in excess of 50 % were possible for all gasifiers. SNG efficiency is defined as the energy in the SNG product divided by the total input to the system from biomass, drying and oxygen. Increasing system pressure has a negative impact on SNG efficiency as well as increasing operating costs due to increased power for compression. Isothermal methanation temperature has no significant impact on SNG efficiency. Recovering as much methane as possible in the PSA is the most important parameter. Recovering methane that has been dissolved in condensed process water increases the SNG efficiency by 2-10% depending on system.

  14. Preclinical evaluation of injectable bone substitute materials.

    Bongio, Matilde; van den Beucken, Jeroen J J P; Leeuwenburgh, Sander C G; Jansen, John A


    Injectable bone substitutes (IBSs) represent an attractive class of ready-to-use biomaterials, both ceramic- and polymer-based, as they offer the potential benefit of minimally invasive surgery and optimal defect filling. Although in vitro assessments are the first step in the process of development, the safety and efficacy of an IBS strongly depend on validated preclinical research prior to clinical trials. However, the selection of a suitable preclinical model for performance evaluation of an IBS remains a challenge, as no gold standard exists to define the best animal model. In order to succeed in this attempt, we identified three stages of development, including (a) proof-of-principle, (b) predictive validity and (c) general scientific legitimacy, and the respective criteria that should be applied for such selection. The second part of this review provides an overview of commonly used animals for IBSs. Specifically, scientific papers published between January 1996 and March 2012 were retrieved that report the use of preclinical models for the evaluation of IBSs in situations requiring bone healing and bone augmentation. This review is meant not only to describe the currently available preclinical models for IBS application, but also to address critical considerations of such multi-factorial evaluation models (including animal species, strain, age, anatomical site, defect size and type of bone), which can be indicative but in most cases edge away from the human reality. Consequently, the ultimate goal is to guide researchers toward a more careful and meaningful interpretation of the results of experiments using animal models and their clinical applications. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Elasticity of substitution and anti-dumping decisions

    Hansen, Jørgen Drud; Meinen, Philipp; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller


    Motivated by a monopolistic competition model with market segmentation and international price discrimination, this paper analyzes whether there is an inverse relation between the elasticity of substitution and final ad valorem anti-dumping duties across products. We test this for 19 countries...... using data on anti-dumping from the Global Antidumping Database and US data at the 6-digit HS product level for the elasticity of substitution from Broda and Weinstein (Q J Econ 121(2):541–585, 2006). The results in our empirical investigation support a negative relation between the elasticity...... of substitution and the final ad valorem anti-dumping duties....

  16. Competition Derived from Innovation as a Substitution Threat

    Howells, John


    This paper is a review of the role of innovation as substitution threat. The interesting strategy for those facing what in retrospect proves to be full substitution is the strategy of 'switch' to the substituting technology. the context-dependent uncedrtainty involved in the switch decision...... is examined in three detailed cases; the reluctance of the nineteenth century alkali industry in England to switch to a superior continuous production process; IBM's succesful switch to computer technology; the inability of the electronic valve manufacturers of the 1950s to switch to the semiconductor...... transistor. The case material is used to introduce the problem competition policy has when faced with competition derived from innovation....

  17. Arylazoindazole Photoswitches: Facile Synthesis and Functionalization via SNAr Substitution


    A straightforward synthetic route to arylazoindazoles via nucleophilic aromatic substitution is presented. Upon deprotonation of the NH group, a C6F5-substituted formazan undergoes facile cyclization as a result of intermolecular nucleophilic substitution (SNAr). This new class of azo photoswitches containing an indazole five-membered heterocycle shows photochemical isomerization with high fatigue resistance. In addition, the Z-isomers have long thermal half-lives in the dark of up to several days at room temperature. The fluorinated indazole group offers a handle for further functionalization and tuning of its properties, as it is shown to be susceptible to a subsequent, highly selective nucleophilic displacement reaction. PMID:28218846

  18. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas


    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...... as the prospects for performing the substitution with a vegetable ester. It can be a tool for companies to decide which cleaning process has the highest demand for substitution, if there is a choice between several processes, but it may also be a tool to convince companies to use non-volatile, low-toxic cleaning...

  19. The impact of single substitutions on multiple sequence alignments.

    Klaere, Steffen; Gesell, Tanja; von Haeseler, Arndt


    We introduce another view of sequence evolution. Contrary to other approaches, we model the substitution process in two steps. First we assume (arbitrary) scaled branch lengths on a given phylogenetic tree. Second we allocate a Poisson distributed number of substitutions on the branches. The probability to place a mutation on a branch is proportional to its relative branch length. More importantly, the action of a single mutation on an alignment column is described by a doubly stochastic matrix, the so-called one-step mutation matrix. This matrix leads to analytical formulae for the posterior probability distribution of the number of substitutions for an alignment column.


    O. V. Martynenko


    Full Text Available The review involves clinical and experimental data, constitutive modeling, and computational investigations towards an understanding on how mechanical cyclic loads for long periods of time affect damage evolution in a reconstructed bone, as well as, lifetime reduction of bone graft substitutes after advanced core decompression. The outcome of the integrated model discussed in this paper will be how damage growth in femur after advanced core decompression subjected to mechanical cyclic loading under creep and fatigue conditions may be controlled in order to optimize design and processing of bone graft substitutes, and extend lifetime of bone substitutes.

  1. Synthetic and biological studies on thioxoquinazolinone substituted isoxazoles.

    Lakshmi, K; Rao, N Rama; Kao, M V Basaveswara


    Eighteen novel 5-phenyl-3-(substitutedthioxoquinazolinonyl) isoxazoles (5a-r) were synthesized by cycloaddition of various chalcones with hydroxylaminehydrochloride (NH2OH.HCl). All the newly synthesized compounds were confirmed by their spectral and analytical data. They were evaluated for antimicrobial, antihelminthic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities with an objective to evaluate the effect of thioxoquinazolinone substituted isoxazoles. Compounds 5a, 5f, 5g, 5k and 51 showed significant antimicrobial, anthelmintic, analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Further, isoxazoles having bromo substituted thioxoquinazolinones exhibited excellent activities than iodo substituted thioxoquinazolinones.

  2. Systematic B-metal substitution in CaNi5

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Bjerrum, Niels


    The aim of this work has been to study the effect of B metal substitutions in CaNi5 (AB(5)) which is known to suffer from poor cycling stability as a hydride electrode material. Systematic monosubstitutions of nickel with the most common other B metals (i.e. Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Sn...... be concluded that CaNi5 is much less tolerant towards B-metal substitution than LaNi5. This fact makes it less possible that the problem with cycling stability of Ca-based hydride electrodes can be solved by substitutions. (C) 1999 Elsevier Science S.A. All rights reserved....

  3. Stereochemistry of substitution at trico-ordinate phosphorus

    Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto


    and 31P) from reactant and product diastereoisomers have been assigned, and the stereo-chemistry of the substitution reactions have been determined by 31P n.m.r. monitoring. The outcome varies from complete inversion to complete lack of stereoselectivity. During the initial stages many of the non-selective...... reactions proceed with predominant inversion, and most of the results may be interpreted by assuming that the actual substitution step occurs with inversion, and that the lack of stereoselectivity is due to competing isomerizations of products or reactants. Exceptions are certain reactions where the leaving...... group is Cl; these appear to involve a non-selective substitution step....

  4. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    Abu Bakar Mohd Hilmi


    Full Text Available Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%, longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm, and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm. The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm were significantly decreased (P<0.05 compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm. Human leukocyte antigen (HLA expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  5. Macroporous synthetic hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications

    Thomas, ME


    Full Text Available An improved strategy is described for the manufacture of macroporous hydroxyapatite bioceramics for bone substitute applications. This is based on a modified fugitive phase technique, which allows production of relatively open, high-strength devices...

  6. Nipple Aspirate Test Is No Substitute for Mammogram

    ... Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco Products For Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Nipple Aspirate Test is No Substitute for Mammogram Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ...

  7. Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care

    Monika Chrenková


    Full Text Available Recently, the system of care for endangered children has changed from the institutional as well as legislative point of view. In one of the partial areas of ongoing changes, research activities realised within the Students’ Grant Competition called The Factors Affecting the Form of Substitute Family Care are being focused. We deal with this topic because various forms of substitute family care are distinguished in the Czech Republic, where children are placed for various reasons, but we do not know the correct context of such placements. The main aim of the realised research was to find out the frequency of choosing a given form of placing children in substitute family care according to followed variables. The research sample of the quantitative research was consisted of children placed in one of the forms of substitute family care in the Moravian-Silesian region.

  8. Expedient Organocatalytic Syntheses of 4-Substituted Pyrazolidines and Isoxazolidines

    Tarek Yousfi


    Full Text Available The efficient organocatalytic synthesis of heterocyclic systems of biological relevance is a subject of growing interest. We have found that the pyrrolidine/benzoic acid-catalyzed reaction of α-substituted propenals such as methacrolein, 2-benzylpropenal and 2-(n-hexylpropenal with activated hydrazines takes place in very good yields (83%–99.6% under very mild conditions to afford 4-substituted pyrazolidin-3-ols (as diastereomer mixtures; subsequent oxidation with PCC affords the corresponding-4-substituted-3-pyrazolidinones in essentially quantitative yields. In a similar way, 4-substituted isoxazolidinones are obtained with N-Cbz-hydroxylamine as a reagent. The use of chiral diarylprolinol trimethylsilyl ethers as catalysts allows the synthesis of several of these compounds in optically active form, in some cases with excellent enantioselectivity (up to 96:4 er. A preliminary evaluation of the biological activity shows that some of these compounds exhibit interesting antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  9. Computational Modeling of Degradation of Substituted Benzyltrimethyl Ammonium: Preprint

    Long, H.; Pivovar, B. S.


    The degradation of cations on the alkaline exchange membranes is the major challenge for alkaline membrane fuel cells. In this paper, we investigated the degradation barriers by density functional theory for substituted benzyltrimethyl ammonium (BTMA+) cations, which is one of the most commonly used cations for alkaline exchange membranes. We found that substituted cations with electron-releasing substituent groups at meta-position of the benzyl ring could result in improved degradation barriers. However, after investigating more than thirty substituted BTMA+ cations with ten different substituent groups, the largest improvement of degradation barriers is only 1.6 kcal/mol. This implies that the lifetime of alkaline membrane fuel cells could increase from a few months to a few years by using substituted BTMA+ cations, an encouraging but still limited improvement for real-world applications.

  10. Determination of Sodium in Salt Substitute by Flame Emission Spectroscopy.

    Goodney, David E.


    Experimental procedures and typical student data/results are provided for an experiment determining the sodium (parts per million) in salt substitute with an error of a few percent. Problems encountered with the technique are addressed. (Author/JN)

  11. Amelioration of transference resistance: substitute therapists in milieu group psychotherapy.

    Sperling, M B; Kibel, H D; Loutsch, E M


    Building upon Wolf's (1949) notion of the use of an alternate session in group psychotherapy, this paper suggests that an alternate therapist substituting for an absent regular therapist in milieu group psychotherapy can facilitate similar therapeutic benefits. The mechanism of this process of overcoming transference resistance is seen as twofold: (1) sessions with a substitute therapist allow patients to confront the infantilization often present in a milieu setting and experiment with more autonomous ego functioning. (2) Sessions with a substitute therapist create conditions which are apart from the ongoing process of the therapy group, thereby allowing for a therapeutic splitting process to develop wherein transference feelings about the regular therapist can be expressed to his or her "alter ego." Several case vignettes are presented in order to illustrate the clinical utility of a substitute therapist.

  12. A New Synthetic Method for N-Substituted Selenoamides


    Benzotriazole, aldehydes and primary selenoamides react together with elimination of water to form 1:1:1 adducts which are reduced smoothly by NaBH4 to give the N-substituted selenoamides in good yield.

  13. 38 CFR 36.4287 - Substitution of trustees.


    ... (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty of Loans to Veterans to Purchase Manufactured Homes and Lots, Including... appoint substitute trustees or other person with such power to sell, who shall succeed to all the...

  14. Reduction of magnetic interlayer coupling in barlowite through isoelectronic substitution

    Guterding, Daniel; Valentí, Roser; Jeschke, Harald O.


    Materials with a perfect kagome lattice structure of magnetic ions are intensively sought after, because they may exhibit exotic ground states like a quantum spin liquid phase. Barlowite is a natural mineral that features perfect kagome layers of copper ions. However, in barlowite there are also copper ions between the kagome layers, which mediate strong interkagome couplings and lead to an ordered ground state. Using ab initio density functional theory calculations we investigate whether selective isoelectronic substitution of the interlayer copper ions is feasible. After identifying several promising candidates for substitution we calculate the magnetic exchange couplings based on crystal structures predicted from first-principles calculations. We find that isoelectronic substitution with nonmagnetic ions significantly reduces the interkagome exchange coupling. As a consequence, interlayer-substituted barlowite can be described by a simple two-parameter Heisenberg Hamiltonian, for which a quantum spin liquid ground state has been predicted.

  15. Supramolecular metal complex systems based on crown-substituted tetrapyrroles

    Tsivadze, Aslan Yu [Institute of Physical Chemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    The characteristic features of the structures and properties of crown-substituted porphyrinates and phthalocyaninates are considered. Interactions of these compounds with alkali metal salts yield supramolecular ensembles. The factors determining the architecture of such ensembles are described.

  16. Industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa and import substitution policy

    Ana Paula F. Mendes


    Full Text Available This article aims to contribute to the understanding of the process of import substitution in Sub-Saharan Africa. The process of industrialization in Sub-Saharan Africa occurred in two phases: a first step, even very early during the colonial regime began around the 1920s and ended in the late forties; a second phase of industrialization began in the late fifties and gained momentum in the sixties, when import substitution was implemented more widely. Although these countries were the last to embark on the strategy of import substitution, they followed the same steps of Latin American countries, and as the structural domestic and external constraints were too strong, the failure of the policy of import substitution arrived early and the negative impact on these economies had a greater magnitude.

  17. Long term substitution treatment (maintenance treatment of opioid dependent persons

    Wirl, Charlotte


    Full Text Available Health political background: Methadone substitution treatment in Germany is introduced in 1988 in the framework of a scientific pilot study in North Rhein Westphalia. Recent statistics show that by now a broad offer of substitution treatment exists. From 1 June 2002 to 31 December 2003 113,000 substitution treatments have been recorded as being started of which around 56,000 have been recorded as ongoing treatments by 1 December 2003. Scientific background: Substitution treatment (treatment of opioid-dependent persons using substitution substances is one part of addiction treatment. Its goals are harm reduction and the stabilisation of opioid dependent persons. Integration of opioid-dependent persons in a treatment-setting, reduction of consumption of psychoactive substances, reduction of risk behaviour (primarily related to infectious diseases, decrease of mortality and improvements concerning the social, psychic and physic situation are seen as a success of substitution treatment as maintenance therapy. Research questions: The aim of this HTA report is to investigate which indicators can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of substitution treatment. Based on these indicators an evaluation of the medical, social and economical benefit of substitution treatment - also in relation to abstinence oriented treatment - is carried out. Methods: A systematic literature search was performed in 31 international databases which yielded 2451 articles with publication date between 1995 and February 2005. Results: After a twofold selection process 32 publications were included for assessment and 276 publications were used as background literature. Despite serious restrictions due to selection bias and dropout in most studies focusing on substitution treatment, reduction of consumption of illegal opioids, reduction of risk behaviour, criminal behaviour, mortality and incidence of HIV can be seen as an empirically proven success of substitution treatment

  18. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Valéria Maria Limberger


    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  19. Generic substitution - comparing the clinical efficacy of a generic ...


    Mar 3, 1998 ... Departments of Psychiatry and Biostatistics, University of the. Orange Free State ... industry has expanded rapidly during the last 2 decades! The need to contain the ... Substitution of a generic drug product for an innovator.

  20. Synthesis and Bioassay of 4-Substituted 2-Oxoglutaric Acids

    Qiu Yun CHEN; Qing Shan LIU; Christopher J. SCHOFIELD


    Three 2-oxoglutaric acid analogues were synthesized. Their interaction with factorinhibiting hypoxia-inducible factor (FIH) was studied using LC-MS method. The results show that hydrophobic substitutes of 2-oxoglutaric acids have great influence on their inhibitor activity.

  1. Determination of Sodium in Salt Substitute by Flame Emission Spectroscopy.

    Goodney, David E.


    Experimental procedures and typical student data/results are provided for an experiment determining the sodium (parts per million) in salt substitute with an error of a few percent. Problems encountered with the technique are addressed. (Author/JN)



    ABSTRACT. Three methods for preparation of D-amino acids by nucleophilic substitution on derivatives of ... In recent years, the preparation of non- ... 1998). DME and THF were distilled under ... methanol/dichloromethane) to yield a white.

  3. Weak preservation of local neutral substitution rates across mammalian genomes

    Karro John E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate at which neutral (non-functional bases undergo substitution is highly dependent on their location within a genome. However, it is not clear how fast these location-dependent rates change, or to what extent the substitution rate patterns are conserved between lineages. To address this question, which is critical not only for understanding the substitution process but also for evaluating phylogenetic footprinting algorithms, we examine ancestral repeats: a predominantly neutral dataset with a significantly higher genomic density than other datasets commonly used to study substitution rate variation. Using this repeat data, we measure the extent to which orthologous ancestral repeat sequences exhibit similar substitution patterns in separate mammalian lineages, allowing us to ascertain how well local substitution rates have been preserved across species. Results We calculated substitution rates for each ancestral repeat in each of three independent mammalian lineages (primate – from human/macaque alignments, rodent – from mouse/rat alignments, and laurasiatheria – from dog/cow alignments. We then measured the correlation of local substitution rates among these lineages. Overall we found the correlations between lineages to be statistically significant, but too weak to have much predictive power (r2 5%. These correlations were found to be primarily driven by regional effects at the scale of several hundred kb or larger. A few repeat classes (e.g. 7SK, Charlie8, and MER121 also exhibited stronger conservation of rate patterns, likely due to the effect of repeat-specific purifying selection. These classes should be excluded when estimating local neutral substitution rates. Conclusion Although local neutral substitution rates have some correlations among mammalian species, these correlations have little predictive power on the scale of individual repeats. This indicates that local substitution rates have changed

  4. Patterns of nucleotides that flank substitutions in human orthologous genes

    Huang Zhuoran


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sequence context is an important aspect of base mutagenesis, and three-base periodicity is an intrinsic property of coding sequences. However, how three-base periodicity is influenced in the vicinity of substitutions is still unclear. The effect of context on mutagenesis should be revealed in the usage of nucleotides that flank substitutions. Relative entropy (also known as Kullback-Leibler divergence is useful for finding unusual patterns in biological sequences. Results Using relative entropy, we visualized the periodic patterns in the context of substitutions in human orthologous genes. Neighbouring patterns differed both among substitution categories and within a category that occurred at three codon positions. Transition tended to occur in periodic sequences relative to transversion. Periodic signals were stronger in a set of flanking sequences of substitutions that occurred at the third-codon positions than in those that occurred at the first- or second-codon positions. To determine how the three-base periodicity was affected near the substitution sites, we fitted a sine model to the values of the relative entropy. A sine of period equal to 3 is a good approximation for the three-base periodicity at sites not in close vicinity to some substitutions. These periods were interrupted near the substitution site and then reappeared away from substitutions. A comparative analysis between the native and codon-shuffled datasets suggested that the codon usage frequency was not the sole origin of the three-base periodicity, implying that the native order of codons also played an important role in this periodicity. Synonymous codon shuffling revealed that synonymous codon usage bias was one of the factors responsible for the observed three-base periodicity. Conclusions Our results offer an efficient way to illustrate unusual periodic patterns in the context of substitutions and provide further insight into the origin of three

  5. Bundling Revisited: Substitute Products and Inter-Firm Discounts

    Armstrong, Mark


    This paper extends the standard model of bundling to allow products to be substitutes and for products to be supplied by separate sellers. Whether integrated or separate, firms have an incentive to introduce bundling discounts when demand for the bundle is elastic relative to demand for stand-alone products. When products are partial substitutes, this typically gives an integrated firm a greater incentive to offer a bundle discount (relative to the standard model with additive preferences), w...

  6. Dynamic Teams and Decentralized Control Problems with Substitutable Actions

    Asghari, Seyed Mohammad; Nayyar, Ashutosh


    This paper considers two problems -- a dynamic team problem and a decentralized control problem. The problems we consider do not belong to the known classes of "simpler" dynamic team/decentralized control problems such as partially nested or quadratically invariant problems. However, we show that our problems admit simple solutions under an assumption referred to as the substitutability assumption. Intuitively, substitutability in a team (resp. decentralized control) problem means that the ef...

  7. Chaotic substitution for highly autocorrelated data in encryption algorithm

    Anees, Amir; Siddiqui, Adil Masood; Ahmed, Fawad


    This paper addresses the major drawback of substitution-box in highly auto-correlated data and proposes a novel chaotic substitution technique for encryption algorithm to sort the problem. Simulation results reveal that the overall strength of the proposed technique for encryption is much stronger than most of the existing encryption techniques. Furthermore, few statistical security analyses have also been done to show the strength of anticipated algorithm.

  8. A propene-substituted cyclotriphosphazene : Synthesis, characterization and polymerization

    Bosscher, G; Meetsma, A; vandeGrampel, JC


    The elimination reaction of the sulfonium-substituted chlorocyclotriphosphazene N3P3Cl4Pri(CMe2OSO2Me) with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene afforded a new olefin-substituted chlorocyclotriphosphazene, N3P3Cl4Pri(CMe=CH2), and an ansa derivative with formula N3P3Cl3Pri(CMe2CH=CMeO). The crystal st

  9. Squirals and beyond: Substitution tilings with singular continuous spectrum

    Baake, Michael


    The squiral inflation rule is equivalent to a bijective block substitution rule and leads to an interesting lattice dynamical system under the action of $\\mathbb{Z}^{2}$. In particular, its balanced version has purely singular continuous diffraction. The dynamical spectrum is of mixed type, with pure point and singular continuous components. We present a constructive proof that admits a generalisation to bijective block substitutions of trivial height on $\\mathbb{Z}^{d}$.

  10. Algebraic Construction and Cryptographic Properties of Rijndael Substitution Box

    Shristi Deva Sinha


    Full Text Available Rijndael algorithm was selected as the advanced encryption standard in 2001 after five year long security evaluation; it is well proven in terms of its strength and efficiency. The substitution box is the back bone of the cipher and its strength lies in the simplicity of its algebraic construction. The present paper is a study of the construction of Rijndael Substitution box and the effect of varying the design components on its cryptographic properties.

  11. Pulverized coal and substitute fuels for the cement manufacturing industry

    Dobrowsky, F.


    This paper comprises an article of general technical interest on coal and its use in the cement industry, plus the scope for using substitute fuels. Discusses coal properties and preparation (crushing). Describes the heating systems of the cement ovens: burners, combustion and parameters governing flame-length. Looks at operation problems connected with heating of the coal: caking, fusing, clinker quality and behaviour of the refractory bricks. Also discusses substitute fuels: type of fuel, scope for utilisation and requisite precautions. 32 refs.

  12. 2-Arylbenzoxazoles as CETP inhibitors: Substitution of the benzoxazole moiety.

    Smith, Cameron J; Ali, Amjad; Chen, Liya; Hammond, Milton L; Anderson, Matt S; Chen, Ying; Eveland, Suzanne S; Guo, Qiu; Hyland, Sheryl A; Milot, Denise P; Sparrow, Carl P; Wright, Samuel D; Sinclair, Peter J


    A series of 2-arylbenzoxazole inhibitors of the cholesterol ester transfer protein (CETP) is described. Structure-activity studies focused on variation of the substitution of the benzoxazole moiety. Substitution at the 5- and 7-positions of the benzoxazole moiety was found to be beneficial for CETP inhibition. Compound 47 was found to be the most potent inhibitor in this series and inhibited CETP with an IC(50) of 28nM.

  13. A propene-substituted cyclotriphosphazene : Synthesis, characterization and polymerization

    Bosscher, G; Meetsma, A; vandeGrampel, JC


    The elimination reaction of the sulfonium-substituted chlorocyclotriphosphazene N3P3Cl4Pri(CMe2OSO2Me) with 1,8-diazabicyclo[5.4.0]undec-7-ene afforded a new olefin-substituted chlorocyclotriphosphazene, N3P3Cl4Pri(CMe=CH2), and an ansa derivative with formula N3P3Cl3Pri(CMe2CH=CMeO). The crystal st

  14. Strategic Thinking on Developing Petroleum Substitutes in China


    The continual growth of Chinese economy indicates that the oil demand in China will maintain a strongly rising tendency in the future. With increasing oil consumption, the contradiction between supply and demand will become more and more serious, which can be resolved by developing petroleum substitutes. This paper analyzes different influence factors, displays the development trend and probes into the strategy in developing petroleum substitutes in China.

  15. Solubility of strontium-substituted apatite by solid titration

    Pan, HB; Darvell, BW; Luk, KDK; Lu, WW; Li, ZY; Lam, WM; Wong, JC


    Solid titration was used to explore the solubility isotherms of partially (Srx-HAp, x = 1, 5, 10, 40, 60 mol.%) and fully substituted strontium hydroxyapatite (Sr-HAp). Solubility increased with increasing strontium content. No phase other than strontium-substituted HAp, corresponding to the original titrant, was detected in the solid present at equilibrium; in particular, dicalcium hydrogen phosphate was not detected at low pH. The increase in solubility with strontium content is interpreted...

  16. Gene Tree Discordance Causes Apparent Substitution Rate Variation.

    Mendes, Fábio K; Hahn, Matthew W


    Substitution rates are known to be variable among genes, chromosomes, species, and lineages due to multifarious biological processes. Here, we consider another source of substitution rate variation due to a technical bias associated with gene tree discordance. Discordance has been found to be rampant in genome-wide data sets, often due to incomplete lineage sorting (ILS). This apparent substitution rate variation is caused when substitutions that occur on discordant gene trees are analyzed in the context of a single, fixed species tree. Such substitutions have to be resolved by proposing multiple substitutions on the species tree, and we therefore refer to this phenomenon as Substitutions Produced by ILS (SPILS). We use simulations to demonstrate that SPILS has a larger effect with increasing levels of ILS, and on trees with larger numbers of taxa. Specific branches of the species trees are consistently, but erroneously, inferred to be longer or shorter, and we show that these branches can be predicted based on discordant tree topologies. Moreover, we observe that fixing a species tree topology when performing tests of positive selection increases the false positive rate, particularly for genes whose discordant topologies are most affected by SPILS. Finally, we use data from multiple Drosophila species to show that SPILS can be detected in nature. Although the effects of SPILS are modest per gene, it has the potential to affect substitution rate variation whenever high levels of ILS are present, particularly in rapid radiations. The problems outlined here have implications for character mapping of any type of trait, and for any biological process that causes discordance. We discuss possible solutions to these problems, and areas in which they are likely to have caused faulty inferences of convergence and accelerated evolution.

  17. Anthropogenic areas as incidental substitutes for original habitat.

    Martínez-Abraín, Alejandro; Jiménez, Juan


    One speaks of ecological substitutes when an introduced species performs, to some extent, the ecosystem function of an extirpated native species. We suggest that a similar case exists for habitats. Species evolve within ecosystems, but habitats can be destroyed or modified by natural and human-made causes. Sometimes habitat alteration forces animals to move to or remain in a suboptimal habitat type. In that case, the habitat is considered a refuge, and the species is called a refugee. Typically refugee species have lower population growth rates than in their original habitats. Human action may lead to the unintended generation of artificial or semiartificial habitat types that functionally resemble the essential features of the original habitat and thus allow a population growth rate of the same magnitude or higher than in the original habitat. We call such areas substitution habitats and define them as human-made habitats within the focal species range that by chance are partial substitutes for the species' original habitat. We call species occupying a substitution habitat adopted species. These are 2 new terms in conservation biology. Examples of substitution habitats are dams for European otters, wheat and rice fields for many steppeland and aquatic birds, and urban areas for storks, falcons, and swifts. Although substitution habitats can bring about increased resilience against the agents of global change, the conservation of original habitat types remains a conservation priority. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  18. Characterization of hair follicle development in engineered skin substitutes.

    Penkanok Sriwiriyanont

    Full Text Available Generation of skin appendages in engineered skin substitutes has been limited by lack of trichogenic potency in cultured postnatal cells. To investigate the feasibility and the limitation of hair regeneration, engineered skin substitutes were prepared with chimeric populations of cultured human keratinocytes from neonatal foreskins and cultured murine dermal papilla cells from adult GFP transgenic mice and grafted orthotopically to full-thickness wounds on athymic mice. Non-cultured dissociated neonatal murine-only skin cells, or cultured human-only skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts without dermal papilla cells served as positive and negative controls respectively. In this study, neonatal murine-only skin substitutes formed external hairs and sebaceous glands, chimeric skin substitutes formed pigmented hairs without sebaceous glands, and human-only skin substitutes formed no follicles or glands. Although chimeric hair cannot erupt readily, removal of upper skin layer exposed keratinized hair shafts at the skin surface. Development of incomplete pilosebaceous units in chimeric hair corresponded with upregulation of hair-related genes, LEF1 and WNT10B, and downregulation of a marker of sebaceous glands, Steroyl-CoA desaturase. Transepidermal water loss was normal in all conditions. This study demonstrated that while sebaceous glands may be involved in hair eruption, they are not required for hair development in engineered skin substitutes.

  19. Calcitonin substitution in calcitonin deficiency reduces particle-induced osteolysis

    Grabellus Florian


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periprosthetic osteolysis is a major cause of aseptic loosening in joint arthroplasty. This study investigates the impact of CT (calcitonin deficiency and CT substitution under in-vivo circumstances on particle-induced osteolysis in Calca -/- mice. Methods We used the murine calvarial osteolysis model based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE particles in 10 C57BL/6J wild-type (WT mice and twenty Calca -/- mice. The mice were divided into six groups: WT without UHMWPE particles (Group 1, WT with UHMWPE particles (Group 2, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles (Group 3, Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particles (Group 4, Calca -/- mice without UHMWPE particles and calcitonin substitution (Group 5, and Calca -/- mice with UHMWPE particle implantation and calcitonin substitution (Group 6. Analytes were extracted from serum and urine. Bone resorption was measured by bone histomorphometry. The number of osteoclasts was determined by counting the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP + cells. Results Bone resorption was significantly increased in Calca -/- mice compared with their corresponding WT. The eroded surface in Calca -/- mice with particle implantation was reduced by 20.6% after CT substitution. Osteoclast numbers were significantly increased in Calca -/- mice after particle implantation. Serum OPG (osteoprotegerin increased significantly after CT substitution. Conclusions As anticipated, Calca -/- mice show extensive osteolysis compared with wild-type mice, and CT substitution reduces particle-induced osteolysis.

  20. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of 1-substituted benzyl-N-substituted-1, 2, 3-triazole-4-for-mamides

    WANG Junmin; JUN Changsoo; CHAI Kyuyun; KWAK Kyungchell; QUAN Zheshan


    Substituted benzyl azids were synthesized through the reaction of substituted benzyl chloride and sodium azid, which subsequently underwent cyclization with ethyl propiolate and amidation to give thirteen 1-substituted benzyl-N-substituted-1, 2, 3-triazole-4-formamide derivatives (3a-3m). The structure of the synthesized compounds was confirmed by IR, 1H-NMR, MS and elemental analysis. Their anticonvulsant activity against maximal electrolshock (MES) induced seizure was tested and the result showed that all these compounds possess anticonvulsant activity in different degrees. Among those, the compounds containing chloro atoms on the phenyl ring were less potent in anticonvulsant activity, while introducing one or two fluorin atoms on benzyl system increased its activity. Furthermore, their activity decreased when there was substituent on the nitrogen atom of carboxamide, and the larger the substituent, the lower the activity.

  1. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...


    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  2. 40 CFR 721.7255 - Polyethyleneamine crosslinked with substituted polyethylene glycol (generic).


    ... substituted polyethylene glycol (generic). 721.7255 Section 721.7255 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted polyethylene glycol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to... substituted polyethylene glycol with substituted polyethylene glycol (PMN P-01-833) is subject to...

  3. Cannabis as a substitute for alcohol and other drugs

    Reiman Amanda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Substitution can be operationalized as the conscious choice to use one drug (legal or illicit instead of, or in conjunction with, another due to issues such as: perceived safety; level of addiction potential; effectiveness in relieving symptoms; access and level of acceptance. This practice of substitution has been observed among individuals using cannabis for medical purposes. This study examined drug and alcohol use, and the occurrence of substitution among medical cannabis patients. Methods Anonymous survey data were collected at the Berkeley Patient's Group (BPG, a medical cannabis dispensary in Berkeley, CA. (N = 350 The sample was 68% male, 54% single, 66% White, mean age was 39; 74% have health insurance (including MediCal, 41% work full time, 81% have completed at least some college, 55% make less than $40,000 a year. Seventy one percent report having a chronic medical condition, 52% use cannabis for a pain related condition, 75% use cannabis for a mental health issue. Results Fifty three percent of the sample currently drinks alcohol, 2.6 was the average number of drinking days per week, 2.9 was the average number of drinks on a drinking occasion. One quarter currently uses tobacco, 9.5 is the average number of cigarettes smoked daily. Eleven percent have used a non-prescribed, non OTC drug in the past 30 days with cocaine, MDMA and Vicodin reported most frequently. Twenty five percent reported growing up in an abusive or addictive household. Sixteen percent reported previous alcohol and/or drug treatment, and 2% are currently in a 12-step or other recovery program. Forty percent have used cannabis as a substitute for alcohol, 26% as a substitute for illicit drugs and 66% as a substitute for prescription drugs. The most common reasons given for substituting were: less adverse side effects (65%, better symptom management (57%, and less withdrawal potential (34% with cannabis. Conclusion The substitution of one

  4. Alternative fat substitutes for beef burger: technological and sensory characteristics.

    Bastos, Sabrina C; Pimenta, Maria Emília S G; Pimenta, Carlos J; Reis, Tatiana A; Nunes, Cleiton A; Pinheiro, Ana Carla M; Fabrício, Luís Felipe F; Leal, Renato Silva


    This study aimed to develop a type of hamburger meat product and evaluate the physical features and sensory formulations of oatmeal flour, flour of green banana pulp, flour of green banana peel, flour of apple peel and pulp of Green Banana as fat substitutes. Regarding color, the formulations containing fat substitutes based on green banana presented lower values for b* and L*. Hamburgers with added oatmeal and apple peel flour obtained high values of a* and low values of L*, producing the reddest burgers. Substitutes based on green banana differed from others, resulting in a higher yield of burgers and water-holding capacity during cooking, besides having lower toughness and less shrinkage. The sensory acceptance test for untrained consumers suggests that the flour of peel and pulp of green banana, and oatmeal flour are excellent choices for fat-substitution in beef burger. Although fat contributes to a series of physical and sensory attributes such as softness, juiciness and yield, it is possible to reduce the lipid content in beef burgers without depreciating the quality of food through the use of the following fat substitutes: oat flour, apple peel flour, green banana pulp flour, green banana peel flour and green banana pulp.

  5. Characteristics of Magnetic Properties of Substituted Hexagonal Ferrites

    Vladimir Jancarik


    Full Text Available The samples of barium hexaferrite BaFe12-2x(Me1Me2xO19 with x from 0.0 to 0.6 were prepared by variousmethods. The cationic preference of mainly divalent Me1 = Zn, Co, Ni, Sn ions and tetravalent Me2 = Ti, Zr, Ir, Sn, Ru ionsand their combinations in substituted Ba ferrites was investigated. The substitutions were performed to reduce the grain sizeand high magnetic uniaxial anisotropy field of the M-type Ba ferrite without affecting the magnetic polarisation. The goal isto reach the properties of ferrite proper for high-density magnetic recording and microwave absorption devices. Magneticproperties were determined as a function of the substitution level x. The specific saturation magnetic polarisation Js–m andremanence Js–rincreased with small x due to the substitution of non-magnetic and less magnetic ions in 4f1 and 4f2 sites. Thesteep decrease of coercivity Hc with increasing x may be caused by the Co2+ preference of 4f2 site and Ti4+or Zr4+ions preference of 2b and slightly in 4f1 sites. The temperature coefficient of the coercivity TKHc was very low (0.01kA.m-1.°C-1for the Co-Zr substitutions and positive for the rest of samples.

  6. An ethical facade? Medical students' miscomprehensions of substituted judgment.

    Farr A Curlin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We studied how well first-year medical students understand and apply the concept of substituted judgment, following a course on clinical ethics. METHOD: Students submitted essays on one of three ethically controversial scenarios presented in class. One scenario involved a patient who had lost decisional capacity. Through an iterative process of textual analysis, the essays were studied and coded for patterns in the ways students misunderstood or misapplied the principle of substituted judgment. RESULTS: Students correctly articulated course principles regarding patient autonomy, substituted judgment, and non-imposition of physician values. However, students showed misunderstanding by giving doctors the responsibility of balancing the interests of the patient against the interests of the family, by stating doctors and surrogates should be guided primarily by a best-interest standard, and by suggesting that patient autonomy becomes the guiding principle only when patients can no longer express their wishes. CONCLUSION: Students did not appear to internalize or correctly apply the substituted judgment standard, even though they could describe it accurately. This suggests the substituted judgment standard may run counter to students' moral intuitions, making it harder to apply in clinical practice.

  7. Import Substitution as a Factor of Regional Economic Growth

    Sukhanova Irina Fedorovna


    Full Text Available The current state of import substitution in Russia is considered. The authors’ definition is given to the concept of import substitution. The features of short-term and longterm strategies of import substitution are opened. The authors prove the need of diversification of the directions of foreign economic activity by reorientation of the foreign trade communications of Russia to the markets of the countries of CIS, the customs union and CES as well as the countries of the Asia Pacific region. The reasons of growth of import deliveries of foodstuff are opened. The comparative analysis of food consumption level in Russia is conducted. The food coefficients dependence on the most important food are calculated. The comparative analysis of productive indicators of domestic agricultural production with similar indicators of the foreign states is made. The strategies of import substitution for domestic agriculture taking into account its specifics and production potential, is offered. The assessment of potential of import substitution of Saratov region is presented. The priority actions on ensuring food security and growth of economy of the region are offered.

  8. Microbial preparation of metal-substituted magnetite nanoparticles

    Moon, Ji Won [ORNL; Roh, Yul [Chonnam National University, Gwangju; Lauf, Robert J [ORNL; Vali, Hojatollah [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec; Yeary, Lucas W [ORNL; Phelps, Tommy Joe [ORNL


    A microbial process that exploits the ability of iron-reducing microorganisms to produce copious amounts of extra-cellular metal (M)-substituted magnetite nanoparticles using akaganeite and dopants of dissolved form has previously been reported. The objectives of this study were to develop methods for producing M-substituted magnetite nanoparticles with a high rate of metal substitution by biological processes and to identify factors affecting the production of nano crystals. The thermophilic and psychrotolerant iron-reducing bacteria had the ability to form M substituted magnetite nano-crystals (MyFe3-yO4) from a doped precursor, mixed-M iron oxyhydroxide, (MxFe1-xOOH, x 0.5, M is Mn, Zn, Ni, Co, and Cr). Within the range of 0.01 x 0.3, using the mixed precursor material enabled the microbial synthesis of more heavily substituted magnetite compared to the previous method, in which the precursor was pure akaganeite and the dopants were present as soluble metal salts. The mixed precursor method was especially advantageous in the case of toxic metals such as Cr and Ni. Also this new method increased the production rate and magnetic properties of the product, while improving crystallinity, size control and scalability.

  9. Transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles for biomedical applications.

    Sanpo, Noppakun; Berndt, Christopher C; Wen, Cuie; Wang, James


    Transition metals of copper, zinc, chromium and nickel were substituted into cobalt ferrite nanoparticles via a sol-gel route using citric acid as a chelating agent. The microstructure and elemental composition were characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Phase analysis of transition metal-substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles was performed via X-ray diffraction. Surface wettability was measured using the water contact angle technique. The surface roughness of all nanoparticles was measured using profilometry. Moreover, thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry were performed to determine the temperature at which the decomposition and oxidation of the chelating agents took place. Results indicated that the substitution of transition metals influences strongly the microstructure, crystal structure and antibacterial property of the cobalt ferrite nanoparticles.

  10. Weak acidity of vinyl CH bonds enhanced by halogen substitution.

    Craig, Norman C; Matlin, Albert R


    As shown by the rates of proton-deuteron exchange in ethylenes with halogen substituents, the weak acidity of vinyl CH bonds is enhanced by halogen substitution. Relative rates of exchange in basic deuterium oxide reflect the relative acidities. Substitution in the α position has the strongest effect. Less electronegative halogens such as bromine increase the acidity more than does fluorine. The vinyl CH acid strengths correlate closely with the energies of deprotonation of isolated molecules into isolated anions, as computed with the MP2/cc-pVQZ model. The smaller deprotonation energies are associated with the stronger acids. Atomic charges from a natural bond order analysis done with the MP2/aug-cc-pVQZ model show that the negative charge becomes more dispersed in the anions of the stronger acids. Results are given for 13 haloethylenes and for 6 halogen-substituted butadienes, cyclopropenes, and a cyclobutene.

  11. First-principles studies of pure and fluorine substituted alanines

    Ahmad, Sardar; Vaizie, Hamide; Rahnamaye Aliabad, H. A.; Ahmad, Rashid; Khan, Imad; Ali, Zahid; Jalali-Asadabadi, S.; Ahmad, Iftikhar; Khan, Amir Abdullah


    This paper communicates the structural, electronic and optical properties of L-alanine, monofluoro and difluoro substituted alanines using density functional calculations. These compounds exist in orthorhombic crystal structure and the calculated structural parameters such as lattice constants, bond angles and bond lengths are in agreement with the experimental results. L-alanine is an indirect band gap insulator, while its fluorine substituted compounds (monofluoroalanine and difluoroalanine) are direct band gap insulators. The substitution causes reduction in the band gap and hence these optically tailored direct wide band gap materials have enhanced optical properties in the ultraviolet (UV) region of electromagnetic spectrum. Therefore, optical properties like dielectric function, refractive index, reflectivity and energy loss function are also investigated. These compounds have almost isotropic nature in the lower frequency range while at higher energies, they have a significant anisotropic nature.

  12. Syntheses and antimalarial activities of N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins.

    Torok, D S; Ziffer, H; Meshnick, S R; Pan, X Q; Ager, A


    A two-step reaction sequence between artemisinin and methanolic ammonia followed by treatment with Amberlyst 15 yielded 11-azaartemisinin in 65% yield. Substituting a variety of primary alkyl- and heteroaromatic amines for ammonia in the reaction sequence yields N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins in similar or greater yield. When Amberlyst 15 is replaced by a mixture of sulfuric acid/silica gel, both 11-azaartemisinin and the expected metabolite, 10-azadesoxyartemisinin, are formed in 45% and 15% yields, respectively. In vitro and in vivo test data for a number of novel N-substituted 11-azaartemisinins, against drug-resistant strains of Plasmodium falciparum, show they possess antimalarial activities equal to or greater than that of artemisinin. The most active derivative, N-(2'-acetaldehydo)-11-azaartemisinin, 17, was 26 times more active in vitro and 4 times more active in vivo than artemisinin.

  13. Data mined ionic substitutions for the discovery of new compounds.

    Hautier, Geoffroy; Fischer, Chris; Ehrlacher, Virginie; Jain, Anubhav; Ceder, Gerbrand


    The existence of new compounds is often postulated by solid state chemists by replacing an ion in the crystal structure of a known compound by a chemically similar ion. In this work, we present how this new compound discovery process through ionic substitutions can be formulated in a mathematical framework. We propose a probabilistic model assessing the likelihood for ionic species to substitute for each other while retaining the crystal structure. This model is trained on an experimental database of crystal structures, and can be used to quantitatively suggest novel compounds and their structures. The predictive power of the model is demonstrated using cross-validation on quaternary ionic compounds. The different substitution rules embedded in the model are analyzed and compared to some of the traditional rules used by solid state chemists to propose new compounds (e.g., ionic size).

  14. Application of queuing theory in inventory systems with substitution flexibility

    Seyedhoseini, S. M.; Rashid, Reza; Kamalpour, Iman; Zangeneh, Erfan


    Considering the competition in today's business environment, tactical planning of a supply chain becomes more complex than before. In many multi-product inventory systems, substitution flexibility can improve profits. This paper aims to prepare a comprehensive substitution inventory model, where an inventory system with two substitute products with ignorable lead time has been considered, and effects of simultaneous ordering have been examined. In this paper, demands of customers for both of the products have been regarded as stochastic parameters, and queuing theory has been used to construct a mathematical model. The model has been coded by C++, and it has been analyzed due to a real example, where the results indicate efficiency of proposed model.


    Tolmachev A. V.


    Full Text Available The goals of import substitution, import data and export resource features of the agrarian economy, through which you can generate significant competitive advantage are discussed. It is noted that the flight of the capital abroad creates jobs not for our economy, but for our competitors, that low interest rates on loans create obvious unequal starting opportunities throughout the domestic business. As a result the cost of imported food in value-chain terms reached in our country an enormous rate of $45 billion and that government realized the need of strengthening of food security, transferring of production of traditional kinds of products which form the basis of consumption of the population in our country, to the domestic market. It is noted that we need temporary moderate state protectionism and protection of the domestic market with the aim of modernizing the economy, attracting investors in the important field of production with high risks. The main problems and solutions that will help to further successful implementation of this strategy in the sectors of our economy are highlighted. It is proposed to establish a network of specialized information centers to support import substitution with a database of technological profiles of organizations. The author block diagram of the information support and import substitution is given. The importance of federal and regional programs functioning in the import substitution is noted. The author's plan for their implementation is given . Predictive modeling of short-term, medium-term and long-term positive and negative consequences of import substitution and export orientation are implemented. The authors stress that the substitution should be seen as a transition to export orientation of the agricultural economy.

  16. Fermentation of various sugars and sugar substitutes by oral microorganisms

    Boonyanit Thaweboon; Sroisiri Thaweboon; Doan Minh Tri


    Objective: To examine acid production of caries-associated strains of oral microorganisms and salivary microorganisms from sugar and sugar substitutes. Methods:Standard and clinical strains of Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans), Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and Candida albicans were incubated in peptone-yeast-extract media containing 1% test sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose) or sugar substitutes (xylitol, sorbitol, trehalulose and palatinose) at 37 ℃in 5% CO2 for 24-48 h. The pH of each culture was measured and microbial growth was determined as optical density at 660 nm. Paraffin-stimulated saliva collected from high caries-risk persons were added to media containing 10%test sugar or sugar substitutes. The pH of medium was measured at each time interval from 0-90 minutes. Results:All types of sugar and trehalulose could be fermented by all test microorganisms in pH lower than 5.5 except sucrose by standard strain of L. casei. All sugar and sugar substitutes supported growth of all organisms except xylitol for S. mutans. In the fermentation assay by salivary microorganisms, all sugar could be utilized and produced pH< 5.5 within 10 minutes of incubation and the pH drop was prolonged to until 90 minutes. Conversely, xylitol and palatinose were not fermented by microorganisms in saliva. Conclusions:All test microorganisms could ferment sucrose, glucose, fructose and trehalulose to pH lower than 5.5. Sugar alcohols and palatinose were not utilized well by organisms and may be used as sugar substitutes to reduce dental caries incidence. However, further studies particularly clinical investigations are required to evaluate the cariogenicity of these sugar substitutes.

  17. Minority anion substitution by Ni in ZnO

    Pereira, Lino Miguel da Costa; Correia, João Guilherme; Amorim, Lígia Marina; Silva, Daniel José; David-Bosne, Eric; Decoster, Stefan; da Silva, Manuel Ribeiro; Temst, Kristiaan; Vantomme, André


    We report on the lattice location of implanted Ni in ZnO using the $\\beta$− emission channeling technique. In addition to the majority substituting for the cation (Zn), a significant fraction of the Ni atoms occupy anion (O) sites. Since Ni is chemically more similar to Zn than it is to O, the observed O substitution is rather puzzling. We discuss these findings with respect to the general understanding of lattice location of dopants in compound semiconductors. In particular, we discuss potential implications on the magnetic behavior of transition metal doped dilute magnetic semiconductors.

  18. UV action spectroscopy of protonated PAH derivatives. Methyl substituted quinolines

    Klærke, Benedikte; Holm, Anne; Andersen, Lars Henrik


    Aims. We investigate the production of molecular photofragments upon UV excitation of PAH derivatives, relevant for the interstellar medium. Methods. The action absorption spectra of protonated gas-phase methyl-substituted quinolines (CH3−C9H7NH+) have been recorded in the 215–338 nm spectral ran...... the estimated IR relaxation time. Photophysical properties of both nitrogen containing and methyl-substituted PAHs are interesting in an astrophysical context in connection with identifying the aromatic component of the interstellar medium....

  19. Exfoliation and thermal transformations of Nb-substituted layered titanates

    Song, H.; Sjåstad, Anja O.; Fjellvåg, Helmer


    Single-layer Nb-substituted titanate nanosheets of ca. 1 nm thickness were obtained by exfoliating tetrabutylammonium (TBA)-intercalated Nb-substituted titanates in water. AFM images and turbidity measurements reveal that the exfoliated nanosheets crack and corrugate when sonicated. Upon heating...... factors for increasing the transformation temperatures for conversion of the nanosheets to anatase and finally into rutile. It is further tempting to link the delay in crystallization to morphology limitations originating from the nanosheets. The present work shows that layered Nb-titanates...

  20. Associations between generic substitution and patient-related factors

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette

    for Pharmacoepidemiology, Karolinska Institutet, Department of Medicine Solna, Stockholm, Sweden 3. Danish Quality Unit of General Practice, Odense, Denmark Background Generic substitution means that chemically equivalent but less expensive drugs are dispensed in place of a brand name product. Although generic medicines...... was made on beliefs about medicine, views on generic medicine and confidence in the health care system. The study comprised 2476 patients (736 users of antidepressants, 795 users of antiepileptics and 945 users of other substitutable drugs). For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically...

  1. Stabilisation of the [6]-prismane structure by silicon substitution



    Using the second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation (MP2) theoretic method and the cc-pVDZ basis set, it is shown that with an increase in the number of carbon atoms substituted by silicon, the [6]-prismane structure becomes increasingly more stable, relative to the two isolated benzene (like) structures. A similar trend is observed for germanium substituted prismanes as well. Extending this investigation, the stability of benzene-capped fullerene (C₆₀ fused with benzene) is also investigated.

  2. Researcher’s Perspective of Substitution Method on Text Steganography

    Zamir Mansor, Fawwaz; Mustapha, Aida; Azah Samsudin, Noor


    The linguistic steganography studies are still in the stage of development and empowerment practices. This paper will present several text steganography on substitution methods based on the researcher’s perspective, all scholar paper will analyse and compared. The objective of this paper is to give basic information in the substitution method of text domain steganography that has been applied by previous researchers. The typical ways of this method also will be identified in this paper to reveal the most effective method in text domain steganography. Finally, the advantage of the characteristic and drawback on these techniques in generally also presented in this paper.

  3. Development of QSAR for antimicrobial activity of substituted benzimidazoles.

    Vashist, N; Sambi, S S; Kumar, P; Narasimhan, B


    QSAR analysis has been done to correlate antimicrobial activity of substituted benzimidazole derivatives with their physicochemical parameters. Developed QSAR models have been cross validated using leave one out (LOO) method. Statistical parameters like probable error of the coefficient of correlation (PE), least square error (LSE), Friedman's lack of fit measure (LOF), standard error of prediction (SEP) and quality value (Q) were also used to cross validate the models. QSAR studies established the importance of WAP, Mlog P and UI in describing the antimicrobial activities of substituted benzimidazole derivatives.

  4. Theoretical Studies of Substitutionally Doped Single-Walled Nanotubes

    Charles See Yeung


    Full Text Available The rich chemistry of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs is enhanced by substitutional doping, a process in which a single atom of the nanotube sidewall is replaced by a heteroatom. These so-called heteroatom-substituted SWCNTs (HSWCNTs exhibit unique chemical and physical properties not observed in their corresponding undoped congeners. Herein, we present theoretical studies of both main group element and transition metal-doped HSWCNTs. Within density functional theory (DFT, we discuss mechanistic details of their proposed synthesis from vacancy-defected SWCNTs and describe their geometric and electronic properties. Additionally, we propose applications for these nanomaterials in nanosensing, nanoelectronics, and nanocatalysis.

  5. Substitutive Arnoux-Rauzy sequences have pure discrete spectrum

    Berthé, Valérie; Siegel, Anne


    We prove that the symbolic dynamical system generated by a purely substitutive Arnoux-Rauzy sequence is measurably conjugate to a toral translation. The proof is based on an explicit construction of a fundamental domain with fractal boundary (a Rauzy fractal) for this toral translation. Such a fractal is obtained as the Hausdorff limit of a sequence of compact planar sets, where each set is the projection of a finite union of faces of unit cubes generated by a multidimensional version of the underlying Arnoux-Rauzy substitution.

  6. The electronic configuration of substitutional Fe in silicon

    Weyer, G; Fanciulli, M; Fedosseev, V; Gunnlaugsson, H P; Mishin, V I; Sielemann, R


    Ion implantations of radioactive /sup 57/Mn/sup +/ into differently doped silicon single crystals held at 300-600 K have been utilized for /sup 57/Fe Mossbauer studies of interstitial and substitutional Fe. Site and charge state assignments have been made on the basis of the determined hyperfine interaction parameters and Debye temperatures. Substantial fractions of substitutional /sup 57/Mn probe atoms are proposed to occur due to annealing reactions. This site is maintained in the subsequent decay to /sup 57/Fe by

  7. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn


    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing......, and industrial coating processes are likely candidates for substitution of VOC with VOFA. Requirements to the resulting surfaces may, however, hinder the replacement. This is especially important when the surface has to be coated in a subsequent step....

  8. De Novo Assembly of Highly Substituted Morpholines and Piperazines


    The morpholine and piperazine with their remarkable physical and biochemical properties are popular heterocycles in organic and medicinal chemistry used in rational property design. However, in the majority of cases these rings are added to an existing molecule in a building block approach thus limiting their substitution pattern and diversity. Here we introduce a versatile de novo synthesis of the morpholine and piperazine rings using multicomponent reaction chemistry. The large scale amenable building blocks can be further substituted at up to four positions, making this a very versatile scaffold synthesis strategy. Our methods thus fulfill the increasing demand for novel building block design and nontraditional scaffolds which previously were not accessible PMID:28102692

  9. Algebraic Construction and Cryptographic Properties of Rijndael Substitution Box

    Shristi Deva Sinha


    Full Text Available Rijndael algorithm was selected as the advanced encryption standard in 2001 after five year long security evaluation; it is well proven in terms of its strength and efficiency. The substitution box is the back bone of the cipher and its strength lies in the simplicity of its algebraic construction. The present paper is a study of the construction of Rijndael Substitution box and the effect of varying the design components on its cryptographic properties.Defence Science Journal, 2012, 62(1, pp.32-37, DOI:

  10. How Firms Substitute for Authority in Strategic Decision-Making

    Dobrajska, Magdalena; Billinger, Stephan; Becker, Markus C.

    and departmental positions of all participating organizational members. We find that firms substitute between different structural components in decision-making structures to combine hierarchical authority with cross-departmental coordination and redundant knowledge. This substitution between structural components......Strategic decisions are often made by multiple organizational members who form decision-making structures specialized for a given strategic decision. We study a series of strategic decisions in a business unit of a global Fortune 500 firm, identifying for each decision the hierarchical...

  11. Reference Materials System: a framework for substitution analysis

    Bhagat, N K; Hoffman, K C


    A comprehensive systems approach to materials policy analysis, the Reference Materials System (RMS), has been developed and is described. The RMS provides a systematic approach to organizing diverse materials on all processes ranging from extraction of resources through their refinement, transportation, fabrication, installation, and maintenance at the point of end use, as well as recycling. This system can be used for the assessment of material technologies, substitutions and policies, and has been applied to assess the role of renewable materials as substitutes for energy intensive nonrenewables.

  12. The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview

    Miguel A. Savastano


    Full Text Available The Pattern of Currency Substitution in Latin American: An Overview This paper identifies the stylized facts and common features of recent currency substitution episodes in Bolivia, Mexico, Peru and Uruguay. It discusses the relationship between macroeconomic policies and the pattern of currency substitution in these countries and investigates the effects that the presence of foreign currency deposits had on their demand for domestic money and on their ability to conduct monetary and exchangh rate policy. The paper argues that the decision to allow foreign currency deposits in the domestic financial system tends to increase the inflationary impact of fiscal imbalances and exchange role adjustments and jeopardizes the susfainability of a managed exchange rate regime.

  13. Synthesis and antiulcer activity studies of 2-(1′-iminothioimido substituted-1′-substituted phenylbenzoic acids

    Subudhi B


    Full Text Available Certain 2-(1′-iminothioimido substituted-1′-substituted phenybenzoic acids (P 1-9 were synthesized by reaction of phthalic anhydride with benzotriazole, 2-mercapto benzothiazole and 2-p-amino phenyl benzimidazole, respectively (A 1-3 followed by imine formation with Schiff bases of thiourea with salicylaldehyde, furfuraldehyde and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone. Antiulcer activity was evaluated using reduction in total acidity, free acidity and ulcer index as parameters. Compounds P 3 , P 6 , P 7 and P 9 (100 mg/kg showed significant (P< 0.001 antiulcer action compared to control and omeprazole (40 mg/kg.

  14. Tandem SN2' nucleophilic substitution/oxidative radical cyclization of aryl substituted allylic alcohols with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds.

    Zhang, Zhen; Li, Cheng; Wang, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Fu-Min; Han, Xue; Tu, Yong-Qiang; Zhang, Xiao-Ming


    A novel and efficient tandem SN2' nucleophilic substitution/oxidative radical cyclization reaction of aryl substituted allylic alcohols with 1,3-dicarbonyl compounds has been developed by using Mn(OAc)3 as an oxidant, which enables the expeditious synthesis of polysubstituted dihydrofuran (DHF) derivatives in moderate to high yields. The use of weakly acidic hexafluoroisopropanol (HFIP) as the solvent rather than AcOH has successfully improved the yields and expanded the substrate scope of this type of radical cyclization reactions. Mechanistic studies confirmed the cascade reaction process involving a final radical cyclization.

  15. Substitution af organiske opløsningsmidler med estre af

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    Substitution of organic solvents, which are harmful to both man and environment, is often possible. Cleaning of machines in offset printing may to a large extent be performed with products, which are neither volatile nor toxic to man and environment. Apparently this experience may be transferred...

  16. Substitutability and Independence: Matching Analyses of Brands and Products

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.


    This article presents a comprehensive examination of panel data for 1,847 consumers and 2,209 brands of "biscuits" (a total of 76,682 records) in which matching analysis is employed to define brand substitutability and potential product clusters within the overall category. The results indicate that, while brands performed as expected as perfect…

  17. Prioritizing substitution of organic solvents in industrial cleaning processes

    Rasmussen, Pia Brunn; Jacobsen, Thomas


    A method for prioritizing the substitution of volatile organic compounds (VOC) used in industrial cleaning processes is developed. The result is a matrix, which, if all information can be obtained, gives a comprehensive description of the effects, exposure and emission of VOC, as well...

  18. Are news media substitutes? Gratifications, contents, and uses

    R. van der Wurff


    Internet is generally expected to have one of two effects on traditional news media: It displaces them, or it forces them into distinct market niches. A shared assumption underlying both expectations is that news media displacement, or substitution, is a function of the degree to which news media ar

  19. Millimetre-wave isolator based on Al substituted Ba ferrite

    Ustinov, A. B.; Vinnik, D. A.; Belyavskii, P. Yu; Gudkova, S. A.; Zakharchuk, I.; Lähderanta, E.


    A mm-wave isolator is fabricated and studied. The operating frequency of the devices is 78.5 GHz. A bandwidth at the level of -3 dB equals 1.6 GHz. The device used a flux grown single-crystal aluminum substituted barium ferrite.

  20. Molecular substitution rate increases with latitude in butterflies

    Schär, Sämi; Vila, Roger; Petrović, Andjeljko


    of five lycaenid butterfly species with varied ecological adaptations, sampled across a latitudinal gradient in the Holarctic region. We found a positive correlation between latitude and substitution rate of mitochondrial DNA sequences in all species investigated. We propose that this result is the signal...

  1. Development of a Synthetic Blood Substitute Utilizing Hemoglobin Vesicles.


    without purification. Polystvrene microspheres (PSM! werL obtained from Duke Scientific. The artificial dairy substitute (ADS) was Coffeemate ( Carnation ...Measurements were made on tissue phantoms consisting of pink gelatin incorporating 1.61. 3.2%, and 7.7% (w/w) ADS. Figure 3 shows the results fcr

  2. Effect of alkyl substitutions on self-assembly


    The self-assemblies of 4-hexadecyloxybenzoic acid and 3,4,5-trihexadecyloxybenzoic acid have been studied by using scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). The well-ordered assemblies with different arrangement have been investigated. The structural change is attributed to the different number of substituted alkyl chains on periphery.

  3. 12 CFR 27.6 - Substitute monitoring program.


    ....6 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN... substitute monitoring program as authorized under § 202.13(d) of Regulation B of the Federal Reserve Board... compliance with the requirements of § 202.13 of Regulation B. ...

  4. Sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite ceramics

    Zoltan Z. Zyman


    Full Text Available Powders of sodium-carbonate co-substituted hydroxyapatite, having sodium content in the range of 0.25–1.5 wt.% with a 0.25 wt.% step, were prepared by a precipitation-solid state reaction route. Compacts of the powders were sintered in a CO2 flow (4 mL/min at 1100 °C for 2 h. The sintered ceramics contained sodium and carbonate ions in the ranges of 0–1.5 wt.% and 1.3–6 wt.%, respectively, which are typical impurity concentrations in biological apatite. A relationship between sodium and carbonate contents and the type of carbonate substitution was found. The total carbonate content progressively increased with the sodium content. The obtained ceramics showed an AB-type carbonate substitution. However, the substitution became more B-type as the sodium content increased. As a result, the carbonation was almost B-type (94 % for the highest sodium content (1.5 wt.%.

  5. Public Service Motivation and Monetary Incentives: Substitutes or Motivation Crowding?

    Jacobsen, Christian Bøtcher


    motivation is the most important type of motivation in the delivery of public service, because it substitutes for egoistic motivation. Organizations whose members have high levels of PSM are therefore expected to be less dependent on utilitarian motivators such as monetary incentives. Motivation crowding...

  6. Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ...

    Effects of differently processed soybean substituted diets on nutrient ... 3.38% and food conversion ratio (FCR) of 5.78 of the formulated diets respectively were ... The Juveniles fed raw soybean gave the least growth performance (Diet T3) and ...

  7. Substitution of Organic Solvents in Selected Industrial Cleaning Processes

    Jacobsen, Thomas; Rasmussen, Pia Brunn


    Volatile organic solvents (VOC)are becoming increasingly unwanted in industrial processes. Substitution of VOC with non-volatile, low-toxic compounds is a possibility to reduce VOC-use. It has been successfully demonstrated, that organic solvents used in cleaning processes in sheet offset printing...

  8. Solid Phase Synthesis of Ethyl β-Substituted Indolepropionates

    刘占祥; 阮秀秀; 黄宪


    A facile solid phase synthesis of ethyl β-substituted indolepropionates is reported. Condensation between indole, polymer-supported cyclic malonic acid ester and aldehyde yielded the trimolecular adducts, which was cleaved by pyridine/EtOH to release the final products in good yield with high purity.

  9. Amino acid derived 1,4-dialkyl substituted imidazolones

    Diness, Frederik; Meldal, Morten Peter


    A general method for synthesis of 1,4-substituted imidazolones from amino acids on solid support or in solution has been developed. Amino acid derived 3-Boc-(1,3)-oxazinane (Box) protected amino aldehyde building blocks were coupled through urea bonds to the amino terminal of dipeptides or amino ...

  10. Substitution rate and natural selection in parvovirus B19

    Stamenković, Gorana G.; Ćirković, Valentina S.; Šiljić, Marina M.; Blagojević, Jelena V.; Knežević, Aleksandra M.; Joksić, Ivana D.; Stanojević, Maja P.


    The aim of this study was to estimate substitution rate and imprints of natural selection on parvovirus B19 genotype 1. Studied datasets included 137 near complete coding B19 genomes (positions 665 to 4851) for phylogenetic and substitution rate analysis and 146 and 214 partial genomes for selection analyses in open reading frames ORF1 and ORF2, respectively, collected 1973–2012 and including 9 newly sequenced isolates from Serbia. Phylogenetic clustering assigned majority of studied isolates to G1A. Nucleotide substitution rate for total coding DNA was 1.03 (0.6–1.27) x 10−4 substitutions/site/year, with higher values for analyzed genome partitions. In spite of the highest evolutionary rate, VP2 codons were found to be under purifying selection with rare episodic positive selection, whereas codons under diversifying selection were found in the unique part of VP1, known to contain B19 immune epitopes important in persistent infection. Analyses of overlapping gene regions identified nucleotide positions under opposite selective pressure in different ORFs, suggesting complex evolutionary mechanisms of nucleotide changes in B19 viral genomes. PMID:27775080

  11. Hydrophobic core substitutions in calbindin D9k

    Kragelund, B B; Jönsson, M; Bifulco, G


    Hydrophobic core residues have a marked influence on the Ca2+-binding properties of calbindin D9k, even though there are no direct contacts between these residues and the bound Ca2+ ions. Eleven different mutants with substitutions in the hydrophobic core were produced, and their equilibrium Ca2+...... that the hydrophobic core residues promote Ca2+ binding both by contributing to the preformation of the Ca2+ sites in the apo state and by preferentially stabilizing the Ca2+-bound state.......Hydrophobic core residues have a marked influence on the Ca2+-binding properties of calbindin D9k, even though there are no direct contacts between these residues and the bound Ca2+ ions. Eleven different mutants with substitutions in the hydrophobic core were produced, and their equilibrium Ca2...... that the mutation causes only very minimal perturbations in the immediate vicinity of residue 61. Substitutions of alanines or glycines for bulky residues in the center of the core were found to have significant effects on both Ca2+ affinity and dissociation rates. These substitutions caused a reduction in affinity...

  12. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten;


    . Design and setting A cross-sectional study comprising questionnaire responses from 2476 randomly selected patients aged 20 years or older and living in the Region of Southern Denmark, who had redeemed substitutable drugs. Methods The questionnaire included items on beliefs about medicine, views...

  13. Porcine wound models for skin substitution and burn treatment.

    Middelkoop, E.; Bogaerdt, A.J. van den; Lamme, E.N.; Hoekstra, M.J.; Brandsma, K.; Ulrich, M.M.


    Skin regeneration is an important field of tissue engineering. Especially in larger burns and chronic wounds, present treatments are insufficient in preventing scar formation and promoting healing. Initial screening of potentially interesting products for skin substitution is usually done by in

  14. Hydroxyl radical substitution in halogenated carbonyls: oxalic acid formation.

    Christiansen, Carrie J; Dalal, Shakeel S; Francisco, Joseph S; Mebel, Alexander M; Gaffney, Jeffrey S


    An ab initio study of OH radical substitution reactions in halogenated carbonyls is conducted. Hydroxyl radical substitution into oxalyl dichloride [ClC(O)C(O)Cl] and oxalyl dibromide [BrC(O)C(O)Br], resulting in the formation of oxalic acid, is presented. Analogous substitution reactions in formyl chloride [ClCH(O)], acetyl chloride [ClC(O)CH(3)], formyl bromide [BrCH(O)], and acetyl bromide [BrC(O)CH(3)] are considered. Energetics of competing hydrogen abstraction reactions for all applicable species are computed for comparison. Geometry optimizations and frequency computations are performed using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP2) and the 6-31G(d) basis set for all minimum species and transition states. Single point energy computations are performed using fourth-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory (MP4) and coupled cluster theory [CCSD(T)]. Potential energy surfaces, including activation energies and enthalpies, are determined from the computations. These potential energy surfaces show that OH substitution into ClC(O)C(O)Cl and BrC(O)C(O)Br, resulting in the formation of oxalic acid and other minor products, is energetically favorable. Energetics of analogous reactions with ClCH(O), BrCH(O), ClC(O)CH(3), and BrC(O)CH(3) are also computed.

  15. [First year of life. Human milk and human milk substitutes].

    Vásquez-Garibay, Edgar M


    The nutritional improvement of mothers and their children is one of the most cost-effective tools to achieve optimal human growth and development. The World Health Organization recommends offering «exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, and then begin the introduction of safe and nutritious food while breastfeeding continues until the second year of life.» Since the second half of the 20th century to date extraordinary progress in the manufacturing and formulation of substitutes for human milk has been accomplished, these being partial or complete substitutes for human milk, whether or not suitable for this purpose. Whole (cow´s) milk is not an adequate substitute for human milk during the first six months of life because of its great nutritional disparity and excess solutes with potential deleterious effects in infants. Therefore, it is an ethical responsibility of health professional to educate and advise parents and caregivers on the proper and timely use of human milk substitutes available in our country.

  16. Substitution af organiske opløsningsmidler med estre af

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    Substitution of organic solvents, which are harmful to both man and environment, is often possible. Cleaning of machines in offset printing may to a large extent be performed with products, which are neither volatile nor toxic to man and environment. Apparently this experience may be transferred ...

  17. Synthesis of 2-Phenyl-10-substituted Hymenialdisine Derivatives

    WU Yi; WANG Yu; QIN Yong; SONG Hao


    A series of novel 2-phenyl-10-substituted hymenialdisine derivatives was synthesized via the microwave-assisted Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling reactions of the 2-phenyl derivative of hymenialdisine and boronic acid,which enabled the successful introduction of electron-donating and electron-withdrawing groups to the 2-phenylhymenialdisine derivatives in good yields.

  18. Space-Bounded Complexity Classes and Iterated Deterministic Substitution

    Asveld, P.R.J.


    We investigate the effect on the space complexity when a language family $K$ is extended by means of iterated $\\lambda$-free deterministic substitution to a family $\\eta(K)$. If each language in $K$ is accepted by a one-way nondeterministic multi-tape Turing machine within space $S(n)$ for some mono

  19. Space-Bounded Complexity Classes and Iterated Deterministic Substitution

    Asveld, P.R.J.


    We investigate the effect on the space complexity when a language family $K$ is extended by means of $\\lambda$-free deterministic substitution to the family $\\eta(K)$. If each language in $K$ is accepted by a one-way nondeterministic multi-tape Turing-machine within space $S(n)$ for some monotonic s

  20. Bone Graft Substitutes : Developed for Trauma and Orthopaedic Surgery

    J. van der Stok (Johan)


    markdownabstract__Abstract__ Bone grafting was established in the 19th century and has become a common procedure in which bone defects are filled with bone grafts or bone graft substitutes. Bone defects that require bone grafting are encountered in approximately 10% of trauma and orthopaedic surger

  1. Russia: district court upholds legal ban on opioid substitution treatment.



    On 27 May 2011, the Leninsky district court of Kaliningrad Region upheld the refusal of the Ministry of Health of Kaliningrad Region to ensure access to opioid substitution therapy (OST) as an effective treatment for opioid dependence and an effective intervention for HIV prevention among people who inject drugs.

  2. Substitutional Doping for Aluminosilicate Mineral and Superior Water Splitting Performance

    Zhang, Yi; Fu, Liangjie; Shu, Zhan; Yang, Huaming; Tang, Aidong; Jiang, Tao


    Substitutional doping is a strategy in which atomic impurities are optionally added to a host material to promote its properties, while the geometric and electronic structure evolution of natural nanoclay mineral upon substitutional metal doping is still ambiguous. This paper first designed an efficient lanthanum (La) doping strategy for nanotubular clay (halloysite nanotube, HNT) through the dynamic equilibrium of a substitutional atom in the presence of saturated AlCl3 solution, and systematic characterization of the samples was performed. Further density functional theory (DFT) calculations were carried out to reveal the geometric and electronic structure evolution upon metal doping, as well as to verify the atom-level effect of the La doping. The CdS loading and its corresponding water splitting performance could demonstrate the effect of La doping. CdS nanoparticles (11 wt.%) were uniformly deposited on the surface of La-doped halloysite nanotube (La-HNT) with the average size of 5 nm, and the notable photocatalytic hydrogen evolution rate of CdS/La-HNT reached up to 47.5 μmol/h. The results could provide a new strategy for metal ion doping and constructive insight into the substitutional doping mechanism.

  3. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading

    REN ChaoFeng; HOU ZhenDe; ZHAO Wei


    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies, bone tissues will grow into their porous structure, which will reinforce their strength and stiffness. The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around, as if they were part of the bone. The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior, due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate. In this study, split Hopkinson pressure bar technique (SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite, bones with and bones without organic com-ponents, and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained. The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed, by comparing the difference between the Young's moduli of the three materials. As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone, it can be regarded as an inclusion composite. The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness. The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is0.8, which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  4. Stiffness compatibility of coralline hydroxyapatite bone substitute under dynamic loading


    When hydroxyapatite bone substitutes are implanted in human bodies,bone tissues will grow into their porous structure,which will reinforce their strength and stiffness.The concept of mechanical com-patibility of bone substitutes implies that their mechanical properties are similar to the bone tissues around,as if they were part of the bone.The mechanical compatibility of bone substitutes includes both static and dynamic behavior,due to the mechanical properties of bone depending on the strain rate.In this study,split Hopkinson pressure bar technique(SHPB) was employed to determine the dy-namic mechanical properties of coralline hydroxyapatite,bones with and bones without organic com-ponents,and their dynamic stress-strain curves of the three materials were obtained.The mechanical effects of collagens in bone were assessed,by comparing the difference between the Young’s moduli of the three materials.As the implanted bone substitute becomes a part of bone,it can be regarded as an inclusion composite.The effective modulus of the composite was also evaluated in order to estimate its mechanical compatibility on stiffness.The evaluated result shows that the suitable porosity of HA is 0.8,which is in favor of both static and dynamic stiffness compatibility.

  5. Expedient Synthesis of N1-Substituted Triazole Peptidomimetics.

    Coffey, Steven B; Aspnes, Gary; Londregan, Allyn T


    A general procedure for the rapid diversification of peptide scaffolds is described. A one-pot click reaction between a peptide-alkyne and a series of in situ generated aryl/alkyl azides affords novel N1-substituted triazole peptidomimetics. This transformation is of broad scope, operates under mild conditions, and is parallel chemical synthesis compatible.

  6. Borane-substituted imidazol-2-ylidenes: syntheses in vacuo.

    Taylor, Alasdair W; Lovelock, Kevin R J; Jones, Robert G; Licence, Peter


    The serendipitous discovery of an efficient reactive distillation is reported. Two borane-substituted imidazol-2-ylidenes have been prepared in high yield from precursor tetrafluoroborate derived room temperature ionic liquids by reactive distillation at T > 500 K and p < 1 × 10(-4) mbar.

  7. Ortho lithiation-in situ borylation of substituted morpholine benzamides

    Cederbalk, Anna; Lysén, Morten; Kehler, Jan


    Morpholine amides are cheap and safe alternative to Weinreb amides as acylating agents of organometallic species. Herein, the in-situ lithiation/borylation of 18 ortho- meta- and para-substituted morpholine benzamides has been investigated. 10 of the 18 substrates provided the desired boronic...

  8. Miracle fruit: An alternative sugar substitute in sour beverages.

    Rodrigues, Jéssica Ferreira; Andrade, Rafaela da Silva; Bastos, Sabrina Carvalho; Coelho, Sandra Bragança; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques


    High sugar consumption has been related to several chronic diseases and thus, many alternative sweeteners have been extensively researched. However, there is still controversy regarding the harmful effects of their consumption, mainly regarding the use of artificial sweeteners, controversy which increases the demand for natural sweeteners, such as miracle fruit. This tropical plant grows in West Africa is named for its unique ability of changing a sour taste into sweet. Therefore, this study aimed to characterize the temporal profile of miracle fruit and assess its sugar substitute power in sour beverages through time-intensity and temporal dominance of sensations tests. For this, unsweetened lemonade and lemonades with sugar, sucralose and previous miracle fruit ingestions were evaluated. We noted that the dynamic profile of lemonade ingested after miracle fruit ingestion indicates that it seems to be a good sugar substitute, since it provides high sweetness intensity and persistence, reduced product sourness and an absence of aftertastes. The miracle fruit also provided a sensory profile similar to that of sucralose, an established and recognized sugar substitute. The results of this study provide important information for future applications of miracle fruit as a sugar substitute in sour beverages, providing an alternative use for a natural substance as a sweetening agent.

  9. Synthesis of 3-Substituted 1,4-Benzodiazepin-2-ones

    Kyungjin Kim


    Full Text Available The preparation of 3-substituted 1,4-benzodiazepines by benzodiazepine enolate alkylation has been explored. Employing this approach, multigram quantities of benzodiazepine 1 have been prepared for animal studies to evaluate a new approach for the treatment of the autoimmune disease systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE.

  10. Games on Networks: Direct Complements and Indirect Substitutes

    Currarini, Sergio; Fumagalli, E.; Panebianco, Fabrizio


    We study linear quadratic games played on a network where strategies are complements between neighbors and substitutes between agents at distance-two. We provide micro-founded problems where this pattern of interaction is due to a local congestion effect. Equilibrium behavior systematically differs

  11. A Field Test of Festinger's Substitute Locomotion Theory.

    Stewart, Lea P.; Gudykunst, William B.


    Provides evidence for rejecting Festinger's Substitute Locomotion Theory of organizational communication. Demonstrates a clear difference between formal and informal channels of upward communication. Indicates that high mobility individuals communicate significantly more with their supervisors than low mobility individuals and that males…

  12. The Transition States for CO2 Capture by Substituted Ethanolamines

    Gangarapu, S.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Alhamed, Y.A.; Zuilhof, H.


    Quantum chemical studies are used to understand the electronic and steric effects on the mechanisms of the reaction of substituted ethanolamines with CO2. SCS-MP2/6-311+G(2d,2p) calculations are used to obtain the activation energy barriers and reaction energies for both the carbamate and bicarbonat

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.304 - Substitution policy.


    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Substitution policy. 101-26.304 Section 101-26.304 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System FEDERAL PROPERTY MANAGEMENT REGULATIONS SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 26-PROCUREMENT SOURCES...

  14. Thermodynamic studies on charge-coupled substituted synthetic monazite

    Rawat, D.; Phapale, S.; Mishra, R.; Dash, S.


    Phosphate-based monazite ceramic is considered worldwide as a potential crystalline host matrix for immobilization of long-lived tri- and tetra-valent actinides present in high-level nuclear waste. Monazite is chemically stable with respect to the leaching processes and has high radiation stability. The present paper describes the influence of charged coupled (Ca2+, Th4+) substitution in place of La3+ on thermodynamic stability of synthetic monazite ceramics. XRD-analysis of Ca, Th substituted LaPO4 viz., La1-xCax/2Thx/2PO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 1) points to the formation of ideal solid-solution in the entire range of composition. However, thermodynamic analysis indicates deviation from ideal solid-solution with a minima at x = 0.25. The substituted La1-xCax/2Thx/2PO4 system is found to be iso-entropic and stabilized mainly by enthalpy. Enthalpies of formation as a function of Ca2+, Th4+ substitution were analysed to provide insights into the development of thermodynamically stable nuclear waste matrix.

  15. Substitutability and Independence: Matching Analyses of Brands and Products

    Foxall, Gordon R.; Wells, Victoria K.; Chang, Shing Wan; Oliveira-Castro, Jorge M.


    This article presents a comprehensive examination of panel data for 1,847 consumers and 2,209 brands of "biscuits" (a total of 76,682 records) in which matching analysis is employed to define brand substitutability and potential product clusters within the overall category. The results indicate that, while brands performed as expected as perfect…

  16. Effects of alkyl substitutions of xanthine skeleton on bronchodilation.

    Sakai, R; Konno, K; Yamamoto, Y; Sanae, F; Takagi, K; Hasegawa, T; Iwasaki, N; Kakiuchi, M; Kato, H; Miyamoto, K


    Structure-activity relationships in a series of 1,3,7-trialkyl-xanthine were studied with guinea pigs. Relaxant actions in the tracheal muscle were increased with alkyl chain length at the 1- and 3-positions of the xanthine skeleton, but decreased by alkylation at the 7-position. Positive chronotropic actions in the right atrium were potentiated with 3-alkyl chain length but tended to decrease with 1-alkylation and diminish by 7-substitution. Consequently, while the 1- and 3-substitutions were equally important for the tracheal smooth muscle relaxation, the substitution at the 1-position was more important than the 3-substitution for bronchoselectivity. The 7-alkylation may be significant to cancel heart stimulation. There were good correlations between the smooth muscle relaxant action and the cyclic AMP-PDE inhibitory activity in 3-substituents and the affinity for adenosine (A1) receptors in 1-, 3-, and 7-substituents. This suggests that not only the cyclic AMP-PDE inhibitory activity but also the adenosine antagonistic activity is important in the bronchodilatory effects of alkylxanthines. Among these xanthine derivatives, 1-butyl-3-propylxanthine and its 7-methylated derivative showed high bronchoselectivity in the in vitro and in vivo experiments compared to theophylline and enprofylline and may be new candidates for bronchodilator.

  17. The Transition States for CO2 Capture by Substituted Ethanolamines

    Gangarapu, S.; Marcelis, A.T.M.; Alhamed, Y.A.; Zuilhof, H.


    Quantum chemical studies are used to understand the electronic and steric effects on the mechanisms of the reaction of substituted ethanolamines with CO2. SCS-MP2/6-311+G(2d,2p) calculations are used to obtain the activation energy barriers and reaction energies for both the carbamate and

  18. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    Egawa, Yuya; Miki, Ryotaro; Seki, Toshinobu


    In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine. PMID:28788510

  19. Biological relevance and synthesis of C-substituted morpholine derivatives

    Wijtmans, R.; Vink, M.K.S.; Schoemaker, H.E.; Delft, F.L. van; Blaauw, R.H.; Rutjes, F.P.J.T.


    C-Functionalized morpholines are found in a variety of natural products and biologically active compounds, but have also for other reasons been applied in organic synthesis. This review deals with the biological relevance of C-substituted morpholines, their synthesis and important applications in ot

  20. Dihydroxylation of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines

    Robinson, Tony V; Pedersen, Daniel Sejer; Taylor, Dennis K;


    The synthesis of 2-C-branched erythritol derivatives, including the plant sugar (+/-)-2-C-methylerythritol 2, was achieved through a dihydroxylation/reduction sequence on a series of 4-substituted 1,2-dioxines 3. The asymmetric dihydroxylation of 1,2-dioxines was examined, providing access to opt...

  1. Colorimetric Sugar Sensing Using Boronic Acid-Substituted Azobenzenes

    Yuya Egawa


    Full Text Available In association with increasing diabetes prevalence, it is desirable to develop new glucose sensing systems with low cost, ease of use, high stability and good portability. Boronic acid is one of the potential candidates for a future alternative to enzyme-based glucose sensors. Boronic acid derivatives have been widely used for the sugar recognition motif, because boronic acids bind adjacent diols to form cyclic boronate esters. In order to develop colorimetric sugar sensors, boronic acid-conjugated azobenzenes have been synthesized. There are several types of boronic acid azobenzenes, and their characteristics tend to rely on the substitute position of the boronic acid moiety. For example, o-substitution of boronic acid to the azo group gives the advantage of a significant color change upon sugar addition. Nitrogen-15 Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR studies clearly show a signaling mechanism based on the formation and cleavage of the B–N dative bond between boronic acid and azo moieties in the dye. Some boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes were attached to a polymer or utilized for supramolecular chemistry to produce glucose-selective binding, in which two boronic acid moieties cooperatively bind one glucose molecule. In addition, boronic acid-substituted azobenzenes have been applied not only for glucose monitoring, but also for the sensing of glycated hemoglobin and dopamine.

  2. On Homogeneous Production Functions with Proportional Marginal Rate of Substitution

    Alina Daniela Vîlcu


    Full Text Available We completely classify homogeneous production functions with proportional marginal rate of substitution and with constant elasticity of labor and capital, respectively. These classifications generalize some recent results of C. A. Ioan and G. Ioan (2011 concerning the sum production function.

  3. Elasticities of substitution and functional separability of the maquiladora industry

    Jorge Ibarra Salazar


    Full Text Available Previous studies about the demand of productive factors of the Maquiladora Industry have focused in the labor demand. Such literature has advanced in two directions: specifying dynamic models of labor demand; or deriving the demand of productive factors from production functions that assume constant returns to scale, functional separability or certain substitution patterns among them. In this paper we estimate a translog production function without imposing a priori these restrictions. Our objective is to determine whether there is evidence supporting those assumptions. In particular, we analyze the hypotheses of constant returns to scale, and the different forms of functional separability in a three inputs production function. We use data that combines annual time series (1990– 2006 with cross section of nine economic sectors of the Mexican maquiladora. We find no evidence supporting the assumptions that have been used in previous studies of factor demand. Specifically, we find evidence of decreasing returns to scale, and that the elasticities of substitution between the productive factors are all different. The estimated elasticity of substitution between labor and capital is below one; between labor and materials fluctuates between 1 and 1.5; whereas the elasticity of substitution between capital and materials is above 2.

  4. Novel ceramic processing method for substitution of toxic plasticizers

    Foghmoes, Søren Preben Vagn; Teocoli, Francesca; Brodersen, K.


    the two other candidates did not require a co-plasticiser, such as a polyethylene glycol, thus simplifying the system and reducing the risk of unwanted cross-interactions. An effective and systematic procedure for substitution of the plasticiser, while maintaining chemical compatibility and mechanical...

  5. Hydrothermal synthesis and characterizations of Ti substituted Mn-ferrites

    Mostafa, Nasser Y., E-mail: [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia 41522 (Egypt); Hessien, M.M. [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Advanced materials Division-Central metallurgical R and D Institute (CMRDI), P.O. Box 87 Helwan, Cairo (Egypt); Shaltout, Abdallah A. [Faculty of Science, Taif University, P.O. Box 888 Al-Haweiah, Taif (Saudi Arabia); Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrothermal synthesized of well-crystallized Ti-substituted MnFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles at 180 Degree-Sign C without any calcination step. The chemical composition was represented by Mn{sub 1-2x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} with x having values 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in lattice parameter and saturation magnetization with increasing Ti-substitution was investigated and explained. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The change in microstructure due to Ti{sup 4+} ions substitutions was investigated using TEM analysis. - Abstarct: A series of well-crystallized Mn{sub 1-2x}Ti{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} nanoparticles with x values of 0.0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3 and 0.4 have been synthesized by hydrothermal route at 180 Degree-Sign C in the presence of NaOH as mineralizer. The obtained ferrite samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The XRD analysis showed that pure single phases of cubic ferrites were obtained with x up to 0.2. However, samples with x > 0.2 showed traces of unreacted anatase. The increase in Ti-substitution up to x = 0.2 leads to an increase in the lattice parameter of the prepared ferrites. On the other hand, the increase in Ti-substitution over x = 0.2 leads to a decrease in the lattice parameter. The average crystallite size was in the range of 39-57 nm, where it is increased by increasing the Ti-substitution up to x = 0.3, then decreased for x = 0.4. According to VSM results, the saturation magnetization increased with Ti ion substitution of x = 0.1 and decreased for x > 0.1.

  6. Limits to the rate of adaptive substitution in sexual populations.

    Daniel B Weissman

    Full Text Available In large populations, many beneficial mutations may be simultaneously available and may compete with one another, slowing adaptation. By finding the probability of fixation of a favorable allele in a simple model of a haploid sexual population, we find limits to the rate of adaptive substitution, Λ, that depend on simple parameter combinations. When variance in fitness is low and linkage is loose, the baseline rate of substitution is Λ₀ = 2NU , where N is the population size, U is the rate of beneficial mutations per genome, and is their mean selective advantage. Heritable variance v in log fitness due to unlinked loci reduces Λ by e⁻⁴(v under polygamy and e⁻⁸ (v under monogamy. With a linear genetic map of length R Morgans, interference is yet stronger. We use a scaling argument to show that the density of adaptive substitutions depends on s, N, U, and R only through the baseline density: Λ/R = F (Λ₀/R. Under the approximation that the interference due to different sweeps adds up, we show that Λ/R ~(Λ₀/R / (1 +2Λ₉/R , implying that interference prevents the rate of adaptive substitution from exceeding one per centimorgan per 200 generations. Simulations and numerical calculations confirm the scaling argument and confirm the additive approximation for Λ₀/R ~ 1; for higher Λ₀/R , the rate of adaptation grows above R/2, but only very slowly. We also consider the effect of sweeps on neutral diversity and show that, while even occasional sweeps can greatly reduce neutral diversity, this effect saturates as sweeps become more common-diversity can be maintained even in populations experiencing very strong interference. Our results indicate that for some organisms the rate of adaptive substitution may be primarily recombination-limited, depending only weakly on the mutation supply and the strength of selection.

  7. Preparation, Characterization and Antibacterial Property of Cerium Substituted Hydroxyapatite Nanoparticles

    Lin Yingguang; Yang Zhuoru; Cheng Jiang


    Nanoparticles of hydroxyapatite (HAP) and cerium substituted hydroxyapatite (CeHAP) with the atomic ratio of Ce/[Ca+Ce] (xCe) from 0 to 0.2 were prepared by sol-gel-supercritical fluid drying (SCFD) method. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, XRD, and FT-IR, and the effects of cerium on crystal structure, crystallinity, and particle shape were discussed. With the tests of bacterial inhibition zone and antibacterial ratio, the antibacterial property of HAP and CeHAP nanoparticles on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus were researched. Results showed that the nanoparticles of HAP and CeHAP could be made by sol-gel-SCFD, cerium could partially substitute for calcium and enter the structure of HAP. After substitution, the crystallinity, the IR wavenumbers of bonds in CeHAP decreased gradually with increase of cerium substitution, and the morphology of the nanoparticles changed from the short rod-shaped HAP to the needle-shaped CeHAP. The nanoparticles of HAP and CeHAP with xCe below 0.08 had antibacterial property only forcibly contacting with the test bacteria at the test concentration of 0.1 g·ml-1, however, the CeHAP nanoparticles had antibacterial ability at that concentration no matter statically or dynamically contacting with the test bacteria when xCe was above 0.08, and the antibacterial ability gets better with the increase of xCe, indicating that the antibacterial property was improved after calcium was partially substituted by cerium. The improved antibacterial effects of CeHAP nanoparticle on Lactobacillus showed its potential ability to anticaries.

  8. Sucrose substitutes affect the cariogenic potential of Streptococcus mutans biofilms.

    Durso, S C; Vieira, L M; Cruz, J N S; Azevedo, C S; Rodrigues, P H; Simionato, M R L


    Streptococcus mutans is considered the primary etiologic agent of dental caries and contributes significantly to the virulence of dental plaque, especially in the presence of sucrose. To avoid the role of sucrose on the virulence factors of S. mutans, sugar substitutes are commonly consumed because they lead to lower or no production of acids and interfere with biofilm formation. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of sugar substitutes in the cariogenic potential of S. mutans biofilms. Thus, in the presence of sucrose, glucose, sucralose and sorbitol, the biofilm mass was quantified up to 96 h, the pH of the spent culture media was measured, the expression of biofilm-related genes was determined, and demineralization challenge experiments were conduct in enamel fragments. The presence of sugars or sugar substitutes profoundly affected the expression of spaP, gtfB, gtfC, gbpB, ftf, vicR and vicX in either biofilm or planktonic cells. The substitution of sucrose induced a down-regulation of most genes involved in sucrose-dependent colonization in biofilm cells. When the ratio between the expression of biofilm and planktonic cells was considered, most of those genes were down-regulated in biofilm cells in the presence of sugars and up-regulated in the presence of sugar substitutes. However, sucralose but not sorbitol fulfilled the purpose of reducing the cariogenic potential of the diet since it induced the biofilm formation with the lowest biomass, did not change the pH of the medium and led to the lowest lesion depth in the cariogenic challenge.

  9. Substitution Effects and Linear Free Energy Relationships During Reduction of 4- Benzoyl-n-(4-substituted Benzyl)pyridinium Cations

    Leventis, Nicholas; Zhang, Guo-Hui; Rawashdeh, Abdel-Monem M.; Sotiriou-Leventis, Chariklia; Gray, Hugh R. (Technical Monitor)


    In analogy to 4-(para-substituted benzoyl)-N-methylpyridinium cations (1-X's), the title species (2-X's, -X = -OCH3, -CH3, -H, -Br, -COCH3, -NO2) undergo two reversible, well-separated (E(sub 1/2) greater than or equal to 650 mV) one-electron reductions. The effect of substitution on the reduction potentials of 2-X's is much weaker than the effect of the same substituents on 1-X's: the Hammett rho-values are 0.80 and 0.93 for the 1st- and 2nd-e reduction of 2-X's vs. 2.3 and 3.3 for the same reductions of 1-X's, respectively. Importantly, the nitro group of 2-NO2 undergoes reduction before the 2nd-e reduction of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system. These results suggest that the redox potentials of the 4-benzoylpyridinium system can be course-tuned via p-benzoyl substitution and fine-tuned via para-benzyl substitution. Introducing the recently derived substituent constant of the -NO2(sup)- group (sigma para-NO2(sup)- = -0.97) yields an excellent correlation for the 3rd-e reduction of 2- NO2 (corresponding to the reduction of the carbonyl group) with the 2nd-e reduction of the other 2-X's, and confirms the electron donating properties of -NO2(sup)-.

  10. The α-Effect in Nucleophilic Substitution Reactions of Y-Substituted-Phenyl X-Substituted-Cinnamates with Butane-2,3-dione Monoximate

    Kim, Minyoung; Son, Yujin; Um, Ikhwan [Ewha Woman' s Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Second-order rate constants (k{sub Ox-}) have been measured spectrophotometrically for nucleophilic substitution reactions of 4-nitrophenyl X-substituted-cinnamates (7a-7e) and Y-substituted-phenyl cinnamates (8a-8e) with butane-2,3-dione monoximate (O{sub x}{sup -}) in 80 mol % H{sub 2}O/20 mol % DMSO at 25.0 ± 0.1 .deg. C. The Hammett plot for the reactions of 7a-7e consists of two intersecting straight lines while the Yukawa-Tsuno plot exhibits an excellent linearity with ρ{sub X} = 0.85 and r = 0.58, indicating that the nonlinear Hammett plot is not due to a change in the rate-determining step but is caused by resonance stabilization of the ground state (GS) of the substrate possessing an electron-donating group (EDG). The Brφnsted-type plot for the reactions of Y-substituted-phenyl cinnamates (8a-8e) is linear with β{sub lg} = -0.64, which is typical of reactions reported previously to proceed through a concerted mechanism. The α-nucleophile (O{sub x}{sup -}) is more reactive than the reference normal-nucleophile (4-ClPhO{sup -}). The magnitude of the α-effect (i.e., the k{sub Ox-}/k{sub 4-ClPhO-} ratio) is independent of the electronic nature of the substituent X in the nonleaving group but increases linearly as the substituent Y in the leaving group becomes a weaker electron-withdrawing group (EWG). It has been concluded that the difference in solvation energy between O{sub x}{sup -} and 4-ClPhO{sup -} (i. e., GS effect) is not solely responsible for the α-effect but stabilization of transition state (TS) through a cyclic TS structure contributes also to the Y-dependent α-effect trend (i. e., TS effect)

  11. Assessment of substitution model adequacy using frequentist and Bayesian methods.

    Ripplinger, Jennifer; Sullivan, Jack


    In order to have confidence in model-based phylogenetic methods, such as maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian analyses, one must use an appropriate model of molecular evolution identified using statistically rigorous criteria. Although model selection methods such as the likelihood ratio test and Akaike information criterion are widely used in the phylogenetic literature, model selection methods lack the ability to reject all models if they provide an inadequate fit to the data. There are two methods, however, that assess absolute model adequacy, the frequentist Goldman-Cox (GC) test and Bayesian posterior predictive simulations (PPSs), which are commonly used in conjunction with the multinomial log likelihood test statistic. In this study, we use empirical and simulated data to evaluate the adequacy of common substitution models using both frequentist and Bayesian methods and compare the results with those obtained with model selection methods. In addition, we investigate the relationship between model adequacy and performance in ML and Bayesian analyses in terms of topology, branch lengths, and bipartition support. We show that tests of model adequacy based on the multinomial likelihood often fail to reject simple substitution models, especially when the models incorporate among-site rate variation (ASRV), and normally fail to reject less complex models than those chosen by model selection methods. In addition, we find that PPSs often fail to reject simpler models than the GC test. Use of the simplest substitution models not rejected based on fit normally results in similar but divergent estimates of tree topology and branch lengths. In addition, use of the simplest adequate substitution models can affect estimates of bipartition support, although these differences are often small with the largest differences confined to poorly supported nodes. We also find that alternative assumptions about ASRV can affect tree topology, tree length, and bipartition support. Our

  12. Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials to improve the Working Environment

    Jacobsen, Thomas


    Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience......Substitution of dangerous substances and Materials as a method to improve the Working Environment - 25 years of Danish experience...

  13. Ortho-substituted triptycene-based diamines, monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    Ghanem, Bader Saleh


    Described herein are ortho-dimethyl-substituted and tetramethyi-substituted triptycene-containing diamine monomers and microporous triptycene-based poiyimides and poiyamides, and methods of making the monomers and polymers.

  14. Direct enantioselective access to 4-substituted tetrahydroquinolines by catalytic asymmetric transfer hydrogenation of quinolines.

    Rueping, Magnus; Theissmann, Thomas; Stoeckel, Mirjam; Antonchick, Andrey P


    A convenient protocol for the enantioselective synthesis of 4-substituted tetrahydroquinolines has been developed. Chiral BINOL phosphoric acids promote the reduction of a wide range of 4-substituted quinolines with Hantzsch esters with good to high levels of enantioselectivity.

  15. L-Proline Catalyzed Solvent-Free Knoevenagel Condensation for the Synthesis of 3-Substituted Coumarins

    KARADE Nandkishor. N.; GAMPAWAR Sumit V.; SHINDE Sandeep. V.; JADHAV Wamanrao. N.


    L-Proline was utilized as an efficient organo-catalyst for the environmentally benign synthesis of 3-substituted coumarins by the Knoevenagel condensation of substituted 2-hydroxybenzaldehydes with reactive methylene compounds under solvent free conditions.

  16. Synthesis of 2-Substituted Hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine Analogues


    2-substituted hexahydro-1H-1,4-diazepine analogues were synthesized starting from N,N?-dibenzyl-1,3-propylene diamine and methyl-2,3-dibromo propionate through nucleophilic substitution, reduction, chlorination and debenzylation.

  17. Analyzing generic and branded substitution patterns in the Netherlands using prescription data

    Pechlivanoglou, P; van der Veen, W.J; Bos, J.H; Postma, M.J


    .... We aim to analyse the extent and nature of substitution in recent years and estimate the likelihood of generic or branded substitution in Dutch pharmacies in relation to various characteristics. Methods...

  18. Biotransformation and Biodegradation of N-Substituted Aromatics in Methanogenic Granular Sludge.

    Razo Flores, E.


    N-substituted aromatic compounds are environmental contaminants associated with the production and use of dyes, explosives, pesticides and pharmaceuticals among others. Nitro- and azo-substituted aromatic compounds with strong electron withdrawing groups are poorly biodegradable in aerobic treatment

  19. Effect of nickel substitution on thermal properties of Na0.9CoO2

    J Meena Devi; N Gayathri; A Bharathi; K Ramachandran


    We report on the effect of nickel substitution in Na0.9CoO2 by examining their thermal properties at room temperature. Experimental results indicate that thermoelectric efficiency is enhanced upon nickel substitution in sodium cobaltate.

  20. Mass Spectra of Some 4- and 5-Substituted Derivatives of Benzoselenadiazoles

    Marcel Schultz


    Full Text Available Electron impact mass spectra of variety of eight 4-substituted and eight 5-substituted benzoselenadiazoles are presented and their spectral fragmentations are discussed. New mass spectra containing selenium in heterocyclic azole atom containing ring.

  1. Multifaceted Material Substitution: The Case of NdFeB Magnets, 2010-2015

    Smith, Braeton J.; Eggert, Roderick G.


    Substitution is an important response for material users when faced with disruption to the availability or price of an essential material. In economic terms, substitution refers to the ability of firms to alter their patterns of material use in response to exogenous market shocks. Substitution comes in different forms which vary from situation to situation. This paper uses expert opinion to identify the specific forms of substitution that occurred in permanent magnets, specifically neodymium-iron-boron magnets, following the significant increase in rare earth prices in 2010-2011. The paper provides a framework for understanding the multifaceted nature of substitution and assesses the relative importance of five different types of substitution. Technology-for-element, grade-for-grade, and system-for-system substitution appear to have been more important than element-for-element and magnet-for-magnet substitution. Cost pass-through and absorption were also important responses.

  2. Fluoro-substituted ketones from nitriles using acidic and basic reaction conditions

    Raja, Erum; Klumpp, Douglas A.


    Fluoro-substituted aliphatic nitriles are shown to undergo the Houben-Hoesch reactions with arenes in CF3SO3H to give fluoro-substituted ketones in good yields. The fluorine substituents appear to enhance the reactivities of the nitriles (and the nitrilium ion intermediates) compared to similar aliphatic nitriles. Fluoro-substituted ketones are also shown to be accessible through the reactions of organometallic reagents and fluoro-substituted nitriles.

  3. Mud-filtrate correction of sonic logs by fluid substitution

    Sørensen, Morten Kanne

    . The pressure in the borehole is kept higher than in the surrounding formation to control fluid production from the borehole. The over pressure in the borehole drives fluid from the borehole into the formation, whereby a sonic log measures velocities at a different saturation than the formation saturation......, which the seismic data probes. For a proper well-tie sonic logs therefore require correction. Gassmann (1951) fluid substitution relates elastic velocities of a porous medium at one saturation to the elastic velocities at another saturation. Fluid substation can then predict a sonic log...... at the undisturbed formation saturation from the invaded saturation. Fluid substitution is exact for a uniform, high-permeable porous medium saturated by a single fluid. Rocks does not necessarily conform to these requirements, and both the formation saturation and invaded saturation involve two fluids. Sonic log...

  4. 3D Printing of Octacalcium Phosphate Bone Substitutes

    Komlev, Vladimir S.; Popov, Vladimir K.; Mironov, Anton V.; Fedotov, Alexander Yu.; Teterina, Anastasia Yu.; Smirnov, Igor V.; Bozo, Ilya Y.; Rybko, Vera A.; Deev, Roman V.


    Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here, we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates (OCP) in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed OCP blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed OCP bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient. PMID:26106596

  5. Structural and magnetic study of dysprosium substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles

    Kumar, Hemaunt, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Srivastava, R.C. [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Pal Singh, Jitendra [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Negi, P. [Department of Physics, Govind Ballabh Pant University of Agr. & Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand 263145 (India); Agrawal, H.M. [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of); Das, D. [UGC-DAE CSR Kolkata Centre, Kolkata 700098 (India); Hwa Chae, Keun [Advanced Analysis Centre, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 02792 (Korea, Republic of)


    The present work investigates the magnetic behavior of Dy{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. X-ray diffraction studies reveal presence of cubic spinel phases in these nanoparticles. Raman spectra of these nanoparticles show change in intensity of Raman bands, which reflects cation redistribution in cubic spinel lattice. Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease with increase of Dy{sup 3+}concentration in these nanoparticles. Room temperature Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in these nanoparticles and corroborates the results obtained from Raman Spectroscopic measurements. Decrease in magnetization of Dy{sup 3+} substituted cobalt ferrite is attributed to the reduction in the magnetic interaction and cation redistribution. - Highlights: • Slight decrease in crystallite size after Dy{sup 3+} doping. • Saturation magnetization and coercivity decrease after Dy{sup 3+} doping. • Mössbauer measurements show the cation redistribution in the samples.

  6. Synthesis of substituted benzimidazolyl curcumin mimics and their anticancer activity.

    Woo, Ho Bum; Eom, Young Woo; Park, Kyu-Sang; Ham, Jungyeob; Ahn, Chan Mug; Lee, Seokjoon


    A novel curcumin mimic library (14a-14h and 15a-15h) possessing variously substituted benzimidazole groups was synthesized through the aldol reaction of (E)-4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (7) or (E)-4-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyphenyl)but-3-en-2-one (13) with diversely substituted benzimidazolyl-2-carbaldehyde (12a-12h). The MTT assay of the cancer cells MCF-7, SH-SY5Y, HEP-G2, and H460 showed that compound 14c with IC(50) of 1.0 and 1.9μM has a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of SH-SY5Y and Hep-G2 cells, respectively, and that compound 15h with IC(50) of 1.9μM has a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of MCF-7 cancer cells.

  7. Detailed assessment of homology detection using different substitution matrices

    LI Jing; WANG Wei


    Homology detection plays a key role in bioinformatics, whereas substitution matrix is one of the most important components in homology detection. Thus, besides the improvement of alignment algorithms, another effective way to enhance the accuracy of homology detection is to use proper substitution matrices or even construct new matrices.A study on the features of various matrices and on the comparison of the performances between different matrices in homology detection enable us to choose the most proper or optimal matrix for some specific applications. In this paper, by taking BLOSUM matrices as an example, some detailed features of matrices in homology detection are studied by calculating the distributions of numbers of recognized proteins over different sequence identities and sequence lengths. Our results clearly showed that different matrices have different preferences and abilities to the recognition of remote homologous proteins. Furthermore, detailed features of the various matrices can be used to improve the accuracy of homology detection.

  8. Enhancement in magnetic properties of magnesium substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan, E-mail:, E-mail:; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Yilin; Ren, Tian-Ling, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institute of Microelectronics, Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology (TNList), Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen [Institute for Advanced Materials and Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhao, Yonggang [Department of Physics and State Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)


    We report a potential way to effectively improve the magnetic properties of BiFeO{sub 3} (BFO) nanoparticles through Mg{sup 2+} ion substitution at the Fe-sites of BFO lattice. The high purity and structural changes induced by Mg doping are confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometer and Raman spectra. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed in Mg substituted samples, which simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. A physical model is proposed to support the observed ferromagnetism of Mg doped samples, and the superparamagnetic properties are revealed by the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The improved magnetic properties and soft nature obtained by Mg doping in BFO nanoparticles demonstrate the possibility of BFO nanoparticles to practical applications.

  9. Enhancement in magnetic properties of magnesium substituted bismuth ferrite nanoparticles

    Xu, Jianlong; Xie, Dan; Teng, Changjiu; Zhang, Xiaowen; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Yilin; Ren, Tian-Ling; Zeng, Min; Gao, Xingsen; Zhao, Yonggang


    We report a potential way to effectively improve the magnetic properties of BiFeO3 (BFO) nanoparticles through Mg2+ ion substitution at the Fe-sites of BFO lattice. The high purity and structural changes induced by Mg doping are confirmed by X-ray powder diffractometer and Raman spectra. Enhanced magnetic properties are observed in Mg substituted samples, which simultaneously exhibit ferromagnetic and superparamagnetic properties at room temperature. A physical model is proposed to support the observed ferromagnetism of Mg doped samples, and the superparamagnetic properties are revealed by the temperature dependent magnetization measurements. The improved magnetic properties and soft nature obtained by Mg doping in BFO nanoparticles demonstrate the possibility of BFO nanoparticles to practical applications.

  10. Gold-catalyzed oxidation of substituted phenols by hydrogen peroxide

    Cheneviere, Yohan


    Gold nanoparticles deposited on inorganic supports are efficient catalysts for the oxidation of various substituted phenols (2,6-di-tert-butyl phenol and 2,3,6-trimethyl phenol) with aqueous hydrogen peroxide. By contrast to more conventional catalysts such as Ti-containing mesoporous silicas, which convert phenols to the corresponding benzoquinones, gold nanoparticles are very selective to biaryl compounds (3,3′,5,5′-tetra-tert-butyl diphenoquinone and 2,2′,3,3′,5,5′-hexamethyl-4,4′- biphenol, respectively). Products yields and selectivities depend on the solvent used, the best results being obtained in methanol with yields >98%. Au offers the possibility to completely change the selectivity in the oxidation of substituted phenols and opens interesting perspectives in the clean synthesis of biaryl compounds for pharmaceutical applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. On structural inelasticity of modal substitution in freight transport

    Rich, Jeppe; Kveiborg, Ole; Overgård, Christian Hansen


    At the European level there is an increasing focus on how freight transport can be moved from trucks on roads to more environmentally friendly modes such as rail and ship. A large proportion of the transport services between OD pairs, however, cannot be substituted since there is only one...... alternative available. The paper investigates the magnitude of this ‘‘structural inelasticity” of modal substitution in freight transport due to a sparser layout of rail and ship-based freight networks compared to road. In the analysis we use a recent Scandinavian freight demand model covering more than 800...... zones. We find that the structural inelasticity is very significant – in particular for transportation over less than 500 km. Moreover, the inelasticity varies greatly with commodity groups and between OD pairs, and it depends strongly on the port and rail infrastructure. The results suggest that pure...

  12. Synthesis of substituted guanidines using Zn-Al hydrotalcite catalyst

    Lakshmi Kantam Mannepalli; Venkanna Dupati; Swarna Jaya Vallabha; Manorama Sunkara V


    Substituted guanidines were synthesized by the guanylation of amines with carbodiimides using Zn-Al hydrotalcite (Zn-Al HT) catalyst. Zn-Al HT was prepared by co-precipitation method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Raman and Thermogravimetric-Differential Thermal Analysis (TG-DTA). The heterogeneous catalyst afforded moderate to good yields (∼ 50-60 %) of substituted guanidines in toluene at 110°C in 12 h. The catalyst was recovered quantitatively by simple filtration and reused for three cycles with consistent activity. The XRD and FTIR studies of the used catalyst shows no variation in the structure of the catalyst even after three recycles.

  13. Associations between generic substitution and patients' attitudes, beliefs and experience

    Østergaard Rathe, Jette; Larsen, Pia Veldt; Andersen, Morten


    Abstract Background Generic substitution has been implemented in many countries, but knowledge about patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences is still sparse. Aim To assess associations between generic switching and patients’ attitudes, beliefs and experiences with previous generic switching...... on generic medicine and confidence in the healthcare system. Only prescriptions issued by the general practitioners were included. For each patient we focused on one purchase of a generically substitutable drug (index drug). Patients were identified by means of a dispensing database. Results Earlier generic...... switches within the index ATC code were statistically significantly associated with experience of a generic switch (adjusted OR 5.93 95% CI 4.70; 7.49). Having had more than 5 earlier switches within other ATC codes and having negative views on generic medicines reduced the odds of experiencing a generic...

  14. Generic substitution: micro evidence from register data in Norway.

    Dalen, Dag Morten; Furu, Kari; Locatelli, Marilena; Strøm, Steinar


    The importance of prices, doctor and patient characteristics, and market institutions for the likelihood of choosing generic drugs instead of the more expensive original brand-name version are examined. Using an extensive dataset extracted from The Norwegian Prescription Database containing all prescriptions dispensed to individuals in February 2004 and 2006 on 23 different drugs (chemical substances) in Norway, we find strong evidence for the importance of both doctor and patient characteristics for the choice probabilities. The price difference between brand and generic versions and insurance coverage both affect generic substitution. Moreover, controlling for the retail chain affiliation of the dispensing pharmacy, we find that pharmacies play an important role in promoting generic substitution. In markets with more recent entry of generic drugs, brand-name loyalty proves to be much stronger, giving less explanatory power to our demand model.

  15. Study of Quantitative Structure-retention Relationship for Substituted Phenols


    Quantum chemistry parameters of 20 substituted phenols were computed at the 631G* level using DFT method. Based on theoretical linear solvation energy theory, the correlation equation that can predict the retention index (RI) was developed using structural parameters of 15 substituted phenols with experimental data as theoretical descriptors, and the conventional correlation coefficient (R2) is 0.9885. The correlation degree of each independent variable in the model was validated by variance inflation factors (VIF) and t-test. Cross-validation indicates that the model possesses high predicting ability. The correlation and predicting ability of the RI equation are both more advantageous than those based on orientating group index, connectivity index, and topological index method. In addition, RI values of 5 compounds without experimental data were predicted with the model.

  16. New 1-Aryl-3-Substituted Propanol Derivatives as Antimalarial Agents

    Antonio Monge


    Full Text Available This paper describes the synthesis and in vitro antimalarial activity against a P. falciparum 3D7 strain of some new 1-aryl-3-substituted propanol derivatives. Twelve of the tested compounds showed an IC50 lower than 1 μM. These compounds were also tested for cytotoxicity in murine J774 macrophages. The most active compounds were evaluated for in vivo activity against P. berghei in a 4-day suppressive test. Compound 12 inhibited more than 50% of parasite growth at a dose of 50 mg/kg/day. In addition, an FBIT test was performed to measure the ability to inhibit ferriprotoporphyrin biocrystallization. This data indicates that 1-aryl-3-substituted propanol derivatives hold promise as a new therapeutic option for the treatment of malaria.

  17. 3D Printing of Octacalcium Phosphate Bone Substitutes.

    Komlev, Vladimir S; Popov, Vladimir K; Mironov, Anton V; Fedotov, Alexander Yu; Teterina, Anastasia Yu; Smirnov, Igor V; Bozo, Ilya Y; Rybko, Vera A; Deev, Roman V


    Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here, we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates (OCP) in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed OCP blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed OCP bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect's diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  18. Energy substitution game under the supply capacity restriction

    ZHANG Yu-zhuo; Chen Jian


    Along with Chinese economic growth, energy plays a more and more important role in the national economy. The imbalance between insufficient energy supply and huge energy demand has become a major problem in energy utilization, and energy substitution is attracting more and more attention as a key to the sustainable and sound development of Chinese economy. Explored the possibilities of the mutual substitution of the two types of energy with different functions with game theory in light of the supply capacity. As a con-clusion, there are four equilibrium results corresponding to different levels of supply capac-ity. Subsequently, we carry on the study further by numerical simulation, investigate in one group of results most close to Chinese energy status and find the equilibrium price as well as the demand variation pattern.

  19. Tax Substitution and Accounting Firms: perceptions of the implementation process

    Sergio Roberto da Silva


    Full Text Available The Accounting advisory services has been of great importance to the performance of Brazilian companies. The purpose of this research is to identify the experience that the accounting officer of external accounting advice obtained in the adoption of the ICMS tax substitution regime. The study sought to identify what were the main questions, which updates the actions of matter, the impact of the issue in accounting firms, if they had a work overload or not. The survey was conducted through multi case studies in a total of four cases of accounting firms. They were interviewed four managers / owners of accounting offices in the city of Guarulhos, Brazil. A research protocol applied to the four cases has been prepared. The result of the research was that accountants had difficulty with the systematic, calculating and filing of invoices where there was incidence of tax substitution.


    ZHANG Xuqing; SHEN Xueming; YANG Shiyong; LU Wei; ZHANG Jingyun


    Electrochemical polymerization of 3-fluoroalkoxy and 3-fluoroether thiophenes gives polymers with relatively high molecular weights and good processibility . Investigation of these polymers by means of GPC indicates that an increase in the number of fluorine atoms in the fluorinated group results in a decrease in degree of polymerization of the polymers in the same polythiophene series. As shown by NMR and FTIR, the polyfluorinated group substituted polythiophenes have regular 2, 5-coupling in their main chains.The SEM micrographs of the polymer films exhibit that polymer (1)-poly [3-2, 2, 3, 3-tetrafluoro-propoxy) thiophene] possesses more regular structure than the other polymers do. Substitution of polythiophenes by fluorinated groups leads to the polymers with high electric, electrochemical and thermal stability.

  1. 3D printing of octacalcium phosphate bone substitutes

    Vladimir S. Komlev


    Full Text Available Biocompatible calcium phosphate ceramic grafts are able of supporting new bone formation in appropriate environment. The major limitation of these materials usage for medical implants is the absence of accessible methods for their patient-specific fabrication. 3D printing methodology is an excellent approach to overcome the limitation supporting effective and fast fabrication of individual complex bone substitutes. Here we proposed a relatively simple route for 3D printing of octacalcium phosphates in complexly shaped structures by the combination of inkjet printing with post-treatment methodology. The printed octacalcium phosphate blocks were further implanted in the developed cranial bone defect followed by histological evaluation. The obtained result confirmed the potential of the developed octacalcium phosphates bone substitutes, which allowed 2.5-time reducing of defect’s diameter at 6.5 months in a region where native bone repair is extremely inefficient.

  2. Current-voltage characteristics of carbon nanotubes with substitutional nitrogen

    Kaun, C.C.; Larade, B.; Mehrez, H.;


    We report ab initio analysis of current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of carbon nanotubes with nitrogen substitution doping. For zigzag semiconducting tubes, doping with a single N impurity increases current flow and, for small radii tubes, narrows the current gap. Doping a N impurity per nanotube...... unit cell generates a metallic transport behavior. Nonlinear I-V characteristics set in at high bias and a negative differential resistance region is observed for the doped tubes. These behaviors can be well understood from the alignment/mis-alignment of the current carrying bands in the nanotube leads...... due to the applied bias voltage. For a armchair metallic nanotube, a reduction of current is observed with substitutional doping due to elastic backscattering by the impurity....

  3. Erfaringer med substitution af PVC ved renere teknologi og brancheaftaler

    Jørgensen, Ulrik

    Rapporten gennemgår den danske debat om PVC og de miljøpolitiske tiltag, der har været gennemført. Et survey i danske plastvirksomheder gennemført i projektet viser, at industrien er forberedt på at gennemføre en omfattende substitution af PVC, hvis der stilles politisk krav om det eller markedet...... efterspørger det. Til gengæld viser brancheaftalerne sig at være et svagt instrument og der peges på et behov for en opfølgning af de gode resultater, der er opnået med substitution af PVC i en række renere teknologi projekter, som har fået statslig støtte....

  4. From incremental to fundamental substitution in chemical alternatives assessment

    Fantke, Peter; Weber, Roland; Scheringer, Martin


    Several chemicals in consumer products are subject to binding or voluntary phase-out agreements that are based on international treaties such as the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants or on regulatory frameworks such as the European Union's Registration, Evaluation, Authorization...... and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH). To facilitate a phase-out process, alternatives assessment is commonly applied as an emerging approach to identifying chemicals (or materials, processes, and behavior changes) serving as substitutes. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), long-chain poly- and perfluorinated...... Chemistry aspects in industrial processes design constitute additional challenges. We illustrate the various challenges in the process of phasing out and successfully substituting hazardous chemicals in consumer products and provide guiding principles for addressing these challenges. We propose...

  5. Preparation and Characterization of Nano-particle Substituted Barium Hexaferrite

    Atassi, Yomen; Tally, Mohammad


    High density magnetic recording requires high coercivity magnetic media and small particle size. Barium hexaferrite has been considered as a leading candidate material because of its chemical stability, fairly large crystal anisotropy and suitable magnetic characteristics. In this work, we present the preparation of the hexagonal ferrite BaFe12O19 and one of its derivative; the Zn-Sn substituted hexaferrite by the chemical co-precipitation method. The main advantage of this method on the conventional glass-ceramic one, resides in providing a small enough particle size for magnetic recording. We demonstrate using the X-ray diffraction patterns that the particle size decreases when substituting the hexaferrite by the Zn-Sn combination. This may improve the magnetic properties of the hexaferrite as a medium for HD magnetic recording

  6. Electromechanical tactile stimulation system for sensory vision substitution

    Zalevsky, Zeev; Elani, Gal; Azoulay, Eli; Ilani, Dan; Beiderman, Yevgeny; Belkin, Michael


    A sensory substitution device is developed in which nonretinal stimulus is used to generate input to the brain of blind people to substitute for damage or loss of retinal input. Although the final realization of this technology (direct stimulation of the corneal nerve endings) was not addressed, a device consisting of a contact lens delivering point mechanical or electrical stimulating of the corneal nerves and a camera mounted on a spectacles frame which wirelessly transmit processed image to the contact lens, translating the visual information into tactile sensation is expected to be constructed. In order to improve the spatial resolution of the constructed image, the camera will also time multiplex, compress and encode the captured image before transmitting it to the stimulating contact lens. Preliminary devices performing tactile stimulation of the fingers and of the tongue by applying point electrical stimulations, were constructed and tested. Subjects were taught to "see" using the mechanical and the electrical tactile sensory.

  7. Effects of metastability on hydrogen sorption in fluorine substituted hydrides

    Pinatel, E.R.; Corno, M.; Ugliengo, P.; Baricco, M., E-mail:


    Highlights: • Fluorine substitution in simple metal hydrides has been modelled. • The stability of the MH{sub (1−x)}F{sub x} solid solutions has been discussed. • Conditions for reversibility of sorption reactions have been suggested. - Abstract: In this work ab initio calculations and Calphad modelling have been coupled to describe the effect of fluorine substitution on the thermodynamics of hydrogenation–dehydrogenation in simple hydrides (NaH, AlH{sub 3} and CaH{sub 2}). These example systems have been used to discuss the conditions required for the formation of a stable hydride–fluoride solid solution necessary to obtain a reversible hydrogenation reaction.

  8. [The latest developments of the mercurial sphygmomanometers' substitute products].

    Zhou, Hua-Wei; Shang, Chang-Hao


    Mercurial sphygmomanometer is widely applied to NIBP as the basic medical equipment in hospitals, but it is dangerous. With the world-wide limit of mercurial sphygmomanometers, it is inevitable that the mercurial sphygmomanometers would be eliminated. At the same time, according to the requirement of the medical staff and for the technical side of medical engineering, we should set up a claim for the mercurial sphygmomanometers' substitute products.

  9. Flow carbonylation of sterically hindered ortho-substituted iodoarenes

    Mallia, Carl J; Walter, Gary C


    Summary The flow synthesis of ortho-substituted carboxylic acids, using carbon monoxide gas, has been studied for a number of substrates. The optimised conditions make use of a simple catalyst system compromising of triphenylphosphine as the ligand and palladium acetate as the pre-catalyst. Carbon monoxide was introduced via a reverse “tube-in-tube” flow reactor at elevated pressures to give yields of carboxylated products that are much higher than those obtained under normal batch conditions. PMID:27559403

  10. [Liposome phospholipid substitution and lung function in surfactant deprived rats].

    Obladen, M


    In vivo activity of an artificial surfactant was studied in surfactant depleted rats. After tenfold alveolar lavage, PaO2, tidal volume, and compliance of the respiratory system fell to one third of initial value. Substitution of large unilamellar vesicles containing 90% Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine and 10% unsaturated phosphatidylglycerol largely restored oxygenation and lung mechanics in most animals. Complete normalization with weaning from the ventilator, however, was achieved neither with liposomes nor with natural surfactant concentrate.

  11. Epsilon substituted lysinol derivatives as HIV-1 protease inhibitors.

    Jones, Kristen L G; Holloway, M Katharine; Su, Hua-Poo; Carroll, Steven S; Burlein, Christine; Touch, Sinoeun; DiStefano, Daniel J; Sanchez, Rosa I; Williams, Theresa M; Vacca, Joseph P; Coburn, Craig A


    A series of HIV-1 protease inhibitors containing an epsilon substituted lysinol backbone was synthesized. Two novel synthetic routes using N-boc-L-glutamic acid alpha-benzyl ester and 2,6-diaminopimelic acid were developed. Incorporation of this epsilon substituent enabled access to the S2 pocket of the enzyme, affording high potency inhibitors. Modeling studies and synthetic efforts suggest the potency increase is due to both conformational bias and van der Waals interactions with the S2 pocket.

  12. Is mobile learning a substitute for electronic learning?

    Sitthiworachart, Jirarat; Joy, Mike


    Mobile learning is widely regarded as the next generation of learning technologies, and refers to the use of mobile devices in education to enhance learning activities. The increasing use of mobile devices has encouraged research into the capabilities of mobile learning systems. Many questions arise about mobile learning, such as whether mobile learning can be a substitute for electronic learning, what the potential benefits and problems of utilizing mobile devices in education are, and what ...

  13. Synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins

    Babasaheeb P Bandgar; Pradip B Gujarathi


    The synthesis and characterization of new meso-substituted unsymmetrical metalloporphyrins has been described. A new modified Adler method was used for the synthesis of two unsymmetrical porphyrins. Reactions of these unsymmetrical porphyrins with metal acetates afforded the corresponding metalloporphyrins in high yields with excellent purity. These porphyrins and their metal derivatives were characterized by spectroscopic methods. However, the copper complexes were further studied by ESR spectra and zinc complex by fluorescence spectrum.

  14. Pesticide Substitution: Combining Food Safety with Environmental Quality

    Fantke, Peter


    Various pesticides are authorized for use on agricultural food crops. Despite regulatory risk assessments aiming at ensuring consumer and environmental safety, pesticides contribute to human and environmental impacts. Guidance is needed to optimize pesticide use practice and minimize human......% by defining adequate substitution scenarios. Comprehensive scenarios need to also consider worker and environmental burden, and information on crop rotation, pest pressure, environmental conditions, application costs and efficacy. Such scenarios help to increase food safety and more sustainable use...

  15. The effect of cobalt substitution on magnetic hardening of magnetite

    Mozaffari, M., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Isfahan, Isfahan 81746-73441 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Hadadian, Y. [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghebostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aftabi, A. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj 66177-15175 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Oveisy Moakhar, M. [Physics Department, Razi University, Taghebostan, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)


    In this work cobalt-substituted magnetite (Co{sub x}Fe{sub 1−x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4}, x=0, 0.25, 0.50 and 0.75) nanoparticles were synthesized by coprecipitation method and their structural and magnetic properties were investigated. X-ray diffraction was carried out and the results show that all of the samples have single phase spinel structure. Microstructure of the samples was studied using a field emission scanning electron microscope and the results show that particle sizes of the prepared nanoparticles were uniform and in the 50–55 nm range. Room temperature magnetic properties of the nanoparticles were measured by an alternating gradient force magnetometer and the results revealed that substituting cobalt for iron in magnetite structure, changes the magnetite from a soft magnetic material to a hard one. So that coercivity changes from 0 (a superparamagnetic state) to 337 Oe (a hard magnetic material), which is a remarkable change. Curie temperatures of the samples were determined by recording their susceptibility-temperature (χ–T) curves and the results show that by increasing cobalt content, Curie temperature of the samples also increases. Also χ–T curves of the samples were recorded from above Curie temperature to room temperature (first cooling), while the curves in the second heating and second cooling have the same behaviour as the first cooling curve. The results depict that all samples have different behaviour in the first cooling and in the first heating processes. This shows remarkable changes of the cation distribution in the course of first heating. - Highlights: • It is possible to get Co substituted magnetite nanoparticles by coprecipitation method. • Prepared nanoparticles have different cation distribution in comparison with that of bulk counterparts. • Co substitution increases coercivity of the magnetite.

  16. Magnetic and magnetostrictive properties of Cu substituted Co-ferrites

    Chandra Sekhar, B. [Vignan' s Institute of Engineering for Women, Visakhapatnam 530046 (India); Rao, G.S.N. [Dr. V.S. Krishna Govt. Degree College, Visakhapatnam (India); Caltun, O.F. [Department of Physics, A.I. Cuza University, Iasi (Romania); Dhana Lakshmi, B. [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Parvatheeswara Rao, B., E-mail: [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India); Subba Rao, P.S.V. [Department of Physics, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam 530003 (India)


    Copper substituted cobalt ferrite, Co{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} (x=0.00–0.25), nanoparticles were synthesized by sol–gel autocombustion method. X-ray diffraction analysis on the samples was done to confirm the cubic spinel structures and Scherrer equation was used to estimate the mean crystallite size as 40 nm. Using the obtained nanoparticles, fabrication of the sintered pellets was done by standard ceramic technique. Magnetic and magnetostrictive measurements on the samples were made by strain gauge and vibrating sample magnetometer techniques, respectively. Maximum magnetostriction and strain derivative values were deduced from the field dependent magnetostriction curves while the magnetic parameters such as saturation magnetization (51.7–61.9 emu/g) and coercivity (1045–1629 Oe) on the samples were estimated from the obtained magnetic hysteresis loops. Curie temperature values (457–315 °C) were measured by a built in laboratory set-up. Copper substituted cobalt ferrites have shown improved strain derivative values as compared to the pure cobalt ferrite and thus making them suitable for stress sensing applications. The results have been explained on the basis of cationic distributions, strength of exchange interactions and net decreased anisotropic contributions due to the increased presence of Co{sup 2+} ions in B-sites as a result of Cu substitutions. - Highlights: • Sol–gel autocombustion synthesized Co{sub 1–x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} were investigated. • Moderate values of magnetostriction and saturation magnetization were obtained. • Cu substitution in Co ferrite enhances strain derivative and reduces Curie temperature. • Obtained results of Co{sub 1−x}Cu{sub x}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} find themselves suitable for magnetostrictive sensors.

  17. General synthesis of substituted 1,2-dihydropyridines.

    Tejedor, David; Cotos, Leandro; Méndez-Abt, Gabriela; García-Tellado, Fernando


    A general and practical metal-free protocol for the synthesis of 1,2-dihydropyridines with wide structural/functional diversity at the ring and featuring mono, double, or spiro substitution at the sp(3) position is described. The protocol entails a microwave-assisted domino reaction of a propargyl vinyl ether (secondary or tertiary) and a primary amine (aliphatic or aromatic) in toluene or methanol.

  18. Documentation of capacity and identification of substitute decisionmakers in Ontario.

    Foreman, Thomas C; Curran, Dorothyann; Landry, Joshua T; Kekewich, Michael A


    Documenting capacity assessments and identifying substitute decisionmakers (SDMs) in healthcare facilities is ethically required for optimal patient care. Lack of such documentation has the potential to generate confusion and contention among patients, their family members, and members of the healthcare team. An overview of our research at the Ottawa Hospital and issues that influence the consistency of documentation in the Canadian context are presented here, as well as ideas for the mitigation of these issues and ways to encourage better documentation.


    Lisovskaya R. N.


    Full Text Available The article deals with problems and possibilities in agriculture import substitution conditions and considers the significant role of small agrarian forms in this economy processes. The article notes that the main aim of import substitution is improving the competitiveness of domestic agricultural products through greater motivation of technological, modernization and innovation policy in production, through the development of new innovative, more competitive food products with higher consumer parameters. Practice shows that the most effective substitution is carried out in the agricultural sector and the food industry. The Krasnodar region has the most efficient developed agriculture production structure with the best natural and investment climate in the country, with enlarged of crop rotation fields, excessive and relatively low labor cost with the best experience in agricultural production. The author discusses about the detail problems of import substitution with participation of small businesses in the areas of grain production, sugar beet, about the difficulties in material and technical equipment, provision of seed and other problems. The problems of the financial component in large and small businesses specifically mentions, also in the field of cost management processing, pricing, formation of gross profit. The article emphasizes the importance of recovering the lost possibilities of breeding in animal husbandry, especially in pig and cattle. The most difficult situation is with lending, where the author recommends the reduction of rates for farmers in the short and medium term lending to the level of 3-5%. The author considers a changes in the mechanism of redistribution of public support in favor of livestock very important, where there are large risks, difficulties of long-term credits, problems of technological discipline observance and more

  20. Copper-catalyzed regioselective allylic substitution reactions with indium organometallics.

    Rodríguez, David; Sestelo, José Pérez; Sarandeses, Luis A


    The first nucleophilic allylic substitution reactions of triorganoindium compounds with allylic halides and phosphates are reported. The reactions of trialkyl- and triarylindium reagents with cinnamyl and geranyl halides and phosphates, with the aid of copper catalysis [Cu(OTf)(2)/P(OEt)(3)], are described. In general, the reaction proceeds efficiently to give good yields and regioselectively to afford the S(N)2' product.

  1. Newspaper and internet display advertising - co-existence or substitution?

    Lindstädt, Nadine; Budzinski, Oliver


    Newspapers have been experiencing declining circulation figures and diminishing advertising revenues for several years – both effects might pose a threat to the continuing existence of (print) newspapers. In an earlier paper, Lindstädt & Budzinski (2011) argued from a theoretical viewpoint that industry-specific patterns exist that determine substitution or complementation effects between internet and newspaper advertising. It was argued that retail advertising, in particular, may offer a nic...

  2. Detection of soybean in soy-based meat substitutes.

    Abd Allah, M A; Foda, Y H; el-Dashlouty, S; el-Sanafiry, N Y; Abu Salem, F M


    The statistical analysis of the available data indicated that the straight line equations of protein, fat, fibre, calcium, methionine, and lysine could successively be used for forecasting the added soy percent in a given recipe. On the other hand, the areas of the identified bands in the electropherograms of the investigated samples were considered a reasonable tool for the quantitative determination of whole soybean in soy-based meat substitutes.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of heterocyclic substituted fluoran compounds



    Full Text Available New quinazolinone-substituted fluoran compounds were synthesized by reaction of keto acid, 2’-carboxy-2-hydroxy-4-N-pyrrolidinylbenzophenone with different quinazolinone derivatives in the presence of conc. sulphuric acid. All the synthesized fluoran compounds were characterized by spectroscopic methods (IR, 1H-NMR and UV–visible spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The fluoran compounds are colourless or nearly colourless and develop colour on contact with electron-accepting compounds.

  4. [Study of the stability of current plaster substitutes].

    Wruhs, O


    In connection with company independent test series the clinically required usefulness of four different modern plaster substitutes were examined. A comparison of breakage resistance, deformation and relation of price versus stability of plaster bandages were considered. The advantage of using these materials, especially in case of prolonged cast immobilization, is-despite of higher financial costs - more appropriate because of lower weight, increased durability and hygienical comfort for the patients.

  5. Partial Substitution of Fuel Alcohol for Oil Consumption


    @@ With the rapid development of the national economy in the 21st century, China has constantly increased its oil consumption and already depends on imported oil for close to 50% of its supply. Due to various factors, the price of oil keeps increasing. Various biological energy sources have therefore aroused people's interest. As fuel alcohol was developed ahead of the pack, and its technology has now matured worldwide, it has become a focus as a partial substitute in petroleum based fuels.

  6. Structural properties and hyperfine characterization of Sn-substituted goethites

    Larralde, A.L. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ramos, C.P. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Arcondo, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Av. Paseo Colon 850 (C1063ACV), Bs. As. (Argentina); Tufo, A.E. [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina); Saragovi, C. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, GIyA - CAC - CNEA, Av. Gral. Paz 1499 (1650), San Martin, Bs. As. (Argentina); Sileo, E.E., E-mail: [INQUIMAE, Departamento de Quimica Inorganica, Analitica y Quimica Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pure and tin-doped goethites were synthesized from Sn(II) solutions at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The Rietveld refinement of PXRD data indicated that Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The substitution provoked unit cell expansion, and a distortion of the coordination polyhedron. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy showed a lower magnetic coupling as tin concentration increased. - Abstract: Tin-doped goethites obtained by a simple method at ambient pressure and 70 Degree-Sign C were characterized by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, Rietveld refinement of powder X-ray diffraction data, and {sup 57}Fe and {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy. The particles size and the length to width ratios decreased with tin-doping. Sn partially substituted the Fe(III) ions provoking unit cell expansion and increasing the crystallinity of the particles with enlarged domains that grow in the perpendicular and parallel directions to the anisotropic broadening (1 1 1) axis. Intermetallic E, E Prime and DC distances also change although the variations are not monotonous, indicating different variations in the coordination polyhedron. In general, the Sn-substituted samples present larger intermetallic distances than pure goethite, and the greatest change is shown in the E Prime distance which coincides with the c-parameter. {sup 119}Sn Moessbauer spectroscopy revealed that Sn(II) is incorporated as Sn(IV) in the samples. On the other hand, Fe(II) presence was not detected by {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy, suggesting the existence of vacancies in the Sn-doped samples. A lower magnetic coupling is also evidenced from the average magnetic hyperfine field values obtained as tin

  7. Tetrakis(4-tert-butylphenyl) substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins

    Zeng, Wangdong


    4-tert-Butylphenyl-substituted and fused quinoidal porphyrins 1 and 2 are prepared for the first time. They show (1) intense one-photon absorption in the far-red/near-infrared region, (2) enhanced two-photon absorption compared with aromatic porphyrin monomers, and (3) amphoteric redox behavior. Their geometry and electronic structure are studied by DFT calculations. This journal is © 2012 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  8. Syntheses and GABA uptake properties of 6-ether- and 6-enol ether-substituted nipecotic acids.

    N'Goka, Victor; Bissantz, Caterina; Bisel, Philippe; Stenbøl, Tine B; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Schlewer, Gilbert


    6-aralkylether- and 6-arylenol-ether-substituted nipecotic acids were synthesized. These analogues are poor GABA uptake inhibitors. The electronegative region concept developed in the N-substituted nipecotic acid series cannot be transferred on the side chain of this series of 6-substituted analogues.

  9. Substituted plan analysis in the environmental impact assessment of Yongchuan wastewater treatment project

    FANG Jun-hua


    Substituted plan in the environmental impact assessment (EIA) mainly means the treatment technology and the substituted site of plant, and it also includes the many kinds of environment protection measures. This paper will make detailed analysis on the treatment technology, the substituted site of plant, the purpose of discharged water and the dispose of sludge in the Yongchuan wastewater treatment project.

  10. 40 CFR 721.6520 - Acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide salt (generic name).


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acrylamide, polymer with substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.6520 Acrylamide, polymer with substituted...) The chemical substance identified generically as acrylamide, polymer with substituted alkylacrylamide...

  11. 40 CFR 721.1580 - Disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted phenol (generic).


    ... with substituted phenol (generic). 721.1580 Section 721.1580 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... substituted phenol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as disubstituted benzene ether, polymer with substituted...

  12. 40 CFR 721.7220 - Polymer of substituted phenol, formaldehyde, epichlorohydrin, and disubstituted benzene.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of substituted phenol... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7220 Polymer of substituted phenol... subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as polymer of substituted...

  13. Consumer acceptance and appropriateness of meat substitutes in a meal context

    Elzerman, J.E.; Hoek, A.C.; Boekel, van M.A.J.S.; Luning, P.A.


    The replacement of meat by meat substitutes could help to reduce the environmental burden of our food production systems. However, the acceptance of most meat substitutes is still low. This study investigated the role of meal context on the acceptance of meat substitutes. In a central location test

  14. The Use of Substitutes - Continuity and the-Group-as-a-Whole

    Nielsen, Jan; Thygesen, Bente; Aagaard, Søren


    of continuity, i.e. the self- sustaining power of the group and the limits of this is illustrated and discussed in connection with planned versus unplanned substitute periods, showing the importance of preparation when the therapist has to be away, and a substitute is used. Key words: substitute, locum......, continuity, conductor, leadership, group-as-a-whole...

  15. 39 CFR 762.43 - Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money order.


    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of substitute disbursement postal money...; DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS DISBURSEMENT POSTAL MONEY ORDERS Issuance of Substitutes for Lost, Destroyed, Mutilated, and Defaced Disbursement Postal Money Orders § 762.43 Issuance of substitute disbursement...

  16. Synthesis of Novel 5-(-Substituted-Anilino)-8-Hydroxyquinolines via Hartwig-Buchwald Amination Reaction

    Walaa A E Omar; Osmo E O Hormi


    Three novel 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-benzyloxyquinoline derivatives were efficiently synthesized via Hartwig–Buchwald amination reaction. The new 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-benzyloxyquinolines were reduced for 1–3 h to give the corresponding 5-(-substituted-anilino)-8-hydroxyquinolines. Extending the reduction reaction time to 7 h afforded the corresponding 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-8-hydroxyquinoline derivatives.

  17. Surgical technique: establishing a pre-clinical large animal model to test aortic valve leaflet substitute

    Knirsch, Walter; Cesarovic, Niko; Krüger, Bernard; Schmiady, Martin; Frauenfelder, Thomas; Frese, Laura; Dave, Hitendu; Hoerstrup, Simon Philipp; Hübler, Michael


    To overcome current limitations of valve substitutes and tissue substitutes the technology of tissue engineering (TE) continues to offer new perspectives in congenital cardiac surgery. We report our experiences and results implanting a decellularized TE patch in nine sheep in orthotropic position as aortic valve leaflet substitute. Establishing the animal model, feasibility, cardiopulmonary bypass issues and operative technique are highlighted. PMID:28149571

  18. Stereochemistry of substitution at trico-ordinate phosphorus

    Nielsen, John; Dahl, Otto


    and 31P) from reactant and product diastereoisomers have been assigned, and the stereo-chemistry of the substitution reactions have been determined by 31P n.m.r. monitoring. The outcome varies from complete inversion to complete lack of stereoselectivity. During the initial stages many of the non......-selective reactions proceed with predominant inversion, and most of the results may be interpreted by assuming that the actual substitution step occurs with inversion, and that the lack of stereoselectivity is due to competing isomerizations of products or reactants. Exceptions are certain reactions where the leaving......A series of reactions of ring-substituted 1,3,2-dioxaphospholanes, 1,3,2-oxazaphospholanes, 1,2-oxaphospholes, and phosphetanes bearing the leaving groups Cl, OR, or NR2 on phosphorus, with the nucleophiles HCl, MeO-, MeOH, PhOH, Me2NH, Et2NH, and [CH 2]5NH have been studied. N.m.r. signals (1H...

  19. Extracellular synthesis of magnetite and metal-substituted magnetite nanoparticles.

    Roh, Y; Vali, H; Phelps, T J; Moon, J W


    We have developed a novel microbial process that exploits the ability of Fe(III)-reducing microorganisms to produce copious amounts of extracellular magentites and metal-substituted magnetite nanoparticles. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria (Theroanaerobacter ethanolicus and Shewanella sp.) have the ability to reduce Fe(III) and various metals in aqueous media and form various sized magnetite and metal-substituted magnetite nano-crystals. The Fe(III)-reducing bacteria formed metalsubstituted magnetites using iron oxide plus metals (e.g., Co, Cr, Mn, Ni) under conditions of relatively low temperature (magnetite particles of well-defined size (typically tens of nanometers) and crystallographic morphology, containing selected dopant metals into the magnetite (Fe(3-y)XyO4) structure (where X = Co, Cr, Mn, Ni). Magnetite yields of up to 20 g/L per day have been observed in 20-L vessels. Water-based ferrofluids were formed with the nanometer sized, magnetite, and metal-substituted biomagnetite particles.

  20. Renewable Substitutability Index: Maximizing Renewable Resource Use in Buildings

    Ravi S. Srinivasan


    Full Text Available In order to achieve a material and energy balance in buildings that is sustainable in the long run, there is an urgent need to assess the renewable and non-renewable resources used in the manufacturing process and to progressively replace non-renewable resources with renewables. Such progressive disinvestment in the non-renewable resources that may be substituted with renewable resources is referred to as “Renewable Substitutability” and if implemented, this process will lead to a paradigm shift in the way building materials are manufactured. This paper discusses the development of a Renewable Substitutability Index (RSI that is designed to maximize the use of renewable resources in a building and quantifies the substitution process using solar emergy (i.e., the solar equivalent joules required for any item. The RSI of a building or a building component, i.e., floor or wall systems, etc., is the ratio of the renewable resources used during construction, including replacement and maintenance, to the building’s maximum renewable emergy potential. RSI values range between 0 and 1.0. A higher RSI achieves a low-energy building strategy promoting a higher order of sustainability by optimizing the use of renewables over a building’s lifetime from formation-extraction-manufacturing to maintenance, operation, demolition, and recycle.

  1. Mechanical Models of the Dynamics of Vitreous Substitutes

    Pralits, Jan O.; Repetto, Rodolfo; Romano, Mario R.


    We discuss some aspects of the fluid dynamics of vitreous substitutes in the vitreous chamber, focussing on the flow induced by rotations of the eye bulb. We use simple, yet not trivial, theoretical models to highlight mechanical concepts that are relevant to understand the dynamics of vitreous substitutes and also to identify ideal properties for vitreous replacement fluids. We first recall results by previous authors, showing that the maximum shear stress on the retina grows with increasing viscosity of the fluid up to a saturation value. We then investigate how the wall shear stress changes if a thin layer of aqueous humour is present in the vitreous chamber, separating the retina from the vitreous replacement fluid. The theoretical predictions show that the existence of a thin layer of aqueous is sufficient to substantially decrease the shear stress on the retina. We finally discuss a theoretical model that predicts the stability conditions of the interface between the aqueous and a vitreous substitute. We discuss the implications of this model to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of emulsion in the vitreous chamber, showing that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters relevant for the human eye. PMID:25147810

  2. Evidence of domain wall pinning in aluminum substituted cobalt ferrites

    Maurya, J. C.; Janrao, P. S.; Datar, A. A.; Kanhe, N. S.; Bhoraskar, S. V.; Mathe, V. L.


    In the present work spinel structured cobalt ferrites with aluminum substitution having composition CoAlxFe2-xO4 (x=0.0, 0.1, 0.2 and 0.3) have been synthesized using chemical co-precipitation method. Their microstructural, magnetic, magnetostriction and magnetoimpedance properties have been investigated. The piezomagnetic coefficient (dλ/dH) obtained from magnetostriction data is found to enhance with 0.1 Al substitutions in place of iron which decreases with further increase of Al content. It is noticed that 0.3 Al substitutions in place of Fe introduces domain wall pinning as evidenced from magnetostriction, magnetoimpedance and dc magnetization data. It is noted that ferrites so prepared using a simple procedure are magnetostrictive in good measure and with the addition of very small amount of non-magnetic aluminum their magnetostriction has shown saturation at relatively low magnetic fields. Such magnetostrictive ferrites find their applications in magnetic sensors and actuators.

  3. Chromium Substituted Cobalt Ferrites by Glycine-Nitrates Process

    Dana Gingasu


    Full Text Available Chromium substituted cobalt ferrites (CoFe2–xCrxO4, 0 ≤ x ≤ 2 were synthesized through solution combustion method using glycine as fuel, named glycine-nitrates process (GNP. As evidenced by X-ray diffraction data (XRD, single cubic spinel phase was formed for all CoFe2–xCrxO4 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2 series. The cubic lattice parameter (a decreases with increasing chromium content. Room temperature 57Fe Mössbauer spectra revealed the Fe3+ and Cr3+ site occupancy, the local hyperfine magnetic fields and the substitution of Fe3+ by Cr3+ in the lattice. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM showed a refinement of particle size with the increase of Cr3+ content. Magnetic measurements from 5 K to 120 K have shown a dropping in the saturation magnetization as the chromium content increases. This behaviour has been explained in terms of substitution of Fe3+ by Cr3+ in the cubic lattice of cobalt ferrite.

  4. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    Arianna B. Lovati


    Full Text Available Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution.

  5. Decellularized and Engineered Tendons as Biological Substitutes: A Critical Review

    Lovati, Arianna B.; Bottagisio, Marta; Moretti, Matteo


    Tendon ruptures are a great burden in clinics. Finding a proper graft material as a substitute for tendon repair is one of the main challenges in orthopaedics, for which the requirement of a biological scaffold would be different for each clinical application. Among biological scaffolds, the use of decellularized tendon-derived matrix increasingly represents an interesting approach to treat tendon ruptures. We analyzed in vitro and in vivo studies focused on the development of efficient protocols for the decellularization and for the cell reseeding of the tendon matrix to obtain medical devices for tendon substitution. Our review considered also the proper tendon source and preclinical animal models with the aim of entering into clinical trials. The results highlight a wide panorama in terms of allogenic or xenogeneic tendon sources, specimen dimensions, physical or chemical decellularization techniques, and the cell type variety for reseeding from terminally differentiated to undifferentiated mesenchymal stem cells and their static or dynamic culture employed to generate implantable constructs tested in different animal models. We try to identify the most efficient approach to achieve an optimal biological scaffold for biomechanics and intrinsic properties, resembling the native tendon and being applicable in clinics in the near future, with particular attention to the Achilles tendon substitution. PMID:26880985

  6. Selected C7-substituted chromone derivatives as monoamine oxidase inhibitors.

    Legoabe, Lesetja J; Petzer, Anél; Petzer, Jacobus P


    A series of C7-substituted chromone (1-benzopyran-4-one) derivatives were synthesized and evaluated as inhibitors of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO) A and B. The chromones are structurally related to a series of C7-functionalized coumarin (1-benzopyran-2-one) derivatives which has been reported to act as potent MAO inhibitors. The results of the current study document that the chromones are highly potent reversible inhibitors of MAO-B with IC(50) values ranging from 0.008 to 0.370 μM. While the chromone derivatives also exhibit affinities for MAO-A, with IC(50) values ranging from 0.495 to 8.03 μM, they are selective for the MAO-B isoform. Structure-activity relationships (SAR) show that 7-benzyloxy substitution of chromone is suitable for MAO-B inhibition with tolerance for a variety of substituents and substitution patterns on the benzyloxy ring. It may be concluded that 7-benzyloxychromones are appropriate lead compounds for the design of reversible and selective MAO-B inhibitors. With the aid of modeling studies, potential binding orientations and interactions of selected chromone derivatives in the MAO-A and -B active sites are examined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Opioid substitution treatment in New Zealand: a 40 year perspective.

    Deering, Daryle; Sellman, J Douglas; Adamson, Simon


    We provide an overview of the history and philosophy of the treatment for opioid dependence, which has been dominated by methadone substitution treatment for the past 40 years in New Zealand. Although changes in approach have occurred over this time, influenced by various sociopolitical events and changing ideologies, opioid substitution treatment has still "not come of age". It remains undermined by stigma and risk concerns associated with methadone and has struggled to be accessible and attractive to illicit opioid drug users, comprehensive and integrated into mainstream health care. However, the introduction in 2012 of Pharmac-subsidised buprenorphine combined with naloxone (Suboxone) in the context of an emerging trend towards a broader recovery and well-being orientation could signal a new era in treatment. The availability of buprenorphine-naloxone may also facilitate a further shift in treatment from primarily siloed specialist addiction services to integrated primary care services. This shift will help reduce stigma, promote patient self-management and community integration and align opioid substitution treatment with treatment for other chronic health conditions such as diabetes and asthma.

  8. On the relevance of polyynyl-substituted PAHs to astrophysics

    Rouillé, G; Carpentier, Y; Jäger, C; Huisken, F; Henning, Th; Czerwonka, R; Theumer, G; Börger, C; Bauer, I; Knölker, H -J


    We report on the absorption spectra of the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) molecules anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene carrying either an ethynyl (-C2H) or a butadiynyl (-C4H) group. Measurements were carried out in the mid infrared at room temperature on grains embedded in CsI pellets and in the near ultraviolet at cryogenic temperature on molecules isolated in Ne matrices. The infrared measurements show that interstellar populations of polyynyl-substituted PAHs would give rise to collective features in the same way non-substituted PAHs give rise to the aromatic infrared bands. The main features characteristic of the substituted molecules correspond to the acetylenic CH stretching mode near 3.05 mum and to the almost isoenergetic acetylenic CCH in- and out-of-plane bending modes near 15.9 mum. Sub-populations defined by the length of the polyynyl side group cause collective features which correspond to the various acetylenic CC stretching modes. The ultraviolet spectra reveal that the addition of an...

  9. Detecting Single-Nucleotide Substitutions Induced by Genome Editing.

    Miyaoka, Yuichiro; Chan, Amanda H; Conklin, Bruce R


    The detection of genome editing is critical in evaluating genome-editing tools or conditions, but it is not an easy task to detect genome-editing events-especially single-nucleotide substitutions-without a surrogate marker. Here we introduce a procedure that significantly contributes to the advancement of genome-editing technologies. It uses droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) and allele-specific hydrolysis probes to detect single-nucleotide substitutions generated by genome editing (via homology-directed repair, or HDR). HDR events that introduce substitutions using donor DNA are generally infrequent, even with genome-editing tools, and the outcome is only one base pair difference in 3 billion base pairs of the human genome. This task is particularly difficult in induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, in which editing events can be very rare. Therefore, the technological advances described here have implications for therapeutic genome editing and experimental approaches to disease modeling with iPS cells.


    Klimova N. V.


    Full Text Available Instability of economic processes and exacerbation of political tensions regarding Russia require measures in foreign trade policy, which are able to increase the economic security of Russia. The import substitution policy is considered one of the main directions nowadays. There have been considered two directions of the state policy for displacement or substitution of imported goods in the domestic market. There has been also reported the structure of the country's merchandise imports during the period from 2013 until 2015, resulting in a detected negative dynamics of imports, which indicates a successful beginning of the importsubstitution policy. Gradation of the main economic activities according to dependence on imports has allowed identifying the most import-dependent activities and the most available ways to form the import substitution. Threshold amount of economic security of the country has been considered to characterize the external economic security of Russia and some other countries of the world. There has been identified the necessity of state aid, which is reflected in the program of support for transport engineering industry for 2016, subsidies from the federal budget to participants of industrial clusters, the elimination of discriminatory relationships between credit financial institutions and industrial enterprises, the provision of state guarantees for loans to strategic enterprises and organizations of the country

  11. Tracing hybrid incompatibilities to single amino acid substitutions.

    Harrison, J Scott; Burton, Ronald S


    Deleterious interactions among genes cause reductions in fitness of interpopulation hybrids (hybrid breakdown). Identifying genes involved in hybrid breakdown has proven difficult, and few studies have addressed the molecular basis of this widespread phenomenon. Because proper function of the mitochondrial electron transport system (ETS) requires a coadapted set of nuclear and mitochondrial gene products, ETS genes present an attractive system for studying the evolution of coadapted gene complexes within isolated populations and the loss of fitness in interpopulation hybrids. Here we show the effects of single amino acid substitutions in cytochrome c (CYC) on its functional interaction with another ETS protein, cytochrome c oxidase (COX) in the intertidal copepod Tigriopus californicus. The individual and pairwise consequences of three naturally occurring amino acid substitutions in CYC are examined by site-directed mutagenesis and found to differentially effect the rates of CYC oxidation by COX variants from different source populations. In one case, we show that interpopulation hybrid breakdown in COX activity can be attributed to a single naturally occurring amino acid substitution in CYC.

  12. Lattice strain induced magnetism in substituted nanocrystalline cobalt ferrite

    Kumar, Rajnish; Kar, Manoranjan


    Strontium (Sr) substituted cobalt ferrite i.e. Co1-xSrxFe2O4 (x=0.00, 0.01, 0.015, 0.02, 0.05, 0.1) have been synthesized by the citric acid modified sol-gel method. Crystal structure and phase purity have been studied by the X-ray powder diffraction technique. The Rietveld refinement of XRD pattern using the space group Fd 3 bar m shows monotonically increasing of lattice parameter with the increase in Sr concentration. Magnetic hysteresis loops measurement has been carried out at room temperature using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) over a field range of ±1.5 T. Magnetocrystalline anisotropy constant were calculated by employing the Law of Approach (LA) to the saturation. It is observed that magnetocrystalline anisotropy has anomaly for x=0.01 (Co0.99Sr0.01Fe2O4) sample. Strain mediated modification of magnetic properties in Sr substituted cobalt ferrite has been observed. The saturation magnetization for doping concentration i.e. x=0.01 abruptly increase while for x>0.01 decreases with the increase in Sr concentration. A correlation between lattice strain and magnetic behavior in non-magnetic Sr- substituted nano-crystalline cobalt ferrite has been reported.

  13. Mechanical Models of the Dynamics of Vitreous Substitutes

    Krystyna Isakova


    Full Text Available We discuss some aspects of the fluid dynamics of vitreous substitutes in the vitreous chamber, focussing on the flow induced by rotations of the eye bulb. We use simple, yet not trivial, theoretical models to highlight mechanical concepts that are relevant to understand the dynamics of vitreous substitutes and also to identify ideal properties for vitreous replacement fluids. We first recall results by previous authors, showing that the maximum shear stress on the retina grows with increasing viscosity of the fluid up to a saturation value. We then investigate how the wall shear stress changes if a thin layer of aqueous humour is present in the vitreous chamber, separating the retina from the vitreous replacement fluid. The theoretical predictions show that the existence of a thin layer of aqueous is sufficient to substantially decrease the shear stress on the retina. We finally discuss a theoretical model that predicts the stability conditions of the interface between the aqueous and a vitreous substitute. We discuss the implications of this model to understand the mechanisms leading to the formation of emulsion in the vitreous chamber, showing that instability of the interface is possible in a range of parameters relevant for the human eye.

  14. Electroanalysis of amino acid substitutions in bioengineered acetylcholinesterase.

    Somji, Mehdi; Dounin, Vladimir; Muench, Susanne B; Schulze, Holger; Bachmann, Till T; Kerman, Kagan


    This study reports the electrochemical profiling of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis acetylcholinesterase (AChE) wild-type and mutant proteins. An irreversible oxidation signal of electro-active tyrosine (Y), tryptophan (W) and cysteine (C) residues in five mutant proteins along with the wild-type AChE were detected using square-wave voltammetry (SWV) on screen-printed carbon electrodes. Significant differences were observed in the W303L, T65Y and M301W substituted proteins showing a 25-35% higher peak current intensity compared to the Y349Y and F345Y mutants. It was predicted that AChE substituted with electrochemically active residues would produce the greatest signals and this trend was observed in the T65Y, M301W and Y349L mutants. However, conformational changes in the proteins structure as a result of the substitutions appeared to be most influential on peak current intensities. This was demonstrated by the W303L and F345Y mutant enzymes. The current intensity of W303L was greatest despite the removal of its electro-active W residue whereas the F345Y mutant had the lowest peak value despite the addition of an electro-active Y residue. The preliminary results of this study demonstrate that SWV provides a promising tool to probe the presence of electro-active amino acid residues on the surface of a protein produced through bioengineering.

  15. Intertemporal Substitution and Labour Supply of Bosnian SME’s

    Ada Šabić-Lipovača


    Full Text Available Our paper aims at testing the intertemporal substitution hypothesis (ISH for small and medium enterprises (SMEs in Bosnia and Herzegovina. The hypothesis predicts a positive relationship between the hours worked and the transitory changes in wages. We tested the hypothesis using the data on the daily income and worked hours collected via the survey questionnaire among small entrepreneurs in North-Western Bosnia and Herzegovina. The estimated wage elasticities turned out to be positive and different from zero, according to which it appears that the hypothesis of negative wage elasticities was not backed up by the empirical evidence. Our findings imply that the intertemporal labour substitution hypothesis found evidence and that we can reject the daily targeting hypothesis. We also argue that Bosnian entrepreneurs tend to pursue profits across working days because their main motive for running a business is the accumulation of capital and wealth, so that they follow the pattern of intertemporal labour substitution. The findings can be explained by an unfavourable business climate in Bosnia and Herzegovina, which is a result of a long-lasting transition process the country is still undergoing.

  16. Synthesis Characterization and Antibacterial, Antifungal Activity of N-(Benzyl Carbamoyl or Carbamothioyl-2-hydroxy Substituted Benzamide and 2-Benzyl Amino-Substituted Benzoxazines

    Tyson Belz


    Full Text Available New N-(benzyl carbamothioyl-2-hydroxy substituted benzamides 13, 20, and 21 were synthesized using sodium bicarbonate and benzyl amine with 2-thioxo-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines 6, 10a, b, 11c, and 12a–n. The 2-thioxo-substituted-1,3-oxazines 6, 10a-b, 11d 12a–n, and 26 were converted to the corresponding 2-methylthio-substituted-1,3-oxazines 14a–l and 24 which were then converted to 2-benzyl amino-substituted-benzoxazines 15a–i by refluxing with benzylamine. Products 15a, b, e, f, and g were also synthesized by boiling the corresponding N-(benzyl carbamothioyl-2-hydroxy substituted benzamides 13a, b, f, l, and m in acetic acid. 2-Oxo-substituted-1,3-benzoxazines 22 and 25 were prepared by treating the corresponding 2-methylthio-substituted-1,3-oxazines 14 and 24 with dilute HCl. The N-(benzyl carbamoyl-2-hydroxy substituted benzamide 23 was synthesized from the reaction of 2-oxo-substituted-1,3-benzoxazine 22 with benzylamine. The new products were characterized using IR, 1H, and 13C NMR in addition to microanalysis. Selected compounds were tested in vitro for antibacterial and antifungi activity and the most active compounds were found to be the 4-(substituted-benzylamino-2-hydroxy benzoic acids 9a and d (M. chlorophenolicum, MIC 50 and 25 µgm L−1, resp., N1, N3-bis (benzyl carbamothioyl-4,6-dihydroxy-substituted phthalamides 20a and 20c (B. subtilis MIC 12.5, 50 µgm L−1, resp. and 21 (M. chlorophenolicum, MIC 50 µgm L−1.

  17. Synthesis and Study of Second-order Nonlinear Optical Properties of 3-Substituted-6- (substituted-phenylazo) coumarins

    SONG Hua-Can; WEN Huan; LIANG Dong; SUN Yi-Feng


    @@ It has attracted a lot of attentions to synthesize and investigate the behaviors of organic second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) materials. [1,2] We have ever reported that acridine derivatives ,[3] 4-substituted-benzylideneoxazol-5(4H)-one[4] and 4,4′-di-styryl-biphenyl derivatives[5] possess good second-order NLO properties. Coumarin derivatives are good organic optical materials and azobenzene derivatives possess a higher second-order nonlinear polarization values, however, there are few reports about the study on the synthetic method, optical behavior, especially,second-order NLO properties of 3-substitued-6-(substituted-phenylazo) coumarin derivatives. Therefore, a series of the following compounds were prepared in order to investigate their NLO behavior.

  18. Emerging drugs of abuse: current perspectives on substituted cathinones

    Paillet-Loilier M


    Full Text Available Magalie Paillet-Loilier,1 Alexandre Cesbron,1 Reynald Le Boisselier,2 Joanna Bourgine,1 Danièle Debruyne1,2 1Toxicology and Pharmacology Laboratory, 2Centre d'Evaluation et d'Information sur la Pharmacodépendance – Addictovigilance (CEIP-A, Department of Pharmacology, University Hospital Centre, Caen, France Abstract: Substituted cathinones are synthetic analogs of cathinone that can be considered as derivatives of phenethylamines with a beta-keto group on the side chain. They appeared in the recreational drug market in the mid-2000s and now represent a large class of new popular drugs of abuse. Initially considered as legal highs, their legal status is variable by country and is rapidly changing, with government institutions encouraging their control. Some cathinones (such as diethylpropion or pyrovalerone have been used in a medical setting and bupropion is actually indicated for smoking cessation. Substituted cathinones are widely available from internet websites, retail shops, and street dealers. They can be sold under chemical, evocative or generic names, making their identification difficult. Fortunately, analytical methods have been developed in recent years to solve this problem. Available as powders, substituted cathinones are self-administered by snorting, oral injestion, or intravenous injection. They act as central nervous system stimulants by causing the release of catecholamines (dopamine, noradrenaline, and serotonin and blocking their reuptake in the central and peripheral nervous system. They may also decrease dopamine and serotonin transporter function as nonselective substrates or potent blockers and may inhibit monoamine oxidase effects. Nevertheless, considerable differences have been found in the potencies of the different substituted cathinones in vitro. Desired effects reported by users include increased energy, empathy, and improved libido. Cardiovascular (tachycardia, hypertension and psychiatric

  19. Function Substitution in Partial Differential Equations: Nonhomogeneous Boundary Conditions

    T. V. Oblakova


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a mixed initial-boundary value problem for a parabolic equation with nonhomogeneous boundary conditions. The classical methods of  searching for an analytical solution of such problems in the first stage involve variable substitution  , leading to a problem with homogeneous boundary conditions. In the reference literature ([1], as a rule, the simplest types of variable substitutions are given, under which the new and old unknown functions differ by a term linear in the spatial variable. The form of this additional term depends on the type of the boundary conditions, but is in no way connected with the equation under consideration. Moreover, in the case of the second boundary-value problem, it is necessary to use quadratic additives, since a linear replacement for this type of conditions may not exist. In the educational literature ([2] - [4], it is usually limited to considering only the first boundary-value problem in the general formulation.In this paper, we consider a substitution that takes into account in principle the form of a linear differential operator. Namely, as an additive term, it is proposed to use the parametrically time-dependent solution of the boundary value problem for an ordinary differential equation obtained from the original partial differential equation by the method of separation of the Fourier variables.The existence of the proposed replacement for boundary conditions of any type is proved on the example of a nonstationary heat equation in the presence of heat exchange with the surrounding medium. In this case, the additional term is a linear combination of hyperbolic functions. It is shown that in addition to the "insensitivity" to the type of boundary conditions, the advantages of a new replacement in comparison with the traditional linear (or quadratic substitution include a much simpler structure of the resulting solution. Namely, the described approach allows one to obtain a solution

  20. Theoretical analysis of kinetic isotope effects on proton transfer reactions between substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes and substituted acetic acids.

    Wong, Kin-Yiu; Richard, John P; Gao, Jiali


    Primary kinetic isotope effects (KIEs) on a series of carboxylic acid-catalyzed protonation reactions of aryl-substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes (X-1) to form oxocarbenium ions have been computed using the second-order Kleinert variational perturbation theory (KP2) in the framework of Feynman path integrals (PI) along with the potential energy surface obtained at the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) level. Good agreement with the experimental data was obtained, demonstrating that this novel computational approach for computing KIEs of organic reactions is a viable alternative to the traditional method employing Bigeleisen equation and harmonic vibrational frequencies. Although tunneling makes relatively small contributions to the lowering of the free energy barriers for the carboxylic acid catalyzed protonation reaction, it is necessary to include tunneling contributions to obtain quantitative estimates of the KIEs. Consideration of anharmonicity can further improve the calculated KIEs for the protonation of substituted alpha-methoxystyrenes by chloroacetic acid, but for the reactions of the parent and 4-NO(2) substituted alpha-methoxystyrene with substituted carboxylic acids, the correction of anharmonicity overestimates the computed KIEs for strong acid catalysts. In agreement with experimental findings, the largest KIEs are found in nearly ergoneutral reactions, DeltaG(o) approximately 0, where the transition structures are nearly symmetric and the reaction barriers are relatively low. Furthermore, the optimized transition structures are strongly dependent on the free energy for the formation of the carbocation intermediate, that is, the driving force DeltaG(o), along with a good correlation of Hammond shift in the transition state structure.

  1. Influence of mandatory generic substitution on pharmaceutical sales patterns: a national study over five years

    Allebeck Peter


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mandatory generic substitution was introduced in Sweden in October 2002 in order to try to curb escalating pharmaceutical expenditure. The aim of this study was to investigate how sales patterns for substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals have developed since the introduction of mandatory generic substitution; furthermore, to compare sales patterns in different groups of the population, based on patients' age and gender. Methods Five therapeutic groups comprising both substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals were included. The study period was from January 2000 to June 2005. National sales data were used, covering volumes of dispensed prescription medicines (expressed in defined daily doses per 1000 inhabitants and day of each pharmacological substance in the therapeutic groups for each age and gender group. Sales patterns for substitutable and non-substitutable pharmaceuticals were compared using a descriptive approach. Results In most therapeutic groups there has been an increase in the volumes of substitutable pharmaceuticals sold since the introduction of the reform, ranging from one third to three times the initial volume; whereas the volumes of non-substitutable pharmaceuticals have levelled out or declined. There were few gender differences in sales patterns of substitutable and non-substitutable drugs. In three therapeutic groups, sales patterns differed across different age groups, and there was a tendency for volumes of recently introduced non-substitutable pharmaceuticals to be proportionally higher in the youngest age groups. Conclusion Since the introduction of the reform, there has been a proportionally larger increase in sales of substitutable pharmaceuticals compared with sales of non-substitutable pharmaceuticals. This indicates that the reform might have contributed to larger sales of less expensive pharmaceuticals.

  2. Evaluating rare amino acid substitutions (RGC_CAMs in a yeast model clade.

    Kenneth Polzin

    Full Text Available When inferring phylogenetic relationships, not all sites in a sequence alignment are equally informative. One recently proposed approach that takes advantage of this inequality relies on sites that contain amino acids whose replacement requires multiple substitutions. Identifying these so-called RGC_CAM substitutions (after Rare Genomic Changes as Conserved Amino acids-Multiple substitutions requires that, first, at any given site in the amino acid sequence alignment, there must be a minimum of two different amino acids; second, each amino acid must be present in at least two taxa; and third, the amino acids must require a minimum of two nucleotide substitutions to replace each other. Although theory suggests that RGC_CAM substitutions are expected to be rare and less likely to be homoplastic, the informativeness of RGC_CAM substitutions has not been extensively evaluated in biological data sets. We investigated the quality of RGC_CAM substitutions by examining their degree of homoplasy and internode certainty in nearly 2.7 million aligned amino acid sites from 5,261 proteins from five species belonging to the yeast Saccharomyces sensu stricto clade whose phylogeny is well-established. We identified 2,647 sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions, a number that contrasts sharply with the 100,887 sites containing RGC_non-CAM substitutions (i.e., changes between amino acids that require only a single nucleotide substitution. We found that RGC_CAM substitutions had significantly lower homoplasy than RGC_non-CAM ones; specifically RGC_CAM substitutions showed a per-site average homoplasy index of 0.100, whereas RGC_non-CAM substitutions had a homoplasy index of 0.215. Internode certainty values were also higher for sites containing RGC_CAM substitutions than for RGC_non-CAM ones. These results suggest that RGC_CAM substitutions possess a strong phylogenetic signal and are useful markers for phylogenetic inference despite their rarity.

  3. Peripheral dysgraphia characterized by the co-occurrence of case substitutions in uppercase and letter substitutions in lowercase writing.

    Di Pietro, M; Schnider, A; Ptak, R


    Patients with peripheral dysgraphia due to impairment at the allographic level produce writing errors that affect the letter-form and are characterized by case confusions or the failure to write in a specific case or style (e.g., cursive). We studied the writing errors of a patient with pure peripheral dysgraphia who had entirely intact oral spelling, but produced many well-formed letter errors in written spelling. The comparison of uppercase print and lowercase cursive spelling revealed an uncommon pattern: while most uppercase errors were case substitutions (e.g., A - a), almost all lowercase errors were letter substitutions (e.g., n - r). Analyses of the relationship between target letters and substitution errors showed that errors were neither influenced by consonant-vowel status nor by letter frequency, though word length affected error frequency in lowercase writing. Moreover, while graphomotor similarity did not predict either the occurrence of uppercase or lowercase errors, visuospatial similarity was a significant predictor of lowercase errors. These results suggest that lowercase representations of cursive letter-forms are based on a description of entire letters (visuospatial features) and are not - as previously found for uppercase letters - specified in terms of strokes (graphomotor features). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Srl. All rights reserved.

  4. 17O NMR studies on 4- and 4'-substituted chalcones and p-substituted β-nitrostyrenes

    Boykin, D. W.; Baumstark, A. L.; Balakrishnan, P.; Perjéssy, A.; Hrnc˜iar, P.

    The 17O NMR chemical shift data for 17O-enriched 4- and 4'-chalcones in toluene at 90°C and for p-substituted β-nitrostyrenes (natural abundance) in acetonitrile at 70°C are reported. The SCS (substituent chemical shift) range for the 4-chalcones p-CH 3O to p-NO 2 is 16.3 ppm; the range for the 4'-chalcones p-CH 3O to p-NO 2 is 32.4 ppm. The SCS range for the p-substituted-β-nitrostyrenes p-CH 3O to p-NO 2 is 13.2 ppm. The data for the three series gave good correlations with σ + constants, while the Dual Substitutent Parameter treatment only slightly improved the correlations using σ R+ constants. Plots of the 17O chemical shifts for both 4- and 4'-chalcones with 17O data for acetophenones and correlation of 17O chemical shift data for the β-nitrostyrenes with that of nitrobenzenes gave good correlations. Plots of the 17O data for all the three series with their respective functional group stretching frequencies gave fair correlations.

  5. Mössbauer studies of Sn4+/Nb5+ substituted Mn–Zn ferrites

    A D P Rao; S B Raju; S R Vadera; D R Sharma


    At room temperature, Mössbauer spectra of Sn4+/Nb5+ substituted Mn–Zn ferrites have been taken to understand the site occupancy of substituted ions. The results indicate that both the substituted ions occupy tetrahedral (A) site only at lower concentration of substitution while at higher concentration they occupy both tetrahedral and octahedral sites. At higher concentration of Nb substitution a doublet has been observed besides sextets. The possibility of canting existence on octahedral sites has been discussed. The observed variations of the hyperfine fields, isomer shift, line widths and B/A peak area ratio with the ferrite composition are interpreted.

  6. Effect of substitutional impurities on the electronic transport properties of graphene

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Bahlouli, H.; Peeters, F. M.


    Density-functional theory in combination with the nonequilibrium Green's function formalism is used to study the effect of substitutional doping on the electronic transport properties of hydrogen passivated zig-zag graphene nanoribbon devices. B, N and Si atoms are used to substitute carbon atoms located at the center or at the edge of the sample. We found that Si-doping results in better electronic transport as compared to the other substitutions. The transmission spectrum also depends on the location of the substitutional dopants: for single atom doping the largest transmission is obtained for edge substitutions, whereas substitutions in the middle of the sample give larger transmission for double carbon substitutions. The obtained results are explained in terms of electron localization in the system due to the presence of impurities.

  7. Secretion of wound healing mediators by single and bi-layer skin substitutes.

    Maarof, Manira; Law, Jia Xian; Chowdhury, Shiplu Roy; Khairoji, Khairul Anuar; Saim, Aminuddin Bin; Idrus, Ruszymah Bt Hj


    Limitations of current treatments for skin loss caused by major injuries leads to the use of skin substitutes. It is assumed that secretion of wound healing mediators by these skin substitutes plays a role in treating skin loss. In our previous study, single layer keratinocytes (SK), single layer fibroblast (SF) and bilayer (BL; containing keratinocytes and fibroblasts layers) skin substitutes were fabricated using fibrin that had shown potential to heal wounds in preclinical studies. This study aimed to quantify the secretion of wound healing mediators, and compare between single and bi-layer skin substitutes. Skin samples were digested to harvest fibroblasts and keratinocytes, and expanded to obtain sufficient cells for the construction of skin substitutes. Acellular fibrin (AF) construct was used as control. Substitutes i.e. AF, SK, SF and BL were cultured for 2 days, and culture supernatant was collected to analyze secretion of wound healing mediators via multiplex ELISA. Among 19 wound healing mediators tested, BL substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL1 and GCSF compared to SF and AF substitute but this was not significant with respect to SK substitute. The BL substitute also secreted significantly higher amounts of CXCL5 and IL-6 compared to other substitutes. In contrast, the SK substitute secreted significantly higher amounts of VCAM-1 compared to other substitutes. However, all three skin substitutes also secreted CCL2, CCL5, CCL11, GM-CSF, IL8, IL-1α, TNF-α, ICAM-1, FGF-β, TGF-β, HGF, VEGF-α and PDGF-BB factors, but no significant difference was seen. Secretion of these mediators after transplantation may play a significant role in promoting wound healing process for the treatment of skin loss.

  8. 40 CFR Appendix K to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the July 22, 2002...


    ... Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the July 22, 2002, Final Rule, Effective August 21, 2002 K Appendix K to Subpart G of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. K Appendix K to Subpart G of Part 82—Substitutes Subject to Use...

  9. 40 CFR Appendix G to Subpart G of... - Substitutes Subject to Use Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the March 3, 1999...


    ... Restrictions and Unacceptable Substitutes Listed in the March 3, 1999, Final rule, Effective April 2, 1999. G Appendix G to Subpart G of Part 82 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Pt. 82, Subpt. G, App. G Appendix G to Subpart G of Part 82—Substitutes Subject to Use...

  10. A subset of N-substituted phenothiazines inhibits NADPH oxidases.

    Seredenina, Tamara; Chiriano, Gianpaolo; Filippova, Aleksandra; Nayernia, Zeynab; Mahiout, Zahia; Fioraso-Cartier, Laetitia; Plastre, Olivier; Scapozza, Leonardo; Krause, Karl-Heinz; Jaquet, Vincent


    NADPH oxidases (NOXs) constitute a family of enzymes generating reactive oxygen species (ROS) and are increasingly recognized as interesting drug targets. Here we investigated the effects of 10 phenothiazine compounds on NOX activity using an extensive panel of assays to measure production of ROS (Amplex red, WST-1, MCLA) and oxygen consumption. Striking differences between highly similar phenothiazines were observed. Two phenothiazines without N-substitution, including ML171, did not inhibit NOX enzymes, but showed assay interference. Introduction of an aliphatic amine chain on the N atom of the phenothiazine B ring (promazine) conferred inhibitory activity toward NOX2, NOX4, and NOX5 but not NOX1 and NOX3. Addition of an electron-attracting substituent in position 2 of the C ring extended the inhibitory activity to NOX1 and NOX3, with thioridazine being the most potent inhibitor. In contrast, the presence of a methylsulfoxide group at the same position (mesoridazine) entirely abolished NOX-inhibitory activity. A cell-free NOX2 assay suggested that inhibition by N-substituted phenothiazines was not due to competition with NADPH. A functional implication of NOX-inhibitory activity of thioridazine was demonstrated by its ability to block redox-dependent myofibroblast differentiation. Our results demonstrate that NOX-inhibitory activity is not a common feature of all antipsychotic phenothiazines and that substitution on the B-ring nitrogen is crucial for the activity, whereas that on the second position of the C ring modulates it. Our findings contribute to a better understanding of NOX pharmacology and might pave the path to discovery of more potent and selective NOX inhibitors.

  11. Russian machine-building: course to import substitution

    Olga V. Karsuntseva


    Full Text Available Objective to identify specific priority areas to improve the efficient use and development of the production potential of the Russian machinebuilding enterprises in the framework of the program of import substitution in the Russian industry. Methods the interdisciplinary character of the problem of increasing the production potential of machinebuilding has predetermined the use of methodological tools including general methods and techniques ndash both empirical observation description measurement and theoretical analysis synthesis induction deduction formalization modeling synthesis system approach probabilistic methods. Results basing on the conducted analysis of statistical data on the state of the productive capacity of the Russian machinebuilding complex the author found that in the Russian economy there are necessary conditions and opportunities to solve the problem of complex modernization and to ensure the pace of rapid development of the domestic machinebuilding enterprises. It is proved that the foundation for these goalsrsquo realization should be effective complex state program of import substitution complying with the modern conditions and able to ensure the integrity and the complexity of the transformation process. Scientific novelty the system of target priorities was defined as well as the targets of the complex governmental program of import substitution in the machinebuilding industry for the period up to 2025 complying with the modern conditions and able to ensure the integrity and the complexity of the transformation process in the framework of publicprivate partnership for the implementation of the strategic maneuver aimed at transiting the domestic machinebuilding complex to the path of intensive development according to the needs of the growing economy and national security. Practical significance the developed system of practical recommendations can be used by public authorities in the development of programs of

  12. Generic Substitution of Lamotrigine Among Medicaid Patients with Diverse Indications

    Hartung, Daniel M.; Middleton, Luke; Svoboda, Leanne; McGregor, Jessina C.


    Background Controversy exists about the safety of substituting generic anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs). Lamotrigine, the prototypical newer AED, is often used for psychiatric and neurological conditions other than epilepsy. The safety of generic substitution of lamotrigine in diverse populations of AED users is unclear. Objective The objective of this study was to evaluate potential associations between generic substitution of lamotrigine and adverse consequences in a population of diverse users of this drug. Study Design This study was a retrospective cohort-crossover design using state Medicaid claims data from July 2006 through June 2009. Methods Subjects were included in the cohort if they converted from brand to generic lamotrigine and had 2 years of lamotrigine use prior to conversion. The frequency of emergency department (ED) visits, hospitalizations and condition-specific ED visits or hospitalizations were recorded in the 60 days immediately following the conversion to generic lamotrigine, then compared with the incidence of the same events during a randomly selected time period indexed to one of the patient’s past refills of branded lamotrigine. Multivariate conditional logistic regression was used to quantify the association between generic conversion and health services utilization while controlling for changes in lamotrigine dose and concurrent drug use. Results Of the 616 unique subjects included in this analysis, epilepsy was the most common diagnosis (41%), followed by bipolar disorder (32%), pain (30%) and migraine (18%). Conversion to generic lamotrigine was not associated with a statistically significant increase in the odds of an ED visit (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92, 1.97), hospitalization (AOR = 1.21; 95% CI 0.60, 2.50) or condition-specific encounter (AOR 1.75; 95 CI 0.87, 3.51). Conclusions A statistically significant increase in ED visits, hospitalizations or condition-specific encounters was not


    Trubilin A. I.


    Full Text Available Import substitution - a process at the level of the national economy, which is provided at the release of the necessary domestic consumer goods manufacturers forces, leading activities in the country. At present, Russian farmers have an incentive to carry out a largescale import substitution because of the food embargo on the West European suppliers of agricultural products. An important problem that accompanies the processes of import substitution in Russia is the lack of qualified personnel in a number of industries, as a prerequisite for the growth of agricultural production in Russia is full staffing agriculture. The article has identified the causes of insufficient practical training of graduates of agricultural universities. The role of Kuban State Agrarian University in the personnel matters of the village. Grounded following directions of improvement of training: the formation of the federal and regional forecasts provide human resources for the future of the village; the creation of organizations and municipalities comfortable social environment for young professionals; promotion of public – private partnership for the training of personnel for rural areas; improving infrastructure to support the system of financing higher education institutions; protection of the region's interest in defending the rights of agrarian university on training for other sectors of the economy in rural areas, except for agricultural commodity production; empowerment of the target form of training specialists; allocation of resources (possibly in the form of grants to prepare doctors to foreign training, access to foreign sources of scientific information, cooperation of universities to gain access to the Web of Science and Scopus' resources

  14. Preparation and Characterization of a Novel Skin Substitute

    Carlotta Castagnoli


    This study aimed at producing and evaluating a new cutaneous biosubstitute made up of alloplastic acellular glycerolized dermis (AAGD and CEA to overcome these difficulties. A procedure that maintained an intact basement membrane was developed, so as to promote adhesion and growth of CEA on AAGD. Keratinocytes were seeded onto AAGD and cultured up to 21 days. Viability tests and immunohistochemical analysis with specific markers were carried out at 7, 14, and 21 days, to evaluate keratinocyte adhesion, growth, and maturation. Our results support the hypothesis that this newly formed skin substitute could allow its permanent engraftment in clinical application.

  15. Electric Control Substituting Pitch Control for Large Wind Turbines

    Jon Kjellin


    turbine has fixed pitch and is only controlled electrically accommodated by passive stall of the blades. By electrically controlling the generator rotational speed with the inverter, passive stall regulation is enabled. The first results on experimental verification of stall regulation in gusty wind speeds are presented. The experiments show that the control system can keep the turbine rotational speed constant even at very gusty winds. It is concluded that electrical control accommodated by passive stall is sufficient as control of the wind turbine even at high wind speeds and can substitute mechanical control such as blade pitch.

  16. Selective Synthesis Substituted Derivatives of Hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronenes

    LIU Zhu-Lan; LIU Jian-Li


    @@ Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons have been intensively studied in recent years. [1,2] They consist of flat disctype cores surrounded by flexible chains, which enable them to self-assemble into columnar mesophases. The packing behavior of these discotic liquid crystals renders them well suited materials for the study of one-dimensional transport processes such as electrical conductivity and photoconductivity along the columnar axis. These compounds also have good fluorescent property. We would like to report the design and synthesis of mono- or multi-substituted hexa-peri-hexabenzocoronenes and study the fluorescent property and structure relationship.

  17. Substitute and Communication Pattern for an Internet Banking System

    A. Meiappane


    Full Text Available The design patterns are the reusable component used in the development of the software, which delivers enhanced quality software to the end users. The design patterns are available for user interface, mobile applications, text classification and so on. There are no design patterns for internet banking applications. This motivated to mine the design patterns for internet banking application from the document of Business Process Management (BPM by using the qualitative research technique. The nonfunctional quality attribute of software architecture is enhanced by using the design patterns. In this paper the mined two patterns are presented namely substitute pattern and communication pattern for internet banking application.


    R.S. Gutte


    Full Text Available The Security of data on internet has become a prior thing. Though any message is encrypted using a stronger cryptography algorithm, it cannot avoid the suspicion of intruder. This paper proposes an approach in such way that, data is encrypted using Extended Substitution Algorithm and then this cipher text is concealed at two or three LSB positions of the carrier image. This algorithm covers almost all type of symbols and alphabets. The encrypted text is concealed variably into the LSBs. Therefore, it is a stronger approach. The visible characteristics of the carrier image before and after concealment remained almost the same. The algorithm has been implemented using Matlab.

  19. Synthesis of library from amino-hydroxy substituted cyclopentanes

    Bøjstrup, Marie; Lundt, Inge; Andrews, Robert

    Based on radical induced carbocyclisation of unsaturated aldonolactones our group has elaborated procedures for the preparation of several amino-hydroxy substituted cyclopentane derivatives [1]. These highly functionalized molecules are suitable for attachment to solid phase and subsequent parall...... in biological assays of interest to the company; these results will be presented in the poster. [1] S.K. Johansen, H. Kornøe, I. Lundt, Synthesis, 1999, 1, 171-177. S.K. Johansen, I. Lundt, J.Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans. 1, 1999, 3615-3622....

  20. Boson Normal Ordering via Substitutions and Sheffer-type Polynomials

    Blasiak, P; Penson, K A; Duchamp, G H E; Solomon, A I


    We solve the boson normal ordering problem for (q(a*)a + v(a*))^n with arbitrary functions q and v and integer n, where a and a* are boson annihilation and creation operators, satisfying [a,a*]=1. This leads to exponential operators generalizing the shift operator and we show that their action can be expressed in terms of substitutions. Our solution is naturally related through the coherent state representation to the exponential generating functions of Sheffer-type polynomials. This in turn opens a vast arena of combinatorial methodology which is applied to boson normal ordering and illustrated by a few examples.