Automated Micro Hall Effect measurements
Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Lin, Rong
2014-01-01
With increasing complexity of processes and variety of materials used for semiconductor devices, stringent control of the electronic properties is becoming ever more relevant. Collinear micro four-point probe (M4PP) based measurement systems have become high-end metrology methods for characteriza......With increasing complexity of processes and variety of materials used for semiconductor devices, stringent control of the electronic properties is becoming ever more relevant. Collinear micro four-point probe (M4PP) based measurement systems have become high-end metrology methods...... for characterization and monitoring of sheet resistance as well as sheet carrier density and mobility via the Micro Hall Effect (MHE) method....
Accurate micro Hall effect measurements on scribe line pads
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Wang, Fei
2009-01-01
Hall mobility and sheet carrier density are important parameters to monitor in advanced semiconductor production. If micro Hall effect measurements are done on small pads in scribe lines, these parameters may be measured without using valuable test wafers. We report how Hall mobility can...
High temperature hall effect measurement system design, measurement and analysis
Berkun, Isil
A reliable knowledge of the transport properties of semiconductor materials is essential for the development and understanding of a number of electronic devices. In this thesis, the work on developing a Hall Effect measurement system with software based data acqui- sition and control for a temperature range of 300K-700K will be described. A system was developed for high temperature measurements of materials including single crystal diamond, poly-crystalline diamond, and thermoelectric compounds. An added capability for monitor- ing the current versus voltage behavior of the contacts was used for studying the influence of ohmic and non-ohmic contacts on Hall Effect measurements. The system has been primar- ily used for testing the transport properties of boron-doped single crystal diamond (SCD) deposited in a microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition (MPCVD) reactor [1]. Diamond has several outstanding properties that are of high interest for its development as an electronic material. These include a relatively wide band gap of 5.5 (eV), high thermal conductivity, high mobility, high saturation velocity, and a high breakdown voltage. For a temperature range of 300K-700K, IV curves, Hall mobilities and carrier concentrations are shown. Temperature dependent Hall effect measurements have shown carrier concentrations from below 1017cm --3 to approximately 1021 cm--3 with mobilities ranging from 763( cm2/V s) to 0.15(cm 2/V s) respectively. Simulation results have shown the effects of single and mixed carrier models, activation energies, effective mass and doping concentrations. These studies have been helpful in the development of single crystal diamond for diode applications. Reference materials of Ge and GaAs were used to test the Hall Effect system. The system was also used to characterize polycrystalline diamond deposited on glass for electrochemical applications, and Mg2(Si,Sn) compounds which are promising candidates of low-cost, light weight and non
Micro-four-point Probe Hall effect Measurement method
Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong
2008-01-01
barriers and with a magnetic field applied normal to the plane of the sheet. Based on this potential, analytical expressions for the measured four-point resistance in presence of a magnetic field are derived for several simple sample geometries. We show how the sheet resistance and Hall effect......We report a new microscale Hall effect measurement method for characterization of semiconductor thin films without need for conventional Hall effect geometries and metal contact pads. We derive the electrostatic potential resulting from current flow in a conductive filamentary sheet with insulating...... contributions may be separated using dual configuration measurements. The method differs from conventional van der Pauw measurements since the probe pins are placed in the interior of the sample region, not just on the perimeter. We experimentally verify the method by micro-four-point probe measurements...
The microwave Hall effect measured using a waveguide tee
Coppock, J. E.; Anderson, J. R.; Johnson, W. B.
2016-03-01
This paper describes a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band (8-12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field applied perpendicular to the wafer gives a microwave Hall signal that is linear in the magnetic field and which reverses phase when the magnetic field is reversed. The microwave Hall signal is proportional to the semiconductor mobility, which we compare for calibration purposes with d.c. mobility measurements obtained using the van der Pauw method. We obtain the resistivity by measuring the microwave reflection coefficient of the sample. This paper presents data for silicon and germanium samples doped with boron or phosphorus. The measured mobilities ranged from 270 to 3000 cm2/(V s).
Admittance measurements in the quantum Hall effect regime
Hernández, C., E-mail: carlos.hernandezr@unimilitar.edu.co [Departamento de Física, Universidad Militar Nueva Granada, Carrera 11 # 101-80, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Laboratorio de Magnetismo, Departamento de Física, Universidad de los Andes, A.A. 4976, Bogotá D.C. (Colombia); Consejo, C.; Chaubet, C. [Laboratoire Charles Coulomb L2C, Université Montpellier II, Pl. E. Bataillon, 34095 Montpellier Cedex 5 (France)
2014-11-15
In this work we present an admittance study of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the quantum Hall effect (QHE) regime. We have studied several Hall bars in different contacts configurations in the frequency range 100 Hz–1 MHz. Our interpretation is based on the Landauer–Büttiker theory and takes into account both the capacitance and the topology of the coaxial cables which are connected to the sample holder. We show that we always observe losses through the capacitive impedance of the coaxial cables, except in the two contacts configuration in which the cable capacitance does not influence the admittance measurement of the sample. In this case, we measure the electrochemical capacitance of the 2DEG and show its dependence with the filling factor ν.
High-Resolution ac Measurements of the Hall Effect in Organic Field-Effect Transistors
Chen, Y.; Yi, H. T.; Podzorov, V.
2016-03-01
We describe a high resolving power technique for Hall-effect measurements, efficient in determining Hall mobility and carrier density in organic field-effect transistors and other low-mobility systems. We utilize a small low-frequency ac magnetic field (Brmsphase-sensitive (lock-in) detection of Hall voltage, with the necessary corrections for Faraday induction. This method significantly enhances the signal-to-noise ratio and eliminates the necessity of using high magnetic fields in Hall-effect studies. With the help of this method, we are able to obtain the Hall mobility and carrier density in organic transistors with a mobility as low as μ ˜0.3 cm2 V-1 s-1 by using a compact desktop apparatus and low magnetic fields. We find a good agreement between Hall-effect and electric-field-effect measurements, indicating that, contrary to the common belief, certain organic semiconductors with mobilities below 1 cm2 V-1 s-1 can still exhibit a fully developed, band-semiconductor-like Hall effect, with the Hall mobility and carrier density matching those obtained in longitudinal transistor measurements. This suggests that, even when μ organic semiconductors can still behave as delocalized coherent carriers. This technique paves the way to ubiquitous Hall-effect studies in a wide range of low-mobility materials and devices, where it is typically very difficult to resolve the Hall effect even in very high dc magnetic fields.
Measurement of spin Hall effect of reflected light.
Qin, Yi; Li, Yan; He, Huanyu; Gong, Qihuang
2009-09-01
We have measured the spin-dependent nanometer-sized displacements of the spin Hall effect of the reflected light from a planar air-glass interface. In the case of the vertical polarization, the displacement is found to increase with the incident angle and subsequently decrease after approximately 48 deg, while in the case of the horizontal polarization, it changes rapidly near the Brewster angle. For a fixed incident angle of 30 deg, the displacement decreases to zero as the polarization angle approaches approximately 39 deg from 0 deg (the horizontal polarization) and then increases in the opposite direction until 90 deg (the vertical polarization).
Precision of single-engage micro Hall effect measurements
Henrichsen, Henrik Hartmann; Hansen, Ole; Kjær, Daniel
2014-01-01
]. In this study we calculate the measurement error on RS, NHS and μH resulting from electrode position errors, probe placement, sample size and Hall signal magnitude. We show the relationship between measurement precision and electrode pitch, which is important when down-scaling the micro 4-point probe to fit...
Comparing Hall Effect and Field Effect Measurements on the Same Single Nanowire.
Hultin, Olof; Otnes, Gaute; Borgström, Magnus T; Björk, Mikael; Samuelson, Lars; Storm, Kristian
2016-01-13
We compare and discuss the two most commonly used electrical characterization techniques for nanowires (NWs). In a novel single-NW device, we combine Hall effect and back-gated and top-gated field effect measurements and quantify the carrier concentrations in a series of sulfur-doped InP NWs. The carrier concentrations from Hall effect and field effect measurements are found to correlate well when using the analysis methods described in this work. This shows that NWs can be accurately characterized with available electrical methods, an important result toward better understanding of semiconductor NW doping.
Avdonin, A., E-mail: avdonin@ifpan.edu.pl [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Skupiński, P. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Grasza, K. [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotników 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland); Institute of Electronic Materials Technology, ul. Wólczyńska 133, 01-919 Warszawa (Poland)
2016-02-15
A simple description of the Hall effect in the hopping regime of conductivity in semiconductors is presented. Expressions for the Hall coefficient and Hall mobility are derived by considering averaged equilibrium electron transport in a single triangle of localization sites in a magnetic field. Dependence of the Hall coefficient is analyzed in a wide range of temperature and magnetic field values. Our theoretical result is applied to our experimental data on temperature dependence of Hall effect and Hall mobility in ZnO. - Highlights: • Expressions for Hall coefficient and mobility for hopping conductivity are derived. • Theoretical result is compared with experimental curves measured on ZnO. • Simultaneous action of free and hopping conduction channels is considered. • Non-linearity of hopping Hall coefficient is predicted.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect.
Zhang, Steven S-L; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect-the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt/YIG structures.
Nonlocal Anomalous Hall Effect
Zhang, Steven S.-L.; Vignale, Giovanni
2016-04-01
The anomalous Hall (AH) effect is deemed to be a unique transport property of ferromagnetic metals, caused by the concerted action of spin polarization and spin-orbit coupling. Nevertheless, recent experiments have shown that the effect also occurs in a nonmagnetic metal (Pt) in contact with a magnetic insulator [yttrium iron garnet (YIG)], even when precautions are taken to ensure that there is no induced magnetization in the metal. We propose a theory of this effect based on the combined action of spin-dependent scattering from the magnetic interface and the spin-Hall effect in the bulk of the metal. At variance with previous theories, we predict the effect to be of first order in the spin-orbit coupling, just as the conventional anomalous Hall effect—the only difference being the spatial separation of the spin-orbit interaction and the magnetization. For this reason we name this effect the nonlocal anomalous Hall effect and predict that its sign will be determined by the sign of the spin-Hall angle in the metal. The AH conductivity that we calculate from our theory is in order of magnitude agreement with the measured values in Pt /YIG structures.
Ferromagnetic/Nonmagnetic Nanostructures for the Electrical Measurement of the Spin Hall Effect.
Pham, Van Tuong; Vila, Laurent; Zahnd, Gilles; Marty, Alain; Savero-Torres, Williams; Jamet, Matthieu; Attané, Jean-Philippe
2016-11-09
Spin-orbitronics is based on the ability of spin-orbit interactions to achieve the conversion between charge currents and pure spin currents. As the precise evaluation of the conversion efficiency becomes a crucial issue, the need for straightforward ways to observe this conversion has emerged as one of the main challenges in spintronics. Here, we propose a simple device, akin to the ferromagnetic/nonmagnetic bilayers used in most spin-orbit torques experiments, and consisting of a spin Hall effect wire connected to two transverse ferromagnetic electrodes. We show that this system allows probing electrically the direct and inverse conversion in a spin Hall effect system and measuring both the spin Hall angle and the spin diffusion length. By applying this method to several spin Hall effect materials (Pt, Pd, Au, Ta, W), we show that it represents a promising tool for the metrology of spin-orbit materials.
A general method to measure the Hall effect in nanowires: examples of FeS2 and MnSi.
DeGrave, John P; Liang, Dong; Jin, Song
2013-06-12
We present a general methodology for measuring the Hall effect on nanostructures with one-dimensional (1D) nanowire morphology. Relying only on typical e-beam lithography, the methodology developed herein utilizes an angled electrode evaporation technique so that the nanowire itself is a shadow mask and an intimate sidewall contact can be formed for the Hall electrodes. A six-contact electrode scheme with offset transverse contacts is utilized that allows monitoring of both the longitudinal resistivity and the Hall resistivity which is extracted from the raw voltage from the transverse electrodes using an antisymmetrization procedure. Our method does not require the use of a highly engineered lithographic process to produce directly opposing Hall electrodes with a very small gap. Hall effect measurements on semiconducting iron pyrite (FeS2) nanowire devices are validated by comparing to Hall effect measurements in the conventional Hall geometry using FeS2 plate devices. This Hall effect measurement is further extended to MnSi nanowires, and the distinct anomalous Hall effect signature is identified for the first time in chiral magnetic MnSi nanowires, a significant step toward identifying the topological Hall effect due to skyrmions in chiral magnetic nanowires.
Electron Interference in Hall Effect Measurements on GaAs/InAs Core/Shell Nanowires.
Haas, Fabian; Zellekens, Patrick; Lepsa, Mihail; Rieger, Torsten; Grützmacher, Detlev; Lüth, Hans; Schäpers, Thomas
2017-01-11
We present low-temperature magnetotransport measurements on GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowires contacted by regular source-drain leads as well as laterally attached Hall contacts, which only touch parts of the nanowire sidewalls. Low-temperature measurements between source and drain contacts show typical phase coherent effects, such as universal conductance fluctuations in a magnetic field aligned perpendicularly to the nanowire axis as well as Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations in a parallel aligned magnetic field. However, the signal between the Hall contacts shows a Hall voltage buildup, when the magnetic field is turned perpendicular to the nanowire axis while current is driven through the wire using the source-drain contacts. At low temperatures, the phase coherent effects measured between source and drain leads are superimposed on the Hall voltage, which can be explained by nonlocal probing of large segments of the nanowire. In addition, the Aharonov-Bohm-type oscillations are also observed in the magnetoconductance at magnetic fields aligned parallel to the nanowire axis, using the laterally contacted leads. This measurement geometry hereby directly corresponds to classical Aharonov-Bohm experiments using planar quantum rings. In addition, the Hall voltage is used to characterize the nanowires in terms of charge carrier concentration and mobility, using temperature- and gate-dependent measurements as well as measurements in tilted magnetic fields. The GaAs/InAs core/shell nanowire used in combination with laterally attached contacts is therefore the ideal system to three-dimensionally combine quantum ring experiments using the cross-sectional plane and Hall experiments using the axial nanowire plane.
Socratous, Josephine; Watanabe, Shun; Banger, Kulbinder K.; Warwick, Christopher N.; Branquinho, Rita; Barquinha, Pedro; Martins, Rodrigo; Fortunato, Elvira; Sirringhaus, Henning
2017-01-01
Despite the success of exploiting the properties of amorphous oxide semiconductors for device applications, the charge transport in these materials is still not clearly understood. The observation of a definite Hall voltage suggests that electron transport in the conduction band is free-electron-like. However, the temperature dependence of the Hall and field-effect mobilities cannot be explained using a simple bandlike model. Here, we perform gated Hall effect measurements in field-effect transistors, which allow us to make two independent estimates of the charge carrier concentration and determine the Hall factor providing information on the energy dependence of the relaxation time. We demonstrate that the Hall factor in a range of sputtered and solution-processed quaternary amorphous oxides, such as a-InGaZnO, is close to two, while in ternary oxides, such as InZnO, it is near unity. This suggests that quaternary elements like Ga act as strong ionized impurity scattering centers in these materials.
Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-01-15
The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.
Fast micro Hall effect measurements on small pads
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Nielsen, Peter F.
2011-01-01
reference measurements, when only small sheet resistance variations are present. For samples with a sheet resistance variation of more than 5%, a more time consuming method must be used. Here, the theoretically expected measurement values are computed based on the sheet resistance variation using a finite...... pads is non-trivial. In this paper we discuss how conformal mapping can be used to evaluate theoretically expected measurement values on small pads. Theoretical values calculated from analytical mappings of simple geometries are compared to the values found from the numerical conformal mapping......Sheet resistance, carrier mobility, and sheet carrier density are important parameters in semiconductor production, and it is therefore important to be able to rapidly and accurately measure these parameters even on small samples or pads. The interpretation of four-point probe measurements on small...
Gated Hall Effect Measurements on Selectively grown InGaAs Nanowires.
Lindelöw, Fredrik Gustav; Zota, Cezar; Lind, Erik
2017-02-23
InGaAs nanowires is one of the promising material systems of replacing silicon in future CMOS transistors, due to its high electron mobility, in combination with the excellent electrostatic control from the tri-gate geometry. In this article, we report on gated Hall measurements on single and multiple In0.85Ga0.15As nanowires, selectively grown in a Hall bridge geometry with nanowire widths down to 50 nm and thicknesses of 10 nm. The gated nanowires can be used as junctionless transistors, which allows for a simplified device processing as no regrowth of contact layer or ion implantation is needed, which is especially beneficial as transistor dimensions are scaled down. The analysis shows that the InGaAs layer has a carrier concentration above 10^19 cm^-3, with a Hall carrier mobility of around 1000 cm^2V^-1s^-1. The gated Hall measurements reveal an increased carrier concentration as a function of applied gate voltage, with an increasing mobility for narrow nanowires but no significant effect on larger nanowires.
Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume
2013-04-01
vary across the plume. Furthermore, ion energy measurements here and historically show non - Maxwellian ion velocity distributions that vary with...related to beam composition or to non -uniformities in the gas flow distribution. Thus, thrust data are not reported...distribution is far from Maxwellian . D. Combined Probe The combined ESA/ExB probe was used to analyze specific populations selected from the ESA data
2015-01-01
This paper describes a simple microwave apparatus to measure the Hall effect in semiconductor wafers. The advantage of this technique is that it does not require contacts on the sample or the use of a resonant cavity. Our method consists of placing the semiconductor wafer into a slot cut in an X-band (8 - 12 GHz) waveguide series tee, injecting microwave power into the two opposite arms of the tee, and measuring the microwave output at the third arm. A magnetic field applied perpendicular to ...
Delalande, M.Y.; de Vries, Jeroen; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.
2012-01-01
Co/Pt multilayer dots with perpendicular anisotropy and with diameters of 250 and 350 nm were fabricated on top of a Hall cross configuration. The angular dependence of the magnetic reversal of the individual dot was investigated by Anomalous Hall effect measurements. At near in-plane angles (85° wi
Delalande, M.Y.; de Vries, Jeroen; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.
Co/Pt multilayer dots with perpendicular anisotropy and with diameters of 250 and 350 nm were fabricated on top of a Hall cross configuration. The angular dependence of the magnetic reversal of the individual dot was investigated by Anomalous Hall effect measurements. At near in-plane angles (85°
Delalande, M.; Vries, de J.; Abelmann, L.; Lodder, J.C.
2012-01-01
Co/Pt multilayer dots with perpendicular anisotropy and with diameters of 250 and 350 nm were fabricated on top of a Hall cross configuration. The angular dependence of the magnetic reversal of the individual dot was investigated by Anomalous Hall effect measurements. At near in-plane angles (85° wi
AN A. C. HALL EFFECT GAUSSMETER,
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS, MEASURING INSTRUMENTS, HALL EFFECT , MAGNETOMETERS, MEASUREMENT, GENERATORS, CIRCUITS, ALTERNATING CURRENT, GERMANIUM, SEMICONDUCTOR DIODES, GALVANOMETERS, VOLTAGE, DIRECT CURRENT, MAGNETIC FIELDS.
Yomo, Shusuke; Tozer, Stanley
2013-03-01
The Hall effect was successfully measured for a single crystal of high temperature superconductor in a Moissanite-anvil clamp cell up to 5 GPa, with proper arrangement of lead wires and a sample. Zylon gasket, good in electrical insulation, worked well up to 5 GPa. The 30-40 % increase of the clamped pressure was observed during cooling to below 60 K. The appreciable pressure effect of the a-b plane Hall coefficient was observed and negative for La2 - x Srx CuO4 with x = 0.090. The result is discussed with those for sintered samples and those studied with a different pressurizing method. Thanks are due to Visiting Scientist Program, NHMFL, and NNSA grant DE-FG52-03NA00066.
Liu, Cheng; Liu, Ji-Gou; Zhang, Quan
2015-02-01
The paper presents a novel method to reduce the zero offset in Hall-Effect based magnetic measurement with single power supply. This method consists of a coarse zero compensation and a fine zero adjustment afterwards. By using the proposed method the zero output offset of Hall Effect sensors under using single power supply can be controlled within 0.2%. This method can be applied to all Hall Effect sensors with analog output and other similar sensors, which are powered with a single voltage or current source.
Hall effect accompanying a static skin effect
Volkenshtein, N.V.; Marchenkov, V.V.; Startsev, V.E.; Cherepanov, A.N.; Glin' skii, M.
1985-05-10
The Hall effect and the magnetoresistance of tungsten single crystals with rho/sub 293K//rho/sub 4.2K/ = 80 000 have been measured at 4.2 K in magnetic fields up to 150 kOe. The results reveal that a static skin effect gives rise to an anomalously pronounced increase in the Hall coefficient.
Measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic nanobeads using planar Hall effect bridge sensors
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, T.
2013-01-01
We compare measurements of the Brownian relaxation response of magnetic nanobeads in suspension using planar Hall effect sensors of cross geometry and a newly proposed bridge geometry. We find that the bridge sensor yields six times as large signals as the cross sensor, which results in a more ac...... performed in a commercial AC susceptometer. The presented bridge sensor is, thus, a promising component in future lab-on-a-chip biosensors for detection of clinically relevant analytes, including bacterial genomic DNA and proteins....
Ben-Abdallah, Philippe
2015-01-01
A near-field thermal Hall effect (i.e.Righi-Leduc effect) in lattices of magneto-optical particles placed in a constant magnetic field is predicted. This effect is related to a symetry breaking in the system induced by the magnetic field which gives rise to preferential channels for the heat-transport by photon tunneling thanks to the particles anisotropy tuning.
Optical Hall effect-model description: tutorial.
Schubert, Mathias; Kühne, Philipp; Darakchieva, Vanya; Hofmann, Tino
2016-08-01
The optical Hall effect is a physical phenomenon that describes the occurrence of magnetic-field-induced dielectric displacement at optical wavelengths, transverse and longitudinal to the incident electric field, and analogous to the static electrical Hall effect. The electrical Hall effect and certain cases of the optical Hall effect observations can be explained by extensions of the classic Drude model for the transport of electrons in metals. The optical Hall effect is most useful for characterization of electrical properties in semiconductors. Among many advantages, while the optical Hall effect dispenses with the need of electrical contacts, electrical material properties such as effective mass and mobility parameters, including their anisotropy as well as carrier type and density, can be determined from the optical Hall effect. Measurement of the optical Hall effect can be performed within the concept of generalized ellipsometry at an oblique angle of incidence. In this paper, we review and discuss physical model equations, which can be used to calculate the optical Hall effect in single- and multiple-layered structures of semiconductor materials. We define the optical Hall effect dielectric function tensor, demonstrate diagonalization approaches, and show requirements for the optical Hall effect tensor from energy conservation. We discuss both continuum and quantum approaches, and we provide a brief description of the generalized ellipsometry concept, the Mueller matrix calculus, and a 4×4 matrix algebra to calculate data accessible by experiment. In a follow-up paper, we will discuss strategies and approaches for experimental data acquisition and analysis.
ZHOU Xiang; HU Cheng-zheng; GONG Ping; WANG Ai-jun
2005-01-01
The relations between Hall effect and symmetry are discussed for all 2- and 3 dimensional quasicrystals with crystallographically forbidden symmetries. The results show that the numbers of independent components of the Hall coefficient (RH) are one for 3-dimensional quasicrystals, two for those 2 dimensional quasicrystals whose symmetry group is non-Abelian, and three for those 2-dimensional quasicrystals whose symmetry group is Abelian, respectively. The quasicrystals with the same number of independent components have the same form of the components of RH.
Measurements of Brownian relaxation of magnetic nanobeads using planar Hall effect bridge sensors.
Østerberg, F W; Rizzi, G; Zardán Gómez de la Torre, T; Strömberg, M; Strømme, M; Svedlindh, P; Hansen, M F
2013-02-15
We compare measurements of the Brownian relaxation response of magnetic nanobeads in suspension using planar Hall effect sensors of cross geometry and a newly proposed bridge geometry. We find that the bridge sensor yields six times as large signals as the cross sensor, which results in a more accurate determination of the hydrodynamic size of the magnetic nanobeads. Finally, the bridge sensor has successfully been used to measure the change in dynamic magnetic response when rolling circle amplified DNA molecules are bound to the magnetic nanobeads. The change is validated by measurements performed in a commercial AC susceptometer. The presented bridge sensor is, thus, a promising component in future lab-on-a-chip biosensors for detection of clinically relevant analytes, including bacterial genomic DNA and proteins.
Kunkel, W. B.
1981-01-01
Describes an apparatus and procedure for conducting an undergraduate laboratory experiment to quantitatively study the Hall effect in a plasma. Includes background information on the Hall effect and rationale for conducting the experiment. (JN)
Thermoelectric power and Hall effect measurements in polycrystalline CdTe thin films
Paez, B.A. [Pontificia Univ. Javeriana, Santafe de Bogota (Colombia). Thin Films Group
2000-07-01
Polycrystalline CdTe thin films deposited by close space sublimation (CSS), were characterized through thermoelectric power, {alpha}, Hall coefficient, and resistivity, {rho}, measurements in the range of 90 to 400 K. This was in order to determine the scattering mechanisms which mainly affect the electrical transport properties in CdTe thin films. The results were analyzed based on theoretical calculations of {alpha} against temperature. This model includes scattering processes within the grains and at the grain boundaries. Some of the parameters used in this calculation were determined experimentally: grain size, crystal structure, activation energy and effective mass. It is important to state that the main approximations were justified according to experimental measurements. (orig.)
Methods to measure the charge of the quasiparticles in the fractional quantum Hall effect
Kivelson, S. A.; Pokrovsky, V. L.
1989-07-01
We propose various experimental circumstances in which the longitudinal resistance of a two-dimensional electron gas in a high transverse magnetic field depends in a simple and characteristic way on the charge of the quasiparticle excitations. We propose that experiments of this sort could be used to directly measure the charge of the quasiparticle excitations which carry the dissipative part of the current. While it has been persuasively argued by Laughlin that the Hall conductance itself measures the quasiparticle charge, the connection is indirect, since the Hall current is carried by the condensate, not by the quasiparticles.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2011-01-01
We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the correct Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices, mechanical flywheel, and discuss various fundamental aspects of the phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales: from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black-holes.
Bason, Y.; Klein, L.; Yau, J. -B.; Hong, X.; Hoffman, J.; Ahn, C. H.
2005-01-01
We suggest a new type of magnetic random access memory (MRAM) that is based on the phenomenon of the planar Hall effect (PHE) in magnetic films, and we demonstrate this idea with manganite films. The PHE-MRAM is structurally simpler than currently developed MRAM that is based on magnetoresistance tunnel junctions (MTJ), with the tunnel junction structure being replaced by a single layer film.
Tafra, E; Čulo, M; Basletić, M
2012-01-01
We have measured the Hall effect on recently synthesized single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF–TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene–tetracyanoquinodimethane), a well known charge transfer complex that has two kinds of conductive stacks: the donor (TTF) and the acceptor (TCNQ......) chains. The measurements were performed in the temperature interval 30 K ... Hall effect measurements. Our results show, contrary to past belief, that the Hall coefficient does not depend on the geometry of measurements and that the Hall coefficient value is approximately zero in the high temperature region (T > 150 K), implying that there is no dominance of either the TTF...
Vries, de J.; Delalande, M.Y.; Abelmann, L.; Lodder, J.C.
2011-01-01
It has been suggested that the reversal mechanism in highly exchange coupled systems, like Co/Pt multilayers, takes place by nucleation of a reversed domain, followed by domain wall movement. Based on magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) measurements, we show that this mod
Conductivity, Hall and magnetoresistance effect measurements on SI GaAs and InP
Acar, S.; Kasap, M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science and Arts, University of Gazi, Teknikokullar, 06500 Ankara (Turkey)
2004-05-01
The conductivity, Hall effect and magnetoresistance quantities in semi-insulating undoped GaAs and Fe-doped GaAs and InP grown by the LEC technique have been measured in the temperature range 300-420 K. It is shown that mixed conductivity is present in all samples. The experimental data were analyzed using a two-band model including electron and hole transport. A good fit has been obtained self-consistently to both conductivity and mobility. The single-band parameters have been extracted from the measured data in the studied temperature range. From ln (vertical stroke R{sub H,} {sub 0} vertical stroke T {sup 3/2}) and {sigma} vs T {sup -1} plots, activation energies of 0.77 and 0.65 eV have also been observed for GaAs and InP, respectively. (copyright 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Thermal Hall Effect of Magnons
Murakami, Shuichi; Okamoto, Akihiro
2017-01-01
We review recent developments in theories and experiments on the magnon Hall effect. We derive the thermal Hall conductivity of magnons in terms of the Berry curvature of magnonic bands. In addition to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, we show that the dipolar interaction can make the Berry curvature nonzero. We mainly discuss theoretical aspects of the magnon Hall effect and related theoretical works. Experimental progress in this field is also mentioned.
Tafra, E; Culo, M; Basletić, M; Korin-Hamzić, B; Hamzić, A; Jacobsen, C S
2012-02-01
We have measured the Hall effect on recently synthesized single crystals of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor TTF-TCNQ (tetrathiafulvalene-tetracyanoquinodimethane), a well known charge transfer complex that has two kinds of conductive stacks: the donor (TTF) and the acceptor (TCNQ) chains. The measurements were performed in the temperature interval 30 K Hall effect measurements. Our results show, contrary to past belief, that the Hall coefficient does not depend on the geometry of measurements and that the Hall coefficient value is approximately zero in the high temperature region (T > 150 K), implying that there is no dominance of either the TTF or the TCNQ chain. At lower temperatures our measurements clearly prove that all three phase transitions of TTF-TCNQ could be identified from Hall effect measurements.
Note: Effects of several thermal glues used on temperature dependent Hall measurements.
Rangel-Kuoppa, Victor-Tapio; Chen, Gang
2010-03-01
The effects of four thermal glues (cry-con, fixogum, RS 503-357, and silicon-high vacuum-grease from Leybold vacuum) on temperature dependent Hall measurements on n-type silicon are tested. All thermal glues yielded the same results (resistivity, mobility, and charge carrier density) between 300 and 190 K. The use of RS 503-357 drastically distorts the expected results below 190 K, probably due to a phase transition and its latent heat, which affects the sample temperature during the phase transition. All the other thermal glues give reproducible results down to 100 K. Below 100 K, the use of cry-con, fixogum, and the silicon-high vacuum-grease from Leybold vacuum yield decreasing mobility and charge carrier density and increasing resistivity, as temperature decreases, but with different magnitudes. This is explained as the thermal properties of each glue start to diverge. Fixogum seems to give the best thermal conductivity, while the silicon-high vacuum grease from Leybold vacuum performs the worst below 100K. Crycon has an intermediate behavior between these two former ones. Cooling speed plays an important role at these low temperatures.
Observing spin Hall effect of pseudo-thermal light through weak measurement
Cao, Bin; Zhang, Pei; Gao, Hong; Li, Fuli
2016-01-01
It is well known that the spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) can be easily observed via weak measurement by the dark strip resulted from the splitting of different polarization components. We find that the SHEL of partially coherent beam (PCB) also has similar phenomenon. However, the existence of the dark strip in the SHEL of PCB can not be properly justified by considering the beam as a statistical assemble of coherent speckles. Also, the dark strip of PCB is not purely dark. By analyzing the autocorrelation of the central dark strip part of the SHEL of PCB, we show that SHEL of PCB is essentially the direct result of overlapping coherent speckles' SHEL. Then we further prove our conclusion by adjusting the converging level and the incident angle of the beam. Finally, we develop a qualitative theory by taking the intensity distribution of PCB into account, to fully clarify the SHEL of PCB. The feasibility of our theory to Goos-H\\"anchen (GH) scenario is also demonstrated.
Carrier behavior of HgTe under high pressure revealed by Hall effect measurement
胡廷静; 崔晓岩; 李雪飞; 王婧姝; 吕秀梅; 王棱升; 杨景海; 高春晓
2015-01-01
We investigate the carrier behavior of HgTe under high pressures up to 23 GPa using in situ Hall effect measurements. As the phase transitions from zinc blende to cinnabar, then to rock salt, and finally to Cmcm occur, all the parameters change discontinuously. The conductivity variation under compression is described by the carrier parameters. For the zinc blende phase, both the decrease of carrier concentration and the increase of mobility indicate the overlapped valence band and conduction band separates with pressure. Pressure causes an increase in the hole concentration of HgTe in the cinnabar phase, which leads to the carrier-type inversion and the lowest mobility at 5.6 GPa. In the phase transition process from zinc blende to rock salt, Te atoms are the major ones in atomic movements in the pressure regions of 1.0–1.5 GPa and 1.8–3.1 GPa, whereas Hg atoms are the major ones in the pressure regions of 1.5–1.8 GPa and 3.1–7.7 GPa. The polar optical scattering of the rock salt phase decreases with pressure.
Improving the precision of Hall effect measurements using a single-crystal copper probe.
Cha, Su-Young; Shin, Jong Moon; Kim, Su Jae; Park, Sang Eon; Cho, Chae Ryong; Cho, Yong Chan; Jeong, Se-Young
2012-01-01
The circuitry and components of a Hall measurement kit were replaced with single-crystal copper (SCC) wires and parts prepared by a novel wire fabrication process. This process preserved the grain-free structure of SCC grown by the Czochralski method. The new kit was used to determine, with greatly improved precision, the electrical coefficients such as carrier density and mobility, establish the reproducibility of the measured values, and define the semiconductor type. The observed reduction in electrical signal losses and distortion has been attributed to grain boundary elimination.
Charge carrier coherence and Hall effect in organic semiconductors.
Yi, H T; Gartstein, Y N; Podzorov, V
2016-03-30
Hall effect measurements are important for elucidating the fundamental charge transport mechanisms and intrinsic mobility in organic semiconductors. However, Hall effect studies frequently reveal an unconventional behavior that cannot be readily explained with the simple band-semiconductor Hall effect model. Here, we develop an analytical model of Hall effect in organic field-effect transistors in a regime of coexisting band and hopping carriers. The model, which is supported by the experiments, is based on a partial Hall voltage compensation effect, occurring because hopping carriers respond to the transverse Hall electric field and drift in the direction opposite to the Lorentz force acting on band carriers. We show that this can lead in particular to an underdeveloped Hall effect observed in organic semiconductors with substantial off-diagonal thermal disorder. Our model captures the main features of Hall effect in a variety of organic semiconductors and provides an analytical description of Hall mobility, carrier density and carrier coherence factor.
Zhang, Song; Modanese, Chiara; Di Sabatino, Marisa; Tranell, Gabriella
2015-11-01
In this work, temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements in the temperature range 88-350 K were carried out to investigate the electrical properties of three solar grade p-type Czochralski (Cz) silicon ingots, pulled from recycled p-type multi-crystalline silicon top cuts and compensated solar grade (SoG) feedstock. Material bulk properties including Hall mobility, carrier density and resistivity as functions of temperature were studied to evaluate the influence of compensation and impurities. Recycled top cut replacing poly-silicon as feedstock leads to a more uniform resistivity. In addition, higher concentrations of O and C, give rise to oxygen related defects, which act as neutral scattering centers displaying only a slight influence on the electrical properties at low temperature compared to the dominant compensation effect. The electrical performances of all samples are shown to be strongly dependent on compensation level, especially at the lowest temperature (~88 K). A significant presence of incompletely ionized phosphorus was deduced through the measured carrier density. The temperature-dependent Hall effect measurements fit Klaassen's mobility model very well at low temperatures (silicon, while the deviation at the high temperature probably may be accounted for by the presence of as-grown defects, such as oxygen related defects and phosphorus clusters, which are usually neglected in most mobility models.
Chen, Y.; Yi, H. T.; Wu, X.; Haroldson, R.; Gartstein, Y. N.; Rodionov, Y. I.; Tikhonov, K. S.; Zakhidov, A.; Zhu, X.-Y.; Podzorov, V.
2016-08-01
Impressive performance of hybrid perovskite solar cells reported in recent years still awaits a comprehensive understanding of its microscopic origins. In this work, the intrinsic Hall mobility and photocarrier recombination coefficient are directly measured in these materials in steady-state transport studies. The results show that electron-hole recombination and carrier trapping rates in hybrid perovskites are very low. The bimolecular recombination coefficient (10-11 to 10-10 cm3 s-1) is found to be on par with that in the best direct-band inorganic semiconductors, even though the intrinsic Hall mobility in hybrid perovskites is considerably lower (up to 60 cm2 V-1 s-1). Measured here, steady-state carrier lifetimes (of up to 3 ms) and diffusion lengths (as long as 650 μm) are significantly longer than those in high-purity crystalline inorganic semiconductors. We suggest that these experimental findings are consistent with the polaronic nature of charge carriers, resulting from an interaction of charges with methylammonium dipoles.
Yang, Huan; Liu, Yi; Zhuang, Chenggang; Shi, Junren; Yao, Yugui; Massidda, Sandro; Monni, Marco; Jia, Ying; Xi, Xiaoxing; Li, Qi; Liu, Zi-Kui; Feng, Qingrong; Wen, Hai-Hu
2008-08-01
We have measured the normal state temperature dependence of the Hall effect and magnetoresistance in epitaxial MgB2 thin films with variable disorders characterized by the residual resistance ratio RRR ranging from 4.0 to 33.3. A strong nonlinearity of the Hall effect and magnetoresistance have been found in clean samples, and they decrease gradually with the increase of disorders or temperature. By fitting the data to the theoretical model based on the Boltzmann equation and ab initio calculations for a four-band system, for the first time, we derived the scattering rates of these four bands at different temperatures and magnitude of disorders. Our method provides a unique way to derive these important parameters in multiband systems.
Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators
Viola, Giovanni; DiVincenzo, David P.
2014-04-01
The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller) scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.
Hall measurements on InAs nanowires
Bloemers, Christian; Grap, Thomas; Lepsa, Mihail I.; Gruetzmacher, Detlev; Lueth, Hans [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (Germany); Trellenkamp, Stefan [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-8), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (Germany); Schaepers, Thomas [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-9), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, 52425 Juelich (Germany); JARA - Fundamentals of Future Information Technology (Germany); II. Physikalisches Institut, RWTH Aachen, 52074 Aachen (Germany)
2012-07-01
In search of novel concepts for the realization of nanoelectronic devices, semiconductor nanowires grown by ''bottom-up'' techniques have shown great promise. Without any doubt, the knowledge about the free carrier concentration n{sub el} is crucial for the fabrication of such devices on the nanometer scale. The most common method to determine n{sub el} in nanowires is to utilize the field effect in a gate measurement setup. However, within this method, uncertainties such as the density of surface states between the nanowire and the dielectric material or the resulting nanowire capacitance influence results. Additionally, source and drain electrodes tend to screen the gate potential in devices of small size. Here we report on Hall measurements on InAs nanowires as an alternative method to determine n{sub el}. By electron beam lithography we are able to fabricate side contacts to single nanowires to realize a Hall-measurement geometry. The side contacts allow us to measure a Hall-voltage, from which we deduce the carrier concentration in the wires.
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.
2010-01-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....
Yan, Liang; Zhu, Bo; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming
2014-10-01
An orientation measurement method based on Hall-effect sensors is proposed for permanent magnet (PM) spherical actuators with three-dimensional (3D) magnet array. As there is no contact between the measurement system and the rotor, this method could effectively avoid friction torque and additional inertial moment existing in conventional approaches. Curved surface fitting method based on exponential approximation is proposed to formulate the magnetic field distribution in 3D space. The comparison with conventional modeling method shows that it helps to improve the model accuracy. The Hall-effect sensors are distributed around the rotor with PM poles to detect the flux density at different points, and thus the rotor orientation can be computed from the measured results and analytical models. Experiments have been conducted on the developed research prototype of the spherical actuator to validate the accuracy of the analytical equations relating the rotor orientation and the value of magnetic flux density. The experimental results show that the proposed method can measure the rotor orientation precisely, and the measurement accuracy could be improved by the novel 3D magnet array. The study result could be used for real-time motion control of PM spherical actuators.
Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.
2008-01-01
The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic configurations. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying a higher thrust efficiency. Preliminary thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 100-250 W. The thrust levels over this power range were 3.5-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 14-19% and 875- 1425 s, respectively. The magnetic field in the thruster was lower for the thrust measurements than the plasma probe measurements due to heating and weakening of the permanent magnets, reducing the maximum field strength from 2 kG to roughly 750-800 G. The discharge current levels observed during thrust stand testing were anomalously high compared to those levels measured in previous experiments with this thruster.
2008-09-23
in Fig. 1. An alternating current source operating at frequency f1 is attached to contacts B and D with a respective lock-in amplifier monitoring...that floats the signal and a transconductance amplifier . The input voltage of each lock-in amplifier is composed of two signals: the Hall voltage at...alternating current sources operating at frequencies f1 and f2 respectively. VAC and VDB are lock-in amplifiers set for the reference frequencies f2 and f1
Østerberg, Frederik W.; Dalslet, Bjarke T.; Snakenborg, Detlef; Johansson, Christer; Hansen, Mikkel F.
2010-12-01
We present a simple `click-on' fluidic system with integrated electrical contacts, which is suited for electrical measurements on chips in microfluidic systems. We show that microscopic magnetic field sensors based on the planar Hall effect can be used for detecting the complex magnetic response using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation with a constant hydrodynamic bead diameter when the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water is taken into account. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of performing measurements of the Brownian relaxation response in a lab-on-a-chip system and constitute the first step towards an integrated biosensor based on the detection of the dynamic response of magnetic beads.
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Snakenborg, Detlef
2010-01-01
We present a simple 'click-on' fluidic system with integrated electrical contacts, which is suited for electrical measurements on chips in microfluidic systems. We show that microscopic magnetic field sensors based on the planar Hall effect can be used for detecting the complex magnetic response...... with a constant hydrodynamic bead diameter when the temperature dependence of the viscosity of water is taken into account. These measurements demonstrate the feasibility of performing measurements of the Brownian relaxation response in a lab-on-a-chip system and constitute the first step towards an integrated...... using only the self-field arising from the bias current applied to the sensors as excitation field. We present measurements on a suspension of magnetic beads with a nominal diameter of 250 nm vs. temperature and find that the observations are consistent with the Cole-Cole model for Brownian relaxation...
Turbulence Measurements in a Tropical Zoo Hall
Eugster, Werner; Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian
2017-04-01
The Masoala rainforest hall of the Zurich Zoo, Switzerland, covers a ground surface area of 10,856 m2 and reaches 30 m in height. With its transparent ETFE foiled roof it provides a tropical climate for a large diversity of plants and animals. In combination with an effort to estimate dry deposition of elemental mercury, we made an attempt to measure turbulent transfer velocity with an ultrasonic anemometer inside the hall. Not surprising, the largest turbulence elements were on the order of the hall dimension. Although the dimensions of the hall seem to be small (200,000 m3) for eddy covariance flux measurements and the air circulation inside the hall was extremely weak, the spectra of wind velocity components and virtual (sonic) temperature obeyed the general statistical description expected under unconstrained outdoor measurement conditions. We will present results from a two-week measurement campaign in the Masoala rainforest hall and make a suggestion for the deposition velocity to be used to estimate dry deposition of atmospheric components to the tropical vegetation surface.
Lo, C. C. H.
2011-06-01
A new surface sensor probe comprising an angular array of Hall effect sensors has been developed for characterization of residual stresses in ferrous materials by means of stress-induced magnetic anisotropy measurements. The sensor probe applies a radially spreading ac magnetic field to a test sample, and detects stray fields in different directions simultaneously to determine the principal stress axes. In situ measurements were conducted on a annealed steel plate under four-point bending stresses to evaluate the probe performance. The ratio of stray field signals measured along and perpendicular to the stress axis varies linearly with the surface stress, indicating the possibility of characterizing residual stresses in ferrous components using the sensor array probe.
Topological Hall and spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic textures
Ndiaye, Papa Birame
2017-02-24
We carry out a thorough study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy-band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real-space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and find that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that the topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering.
Research of Magnetic Field Measurements Based on Hall-Effect%基于霍尔效应的磁场测量方法的研究
渠珊珊; 何志伟
2013-01-01
设计了用霍尔效应法测量磁场的实验方法。测量电路以霍尔元件5303为核心器件，通过改变霍尔元件的输入参数及测量位置，验证了霍尔效应理论及所测磁场的特性。实验表明，该方法可有效测量通电长直螺线管中的磁场分布，从实验角度验证霍尔效应理论。%This paper designed a magnetic field measurement method using Hall-effect, which selected the Hall element 5303 as the key electronic component; and verified the Hall-effect theory and the characteristic of the measured magnetic field by changing the input parameters of the Hall element and the measure point. The experiment proved that this method can measure the magnetic field distribution of the power solenoid effectively and verify the Hall-effect theory from the experimental point.
Zhou, Xinxing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2011-01-01
We theorize the spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) on a metal film nanostructure and demonstrate it experimentally via weak measurements. To reveal the SHEL on nanostructure, we establish a general model to describe the relationship between the spin-orbit coupling and the structural parameters of the nanostructure. We reveal that the spin-orbit coupling in the SHEL can be effectively modulated by adjusting the thickness of the metal film. Our findings show that the transverse displacement is sensitive to the thickness of metal film in certain range for horizontal polarization due to the large ratio of Fresnel coefficients. In addition, we find that the transverse shift takes on a large negative value as a consequence of the combined contributions of the ratio and the phase difference of Fresnel coefficients.
Berry curvature and various thermal Hall effects
Zhang, Lifa
2016-10-01
Applying the approach of semiclassical wave packet dynamics, we study various thermal Hall effects where carriers can be electron, phonon, magnon, etc. A general formula of thermal Hall conductivity is obtained to provide an essential physics for various thermal Hall effects, where the Berry phase effect manifests naturally. All the formulas of electron thermal Hall effect, phonon Hall effect, and magnon Hall effect can be directly reproduced from the general formula. It is also found that the Strěda formula can not be directly applied to the thermal Hall effects, where only the edge magnetization contributes to the Hall effects. Furthermore, we obtain a combined formula for anomalous Hall conductivity, thermal Hall electronic conductivity and thermal Hall conductivity for electron systems, where the Berry curvature is weighted by a different function. Finally, we discuss particle magnetization and its relation to angular momentum of the carrier, change of which could induce a mechanical rotation; and possible experiments for thermal Hall effect associated with a mechanical rotation are also proposed.
Quantized photonic spin Hall effect in graphene
Cai, Liang; Liu, Mengxia; Chen, Shizhen; Liu, Yachao; Shu, Weixing; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2017-01-01
We examine the photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) in a graphene-substrate system with the presence of an external magnetic field. In the quantum Hall regime, we demonstrate that the in-plane and transverse spin-dependent splittings in the photonic SHE exhibit different quantized behaviors. The quantized SHE can be described as a consequence of a quantized geometric phase (Berry phase), which corresponds to the quantized spin-orbit interaction. Furthermore, an experimental scheme based on quantum weak value amplification is proposed to detect the quantized SHE in the terahertz frequency regime. By incorporating the quantum weak measurement techniques, the quantized photonic SHE holds great promise for detecting quantized Hall conductivity and the Berry phase. These results may bridge the gap between the electronic SHE and photonic SHE in graphene.
Mikou, M.; Carin, R.; Bogdanski, P.; Marie, P.
1997-08-01
N-type (Si-doped, N_D ≈ 10^{17} cm^{-3}) GaAs epitaxial layers (MOCVD) are irradiated at 77 K with oxygen (0.163 GeV), krypton (5.15 GeV), xenon (5.73 GeV) and at 300 K with krypton (5.15 GeV). Hall effect measurements are performed, in situ, with increasing fluence. A decrease of the electron concentration and a degradation of the Hall mobility, respectively due to trapping and to scattering on irradiation-induced point defects are pointed out. In the heavily doped layers, shallow donor impurities merge with the conduction band in distorted band tail. A simple two band conduction model is used as a simulation tool, which allows the carrier Hall concentration variation to be correctly fitted, as a function of both temperature and ion fluence. The Hall mobility versus fluence variation at 77 K, which is mainly limited by screened ionized impurities and defects, is also simulated. From these simulations, the arsenic vacancy levels E_1 and E_2 are most likely to correspond respectively to single acceptor (-/0) and single donor (0/+) transitions. The introduction rates of induced defects (in particular V_As) are estimated: the total experimental introduction rate appears to be about 50% of the theoretical atomic displacement rate associated with nuclear collisions, independently of ion nature and of temperature. Although electronic stopping power S_e is about 2000 times larger than nuclear stopping power S_n, it is then suggested that irradiation-induced electronic excitation, in the investigated range S_e = 1 12 MeV/μm, has no effect on the degradation of n-type GaAs epitaxial layers. Des couches épitaxiées de GaAs de type n (dopage au silicium, N_D ≈ 10^{17} cm^{-3}) sont irradiées à 77 K avec des ions oxygène (0,163 GeV), krypton (5,15 GeV), xénon (5,73 GeV) et à 300 K avec des ions krypton (5,15 GeV). Les mesures d'effet Hall sont effectuées in situ, au fur et à mesure de l'accroissement de fluence. On observe une diminution de la concentration
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
Henriksen, A. D.; Dalslet, B. T.; Skieller, D. H.; Lee, K. H.; Okkels, F.; Hansen, M. F.
2010-07-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can be significantly enhanced by a geometric factor. For the samples in the present study, we demonstrate an enhancement of the sensor output by a factor of about 100 compared to cross-shaped sensors. The presented construction opens a new design and application area of the planar Hall effect, which we term planar Hall effect bridge sensors.
The Other Hall Effect: College Board Physics
Sheppard, Keith; Gunning, Amanda M.
2013-01-01
Edwin Herbert Hall (1855-1938), discoverer of the Hall effect, was one of the first winners of the AAPT Oersted Medal for his contributions to the teaching of physics. While Hall's role in establishing laboratory work in high schools is widely acknowledged, his position as chair of the physics section of the Committee on College Entrance…
S. Thirumavalavana
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Semiconductors have various useful properties that can be exploited for the realization of a large number of high performance devices in fields such as electronics and optoelectronics. Many novel semiconductors, especially in the form of thin films, are continually being developed. Thin films have drawn the attention of many researchers because of their numerous applications. As the film becomes thinner, the properties acquire greater importance in the miniaturization of elements such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, and solar cells. In the present work, copper selenide (CuSe, cadmium selenide (CdSe, zinc selenide (ZnSe, lead sulphide (PbS, zinc sulphide (ZnS, and cadmium sulphide (CdS thin films were prepared by chemical bath deposition (CBD method. The prepared thin films were analyzed by using Hall measurements in Van Der Pauw configuration (ECOPIA HMS-3000 at room temperature. The Hall parameters such as Hall mobility of the material, resistivity, carrier concentration, Hall coefficient and conductivity were determined. The DC electrical conductivity measurements were also carried out for the thin films using the conventional two – probe technique. The activation energies were also calculated from DC conductivity studies.
Spin Hall effect by surface roughness
Zhou, Lingjun
2015-01-08
The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.
DEVELOPMENT OF IMPROVED HALL EFFECT SENSORS.
HALL EFFECT , MAGNETOMETERS, GAIN, SENSITIVITY, MAGNETIC FIELDS, DETECTION, ELECTROMAGNETIC PROBES, WEIGHT, VOLUME, BATTERY COMPONENTS, INDIUM ALLOYS, ANTIMONY ALLOYS, FERRITES, MANPORTABLE EQUIPMENT.
Lectures on the Quantum Hall Effect
Tong, David
2016-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to describe the basic theoretical structures underlying the rich and beautiful physics of the quantum Hall effect. The focus is on the interplay between microscopic wavefunctions, long-distance effective Chern-Simons theories, and the modes which live on the boundary. The notes are aimed at graduate students in any discipline where $\\hbar=1$. A working knowledge of quantum field theory is assumed. Contents: 1. The Basics (Landau levels and Berry phase). 2. The Integer Quantum Hall Effect. 3. The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect. 4. Non-Abelian Quantum Hall States. 5. Chern-Simons Theories. 6. Edge Modes.
Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under quantum Hall effect conditions
V E Arkhincheev
2008-02-01
Bound values for Hall conductivity under quantum Hall effect (QHE) conditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect conditions.
Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films
Guo, Zaibing
2012-02-01
We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Magnetic noise measurements using cross-correlated Hall sensor arrays
Jung, G.; Ocio, M.; Paltiel, Y.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.
2001-01-01
An experimental technique for measuring magnetic fluctuations by means of a double-layer Hall sensor array is described. The technique relies on cross-correlating Hall signals from two independent sensors positioned one above the other in two separate two-dimensional-electron-gas layers of a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The effectiveness of the technique is demonstrated by a reduction of the magnitude of the background noise floor of the correlated sensors with respect to the noise level of the best single sensor.
Owerre, S. A.
2016-07-01
Quite recently, the magnon Hall effect of spin excitations has been observed experimentally on the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. The thermal Hall conductivity κxy changes sign as a function of magnetic field or temperature on the kagome lattice, and κxy changes sign upon reversing the sign of the magnetic field on the pyrochlore lattice. Motivated by these recent exciting experimental observations, we theoretically propose a simple realization of the magnon Hall effect in a two-band model on the honeycomb lattice. The magnon Hall effect of spin excitations arises in the usual way via the breaking of inversion symmetry of the lattice, however, by a next-nearest-neighbour Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction. We find that κxy has a fixed sign for all parameter regimes considered. These results are in contrast to the Lieb, kagome, and pyrochlore lattices. We further show that the low-temperature dependence on the magnon Hall conductivity follows a T2 law, as opposed to the kagome and pyrochlore lattices. These results suggest an experimental procedure to measure thermal Hall conductivity within a class of 2D honeycomb quantum magnets and ultracold atoms trapped in a honeycomb optical lattice.
A Magnetic Balance with Hall Effect Sensors
Sawada, Hideo; Kunimasu, Tetsuya; Suda, Shinichi; Mizoguti, Yasushi; Okada, Takumi
Magnetic force acting on a model fixed at the center of the JAXA 60cm MSBS was measured with an industry manufactured balance system when MSBS control coil currents were varied. At the same time, magnetic field intensity was also measured with 11 Hall sensors, which were arranged around the MSBS test section. From relations between coil currents and its corresponding controlled magnetic forces, regressive curves were given and maximum deviation from the curves was evaluated. From relations between Hall sensor outputs and the magnetic forces, regressive curves and deviation were also obtained. Obtained results show Hall sensor outputs are much better indexes of balance than the coil currents. The maximum deviations were reduced to a half or one-third times as much as those evaluated using the control coil currents. However, when couples acting on the model are controlled, they are not effective to reduce hysteresis phenomenon in the relation. The deviation can be reduced by decreasing the range of calibration. Then, the error of the balance of the MSBS was reduced to about 1% of the calibration range.
Background Pressure Effects on Krypton Hall Effect Thruster Internal Acceleration
2013-08-01
krypton operation of the BHT -600 at the conditions in Table 2 yields a thrust of 22.4 mN corresponding to an anode efficiency of approximately 31...measurement volume is ap- proximately 500 µm diameter by 1 mm length. Measurement Domain Figure 3 shows a cross-section of the BHT -600 Hall effect...of the BHT -600 Hall effect thruster with measurement volume shown in red. All dimensions are given in mm. tion of the transition
Schifano, R.; Monakhov, E. V.; Vines, L.; Svensson, B. G.; Mtangi, W.; Auret, F. D.
2009-08-01
Temperature dependent Hall (TDH) effect measurements have been performed on three virgin and hydrothermally grown ZnO samples with resistivities between ˜5 and ˜200 Ω cm at room temperature. The electrical conduction observed experimentally in the temperature range of 330-70 K can be accurately described by three donor levels with positions 41-48, 60-66, and ˜300 meV below the conduction band edge (EC) and an acceptor level in the lower part of the energy band gap (EG). Correlation of the TDH data with results from secondary ion mass spectrometry and admittance spectroscopy on the same samples suggests a rather firm association of the intermediate donor level with complexes involving Al impurities, while the shallowest one is tentatively ascribed to H-related centers. A large fraction of the deep donor remains nonionized in the temperature range studied and contributes substantially to the neutral-impurity-scattering of the conducting electrons. A detailed analysis of the TDH data, using the relaxation time approximation, reveals, however, that ionized-impurity-scattering and optical phonon scattering are the main mechanisms limiting the electron mobility which exhibits a maximum value of ˜125 cm2/V s at ˜200 K. The major reason for this modest value is the high concentration of compensating acceptors in the lower part of EG reaching values of ˜3×1017 cm-3 and where Li plays an important role. However, the Li content is not sufficient to account for all the acceptors and additional impurities, excluding group I elements, and/or intrinsic defects have to be considered.
Star Formation and the Hall Effect
Braiding, Catherine
2011-01-01
Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well-studied. This thesis describes a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, presenting similarity solutions that demonstrate that the Hall effect has a profound influence on the dynamics of collapse. ... Hall diffusion also determines the strength of the magnetic diffusion and centrifugal shocks that bound the pseudo and rotationally-supported discs, and can introduce subshocks that further slow accretion onto the protostar. In cores that are not initially rotating Hall diffusion can even induce rotation, whic...
Optical Hall effect in strained graphene
Nguyen, V. Hung; Lherbier, A.; Charlier, J.-C.
2017-06-01
When passing an optical medium in the presence of a magnetic field, the polarization of light can be rotated either when reflected at the surface (Kerr effect) or when transmitted through the material (Faraday rotation). This phenomenon is a direct consequence of the optical Hall effect arising from the light-charge carrier interaction in solid state systems subjected to an external magnetic field, in analogy with the conventional Hall effect. The optical Hall effect has been explored in many thin films and also more recently in 2D layered materials. Here, an alternative approach based on strain engineering is proposed to achieve an optical Hall conductivity in graphene without magnetic field. Indeed, strain induces lattice symmetry breaking and hence can result in a finite optical Hall conductivity. First-principles calculations also predict this strain-induced optical Hall effect in other 2D materials. Combining with the possibility of tuning the light energy and polarization, the strain amplitude and direction, and the nature of the optical medium, large ranges of positive and negative optical Hall conductivities are predicted, thus opening the way to use these atomistic thin materials in novel specific opto-electro-mechanical devices.
The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach
Lederer, P.
2015-05-01
The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.
Quantum Hall effect in momentum space
Ozawa, Tomoki; Price, Hannah M.; Carusotto, Iacopo
2016-05-01
We theoretically discuss a momentum-space analog of the quantum Hall effect, which could be observed in topologically nontrivial lattice models subject to an external harmonic trapping potential. In our proposal, the Niu-Thouless-Wu formulation of the quantum Hall effect on a torus is realized in the toroidally shaped Brillouin zone. In this analogy, the position of the trap center in real space controls the magnetic fluxes that are inserted through the holes of the torus in momentum space. We illustrate the momentum-space quantum Hall effect with the noninteracting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model, for which we numerically demonstrate how this effect manifests itself in experimental observables. Extension to the interacting trapped Harper-Hofstadter model is also briefly considered. We finally discuss possible experimental platforms where our proposal for the momentum-space quantum Hall effect could be realized.
Hall effect in CNT doped YBCO high temperature superconductor
S Dadras
2010-09-01
Full Text Available In order to study Hall effect in pure and CNT doped YBCO polycrystalline samples, we have measured longitudinal and transverse voltages at the different magnetic field (0-9T in the vortex state. We found a sign reversal for pure sample near 3T and double sign reversal of the Hall coefficient for CNT doped sample near 3 and 5T. It can be deduced that CNT doping caused strong flux pinning and Hall double sign reversal in this compound.
Observation of the magnon Hall effect.
Onose, Y; Ideue, T; Katsura, H; Shiomi, Y; Nagaosa, N; Tokura, Y
2010-07-16
The Hall effect usually occurs in conductors when the Lorentz force acts on a charge current in the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field. Neutral quasi-particles such as phonons and spins can, however, carry heat current and potentially exhibit the thermal Hall effect without resorting to the Lorentz force. We report experimental evidence for the anomalous thermal Hall effect caused by spin excitations (magnons) in an insulating ferromagnet with a pyrochlore lattice structure. Our theoretical analysis indicates that the propagation of the spin waves is influenced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya spin-orbit interaction, which plays the role of the vector potential, much as in the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect in metallic ferromagnets.
Hall effect degradation of rail gun performance
Witalis, E. A.; Gunnarsson, Patrik
1993-01-01
The paper discusses the Hall effect and shows it to be significant in the low-density and high-field trailing part of a plasma armature. Without the Hall effect a simple armature model is derived. It exhibits properties expected from classical MHD theory and shows that the purely relativistic electric charge buildup on the rails is a fundamental gun property, leading to V(breech) = 1.5 V(muzzle). The mathematics involved in accounting for Hall effect phenomena is described. These are of two types: the Hall-skewing of the armature current and the superimposed plasma flow rotation. For decreasing gun current the two effects efficiently combine to eject armature plasma rearwards, thus creating conditions for arc separation and parasitic arcs.
Nguyen Hoa Hong, E-mail: nguyen.hoahong@univ-tours.f [Laboratoire LEMA, UMR 6157 CNRS - Universite F. Rabelais, Parc de Grandmont, 37200 Tours (France); Chikoidze, Ekaterina; Dumont, Yves [Laboratoire GeMAC, UMR 8635 CNRS - Universite de Versailles, Place A. Briand, 92195 Meudon (France)
2009-11-15
Room temperature FM was observed in pristine ZnO thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition on Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. It seems to originate from other defects but not oxygen vacancies. Magnetization of thinner films is much larger than that of the thicker films, indicating that defects are mostly located at the surface and/or the interface between the film and the substrate. Data on the Fe:ZnO and Mn:ZnO films show that a transition-metal doping does not play any essential role in introducing the magnetism into ZnO. In the case of Mn doping, the magnetic moment could be very slightly enhanced. Hall effect measurements reveal that an incorporation of Mn does not change the carrier type, but decreases the carrier concentration, and increases the Hall mobility, resulting in more resistive Mn:ZnO films. Since no anomalous Hall effect was observed, it is understood that the observed FM is not due to the interaction between the free-carrier and the Mn impurity.
Sellmer, Christian
2012-08-31
The electronic properties of amorphous and microcrystalline silicon layers in thin-film solar cells significantly affect the efficiency of solar cells. An important property of the individual layer is the electronic transport, which is described by the variables conductivity, photoconductivity, mobility, and carrier concentration. In the past, individual characterization methods were typically used to determine the electronic properties. Using the combination of Hall effect, conductivity, and thermoelectric power measurements additional variables can be derived, such as the effective density of states at the valence and conduction band edge, making a more detailed description of the material possible. To systematically study the electronic properties - in particular carrier mobility and carrier concentration - various series of silicon films are prepared for this work including microcrystalline silicon layers of different doping and crystallinity and a series of silicon films where the Fermi level is moved by irradiation with high energy electrons on one and the same sample. The results show that the transition from amorphous to microcrystalline transport is relatively abrupt. If the electron transport takes place in only amorphous regions, it is marked by the sign anomaly of the Hall effect. If a continuous crystalline path exists, the electronic properties are dominated by the crystalline volume fraction. The results of the measurements of silicon layers are compared with those of microcrystalline silicon carbide samples. Silicon carbide is especially interesting for future applications in thin-film solar cells due to high transparency and high conductivity. It is shown that the effective density of states at the valence and conduction band edge as a function of temperature in p- and n-type microcrystalline silicon and silicon carbide samples largely coincide with those of crystalline silicon or silicon carbide. A square root shaped profile of the density of
Quantum Hall Effect in Higher Dimensions
Karabali, Dimitra; Karabali, Dimitra
2002-01-01
Following recent work on the quantum Hall effect on $S^4$, we solve the Landau problem on the complex projective spaces ${\\bf C}P^k$ and discuss quantum Hall states for such spaces. Unlike the case of $S^4$, a finite spatial density can be obtained with a finite number of internal states for each particle. We treat the case of ${\\bf C}P^2$ in some detail considering both Abelian and nonabelian background fields. The wavefunctions are obtained and incompressibility of the Hall states is shown. The case of ${\\bf C}P^3$ is related to the case of $S^4$.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K. W.; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-06-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-06-22
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.
Hall effect in organic layered conductors
R.A.Hasan
2006-01-01
Full Text Available The Hall effect in organic layered conductors with a multisheeted Fermi surfaces was considered. It is shown that the experimental study of Hall effect and magnetoresistance anisotropy at different orientations of current and a quantizing magnetic field relative to the layers makes it possible to determine the contribution of various charge carriers groups to the conductivity, and to find out the character of Fermi surface anisotropy in the plane of layers.
Can ensemble condition in a hall be improved and measured?
Gade, Anders Christian
1988-01-01
In collaboration with the Danish Broadcasting Corporation an extensive series of experiments has been carried out in The Danish Radio Concert Hall with the practical purpose of trying to improve the ensemble conditions on the platform for the resident symphony orchestra. First, a series of experi......In collaboration with the Danish Broadcasting Corporation an extensive series of experiments has been carried out in The Danish Radio Concert Hall with the practical purpose of trying to improve the ensemble conditions on the platform for the resident symphony orchestra. First, a series...... of the ceiling reflectors; and (c) changing the position of the orchestra on the platform. These variables were then tested in full scale experiments in the hall including subjective evaluation by the orchestra in order to verify their effects under practical conditions. New objective parameters, which showed...... very high correlations with the subjective data, also made it possible to compare the improvements with conditions as recently measured in famous European Halls. Besides providing the needed results, the experiments also shed some light on how musicians change their criteria for judging acoustic...
The spin Hall effect in a quantum gas.
Beeler, M C; Williams, R A; Jiménez-García, K; LeBlanc, L J; Perry, A R; Spielman, I B
2013-06-13
Electronic properties such as current flow are generally independent of the electron's spin angular momentum, an internal degree of freedom possessed by quantum particles. The spin Hall effect, first proposed 40 years ago, is an unusual class of phenomena in which flowing particles experience orthogonally directed, spin-dependent forces--analogous to the conventional Lorentz force that gives the Hall effect, but opposite in sign for two spin states. Spin Hall effects have been observed for electrons flowing in spin-orbit-coupled materials such as GaAs and InGaAs (refs 2, 3) and for laser light traversing dielectric junctions. Here we observe the spin Hall effect in a quantum-degenerate Bose gas, and use the resulting spin-dependent Lorentz forces to realize a cold-atom spin transistor. By engineering a spatially inhomogeneous spin-orbit coupling field for our quantum gas, we explicitly introduce and measure the requisite spin-dependent Lorentz forces, finding them to be in excellent agreement with our calculations. This 'atomtronic' transistor behaves as a type of velocity-insensitive adiabatic spin selector, with potential application in devices such as magnetic or inertial sensors. In addition, such techniques for creating and measuring the spin Hall effect are clear prerequisites for engineering topological insulators and detecting their associated quantized spin Hall effects in quantum gases. As implemented, our system realizes a laser-actuated analogue to the archetypal semiconductor spintronic device, the Datta-Das spin transistor.
The phonon Hall effect: theory and application
Zhang Lifa; Wang Jiansheng; Li Baowen [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117542 (Singapore); Ren Jie [NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, Singapore 117456 (Singapore)
2011-08-03
We present a systematic theory of the phonon Hall effect in a ballistic crystal lattice system, and apply it on the kagome lattice which is ubiquitous in various real materials. By proposing a proper second quantization for the non-Hermitian in the polarization-vector space, we obtain a new heat current density operator with two separate contributions: the normal velocity responsible for the longitudinal phonon transport, and the anomalous velocity manifesting itself as the Hall effect of transverse phonon transport. As exemplified in kagome lattices, our theory predicts that the direction of Hall conductivity at low magnetic field can be reversed by tuning the temperatures, which we hope can be verified by experiments in the future. Three phonon-Hall-conductivity singularities induced by phonon-band-topology change are discovered as well, which correspond to the degeneracies at three different symmetric center points, {Gamma}, K, X, in the wavevector space of the kagome lattice.
Hall effect on the triangular lattice
Leon Suros, Gladys Eliana; Berthod, Christophe; Giamarchi, Thierry; Millis, A.
2008-01-01
We investigate the high frequency Hall effect on a two-dimensional triangular lattice with nearest-neighbor hopping and a local Hubbard interaction. The complete temperature and doping dependencies of the high-frequency Hall coefficient $R_H$ are evaluated analytically and numerically for small, intermediate, and strong interactions using various approximation schemes. We find that $R_H$ follows the semiclassical $1/qn^*$ law near T=0, but exhibits a striking $T$-linear behavior with an inter...
Measurements of Plasma Potential Distribution in Segmented Electrode Hall Thruster
Y. Raitses; D. Staack; N.J. Fisch
2001-10-16
Use of a segmented electrode placed at the Hall thruster exit can substantially reduce the voltage potential drop in the fringing magnetic field outside the thruster channel. In this paper, we investigate the dependence of this effect on thruster operating conditions and segmented electrode configuration. A fast movable emissive probe is used to measure plasma potential in a 1 kW laboratory Hall thruster with semented electrodes made of a graphite material. Relatively small probe-induced perturbations of the thruster discharge in the vicinity of the thruster exit allow a reasonable comparison of the measured results for different thruster configurations. It is shown that the plasma potential distribution is almost not sensitive to changes of the electrode potential, but depends on the magnetic field distribution and the electrode placement.
Photonic spin Hall effect in topological insulators
Zhou, Xinxing; Ling, Xiaohui; Chen, Shizhen; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2013-01-01
In this paper we theoretically investigate the photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) of a Gaussian beam reflected from the interface between air and topological insulators (TIs). The photonic SHE is attributed to spin-orbit coupling and manifests itself as in-plane and transverse spin-dependent splitting. We reveal that the spin-orbit coupling effect in TIs can be routed by adjusting the axion angle variations. Unlike the transverse spin-dependent splitting, we find that the in-plane one is sensitive to the axion angle. It is shown that the polarization structure in magneto-optical Kerr effect is significantly altered due to the spin-dependent splitting in photonic SHE. We theoretically propose a weak measurement method to determine the strength of axion coupling by probing the in-plane splitting of photonic SHE.
Kim, Sang-Il; Seo, Min-Su; Park, Seung-Young, E-mail: parksy@kbsi.re.kr [Division of Materials Science, Korea Basic Science Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong-Jun; Park, Byong-Guk [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, KAIST, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-05-07
The dependence of the measured DC voltage on the non-magnetic material (NM) in NM/CoFeB and CoFeB/NM bilayers is studied under ferromagnetic resonance conditions in a TE{sub 011} resonant cavity. The directional change of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE) voltage V{sub ISHE} for the stacking order of the bilayer can separate the pure V{sub ISHE} and the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) voltage V{sub AHE} utilizing the method of addition and subtraction. The Ta and Ti NMs show a broad deviation of the spin Hall angle θ{sub ISH}, which originates from the AHE in accordance with the high resistivity of NMs. However, the Pt and Pd NMs show that the kinds of NMs with low resistivity are consistent with the previously reported θ{sub ISH} values. Therefore, the characteristics that NM should simultaneously satisfy to obtain a reasonable V{sub ISHE} value in bilayer systems are large θ{sub ISH} and low resistivity.
Hall Effect Devices with Three Terminals: Their Magnetic Sensitivity and Offset Cancellation Scheme
Udo Ausserlechner
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper discusses properties of Hall effect sensors with only three terminals and compares them to conventional four-terminal devices. It covers both Horizontal and Vertical Hall effect devices. Their Hall-geometry factor is computed analytically. Several modes of operation are proposed and their signal-to-noise ratio is compared. A six-phase offset cancellation scheme is developed. All theoretical results are checked by measurements. The residual offset of Vertical Hall effect devices with three contacts is found to be smaller than the offset of conventional Vertical Hall effect devices with five contacts.
Integer quantum Hall effect in graphene
Jellal, Ahmed, E-mail: ahmed.jellal@gmail.com [Saudi Center for Theoretical Physics, Dhahran (Saudi Arabia); Theoretical Physics Group, Faculty of Sciences, Chouaïb Doukkali University, 24000 El Jadida (Morocco)
2016-04-08
We study the quantum Hall effect in a monolayer graphene by using an approach based on thermodynamical properties. This can be done by considering a system of Dirac particles in an electromagnetic field and taking into account of the edges effect as a pseudo-potential varying continuously along the x direction. At low temperature and in the weak electric field limit, we explicitly determine the thermodynamical potential. With this, we derive the particle numbers in terms of the quantized flux and therefore the Hall conductivity immediately follows.
Mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime
R N Bhatt; Xin Wan
2002-02-01
We report results of a study of (integer) quantum Hall transitions in a single or multiple Landau levels for non-interacting electrons in disordered two-dimensional systems, obtained by projecting a tight-binding Hamiltonian to the corresponding magnetic subbands. In ﬁnite-size systems, we ﬁnd that mesoscopic effects often dominate, leading to apparent non-universal scaling behavior in higher Landau levels. This is because localization length, which grows exponentially with Landau level index, exceeds the system sizes amenable to the numerical study at present. When band mixing between multiple Landau levels is present, mesoscopic effects cause a crossover from a sequence of quantum Hall transitions for weak disorder to classical behavior for strong disorder. This behavior may be of relevance to experimentally observed transitions between quantum Hall states and the insulating phase at low magnetic ﬁelds.
The Hall effect in star formation
Braiding, Catherine R
2011-01-01
Magnetic fields play an important role in star formation by regulating the removal of angular momentum from collapsing molecular cloud cores. Hall diffusion is known to be important to the magnetic field behaviour at many of the intermediate densities and field strengths encountered during the gravitational collapse of molecular cloud cores into protostars, and yet its role in the star formation process is not well-studied. We present a semianalytic self-similar model of the collapse of rotating isothermal molecular cloud cores with both Hall and ambipolar diffusion, and similarity solutions that demonstrate the profound influence of the Hall effect on the dynamics of collapse. The solutions show that the size and sign of the Hall parameter can change the size of the protostellar disc by up to an order of magnitude and the protostellar accretion rate by fifty per cent when the ratio of the Hall to ambipolar diffusivities is varied between -0.5 <= eta_H / eta_A <= 0.2. These changes depend upon the orien...
Hall Effect Thruster Ground Testing Challenges
2009-08-18
conditional stability of the inverted pendulum thrust stand provides improved measurement sensitivity.5 With the displacement of the inverted pendulum...July 2005. 12Samiento, C., “RHETT2/ EPDM Hall Thruster Propulsion System Electromagnetic Compatability Evaluation,” Proceed- ings of the 25th
Inverse spin Hall effect by spin injection
Liu, S. Y.; Horing, Norman J. M.; Lei, X. L.
2007-09-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [S. O. Valenzuela and M. Tinkham, Nature (London) 442, 176 (2006)], the authors present a quantitative microscopic theory to investigate the inverse spin-Hall effect with spin injection into aluminum considering both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit couplings using the orthogonalized-plane-wave method. Their theoretical results are in good agreement with the experimental data. It is also clear that the magnitude of the anomalous Hall resistivity is mainly due to contributions from extrinsic skew scattering.
Spin Hall effects in mesoscopic Pt films with high resistivity
Qin, Chuan; Luo, Yongming; Zhou, Chao; Cai, Yunjiao; Jia, Mengwen; Chen, Shuhan; Wu, Yizheng; Ji, Yi
2016-10-01
The energy efficiency of the spin Hall effects (SHE) can be enhanced if the electrical conductivity is decreased without sacrificing the spin Hall conductivity. The resistivity of Pt films can be increased to 150-300 µΩ · cm by mesoscopic lateral confinement, thereby decreasing the conductivity. The SHE and inverse spin Hall effects (ISHE) in these mesoscopic Pt films are explored at 10 K by using the nonlocal spin injection/detection method. All relevant physical quantities are determined in situ on the same substrate, and a quantitative approach is developed to characterize all processes effectively. Extensive measurements with various Pt thickness values reveal an upper limit for the Pt spin diffusion length: {λ\\text{pt}} ⩽ 0.8 nm. The average product of {λ\\text{pt}} and the Pt spin Hall angle {α\\text{H}} is substantial: {α\\text{H}}{λ\\text{pt}} = (0.142 ± 0.040) nm for 4 nm thick Pt, though a gradual decrease is observed at larger Pt thickness. The results suggest enhanced spin Hall effects in resistive mesoscopic Pt films.
Anomalous Hall Effect for chiral fermions
Zhang, P -M
2014-01-01
Semiclassical chiral fermions manifest the anomalous spin-Hall effect: when put into a pure electric field, they suffer a side jump, analogous to what happens to their massive counterparts in non-commutative mechanics. The transverse shift is consistent with the conservation of the angular momentum. In a pure magnetic field a cork-screw-like, spiraling motion is found.
Fractional Quantization of the Hall Effect
Laughlin, R. B.
1984-02-27
The Fractional Quantum Hall Effect is caused by the condensation of a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field into a new type of macroscopic ground state, the elementary excitations of which are fermions of charge 1/m, where m is an odd integer. A mathematical description is presented.
The local nature of incompressibility of quantum Hall effect
Kendirlik, E. M.; Sirt, S.; Kalkan, S. B.; Ofek, N.; Umansky, V.; Siddiki, A.
2017-01-01
Since the experimental realization of the integer quantum Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron system, the interrelation between the conductance quantization and the topological properties of the system has been investigated. Assuming that the two-dimensional electron system is described by a Bloch Hamiltonian, system is insulating in the bulk of sample throughout the quantum Hall plateau due to a magnetic field induced energy gap. Meanwhile, the system is conducting at the edges resembling a 2+1 dimensional topological insulator without time-reversal symmetry. Here, by our magneto-transport measurements performed on GaAs/AlGaAs high purity Hall bars with two inner contacts we show that incompressible strips formed at the edges result in Hall quantization, even if the bulk is compressible. Consequently, the relationship between the quantum Hall effect and topological bulk insulator breaks for specific field intervals within the plateaus. The measurement of conducting bulk, strongly challenges all existing single-particle theories. PMID:28071652
The local nature of incompressibility of quantum Hall effect
Kendirlik, E. M.; Sirt, S.; Kalkan, S. B.; Ofek, N.; Umansky, V.; Siddiki, A.
2017-01-01
Since the experimental realization of the integer quantum Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron system, the interrelation between the conductance quantization and the topological properties of the system has been investigated. Assuming that the two-dimensional electron system is described by a Bloch Hamiltonian, system is insulating in the bulk of sample throughout the quantum Hall plateau due to a magnetic field induced energy gap. Meanwhile, the system is conducting at the edges resembling a 2+1 dimensional topological insulator without time-reversal symmetry. Here, by our magneto-transport measurements performed on GaAs/AlGaAs high purity Hall bars with two inner contacts we show that incompressible strips formed at the edges result in Hall quantization, even if the bulk is compressible. Consequently, the relationship between the quantum Hall effect and topological bulk insulator breaks for specific field intervals within the plateaus. The measurement of conducting bulk, strongly challenges all existing single-particle theories.
Observation of the Spin Hall Effect in Semiconductors
Kato, Y. K.; Myers, R. C.; Gossard, A. C.; Awschalom, D. D.
2004-12-01
Electrically induced electron-spin polarization near the edges of a semiconductor channel was detected and imaged with the use of Kerr rotation microscopy. The polarization is out-of-plane and has opposite sign for the two edges, consistent with the predictions of the spin Hall effect. Measurements of unstrained gallium arsenide and strained indium gallium arsenide samples reveal that strain modifies spin accumulation at zero magnetic field. A weak dependence on crystal orientation for the strained samples suggests that the mechanism is the extrinsic spin Hall effect.
Towards a Better Understanding of the Anomalous Hall Effect
Yue, Di; Jin, Xiaofeng
2017-01-01
Recent experimental efforts to identify the intrinsic and extrinsic contributions in the anomalous Hall effect are reviewed. Benefited from the experimental control of artificial impurity density in single crystalline magnetic thin films, a comprehensive physical picture of the anomalous Hall effect involving multiple competing scattering processes has been established. Some new insights into the microscopic mechanisms of the anomalous Hall effect are discussed.
Improved Hall-Effect Sensors For Magnetic Memories
Wu, Jiin-Chuan; Stadler, Henry L.; Katti, Romney R.; Chen, Y. C.; Bhattacharya, Pallab K.
1993-01-01
High-electron-mobility sensor films deposited on superlattice buffer (strain) layers. Improved Hall-effect sensors offer combination of adequate response and high speed needed for use in micromagnet/Hall-effect random-access memories. Hall-effect material chosen for use in sensors is InAs.
Planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic micro- and nanobead detection
Ejsing, Louise Wellendorph; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt; Menon, Aric Kumaran
2004-01-01
Magnetic bead sensors based on the planar Hall effect in thin films of exchange-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. Typical sensitivities are 3 muV/Oe mA. The sensor response to an applied magnetic field has been measured without and with coatings of commercially available 2 ...
Madon, B.; Wegrowe, J.-E.; Drouhin, H.-J. [Laboratoire des Solides Irradiés, CNRS UMR 7642, CEA-DSM-IRAMIS, Ecole polytechnique, Université Paris-Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Liu, X.; Furdyna, J. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, Indiana 46556 (United States); Khodaparast, G. A., E-mail: khoda@vt.edu [Department of Physics, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)
2016-01-14
In this study, we report magneto-resistance measurements on an n-doped InSb film, to separate the contributions of the electrical currents from the heat currents. We have demonstrated a prototype for a magnetic field sensor which is powered by heat currents and does not require any electrical current. We fabricated two Hall bars, where a low frequency (f = 0.05 Hz) AC current, was applied between the two contacts in one of the Hall bars. Separating the f and 2f components of the voltage measured across the second Hall bar was used to distinguish between the electrical and the heat contributions to the electron currents. Our observations can be modeled using a Gaussian distribution of mobility within the sample.
Inverse spin Hall effect in a closed loop circuit
Omori, Y.; Auvray, F.; Wakamura, T.; Niimi, Y., E-mail: niimi@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Fert, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 91767 Palaiseau France associée à l' Université de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Otani, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); RIKEN-CEMS, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)
2014-06-16
We present measurements of inverse spin Hall effects (ISHEs), in which the conversion of a spin current into a charge current via the ISHE is detected not as a voltage in a standard open circuit but directly as the charge current generated in a closed loop. The method is applied to the ISHEs of Bi-doped Cu and Pt. The derived expression of ISHE for the loop structure can relate the charge current flowing into the loop to the spin Hall angle of the SHE material and the resistance of the loop.
Geometric phase gradient and spin Hall effect of light
Ling, Xiaohui; Zhou, Xinxing; Qiu, Cheng-Wei
2016-10-01
The spin Hall effect (SHE) of light originates from the spin-orbit interaction, which can be explained in terms of two geometric phases: the Rytov-Vladimirskii-Berry phase and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase. Here we present a unified theoretical description of the SHE based on the two types of geometric phase gradients, and observe experimentally the SHE in structured dielectric metasurfaces induced by the PB phase. Unlike the weak real-space spin-Hall shift induced by the SRB phase occurring at interfacial reflection/refraction, the observed SHE occurs in momentum space is large enough to be measured directly.
Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder
Laughlin, R. B.
1985-07-01
It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.
Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Bestwick, Andrew; Fox, Eli; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang; Goldhaber-Gordon, David
2015-03-01
The quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) has recently been of great interest due to its recent experimental realization in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi, Sb)2Te3, a ferromagnetic 3D topological insulator. The presence of ferromagnetic exchange breaks time-reversal symmetry, opening a gap in the surface states, but gives rise to dissipationless chiral conduction at the edge of a magnetized film. Ideally, this leads to vanishing longitudinal resistance and Hall resistance quantized to h /e2 , where h is Planck's constant and e is the electron charge, but perfect quantization has so far proved elusive. Here, we study the QAHE in the limit of zero applied magnetic field, and measure Hall resistance quantized to within one part per 10,000. Deviation from quantization is due primarily to thermally activated carriers, which can be nearly eliminated through adiabatic demagnetization cooling. This result demonstrates an important step toward dissipationless electron transport in technologically relevant conditions.
Geometric Photonic Spin Hall Effect with Metapolarization
2014-01-01
We develop a geometric photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE) which manifests as spin-dependent shift in momentum space. It originates from an effective space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase created by artificially engineering the polarization distribution of the incident light. Unlikely the previously reported PSHE involving the light-matter interaction, the resulting spin-dependent splitting in the geometric PSHE is purely geometrically depend upon the polarization distribution of light whi...
High temperature Hall measurement setup for thin film characterization
Adnane, L.; Gokirmak, A.; Silva, H.
2016-07-01
Hall measurement using the van der Pauw technique is a common characterization approach that does not require patterning of contacts. Measurements of the Hall voltage and electrical resistivity lead to the product of carrier mobility and carrier concentration (Hall coefficient) which can be decoupled through transport models. Based on the van der Paw method, we have developed an automated setup for Hall measurements from room temperature to ˜500 °C of semiconducting thin films of a wide resistivity range. The resistivity of the film and Hall coefficient is obtained from multiple current-voltage (I-V) measurements performed using a semiconductor parameter analyzer under applied constant "up," zero, and "down" magnetic field generated with two neodymium permanent magnets. The use of slopes obtained from multiple I-Vs for the three magnetic field conditions offer improved accuracy. Samples are preferred in square shape geometry and can range from 2 mm to 25 mm side length. Example measurements of single-crystal silicon with known doping concentration show the accuracy and reliability of the measurement.
Thermal Characterization of a Hall Effect Thruster
2008-03-01
Material Curie Temperature Iron 770 °C Nickel 358 °C Cobalt 1130 °C Gadolinium 20 °C Terfenol 380-430 °C Alnico 850 °C Hard Ferrites 400-700...C Barium Ferrite 450 °C Hall Effect thrusters generally use iron magnets with a Curie temperature of 770 °C. Decreasing the magnetic strength
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in real materials
Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Zhou, Tong; Yang, Zhongqin
2016-11-01
Under a strong magnetic field, the quantum Hall (QH) effect can be observed in two-dimensional electronic gas systems. If the quantized Hall conductivity is acquired in a system without the need of an external magnetic field, then it will give rise to a new quantum state, the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) state. The QAH state is a novel quantum state that is insulating in the bulk but exhibits unique conducting edge states topologically protected from backscattering and holds great potential for applications in low-power-consumption electronics. The realization of the QAH effect in real materials is of great significance. In this paper, we systematically review the theoretical proposals that have been brought forward to realize the QAH effect in various real material systems or structures, including magnetically doped topological insulators, graphene-based systems, silicene-based systems, two-dimensional organometallic frameworks, quantum wells, and functionalized Sb(111) monolayers, etc. Our paper can help our readers to quickly grasp the recent developments in this field. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2011CB921803), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574051), the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No. 14ZR1403400), and Fudan High-end Computing Center, China.
Generic superweak chaos induced by Hall effect.
Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack
2016-05-01
We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic (B) and electric (E) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of B and E and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter κ (the kicking strength), there exists a generic family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall effect from B and E significantly suppresses the weak chaos, replacing it by "superweak" chaos (SWC). This means that the system behaves as if the kicking strength were κ^{2} rather than κ. For E=0, SWC is known to be a classical fingerprint of quantum antiresonance, but it occurs under much less generic conditions, in particular only for very special kicking potentials. Manifestations of SWC are a decrease in the instability of periodic orbits and a narrowing of the chaotic layers, relative to the ordinary weak-chaos case. Also, for global SWC, taking place on an infinite "stochastic web" in phase space, the chaotic diffusion on the web is much slower than the weak-chaos one. Thus, the Hall effect can be relatively stabilizing for small κ. In some special cases, the effect is shown to cause ballistic motion for almost all parameter values. The generic global SWC on stochastic webs in the KHS appears to be the two-dimensional closest analog to the Arnol'd web in higher dimensional systems.
Parallel Hall effect from 3D single-component metamaterials
Kern, Christian; Wegener, Martin
2015-01-01
We propose a class of three-dimensional metamaterial architectures composed of a single doped semiconductor (e.g., n-Si) in air or vacuum that lead to unusual effective behavior of the classical Hall effect. Using an anisotropic structure, we numerically demonstrate a Hall voltage that is parallel---rather than orthogonal---to the external static magnetic-field vector ("parallel Hall effect"). The sign of this parallel Hall voltage can be determined by a structure parameter. Together with the previously demonstrated positive or negative orthogonal Hall voltage, we demonstrate four different sign combinations
Vasserman, I B; Strelnikov, N O; Xu, J Z
2013-02-01
An extensive test of a new Senis 2-axis Hall probe was done at the Advanced Photon Source using the Undulator A device and calibration system. This new probe has clear advantages compared with previously used Bell and Sentron Hall probes: very stable zero offset (less than the noise of 0.026 G) and compensated planar Hall effect. It can be used with proper calibration even for first and second field integral measurements. A comparison with reference measurements by long stretched coil shows that the difference in the first field integral measurement results for a 2.4-m-long Undulator A device is between 17 G cm for the best of four Hall probes used for the test and 51 G cm for the worst of them for all gap ranges from 10.5 mm to 150 mm.
Performance Characterization of a Three-Axis Hall Effect Thruster
2010-12-01
here represents the first efforts to operate and quantify the performance of a three-axis Hall effect thruster. This thruster is based on the Busek BHT ...thruster were developed and thrust and current density measurements were performed and compared with the baseline BHT -200. The three-axis thruster was...efficiencies than the BHT -200. Beam current density measurements conducted using a guarded Faraday probe showed significant differences in plume divergence
New Measurements of the EMC Effect and Short Range Correlations at JLab Hall C at 11 GeV
Craycraft, Kayla
2016-09-01
The nuclear dependence of the Deep Inelastic Scattering (DIS) cross section (known as the EMC effect) has shown conclusively that the distribution of quarks in a nucleus is modified when compared to the deuteron. On the other hand, Short Range Correlations, which arise from hard interactions between nucleons inside the nucleus give rise to high momentum tails in nucleon momentum distributions. The observation that the size of the EMC effect is correlated with the number of SRC NN pairs in a nucleus suggests a possible origin of the EMC effect. While the observed relationship is compelling, more investigation using adding additional nuclei and improving the precision on existing measurements is necessary. Jefferson Lab experiments E12-06-105 and E12-10-008 aim to do just that, making measurements of electron scattering cross section ratios in the DIS regime and at x > 1 for a large body of nuclei. These experiments will attempt to disentangle whether the EMC-SRC correlation is driven only by the size/atomic number of the nucleus, or if it also depends on the neutron to proton ratio. DE-SC0013615, JSA Graduate Fellowship.
Temperature dependent nonlinear Hall effect in macroscopic Si-MOS antidot array
Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Shupltetsov, A. V.; Nunuparov, M. S.
2015-01-01
By measuring magnetoresistance and Hall effect in classically moderate perpendicular magnetic field in Si-MOSFET-type macroscopic antidot array we found a novel effect: nonlinear with field, temperature- and density-dependent Hall resistivity. We discuss qualitative explanation of the phenomenon and suggest that it might originate from strong temperature dependence of the resistivity and mobility in the shells of the antidots.
Excitons in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Laughlin, R. B.
1984-09-01
Quasiparticles of charge 1/m in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect form excitons, which are collective excitations physically similar to the transverse magnetoplasma oscillations of a Wigner crystal. A variational exciton wavefunction which shows explicitly that the magnetic length is effectively longer for quasiparticles than for electrons is proposed. This wavefunction is used to estimate the dispersion relation of these excitons and the matrix elements to generate them optically out of the ground state. These quantities are then used to describe a type of nonlinear conductivity which may occur in these systems when they are relatively clean.
Composite particle and field theory in atomic quantum Hall effect
Zhao Bo; Chen Zeng-Bing
2005-01-01
In this paper, we explore the composite particle description of the atomic quantum Hall (QH) effect. We further give the Chern-Simon-Gross-Pitaevskii (CSGP) effective theory for the atomic Hall liquid, which is the counterpart of Chern-Simon theory in electron Hall effect. What we obtained is equivalent to the Laughlin wavefunction approach.Our results show that in terms of composite particles, the atomic Hall effect is really the same as the electronic QH effect. The CSGP effective theory would shed new light on the atomic QH effect.
Sanchez, P.; Sanchez, H. [Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogota (Colombia). Dept. de Fisica
2000-07-01
Hall effect and resistivity measurements in Bi-2223 thin films were carried out using the van der Pauw method. A two-band model involving holes and electrons was used to fit the experimental data. The analysis showed that the resistivity and Hall coefficient are mainly hole dependent. However, the electron contribution to the Hall coefficient cannot be ruled out. (orig.)
Evaluation of stage acoustics in Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall by measuring stage support.
Jeon, Jin Yong; Barron, Michael
2005-01-01
Stage acoustics is an important characteristic for concert halls, both for the acoustic quality on stage and for the audience. However, relatively little research has been conducted into the question. This study was based on the investigation of an actual concert hall stage, that of the Seoul Arts Center Concert Hall in Korea. The stage acoustics was evaluated in the actual hall, and with two models: a 1:25 scale model and a computer model. The study was based on the stage support parameter ST1 proposed by Gade as a measure of support for individual performers [Acustica 65, 193-203 (1989)]. The variation of support was measured on the empty stage of the actual hall and in the two models. The effect of musicians on stage, the effect of moving the orchestra, the effect of ceiling height and of stage-wall profile were also investigated. Conclusions are drawn both relating to the Seoul Concert Hall stage and stages in general.
Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser
2016-05-01
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.
Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O; Valentí, Roser
2016-05-17
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions.
Guterding, Daniel; Jeschke, Harald O.; Valentí, Roser
2016-01-01
Electronic states with non-trivial topology host a number of novel phenomena with potential for revolutionizing information technology. The quantum anomalous Hall effect provides spin-polarized dissipation-free transport of electrons, while the quantum spin Hall effect in combination with superconductivity has been proposed as the basis for realizing decoherence-free quantum computing. We introduce a new strategy for realizing these effects, namely by hole and electron doping kagome lattice Mott insulators through, for instance, chemical substitution. As an example, we apply this new approach to the natural mineral herbertsmithite. We prove the feasibility of the proposed modifications by performing ab-initio density functional theory calculations and demonstrate the occurrence of the predicted effects using realistic models. Our results herald a new family of quantum anomalous Hall and quantum spin Hall insulators at affordable energy/temperature scales based on kagome lattices of transition metal ions. PMID:27185665
Precise quantization of anomalous Hall effect near zero magnetic field
Bestwick, A. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Fox, E. J. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States); Kou, Xufeng [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Pan, Lei [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Wang, Kang L. [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Goldhaber-Gordon, D. [Stanford Univ., Stanford, CA (United States); SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)
2015-05-04
In this study, we report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10,000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.
Azimuthal Spoke Propagation in Hall Effect Thrusters
Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.
2013-01-01
Spokes are azimuthally propagating perturbations in the plasma discharge of Hall Effect Thrusters (HETs) that travel in the E x B direction and have been observed in many different systems. The propagation of azimuthal spokes are investigated in a 6 kW HET known as the H6 using ultra-fast imaging and azimuthally spaced probes. A spoke surface is a 2-D plot of azimuthal light intensity evolution over time calculated from 87,500 frames/s videos. The spoke velocity has been determined using three methods with similar results: manual fitting of diagonal lines on the spoke surface, linear cross-correlation between azimuthal locations and an approximated dispersion relation. The spoke velocity for three discharge voltages (300, 400 and 450 V) and three anode mass flow rates (14.7, 19.5 and 25.2 mg/s) yielded spoke velocities between 1500 and 2200 m/s across a range of normalized magnetic field settings. The spoke velocity was inversely dependent on magnetic field strength for low B-field settings and asymptoted at B-field higher values. The velocities and frequencies are compared to standard drifts and plasma waves such as E x B drift, electrostatic ion cyclotron, magnetosonic and various drift waves. The empirically approximated dispersion relation yielded a characteristic velocity that matched the ion acoustic speed for 5 eV electrons that exist in the near-anode and near-field plume regions of the discharge channel based on internal measurements. Thruster performance has been linked to operating mode where thrust-to-power is maximized when azimuthal spokes are present so investigating the underlying mechanism of spokes will benefit thruster operation.
Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters
Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.
2013-01-01
Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.
Anomalous Hall Effect in a Kagome Ferromagnet
Ye, Linda; Wicker, Christina; Suzuki, Takehito; Checkelsky, Joseph; Joseph Checkelsky Team
The ferromagnetic kagome lattice is theoretically known to possess topological band structures. We have synthesized large single crystals of a kagome ferromagnet Fe3Sn2 which orders ferromagnetically well above room temperature. We have studied the electrical and magnetic properties of these crystals over a broad temperature and magnetic field range. Both the scaling relation of anomalous Hall effect and anisotropic magnetic susceptibility show that the ferromagnetism of Fe3Sn2 is unconventional. We discuss these results in the context of magnetism in kagome systems and relevance to the predicted topological properties in this class of compounds. This research is supported by DMR-1231319.
Commemorative Symposium on the Hall Effect and its Applications
Westgate, C
1980-01-01
In 1879, while a graduate student under Henry Rowland at the Physics Department of The Johns Hopkins University, Edwin Herbert Hall discovered what is now universally known as the Hall effect. A symposium was held at The Johns Hopkins University on November 13, 1979 to commemorate the lOOth anniversary of the discovery. Over 170 participants attended the symposium which included eleven in vited lectures and three speeches during the luncheon. During the past one hundred years, we have witnessed ever ex panding activities in the field of the Hall effect. The Hall effect is now an indispensable tool in the studies of many branches of condensed matter physics, especially in metals, semiconductors, and magnetic solids. Various components (over 200 million!) that utilize the Hall effect have been successfully incorporated into such devices as keyboards, automobile ignitions, gaussmeters, and satellites. This volume attempts to capture the important aspects of the Hall effect and its applications. It includes t...
Hall effect in the normal phase of the organic superconductor (TMTSF)2PF6
Moser, J.; Cooper, J.R.; Jerome, D.
2000-01-01
We report accurate Hall effect measurements performed in the normal phase of the quasi-one-dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF)(2)PF(6) at ambient pressure. The Hall coefficient is found to be strongly temperature dependent all the way from 300 K down to the spin density wave onset arising aroun...
MAGNETORESISTANCE AND HALL EFFECT IN SINGLE CRYSTALS OF ALUMINUM
ALUMINUM, *SINGLE CRYSTALS, CRYSTALS, HALL EFFECT , IMPURITIES, LOW PRESSURE, MAGNETIC FIELDS, MAGNETIC PROPERTIES, PARTICLE TRAJECTORIES, ELECTRICAL RESISTANCE, SOLID STATE PHYSICS, SURFACE PROPERTIES.
Inertial-Hall effect: the influence of rotation on the Hall conductivity
Brandão, Julio E.; Moraes, F.; Cunha, M. M.; Lima, Jonas R. F.; Filgueiras, C.
Inertial effects play an important role in classical mechanics but have been largely overlooked in quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, the analogy between inertial forces on mass particles and electromagnetic forces on charged particles is not new. In this paper, we consider a rotating non-interacting planar two-dimensional electron gas with a perpendicular uniform magnetic field and investigate the effects of the rotation in the Hall conductivity. The rotation introduces a shift and a split in the Landau levels. As a consequence of the break of the degeneracy, the counting of the states fully occupied below the Fermi energy increases, tuning the Hall quantization steps. The rotation also changes the quantum Hall plateau widths. Additionally, we find the Hall quantization steps as a function of rotation at a fixed value of the magnetic field.
Inertial-Hall effect: the influence of rotation on the Hall conductivity
Julio E. Brandão
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Inertial effects play an important role in classical mechanics but have been largely overlooked in quantum mechanics. Nevertheless, the analogy between inertial forces on mass particles and electromagnetic forces on charged particles is not new. In this paper, we consider a rotating non-interacting planar two-dimensional electron gas with a perpendicular uniform magnetic field and investigate the effects of the rotation in the Hall conductivity. The rotation introduces a shift and a split in the Landau levels. As a consequence of the break of the degeneracy, the counting of the states fully occupied below the Fermi energy increases, tuning the Hall quantization steps. The rotation also changes the quantum Hall plateau widths. Additionally, we find the Hall quantization steps as a function of rotation at a fixed value of the magnetic field.
Thermoluminescence measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts
Obryk, Barbara, E-mail: barbara.obryk@ifj.edu.pl [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland); Batistoni, Paola [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, Via Enrico Fermi 45, 00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy); EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Conroy, Sean [EURATOM-VR Association, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, Box 516, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Syme, Brian D.; Popovichev, Sergey [EURATOM–CCFE Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Stamatelatos, Ion E.; Vasilopoulou, Theodora [Institute of Nuclear and Radiological Sciences, Energy, Technology and Safety, NCSR “Demokritos”, Athens (Greece); Bilski, Paweł [Institute of Nuclear Physics Polish Academy of Sciences, Radzikowskiego 152, 31-342 Kraków (Poland)
2014-10-15
Highlights: •Thermoluminescence detectors (TLDs) were used for dose measurements at JET. •Pairs of {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF TLDs allow to measure thermal neutron component of a radiation field. •For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. •TLDs were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth. •The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. -- Abstract: Thermoluminescence detectors (TLD) were used for dose measurements at JET. Several hundreds of LiF detectors of various types, standard LiF:Mg,Ti and highly sensitive LiF:Mg,Cu,P were produced. LiF detectors consisting of natural lithium are sensitive to slow neutrons, their response to neutrons being enhanced by {sup 6}Li-enriched lithium or suppressed by using lithium consisting entirely of {sup 7}Li. Pairs of {sup 6}LiF/{sup 7}LiF detectors allow distinguishing between neutron/non-neutron components of a radiation field. For detection of neutrons of higher energy, polyethylene (PE-300) moderators were used. TLDs, located in the centre of cylindrical moderators, were installed at eleven positions in the JET hall and the hall labyrinth in July 2012, and exposure took place during the last two weeks of the experimental campaign. Measurements of the gamma dose were obtained for all positions over a range of about five orders of magnitude variation. As the TLDs were also calibrated in a thermal neutron field, the neutron fluence at the experimental position could be derived. The experimental results are compared with calculations using the MCNP code. The results confirm that the TLD technology can be usefully applied to measurements of neutron streaming through JET Torus Hall ducts.
Estimates of Quantities in a Hall Effect Geodynamo Theory
Annraoi M de Paor
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Currents, resistances, dynamo constant, Hall voltage coefficient and inductances are estimated for the author’s geodynamo theory incorporating the Hall Effect. It is concluded that the Hall Coefficient in the bulk liquid core of the Earth is approximately 1.512x10-1, orders of magnitude greater than in normal liquid metals. The ordering effect of enormous pressure is a possible cause.
Estimates of quantities in a Hall effect geodynamo theory
Annraoi M de Paor
2008-01-01
Currents, resistances, dynamo constant, Hall voltage coefficient and inductances are estimated for the author’s geodynamo theory incorporating the Hall Effect. It is concluded that the Hall Coefficient in the bulk liquid core of the Earth is approximately 1.512x10-1, orders of magnitude greater than in normal liquid metals. The ordering effect of enormous pressure is a possible cause.
Pseudospectral Model for Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation
2015-07-01
1149. 8Goebel, D. M. and Katz, I., Fundamentals of Electric Propulsion : Ion and Hall Thrusters, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2008. 9Martin, R., J.W., K...Bilyeu, D., and Tran, J., “Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall -effect Thruster Simulation,” 34th Int. Electric Propulsion Conf...Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) July 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall -effect thruster simulationect
Laughlin's argument for the quantized thermal Hall effect
Nakai, Ryota; Nomura, Kentaro
2016-01-01
We extend Laughlin's magnetic-flux-threading argument to the quantized thermal Hall effect. A proper analogue of Laughlin's adiabatic magnetic-flux threading process for the case of the thermal Hall effect is given in terms of an external gravitational field. From the perspective of the edge theories of quantum Hall systems, the quantized thermal Hall effect is closely tied to the breakdown of large diffeomorphism invariance, that is, a global gravitational anomaly. In addition, we also give an argument from the bulk perspective in which a free energy, decomposed into its Fourier modes, is adiabatically transferred under an adiabatic process involving external gravitational perturbations.
3D measurement of underground displacement based on Hall effect%霍尔效应的地下位移三维测量方法研究
周振; 李青; 池金谷; 李雄; 杜通波
2013-01-01
当霍尔传感器与磁钢之间的相对位置变化时,霍尔传感器感受到的磁感应强度也随之变化,从而导致传感器的输出电压改变.采用三个霍尔传感器组成传感器阵列,建立三维笛卡儿坐标系.通过测量传感器的输出电压并结合一定的算法,可计算出某一时刻磁钢的三维坐标.地下土体的变形会改变霍尔传感器与磁钢之间的相对位置.在得到磁钢新的三维坐标之后,通过几何运算得出位移的大小.%When the relative position of the Hall sensor and the magnetic steel changed, the magnetic induction induced by the Hall sensor changed as well as its output voltage. A new kind of displacement sensor was composed of three Hall sensors, and a 3D Cartesian Coordinate System was established. The 3D coordinate of the magnetic steel can be calculated by measuring the output voltage with a special algorithm. Underground soil deformation will change the relative position of the Hall sensor and the magnetic steel. The size of the geotechnical 3D displacement can be calculated after getting the new 3D coordinate of the magnetic steel.
Strong Spin Hall effect in PtMn
Ou, Yongxi; Shi, Shengjie; Ralph, Daniel; Buhrman, Robert
Recent reports indicate that certain metallic antiferromagnets (AFM) can exhibit a significant spin Hall effect. Here we report a large damping-like spin torque efficiency (ξDL) in PtMn/ferromagnet(FM) bilayer structures, determined from both FM-thickness-dependent spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR), and harmonic response (HR) measurements of layers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (PMA). We find that ξDL can vary from 0.15, depending on the thickness of PtMn, the stacking order of the samples, and the choice of the FM material. The field-like spin torque efficiency (ξFL) is also quite variable, 0phase diagram. These results indicate that AFM PtMn has significant potential both for advancing the understanding the physics of the spin Hall effect in Pt alloys, and for enabling new spintronics functionality.
Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
YU Rui
2011-01-01
@@ The Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and the spin Hall effect are fundamental transport processes in solids arising from the Lorentz force and the spin-orbit coupling respectively.The AHE, in which a voltage transverse to the electric current appears even in the absence of an external magnetic field, was first detected in ferromagnetic (FM) metals in 1881 and later found to arise from the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) between the current and magnetic moments.Recent progress on the mechanism of AHE has established a link between the AHE and the topological nature of the Hall current by adopting the Berry-phase concepts in close analogy to the intrinsic spin Hall effect.Given the experimental discovery of the quantum Hall and the quantum spin Hall effects, it is natural to ask whether the AHE can also be quantized.In a quantized anomalous Hall (QAH) insulator, spontaneous magnetic moments and spin-orbit coupling combine to give rise to a topologically non-trivial electronic structure, leading to the quantized Hall effect without any external magnetic field.
Intrinsic valley Hall effect in graphene
Yang, Mou; Zhang, Wen-Lian; Liu, Hai; Bai, Yan-Kui
2017-04-01
If electrons are incident from an armchair graphene ribbon into the bulk graphene region, the electronic diffraction occurs. Because of the different triangular wrapping of the energy dispersion between valleys K and K ‧ , the electrons of valley K tend to be diffracted to one side and those of valley K ‧ to the other side. When the current is injected from the armchair ribbon of a four-terminal graphene device, the major portion of the incident current of valley K flows through one side arm and the minor portion through the other side arm. The ratio between them is derived to be 1 + 4 E / 3 in the low energy limit, where E is the energy in units of hopping parameter. The major arm for valley K is the minor arm for valley K ‧ . This results in the rise of the valley Hall effect, which is an intrinsic property of graphene stemming from the different electronic structure of the two valleys. The valley Hall conductance is calculated to be (2 E / 3)G0 with G0 being the conductance supported by the injection ribbon.
Hall effect in strongly correlated low dimensional systems
Leon Suros, Gladys Eliana; Berthod, Christophe; Giamarchi, Thierry
2006-01-01
We investigate the Hall effect in a quasi one-dimensional system made of weakly coupled Luttinger Liquids at half filling. Using a memory function approach, we compute the Hall coefficient as a function of temperature and frequency in the presence of umklapp scattering. We find a power-law correction to the free-fermion value (band value), with an exponent depending on the Luttinger parameter $K_{\\rho}$. At high enough temperature or frequency the Hall coefficient approaches the band value.
Quantized Thermal Transport in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Kane, C. L.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
1996-01-01
We analyze thermal transport in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), employing a Luttinger liquid model of edge states. Impurity mediated inter-channel scattering events are incorporated in a hydrodynamic description of heat and charge transport. The thermal Hall conductance, $K_H$, is shown to provide a new and universal characterization of the FQHE state, and reveals non-trivial information about the edge structure. The Lorenz ratio between thermal and electrical Hall conductances {\\i...
Geometric spin Hall effect of light with inhomogeneous polarization
Ling, Xiaohui; Zhou, Xinxing; Yi, Xunong
2017-01-01
The spin Hall effect of light originates from spin-orbit interaction of light, which manifests two types of geometric phases. In this paper, we report the observation of a geometric spin Hall effect by generating a light beam with inhomogeneous polarization distribution. Unlike the previously reported geometric spin Hall effect observed in a tilted beam-detector system, which is believed to result from an effective spin-redirection Berry geometric phase, the geometric spin Hall effect demonstrated here is attributed to an effective, spatially varying Pancharatnam-Berry geometric phase generated by the inhomogeneous polarization geometry. Our further experiments show that the geometric spin Hall effect can be tuned by tailoring the polarization geometry of light, demonstrating the spin states of photons can be steered with a great flexibility.
Geometric Photonic Spin Hall Effect with Metapolarization
Ling, Xiaohui; Yi, Xunong; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2014-01-01
We develop a geometric photonic spin Hall effect (PSHE) which manifests as spin-dependent shift in momentum space. It originates from an effective space-variant Pancharatnam-Berry (PB) phase created by artificially engineering the polarization distribution of the incident light. Unlikely the previously reported PSHE involving the light-matter interaction, the resulting spin-dependent splitting in the geometric PSHE is purely geometrically depend upon the polarization distribution of light which can be tailored by assembling its circular polarization basis with suitably magnitude and phase. This metapolarization idea enables us to manipulate the geometric PSHE by suitably tailoring the polarization geometry of light. Our scheme provides great flexibility in the design of various polarization geometry and polarization-dependent application, and can be extrapolated to other physical system, such as electron beam or atom beam, with the similar spin-orbit coupling underlying.
Gauge Physics of Spin Hall Effect
Tan, Seng Ghee; Jalil, Mansoor B. A.; Ho, Cong Son; Siu, Zhuobin; Murakami, Shuichi
2015-12-01
Spin Hall effect (SHE) has been discussed in the context of Kubo formulation, geometric physics, spin orbit force, and numerous semi-classical treatments. It can be confusing if the different pictures have partial or overlapping claims of contribution to the SHE. In this article, we present a gauge-theoretic, time-momentum elucidation, which provides a general SHE equation of motion, that unifies under one theoretical framework, all contributions of SHE conductivity due to the kinetic, the spin orbit force (Yang-Mills), and the geometric (Murakami-Fujita) effects. Our work puts right an ambiguity surrounding previously partial treatments involving the Kubo, semiclassical, Berry curvatures, or the spin orbit force. Our full treatment shows the Rashba 2DEG SHE conductivity to be instead of -, and Rashba heavy hole instead of -. This renewed treatment suggests a need to re-derive and re-calculate previously studied SHE conductivity.
Dynamical quantum Hall effect in the parameter space.
Gritsev, V; Polkovnikov, A
2012-04-24
Geometric phases in quantum mechanics play an extraordinary role in broadening our understanding of fundamental significance of geometry in nature. One of the best known examples is the Berry phase [M.V. Berry (1984), Proc. Royal. Soc. London A, 392:45], which naturally emerges in quantum adiabatic evolution. So far the applicability and measurements of the Berry phase were mostly limited to systems of weakly interacting quasi-particles, where interference experiments are feasible. Here we show how one can go beyond this limitation and observe the Berry curvature, and hence the Berry phase, in generic systems as a nonadiabatic response of physical observables to the rate of change of an external parameter. These results can be interpreted as a dynamical quantum Hall effect in a parameter space. The conventional quantum Hall effect is a particular example of the general relation if one views the electric field as a rate of change of the vector potential. We illustrate our findings by analyzing the response of interacting spin chains to a rotating magnetic field. We observe the quantization of this response, which we term the rotational quantum Hall effect.
Measured Early Lateral Energy Fractions in Concert Halls and Opera Houses
BARRON, M.
2000-04-01
In the 30 years since early lateral reflections were first suggested as important for concert halls, spatial impression and source broadening have become almost universally accepted as essential characteristics of halls with good acoustics. Two objective measures of source broadening have been proposed. Measured values of the best defined of these measures, the early lateral energy fraction (LF), are considered here. Results from two independent measurement surveys are discussed. Comparisons of LF values by hall show a significant link between hall mean LF and hall width. There is however considerable overlap between measured LF values in different halls so the relevance of describing halls by their mean early lateral energy fraction values is questionable. The behaviour of LF values within auditoria is discussed for different concert hall plan forms and within opera houses. A measure of source broadening including sound level is proposed and results considered in the context of auditorium design.
Useful Pedagogical Applications of the Classical Hall Effect
Houari, Ahmed
2007-01-01
One of the most known phenomena in physics is the Hall effect. This is mainly due to its simplicity and to the wide range of its theoretical and practical applications. To complete the pedagogical utility of the Hall effect in physics teaching, I will apply it here to determine the Faraday constant as a fundamental physical number and the number…
Bulk Versus Edge in the Quantum Hall Effect
Kao, Y. -C.; Lee, D.-H.
1996-01-01
The manifestation of the bulk quantum Hall effect on edge is the chiral anomaly. The chiral anomaly {\\it is} the underlying principle of the ``edge approach'' of quantum Hall effect. In that approach, $\\sxy$ should not be taken as the conductance derived from the space-local current-current correlation function of the pure one-dimensional edge problem.
In-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Liu, Xin; Hsu, Hsiu-Chuan; Liu, Chao-Xing
2013-08-23
The quantum Hall effect can only be induced by an out-of-plane magnetic field for two-dimensional electron gases, and similarly, the quantum anomalous Hall effect has also usually been considered for systems with only out-of-plane magnetization. In the present work, we predict that the quantum anomalous Hall effect can be induced by in-plane magnetization that is not accompanied by any out-of-plane magnetic field. Two realistic two-dimensional systems, Bi2Te3 thin film with magnetic doping and HgMnTe quantum wells with shear strains, are presented and the general condition for the in-plane magnetization-induced quantum anomalous Hall effect is discussed based on the symmetry analysis. Nonetheless, an experimental setup is proposed to confirm this effect, the observation of which will pave the way to search for the quantum anomalous Hall effect in a wider range of materials.
Mesoscopic spin Hall effect in semiconductor nanostructures
Zarbo, Liviu
The spin Hall effect (SHE) is a name given to a collection of diverse phenomena which share two principal features: (i) longitudinal electric current flowing through a paramagnetic semiconductor or metallic sample leads to transverse spin current and spin accumulation of opposite sign at opposing lateral edges; (ii) SHE does not require externally applied magnetic field or magnetic ordering in the equilibrium state of the sample, instead it relies on the presence of spin-orbit (SO) couplings within the sample. This thesis elaborates on a new type of phenomenon within the SHE family, predicted in our recent studies [Phys. Rev. B 72, 075361 (2005); Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 046601 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 72, 075335 (2005); Phys. Rev. B 73 , 075303 (2006); and Europhys. Lett. 77, 47004 (2007)], where pure spin current flows through the transverse electrodes attached to a clean finitesize two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) due to unpolarized charge current injected through its longitudinal leads. If transverse leads are removed, the effect manifests as nonequilibrium spin Hall accumulation at the lateral edges of 2DEG wires. The SO coupling driving this SHE effect is of the Rashba type, which arises due to structural inversion asymmetry of semiconductor heterostructure hosting the 2DEG. We term the effect "mesoscopic" because the spin Hall currents and accumulations reach optimal value in samples of the size of the spin precession length---the distance over which the spin of an electron precesses by an angle pi. In strongly SO-coupled structures this scale is of the order of ˜100 nm, and, therefore, mesoscopic in the sense of being much larger than the characteristic microscopic scales (such as the Fermi wavelength, screening length, or the mean free path in disordered systems), but still much smaller than the macroscopic ones. Although the first theoretical proposal for SHE, driven by asymmetry in SO-dependent scattering of spin-up and spin-down electrons off impurities
Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator
Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor)
2009-01-01
A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.
Antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals: Generation, topological Hall, and topological spin Hall effect
Göbel, Börge; Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid
2017-08-01
Skyrmions are topologically nontrivial, magnetic quasiparticles that are characterized by a topological charge. A regular array of skyrmions, a skyrmion crystal (SkX), features the topological Hall effect (THE) of electrons, which, in turn, gives rise to the Hall effect of the skyrmions themselves. It is commonly believed that antiferromagnetic skyrmion crystals (AFM-SkXs) lack both effects. In this Rapid Communication, we present a generally applicable method to create stable AFM-SkXs by growing a two-sublattice SkX onto a collinear antiferromagnet. As an example we show that both types of skyrmion crystals, conventional and antiferromagnetic, exist in honeycomb lattices. While AFM-SkXs with equivalent lattice sites do not show a THE, they exhibit a topological spin Hall effect. On top of this, AFM-SkXs on inequivalent sublattices exhibit a nonzero THE, which may be utilized in spintronics devices. Our theoretical findings call for experimental realization.
Anomalous Hall Effect in Type-I Weyl Metals
Steiner, J. F.; Andreev, A. V.; Pesin, D. A.
2017-07-01
We study the ac anomalous Hall conductivity σx y(ω ) of a Weyl semimetal with broken time-reversal symmetry. Even in the absence of free carriers these materials exhibit a "universal" anomalous Hall response determined solely by the locations of the Weyl nodes. We show that the free carriers, which are generically present in an undoped Weyl semimetal, give an additional contribution to the ac Hall conductivity. We elucidate the phy146sical mechanism of the effect and develop a microscopic theory of the free carrier contribution to σx y(ω ). The latter can be expressed in terms of a small number of parameters (the electron velocity matrix, the Fermi energy μ , and the "tilt" of the Weyl cone). The resulting σx y(ω ) has resonant features at ω ˜2 μ which may be used to separate the free carrier response from the filled-band response using, for example, Kerr effect measurements. This may serve as a diagnostic tool to characterize the doping of individual valleys.
唐亚明; 周儒杰; 郝晓玲
2016-01-01
By this device can be hall magnetic resistance effect,distance measuring sensor principle and the method of demonstration and explored. In classroom teaching,curriculum design,visual display various effect and the technical application of hall element,has a good teaching effect.%通过装置可以对霍尔磁阻效应、一种距离测量传感器原理和方法进行演示和探究。在课堂教学、课程设计等场合，直观显示霍尔元件的各种效应和技术应用，有着良好的教学效果。
Formulation of the Relativistic Quantum Hall Effect and "Parity Anomaly"
Yonaga, Kouki; Shibata, Naokazu
2016-01-01
We present a relativistic formulation of the quantum Hall effect on a Riemann sphere. An explicit form of the pseudopotential is derived for the relativistic quantum Hall effect with/without mass term.We clarify particular features of the relativistic quantum Hall states with use of the exact diagonalization study of the pseudopotential Hamiltonian. Physical effects of the mass term to relativistic quantum Hall states are investigated in detail.The mass term acts as an interporating parameter between the relativistic and non-relativistic quantum Hall effects. It is pointed out that the mass term inequivalently affects to many-body physics of the positive and negative Landau levels and brings instability of the Laughlin state of the positive first relativistic Landau level as a consequence of the "parity anomaly".
Okano, Toshiyuki
2004-05-01
Correlations between subjective acoustical ratings and hall-averaged values of acoustical measures are studied among existing worldwide major concert halls. It was shown that the classified acoustical ratings by Beranek [Concert and Opera Halls, How They Sound (ASA, 1996)] are discriminated correctly by combining binaural quality index (BQI) with some other acoustical measures. BQI is determined by the arithmetic average of inter-aural cross correlation coefficient in three octave bands of 500, 1000, and 2000 Hz, subtracted from unity, calculated from the early 80-ms part of binaural impulse response. Considering that the upper limit value of BQI not to cause disturbing image shift is approximately 0.85 at individual seat [Okano, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 2219-2230 (2000)], the values of 0.6 or higher in hall averaged value of BQI, 0.85 or smaller in individual seat value of BQI, and approximately 5 dB or higher in strength factor at middle frequencies are proposed as design objectives to attain a high acoustical quality. It should be provided that other acoustical measures are also optimized. These target values will be very effective in studying room shape of halls, using scale models or computer models.
Gerhardts, Rolf R.
2017-01-01
Recent low-temperature scanning-force-microscopy experiments on narrow Hall bars, under the conditions of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) and its breakdown, have revealed an interesting position dependence of the Hall potential, which changes drastically with the applied magnetic field and the strength of the imposed current through the sample. The present paper shows, that inclusion of Joule heating into an existing self-consistent theory of screening and magneto-transport, which assumes translation invariant Hall bars with a homogeneous background charge due to doping, can explain the experimental results on the breakdown of the IQHE in the so called edge-dominated regime.
High Throughput 600 Watt Hall Effect Thruster for Space Exploration
Szabo, James; Pote, Bruce; Tedrake, Rachel; Paintal, Surjeet; Byrne, Lawrence; Hruby, Vlad; Kamhawi, Hani; Smith, Tim
2016-01-01
A nominal 600-Watt Hall Effect Thruster was developed to propel unmanned space vehicles. Both xenon and iodine compatible versions were demonstrated. With xenon, peak measured thruster efficiency is 46-48% at 600-W, with specific impulse from 1400 s to 1700 s. Evolution of the thruster channel due to ion erosion was predicted through numerical models and calibrated with experimental measurements. Estimated xenon throughput is greater than 100 kg. The thruster is well sized for satellite station keeping and orbit maneuvering, either by itself or within a cluster.
Velicheti, Dheeraj; Nagy, Peter B.; Hassan, Waled
2017-02-01
We investigated the feasibility of residual stress assessment based on Hall coefficient measurements in precipitation hardened IN718 nickel-base superalloy. As a first step, we studied the influence of microstructural variations on the galvanomagnetic properties of IN718 nickel-base superalloy. We found that the Hall coefficient of IN718 increases from ≈ 8.0×10-11 m3/C in its fully annealed state of 15 HRC Rockwell hardness to ≈ 9.4×10-11 m3/C in its fully hardened state of 45 HRC. We also studied the influence of cold work, i.e., plastic deformation, at room temperature and found that cold work had negligible effect on the Hall coefficient of fully annealed IN718, but significantly reduced it in hardened states of the material. For example, measurements conducted on fully hardened IN718 specimens showed that the Hall coefficient decreased more or less linearly with cold work from its peak value of ≈ 9.4×10-11 m3/C in its intact state to ≈ 9.0×10-11 m3/C in its most deformed state of 22% plastic strain. We also studied the influence of applied stress and found that elastic strain significantly increases the Hall coefficient of IN718 regardless of the state of hardening. The relative sensitivity of the Hall coefficient to elastic strain was measured as a unitless gauge factor K that is defined as the ratio of the relative change of the Hall coefficient ΔRH/RH divided by the axial strain ɛ = σ/E, where σ is the applied uniaxial stress and E is the Young's modulus of the material. We determined that the galvanomagnetic gauge factor of IN718 is κ ≈ 2.6 - 2.9 depending on the hardness level. Besides the fairly high value of the gauge factor, it is important that it is positive, which means that compressive stress in surface-treated components decreases the Hall coefficient in a similar way as plastic deformation does, therefore the unfortunate cancellation that occurs in fully hardened IN718 in the case of electric conductivity measurements will not
Recent Results of TMD Measurements from Jefferson Lab Hall A
Jiang, Xiaodong [LANL
2013-10-01
This slide-show presents results on transverse momentum distributions. The presentation covers: target single-spin asymmetry (SSA) (in parity conserving interactions); • Results of JLab Hall A polarized {sup 3}He target TMD measurement; • Semi-inclusive deep-inelastic scattering channels (E06-010); • Target single-spin asymmetry A{sub UT}, Collins and Sivers SSA on neutron; • Double-spin asymmetry A{sub LT}, extract TMD g{sub 1T} on neutron; • Inclusive channels SSA (E06-010, E05-015, E07-013) • Target SSA: inclusive {sup 3}He(e,e’) quasi-elastic scattering; • Target SSA: inclusive {sup 3}He(e,e’) deep inelastic-elastic scattering; • New SIDIS experiments planned in Hall-A for JLab-12 GeV.
Large local Hall effect in pin-hole dominated multigraphene spin-valves.
Muduli, P K; Barzola-Quiquia, J; Dusari, S; Ballestar, A; Bern, F; Böhlmann, W; Esquinazi, P
2013-01-11
We report local and non-local measurements in pin-hole dominated mesoscopic multigraphene spin-valves. Local spin-valve measurements show spurious switching behavior in resistance during magnetic field sweeping similar to the signal observed due to spin injection into multigraphene. The switching behavior has been explained in terms of a local Hall effect due to a thickness irregularity of the tunnel barrier. The local Hall effect appears due to a large local magnetostatic field produced near the roughness in the AlO(x) tunnel barrier. In our samples the resistance change due to the local Hall effect remains negligibly small above 75 K. A strong local Hall effect might hinder spin injection into multigraphene, resulting in no spin signal in non-local measurements.
Dissipationless spin-Hall current contribution in the extrinsic spin-Hall effect
Yan Yu-Zhen; Li Hui-Wu; Hu Liang-Bin
2009-01-01
This paper shows that a substantial amount of dissipationless spin-Hall current contribution may exist in the extrinsic spin-Hall effect, which originates from the spin-orbit coupling induced by the applied external electric field itself that drives the extrinsic spin-Hall effect in a nonmagnetic semiconductor (or metal). By assuming that the impurity density is in a moderate range such that the total scattering potential due to all randomly distributed impurities is a smooth function of the space coordinate, it is shown that this dissipationless contribution shall be of the same orders of magnitude as the usual extrinsic contribution from spin-orbit dependent impurity scatterings (or may even be larger than the latter one). The theoretical results obtained are in good agreement with recent relevant experimental results.
Tseng, M. Z.; Jiang, W. N.; Hu, E. L.
1994-09-01
A direct integration of YBa2Cu3O(7 - x) and a two dimensional electron gas Hall probe was made possible through the use of a MgO buffer layer. We demonstrate the use of this structure for the measurements of the magnetization hysteresis of a superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7 - x) thin film, and we make an estimate of the sensitivity and resolution that can be achieved with this probe structure. The close proximity of the YBa2Cu3O(7 - x) to the two dimensional electron gas (approximately 1700 A) allows sensitive measurements of interactions between the two; more importantly, closer superconductor-semiconductor spacing can be achieved without severe compromise of the component material quality.
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices
Bao Zhang; Kang-Kang Meng; Mei-Yin Yang; Edmonds, K. W.; Hao Zhang; Kai-Ming Cai; Yu Sheng; Nan Zhang; Yang Ji; Jian-Hua Zhao; Hou-Zhi Zheng; Kai-You Wang
2015-01-01
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the pie...
Formation of In-plane Skyrmions in Epitaxial MnSi Thin Films as Revealed by Planar Hall Effect
Yokouchi, T.; Kanazawa, N.; Tsukazaki, A.; Kozuka, Y.; Kikkawa, A.; Taguchi, Y.; Kawasaki, M; Ichikawa, M.; Kagawa, F.; Tokura, Y.
2015-01-01
We investigate skyrmion formation in both a single crystalline bulk and epitaxial thin films of MnSi by measurements of planar Hall effect. A prominent stepwise field profile of planar Hall effect is observed in the well-established skyrmion phase region in the bulk sample, which is assigned to anisotropic magnetoresistance effect with respect to the magnetic modulation direction. We also detect the characteristic planar Hall anomalies in the thin films under the in-plane magnetic field at lo...
Topological insulator in junction with ferromagnets: Quantum Hall effects
Chudnovskiy, A. L.; Kagalovsky, V.
2015-06-01
The ferromagnet-topological insulator-ferromagnet (FM-TI-FM) junction exhibits thermal and electrical quantum Hall effects. The generated Hall voltage and transverse temperature gradient can be controlled by the directions of magnetizations in the FM leads, which inspires the use of FM-TI-FM junctions as electrical and as heat switches in spintronic devices. Thermal and electrical Hall coefficients are calculated as functions of the magnetization directions in ferromagnets and the spin-relaxation time in TI. Both the Hall voltage and the transverse temperature gradient decrease but are not completely suppressed even at very short spin-relaxation times. The Hall coefficients turn out to be independent of the spin-relaxation time for symmetric configuration of FM leads.
Quantum Hall effect in kagome lattices under staggered magnetic field
Zhang Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2011-10-26
The interplay of staggered magnetic field (SMF) and uniform magnetic field (UMF) on the quantum Hall effect (QHE) in kagome lattices is investigated in the weak UMF limit. The topological band gaps coming from SMF are robust against UMF although the extended bands split into a series of Landau levels. With SMF applied, in the unconventional QHE region, one plateau of Hall conductance becomes wider and the others are compressed. Meanwhile, one of the two series of integer Hall plateaus splits and the resulting two series of Hall plateaus still exhibit the integer behavior. The Hall conductance varies with SMF step by step with the step height being e{sup 2}/h or 2e{sup 2}/h according to the QHE being conventional or unconventional. In the transitional regions, redistribution of Chern numbers happens even in the weak UMF limit. (paper)
Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators
Tahir, M.
2016-07-27
We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the lights polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity αyx = 0 at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with αyx = e2/2h. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at (±1/2,±3/2,±5/2, ...)e2/h. © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd Printed in the UK.
Unconventional quantum Hall effect in Floquet topological insulators.
Tahir, M; Vasilopoulos, P; Schwingenschlögl, U
2016-09-28
We study an unconventional quantum Hall effect for the surface states of ultrathin Floquet topological insulators in a perpendicular magnetic field. The resulting band structure is modified by photon dressing and the topological property is governed by the low-energy dynamics of a single surface. An exchange of symmetric and antisymmetric surface states occurs by reversing the light's polarization. We find a novel quantum Hall state in which the zeroth Landau level undergoes a phase transition from a trivial insulator state, with Hall conductivity [Formula: see text] at zero Fermi energy, to a Hall insulator state with [Formula: see text]. These findings open new possibilities for experimentally realizing nontrivial quantum states and unusual quantum Hall plateaus at [Formula: see text].
Giant Planar Hall Effect in Epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As Devices
Tang, H. X.; Kawakami, R K; Awschalom, D. D.; Roukes, M. L.
2002-01-01
Large Hall resistance jumps are observed in microdevices patterned from epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As layers when subjected to a swept, in-plane magnetic field. This giant planar Hall effect is four orders of magnitude greater than previously observed in metallic ferromagnets. This enables extremely sensitive measurements of the angle-dependent magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)As. The magnetic anisotropy fields deduced from these measurements are compared with theoretical predictions.
Giant planar Hall effect in epitaxial (Ga,Mn)as devices.
Tang, H X; Kawakami, R K; Awschalom, D D; Roukes, M L
2003-03-14
Large Hall resistance jumps are observed in microdevices patterned from epitaxial (Ga,Mn)As layers when subjected to a swept, in-plane magnetic field. This giant planar Hall effect is 4 orders of magnitude greater than previously observed in metallic ferromagnets. This enables extremely sensitive measurements of the angle-dependent magnetic properties of (Ga,Mn)As. The magnetic anisotropy fields deduced from these measurements are compared with theoretical predictions.
Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation
Vladislav Mor; Debangsu Roy; Moty Schultz; Lior Klein
2016-01-01
We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make ...
Quantized Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulators
YU Rui
2011-01-01
The Hall effect, the anomalous Hall effect （AHE） and the spin Hall effect are thndamental transport processes in solids arising from the Lorentz force and the spin-orbit coupling respectively. The AHE, in which a voltage transverse to the electric current appears even in the absence of an external magnetic field, was first detected in ferromagnetic （FM） metals in 1881 and later found to arise from the spin-orbit coupling （SOC） between the current and magnetic moments.
Spin Hall effect of light in metallic reflection
Hermosa, N; Aiello, A; Woerdman, J P
2011-01-01
We report the first measurement of the Spin Hall Effect of Light (SHEL) on an air-metal interface. The SHEL is a polarization-dependent out-of-plane shift on the reflected beam. For the case of metallic reflection with a linearly polarized incident light, both the spatial and angular variants of the shift are observed and are maximum for -45\\cdot/45\\cdot polarization, but zero for pure s- and p-polarization. For an incoming beam with circular polarization states however, only the spatial out-of-plane shift is present.
High precision micro-scale Hall Effect characterization method using in-line micro four-point probes
Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong
2008-01-01
and experimental measurements, that the repeatability of a micro-scale Hall effect measurement is better than 1 %. We demonstrate the ability to spatially resolve Hall effect on micro-scale by characterization of an USJ with a single laser stripe anneal. The micro sheet resistance variations resulting from...
Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Gd bilayers
Xu, W. J.
2010-04-01
Non-monotonic dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on temperature and magnetization, including a sign change, was observed in Fe/Gd bilayers. To understand the intriguing observations, we fabricated the Fe/Gd bilayers and single layers of Fe and Gd simultaneously. The temperature and field dependences of longitudinal resistivity, Hall resistivity and magnetization in these films have also been carefully measured. The analysis of these data reveals that these intriguing features are due to the opposite signs of Hall resistivity/or spin polarization and different Curie temperatures of Fe and Gd single-layer films. Copyright (C) EPLA, 2010
Morozko, Zoe
A Hall thruster is an electric propulsion device that produces thrust electrostatically by accelerating propellant to velocities 5 to 10 times higher than is achievable using conventional chemical thrusters. This is accomplished through the application of static, crossed electric and magnetic fields that are concentrated in a region close to the exit plane of the thruster. During operation an azimuthal plasma-electron current develops in the region where the electric and magnetic fields are concentrated. This embedded plasma current is referred to as the Hall current. The thrust produced from accelerating the propellant is transferred to a satellite or spacecraft through interaction between the Hall current and the magnetic coils used to produce the static magnetic field within the thruster. The Hall current can be calculated and the thrust can be determined in real time by measuring the magnetic field produced by the Hall current using sensors located external to the thruster. This work investigates the feasibility of placing magnetic sensors in the regions close to the exit of the thruster to measure the external magnetic field and correlate it to the Hall current. A finite element magnetic solver was used to identify several locations outside of the thrust plume and near the pole piece where the magnetic field magnitude changes by several Gauss in a background field level of ˜50 Gauss. Magnetic sensors based on the giant magnetoresistive effect were identified as acceptable with regard to sensitivity, and measurements made with these sensors in a simulated high background magnetic field environment demonstrated that changes of 0.5 Gauss could be easily measured. This work also presents the development of a thrust stand that will be useful in future work to demonstrate the overall concept. Special focus was directed to the design of the data acquisition system and in-vacuum calibration system used to make measurements with the thrust stand.
Gate Bias Effects on Samples with Edge Gates in the Quantum Hall Regime
若林 淳一; 風間 重雄; 長嶋 登志夫
2001-01-01
We have fabricated GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure Hall samples that have edge gate with several widths along both sides of the sample. The gate width dependence of an effect of the gate voltage to the Hall resistance was measured at the middle of a transition region between the adjacent quantum Hall plateaus. The results have been analyzed based on two model functions of current distribution;an exponential type and the modified Beenakker type. The results of the former have shown qualitative agr...
Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities
Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth
2014-01-01
We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of sheet resistance and Hall sheet resistance measurements to local inhomogeneities for the cases of nonzero magnetic fields, strong perturbations, and perturbations over a finite area, extending our earlier results on weak perturbations. We...... simulations on both a linear four-point probe array on a large circular disc and a van der Pauw square geometry. Furthermore, the results also agree well with Náhlík et al. published experimental results for physical holes in a circular copper foil disc....
Measurements of magnetic field fluctuations using an array of Hall detectors on the TEXTOR tokamak
Ďuran, I.; Stöckel, J.; Mank, G.; Finken, K. H.; Fuchs, G.; Oost, G. Van
2002-10-01
Hall detectors have been used to measure the magnetic field together with its' fluctuations in the boundary of a tokamak. The results show, that the measurements which have been performed so far, mainly by use of coils together with subsequent integration, either on-line or later by computer, can be substituted by Hall probe measurements giving the desired value of B directly. Because the integration of the coil signal becomes more and more difficult with long pulses, Hall detectors may give advantages in future fusion devices. We implemented a stack of nine Hall detectors mounted on three planes on a rod in such a way, that the three components of the magnetic field can be measured. To avoid capacitive and charge pickup from the plasma, the probes are electrically shielded. The damping due to skin effect within this shield has been taken into account. The probes have been calibrated using a known magnetic field of a straight wire driven with a LC bank. This field has been precisely measured with a Rogowski coil. The dependence of the Hall coefficient on the frequency has been measured and the pickup in the feeds due to Ḃ has been withdrawn from the results. We demonstrate the method with measurements on the TEXTOR tokamak, where we could clearly detect the small stray fields associated with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) fluctuations. On TEXTOR we have been able to detect the MHD activity preceding discharge disruptions as well as the precursors of the so called sawteeth. The results are compared to those of other diagnostics on TEXTOR as, e.g., magnetic loops and electron cyclotron emission, and they do well compare.
Fractional quantum Hall effect in the absence of Landau levels.
Sheng, D N; Gu, Zheng-Cheng; Sun, Kai; Sheng, L
2011-07-12
It is well known that the topological phenomena with fractional excitations, the fractional quantum Hall effect, will emerge when electrons move in Landau levels. Here we show the theoretical discovery of the fractional quantum Hall effect in the absence of Landau levels in an interacting fermion model. The non-interacting part of our Hamiltonian is the recently proposed topologically non-trivial flat-band model on a checkerboard lattice. In the presence of nearest-neighbouring repulsion, we find that at 1/3 filling, the Fermi-liquid state is unstable towards the fractional quantum Hall effect. At 1/5 filling, however, a next-nearest-neighbouring repulsion is needed for the occurrence of the 1/5 fractional quantum Hall effect when nearest-neighbouring repulsion is not too strong. We demonstrate the characteristic features of these novel states and determine the corresponding phase diagram.
Phonon Hall Effect in Four-Terminal Junctions
Zhang, Lifa; Wang, Jian-Sheng; Li, Baowen
2009-01-01
Using an exact nonequilibrium Green's function formulism, the phonon Hall effect for paramagnetic dielectrics is studied in a four-terminal device setting. The temperature difference in the transverse direction of the heat current is calculated for two-dimensional models with the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane. We find a surprising result that the square lattice does not have the phonon Hall effect while a honeycomb lattice has. This can be explained by symmetry. The temperature di...
Chern-Simons Dynamics and the Quantum Hall Effect
Balachandran, A P
1991-01-01
Theoretical developments during the past several years have shown that large scale properties of the Quantum Hall system can be successfully described by effective field theories which use the Chern-Simons interaction. In this article, we first recall certain salient features of the Quantum Hall Effect and their microscopic explanation. We then review one particular approach to their description based on the Chern-Simons Lagrangian and its variants.
Valleytronics. The valley Hall effect in MoS₂ transistors.
Mak, K F; McGill, K L; Park, J; McEuen, P L
2014-06-27
Electrons in two-dimensional crystals with a honeycomb lattice structure possess a valley degree of freedom (DOF) in addition to charge and spin. These systems are predicted to exhibit an anomalous Hall effect whose sign depends on the valley index. Here, we report the observation of this so-called valley Hall effect (VHE). Monolayer MoS2 transistors are illuminated with circularly polarized light, which preferentially excites electrons into a specific valley, causing a finite anomalous Hall voltage whose sign is controlled by the helicity of the light. No anomalous Hall effect is observed in bilayer devices, which have crystal inversion symmetry. Our observation of the VHE opens up new possibilities for using the valley DOF as an information carrier in next-generation electronics and optoelectronics.
Large anomalous Hall effect in a half-Heusler antiferromagnet
Suzuki, T.; Chisnell, R.; Devarakonda, A.; Liu, Y.-T.; Feng, W.; Xiao, D.; Lynn, J. W.; Checkelsky, J. G.
2016-12-01
The quantum mechanical (Berry) phase of the electronic wavefunction plays a critical role in the anomalous and spin Hall effects, including their quantized limits. While progress has been made in understanding these effects in ferromagnets, less is known in antiferromagnetic systems. Here we present a study of antiferromagnet GdPtBi, whose electronic structure is similar to that of the topologically non-trivial HgTe (refs ,,), and where the Gd ions offer the possibility to tune the Berry phase via control of the spin texture. We show that this system supports an anomalous Hall angle ΘAH > 0.1, comparable to the largest observed in bulk ferromagnets and significantly larger than in other antiferromagnets. Neutron scattering measurements and electronic structure calculations suggest that this effect originates from avoided crossing or Weyl points that develop near the Fermi level due to a breaking of combined time-reversal and lattice symmetries. Berry phase effects associated with such symmetry breaking have recently been explored in kagome networks; our results extend this to half-Heusler systems with non-trivial band topology. The magnetic textures indicated here may also provide pathways towards realizing the topological insulating and semimetallic states predicted in this material class.
Experiments on the Parallel Hall Effect in Three-Dimensional Metamaterials
Kern, Christian; Schuster, Vittoria; Kadic, Muamer; Wegener, Martin
2017-04-01
The classical Hall effect in ordinary isotropic conducting materials describes the occurrence of a voltage perpendicular to the direction of the electric-current flow and perpendicular to the imposed magnetic-field vector. The Hall effect is routinely used in magnetic-field sensors. Here, we fabricate and characterize microstructured anisotropic metamaterials composed of a single semiconducting constituent (n -type ZnO) for which the direction and the sign of the Hall electric field can be tailored by microstructure. This class of metamaterials includes the possibility of a Hall voltage parallel—rather than perpendicular—to the magnetic-field vector. One possible future application arising from this far-reaching control of the effective electric-conductivity tensor is a sensor measuring the circulation of a magnetic field.
Anisotropic intrinsic spin Hall effect in quantum wires.
Cummings, A W; Akis, R; Ferry, D K
2011-11-23
We use numerical simulations to investigate the spin Hall effect in quantum wires in the presence of both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. We find that the intrinsic spin Hall effect is highly anisotropic with respect to the orientation of the wire, and that the nature of this anisotropy depends strongly on the electron density and the relative strengths of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings. In particular, at low densities, when only one subband of the quantum wire is occupied, the spin Hall effect is strongest for electron momentum along the [N110] axis, which is the opposite of what is expected for the purely 2D case. In addition, when more than one subband is occupied, the strength and anisotropy of the spin Hall effect can vary greatly over relatively small changes in electron density, which makes it difficult to predict which wire orientation will maximize the strength of the spin Hall effect. These results help to illuminate the role of quantum confinement in spin-orbit-coupled systems, and can serve as a guide for future experimental work on the use of quantum wires for spin-Hall-based spintronic applications.
Anomalous Hall effect in Fe/Au multilayers
Zhang, Q.
2016-07-22
To understand the interfacial scattering effect on the anomalous Hall effect (AHE), we prepared multilayers of (Fe(36/n)nm/Au(12/n)nm)n using an e-beam evaporator. This structure design allowed us to investigate the effect of interfacial scattering on the AHE, while keeping the samples\\' thickness and composition unchanged. We measured the (magneto)transport properties of the samples in a wide temperature range (10–310 K) with magnetic fields up to 50 kOe. We found that the scaling between the anomalous Hall resistivity (ρAHE) and longitudinal resistivity (ρxx) can be roughly described by ρAHE∼ργxx with γ=2.65±0.10 and 1.90 ± 0.04 for samples from n=1 to n=4 and samples from n=4 to n=12, respectively. Our quantitative analysis results showed that the interfacial scattering suppresses the contribution of the intrinsic mechanism and gives rise to a side-jump contribution.
Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities
Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Hjorth Petersen, Dirch; Hansen, Ole
2013-10-01
We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities in a specimen's material properties in the combined linear limit of a weak perturbation over an infinitesimal area in a small magnetic field. We apply these expressions both to four-point probe measurements on an infinite plane and to symmetric, circular van der Pauw discs, obtaining functions consistent with published results. These new expressions speed up calculation of the sensitivity for a specimen of arbitrary shape to little more than the solution of two Laplace equation boundary-value problems of the order of N3 calculations, rather than N2 problems of total order N5, and in a few cases produces an analytic expression for the sensitivity. These functions provide an intuitive, visual explanation of how, for example, measurements can predict the wrong carrier type in n-type ZnO.
Magnetoelectric tuning of the inverse spin-Hall effect
Vargas, José M.; Gómez, Javier E.; Avilés-Félix, Luis; Butera, Alejandro
2017-05-01
We demonstrate in this article that the magnetoelectric (ME) mechanism can be exploited to control the spin current emitted in a spin pumping experiment using moderate electric fields. Spin currents were generated at the interface of a ferromagnet/metal bilayer by driving the system to the ferromagnetic resonance condition at X-Band (9.78 GHz) with an incident power of 200 mW. The ME structure, a thin (20 nm) FePt film grown on top of a polished 011-cut single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) slab, was prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. The PMN-PT/FePt was operated in the L-T mode (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized). This hybrid composite showed a large ME coefficient of 140 Oe cm/kV, allowing to easily tune the ferromagnetic resonance condition with electric field strengths below 4 kV/cm. A thin layer of Pt (10 nm) was grown on top of the PMN-PT/FePt structure and was used to generate and detect the spin current by taking advantage of its large spin-orbit coupling that produces a measurable signal via the inverse spin-Hall effect. These results proved an alternative way to tune the magnetic field at which the spin current is established and consequently the inverse spin-Hall effect signal, which can promote advances in hybrid spintronic devices.
Planar Hall effect based characterization of spin orbital torques in Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures
Jamali, Mahdi; Zhao, Zhengyang; DC, Mahendra; Zhang, Delin; Li, Hongshi; Smith, Angeline K.; Wang, Jian-Ping
2016-04-01
The spin orbital torques in Ta/CoFeB/MgO structures are experimentally investigated utilizing the planar Hall effect and magnetoresistance measurement. By angular field characterization of the planar Hall resistance at ±current, the differential resistance which is directly related to the spin orbital torques is derived. Upon curve fitting of the analytical formulas over the experimental results, it is found that the anti-damping torque, also known as spin Hall effect, is sizable while a negligible field-like torque is observed. A spin Hall angle of about 18 ± 0.6% is obtained for the Ta layer. Temperature dependent study of the spin orbital torques is also performed. It is found that temperature does not significantly modify the spin Hall angle. By cooling down the sample down to 100 K, the obtained spin Hall angle has a maximum value of about 20.5 ± 0.43%.
The quantum Hall's effect:A quantum electrodynamic phenomenon
A.I. Arbab
2012-01-01
We have applied Maxwell's equations to study the physics of quantum Hall's effect.The electromagnetic properties of this system are obtained.The Hall's voltage,VH =2πh2ns/e rn,where ns is the electron number density,for a 2-dimensional system,and h =2πh is the Planck's constant,is found to coincide with the voltage drop across the quantum capacitor.Consideration of the cyclotronic motion of electrons is found to give rise to Hall's resistance.Ohmic resistances in the horizontal and vertical directions have been found to exist before equilibrium state is reached.At a fundamental level,the Hall's effect is found to be equivalent to a resonant LCR circuit with LH =2π m/e2ns and CH =me2/2πh2ns satisfying the resonance condition with resonant frequency equal to the inverse of the scattering (relaxation) time,Ts.The Hall's resistance is found to be RH =√LH/CH.The Hall's resistance may be connected with the impedance that the electron wave experiences when it propagates in the 2-dimeasional gas.
Robust fractional quantum Hall effect in the N=2 Landau level in bilayer graphene
Diankov, Georgi; Liang, Chi-Te; Amet, François; Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Bestwick, Andrew J.; Tharratt, Kevin; Coniglio, William; Jaroszynski, Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David
2016-12-01
The fractional quantum Hall effect is a canonical example of electron-electron interactions producing new ground states in many-body systems. Most fractional quantum Hall studies have focussed on the lowest Landau level, whose fractional states are successfully explained by the composite fermion model. In the widely studied GaAs-based system, the composite fermion picture is thought to become unstable for the N≥2 Landau level, where competing many-body phases have been observed. Here we report magneto-resistance measurements of fractional quantum Hall states in the N=2 Landau level (filling factors 4<|ν|<8) in bilayer graphene. In contrast with recent observations of particle-hole asymmetry in the N=0/N=1 Landau levels of bilayer graphene, the fractional quantum Hall states we observe in the N=2 Landau level obey particle-hole symmetry within the fully symmetry-broken Landau level. Possible alternative ground states other than the composite fermions are discussed.
Robust fractional quantum Hall effect in the N=2 Landau level in bilayer graphene.
Diankov, Georgi; Liang, Chi-Te; Amet, François; Gallagher, Patrick; Lee, Menyoung; Bestwick, Andrew J; Tharratt, Kevin; Coniglio, William; Jaroszynski, Jan; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Goldhaber-Gordon, David
2016-12-21
The fractional quantum Hall effect is a canonical example of electron-electron interactions producing new ground states in many-body systems. Most fractional quantum Hall studies have focussed on the lowest Landau level, whose fractional states are successfully explained by the composite fermion model. In the widely studied GaAs-based system, the composite fermion picture is thought to become unstable for the N≥2 Landau level, where competing many-body phases have been observed. Here we report magneto-resistance measurements of fractional quantum Hall states in the N=2 Landau level (filling factors 4Landau levels of bilayer graphene, the fractional quantum Hall states we observe in the N=2 Landau level obey particle-hole symmetry within the fully symmetry-broken Landau level. Possible alternative ground states other than the composite fermions are discussed.
On-Chip Magnetorelaxometry Using Planar Hall Effect Magnetic Field Sensors
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard
bridge sensors. These results show that DNA-coils can be detected in concentrations down to 4 pM, which is comparable to what has been obtained for similar samples using commercially available measurement equipment. However, the planar Hall effect sensor have the advantage of being considerably smaller...... of using planar Hall effect magnetic field sensors to measure magnetorelaxomety of magnetic beads. This can be used as the readout principle for volume-based biosensing, by detecting changes in the hydrodynamic diameter of magnetic beads due to binding of analytes. Traditionally magnetorelaxomety...... is measured by AC susceptibility measurements performed with large expensive instruments, which cannot easily be integrated with a lab-on-a-chip system. The advantages of planar Hall effect sensors are that they are small and can easily be integrated as the readout method for a lab-ona-chip device...
Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Yang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xsyang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)
2015-12-15
Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.
Comparisons of auditorium acoustics measurements as a function of location in halls (A)
Bradley, J. S.; Gade, Anders Christian; Siebein, G W
1993-01-01
In a measurement tour of nine U.S. concert halls measurements were made at 30 or more combinations of source and receiver position in each hall. Each of the three measurement teams (the University of Florida, the Danish Technical University, and the National Research Council of Canada) made paral...
Influence of disorder on anomalous Hall effect for Heusler compounds
Vilanova Vidal, E.; Schneider, H.; Jakob, G.
2011-05-01
The anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is a long known but still not fully understood transport effect. Most theory papers focus on the influence of one particular contribution to the AHE. Actual measured experimental data, however, often are not in accord with idealized assumptions. In this work we discuss the data analysis for materials with low residual resistivity ratios. As prototypical materials we study half metallic Heusler compounds. Here the influence of defects and disorder is apparent in a material with a complex topology of the Fermi surface. Using films of different degree of disorder, we show how different scattering mechanisms can be separated. For Co2FeSi0.6Al0.4 and Co2FeGa0.5Ge0.5 the AHE induced by B2-type disorder and temperature-dependent scattering is positive, while DO3-type disorder and possible intrinsic contributions possess a negative sign.
Higher (odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy
Kazuki Hasebe
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S2k−1 in the SO(2k−1 monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S2k−1 to the one-dimension higher SO(2k gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah–Patodi–Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.
Higher (odd) dimensional quantum Hall effect and extended dimensional hierarchy
Hasebe, Kazuki
2017-07-01
We demonstrate dimensional ladder of higher dimensional quantum Hall effects by exploiting quantum Hall effects on arbitrary odd dimensional spheres. Non-relativistic and relativistic Landau models are analyzed on S 2 k - 1 in the SO (2 k - 1) monopole background. The total sub-band degeneracy of the odd dimensional lowest Landau level is shown to be equal to the winding number from the base-manifold S 2 k - 1 to the one-dimension higher SO (2 k) gauge group. Based on the chiral Hopf maps, we clarify the underlying quantum Nambu geometry for odd dimensional quantum Hall effect and the resulting quantum geometry is naturally embedded also in one-dimension higher quantum geometry. An origin of such dimensional ladder connecting even and odd dimensional quantum Hall effects is illuminated from a viewpoint of the spectral flow of Atiyah-Patodi-Singer index theorem in differential topology. We also present a BF topological field theory as an effective field theory in which membranes with different dimensions undergo non-trivial linking in odd dimensional space. Finally, an extended version of the dimensional hierarchy for higher dimensional quantum Hall liquids is proposed, and its relationship to quantum anomaly and D-brane physics is discussed.
Sub 100-ps dynamics of the anomalous Hall effect at THz frequencies
Huisman, T J; Tsukamoto, A; Ma, L; Fan, W J; Zhou, S M; Rasing, Th; Kimel, A V
2016-01-01
We report about the anomalous Hall effect in 4f 3d metallic alloys measured using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy. The strength of the observed terahertz spin-dependent transport phenomenon is in good agreement with expectations based on electronic transport measurements. Employing this effect, we succeeded to reveal ultrafast dynamics of the anomalous Hall effect which accompanies the sub-100 picosecond optically induced magnetization reversal in a GdFeCo alloy. The experiments demonstrate the ability to control currents at terahertz frequencies in spintronic devices magnetically and ultrafast.
Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems
Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed
2015-07-16
We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.
The onset of MHD nanofluid convection with Hall current effect
Yadav, Dhananjay; Lee, Jinho
2015-08-01
In this paper, the combined effects of Hall current and magnetic field on the onset of convection in an electrically conducting nanofluid layer heated from below is investigated. A physically more realistic boundary condition on the nanoparticle volume fraction is taken i.e. the nanoparticle flux is assumed to be zero rather than prescribing a nanoparticle volume fraction on the rigid impermeable boundaries. The employed model incorporates the effects of Brownian motion and thermophoresis. The resulting eigenvalue problem is solved using the Galerkin method. The results obtained during the analysis are presented graphically for an alumina-water nanofluid. It is observed that the effect of smaller values of the Hall current parameter and the nanoparticle parameters accelerate the onset of convection, while larger values of the Hall current parameter (≥ 15) have no effect on the system stabilities.
The spin Hall effect of light in moving medium
Li, Hehe; Li, Xinzhong; Wang, Jingge
2017-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the spin Hall effect of light in moving inhomogeneous medium using the Gordon metric and the Maxwell’s equations in the gravitational field. Light experiences a moving medium as a gravitational field by means of the Gordon metric. It is shown that the spin Hall effect of light is modified by the motion of medium, and the deflection of the ray trajectory is dependent on the polarization and the motion of the medium. It is interesting that there is no coupling of the spin angular momentum of light and the effective gravitational field when the medium is moving along the direction of the gradient ∇n(r). The results provide a potential method for controlling the spin Hall effect of light in medium.
Graphene and the universality of the quantum Hall effect
Tzalenchuk, A.; Janssen, T. J.B.M.; Kazakova, O.
2013-01-01
The quantum Hall effect allows the standard for resistance to be defined in terms of the elementary charge and Planck's constant alone. The effect comprises the quantization of the Hall resistance in two-dimensional electron systems in rational fractions of RK=h/e2=25812.8074434(84) Ω (Mohr P. J....... et al., Rev. Mod. Phys., 84 (2012) 1527), the resistance quantum. Despite 30 years of research into the quantum Hall effect, the level of precision necessary for metrology, a few parts per billion, has been achieved only in silicon and III-V heterostructure devices. In this lecture we show...... that graphene - a single layer of carbon atoms - beats these well-established semiconductor materials as the system of choice for the realisation of the quantum resistance standard. Here we shall briefly describe graphene technology, discuss the structure and electronic properties of graphene, including...
Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation
Mor, Vladislav; Roy, Debangsu; Schultz, Moty; Klein, Lior
2016-02-01
We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a) an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b) an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.
Composed planar Hall effect sensors with dual-mode operation
Vladislav Mor
2016-02-01
Full Text Available We present a composed planar Hall effect sensor with two modes of operation: (a an ON mode where the composed sensor responds to magnetic field excitations similarly to the response of a regular planar Hall effect sensor, and (b an OFF mode where the response is negligible. The composed planar Hall effect sensor switches from the OFF mode to the ON mode when it is exposed to a magnetic field which exceeds a certain threshold determined by the sensor design. The features of this sensor make it useful as a switch triggered by magnetic field and as a sensing device with memory, as its mode of operation indicates exposure to a magnetic field larger than a certain threshold without the need to be activated during the exposure itself.
Planar Hall effect sensor for magnetic micro- and nanobead detection
Ejsing, L.; Hansen, M. F.; Menon, A. K.; Ferreira, H. A.; Graham, D. L.; Freitas, P. P.
2004-06-01
Magnetic bead sensors based on the planar Hall effect in thin films of exchange-biased permalloy have been fabricated and characterized. Typical sensitivities are 3 μV/Oe mA. The sensor response to an applied magnetic field has been measured without and with coatings of commercially available 2 μm and 250 nm magnetic beads used for bioapplications (Micromer-M and Nanomag-D, Micromod, Germany). Detection of both types of beads and single bead detection of 2 μm beads is demonstrated, i.e., the technique is feasible for magnetic biosensors. Single 2 μm beads yield 300 nV signals at 10 mA and 15 Oe applied field.
Quantitative Analysis of Spin Hall Effect in Nanostructures
S. Katiyal
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Spin transport in nano structured devices depends on interfaceresistance, electrode resistance, Spin polarization and Spindiffusion length. Spin Hall Effect (SHE, caused by Spin–orbitscattering in nonmagnetic conductors, gives rise to theconversion between Spin and charge currents in a non localdevice. Recently, SHE has been observed using non local Spininjection in metal-based nanostructured devices, which pavesthe way for future Spin electronic applications. In presentwork we have theoretically analyzed the SHE phenomenabased on experimental results obtained till date. We have usedthe Hamiltonian of two dimensional electron systems withRashba Spin-orbit coupling. We undertake the quantitativeanalysis of Spin Hall Effect in low dimensional materialsusing Spin dynamical equations and Spin Hall conductivity.
Thermal Hall Effect of Spin Excitations in a Kagome Magnet.
Hirschberger, Max; Chisnell, Robin; Lee, Young S; Ong, N P
2015-09-04
At low temperatures, the thermal conductivity of spin excitations in a magnetic insulator can exceed that of phonons. However, because they are charge neutral, the spin waves are not expected to display a thermal Hall effect. However, in the kagome lattice, theory predicts that the Berry curvature leads to a thermal Hall conductivity κ(xy). Here we report observation of a large κ(xy) in the kagome magnet Cu(1-3, bdc) which orders magnetically at 1.8 K. The observed κ(xy) undergoes a remarkable sign reversal with changes in temperature or magnetic field, associated with sign alternation of the Chern flux between magnon bands. The close correlation between κ(xy) and κ(xx) firmly precludes a phonon origin for the thermal Hall effect.
Diaphragm Effect of Steel Space Roof Systems in Hall Structures
Mehmet FENKLİ
2015-09-01
Full Text Available Hall structures have been used widely for different purposes. They have are reinforced concrete frames and shear wall with steel space roof systems. Earthquake response of hall structures is different from building type structures. One of the most critical nodes is diaphragm effect of steel space roof on earthquake response of hall structures. Diaphragm effect is depending on lateral stiffness capacity of steel space roof system. Lateral stiffness of steel space roof system is related to modulation geometry, support conditions, selected sections and system geometry. In current paper, three representative models which are commonly used in Turkey were taken in to account for investigation. Results of numerical tests were present comparatively
Photonic analogue of quantum spin Hall effect
He, Cheng; Liu, Xiao-ping; Lu, Ming-Hui; Chen, Yulin; Feng, Liang; Chen, Yan-Feng
2014-01-01
Symmetry-protected photonic topological insulator exhibiting robust pseudo-spin-dependent transportation, analogous to quantum spin Hall (QSH) phases and topological insulators, are of great importance in fundamental physics. Such transportation robustness is protected by time-reversal symmetry. Since electrons (fermion) and photons (boson) obey different statistics rules and associate with different time-reversal operators (i.e., Tf and Tb, respectively), whether photonic counterpart of Kramers degeneracy is topologically protected by bosonic Tb remains unidentified. Here, we construct the degenerate gapless edge states of two photonic pseudo-spins (left/right circular polarizations) in the band gap of a two-dimensional photonic crystal with strong magneto-electric coupling. We further demonstrated that the topological edge states are in fact protected by Tf rather than commonly believed Tb and their pseudo-spin dependent transportation is robust against Tf invariant impurities, discovering for the first tim...
The quantum Hall effect and its contexts
Rodríguez,Víctor
2017-01-01
En este artículo, se atienden ciertas facetas conceptuales y experimentales del efecto Hall cuántico. Se argumenta que el mismo ofrece variados matices para la reflexión filosófica, desde la generación de entidades teóricas hasta la epistemología de la experimentación. La exposición pretende mantener cierta sensibilidad por la dinámica histórica en torno del tema, como así también por las implicaciones metrológicas de ámbitos cuánticos específicos. Dada la enorme producción científica sobre e...
Nonlinear Quantum Hall effects in Rarita-Schwinger gas
Luo, Xi; Wan, Xiangang; Yu, Yue
2016-01-01
Emergence of higher spin relativistic fermionic materials becomes a new favorite in the study of condensed matter physics. Massive Rarita-Schwinger 3/2-spinor was known owning very exotic properties, such as the superluminal fermionic modes and even being unstable in an external magnetic field. Due to the superluminal modes and the non-trivial constraints on the Rarita-Schwinger gas, we exposit anomalous properties of the Hall effects in (2+1)-dimensions which subvert the well-known quantum Hall paradigms. First, the Hall conductance of a pure Rarita-Schwinger gas is step-like but not plateau-quantized, instead of the linear dependence on the filling factor for a pure spin-1/2 Dirac gas. In reality, the Hall conductance of the Dirac gas is of quantized integer plateaus with the unit $\\frac{e^2}h$ due to the localization away from the Landau level centers. If the general localization rule is applicable to the disordered Rarita-Schwinger gas, the Hall plateaus are also expected to appear but they are nonlinearl...
A Simulation Study of Hall Effect on Double Tearing Modes
ZHANG Chenglong; MA Zhiwei; DONG Jiaqi
2008-01-01
A Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation is carried out to study the dy-namic process of double tearing mode. The results indicated that the growth rates in the earlier nonlinear and transition phases agree with the previous results. With further development of reconnection, the current sheet thickness is much smaller than the ion inertia length, which leads to a strong influence of the Hall effects. As a result, the reconnection in the late nonlinear phase exhibits an explosive nature with a time scale nearly independent of resistivity. A localized and severely intensified current density is observed and the maximum kinetic energy is over one order of magnitude higher in Hall MHD than that in resistive MHD.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetic insulator heterostructure.
Xu, Gang; Wang, Jing; Felser, Claudia; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng
2015-03-11
On the basis of ab initio calculations, we predict that a monolayer of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 and GdI2 heterostructure is a quantum anomalous Hall insulator with a nontrivial band gap up to 38 meV. The principle behind our prediction is that the band inversion between two topologically trivial ferromagnetic insulators can result in a nonzero Chern number, which offers a better way to realize the quantum anomalous Hall state without random magnetic doping. In addition, a simple effective model is presented to describe the basic mechanism of spin polarized band inversion in this system. Moreover, we predict that 3D quantum anomalous Hall insulator could be realized in (Bi2/3Cr1/3)2Te3 /GdI2 superlattice.
The transport mechanism of the integer quantum Hall effect
LiMing, W
2016-01-01
The integer quantum Hall effect is analysed using a transport mechanism with a semi-classic wave packages of electrons in this paper. A strong magnetic field perpendicular to a slab separates the electron current into two branches with opposite wave vectors $({\\it k})$ and locating at the two edges of the slab, respectively, along the current. In this case back scattering of electrons ($k\\rightarrow -k$) is prohibited by the separation of electron currents. Thus the slab exhibits zero longitudinal resistance and plateaus of Hall resistance. When the Fermi level is scanning over a Landau level when the magnetic field increases, however, the electron waves locate around the central axis of the slab and overlap each other thus back scattering of electrons takes place frequently. Then longitudinal resistance appears and the Hall resistance goes up from one plateau to a new plateau.
Anomalous Hall Effect in a 2D Rashba Ferromagnet.
Ado, I A; Dmitriev, I A; Ostrovsky, P M; Titov, M
2016-07-22
Skew scattering on rare impurity configurations is shown to dominate the anomalous Hall effect in a 2D Rashba ferromagnet. The mechanism originates in scattering on rare impurity pairs separated by distances of the order of the Fermi wavelength. The corresponding theoretical description goes beyond the conventional noncrossing approximation. The mechanism provides the only contribution to the anomalous Hall conductivity in the most relevant metallic regime and strongly modifies previously obtained results for lower energies in the leading order with respect to impurity strength.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in topological insulator memory
Jalil, Mansoor B. A., E-mail: elembaj@nus.edu.sg [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Tan, S. G. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, National University of Singapore, 4 Engineering Drive 3, Singapore, Singapore 117576 (Singapore); Siu, Z. B. [Data Storage Institute, Agency for Science, Technology and Research A*STAR, DSI Building, 5 Engineering Drive 1, Singapore, Singapore 117608 (Singapore); NUS Graduate School for Integrative Sciences and Engineering, National University of Singapore (Singapore)
2015-05-07
We theoretically investigate the quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in a magnetically coupled three-dimensional-topological insulator (3D-TI) system. We apply the generalized spin-orbit coupling Hamiltonian to obtain the Hall conductivity σ{sup xy} of the system. The underlying topology of the QAHE phenomenon is then analyzed to show the quantization of σ{sup xy} and its relation to the Berry phase of the system. Finally, we analyze the feasibility of utilizing σ{sup xy} as a memory read-out in a 3D-TI based memory at finite temperatures, with comparison to known magnetically doped 3D-TIs.
Few-body, hyperspherical treatment of the quantum Hall effect
Wooten R. E.
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The quantum Hall effect arises from the quantum behavior of two-dimensional, strongly-interacting electrons exposed to a strong, perpendicular magnetic field [1, 2]. Conventionally treated from a many-body perspective, we instead treat the system from the few-body perspective using collective coordinates and the hyperspherical adiabatic technique developed originally for atomic systems [3]. The grand angular momentum K from K-harmonic few-body theory, is shown to be an approximate good collective quantum number in this system, and is shown to correlate with known fractional quantum Hall (FQH states at experimentally observed filling factors.
Phonon Hall effect in four-terminal nano-junctions
Zhang Lifa; Wang Jiansheng; Li Baowen [Department of Physics and Centre for Computational Science and Engineering, National University of Singapore, 117546 Singapore (Singapore)], E-mail: phylibw@nus.edu.sg
2009-11-15
Using an exact nonequilibrium Green's function formulation, the phonon Hall effect (PHE) for paramagnetic dielectrics is studied in a nanoscale four-terminal device setting. The temperature difference in the transverse direction of the heat current is calculated for two-dimensional models with the magnetic field perpendicular to the plane. We find that there is a PHE in nanoscale paramagnetic dielectrics, the magnitude of which is comparable to millimeter scale experiments. If the dynamic matrix of the system satisfies mirror reflection symmetry, the PHE disappears. The Hall temperature difference changes sign if the magnetic field is sufficiently large or if the size increases.
The Quantum Hall Effect in Supersymmetric Chern-Simons Theories
Tong, David
2015-01-01
In d=2+1 dimensions, there exist gauge theories which are supersymmetric but non-relativistic. We solve the simplest U(1) gauge theory in this class and show that the low-energy physics is that of the fractional quantum Hall effect, with ground states given by the Laughlin wavefunctions. We do this by quantising the vortices and relating them to the quantum Hall matrix model. We further construct coherent state representations of the excitations of vortices. These are quasi-holes. By an explicit computation of the Berry phase, without resorting to a plasma analogy, we show that these excitations have fractional charge and spin.
Inverse spin Hall effect in Pt/(Ga,Mn)As
Nakayama, H. [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Chen, L. [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Chang, H. W. [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Department of Physics and Center for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, National Sun Yat-Sen University, Kaohsiung 804, Taiwan (China); Ohno, H.; Matsukura, F., E-mail: f-matsu@wpi-aimr.tohoku.ac.jp [Laboratory for Nanoelectronics and Spintronics, Research Institute of Electrical Communication, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research (WPI-AIMR), Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Center for Spintronics Integrated Systems, Tohoku University, 2-1-1 Katahira, Aoba-ku, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)
2015-06-01
We investigate dc voltages under ferromagnetic resonance in a Pt/(Ga,Mn)As bilayer structure. A part of the observed dc voltage is shown to originate from the inverse spin Hall effect. The sign of the inverse spin Hall voltage is the same as that in Py/Pt bilayer structure, even though the stacking order of ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic layers is opposite to each other. The spin mixing conductance at the Pt/(Ga,Mn)As interface is determined to be of the order of 10{sup 19 }m{sup −2}, which is about ten times greater than that of (Ga,Mn)As/p-GaAs.
Rindel, Jens Holger; Shiokawa, Hiroyoshi; Christensen, Claus Lynge;
1999-01-01
A number of European concert halls were surveyed in 1989. In this paper comparisons are made between measured room acoustical parameters and those obtained from computer simulations using the ODEON program version 3.1 on two concert halls. One is Musikverein in Vienna and the other is Concertgebo...
Liu, Mingfeng; Hao, Liang; Jin, Tianli; Cao, Jiangwei; Bai, Jianmin; Wu, Dongping; Wang, Ying; Wei, Fulin
2015-06-01
The effect of electric field (E-field) on the magnetism of FePt thin films in FePt/0.7Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-0.3PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) heterostructures was investigated by anomalous Hall effect measurement. For FePt films of different thicknesses, the coercivity vs E-field curves show a typical butterfly-like loop behavior. Further results indicate that the coercivity variation is composed of the volatile symmetrical butterfly-like loop and nonvolatile hysteresis loop-like parts, which originate from the volatile and nonvolatile strains induced by the E-field in the PMN-PT(001) substrate, respectively. No significant difference has been observed after inserting a 2 nm W interlayer, suggesting that the charge-mediated coercivity variation is negligible in FePt/PMN-PT heterostructures.
Towards a quantum Hall effect for atoms using electric fields
Ericsson, M; Ericsson, Marie; Sjoqvist, Erik
2002-01-01
An atomic analogue of Landau quantization based on the Aharonov-Casher (AC) interaction is developed. The effect provides a first step towards an atomic quantum Hall system using electric fields, which may be realized in a Bose-Einstein condensate.
Low-frequency noise in planar Hall effect bridge sensors
Persson, Anders; Bejhedb, R.S.; Bejhed, R.S.
2011-01-01
The low-frequency characteristics of planar Hall effect bridge sensors are investigated as function of the sensor bias current and the applied magnetic field. The noise spectra reveal a Johnson-like spectrum at high frequencies, and a 1/f-like excess noise spectrum at lower frequencies, with a knee...
Dynamics of antiferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the spin Hall effect
Jin, Chendong; Song, Chengkun; Wang, Jianbo; Liu, Qingfang
2016-10-01
Magnetic skyrmion moved by the spin-Hall effect is promising for the application of the generation racetrack memories. However, the Magnus force causes a deflected motion of skyrmion, which limits its application. Here, we create an antiferromagnetic skyrmion by injecting a spin-polarized pulse in the nanostripe and investigate the spin Hall effect-induced motion of antiferromagnetic skyrmion by micromagnetic simulations. In contrast to ferromagnetic skyrmion, we find that the antiferromagnetic skyrmion has three evident advantages: (i) the minimum driving current density of antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about two orders smaller than the ferromagnetic skyrmion; (ii) the velocity of the antiferromagnetic skyrmion is about 57 times larger than the ferromagnetic skyrmion driven by the same value of current density; (iii) antiferromagnetic skyrmion can be driven by the spin Hall effect without the influence of Magnus force. In addition, antiferromagnetic skyrmion can move around the pinning sites due to its property of topological protection. Our results present the understanding of antiferromagnetic skyrmion motion driven by the spin Hall effect and may also contribute to the development of antiferromagnetic skyrmion-based racetrack memories.
Hall Effect Thruster for High Power Solar Electric Propulsion Technology Demonstration Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop a flight version of a high power Hall Effect thruster. While numerous high power Hall Effect thrusters have been demonstrated in the...
The integer quantum hall effect revisited
Michalakis, Spyridon [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Hastings, Matthew [Q STATION, CALIFORNIA
2009-01-01
For T - L x L a finite subset of Z{sup 2}, let H{sub o} denote a Hamiltonian on T with periodic boundary conditions and finite range, finite strength intetactions and a unique ground state with a nonvanishing spectral gap. For S {element_of} T, let q{sub s} denote the charge at site s and assume that the total charge Q = {Sigma}{sub s {element_of} T} q{sub s} is conserved. Using the local charge operators q{sub s}, we introduce a boundary magnetic flux in the horizontal and vertical direction and allow the ground state to evolve quasiadiabatically around a square of size one magnetic flux, in flux space. At the end of the evolution we obtain a trivial Berry phase, which we compare, via a method reminiscent of Stokes Theorem. to the Berry phase obtained from an evolution around an exponentially small loop near the origin. As a result, we show, without any averaging assumption, that the Hall conductance is quantized in integer multiples of e{sup 2}/h up to exponentially small corrections of order e{sup -L/{zeta}}, where {zeta}, is a correlation length that depends only on the gap and the range and strength of the interactions.
Modelling and design of planar Hall effect bridge sensors for low-frequency applications
Persson, Åsa; Bejhed, R.S.; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard
2013-01-01
potential, being compatible with batch micro- and nanofabrication techniques. For low-frequency magnetic field detection, sensors based on the planar Hall effect, especially planar Hall effect bridge (PHEB) sensors, show promising performance given their inherent low-field linearity, limited hysteresis...... that PHEBs can be applicable to several different areas within science including satellite attitude determination and magnetic bead detection in lab-on-a-chip applications, where detectivities down towards 1 nT Hz -0.5 at 1 Hz are required, and maybe even magnetic field measurements in scientific space...
Li, Kai; Liu, Jun; Liu, Weiqiang
2017-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) heat shield system, a novel thermal protection technique in the hypersonic field, has been paid much attention in recent years. In the real flight condition, not only the Lorentz force but also the Hall electric field is induced by the interaction between ionized air post shock and magnetic field. In order to analyze the action mechanisms of the Hall effect, numerical methods of coupling thermochemical nonequilibrium flow field with externally applied magnetic field as well as the induced electric field are constructed and validated. Based on the nonequilibrium model of Hall parameter, numerical simulations of the MHD heat shield system is conducted under two different magnetic induction strengths (B0=0.2 T, 0.5 T) on a reentry capsule forebody. Results show that, the Hall effect is the same under the two magnetic induction strengths when the wall is assumed to be conductive. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the Lorentz force counter stream diminishes a lot and the circumferential component dominates, resulting that the heat flux and shock-off distance approach the case without MHD control. However, for the insulating wall, the Hall effect acts in different ways under these two magnetic induction strengths. For this case, with the Hall effect taken into account, the performance of MHD heat shield system approaches the case neglecting the Hall effect when B0 equals 0.2 T. Such performance becomes worse when B0 equals 0.5 T and the aerothermal environment on the capsule shoulder is even worse than the case without MHD control.
Abulafia, Y.; McElfresh, M.; Shaulov, A.; Yeshurun, Y.; Paltiel, Y.; Majer, D.; Shtrikman, H.; Zeldov, E.
1998-06-01
We describe an experimental technique for simultaneous measurement of both the normal (Bz) and the in-plane (Bx) components of the magnetic induction field near the surface of a superconducting sample. This technique utilizes a novel design of a double-layered Hall sensor array fabricated from a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure containing two parallel layers of a two-dimensional electron gas. The effectiveness of this technique is demonstrated in measurements of Bx and Bz and the current distribution at the surface of a thin YBa2Cu3O7 crystal.
Transport studies on Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin films with nearly quantized anomalous Hall effect
Liu, Minhao; Richardella, Anthony; Kandala, Abhinav; Wang, Wudi; Yazdani, Ali; Samarth, Nitin; Ong, N. Phuan
2015-03-01
We describe measurements of the quantum anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 thin films (6-8 QL thickness) grown on (111) SrTiO3 (STO) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. The Fermi level is tuned close to the neutral point by tuning the growth flux ratios of Cr, Bi and Sb. Transport measurements were carried out in a dilution fridge at a base temperature of 20 mK. By tuning the chemical potential with a back gate on the STO substrate, we observed an anomalous Hall effect as high as 0.95h/e2, with a coercive field ~ 0.15 T and a narrow transition between positive/negative Hall plateaus. Transport measurements in a non-local configuration showed a Hall-effect-like non-local resistance with a systematic dependence on the back gate voltage and with pronounced peaks which resembled the non-local resistance of the quantum Hall effect. The non-local signal has a maximum that coincides with the maximum in Hall conductivity, indicating the edge channel as its origin. Our results show that the edge channel manifests itself in various transport properties even though the Hall resistance is not perfectly quantized. Supported by DARPA SPAWAR Grant No. N66001-11-1-4110 and MURI grant on Topological Insulators (ARO W911NF-12-1-0461).
Experimental Observation of the Inverse Spin Hall Effect at Room Temperature
Liu, Baoli; Shi, Junren; Wang, Wenxin; Zhao, Hongming; Li, Dafang; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.; Zhang, Shoucheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Xue, Qikun; Chen, Dongmin; /Beijing, Inst. Phys.
2010-03-16
We observe the inverse spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in Al-GaAs/InGaAs quantum wells. Specifically, they find that an inhomogeneous spin density induced by the optical injection gives rise to an electric current transverse to both the spin polarization and its gradient. The spin Hall conductivity can be inferred from such a measurement through the Einstein relation and the onsager relation, and is found to have the order of magnitude of 0.5(e{sup 2}/h). The observation is made at the room temperature and in samples with macroscopic sizes, suggesting that the inverse spin Hall effects is a robust macroscopic transport phenomenon.
Driving and detecting ferromagnetic resonance in insulators with the spin Hall effect.
Sklenar, Joseph; Zhang, Wei; Jungfleisch, Matthias B.; Jiang, Wanjun; Chang, Houchen; Pearson, John E.; Wu, Mingzhong; Ketterson, John B.; Hoffmann, Axel
2015-11-06
We demonstrate the generation and detection of spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance in Pt/Y3Fe5O12 (YIG) bilayers. A unique attribute of this system is that the spin Hall effect lies at the heart of both the generation and detection processes and no charge current is passing through the insulating magnetic layer. When the YIG undergoes resonance, a dc voltage is detected longitudinally along the Pt that can be described by two components. One is the mixing of the spin Hall magnetoresistance with the microwave current. The other results from spin pumping into the Pt being converted to a dc current through the inverse spin Hall effect. The voltage is measured with applied magnetic field directions that range in-plane to nearly perpendicular. We find that for magnetic fields that are mostly out-of-plane, an imaginary component of the spin mixing conductance is required to model our data.
Nayak, Ajaya K; Fischer, Julia Erika; Sun, Yan; Yan, Binghai; Karel, Julie; Komarek, Alexander C; Shekhar, Chandra; Kumar, Nitesh; Schnelle, Walter; Kübler, Jürgen; Felser, Claudia; Parkin, Stuart S P
2016-04-01
It is well established that the anomalous Hall effect displayed by a ferromagnet scales with its magnetization. Therefore, an antiferromagnet that has no net magnetization should exhibit no anomalous Hall effect. We show that the noncolinear triangular antiferromagnet Mn3Ge exhibits a large anomalous Hall effect comparable to that of ferromagnetic metals; the magnitude of the anomalous conductivity is ~500 (ohm·cm)(-1) at 2 K and ~50 (ohm·cm)(-1) at room temperature. The angular dependence of the anomalous Hall effect measurements confirms that the small residual in-plane magnetic moment has no role in the observed effect except to control the chirality of the spin triangular structure. Our theoretical calculations demonstrate that the large anomalous Hall effect in Mn3Ge originates from a nonvanishing Berry curvature that arises from the chiral spin structure, and that also results in a large spin Hall effect of 1100 (ħ/e) (ohm·cm)(-1), comparable to that of platinum. The present results pave the way toward the realization of room temperature antiferromagnetic spintronics and spin Hall effect-based data storage devices.
Meng, K. K.; Miao, J.; Xu, X. G.; Wu, Y.; Zhao, X. P.; Zhao, J. H.; Jiang, Y.
2016-12-01
We report systematic measurements of anomalous Hall effect (AHE) and spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in MnGa/IrMn films, in which a single L 10-MnGa epitaxial layer reveals obvious orbital two-channel Kondo (2CK) effect. As increasing the thickness of the antiferromagnet IrMn, the strong spin Hall effect (SHE) has gradually suppressed the orbital 2CK effect and modified the AHE of MnGa. A scaling involving multiple competing scattering mechanisms has been used to distinguish different contributions to the modified AHE. Finally, the sizeable SOT in the MnGa/IrMn films induced by the strong SHE of IrMn have been investigated. The IrMn layer also supplies an in-plane exchange bias field and enables nearly field-free magnetization reversal.
Anomalous Hall effect in Cr doped FeSi
Yadam, Sankararao, E-mail: sankararao.yadam@gmail.com; Lakhani, Archana; Singh, Durgesh; Prasad, Rudra; Ganesan, V. [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, University Campus, Khandwa Road, Indore-452001 (India)
2016-05-23
Investigations of economically affordable bulk materials for the spin based electronics are in huge demand. In this direction, electrical and Hall transport properties of the polycrystalline Cr doped Kondo insulator FeSi, i.e Fe{sub 0.975}Cr{sub 0.025}Si is reported. Well agreement between temperature dependence of the Hall and linear resistivity are observed. The observed minimum at ~19 K in the resistivity is attributed to the ferromagnetic transition temperature (T{sub C}). Anomalous Hall resistivity is seen in the itinerant ferromagnet, Fe{sub 0.975}Cr{sub 0.025}Si well below the T{sub C}. The obtained Hall resistivity is comparable with that of the spintronic material Fe{sub 0.9}Co{sub 0.1}Si. The present study proves that the electrical transport properties of bulk materials made by low cost elements such as Fe, Cr and Si exhibits large magnetic field effects and are useful for the spintronics applications, unlike spintronics material (Ga, Mn)As that demand higher costs.
Hall effect in cobalt-doped TiO$_{2-\\delta}$
2003-01-01
We report Hall effect measurements on thin films of cobalt-doped TiO$_{2-\\delta}$. Films with low carrier concentrations (10$^{18}$ - 10$^{19}$) yield a linear behavior in the Hall data while those having higher carrier concentrations (10$^{21}$ - 10$^{22}$) display anomalous behavior near zero field. In the entire range of carrier concentration, n-type conduction is observed. The appearance of the anomalous behavior is accompanied by a possible structural change from rutile TiO$_{2}$ to Ti$_...
Chen, Zhenyu; Liu, Yang; Fu, Zhenxian; Song, Shenmin; Tan, Jiubin
2016-06-14
To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization) is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers.
Zhenyu Chen
2016-06-01
Full Text Available To determine the planar motion of a 6-DOF precision stage, a measurement system based on three Hall sensors is adopted to obtain the X, Y, Rz motions of the stage. The machining and assembly errors in the actual mechanical system, which are difficult to measure directly, cause the parameters in the model of the Hall measurement system to deviate from their designed values. Additionally, the vertical movement of the stage will render the measurement model nonlinear. To guarantee the accuracy of the measurement, the parameters in the measurement model should be estimated and the nonlinearity compensated. In this paper, a novel approach based on self-adaptive hybrid TLBO (teaching-learning-based-optimization is proposed to estimate the parameters in the Hall measurement model. The influences of zero deviations and vertical movements on the measurement accuracy are analyzed and compensated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is validated by experimental results obtained on a 6-DOF precision stage. Thanks to parameter estimation and calibration, the measurement error of the Hall sensor array is reduced to 6 micrometers.
Rindel, Jens Holger; Shiokawa, Hiroyoshi; Christensen, Claus Lynge;
1999-01-01
A number of European concert halls were surveyed in 1989. In this paper comparisons are made between measured room acoustical parameters and those obtained from computer simulations on concert halls using the odeon program version 3.1. The key parameter compared with measured data is the reverber......A number of European concert halls were surveyed in 1989. In this paper comparisons are made between measured room acoustical parameters and those obtained from computer simulations on concert halls using the odeon program version 3.1. The key parameter compared with measured data...... is the reverberation time, and this is mainly used to adjust the absorption data of the surfaces in the computer model. But five additional parameters are calculated and compared with measured data as well. In order to determine the sensitivity of the computer model, comparisons are also made between the results...
Electrical detection of coherent spin precession using the ballistic intrinsic spin Hall effect.
Choi, Won Young; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Han, Suk Hee; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Johnson, Mark
2015-08-01
The spin-orbit interaction in two-dimensional electron systems provides an exceptionally rich area of research. Coherent spin precession in a Rashba effective magnetic field in the channel of a spin field-effect transistor and the spin Hall effect are the two most compelling topics in this area. Here, we combine these effects to provide a direct demonstration of the ballistic intrinsic spin Hall effect and to demonstrate a technique for an all-electric measurement of the Datta-Das conductance oscillation, that is, the oscillation in the source-drain conductance due to spin precession. Our hybrid device has a ferromagnet electrode as a spin injector and a spin Hall detector. Results from multiple devices with different channel lengths map out two full wavelengths of the Datta-Das oscillation. We also use the original Datta-Das technique with a single device of fixed length and measure the channel conductance as the gate voltage is varied. Our experiments show that the ballistic spin Hall effect can be used for efficient injection or detection of spin polarized electrons, thereby enabling the development of an integrated spin transistor.
Current Percolation in Medium with Boundaries under Quantum Hall Effect Conditions
M. U. Malakeeva
2012-01-01
Full Text Available The current percolation has been considered in the medium with boundaries under quantum Hall effect conditions. It has been shown that in that case the effective Hall conductivity has a nonzero value due to percolation of the Hall current through the finite number of singular points (in our model these are corners at the phase joints.
Spin Hall effects in metallic multilayers (Conference Presentation)
Woltersdorf, Georg; Wei, Dahai H.; Obstbaum, Martin; Back, Christian H.; Decker, Martin
2016-10-01
We study the direct as well as the inverse SHE. In the case of the direct SHE a dc charge current is applied in the plane of a ferromagnet/normal metal layer stack and the SHE creates a spin polarization at the surface of the normal metal leading to the injection of a spin current into the ferromagnet. This spin current is absorbed in the ferromagnet and causes a spin transfer torque. Using time and spatially resolved Kerr microscopy we measure the transferred spin momentum and compute the spin Hall angle. In a second set of experiments using identical samples pure spin currents are injected by the spin pumping effect from the ferromagnet into the normal metal. The spin current injected by spin pumping has a large ac component transverse to the static magnetization direction and a very small dc component parallel to the magnetization direction. The inverse SHE converts these spin current into charge current. The corresponding inverse SHE voltages induced by spin pumping at ferromagnetic resonance are measured in permalloy/platinum and permalloy/gold multilayers in various excitation geometries and as a function of frequency in order to separate the contributions of anisotropic magnetoresistance and SHE. In addition, we present experimental evidence for the ac component of inverse SHE voltages generated by spin pumping.
Simplifying Nanowire Hall Effect Characterization by Using a Three-Probe Device Design.
Hultin, Olof; Otnes, Gaute; Samuelson, Lars; Storm, Kristian
2017-02-08
Electrical characterization of nanowires is a time-consuming and challenging task due to the complexity of single nanowire device fabrication and the difficulty in interpreting the measurements. We present a method to measure Hall effect in nanowires using a three-probe device that is simpler to fabricate than previous four-probe nanowire Hall devices and allows characterization of nanowires with smaller diameter. Extraction of charge carrier concentration from the three-probe measurements using an analytical model is discussed and compared to simulations. The validity of the method is experimentally verified by a comparison between results obtained with the three-probe method and results obtained using four-probe nanowire Hall measurements. In addition, a nanowire with a diameter of only 65 nm is characterized to demonstrate the capabilities of the method. The three-probe Hall effect method offers a relatively fast and simple, yet accurate way to quantify the charge carrier concentration in nanowires and has the potential to become a standard characterization technique for nanowires.
Observation of the geometric spin Hall effect of light
Korger, Jan; Chille, Vanessa; Banzer, Peter; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lindlein, Norbert; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2013-01-01
The spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) is the photonic analogue of spin Hall effects occurring for charge carriers in solid-state systems. A prime example of this intriguing phenomenon occurs when a light beam refracts at an air-glass interface. It amounts to a polarization-dependent displacement perpendicular to the plane of incidence. At optical wavelengths, this shift is about a few tens of nanometres. Recently, it was predicted that a light beam projected onto an oblique plane can undergo a significantly larger displacement. This effect, named geometric SHEL, is a consequence of spin-orbit coupling and is largely independent from the physical implementation of the projection. Here, we experimentally demonstrate this novel phenomenon by observing an optical beam transmitted across an oblique polarizer. The spatial intensity distribution of the transmitted beam depends on the incident state of polarization and its centroid undergoes a positional displacement exceeding one wavelength. This novel type of spin-o...
Effect of quantum tunneling on spin Hall magnetoresistance
Ok, Seulgi; Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Manske, Dirk
2017-02-01
We present a formalism that simultaneously incorporates the effect of quantum tunneling and spin diffusion on the spin Hall magnetoresistance observed in normal metal/ferromagnetic insulator bilayers (such as Pt/Y3Fe5O12) and normal metal/ferromagnetic metal bilayers (such as Pt/Co), in which the angle of magnetization influences the magnetoresistance of the normal metal. In the normal metal side the spin diffusion is known to affect the landscape of the spin accumulation caused by spin Hall effect and subsequently the magnetoresistance, while on the ferromagnet side the quantum tunneling effect is detrimental to the interface spin current which also affects the spin accumulation. The influence of generic material properties such as spin diffusion length, layer thickness, interface coupling, and insulating gap can be quantified in a unified manner, and experiments that reveal the quantum feature of the magnetoresistance are suggested.
Observation of the geometric spin Hall effect of light.
Korger, Jan; Aiello, Andrea; Chille, Vanessa; Banzer, Peter; Wittmann, Christoffer; Lindlein, Norbert; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2014-03-21
The spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) is the photonic analogue of the spin Hall effect occurring for charge carriers in solid-state systems. This intriguing phenomenon manifests itself when a light beam refracts at an air-glass interface (conventional SHEL) or when it is projected onto an oblique plane, the latter effect being known as the geometric SHEL. It amounts to a polarization-dependent displacement perpendicular to the plane of incidence. In this work, we experimentally investigate the geometric SHEL for a light beam transmitted across an oblique polarizer. We find that the spatial intensity distribution of the transmitted beam depends on the incident state of polarization and its centroid undergoes a positional displacement exceeding one wavelength. This novel phenomenon is virtually independent from the material properties of the polarizer and, thus, reveals universal features of spin-orbit coupling.
Hall Effects on MHD Flow Through a Porous Straight Channel
N. Bhaskara Reddy
1982-10-01
Full Text Available The effect of Hall currents on the flow of a viscous incompressible slightly conducting fluid through a porous straight channel under a uniform transverse magnetic field is considered. The pressure gradient is taken as constant quantity and the case of steady flow is obtained by taking the time since the start of the motion to be infinite. Skin friction, temperature distribution and coefficients of heat transfer at both the plates have been evaluated. The effects of Hall parameter, magnetic parameter and Reynolds number on the above physical quantities have been investigated. Velocity distribution when the pressure gradient (i varies linearly with time, and (ii decreases exponentially with time has also been evaluated.
Hall effect in quantum critical charge-cluster glass.
Wu, Jie; Bollinger, Anthony T; Sun, Yujie; Božović, Ivan
2016-04-19
Upon doping, cuprates undergo a quantum phase transition from an insulator to a d-wave superconductor. The nature of this transition and of the insulating state is vividly debated. Here, we study the Hall effect in La2-xSrxCuO4(LSCO) samples doped near the quantum critical point atx∼ 0.06. Dramatic fluctuations in the Hall resistance appear belowTCG∼ 1.5 K and increase as the sample is cooled down further, signaling quantum critical behavior. We explore the doping dependence of this effect in detail, by studying a combinatorial LSCO library in which the Sr content is varied in extremely fine steps,Δx∼ 0.00008. We observe that quantum charge fluctuations wash out when superconductivity emerges but can be restored when the latter is suppressed by applying a magnetic field, showing that the two instabilities compete for the ground state.
Interfacial scattering effect on anomalous Hall effect in Ni/Au multilayers
Zhang, Qiang
2017-04-21
The effect of interfacial scattering on anomalous Hall effect (AHE) was studied in the ${{\\\\left(\\\\text{N}{{\\\\text{i}}_{\\\\frac{36}{n}~\\\\text{nm}}}/\\\\text{A}{{\\\\text{u}}_{\\\\frac{12}{n}~\\\\text{nm}}}\\ ight)}_{n}}$ multilayers. Field-dependent Hall resistivity was measured in the temperature range of 5–300 K with the magnetic field up to 50 kOe. The anomalous Hall resistivity (${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}$ ) was enhanced by more than six times at 5 K from n = 1 to n = 12 due to the increased interfacial scattering, whereas the longitudinal resistivity (${{\\ ho}_{xx}}$ ) was increased nearly three times. A scaling relation ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}\\\\sim \\ ho _{xx}^{\\\\gamma}$ with $\\\\gamma =1.85$ was obtained for ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}$ and ${{\\ ho}_{xx}}$ measured at 5 K, indicating that the dominant mechanism(s) of the AHE in these multilayers should be side-jump or/and intrinsic in nature. The new scaling relation ${{\\ ho}_{\\\\text{AHE}}}=\\\\alpha {{\\ ho}_{xx0}}+\\\\beta \\ ho _{xx0}^{2}+b\\ ho _{xx}^{2}$ (Tian et al 2009 Phys. Rev. Lett. 103 087206) has been applied to our data to identify the origin of the AHE in this type of multilayer.
Hall Effect Influence on a Highly Conducting Fluid
Witalis, E.A.
1966-11-15
The properties of an incompressible perfect fluid exhibiting Hall effect is investigated in the limit of infinite electrical conductivity and mobility. The magnetic field strength and the fluid velocity are found to obey the equations B = {mu}{rho}/{sigma} x curlV and V -{mu}/({sigma}{mu}{sub 0}) x curlB (MKS units) where {rho}, {sigma} and {mu} denote mass density, conductivity and charge carrier mobility. Some physical interpretations and applications are given.
Extraordinary Hall-effect in colloidal magnetic nanoparticle films
Ben Gur, Leah; Tirosh, Einat; Segal, Amir; Markovich, Gil; Gerber, Alexander
2017-03-01
Colloidal nickel nanoparticles (NPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized. The nanoparticle dispersions were deposited on substrates and dried under mild heating to form conductive films. The films exhibited very small coercivity, nearly metallic conductivity, and a significant extraordinary Hall effect signal. This method could be useful for preparing simple, printed magnetic field sensors with the advantage of relatively high sensitivity around zero magnetic field, in contrast to magnetoresistive sensors, which have maximal field sensitivity away from zero magnetic field.
Heating process in the pre-Breakdown regime of the Quantum Hall Efect : a size dependent effect
Meziani, Y. M.; Chaubet, C.; Jouault, B; Bonifacie, S.; Raymond, A; Poirier, W; Piquemal, F.
2003-01-01
Our study presents experimental measurements of the contact and longitudinal voltage drops in Hall bars, as a function of the current amplitude. We are interested in the heating phenomenon which takes place before the breakdown of the quantum Hall effect, i.e. the pre-breakdown regime. Two types of samples has been investigated, at low temperature (4.2 and 1.5K) and high magnetic field (up to 13 T). The Hall bars have several different widths, and our observations clearly demonstrate that the...
Topological thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome antiferromagnets
Owerre, S. A.
2017-01-01
In frustrated magnets the Dzyaloshinsky-Moriya interaction (DMI) arising from spin-orbit coupling can induce a magnetic long-range order. Here, we report a theoretical prediction of the thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome magnets such as KCr3(OH) 6(SO4) 2 and KFe3(OH) 6(SO4)2 . The thermal Hall effects in these materials are induced by scalar spin chirality as opposed to DMI in previous studies. The scalar spin chirality originates from the magnetic-field-induced chiral spin configuration due to noncoplanar spin textures, but in general it can be spontaneously developed as a macroscopic order parameter in chiral quantum spin liquids. Therefore, we infer that there is a possibility of the thermal Hall effect in frustrated kagome magnets such as herbertsmithite ZnCu3(OH) 6Cl2 and the chromium compound Ca10Cr7O28 , although they also show evidence of magnetic long-range order in the presence of applied magnetic field or pressure.
Finite-temperature effective boundary theory of the quantized thermal Hall effect
Nakai, Ryota; Ryu, Shinsei; Nomura, Kentaro
2016-02-01
A finite-temperature effective free energy of the boundary of a quantized thermal Hall system is derived microscopically from the bulk two-dimensional Dirac fermion coupled with a gravitational field. In two spatial dimensions, the thermal Hall conductivity of fully gapped insulators and superconductors is quantized and given by the bulk Chern number, in analogy to the quantized electric Hall conductivity in quantum Hall systems. From the perspective of effective action functionals, two distinct types of the field theory have been proposed to describe the quantized thermal Hall effect. One of these, known as the gravitational Chern-Simons action, is a kind of topological field theory, and the other is a phenomenological theory relevant to the Strěda formula. In order to solve this problem, we derive microscopically an effective theory that accounts for the quantized thermal Hall effect. In this paper, the two-dimensional Dirac fermion under a static background gravitational field is considered in equilibrium at a finite temperature, from which an effective boundary free energy functional of the gravitational field is derived. This boundary theory is shown to explain the quantized thermal Hall conductivity and thermal Hall current in the bulk by assuming the Lorentz symmetry. The bulk effective theory is consistently determined via the boundary effective theory.
Kim, Bom Soo; Shapere, Alfred D.
2016-09-01
We derive a generalized set of Ward identities that captures the effects of topological charge on Hall transport. The Ward identities follow from the (2 +1 )-dimensional momentum algebra, which includes a central extension proportional to the topological charge density. In the presence of topological objects like Skyrmions, we observe that the central term leads to a direct relation between the thermal Hall conductivity and the topological charge density. We extend this relation to incorporate the effects of a magnetic field and an electric current. The topological charge density produces a distinct signature in the electric Hall conductivity, which is identified in existing experimental data and yields further novel predictions. For insulating materials with translation invariance, the Hall viscosity can be directly determined from the Skyrmion density and the thermal Hall conductivity to be measured as a function of momentum.
Effects of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers
Guo, Z. B.
2012-09-27
In this paper, we report the results of surface and interface scattering on anomalous Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayers with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. The surface scattering effect has been extracted from the total anomalous Hall effect. By scaling surface scattering contribution with ρAHs∼ργss, the exponent γ has been found to decrease with the increase of surface scattering resistivity, which could account for the thickness-dependent anomalous Hall effect. Interface diffusion induced by rapid thermal annealing modifies not only the magnetization and longitudinal resistivity but also the anomalous Hall effect; a large exponent γ ∼ 5.7 has been attributed to interface scattering-dominated anomalous Hall effect.
Ghanim Thiab Hasan
2013-04-01
Full Text Available There are more concerns about possible health effects related to electromagnetic fields from computer monitors and other video display terminals because of the widespread using of computers in laboratories ,offices and internet halls. This research aims to detect the effect of electromagnetic field radiations in these halls and laboratories and study the successful ways of minimizing its negative health effect on human health. The research has been performed on both the mathematical calculations and practical measurements. The obtaining results show that the practical measurements are consistent with the mathematical calculations results. Comparison of these results with the safety standard guideline limits shows that they are within the acceptable exposuring limits recommended by the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP and that means there is no health risk from exposure to these fields if the exposure is within the acceptable limits.
Generalized Surface Polaritons and their quantum spin Hall effect
Xu, Yadong; Chen, Huanyang
2016-01-01
Surface polaritons, e.g., surface plasmon polaritons, are invaluable tools in nanophotonics. However, considerable plasmon loss narrows the application regime of plasmonic devices. Here we reveal some general conditions for lossless surface polaritons to emerge at the interface of a gain and a loss media. The gain medium does not only compensate the energy loss, but also modifies surface wave oscillation mechanisms. A new type of surface polaritons induced by the sign switch of the imaginary part of the permittivity across the interface is discovered. The surface polaritons exhibit spin Hall effect due to spin-momentum locking and unique Berry phase. The spin Hall coefficient changes the sign across the parity-time symmetric limit and becomes quantized for perfect metal-dielectric interface and for dielectric-dielectric interface with very large permittivity contrast, carrying opposite topological numbers. Our study opens a new direction for manipulating light with surface polaritons in non-Hermitian optical ...
Spin Hall effect induced spin transfer through an insulator
Chen, Wei; Sigrist, Manfred; Manske, Dirk
2016-09-01
When charge current passes through a normal metal that exhibits the spin Hall effect, spin accumulates at the edge of the sample in the transverse direction. We predict that this spin accumulation, or spin voltage, enables quantum tunneling of spin through an insulator or vacuum to reach a ferromagnet without transferring charge. In a normal metal/insulator/ferromagnetic insulator trilayer (such as Pt/oxide/YIG), the quantum tunneling explains the spin-transfer torque and spin pumping that exponentially decay with the thickness of the insulator. In a normal metal/insulator/ferromagnetic metal trilayer (such as Pt/oxide/Co), the spin transfer in general does not decay monotonically with the thickness of the insulator. Combining with the spin Hall magnetoresistance, this tunneling mechanism points to the possibility of a tunneling spectroscopy that can probe the magnon density of states of a ferromagnetic insulator in an all-electrical and noninvasive manner.
Quantum Hall effect in epitaxial graphene with permanent magnets
Parmentier, F. D.; Cazimajou, T.; Sekine, Y.; Hibino, H.; Irie, H.; Glattli, D. C.; Kumada, N.; Roulleau, P.
2016-12-01
We have observed the well-kown quantum Hall effect (QHE) in epitaxial graphene grown on silicon carbide (SiC) by using, for the first time, only commercial NdFeB permanent magnets at low temperature. The relatively large and homogeneous magnetic field generated by the magnets, together with the high quality of the epitaxial graphene films, enables the formation of well-developed quantum Hall states at Landau level filling factors v = ±2, commonly observed with superconducting electro-magnets. Furthermore, the chirality of the QHE edge channels can be changed by a top gate. These results demonstrate that basic QHE physics are experimentally accessible in graphene for a fraction of the price of conventional setups using superconducting magnets, which greatly increases the potential of the QHE in graphene for research and applications.
Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures
Manchon, Aurelien
2011-07-13
Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.
Non-collinear antiferromagnets and the anomalous Hall effect
Kübler, J.; Felser, C.
2014-12-01
The anomalous Hall effect is investigated theoretically by employing density functional calculations for the non-collinear antiferromagnetic order of the hexagonal compounds Mn3Ge and Mn3Sn using various planar triangular magnetic configurations as well as unexpected non-planar configurations. The former give rise to anomalous Hall conductivities (AHC) that are found to be extremely anisotropic. For the planar cases the AHC is connected with Weyl points in the energy-band structure. If this case were observable in Mn3Ge, a large AHC of about σzx≈ 900 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 should be expected. However, in Mn3Ge it is the non-planar configuration that is energetically favored, in which case it gives rise to an AHC of σxy≈ 100 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 . The non-planar configuration allows a quantitative evaluation of the topological Hall effect that is seen to determine this value of σxy to a large extent. For Mn3Sn it is the planar configurations that are predicted to be observable. In this case the AHC can be as large as σyz≈250 (Ω \\text{cm})-1 .
Covariant effective action for a Galilean invariant quantum Hall system
Geracie, Michael; Prabhu, Kartik; Roberts, Matthew M.
2016-09-01
We construct effective field theories for gapped quantum Hall systems coupled to background geometries with local Galilean invariance i.e. Bargmann spacetimes. Along with an electromagnetic field, these backgrounds include the effects of curved Galilean spacetimes, including torsion and a gravitational field, allowing us to study charge, energy, stress and mass currents within a unified framework. A shift symmetry specific to single constituent theories constraints the effective action to couple to an effective background gauge field and spin connection that is solved for by a self-consistent equation, providing a manifestly covariant extension of Hoyos and Son's improvement terms to arbitrary order in m.
Electronic properties of {mu}c-Si:H layers investigated with Hall measurements
Bronger, T.
2007-02-28
In the present work, the electronic properties of thin layers of PECVD-grown {mu}c-Si:H have been examined using the Hall effect. The main focus was on the mobility of the carriers because this is a crucial limiting factor for the electronic quality of this material, however, the density of free carriers as well as the conductivity were also determined. In order to get a picture as comprehensive as possible, a sample matrix was studied consisting of samples with different n-type doping levels and different crystallinities. Additionally, doped samples with artificially implanted defects which could be annealed gradually were investigated. All measurements have been made temperature-dependently. During the work, a new computer control and analysis program was developed from scratch for the Hall setup. It allows for high automation as well as comprehensive error estimation, both of which being very important for high ohmic samples. All samples showed a thermally activated mobility and carrier concentration, however, there is no single activation energy. Instead, all Arrhenius plots exhibited a more or less pronounced convex curvature. This curvature was identified with the parallel connection of a broad distribution of barriers in the material, which are limiting to the transport and are overcome by thermoionic emission. From this, the model of normally distributed barriers (NDB) was derived, mathematically investigated, and successfully applied to the experimental data of this work and (for not too highly doped samples) of other works. As a significant validation of the NDB model, the relative room-temperature mobility values could be calculated just from the Arrhenius slopes and curvatures. A very important dependence turned out to be mobility versus carrier concentration. In particular the annealed sample showed a clear {mu} {proportional_to} n{sup 1/2} behaviour, which could be backed with the sample matrix. Additionally, Hall measurements on HWCVD-grown {mu
Hall measurements on carbon nanotube paper modified with electroless deposited platinum.
Petrik, Leslie; Ndungu, Patrick; Iwuoha, Emmanuel
2009-09-18
Carbon nanotube paper, sometimes referred to as bucky paper, is a random arrangement of carbon nanotubes meshed into a single robust structure, which can be manipulated with relative ease. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to make the nanotube paper, and were subsequently modified with platinum using an electroless deposition method based on substrate enhanced electroless deposition. This involves the use of a sacrificial metal substrate that undergoes electro-dissolution while the platinum metal deposits out of solution onto the nanotube paper via a galvanic displacement reaction. The samples were characterized using SEM/EDS, and Hall-effect measurements. The SEM/EDS analysis clearly revealed deposits of platinum (Pt) distributed over the nanotube paper surface, and the qualitative elemental analysis revealed co-deposition of other elements from the metal substrates used. When stainless steel was used as sacrificial metal a large degree of Pt contamination with various other metals was observed. Whereas when pure sacrificial metals were used bimetallic Pt clusters resulted. The co-deposition of a bimetallic system upon carbon nanotubes was a function of the metal type and the time of exposure. Hall-effect measurements revealed some interesting fluctuations in sheet carrier density and the dominant carrier switched from N- to P-type when Pt was deposited onto the nanotube paper. Perspectives on the use of the nanotube paper as a replacement to traditional carbon cloth in water electrolysis systems are also discussed.
Hall Measurements on Carbon Nanotube Paper Modified With Electroless Deposited Platinum
Iwuoha Emmanuel
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract Carbon nanotube paper, sometimes referred to as bucky paper, is a random arrangement of carbon nanotubes meshed into a single robust structure, which can be manipulated with relative ease. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes were used to make the nanotube paper, and were subsequently modified with platinum using an electroless deposition method based on substrate enhanced electroless deposition. This involves the use of a sacrificial metal substrate that undergoes electro-dissolution while the platinum metal deposits out of solution onto the nanotube paper via a galvanic displacement reaction. The samples were characterized using SEM/EDS, and Hall-effect measurements. The SEM/EDS analysis clearly revealed deposits of platinum (Pt distributed over the nanotube paper surface, and the qualitative elemental analysis revealed co-deposition of other elements from the metal substrates used. When stainless steel was used as sacrificial metal a large degree of Pt contamination with various other metals was observed. Whereas when pure sacrificial metals were used bimetallic Pt clusters resulted. The co-deposition of a bimetallic system upon carbon nanotubes was a function of the metal type and the time of exposure. Hall-effect measurements revealed some interesting fluctuations in sheet carrier density and the dominant carrier switched from N- to P-type when Pt was deposited onto the nanotube paper. Perspectives on the use of the nanotube paper as a replacement to traditional carbon cloth in water electrolysis systems are also discussed.
Specific heat in the second Landau level fractional quantum Hall effect
Schmidt, B. A.; Bennaceur, K.; Gaucher, S.; Gervais, G.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2016-01-01
Specific heat has had an important role in the study of superfluidity and superconductivity, and could provide important information on the fractional quantum Hall effect as well. However, tra- ditional measurements of the specific heat of a two-dimensional electron gas are difficult due to the large background contribution of the phonon bath, even at very low temperatures. Here, we report measurements of the specific heat per electron of a single two-dimensional electron gas with no contribu...
Quark confinement and the fractional quantum Hall effect
WANG Hai-Jun; GENG Wen-Tong
2008-01-01
Working in the physics of Wilson factor and Aharonov-Bohm effect,we find in the fluxtubequark system the topology of a baryon consisting of three heavy flavor quarks resembles that of the fractional quantum Hall effect(FQHE)in condensed matter.This similarity yields the result that the constituent quarks of baryon have the"filling factor"1/3.thus the previous conjecture that quark confinement is a correlation effect is confirmed.Moreover,by deriving a Hamiltonian of the system analogous to that of FQHE,we predict an energy gap for the ground state of a heavy three-quark system.
Zhang, Yang; Sun, Yan; Yang, Hao; Železný, Jakub; Parkin, Stuart P. P.; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai
2017-02-01
We have carried out a comprehensive study of the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect of several chiral antiferromagnetic compounds Mn3X (X = Ge, Sn, Ga, Ir, Rh and Pt) by ab initio band structure and Berry phase calculations. These studies reveal large and anisotropic values of both the intrinsic anomalous Hall effect and spin Hall effect. The Mn3X materials exhibit a noncollinear antiferromagnetic order which, to avoid geometrical frustration, forms planes of Mn moments that are arranged in a Kagome-type lattice. With respect to these Kagome planes, we find that both the anomalous Hall conductivity (AHC) and the spin Hall conductivity (SHC) are quite anisotropic for any of these materials. Based on our calculations, we propose how to maximize AHC and SHC for different materials. The band structures and corresponding electron filling, that we show are essential to determine the AHC and SHC, are compared for these different compounds. We point out that Mn3Ga shows a large SHC of about 600 (ℏ /e ) (Ωcm) -1 . Our work provides insights into the realization of strong anomalous Hall effects and spin Hall effects in chiral antiferromagnetic materials.
Anomalous Hall Effect in Geometrically Frustrated Magnets
D. Boldrin
2012-01-01
space mechanism based on spin chirality that was originally applied to the pyrochlore Nd2Mo2O7 appears unsatisfactory. Recently, an orbital description based on the Aharonov-Bohm effect has been proposed and applied to both the ferromagnetic pyrochlores Nd2Mo2O7 and Pr2Ir2O7; the first of which features long-ranged magnetic order while the latter is a chiral spin liquid. Two further examples of geometrically frustrated conducting magnets are presented in this paper—the kagome-like Fe3Sn2 and the triangular PdCrO2. These possess very different electronic structures to the 3-dimensional heavy-metal pyrochlores and provide new opportunities to explore the different origins of the AHE. This paper summarises the experimental findings in these materials in an attempt to unite the conflicting theoretical arguments.
Anomalous Hall effect of heavy holes in Ⅲ-Ⅴ semiconductor quantum wells
Wang Zhi-Gang; Zhang Ping
2007-01-01
The anomalous Hall effect of heavy holes in semiconductor quantum wells is studied in the intrinsic transport regime, where the Berry curvature governs the Hall current properties. Based on the first-order perturbation of wave function the expression of the Hall conductivity the same as that from the semiclassical equation of motion of the Bloch particles is derived. The dependence of Hall conductivity on the system parameters is shown. The amplitude of Hall conductivity is found to be balanced by a competition between the Zeeman splitting and the spin-orbit splitting.
Field Decay and Snapback Measurements using a Fast Hall Plate Detector
Benedico, E; Haverkamp, M; ten Haken, B; ten Kate, H H J; Sanfilippo, S
2002-01-01
In superconducting particle accelerators significant changes occur in tune and chromaticity during the injection of particles and their subsequent acceleration. This behavior is caused by the decay of magnetic field components in the superconducting accelerator magnets during injection and their so-called "snapback" to the original hysteresis curve during the first few seconds after the start of the energy ramp. The two effects are closely related to a spatially periodic modulation of all field components along the magnet axis. In order to avoid a loss of particles the sextupole component in the dipoles has to be compensated with a very high accuracy. Standard magnetic measurements using rotating coils do not have the time resolution required to completely resolve the snapback. For this reason we have developed a fast system for sextupole measurements consisting of three Hall plates mounted on a ring. A new calibration procedure for the first time allows quantitative results. The detector is used to measure d...
Trap healing and ultralow-noise Hall effect at the surface of organic semiconductors.
Lee, B; Chen, Y; Fu, D; Yi, H T; Czelen, K; Najafov, H; Podzorov, V
2013-12-01
Fundamental studies of intrinsic charge transport properties of organic semiconductors are often hindered by charge traps associated with static disorder present even in optimized single-crystal devices. Here, we report a method of surface functionalization using an inert non-conjugated polymer, perfluoropolyether (PFPE), deposited at the surface of organic molecular crystals, which results in accumulation of mobile holes and a 'trap healing' effect at the crystal/PFPE interface. As a consequence, a remarkable ultralow-noise, trp-free conduction regime characterized by intrinsic mobility and transport anisotropy emerges in organic single crystals, and Hall effect measurements with an unprecedented signal-to-noise ratio are demonstrated. This general method to convert trap-dominated organic semiconductors to intrinsic systems may enable the determination of intrinsic transport parameters with high accuracy and make Hall effect measurements in molecular crystals ubiquitous.
Low-temperature Hall effect in bismuth chalcogenides thin films
Kuntsevich, A. Yu.; Gabdullin, A. A.; Prudkogliad, V. A.; Selivanov, Yu. G.; Chizhevskii, E. G.; Pudalov, V. M.
2016-12-01
Bismuth chalcogenides are the most studied 3D topological insulators. As a rule, at low temperatures, thin films of these materials demonstrate positive magnetoresistance due to weak antilocalization. Weak antilocalization should lead to resistivity decrease at low temperatures; in experiments, however, resistivity grows as temperature decreases. From transport measurements for several thin films (with various carrier density, thickness, and carrier mobility), and by using a purely phenomenological approach, with no microscopic theory, we show that the low-temperature growth of the resistivity is accompanied by growth of the Hall coefficient, in agreement with the diffusive electron-electron interaction correction mechanism. Our data reasonably explain the low-temperature resistivity upturn.
Orbitronics: the Intrinsic Orbital Hall Effect in p-Doped Silicon
Bernevig, B.Andrei; Hughes, Taylor L.; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-01-15
The spin Hall effect depends crucially on the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling of the energy band. Because of the smaller spin-orbit coupling in silicon, the spin Hall effect is expected to be much reduced. We show that the electric field in p-doped silicon can induce a dissipationless orbital current in a fashion reminiscent of the spin Hall effect. The vertex correction due to impurity scattering vanishes and the effect is therefore robust against disorder. The orbital Hall effect can lead to the accumulation of local orbital momentum at the edge of the sample, and can be detected by the Kerr effect.
The spin Hall effect as a probe of nonlinear spin fluctuations.
Wei, D H; Niimi, Y; Gu, B; Ziman, T; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y
2012-01-01
The spin Hall effect and its inverse have key roles in spintronic devices as they allow conversion of charge currents to and from spin currents. The conversion efficiency strongly depends on material details, such as the electronic band structure and the nature of impurities. Here we show an anomaly in the inverse spin Hall effect in weak ferromagnetic NiPd alloys near their Curie temperatures with a shape independent of material details, such as Ni concentrations. By extending Kondo's model for the anomalous Hall effect, we explain the observed anomaly as originating from the second-order nonlinear spin fluctuation of Ni moments. This brings to light an essential symmetry difference between the spin Hall effect and the anomalous Hall effect, which reflects the first-order nonlinear fluctuations of local moments. Our finding opens up a new application of the spin Hall effect, by which a minuscule magnetic moment can be detected.
Precise Quantization of the Anomalous Hall Effect near Zero Magnetic Field
Bestwick, A. J.; Fox, E. J.; Kou, Xufeng; Pan, Lei; Wang, Kang L.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2015-05-01
We report a nearly ideal quantum anomalous Hall effect in a three-dimensional topological insulator thin film with ferromagnetic doping. Near zero applied magnetic field we measure exact quantization in the Hall resistance to within a part per 10 000 and a longitudinal resistivity under 1 Ω per square, with chiral edge transport explicitly confirmed by nonlocal measurements. Deviations from this behavior are found to be caused by thermally activated carriers, as indicated by an Arrhenius law temperature dependence. Using the deviations as a thermometer, we demonstrate an unexpected magnetocaloric effect and use it to reach near-perfect quantization by cooling the sample below the dilution refrigerator base temperature in a process approximating adiabatic demagnetization refrigeration.
In Situ Hall Effect Monitoring of Vacuum Annealing of In2O3:H Thin Films
Hans F. Wardenga
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Hydrogen doped In2O3 thin films were prepared by room temperature sputter deposition with the addition of H2O to the sputter gas. By subsequent vacuum annealing, the films obtain high mobility up to 90 cm2/Vs. The films were analyzed in situ by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and ex situ by X-ray diffraction (XRD, optical transmission and Hall effect measurements. Furthermore, we present results from in situ Hall effect measurements during vacuum annealing of In2O3:H films, revealing distinct dependence of carrier concentration and mobility with time at different annealing temperatures. We suggest hydrogen passivation of grain boundaries as the main reason for the high mobility obtained with In2O3:H films.
Magneto-Optical Detection of the Spin Hall Effect in Pt and W Thin Films
Stamm, C.; Murer, C.; Berritta, M.; Feng, J.; Gabureac, M.; Oppeneer, P. M.; Gambardella, P.
2017-08-01
The conversion of charge currents into spin currents in nonmagnetic conductors is a hallmark manifestation of spin-orbit coupling that has important implications for spintronic devices. Here we report the measurement of the interfacial spin accumulation induced by the spin Hall effect in Pt and W thin films using magneto-optical Kerr microscopy. We show that the Kerr rotation has opposite sign in Pt and W and scales linearly with current density. By comparing the experimental results with ab initio calculations of the spin Hall and magneto-optical Kerr effects, we quantitatively determine the current-induced spin accumulation at the Pt interface as 5 ×10-12 μB A-1 cm2 per atom. From thickness-dependent measurements, we determine the spin diffusion length in a single Pt film to be 11 ±3 nm , which is significantly larger compared to that of Pt adjacent to a magnetic layer.
High spatial resolution Hall sensor array for edge plasma magnetic field measurements
Liu, Yuhong; Maurer, David A.; Navratil, Gerald A.; Rivera, Nicholas
2005-09-01
A one-dimensional, high-spatial resolution, 20-element Hall sensor array has been developed to directly measure the edge plasma perpendicular magnetic field and its fluctuations as a function of radius with 4-mm resolution. The array employs new small-area, high-sensitivity indium antimonide (InSb) Hall probes in combination with a high-density seven-layer printed circuit board to provide for connections to supply Hall current, record the measured Hall voltage output signals, and mitigate inductive pickup. A combination of bench and in situ measurements is described that provides absolute calibration of the diagnostic array in the presence of a strong transverse magnetic field component that is approximately 1000 times greater than the perpendicular fluctuating field needed to be resolved by the diagnostic. The Hall probes calibrated using this method are capable of magnetic field measurements with a sensitivity of 7V/T over the frequency band from 0 to 20 kHz.
Vortex equations governing the fractional quantum Hall effect
Medina, Luciano, E-mail: lmedina@nyu.edu [Department of Mathematics, Polytechnic School of Engineering, New York University, Brooklyn, New York 11201 (United States)
2015-09-15
An existence theory is established for a coupled non-linear elliptic system, known as “vortex equations,” describing the fractional quantum Hall effect in 2-dimensional double-layered electron systems. Via variational methods, we prove the existence and uniqueness of multiple vortices over a doubly periodic domain and the full plane. In the doubly periodic situation, explicit sufficient and necessary conditions are obtained that relate the size of the domain and the vortex numbers. For the full plane case, existence is established for all finite-energy solutions and exponential decay estimates are proved. Quantization phenomena of the magnetic flux are found in both cases.
TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect
Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.
Coherent control of plasmonic Spin Hall effect (Conference Presentation)
Xiao, Shiyi; Zhong, Fan; Liu, Hui; Zhu, Shining; Li, Jensen
2016-10-01
We demonstrate spin-induced manipulation of surface-plasmon polariton (SPP) by exploiting the plasmonic spin Hall effect. By constructing metasurfaces with plasmonic atoms and varying spin-dependent geometric phase, we establish a holographic interface between an incident plane wave and the SPP on an optical chip. It allows us to gain spin-splitting and flexible control of the shapes and phases of the local SPP orbitals. Furthermore, a linearly polarized incident light with rotating polarization angle can be used to play a motion picture of the orbitals. These investigations provide a feasible route to many applications, including spin-enabled imaging, data storage and integrated optics.
Spin Hall effect of a light beam in anisotropic metamaterials
Tang Ming; Zhou Xin-Xing; Luo Hai-Lu; Wen Shuang-Chun
2012-01-01
We theoretically investigate a switchable spin Hall effect of light (SHEL) in reflection for three specific dispersion relations at an air-anisotropic metamaterial interface.The displacements of horizontal and vertical polarization components vary with the incident angle at different dispersion relations.The transverse displacements can be obtained with the relevant metamaterial whose refractive index can be arbitrarily tailed.The results of the SHEL in the metamaterial provide a new way for manipulating the transverse displacements of a specific polarization component.
$W_{\\infty}$ algebra in the integer quantum Hall effects
Azuma, Hiroo
1994-01-01
We investigate the $W_{\\infty}$ algebra in the integer quantum Hall effects. Defining the simplest vacuum, the Dirac sea, we evaluate the central extension for this algebra. A new algebra which contains the central extension is called the $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra. We show that this $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra is an origin of the Kac-Moody algebra which determines the behavior of edge states of the system. We discuss the relation between the $W_{1+\\infty}$ algebra and the incompressibility of the int...
Thermo EMF and Hall effect behaviour of thin films of antimony-tellurium alloy
Dhiren Singh, N. (Dept. of Physics, Manipur Univ., Imphal (India)); Sarma, H.N.K. (Dept. of Physics, Manipur Univ., Imphal (India))
1994-04-16
This note presents the results of measurements of thermo emf and Hall effect of Sb[sub 40]Te[sub 60] alloy thin films. The alloy was prepared by taking a stoichiometric mixture (2:3) of high purity elements antimony and tellurium each of purity 99.999 (Koch-Light Laboratories Ltd., England) in a vacuum sealed quartz tube and heating in a furnace to a temperature of about 1070 K for 12 h. (orig.)
Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor.
Wakamura, T; Akaike, H; Omori, Y; Niimi, Y; Takahashi, S; Fujimaki, A; Maekawa, S; Otani, Y
2015-07-01
In some materials the competition between superconductivity and magnetism brings about a variety of unique phenomena such as the coexistence of superconductivity and magnetism in heavy-fermion superconductors or spin-triplet supercurrent in ferromagnetic Josephson junctions. Recent observations of spin-charge separation in a lateral spin valve with a superconductor evidence that these remarkable properties are applicable to spintronics, although there are still few works exploring this possibility. Here, we report the experimental observation of the quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor, NbN. This compound exhibits the inverse spin Hall (ISH) effect even below the superconducting transition temperature. Surprisingly, the ISH signal increases by more than 2,000 times compared with that in the normal state with a decrease of the injected spin current. The effect disappears when the distance between the voltage probes becomes larger than the charge imbalance length, corroborating that the huge ISH signals measured are mediated by quasiparticles.
Effect of hall currents on thermal instability of dusty couple stress fluid
Aggarwal Amrish Kumar
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this paper, effect of Hall currents on the thermal instability of couple-stress fluid permeated with dust particles has been considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis, the dispersion relation is obtained. For the case of stationary convection, dust particles and Hall currents are found to have destabilizing effect while couple stresses have stabilizing effect on the system. Magnetic field induced by Hall currents has stabilizing/destabilizing effect under certain conditions. It is found that due to the presence of Hall currents (hence magnetic field, oscillatory modes are produced which were non-existent in their absence.
Borup, Kasper Andersen; Christensen, Mogens; Blichfeld, Anders Bank;
2011-01-01
We present here a home built setup for measuring the specific resistivity, hall coefficient, and charge carrier concentration and mobility at elevated temperatures. The system is optimized for measurements of samples ranging between doped semiconductors and high resistivity metals and uses the van...
Contacts and Edge State Equilibration in the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Kane, C. L.; Fisher, Matthew P. A.
1995-01-01
We develop a simple kinetic equation description of edge state dynamics in the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), which allows us to examine in detail equilibration processes between multiple edge modes. As in the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE), inter-mode equilibration is a prerequisite for quantization of the Hall conductance. Two sources for such equilibration are considered: Edge impurity scattering and equilibration by the electrical contacts. Several specific models for electric...
Observation of even denominator fractional quantum Hall effect in suspended bilayer graphene.
Ki, Dong-Keun; Fal'ko, Vladimir I; Abanin, Dmitry A; Morpurgo, Alberto F
2014-01-01
We investigate low-temperature magneto-transport in recently developed, high-quality multiterminal suspended bilayer graphene devices, enabling the independent measurement of the longitudinal and transverse resistance. We observe clear signatures of the fractional quantum Hall effect with different states that are either fully developed, and exhibit a clear plateau in the transverse resistance with a concomitant dip in longitudinal resistance or incipient, and exhibit only a longitudinal resistance minimum. All observed states scale as a function of filling factor ν, as expected. An unprecedented even-denominator fractional state is observed at ν = -1/2 on the hole side, exhibiting a clear plateau in Rxy quantized at the expected value of 2h/e(2) with a precision of ∼0.5%. Many of our observations, together with a recent electronic compressibility measurement performed in graphene bilayers on hexagonal boron-nitride (hBN) substrates, are consistent with a recent theory that accounts for the effect of the degeneracy between the N = 0 and N = 1 Landau levels in the fractional quantum Hall effect and predicts the occurrence of a Moore-Read type ν = -1/2 state. Owing to the experimental flexibility of bilayer graphene, which has a gate-dependent band structure, can be easily accessed by scanning probes, and can be contacted with materials such as superconductors, our findings offer new possibilities to explore the microscopic nature of even-denominator fractional quantum Hall effect.
徐雅惠; 周林; 李欣蔚; 邓加军
2015-01-01
利用霍尔元件在线性磁场中的霍尔电压与磁感应强度的线性关系，推导得出振动物体振幅与霍尔电压之间的函数关系。设计满足该线性关系的磁场并通过实验得出其线性表达式，进而设计出基于霍尔效应的惯性式振动传感器，最后通过实验验证该传感器的实用性。%The relationship between the vibration amplitude of an object and the Hall voltage was derived according to the linear relationship between Hall voltage and magnetic flux density in a linear magnetic field .A magnetic field meeting the linear condition was designed and the experimental re‐sults were fitted to this linear expression .Then the inertial vibration sensor based on Hall effect was designed and the practicability was verified by experiment .
Quantum spin Hall effect in twisted bilayer graphene
Finocchiaro, F.; Guinea, F.; San-Jose, P.
2017-06-01
Motivated by a recent experiment (Sanchez-Yamagishi et al 2016 Nat. Nanotechnol. 214) reporting evidence of helical spin-polarized edge states in layer-biased twisted bilayer graphene under a magnetic flux, we study the possibility of stabilising a quantum spin Hall (QSH) phase in such a system, without Zeeman or spin-orbit couplings, and with a QSH gap induced instead by electronic interactions. We analyse how magnetic flux, electric field, interlayer rotation angle, and interactions (treated at a mean field level) combine to produce a pseudo-QSH with broken time-reversal symmetry, and spin-polarized helical edge states. The effect is a consequence of a robust interaction-induced ferrimagnetic ordering of the quantum Hall ground state under an interlayer bias, provided the two rotated layers are effectively decoupled at low energies. We discuss in detail the electronic structure and the constraints on system parameters, such as the angle, interactions and magnetic flux, required to reach the pseudo-QSH phase. We find, in particular, that purely local electronic interactions are not sufficient to account for the experimental observations, which demand at least nearest-neighbour interactions to be included.
Extrinsic spin Hall effect induced by resonant skew scattering in graphene.
Ferreira, Aires; Rappoport, Tatiana G; Cazalilla, Miguel A; Castro Neto, A H
2014-02-14
We show that the extrinsic spin Hall effect can be engineered in monolayer graphene by decoration with small doses of adatoms, molecules, or nanoparticles originating local spin-orbit perturbations. The analysis of the single impurity scattering problem shows that intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit local couplings enhance the spin Hall effect via skew scattering of charge carriers in the resonant regime. The solution of the transport equations for a random ensemble of spin-orbit impurities reveals that giant spin Hall currents are within the reach of the current state of the art in device fabrication. The spin Hall effect is robust with respect to thermal fluctuations and disorder averaging.
Frischbier, Mareike
2015-08-15
Despite the wide application of indium oxide as transparent conducting material, basic mechanisms of its high conductivity are not understood yet. However, indium is scarce and the development of alternative materials for indium oxide is necessary. This requires a detailed understanding of the conductivity mechanisms. The electrical conductivity of undoped and doped indium oxide is given by defects. Thus, the influence of point defects and grain boundaries in sputtered indium oxide thin films is investigated here. This dissertation contributes to a more profound understanding of the conductivity mechanisms of indium oxide: grain boundary scattering is identified as the most important limiting scattering mechanism and the influence of doping elements on this property is shown. Dominant point defects in oxide materials are commonly investigated in literature by conductivity relaxation measurements depending on oxygen partial pressure. Usually, carrier mobility is assumed to be constant when analysing the results. However, this assumption is incorrect and can lead to a misinterpretation of data. Therefore, relaxation measurements are conducted as part of this dissertation to directly measure charge carrier concentration and mobility for the first time. For this purpose, a new experimental setup has been developed which enables measuring the Hall effect in-situ depending on oxygen partial pressure, temperature and total pressure. Relaxation measurements are conducted as part of this dissertation to show that charge carrier mobility is not constant, but strongly depends on carrier concentration. Further measurements verify that the scattering of charge carriers at grain boundaries is one main reason. In addition, the influence of deposition parameters of the sputter deposition process and doping (dopant element and concentration) on carrier concentration and mobility at room temperature is studied. The experimental results show that the doping elements influence both
Dötzer, R.; Friedland, K. J.; Hey, R.; Kostial, H; Miehling, H.; Schoepe, Wilfried
1994-01-01
We present magnetotransport measurements (up to 7 T) performed at very low temperatures (down to 20 mK) on a GaAs sample containing two parallel delta -doped layers whose carrier concentration can be varied by means of a gate electrode. With increasing negative gate voltage the resistance becomes more strongly temperature-dependent, indicating a more localized electron system. The magnetoresistance is found to be strongly anisotropic. When the field is parallel to the layers we find a large p...
Munoz, F.; Collado, H. P. Ojeda; Usaj, Gonzalo; Sofo, Jorge O.; Balseiro, C. A.
2016-06-01
The electronic structure of bilayer graphene under pressure develops very interesting features with an enhancement of the trigonal warping and a splitting of the parabolic touching bands at the K point of the reciprocal space into four Dirac cones, one at K and three along the T symmetry lines. As pressure is increased, these cones separate in reciprocal space and in energy, breaking the electron-hole symmetry. Due to their energy separation, their opposite Berry curvature can be observed in valley Hall effect experiments and in the structure of the Landau levels. Based on the electronic structure obtained by density functional theory, we develop a low energy Hamiltonian that describes the effects of pressure on measurable quantities such as the Hall conductivity and the Landau levels of the system.
The formation of anomalous Hall effect depending on W atoms in ZnO thin films
Can, Musa Mutlu, E-mail: musamutlucan@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering and Natural Sciences, Nanotechnology Research and Application Center, Sabancı University, Tuzla, 34956 İstanbul (Turkey); CNR-SPIN, Universitá di Napoli “Federico II”, Compl. Univ. di Monte S. Angelo, Via Cintia, I-80126 Napoli (Italy); Shah, S. Ismat [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Fırat, Tezer [Department of Physics Engineering, Hacettepe University, Beytepe 06800 Ankara (Turkey)
2014-06-01
This article investigates the effects of intrinsic point defects and extrinsic W atoms on magneto electrical properties in the ZnO lattice. The analyses were accomplished for ∼0.5% W including ZnO thin films, grown using a radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering system. The polarized spin current dependent magnetic formation was investigated by longitudinal and transverse magneto electrical measurements in a temperature range of 5 K to 300 K. The positive magneto resistivity (PMR) ratios reached 28.8%, 12.7%, and 17.6% at 5 K for thin films, having different post-deposition annealing conditions as a consequence of ionic W dependent defects in the lattice. Furthermore, an anomalous Hall effect, originating from polarized spin currents, was understood from the split in Hall resistance versus magnetic field (R{sub xy}(H)) curves for the thin film with high amount of Zn{sup 2+} and W{sup 6+} ionic defects.
Analysis of the giant spin Hall effect in Cu(Bi) alloys
Fedorov, Dmitry V.; Herschbach, Christian; Johansson, Annika; Ostanin, Sergey; Mertig, Ingrid; Gradhand, Martin; Chadova, Kristina; Ködderitzsch, Diemo; Ebert, Hubert
2013-08-01
Two years after the prediction of a giant spin Hall effect for the dilute Cu(Bi) alloy [Gradhand , Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.81.245109 81, 245109 (2010)], a comparably strong effect was measured in thin films of Cu(Bi) alloys by Niimi [Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.156602 109, 156602 (2012)]. Both theory and experiment consider the skew-scattering mechanism to be responsible, however they obtain opposite sign for the spin Hall angle. Based on a detailed analysis of the obtained theoretical results, we propose that either the formation of extremely small clusters or the influence of interface roughness and grain boundaries decorated with Bi atoms are responsible for the observed phenomenon.
Time-reversal-breaking induced quantum spin Hall effect
Luo, Wei; Shao, D. X.; Deng, Ming-Xun; Deng, W. Y.; Sheng, L.
2017-01-01
We show that quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect does not occur in a square lattice model due to cancellation of the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling coming from different hopping paths. However, we show that QSH effect can be induced by the presence of staggered magnetic fluxes alternating directions square by square. When the resulting Peierls phase takes a special value , the system has a composite symmetry ΘΡ− with Θ the time-reversal operator and Ρ− transforming the Peierls phase from γ to γ − , which protects the gapless edge states. Once the phase deviates from , the edge states open a gap, as the composite symmetry is broken. We further investigate the effect of a Zeeman field on the QSH state, and find that the edge states remain gapless for . This indicates that the QSH effect is immune to the magnetic perturbation. PMID:28220858
Emergence of integer quantum Hall effect from chaos
Tian, Chushun; Wang, Jiao
2015-01-01
We present an analytic microscopic theory showing that in a large class of spin-$\\frac{1}{2}$ quasiperiodic quantum kicked rotors, a dynamical analog of the integer quantum Hall effect (IQHE) emerges from an intrinsic chaotic structure. Specifically, the inverse of the Planck's quantum ($h_e$) and the rotor's energy growth rate mimic the `filling fraction' and the `longitudinal conductivity' in conventional IQHE, respectively, and a hidden quantum number is found to mimic the `quantized Hall conductivity'. We show that for an infinite discrete set of critical values of $h_e$, the long-time energy growth rate is universal and of order of unity (`metallic' phase), but otherwise vanishes (`insulating' phase). Moreover, the rotor insulating phases are topological, each of which is characterized by a hidden quantum number. This number exhibits universal behavior for small $h_e$, i.e., it jumps by unity whenever $h_e$ decreases, passing through each critical value. This intriguing phenomenon is not triggered by the...
Photonic spin Hall effect in metasurfaces: a brief review
Liu, Yachao; Ke, Yougang; Luo, Hailu; Wen, Shuangchun
2017-01-01
The photonic spin Hall effect (SHE) originates from the interplay between the photon-spin (polarization) and the trajectory (extrinsic orbital angular momentum) of light, i.e. the spin-orbit interaction. Metasurfaces, metamaterials with a reduced dimensionality, exhibit exceptional abilities for controlling the spin-orbit interaction and thereby manipulating the photonic SHE. Spin-redirection phase and Pancharatnam-Berry phase are the manifestations of spin-orbit interaction. The former is related to the evolution of the propagation direction and the latter to the manipulation with polarization state. Two distinct forms of splitting based on these two types of geometric phases can be induced by the photonic SHE in metasurfaces: the spin-dependent splitting in position space and in momentum space. The introduction of Pacharatnam-Berry phases, through space-variant polarization manipulations with metasurfaces, enables new approaches for fabricating the spin-Hall devices. Here, we present a short review of photonic SHE in metasurfaces and outline the opportunities in spin photonics.
A study on InSb Magnetic Sensor Using Hall Effect
Chon, C.S. [Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)
1994-02-01
InSb thin film magnetic sensor, which have been prepared on glass substrate by vacuum evaporation, is investigated in this paper. The dependence of hall voltage with on magnetic field and temperature is examined by Hall effect. The variation of Hall voltage with magnetic field is almost linear at constant current drive but it is deviated from the linearity at constant voltage drive. Hall voltage decreases as the ambient temperature increases, so it is necessary to take into account the temperature effect when the InSb thin film is used as magnetic sensor. (author). 17 refs., 5 figs.
Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating
Hayat, T.; Shafique, Maryam; Tanveer, A.; Alsaedi, A.
2016-06-01
This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects.
Pseudo Magnetic Faraday and Quantum Hall Effect In Oscillating Graphene
Bhagat, Anita; Mullen, Kieran
When a graphene layer is stressed, the strain changes the phase between sites in a tight binding model of the system. This phase can be viewed as a pseudo-magnetic vector potential. The corresponding pseudo-magnetic field has been experimentally verified in static cases. We examine the case of oscillating graphene ribbons and explore two new effects. The first is to investigate an oscillating pseudo-magnetic field that produces a quantum Hall effect: we calculate the I-V characteristic of an oscillating graphene nanoribbon as a function of frequency, and amplitude in both the oscillations and the applied driving voltage. Second, the time dependent pseudo-magnetic field should produce a pseudo-Faraday effect driving electrons in different valleys in opposite directions. In both cases, we make explicit calculations for experiment. This project was supported in part by the US National Science Foundation under Grant DMR-1310407.
Planar Hall effect sensor with magnetostatic compensation layer
Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Donolato, Marco; Hansen, Mikkel Fougt
2012-01-01
Demagnetization effects in cross-shaped planar Hall effect sensors cause inhomogeneous film magnetization and a hysteretic sensor response. Furthermore, when using sensors for detection of magnetic beads, the magnetostatic field from the sensor edges attracts and holds magnetic beads near...... the sensor edges causing inhomogeneous and non-specific binding of the beads. We show theoretically that adding a compensation magnetic stack beneath the sensor stack and exchange-biasing it antiparallel to the sensor stack, the magnetostatic field is minimized. We show experimentally that the compensation...... stack removes nonlinear effects from the sensor response, it strongly reduces hysteresis, and it increases the homogeneity of the bead distribution. Finally, it reduces the non-specific binding due to magnetostatic fields allowing us to completely remove beads from the compensated sensor using a water...
Geometric Spin Hall Effect of Light at Polarizing Interfaces
Korger, Jan; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Kolb, Tobias; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd
2011-01-01
The geometric Spin Hall Effect of Light (geometric SHEL) amounts to a polarization-dependent positional shift when a light beam is observed from a reference frame tilted with respect to its direction of propagation. Motivated by this intriguing phenomenon, the energy density of the light beam is decomposed into its Cartesian components in the tilted reference frame. This illustrates the occurrence of the characteristic shift and the significance of the effective response function of the detector. We introduce the concept of a tilted polarizing interface and provide a scheme for its experimental implementation. A light beam passing through such an interface undergoes a shift resembling the original geometric SHEL in a tilted reference frame. This displacement is generated at the polarizer and its occurrence does not depend on the properties of the detection system. We give explicit results for this novel type of geometric SHEL and show that at grazing incidence this effect amounts to a displacement of multiple...
Hruby, Vladimir (Inventor); Demmons, Nathaniel (Inventor); Ehrbar, Eric (Inventor); Pote, Bruce (Inventor); Rosenblad, Nathan (Inventor)
2014-01-01
An autonomous method for minimizing the magnitude of plasma discharge current oscillations in a Hall effect plasma device includes iteratively measuring plasma discharge current oscillations of the plasma device and iteratively adjusting the magnet current delivered to the plasma device in response to measured plasma discharge current oscillations to reduce the magnitude of the plasma discharge current oscillations.
Hall and Nernst effects in monolayer MoS2
Zhang, Yun-Hai; Zhang, Ming-Hua
2016-03-01
We study Hall and Nernst transports in monolayer MoS2 based on Green’s function formalism. We have derived analytical results for spin and valley Hall conductivities in the zero temperature and spin and valley Nernst conductivities in the low temperature. We found that tuning of the band gap and spin-orbit splitting can drive system transition from spin Hall insulator (SHI) to valley Hall insulator (VHI). When the system is subjected to a temperature gradient, the spin and valley Nernst conductivities are dependent on Berry curvature.
Moon, Kyoung-Woong; Lee, Jae-Chul; Choe, Sug-Bong; Shin, Kyung-Ho
2009-11-01
A magnetometric technique for detecting the magnetic anisotropy field of ferromagnetic films is described. The technique is based on the extraordinary Hall voltage measurement with rotating the film under an external magnetic field. By analyzing the angle-dependent Hall voltage based on the Stoner-Wohlfarth theory, the magnetic anisotropy field is uniquely determined. The present technique is pertinent especially for ultrathin films with strong intrinsic signal, in contrast to the conventional magnetometric techniques of which the signal is in proportion to the sample volume and geometry.
Low temperature hall effect investigation of conducting polymer-carbon nanotubes composite network.
Bahrami, Afarin; Talib, Zainal Abidin; Yunus, Wan Mahmood Mat; Behzad, Kasra; M Abdi, Mahnaz; Din, Fasih Ud
2012-11-14
Polypyrrole (PPy) and polypyrrole-carboxylic functionalized multi wall carbon nanotube composites (PPy/f-MWCNT) were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of pyrrole on the carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The structure of the resulting complex nanotubes was characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effects of f-MWCNT concentration on the electrical properties of the resulting composites were studied at temperatures between 100 K and 300 K. The Hall mobility and Hall coefficient of PPy and PPy/f-MWCNT composite samples with different concentrations of f-MWCNT were measured using the van der Pauw technique. The mobility decreased slightly with increasing temperature, while the conductivity was dominated by the gradually increasing carrier density.
Hall effect in the extremely large magnetoresistance semimetal WTe{sub 2}
Luo, Yongkang, E-mail: ykluo@lanl.gov; Dai, Y. M.; Taylor, A. J.; Yarotski, D. A.; Prasankumar, R. P.; Thompson, J. D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Li, H.; Miao, H.; Shi, Y. G. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Ding, H. [Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics, Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing 100084 (China)
2015-11-02
We systematically measured the Hall effect in the extremely large magnetoresistance semimetal WTe{sub 2}. By carefully fitting the Hall resistivity to a two-band model, the temperature dependencies of the carrier density and mobility for both electron- and hole-type carriers were determined. We observed a sudden increase in the hole density below ∼160 K, which is likely associated with the temperature-induced Lifshitz transition reported by a previous photoemission study. In addition, a more pronounced reduction in electron density occurs below 50 K, giving rise to comparable electron and hole densities at low temperature. Our observations indicate a possible electronic structure change below 50 K, which might be the direct driving force of the electron-hole “compensation” and the extremely large magnetoresistance as well. Numerical simulations imply that this material is unlikely to be a perfectly compensated system.
Heterodyne Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas
Oka, Takashi; Bucciantini, Leda
2016-10-01
We study the hitherto unaddressed phenomenon of the quantum Hall effect with a magnetic and electric field oscillating in time with resonant frequencies. This phenomenon highlights an example of a heterodyne device with the magnetic field acting as a driving force, and it is analyzed in detail in its classical and quantum versions using Floquet theory. A bulk current flowing perpendicularly to the applied electric field is found, with a frequency shifted by integer multiples of the driving frequency. When the ratio of the cyclotron and driving frequency takes special values, the electron's classical trajectory forms a loop and the effective mass diverges, while in the quantum case we find an analog of the Landau quantization. A possible realization using metamaterial plasmonics is discussed.
The quantum anomalous Hall effect in kagome lattices
Zhang Zhiyong, E-mail: zyzhang@nju.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2011-09-14
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in kagome lattices is investigated in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field. In addition to the gap at the Dirac points as found in graphene, a new topological energy gap is opened at the {Gamma} point. With the Fermi energy lying in the first gap, the Chern number c = 2 as in graphene, whereas with it lying in the second one, c = 1. The distribution of Berry curvature is obtained to reveal the nontrivial topological properties in momentum space. For stripes with 'armchair' and 'zigzag' edges, the topological characteristics of gapless edge states on the genus g = 2 Riemann surface are studied. The obtained nonzero winding numbers also demonstrate the QAH effect. (paper)
Intrinsic and Extrinsic Spin Hall Effects of Dirac Electrons
Fukazawa, Takaaki; Kohno, Hiroshi; Fujimoto, Junji
2017-09-01
We investigate the spin Hall effect (SHE) of electrons described by the Dirac equation, which is used as an effective model near the L-points in bismuth. By considering short-range nonmagnetic impurities, we calculate the extrinsic as well as intrinsic contributions on an equal footing. The vertex corrections are taken into account within the ladder type and the so-called skew-scattering type. The intrinsic SHE which we obtain is consistent with that of Fuseya et al. [https://doi.org/10.1143/JPSJ.81.093704" xlink:type="simple">J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 81, 093704 (2012)]. It is found that the extrinsic contribution dominates the intrinsic one when the system is metallic. The extrinsic SHE due to the skew scattering is proportional to Δ/niu, where 2Δ is the band gap, ni is the impurity concentration, and u is the strength of the impurity potential.
Deformed Calogero-Sutherland model and fractional quantum Hall effect
Atai, Farrokh; Langmann, Edwin
2017-01-01
The deformed Calogero-Sutherland (CS) model is a quantum integrable system with arbitrary numbers of two types of particles and reducing to the standard CS model in special cases. We show that a known collective field description of the CS model, which is based on conformal field theory (CFT), is actually a collective field description of the deformed CS model. This provides a natural application of the deformed CS model in Wen's effective field theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE), with the two kinds of particles corresponding to electrons and quasi-hole excitations. In particular, we use known mathematical results about super-Jack polynomials to obtain simple explicit formulas for the orthonormal CFT basis proposed by van Elburg and Schoutens in the context of the FQHE.
Controlling the optical spin Hall effect with light
Lafont, O; Lewandowski, P; Kwong, N H; Chan, K P; Babilon, M; Leung, P T; Galopin, E; Lemaitre, A; Tignon, J; Schumacher, S; Baudin, E; Binder, R
2016-01-01
The optical spin Hall effect (OSHE) is a transport phenomenon of exciton polaritons in semiconductor microcavities, caused by the polaritonic spin-orbit interaction, that leads to the formation of spin textures. In the semiconductor cavity, the physical basis of the spin orbit coupling is an effective magnetic field caused by the splitting of transverse-electric and transverse-magnetic (TE-TM) modes. The spin textures can be observed in the near field (local spin distribution of polaritons), and as light polarization patterns in the more readily observable far field. For future applications in spinoptronic devices, a simple and robust control mechanism, which establishes a one-to-one correspondence between stationary incident light intensity and far-field polarization pattern, is needed. We present such a control scheme, which is made possible by a specific double-microcavity design.
Gade, Anders Christian; Siebein, G. W.; Chiang, W.
1993-01-01
A statistical analysis of architectural features and detailed objective acoustical measurements made in eight concert halls and several multi-use rooms in their concert configuration will be presented. A method for evaluating the architectural features of rooms that affect their acoustical...
Thickness Dependence of the Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect in Magnetic Topological Insulator Films.
Feng, Xiao; Feng, Yang; Wang, Jing; Ou, Yunbo; Hao, Zhenqi; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhang, Liguo; Lin, Chaojing; Liao, Jian; Li, Yongqing; Wang, Li-Li; Ji, Shuai-Hua; Chen, Xi; Ma, Xucun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Wang, Yayu; He, Ke; Xue, Qi-Kun
2016-08-01
The evolution of the quantum anomalous Hall effect with the thickness of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2 Te3 magnetic topological insulator films is studied, revealing how the effect is caused by the interplay of the surface states, band-bending, and ferromagnetic exchange energy. Homogeneity in ferromagnetism is found to be the key to high-temperature quantum anomalous Hall material.
Hall effect in semiconducting epitaxial and amorphous Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films
Shan, P.; Jahanzeb, A.; Butler, D.P.; Celik-Butler, Z. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas 75275 (United States); Kula, W.; Sobolewski, R. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14627 (United States)
1997-05-01
An experimental study of the Hall effect in nonmetallic Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films is reported. Both epitaxial crystalline YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 6+x} (x{le}0.5) and multiphase/amorphous Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films were studied. The structure of the samples was measured by x-ray diffraction and Raman microprobe. The amorphous Y-Ba-Cu-O samples were found to have a grain size of about 100 {Angstrom}. The conduction properties were studied and analyzed for the two types of samples over a wide temperature range including room temperature. The Hall effect measurements showed positive charge carriers with a concentration ranging from 10{sup 17} to 10{sup 20} cm{sup {minus}3} at room temperature. The mobility was found to decrease with higher Hall carrier concentration. The empirical relationship for the mobility dependence on impurity concentration agreed with the relationship between mobility and the experimental Hall carrier concentration, suggesting that the same localized states were responsible for both providing the carriers and reducing the mobility through scattering. It was also observed that the mobility values for both amorphous and crystalline samples followed the same empirical curve, a result which showed that the conduction mechanisms in the epitaxial (tetragonal) and amorphous Y-Ba-Cu-O materials are very likely to be similar despite the differences in the composition and structure of the films. The similarity is consistent with other work that concludes that the conduction mechanism occurs along the copper oxide planes. Our work implies that the conduction mechanism operates over a short range, less than the 100 {Angstrom} grain size of the amorphous, such that the lack of order in the amorphous samples was essentially irrelevant to the charge transport. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}
Hall effect in semiconducting epitaxial and amorphous Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films
Shan, Pao-Chuan; Jahanzeb, Agha; Butler, Donald P.; ćelik-Butler, Zeynep; Kula, Witold; Sobolewski, Roman
1997-05-01
An experimental study of the Hall effect in nonmetallic Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films is reported. Both epitaxial crystalline YBa2Cuoverflow="scroll">3O6+x (x⩽0.5) and multiphase/amorphous Y-Ba-Cu-O thin films were studied. The structure of the samples was measured by x-ray diffraction and Raman microprobe. The amorphous Y-Ba-Cu-O samples were found to have a grain size of about 100 Å. The conduction properties were studied and analyzed for the two types of samples over a wide temperature range including room temperature. The Hall effect measurements showed positive charge carriers with a concentration ranging from 1017 to 1020 cm-3 at room temperature. The mobility was found to decrease with higher Hall carrier concentration. The empirical relationship for the mobility dependence on impurity concentration agreed with the relationship between mobility and the experimental Hall carrier concentration, suggesting that the same localized states were responsible for both providing the carriers and reducing the mobility through scattering. It was also observed that the mobility values for both amorphous and crystalline samples followed the same empirical curve, a result which showed that the conduction mechanisms in the epitaxial (tetragonal) and amorphous Y-Ba-Cu-O materials are very likely to be similar despite the differences in the composition and structure of the films. The similarity is consistent with other work that concludes that the conduction mechanism occurs along the copper oxide planes. Our work implies that the conduction mechanism operates over a short range, less than the 100 Å grain size of the amorphous, such that the lack of order in the amorphous samples was essentially irrelevant to the charge transport.
Anomalous Hall effect in the prospective spintronic material Eu1-x Gd x O integrated with Si.
Parfenov, Oleg E; Averyanov, Dmitry V; Tokmachev, Andrey M; Taldenkov, Alexander N; Storchak, Vyacheslav G
2016-06-08
Remarkable properties of EuO make it a versatile spintronic material. Despite numerous experimental and theoretical studies of EuO, little is known about the anomalous Hall effect in this ferromagnet. So far, the effect has not been observed in bulk EuO, though has been detected in EuO films with uncontrolled distribution of defects. In the present work doping is taken under control: epitaxial films of Gd-doped EuO are synthesized integrated with Si using molecular beam epitaxy and characterized with x-ray diffraction and magnetization measurements. Nanoscale transport studies reveal the anomalous Hall effect in the ferromagnetic region for samples with different Gd concentration. The saturated anomalous Hall effect conductivity value of 5.0 S·cm(-1) in Gd-doped EuO is more than an order of magnitude larger than those reported so far for Eu chalcogenides doped with anion vacancies.
Single-position Hall effect measurements
2014-01-01
A method for determining a distance (Y) between a first position on and an electrical boundary (34) of a test sample by a multi-point probe comprising four contact elements, comprising: contacting the test sample with the four contact elements (20,22,24,26) at the first position, applying a magne...
An apparatus for high temperature measurement of the resistivity and Hall coefficient
Borup, Kasper Andersen; Toberer, Eric; Snyder, G Jeffrey
Two instruments implementing the van der Pauw (VDP) method for measuring the specific resistivity and Hall coefficient at high temperatures are described. Several features to minimize the measurement errors are proposed and some of the advantages compared with traditional six-probe combined...... resistivity and Hall coefficient measurements are outlined. The VDP method is convenient for use in thermoelectrics research since it accepts sample geometries compatible with measurements of the Seebeck coefficient and thermal diffusivity. This allows for the thermoelectric figure of merit to be measured...... using a single sample and without shaping the sample between measurement of individual properties. The technique is simple and can be used with samples showing a broad range of shapes and physical properties, from near insulators to metals. The two instruments are currently in use at Caltech...
Spin analogs of superconductivity and integer quantum Hall effect in an array of spin chains
Hill, Daniel; Kim, Se Kwon; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav
2017-05-01
Motivated by the successful idea of using weakly coupled quantum electronic wires to realize the quantum Hall effects and the quantum spin Hall effects, we theoretically study two systems composed of weakly coupled quantum spin chains within the mean-field approximations, which can exhibit spin analogs of superconductivity and the integer quantum Hall effect. First, a certain bilayer of two arrays of interacting spin chains is mapped, via the Jordan-Wigner transformation, to an attractive Hubbard model that exhibits fermionic superconductivity, which corresponds to spin superconductivity in the original spin Hamiltonian. Secondly, an array of spin-orbit-coupled spin chains in the presence of a suitable external magnetic field is transformed to an array of quantum wires that exhibits the integer quantum Hall effect, which translates into its spin analog in the spin Hamiltonian. The resultant spin superconductivity and spin integer quantum Hall effect can be characterized by their ability to transport spin without any resistance.
The quantum anomalous Hall effect in kagomé lattices.
Zhang, Zhi-Yong
2011-09-14
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect in kagomé lattices is investigated in the presence of both Rashba spin-orbit coupling and an exchange field. In addition to the gap at the Dirac points as found in graphene, a new topological energy gap is opened at the Γ point. With the Fermi energy lying in the first gap, the Chern number = 2 as in graphene, whereas with it lying in the second one, = 1. The distribution of Berry curvature is obtained to reveal the nontrivial topological properties in momentum space. For stripes with 'armchair' and 'zigzag' edges, the topological characteristics of gapless edge states on the genus g = 2 Riemann surface are studied. The obtained nonzero winding numbers also demonstrate the QAH effe
Matrix method analysis of quantum Hall effect device connections
Ortolano, M.; Callegaro, L.
2012-02-01
The modelling of electrical connections of single, or several, multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices is relevant for electrical metrology: it is known, in fact, that certain particular connections allow (i) the realization of multiples or fractions of the quantized resistance, or (ii) the rejection of stray impedances, so that the configuration maintains the status of quantum standard. Ricketts-Kemeny and Delahaye equivalent circuits are known to be accurate models of the QHE: however, the numerical or analytical solution of electrical networks including these equivalent circuits can be difficult. In this paper, we introduce a method of analysis based on the representation of a QHE device by means of the indefinite admittance matrix: external connections are then represented with another matrix, easily written by inspection. Some examples, including the solution of double- and triple-series connections, are shown.
Matrix method analysis of quantum Hall effect device connections
Ortolano, Massimo
2011-01-01
The modelling of electrical connections of single, or several, multiterminal quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices is relevant for electrical metrology: it is known, in fact, that certain particular connections allow i) the realization of multiples or fractions of the quantised resistance, or ii) the rejection of stray impedances, so that the configuration maintains the status of quantum standard. Ricketts-Kemeny and Delahaye equivalent circuits are known to be accurate models of the QHE: however, the numerical or analytical solution of electrical networks including these equivalent circuits can be difficult. In this paper, we introduce a method of analysis based on the representation of a QHE device by means of the \\emph{indefinite admittance matrix}: external connections are then represented with another matrix, easily written by inspection. Some examples, including the solution of double- and triple-series connections, are shown.
Quantum spin Hall effect and topological insulators for light
Bliokh, Konstantin Y
2015-01-01
We show that free-space light has intrinsic quantum spin-Hall effect (QSHE) properties. These are characterized by a non-zero topological spin Chern number, and manifest themselves as evanescent modes of Maxwell equations. The recently discovered transverse spin of evanescent modes demonstrates spin-momentum locking stemming from the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in Maxwell equations. As a result, any interface between free space and a medium supporting surface modes exhibits QSHE of light with opposite transverse spins propagating in opposite directions. In particular, we find that usual isotropic metals with surface plasmon-polariton modes represent natural 3D topological insulators for light. Several recent experiments have demonstrated transverse spin-momentum locking and spin-controlled unidirectional propagation of light at various interfaces with evanescent waves. Our results show that all these experiments can be interpreted as observations of the QSHE of light.
Microbeads detection using spin-valve planar Hall effect sensors.
Volmer, M; Avram, M
2012-09-01
In this paper we present a micromagnetic approach to describe the detection of magnetic nanobeads using planar Hall effect sensors. The magnetic beads polarized by a dc magnetic field generate a field, which can affect the magnetization state of spin-valve sensor, leading in principle, to a detectable signal. For magnetic nanobeads we assumed a superparamagnetic behaviour. Three detection geometries are discussed and some specific behaviours were highlighted by micromagnetic simulations. We found that when the polarising field is applied parallel with the sensor surface a very weak signal can be obtained. This is because at working fields, for which the magnetic nanobeads are magnetised, the sensor saturates. We identified other setups that can overcome this shortcoming and deliver a net signal.
Hall current effects in mean-field dynamo theory
Lingam, Manasvi
2016-01-01
The role of the Hall term on large scale dynamo action is investigated by means of the First Order Smoothing Approximation. It is shown that the standard $\\alpha$ coefficient is altered, and is zero when a specific double Beltrami state is attained, in contrast to the Alfv\\'enic state for MHD dynamos. The $\\beta$ coefficient is no longer positive definite, and thereby enables dynamo action even if $\\alpha$-quenching were to operate. The similarities and differences with the (magnetic) shear-current effect are pointed out, and a mechanism that may be potentially responsible for $\\beta < 0$ is advanced. The results are compared against previous studies, and their astrophysical relevance is also highlighted.
Magnetic bilayer-skyrmions without skyrmion Hall effect
Zhang, Xichao; Zhou, Yan; Ezawa, Motohiko
2016-01-01
Magnetic skyrmions might be used as information carriers in future advanced memories, logic gates and computing devices. However, there exists an obstacle known as the skyrmion Hall effect (SkHE), that is, the skyrmion trajectories bend away from the driving current direction due to the Magnus force. Consequently, the skyrmions in constricted geometries may be destroyed by touching the sample edges. Here we theoretically propose that the SkHE can be suppressed in the antiferromagnetically exchange-coupled bilayer system, since the Magnus forces in the top and bottom layers are exactly cancelled. We show that such a pair of SkHE-free magnetic skyrmions can be nucleated and be driven by the current-induced torque. Our proposal provides a promising means to move magnetic skyrmions in a perfectly straight trajectory in ultra-dense devices with ultra-fast processing speed.
Massive Dirac fermions and the zero field quantum Hall effect
Raya, Alfredo
2008-01-01
Through an explicit calculation for a Lagrangian in quantum electrodynamics in (2+1)-space--time dimensions (QED$_3$), making use of the relativistic Kubo formula, we demonstrate that the filling factor accompanying the quantized electrical conductivity for massive Dirac fermions of a single species in two spatial dimensions is a half (in natural units) when time reversal and parity symmetries of the Lagrangian are explicitly broken by the fermion mass term. We then discuss the most general form of the QED$_3$ Lagrangian, both for irreducible and reducible representations of the Dirac matrices in the plane, with emphasis on the appearance of a Chern-Simons term. We also identify the value of the filling factor with a zero field quantum Hall effect (QHE).
Massive Dirac fermions and the zero field quantum Hall effect
Raya, Alfredo; Reyes, Edward D.
2008-09-01
Through an explicit calculation for a Lagrangian in quantum electrodynamics in (2+1)-spacetime dimensions (QED3), making use of the relativistic Kubo formula, we demonstrate that the filling factor accompanying the quantized electrical conductivity for massive Dirac fermions of a single species in two spatial dimensions is a half (in natural units) when time reversal and parity symmetries of the Lagrangian are explicitly broken by the fermion mass term. We then discuss the most general form of the QED3 Lagrangian, for both irreducible and reducible representations of the Dirac matrices in the plane, with emphasis on the appearance of a Chern-Simons term. We also identify the value of the filling factor with a zero field quantum Hall effect (QHE).
Rotational spin Hall effect in a uniaxial crystal
Fadeyeva, Tatyana A.; Alexeyev, Constantine N.; Rubass, Alexander F.; Ivanov, Maksym O.; Zinov'ev, Alexey O.; Konovalenko, Victor L.; Volyar, Alexander V.
2012-04-01
We have considered the propagation process of the phase-matched array of singular beams through a uniaxial crystal. We have revealed that local beams in the array are rotated when propagating. However the right and left rotations are unequal. There are at least two processes responsible for the array rotation: the interference of local beams and the spatial depolarization. The interference takes place in the vortex birth and annihilation events forming the symmetrical part of the rotation. The depolarization process contributes to the asymmetry of the rotation that is called the rotational spin Hall effect. It can be brought to light due to the difference between the envelopes of the dependences of the angular displacement on the inclination angle of the local beams or the crystal length reaching the value some angular degree. The direction of the additional array rotation is exclusively defined by the handedness of the circular polarization in the initial beam array.
Crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional quantum Hall systems
Hou, Zhe; Xing, Yanxia; Guo, Ai-Min; Sun, Qing-Feng
2016-08-01
We study the crossed Andreev effects in two-dimensional conductor/superconductor hybrid systems under a perpendicular magnetic field. Both a graphene/superconductor hybrid system and an electron gas/superconductor one are considered. It is shown that an exclusive crossed Andreev reflection, with other Andreev reflections being completely suppressed, is obtained in a high magnetic field because of the chiral edge states in the quantum Hall regime. Importantly, the exclusive crossed Andreev reflection not only holds for a wide range of system parameters, e.g., the size of system, the width of central superconductor, and the quality of coupling between the graphene and the superconductor, but also is very robust against disorder. When the applied bias is within the superconductor gap, a robust Cooper-pair splitting process with high-efficiency can be realized in this system.
Generalized Pseudopotentials for the Anisotropic Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Yang, Bo; Hu, Zi-Xiang; Lee, Ching Hua; Papić, Z.
2017-04-01
We generalize the notion of Haldane pseudopotentials to anisotropic fractional quantum Hall (FQH) systems that are physically realized, e.g., in tilted magnetic field experiments or anisotropic band structures. This formalism allows us to expand any translation-invariant interaction over a complete basis, and directly reveals the intrinsic metric of incompressible FQH fluids. We show that purely anisotropic pseudopotentials give rise to new types of bound states for small particle clusters in the infinite plane, and can be used as a diagnostic of FQH nematic order. We also demonstrate that generalized pseudopotentials quantify the anisotropic contribution to the effective interaction potential, which can be particularly large in models of fractional Chern insulators.
Hall Effect Thruster Plume Contamination and Erosion Study
Jaworske, Donald A.
2000-01-01
The objective of the Hall effect thruster plume contamination and erosion study was to evaluate the impact of a xenon ion plume on various samples placed in the vicinity of a Hall effect thruster for a continuous 100 hour exposure. NASA Glenn Research Center was responsible for the pre- and post-test evaluation of three sample types placed around the thruster: solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton(R). Mass and profilometer), were used to identify the degree of deposition and/or erosion on the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone, and Kapton@ samples. Transmittance, reflectance, solar absorptance, and room temperature emittance were used to identify the degree of performance degradation of the solar cell cover glass samples alone. Auger spectroscopy was used to identify the chemical constituents found on the surface of the exposed solar cell cover glass samples. Chemical analysis indicated some boron nitride contamination on the samples, from boron nitride insulators used in the body of the thruster. However, erosion outweighted contamination. All samples exhibited some degree of erosion. with the most erosion occurring near the centerline of the plume and the least occurring at the +/- 90 deg positions. For the solar cell cover glass samples, erosion progressed through the antireflective coating and into the microsheet glass itself. Erosion occurred in the solar cell cover glass, RTV silicone and Kapton(R) at different rates. All optical properties changed with the degree of erosion, with solar absorptance and room temperature emittance increasing with erosion. The transmittance of some samples decreased while the reflectance of some samples increased and others decreased. All results are consistent with an energetic plume of xenon ions serving as a source for erosion.
Manipulation of Magnetic Insulators Using Spin Torque from the Spin Hall Effect
Jermain, Colin; Rosenberg, Aaron; Paik, Hanjong; Aradhya, Sriharsha; Wang, Hailong; Heron, John; Nowack, Katja; Kirtley, John; Schlom, Darrell; Moler, Kathryn; Yang, Fengyuan; Ralph, Dan
2015-03-01
We are exploring the possibility of current-induced switching driven by spin torque from the spin Hall effect for micron and nanoscale devices made from the magnetic insulators yttrium iron garnet (YIG) and lutetium iron garnet (LuIG). We will report on the fabrication of devices incorporating thin films of YIG or LuIG with thickness less than 20 nm and in-plane magnetization. We use electron beam lithography and ion milling to pattern the films into device structures with sizes ranging from 50 nm to 4 microns, integrated with a Ta or Pt layer so that we can use the spin Hall effect to apply spin-transfer torque to the magnetic materials. With scanning SQUID magnetometry we measure the in-plane dipole orientation of the device magnetic moment at 4 K. By examining the magnetic orientation as a function of applied current we investigate whether the spin Hall torque can be used to drive reliable magnetic switching at low current levels.
Graphene electrodynamics in the presence of the extrinsic spin Hall effect
Huang, Chunli; Chong, Y. D.; Vignale, Giovanni; Cazalilla, Miguel A.
2016-04-01
We extend the electrodynamics of two-dimensional electron gases to account for the extrinsic spin Hall effect (SHE). The theory is applied to doped graphene decorated with a random distribution of absorbates that induce spin-orbit coupling (SOC) by proximity. The formalism extends previous semiclassical treatments of the SHE to the nonlocal dynamical regime. Within a particle-number conserving approximation, we compute the conductivity, dielectric function, and spin Hall angle in the small frequency and wave vector limit. The spin Hall angle is found to decrease with frequency and wave number, but it remains comparable to its zero-frequency value around the frequency corresponding to the Drude peak. The plasmon dispersion and linewidth are also obtained. The extrinsic SHE affects the plasmon dispersion in the long wavelength limit, but not at large values of the wave number. This result suggests an explanation for the rather similar plasmonic response measured in exfoliated graphene, which does not exhibit the SHE, and graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition, for which a large SHE has been recently reported. Our theory also lays the foundation for future experimental searches of SOC effects in the electrodynamic response of two-dimensional electron gases with SOC disorder.
Spin-Hall-Effect-Assisted Electroresistance in Antiferromagnets via 105 A/cm2 dc Current
Han, Jiahao; Wang, Yuyan; Pan, Feng; Song, Cheng
2016-08-01
Antiferromagnet (AFM) spintronics with reduced electrical current is greatly expected to process information with high integration and low power consumption. In Pt/FeMn and Ta/FeMn hybrids, we observe significant resistance variation (up to 7% of the total resistance) manipulated by 105 A/cm2 dc current. We have excluded the contribution of isotropic structural effects, and confirmed the critical role of the spin Hall injection from Pt (or Ta) to FeMn. This electrical current-manipulated resistance (i.e. electroresistance) is proposed to be attributed to the spin-Hall-effect-induced spin-orbit torque in FeMn. Similar results have also been detected in plain IrMn films, where the charge current generates spin current via the spin Hall effect with the existence of Ir atoms. All the measurements are free from external magnetic fields and ferromagnets. Our findings present an interesting step towards high-efficiency spintronic devices.
Formation of In-plane Skyrmions in Epitaxial MnSi Thin Films as Revealed by Planar Hall Effect
Yokouchi, Tomoyuki; Kanazawa, Naoya; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kozuka, Yusuke; Kikkawa, Akiko; Taguchi, Yasujiro; Kawasaki, Masashi; Ichikawa, Masakazu; Kagawa, Fumitaka; Tokura, Yoshinori
2015-10-01
We investigate skyrmion formation in both a single crystalline bulk and epitaxial thin films of MnSi by measurements of planar Hall effect. A prominent stepwise field profile of planar Hall effect is observed in the well-established skyrmion phase region in the bulk sample, which is assigned to anisotropic magnetoresistance effect with respect to the magnetic modulation direction. We also detect the characteristic planar Hall anomalies in the thin films under the in-plane magnetic field at low temperatures, which indicates the formation of skyrmion strings lying in the film plane. Uniaxial magnetic anisotropy plays an important role in stabilizing the in-plane skyrmions in the MnSi thin film.
Coriolis effect in optics: unified geometric phase and spin-Hall effect.
Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Gorodetski, Yuri; Kleiner, Vladimir; Hasman, Erez
2008-07-18
We examine the spin-orbit coupling effects that appear when a wave carrying intrinsic angular momentum interacts with a medium. The Berry phase is shown to be a manifestation of the Coriolis effect in a noninertial reference frame attached to the wave. In the most general case, when both the direction of propagation and the state of the wave are varied, the phase is given by a simple expression that unifies the spin redirection Berry phase and the Pancharatnam-Berry phase. The theory is supported by the experiment demonstrating the spin-orbit coupling of electromagnetic waves via a surface plasmon nanostructure. The measurements verify the unified geometric phase, demonstrated by the observed polarization-dependent shift (spin-Hall effect) of the waves.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in stanene on a nonmagnetic substrate
Zhang, Huisheng; Zhou, Tong; Zhang, Jiayong; Zhao, Bao; Yao, Yugui; Yang, Zhongqin
2016-12-01
Since the quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect was realized in magnetic topological insulators, research on the effect has become a hot topic. The very harsh realizing requirements of the effect in experiments, however, hinder its practical applications. Based on ab initio methods, we find that nonmagnetic Pb I2 films are ideal substrates for the two-dimensional honeycomb stanene. The QAH effect with a pretty large band gap (up to 90 meV) can be achieved in the functionalized stanene /Pb I2 heterostructure. Despite van der Waals interactions in the heterostructure, band inversions are found to be happening between Sn (s and px ,y ) and Pb (px ,y) orbitals, playing a key role in determining the nontrivial topology and the large band gap of the system. Having no magnetic atoms is imperative to triggering the QAH effect. A very stable rudimentary device having QAH effects is proposed based on the Sn /Pb I2 heterostructure. Our results demonstrate that QAH effects can be easily realized in the Sn /Pb I2 heterostructures in experiments.
Edge states and integer quantum Hall effect in topological insulator thin films.
Zhang, Song-Bo; Lu, Hai-Zhou; Shen, Shun-Qing
2015-08-25
The integer quantum Hall effect is a topological state of quantum matter in two dimensions, and has recently been observed in three-dimensional topological insulator thin films. Here we study the Landau levels and edge states of surface Dirac fermions in topological insulators under strong magnetic field. We examine the formation of the quantum plateaux of the Hall conductance and find two different patterns, in one pattern the filling number covers all integers while only odd integers in the other. We focus on the quantum plateau closest to zero energy and demonstrate the breakdown of the quantum spin Hall effect resulting from structure inversion asymmetry. The phase diagrams of the quantum Hall states are presented as functions of magnetic field, gate voltage and chemical potential. This work establishes an intuitive picture of the edge states to understand the integer quantum Hall effect for Dirac electrons in topological insulator thin films.
Hall and ion slip effects on peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid with Joule heating
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shafique, Maryam [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Tanveer, A., E-mail: anum@math.qau.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [NAAM Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2016-06-01
This paper addresses mixed convective peristaltic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid in a channel with complaint walls. The present investigation includes the viscous dissipation, thermal radiation and Joule heating. Hall and ion slip effects are also taken into account. Related problems through long wavelength and low Reynolds number are examined for stream function, temperature and concentration. Impacts of thermal radiation, Hartman number, Brownian motion parameter, thermophoresis, Joule heating, Hall and ion slip parameters are investigated in detail. It is observed that velocity increases and temperature decreases with Hall and ion slip parameters. Further the thermal radiation on temperature has qualitatively similar role to that of Hall and ion slip effects. - Highlights: • Peristalsis in the presence of Jeffery nanofluid is formulated. • Compliant properties of channel walls are addressed. • Impact of Hall and ion slip effects is outlined. • Influence of Joule heating and radiation is investigated. • Mixed convection for both heat and mass transfer is present.
Effects of facility backpressure on the performance and plume of a Hall thruster
Walker, Mitchell Louis Ronald
2005-07-01
This dissertation presents research aimed at understanding the relationship between facility background pressure, Hall thruster performance, and plume characteristics. Due to the wide range of facilities used in Hall thruster testing, it is difficult for researchers to make adequate comparisons between data sets because of both dissimilar instrumentation and backpressures. The differences in the data sets are due to the ingestion of background gas into the Hall thruster discharge channel and charge-exchange collisions in the plume. Thus, this research aims to understand facility effects and to develop the tools needed to allow researchers to obtain relevant plume and performance data for a variety of chambers and backpressures. The first portion of this work develops a technique for calibrating a vacuum chamber in terms of pressure to account for elevated backpressures while testing Hall thrusters. Neutral gas background pressure maps of the Large Vacuum Test Facility are created at a series of cold anode flow rates and one hot flow rate at two UM/AFRL P5 5 kW Hall thruster operating conditions. These data show that a cold flow pressure map can be used to approximate the neutral background pressure in the chamber with the thruster in operation. In addition, the data are used to calibrate a numerical model that accurately predicts facility backpressure within a vacuum chamber of specified geometry and pumping speed. The second portion of this work investigates how facility backpressure influences the plume, plume diagnostics, and performance of the P5 Hall thruster. Measurements of the plume and performance characteristics over a wide range of pressures show that ingestion, a decrease in the downstream plasma potential, and broadening of the ion energy distribution function cause the increase in thrust with backpressure. Furthermore, a magnetically-filtered Faraday probe accurately measures ion current density at elevated operating pressures. The third portion of
Longitudinal Hall effect in Terfecohan thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy
Duc, N.H. [Laboratory for Nano Magnetic Materials and Devices, Faculty of Engineering Physics and Nanotechnology, College of Technology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Buiding E3, 144 Xuan Thuy Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)]. E-mail: ducnh@vnu.edu.vn; Hong, N.T.M. [Laboratory for Nano Magnetic Materials and Devices, Faculty of Engineering Physics and Nanotechnology, College of Technology, Vietnam National University, Hanoi, Buiding E3, 144 Xuan Thuy Road, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Teillet, J. [Groupe de Physique des Materiaux, Universite de Rouen, UMR CNRS 6634, 76801 St. Etienne du Rouvray (France)
2007-09-15
Longitudinal extraordinary Hall Effect (LEHE) of magnetic Tb(Fe{sub 0.55}Co{sub 0.45}){sub 1.5} (known as Terfecohan) thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of both the intensity of applied magnetic fields and the angle {alpha} between the applied field and film normal directions. The Hall voltage loops exhibit a parallelogram shape, which is almost similar to those of the perpendicular magnetization. The high-field Hall voltage susceptibility is positive at {alpha}=0. Its value decreases with increasing {alpha} and changes in sign at {alpha} {sub m}=20{sup o}, which is considered as the easy magnetizable direction of the film. This finding is comparable with those obtained from the magnetization, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and conversion electron Moessbauer spectra (CEMS) measurements. The obtained LEHE behaviors are rather promising for applications such as magnetic recording heads and magnetic field detectors, where a large output signal is required at low magnetic fields.
Longitudinal Hall effect in Terfecohan thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy
Duc, N. H.; Hong, N. T. M.; Teillet, J.
2007-09-01
Longitudinal extraordinary Hall Effect (LEHE) of magnetic Tb(Fe 0.55Co 0.45) 1.5 (known as Terfecohan) thin films with perpendicular magnetic anisotropy has been investigated as a function of both the intensity of applied magnetic fields and the angle α between the applied field and film normal directions. The Hall voltage loops exhibit a parallelogram shape, which is almost similar to those of the perpendicular magnetization. The high-field Hall voltage susceptibility is positive at α=0. Its value decreases with increasing α and changes in sign at αm=20°, which is considered as the easy magnetizable direction of the film. This finding is comparable with those obtained from the magnetization, magnetic force microscopy (MFM) and conversion electron Mössbauer spectra (CEMS) measurements. The obtained LEHE behaviors are rather promising for applications such as magnetic recording heads and magnetic field detectors, where a large output signal is required at low magnetic fields.
Horava-Lifshitz Gravity and Effective Theory of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
Wu, Chaolun
2014-01-01
We show that Horava-Lifshitz gravity theory can be employed as a covariant framework to build an effective field theory for the fractional quantum Hall effect that respects all the spacetime symmetries such as non-relativistic diffeomorphism invariance and anisotropic Weyl invariance as well as the gauge symmetry. The key to this formalism is a set of correspondence relations that maps all the field degrees of freedom in the Horava-Lifshitz gravity theory to external background (source) fields among others in the effective action of the quantum Hall effect, according to their symmetry transformation properties. We originally derive the map as a holographic dictionary, but its form is independent of the existence of holographic duality. This paves the way for the application of Horava-Lifshitz holography on fractional quantum Hall effect. Using the simplest holographic Chern-Simons model, we compute the low energy effective action at leading orders and show that it captures universal electromagnetic and geomet...
Spin Backflow and ac Voltage Generation by Spin Pumping and the Inverse Spin Hall Effect
Jiao, HuJun; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.
2013-05-01
The spin current pumped by a precessing ferromagnet into an adjacent normal metal has a constant polarization component parallel to the precession axis and a rotating one normal to the magnetization. The former is now routinely detected as a dc voltage induced by the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE). Here we compute ac ISHE voltages much larger than the dc signals for various material combinations and discuss optimal conditions to observe the effect. The backflow of spin is shown to be essential to distill parameters from measured ISHE voltages for both dc and ac configurations.
The enigma of the ν =2 +3 /8 fractional quantum Hall effect
Hutasoit, Jimmy A.; Balram, Ajit C.; Mukherjee, Sutirtha; Wu, Ying-Hai; Mandal, Sudhansu S.; Wójs, A.; Cheianov, Vadim; Jain, J. K.
2017-03-01
The fractional quantum Hall effect at ν =2 +3 /8 , which has been definitively observed, is one of the last fractions for which no viable explanation has so far been demonstrated. Our detailed study suggests that it belongs to a new class of exotic states described by the Bonderson-Slingerland wave function. Its excitations are non-Abelian anyons similar to those of the well studied Pfaffian state at 5/2, but its wave function has a more complex structure. Using the effective edge theory, we make predictions for various measurable quantities that should enable a confirmation of the underlying topological order of this state.
Realization and optimization of bus bar current transducers based on Hall effect sensors
Blagojević, Marjan; Jovanović, Uglješa; Jovanović, Igor; Mančić, Dragan; Popović, Radivoje S.
2016-06-01
In this paper the realization and optimization of two coreless open-loop bus bar current transducers based on a Hall effect sensor are presented. Two types of bus bar are evaluated: flat rectangular and rectangular with a restrictive region in the middle. Both realized transducers are capable of measuring AC and DC currents up to 300 A and 10 kHz frequency with nonlinearity less than 0.3% in the entire range. Several methods for resolving issues with the skin effect and stray magnetic fields are presented along with the experimental test results. Some of the presented methods are novel and have never been evaluated.
Effective Field Theory of Fractional Quantized Hall Nematics
Mulligan, Michael; /MIT, LNS; Nayak, Chetan; /Station Q, UCSB; Kachru, Shamit; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC
2012-06-06
We present a Landau-Ginzburg theory for a fractional quantized Hall nematic state and the transition to it from an isotropic fractional quantum Hall state. This justifies Lifshitz-Chern-Simons theory - which is shown to be its dual - on a more microscopic basis and enables us to compute a ground state wave function in the symmetry-broken phase. In such a state of matter, the Hall resistance remains quantized while the longitudinal DC resistivity due to thermally-excited quasiparticles is anisotropic. We interpret recent experiments at Landau level filling factor {nu} = 7/3 in terms of our theory.
Murata, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro
2013-01-01
Ohmic contact electrodes for four-wire resistance and Hall measurements were fabricated on an individual single-crystal bismuth nanowire encapsulated in a cylindrical quartz template. Focused ion beam processing was utilized to expose the side surfaces of the bismuth nanowire in the template, and carbon and tungsten electrodes were deposited on the bismuth nanowire in situ to achieve electrical contacts. The temperature dependence of the four-wire resistance was successfully measured for the ...
Size-dependent effects in exchange-biased planar Hall effect sensor crosses
Donolato, Marco; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Damsgaard, Christian Danvad
2011-01-01
Exchange-biased planar Hall effect magnetic field sensor crosses with arm width w have been studied as function of w. For large values of w, the magnetic behavior is hysteresis-free and follows the single domain Stoner-Wohlfarth model. When w is decreased, hysteresis is observed in the sensor...... response. For intermediate values of w, the magnetization reversal takes place in two steps, and for small values of w, the magnetization reversal takes place in a single step. Based on electrical measurements, magnetic force microscopy, and micromagnetic simulations, the observations are explained...... by an increasing magnetic shape anisotropy of the arms of the cross. We propose a simple analytical model that captures the essential physics of the observations and parameterizes the effects of the cross-shape on the central part of the cross. (C) 2011 American Institute of Physics. [doi:10.1063/1.3561364]...
Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets
Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Yevgeny; Fisch, Nathaniel J.
2008-01-01
While Hall thrusters can operate at high efficiency at kW power levels, it is difficult to construct one that operates over a broad envelope down to 100W while maintaining an efficiency of 45- 55%. Scaling to low power while holding the main dimensionless parameters constant requires a decrease in the thruster channel size and an increase in the magnetic field strength. Increasing the magnetic field becomes technically challenging since the field can saturate the miniaturized inner components of the magnetic circuit and scaling down the magnetic circuit leaves very little room for magnetic pole pieces and heat shields. An alternative approach is to employ a cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) geometry. Laboratory model CHTs have operated at power levels ranging from the order of 50 Watts up to 1 kW. These thrusters exhibit performance characteristics which are comparable to conventional, annular Hall thrusters of similar size. Compared to the annular Hall thruster, the CHT has a lower insulator surface area to discharge chamber volume ratio. Consequently, there is the potential for reduced wall losses in the channel of a CHT, and any reduction in wall losses should translate into lower channel heating rates and reduced erosion. This makes the CHT geometry promising for low-power applications. Recently, a CHT that uses permanent magnets to produce the magnetic field topology was tested. This thruster has the promise of reduced power consumption over previous CHT iterations that employed electromagnets. Data are presented for two purposes: to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. These data are used to gain insight into the thruster's operation and to allow for quantitative comparisons between the permanent magnet CHT and the electromagnet CHT.
Effects of Hall Current in the Driven Reconnection with Various Scales
YANG Hong-Ang; JIN Shu-Ping
2004-01-01
In the driven reconnection process with various scales, the effect of Hall current is studied numerically using a Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) code derived from a multi-step implicit scheme. In the cases with Lc/di ≤ 1.0 (Lcis the half-thickness of initial current layer, di is the ion inertial length), the features of Hall MHD reconnection are shown as follows: a quasi-steady single X-line reconnection is obtained, the By component with a quadrupolar structure is generated and the maximum reconnection rate is larger than 0.11. In the cases with Lc/di ＞ 1.0, the effect of Hall current on the reconnection dynamics weakens and Hall MHD reconnection is gradually transformed into resistive MHD reconnection as Lc/di increases.
Magnetic Topological Insulators and Quantum Anomalous Hall Effect
Kou, Xufeng
The engineering of topological surface states is a key to realize applicable devices based on topological insulators (TIs). Among various proposals, introducing magnetic impurities into TIs has been proven to be an effective way to open a surface gap and integrate additional ferromagnetism with the original topological order. In this Dissertation, we study both the intrinsic electrical and magnetic properties of the magnetic TI thin films grown by molecular beam epitaxy. By doping transition element Cr into the host tetradymite-type V-VI semiconductors, we achieve robust ferromagnetic order with a strong perpendicular magnetic anisotropy. With additional top-gating capability, we realize the electric-field-controlled ferromagnetism in the magnetic TI systems, and demonstrate such magneto-electric effects can be effectively manipulated, depending on the interplays between the band topology, magnetic exchange coupling, and structural engineering. Most significantly, we report the observation of quantum anomalous Hall effect (QAHE) in the Cr-doped (BiSb)2Te3 samples where dissipationless chiral edge conduction is realized in the macroscopic millimeter-size devices without the presence of any external magnetic field, and the stability of the quantized Hall conductance of e2/h is well-maintained as the film thickness varies across the 2D hybridization limit. With additional quantum confinement, we discover the metal-to-insulator switching between two opposite QAHE states, and reveal the universal QAHE phase diagram in the thin magnetic TI samples. In addition to the uniform magnetic TIs, we further investigate the TI/Cr-doped TI bilayer structures prepared by the modulation-doped growth method. By controlling the magnetic interaction profile, we observe the Dirac hole-mediated ferromagnetism and develop an effective way to manipulate its strength. Besides, the giant spin-orbit torque in such magnetic TI-based heterostructures enables us to demonstrate the current
Magnon Hall effect without Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction
Owerre, S. A.
2017-01-01
Topological magnon bands and magnon Hall effect in insulating collinear ferromagnets are induced by the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction (DMI) even at zero magnetic field. In the geometrically frustrated star lattice, a coplanar/noncollinear \\mathbf{q}=0 magnetic ordering may be present due to spin frustration. This magnetic structure, however, does not exhibit topological magnon effects even with DMI in contrast to collinear ferromagnets. We show that a magnetic field applied perpendicular to the star plane induces a non-coplanar spin configuration with nonzero spin scalar chirality, which provides topological effects without the need of DMI. The non-coplanar spin texture originates from the topology of the spin configurations and does not need the presence of DMI or magnetic ordering, which suggests that this phenomenon may be present in the chiral spin liquid phases of frustrated magnetic systems. We propose that these anomalous topological magnon effects can be accessible in polymeric iron (III) acetate—a star-lattice antiferromagnet with both spin frustration and long-range magnetic ordering.
Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities
Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Petersen, Dirch Hjorth;
2013-01-01
-point probe measurements on an infinite plane and to symmetric, circular van der Pauw discs, obtaining functions consistent with published results. These new expressions speed up calculation of the sensitivity for a specimen of arbitrary shape to little more than the solution of two Laplace equation boundary......-value problems of the order of N3 calculations, rather than N2 problems of total order N5, and in a few cases produces an analytic expression for the sensitivity. These functions provide an intuitive, visual explanation of how, for example, measurements can predict the wrong carrier type in n-type ZnO....
Magnetoresistance, electrical conductivity, and Hall effect of glassy carbon
Baker, D.F.
1983-02-01
These properties of glassy carbon heat treated for three hours between 1200 and 2700/sup 0/C were measured from 3 to 300/sup 0/K in magnetic fields up to 5 tesla. The magnetoresistance was generally negative and saturated with reciprocal temperature, but still increased as a function of magnetic field. The maximum negative magnetoresistance measured was 2.2% for 2700/sup 0/C material. Several models based on the negative magnetoresistance being proportional to the square of the magnetic moment were attempted; the best fit was obtained for the simplest model combining Curie and Pauli paramagnetism for heat treatments above 1600/sup 0/C. Positive magnetoresistance was found only in less than 1600/sup 0/C treated glassy carbon. The electrical conductivity, of the order of 200 (ohm-cm)/sup -1/ at room temperature, can be empirically written as sigma = A + Bexp(-CT/sup -1/4) - DT/sup -1/2. The Hall coefficient was independent of magnetic field, insensitive to temperature, but was a strong function of heat treatment temperature, crossing over from negative to positive at about 1700/sup 0/C and ranging from -0.048 to 0.126 cm/sup 3//coul. The idea of one-dimensional filaments in glassy carbon suggested by the electrical conductivity is compatible with the present consensus view of the microstructure.
Quantum spin/valley Hall effect and topological insulator phase transitions in silicene
Tahir, M.
2013-04-26
We present a theoretical realization of quantum spin and quantum valley Hall effects in silicene. We show that combination of an electric field and intrinsic spin-orbit interaction leads to quantum phase transitions at the charge neutrality point. This phase transition from a two dimensional topological insulator to a trivial insulating state is accompanied by a quenching of the quantum spin Hall effect and the onset of a quantum valley Hall effect, providing a tool to experimentally tune the topological state of silicene. In contrast to graphene and other conventional topological insulators, the proposed effects in silicene are accessible to experiments.
Tunnelling anomalous and planar Hall effects (Conference Presentation)
Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor
2016-10-01
We theoretically show how the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and magnetism can result in a finite tunneling Hall conductance, transverse to the applied bias. For two-dimensional tunnel junctions with a ferromagnetic lead and magnetization perpendicular to the current flow, the detected anomalous Hall voltage can be used to extract information not only about the spin polarization but also about the strength of the interfacial SOC. In contrast, a tunneling current across a ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) can induce a planar Hall response even when the magnetization is oriented along the current flow[1]. The tunneling nature of the states contributing to the planar Hall conductance can be switched from the ordinary to the Klein regimes by the electrostatic control of the barrier strength. This allows for an enhancement of the transverse response and a giant Hall angle, with the tunneling planar Hall conductance exceeding the longitudinal component. Despite the simplicity of a single ferromagnetic region, the TI/ferromagnet system exhibits a variety of functionalities. In addition to a spin-valve operation for magnetic sensing and storing information, positive, negative, and negative differential conductances can be tuned by properly adjusting the barrier potential and/or varying the magnetization direction. Such different resistive behaviors in the same system are attractive for potential applications in reconfigurable spintronic devices. [1] B. Scharf, A. Matos-Abiague, J. E. Han, E. M. Hankiewicz, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1601.01009 (2016).
Extraordinary Hall effect on Fe-rich amorphous thin films and Fe-rich/Cu multilayers
Michea, S. [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avda. Ecuador, 3493, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Denardin, J.C., E-mail: juliano.denardin@usach.cl [Universidad de Santiago de Chile, Avda. Ecuador, 3493, Estacion Central, Santiago (Chile); Gamino, M.; Dorneles, L.S. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria 97105-900, RS (Brazil); Correa, M.A. [Departamento de Fisica Teorica e Experimental, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario Lagoa Seca, 59072-970 - Natal, RN - Brazil (Brazil)
2012-08-15
In this study we investigated the magnetic and transport properties of thin Fe-rich amorphous films and Fe-rich/Cu multilayers. We compared the extraordinary Hall effect in these two types of samples and discussed it in terms of thickness and sample structure. The thicker films exhibited a strong in-plane magnetic anisotropy, and by decreasing film thickness both saturated Hall resistivity and Hall sensitivity increase. A Hall resistivity value of 20 {mu} Ohm-Sign cm is observed in 100 nm thick Fe-rich films at 12 K and a sensitivity of 1.3 Ohm-Sign /T is obtained at room temperature. Electrical conductance increases and Hall resistivity decreases when the films are sandwiched with Cu.
Influence of the Hall effect and electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection
Andrés, Nahuel; Gómez, Daniel
2015-01-01
We study the role of the Hall current and electron inertia in collisionless magnetic reconnection within the framework of full two-fluid MHD. At spatial scales smaller than the electron inertial length, a topological change of magnetic field lines exclusively due to electron inertia becomes possible. Assuming stationary conditions, we derive a theoretical scaling for the reconnection rate, which is simply proportional to the Hall parameter. Using a pseudo-spectral code with no dissipative effects, our numerical results confirm this theoretical scaling. In particular, for a sequence of different Hall parameter values, our numerical results show that the width of the current sheet is independent of the Hall parameter while its thickness is of the order of the electron inertial range, thus confirming that the stationary reconnection rate is proportional to the Hall parameter.
Lu, Y. M.
2013-03-05
Scaling of the anomalous Hall conductivity to longitudinal conductivity σAH∝σ2xx has been observed in the dirty regime of two-dimensional weak and strong localization regions in ultrathin, polycrystalline, chemically disordered, ferromagnetic FePt films. The relationship between electron transport and temperature reveals a quantitatively insignificant Coulomb interaction in these films, while the temperature dependent anomalous Hall conductivity experiences quantum correction from electron localization. At the onset of this correction, the low-temperature anomalous Hall resistivity begins to be saturated when the thickness of the FePt film is reduced, and the corresponding Hall conductivity scaling exponent becomes 2, which is above the recent unified theory of 1.6 (σAH∝σ1.6xx). Our results strongly suggest that the correction of the electron localization modulates the scaling exponent of the anomalous Hall effect.
Arapov, Yu. G.; Gudina, S. V.; Neverov, V. N.; Podgornykh, S. M.; Popov, M. R., E-mail: rafaelp@yandex.ru; Harus, G. I.; Shelushinina, N. G.; Yakunin, M. V. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Mikheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch (Russian Federation); Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)
2015-12-15
The longitudinal and Hall magnetoresistances of HgTe/HgCdTe heterostructures with an inverted energy spectrum (the HgTe quantum well width is d = 20.3 nm) are measured in the quantum-Hall-effect regime at T = 2–50 K in magnetic fields up to B = 9 T. Analysis of the temperature dependences of conductivity in the transition region between the first and second plateaus of the quantum Hall effect shows the feasibility of the scaling regime for a plateau–plateau quantum phase transition in 2D-structures on the basis of mercury telluride.
Giant Hall Effect of Fe45.51(Al2O3)54.49 Nano-granular Film
XU Qing-Yu; NI Gang; SANG Hai; DU You-Wei
2000-01-01
A series of Fe45.51(Al2O3)54.49 nano-granular films were prepared using ion-beam sputtering technique. A saturated hall resistivity of about 12.5μΩ.cm at room temperature was observed. The transmission electron microscopy image showed that very small Fe particles of smaller than 1 nm are embedded in Al2Os matrix, and connected into network. The measured ρ- T curve indicated that this giant Hall effect may originate from the percolation phenomenon. With different annealing temperature (TA) up to 300℃, the saturated Hall resistivity decreased only a little. The good thermal stability of Fe45.51 (Al2O3)54.49 nano-granular Films showed potential application for magnetic sensor.
Large anomalous Hall effect in a non-collinear antiferromagnet at room temperature.
Nakatsuji, Satoru; Kiyohara, Naoki; Higo, Tomoya
2015-11-12
In ferromagnetic conductors, an electric current may induce a transverse voltage drop in zero applied magnetic field: this anomalous Hall effect is observed to be proportional to magnetization, and thus is not usually seen in antiferromagnets in zero field. Recent developments in theory and experiment have provided a framework for understanding the anomalous Hall effect using Berry-phase concepts, and this perspective has led to predictions that, under certain conditions, a large anomalous Hall effect may appear in spin liquids and antiferromagnets without net spin magnetization. Although such a spontaneous Hall effect has now been observed in a spin liquid state, a zero-field anomalous Hall effect has hitherto not been reported for antiferromagnets. Here we report empirical evidence for a large anomalous Hall effect in an antiferromagnet that has vanishingly small magnetization. In particular, we find that Mn3Sn, an antiferromagnet that has a non-collinear 120-degree spin order, exhibits a large anomalous Hall conductivity of around 20 per ohm per centimetre at room temperature and more than 100 per ohm per centimetre at low temperatures, reaching the same order of magnitude as in ferromagnetic metals. Notably, the chiral antiferromagnetic state has a very weak and soft ferromagnetic moment of about 0.002 Bohr magnetons per Mn atom (refs 10, 12), allowing us to switch the sign of the Hall effect with a small magnetic field of around a few hundred oersted. This soft response of the large anomalous Hall effect could be useful for various applications including spintronics--for example, to develop a memory device that produces almost no perturbing stray fields.
Framing anomaly in the effective theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect.
Gromov, Andrey; Cho, Gil Young; You, Yizhi; Abanov, Alexander G; Fradkin, Eduardo
2015-01-09
We consider the geometric part of the effective action for the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). It is shown that accounting for the framing anomaly of the quantum Chern-Simons theory is essential to obtain the correct gravitational linear response functions. In the lowest order in gradients, the linear response generating functional includes Chern-Simons, Wen-Zee, and gravitational Chern-Simons terms. The latter term has a contribution from the framing anomaly which fixes the value of thermal Hall conductivity and contributes to the Hall viscosity of the FQH states on a sphere. We also discuss the effects of the framing anomaly on linear responses for non-Abelian FQH states.
Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect Induced by Quantum Phase Transition in HgCdTe Quantum Wells
Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai; /Beijing, Inst. Semiconductors; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
Spin Hall effect can be induced both by the extrinsic impurity scattering and by the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling in the electronic structure. The HgTe/CdTe quantum well has a quantum phase transition where the electronic structure changes from normal to inverted. We show that the intrinsic spin Hall effect of the conduction band vanishes on the normal side, while it is finite on the inverted side. This difference gives a direct mechanism to experimentally distinguish the intrinsic spin Hall effect from the extrinsic one.
Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect
Bisig, André
2017-01-04
We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β/α>1) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.
Change in planar hall effect ratio of Ni–Co films produced by electrodeposition
Karpuz, Ali, E-mail: alikarpuz@kmu.edu.tr [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Kockar, Hakan [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Balikesir University, 10145 Balikesir (Turkey); Alper, Mursel [Physics Department, Science and Literature Faculty, Uludag University, 16059 Bursa (Turkey)
2015-01-01
Ni–Co films were produced by the electrodeposition technique and their magnetotransport properties were studied. The anisotropic magnetoresistance (AMR) and the planar Hall effect (PHE) ratios were found using the van der Pauw setup at room temperature. It was observed that the PHE ratios were larger than the obtained AMR ratios. While the maximum changes in longitudinal and transversal magnetoresistance ratios were 6.8% and 11.0%, respectively, the change in PHE values was up to 500%. In the PHE measurements, the magnetoresistance orientation depends on the electrical resistance values which occur in branches of the films.
Enhanced Nonadiabaticity in Vortex Cores due to the Emergent Hall Effect
Bisig, André; Akosa, Collins Ashu; Moon, Jung-Hwan; Rhensius, Jan; Moutafis, Christoforos; von Bieren, Arndt; Heidler, Jakoba; Kiliani, Gillian; Kammerer, Matthias; Curcic, Michael; Weigand, Markus; Tyliszczak, Tolek; Van Waeyenberge, Bartel; Stoll, Hermann; Schütz, Gisela; Lee, Kyung-Jin; Manchon, Aurelien; Kläui, Mathias
2016-12-01
We present a combined theoretical and experimental study, investigating the origin of the enhanced nonadiabaticity of magnetic vortex cores. Scanning transmission x-ray microscopy is used to image the vortex core gyration dynamically to measure the nonadiabaticity with high precision, including a high confidence upper bound. We show theoretically, that the large nonadiabaticity parameter observed experimentally can be explained by the presence of local spin currents arising from a texture induced emergent Hall effect. This study demonstrates that the magnetic damping α and nonadiabaticity parameter β are very sensitive to the topology of the magnetic textures, resulting in an enhanced ratio (β /α >1 ) in magnetic vortex cores or Skyrmions.
Robust quantum anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic transition metal halides
Huang, Chengxi; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Kaiming; Jena, Puru; Kan, Erjun
2016-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is a novel topological spintronic phenomenon arising from inherent magnetization and spin-orbit coupling. Various theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted in search of robust intrinsic QAH insulators. However, up to now, it has only been observed in Cr or V doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 film in experiments with very low working temperature. Based on the successful synthesis of transition metal halides, we use first-principles calculations to predict that RuI3 monolayer is an intrinsic ferromagnetic QAH insulator with a topologically nontrivial global band gap of 11 meV. This topologically nontrivial band gap at the Fermi level is due to its crystal symmetry, thus the QAH effect is robust. Its Curie temperature, estimated to be ~360 K using Monte-Carlo simulation, is above room temperature and higher than most of two-dimensional ferromagnetic thin films. We also discuss the manipulation of its exchange energy and nontrivial band gap by applying in-plane strain. Our wor...
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in ferromagnetic transition metal halides
Huang, Chengxi; Zhou, Jian; Wu, Haiping; Deng, Kaiming; Jena, Puru; Kan, Erjun
2017-01-01
The quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect is a novel topological spintronic phenomenon arising from inherent magnetization and spin-orbit coupling. Various theoretical and experimental efforts have been devoted in search of intrinsic QAH insulators. However, up to now, it has only been observed in Cr or V doped (Bi,Sb ) 2T e3 film in experiments with very low working temperature. Based on the successful synthesis of transition metal halides, we use first-principles calculations to predict that the Ru I3 monolayer is an intrinsic ferromagnetic QAH insulator with a topologically nontrivial global band gap of 11 meV. This topologically nontrivial band gap at the Fermi level is due to its crystal symmetry, thus the QAH effect is robust. Its Curie temperature, estimated to be ˜360 K using Monte Carlo simulation, is above room temperature and higher than most two-dimensional ferromagnetic thin films. The inclusion of Hubbard U in the Ru-d electrons does not affect this result. We also discuss the manipulation of its exchange energy and nontrivial band gap by applying in-plane strain. Our work adds an experimentally feasible member to the QAH insulator family, which is expected to have broad applications in nanoelectronics and spintronics.
Performance of a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster Using Permanent Magnets
Polzin, Kurt A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.
2009-01-01
electromagnets. Data are presented to expose the effect different controllable parameters have on the discharge and to summarize performance measurements (thrust, Isp, efficiency) obtained using a thrust stand. In addition, beam current data are presented to show the effect of the magnetic field topology on the plume profile and current utilization and to gain insight into the thruster s operation. These data extend and improve upon the results previously presented by the authors in Ref. [1].
Preliminary Results of Plasma Flow Measurements in a 2 KW Segmented Hall Thruster
Y. Raitses; D. Staack; A. Dunaevsky; L. Dorf; N.J. Fisch
2003-03-01
A 2-kW Hall thruster was developed, built, and operated in an upgraded vacuum facility. The thruster performance and parameters of the plasma flow were measured by new diagnostics for plume measurements and plasma measurements inside the thruster channel. The thruster demonstrated efficient operation in terms of propellant and current utilization efficiencies in the input power range of 0.5-3.5 kW. Preliminary measurements of the ion energy spectra from the thruster axis region and the distribution of plasma parameters in the vicinity of the thruster exit are reported.
Field effect in the quantum Hall regime of a high mobility graphene wire
Barraud, C., E-mail: cbarraud@phys.ethz.ch, E-mail: clement.barraud@univ-paris-diderot.fr; Choi, T.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K. [Solid State Physics Laboratory, ETH Zürich, CH-8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Butti, P.; Shorubalko, I. [Swiss Federal Laboratories of Materials Science and Technologies, EMPA Elect. Metrol. Reliabil. Lab., CH-8600 Dübendorf (Switzerland); Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K. [National Institute for Materials Science, 1-1 Namiki, Tsukuba 305-0044 (Japan)
2014-08-21
In graphene-based electronic devices like in transistors, the field effect applied thanks to a gate electrode allows tuning the charge density in the graphene layer and passing continuously from the electron to the hole doped regime across the Dirac point. Homogeneous doping is crucial to understand electrical measurements and for the operation of future graphene-based electronic devices. However, recently theoretical and experimental studies highlighted the role of the electrostatic edge due to fringing electrostatic field lines at the graphene edges [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008); F. T. Vasko and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 092115 (2010)]. This effect originates from the particular geometric design of the samples. A direct consequence is a charge accumulation at the graphene edges giving a value for the density, which deviates from the simple picture of a plate capacitor and also varies along the width of the graphene sample. Entering the quantum Hall regime would, in principle, allow probing this accumulation thanks to the extreme sensitivity of this quantum effect to charge density and the charge distribution. Moreover, the presence of an additional and counter-propagating edge channel has been predicted [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008)] giving a fundamental aspect to this technological issue. In this article, we investigate this effect by tuning a high mobility graphene wire into the quantum Hall regime in which charge carriers probe the electrostatic potential at high magnetic field close to the edges. We observe a slight deviation to the linear shift of the quantum Hall plateaus with magnetic field and we study its evolution for different filling factors, which correspond to different probed regions in real space. We discuss the possible origins of this effect including an increase of the charge density towards the edges.
Field effect in the quantum Hall regime of a high mobility graphene wire
Barraud, C.; Choi, T.; Butti, P.; Shorubalko, I.; Taniguchi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.
2014-08-01
In graphene-based electronic devices like in transistors, the field effect applied thanks to a gate electrode allows tuning the charge density in the graphene layer and passing continuously from the electron to the hole doped regime across the Dirac point. Homogeneous doping is crucial to understand electrical measurements and for the operation of future graphene-based electronic devices. However, recently theoretical and experimental studies highlighted the role of the electrostatic edge due to fringing electrostatic field lines at the graphene edges [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008); F. T. Vasko and I. V. Zozoulenko, Appl. Phys. Lett. 97, 092115 (2010)]. This effect originates from the particular geometric design of the samples. A direct consequence is a charge accumulation at the graphene edges giving a value for the density, which deviates from the simple picture of a plate capacitor and also varies along the width of the graphene sample. Entering the quantum Hall regime would, in principle, allow probing this accumulation thanks to the extreme sensitivity of this quantum effect to charge density and the charge distribution. Moreover, the presence of an additional and counter-propagating edge channel has been predicted [P. Silvestrov and K. Efetov, Phys. Rev. B 77, 155436 (2008)] giving a fundamental aspect to this technological issue. In this article, we investigate this effect by tuning a high mobility graphene wire into the quantum Hall regime in which charge carriers probe the electrostatic potential at high magnetic field close to the edges. We observe a slight deviation to the linear shift of the quantum Hall plateaus with magnetic field and we study its evolution for different filling factors, which correspond to different probed regions in real space. We discuss the possible origins of this effect including an increase of the charge density towards the edges.
Numerical simulation of the Hall effect in magnetized accretion disks with the Pluto code
Nakhaei, Mohammad; Safaei, Ghasem; Abbassi, Shahram
2014-01-01
We investigate the Hall effect in a standard magnetized accretion disk which is accompanied by dissipation due to viscosity and magnetic resistivity. By considering an initial magnetic field, using the PLUTO code, we perform a numerical magnetohydrodynamic simulation in order to study the effect of Hall diffusion on the physical structure of the disk. Current density and temperature of the disk are significantly modified by Hall diffusion, but the global structure of the disk is not substantially affected. The changes in the current densities and temperature of the disk lead to a modification in the disk luminosity and radiation.
Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro
2002-01-01
It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.
Localization correction to the anomalous Hall effect in amorphous CoFeB thin films
丁进军; 吴少兵; 杨晓非; 朱涛
2015-01-01
An obvious weak localization correction to anomalous Hall conductance (AHC) in very thin CoFeB film is reported. We find that both the weak localization to AHC and the mechanism of anomalous Hall effect are related to the CoFeB thickness. When the film is thicker than 3 nm, the side jump mechanism dominates and the weak localization to AHC vanishes. For very thin CoFeB films, both the side jump and skew scattering mechanisms contribute to the anomalous Hall effect, and the weak localization correction to AHC is observed.
Strong Intrinsic Spin Hall Effect in the TaAs Family of Weyl Semimetals.
Sun, Yan; Zhang, Yang; Felser, Claudia; Yan, Binghai
2016-09-30
Since their discovery, topological insulators are expected to be ideal spintronic materials owing to the spin currents carried by surface states with spin-momentum locking. However, the bulk doping problem remains an obstacle that hinders such an application. In this work, we predict that a newly discovered family of topological materials, the Weyl semimetals, exhibits a large intrinsic spin Hall effect that can be utilized to generate and detect spin currents. Our ab initio calculations reveal a large spin Hall conductivity in the TaAs family of Weyl materials. Considering the low charge conductivity of semimetals, Weyl semimetals are believed to present a larger spin Hall angle (the ratio of the spin Hall conductivity over the charge conductivity) than that of conventional spin Hall systems such as the 4d and 5d transition metals. The spin Hall effect originates intrinsically from the bulk band structure of Weyl semimetals, which exhibit a large Berry curvature and spin-orbit coupling, so the bulk carrier problem in the topological insulators is naturally avoided. Our work not only paves the way for employing Weyl semimetals in spintronics, but also proposes a new guideline for searching for the spin Hall effect in various topological materials.
Quantum transport in graphene Hall bars: Effects of vacancy disorder
Petrović, M. D.; Peeters, F. M.
2016-12-01
Using the tight-binding model, we investigate the influence of vacancy disorder on electrical transport in graphene Hall bars in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields. Disorder, induced by a random distribution of monovacancies, breaks the graphene sublattice symmetry and creates states localized on the vacancies. These states are observable in the bend resistance, as well as in the total DOS. Their energy is proportional to the square root of the magnetic field, while their localization length is proportional to the cyclotron radius. At the energies of these localized states, the electron current flows around the monovacancies and, as we show, it can follow unexpected paths depending on the particular arrangement of vacancies. We study how these localized states change with the vacancy concentration, and what are the effects of including the next-nearest-neighbor hopping term. Our results are also compared with the situation when double vacancies are present in the system. Double vacancies also induce localized states, but their energy and magnetic field dependencies are different. Their localization energy scales linearly with the magnetic field, and their localization length appears not to depend on the field strength.
Concepts of ferrovalley material and anomalous valley Hall effect
Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang
2016-12-01
Valleytronics rooted in the valley degree of freedom is of both theoretical and technological importance as it offers additional opportunities for information storage, as well as electronic, magnetic and optical switches. In analogy to ferroelectric materials with spontaneous charge polarization, or ferromagnetic materials with spontaneous spin polarization, here we introduce a new member of ferroic family, that is, a ferrovalley material with spontaneous valley polarization. Combining a two-band k.p model with first-principles calculations, we show that 2H-VSe2 monolayer, where the spin-orbit coupling coexists with the intrinsic exchange interaction of transition-metal d electrons, is such a room-temperature ferrovalley material. We further predict that such system could demonstrate many distinctive properties, for example, chirality-dependent optical band gap and, more interestingly, anomalous valley Hall effect. On account of the latter, functional devices based on ferrovalley materials, such as valley-based nonvolatile random access memory and valley filter, are contemplated for valleytronic applications.
Quasiparticle-mediated spin Hall effect in a superconductor
Wakamura, Taro
Superconductivity often brings novel phenomena to spintronics. According to theoretical predictions, superconductivity may enhance the spin Hall effect (SHE) due to the increase in the resistance of superconducting quasiparticles which mediate spin transport in superconductors. In this work, we show a first experimental observation of quasiparticle-mediated SHE in a superconducting NbN, which exhibits an enormous enhancement below the superconducting critical temperature (TC = 10 K). We fabricated a lateral device structure composed of Py (NiFe) and NbN wires bridged by a nonmagnetic Cu wire. A pure spin current is generated in the Cu bridge by a spin injection current (I) between the Py and the Cu, and absorbed into the NbN wire. The absorbed spin currents are converted into charge currents via the inverse SHE, thereby generating the inverse SH voltage (VISHE) . When NbN is in the normal state at 20 K (>TC) , inverse SH signals ΔRISHE (RISHE ≡VISHE / I) are independent of I. However, at 3 K (
Does the Hall Effect Solve the Flux Pileup Saturation Problem?
Dorelli, John C.
2010-01-01
It is well known that magnetic flux pileup can significantly speed up the rate of magnetic reconnection in high Lundquist number resistive MHD,allowing reconnection to proceed at a rate which is insensitive to the plasma resistivity over a wide range of Lundquist number. Hence, pileup is a possible solution to the Sweet-Parker time scale problem. Unfortunately, pileup tends to saturate above a critical value of the Lundquist number, S_c, where the value ofS_c depends on initial and boundary conditions, with Sweet-Parker scaling returning above S_c. It has been argued (see Dorelli and Bim [2003] and Dorelli [2003]) that the Hall effect can allow flux pileup to saturate (when the scale of the current sheet approaches ion inertial scale, di) before the reconnection rate begins to stall. However, the resulting saturated reconnection rate, while insensitive to the plasma resistivity, was found to depend strongly on the di. In this presentation, we revisit the problem of magnetic island coalescence (which is a well known example of flux pileup reconnection), addressing the dependence of the maximum coalescence rate on the ratio of di in the "large island" limit in which the following inequality is always satisfied: l_eta di lambda, where I_eta is the resistive diffusion length and lambda is the island wavelength.
Hall effect in charged conducting ferroelectric domain walls.
Campbell, M P; McConville, J P V; McQuaid, R G P; Prabhakaran, D; Kumar, A; Gregg, J M
2016-12-12
Enhanced conductivity at specific domain walls in ferroelectrics is now an established phenomenon. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of conduction. Carrier types, densities and mobilities have not been determined and transport mechanisms are still a matter of guesswork. Here we demonstrate that intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect the Hall effect in conducting domain walls. Studying YbMnO3 single crystals, we have confirmed that p-type conduction occurs in tail-to-tail charged domain walls. By calibration of the AFM signal, an upper estimate of ∼1 × 10(16) cm(-3) is calculated for the mobile carrier density in the wall, around four orders of magnitude below that required for complete screening of the polar discontinuity. A carrier mobility of∼50 cm(2)V(-1)s(-1) is calculated, about an order of magnitude below equivalent carrier mobilities in p-type silicon, but sufficiently high to preclude carrier-lattice coupling associated with small polarons.
Quantum Hall effect, Quillen metric and holomorphic anomaly
Klevtsov, Semyon; Marinescu, George; Wiegmann, Paul
2015-01-01
We study the generating functional, the adiabatic curvature and the adiabatic phase for the integer quantum Hall effect (QHE) on a compact Riemann surface. For the generating functional we derive its asymptotic expansion for the large flux of the magnetic field, i.e., for the large degree k of the positive Hermitian line bundle $L^k$. The expansion consists of the anomalous and exact terms. The anomalous terms are the leading terms of the expansion. This part is responsible for the quantization of the adiabatic transport coefficients in QHE. We then identify the anomalous part of the expansion with the Quillen metric on the determinant line bundle, and the subleading exact part with the asymptotics of the regularized spectral determinant of the Laplacian for the line bundle $L^k$, at large k. Finally, we show how the generating functional of the integer QHE is related to the gauge and gravitational (2+1)d Chern-Simons functionals. We observe the relation between the Bismut-Gillet-Soul\\'e curvature formula for...
Concepts of ferrovalley material and anomalous valley Hall effect.
Tong, Wen-Yi; Gong, Shi-Jing; Wan, Xiangang; Duan, Chun-Gang
2016-12-16
Valleytronics rooted in the valley degree of freedom is of both theoretical and technological importance as it offers additional opportunities for information storage, as well as electronic, magnetic and optical switches. In analogy to ferroelectric materials with spontaneous charge polarization, or ferromagnetic materials with spontaneous spin polarization, here we introduce a new member of ferroic family, that is, a ferrovalley material with spontaneous valley polarization. Combining a two-band k·p model with first-principles calculations, we show that 2H-VSe2 monolayer, where the spin-orbit coupling coexists with the intrinsic exchange interaction of transition-metal d electrons, is such a room-temperature ferrovalley material. We further predict that such system could demonstrate many distinctive properties, for example, chirality-dependent optical band gap and, more interestingly, anomalous valley Hall effect. On account of the latter, functional devices based on ferrovalley materials, such as valley-based nonvolatile random access memory and valley filter, are contemplated for valleytronic applications.
Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster
Szelecka Agnieszka
2017-03-01
Full Text Available The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET. Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.
Emergence and mechanism in the fractional quantum Hall effect
Bain, Jonathan
2016-11-01
For some authors, an adequate notion of emergence must include an account of a mechanism by means of which emergent behavior is realized. This appeal to mechanism is problematic in the case of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). There is a consensus among physicists that the FQHE exhibits emergent phenomena, but there are at least four alternative explanations of the latter that, arguably, appeal to ontologically distinct mechanisms, both at the microphysics level and at the level of general organizing principles. In light of this underdetermination of mechanism, one is faced with the following options: (I) deny that emergence is present in the FQHE; (II) argue for the priority of one mechanistic explanation over the others; or (III) temper the desire for a mechanism-centric account of emergence. I will argue that there are good reasons to reject (I) and (II) and accept (III). In particular, I will suggest that a law-centric account of emergence does just fine in explaining the emergent phenomena associated with the FQHE.
Hall effect in charged conducting ferroelectric domain walls
Campbell, M. P.; McConville, J. P. V.; McQuaid, R. G. P.; Prabhakaran, D.; Kumar, A.; Gregg, J. M.
2016-12-01
Enhanced conductivity at specific domain walls in ferroelectrics is now an established phenomenon. Surprisingly, however, little is known about the most fundamental aspects of conduction. Carrier types, densities and mobilities have not been determined and transport mechanisms are still a matter of guesswork. Here we demonstrate that intermittent-contact atomic force microscopy (AFM) can detect the Hall effect in conducting domain walls. Studying YbMnO3 single crystals, we have confirmed that p-type conduction occurs in tail-to-tail charged domain walls. By calibration of the AFM signal, an upper estimate of ~1 × 1016 cm-3 is calculated for the mobile carrier density in the wall, around four orders of magnitude below that required for complete screening of the polar discontinuity. A carrier mobility of~50 cm2V-1s-1 is calculated, about an order of magnitude below equivalent carrier mobilities in p-type silicon, but sufficiently high to preclude carrier-lattice coupling associated with small polarons.
Design of a novel integrated position sensor based on Hall effects for linear oscillating actuator
Wang, Tianyi; Yan, Liang; Jiao, Zongxia
2015-07-01
Linear oscillating actuator provides linear reciprocate motion directly without other auxiliary components, which is suitable for high integration applications in aerospace industry. Accurate position control is essential for linear oscillating motor and relies on concise measurement of mover position. However, most position measurements are dependent on external complicated sensors, which hinders further integration of linear oscillating actuation system. In this paper, a novel position sensing system for linear oscillating actuator based on Hall effects is proposed to achieve accurate and high integration measurement simultaneously. Axial sensing magnetic field with approximately linear relationship with position is created for direct and convenient measurement. Analytical model of sensing magnetic field is set up for optimization and validated by finite element method and experimental results. Finally, sensing magnets are integrated into motor prototype for experiments. Dynamic position results are tested in experiments and prove to be effective and accurate for position sensing with short-stroke.
Observation of orbital resonance Hall effect in (TMTSF)2ClO4.
Kobayashi, Kaya; Satsukawa, H; Yamada, J; Terashima, T; Uji, S
2014-03-21
We report the observation of a Hall effect driven by orbital resonance in the quasi-1-dimensional (q1D) organic conductor (TMTSF)2ClO4. Although a conventional Hall effect is not expected in this class of materials due to their reduced dimensionality, we observed a prominent Hall response at certain orientations of the magnetic field B corresponding to lattice vectors of the constituent molecular chains, known as the magic angles (MAs). We show that this Hall effect can be understood as the response of conducting planes generated by an effective locking of the orbital motion of the charge carriers to the MA driven by an electron-trajectory resonance. This phenomenon supports a class of theories describing the rich behavior of MA phenomena in q1D materials based on altered dimensionality. Furthermore, we observed that the effective carrier density of the conducting planes is exponentially suppressed in large B, which indicates possible density wave formation.
Design and development of DC high current sensor using Hall-Effect method
Dewi, Sasti Dwi Tungga; Panatarani, C.; Joni, I. Made
2016-02-01
This paper report a newly developed high DC current sensor by using a Hall effect method and also the measurement system. The Hall effect sensor receive the magnetic field generated by a current carrying conductor wire. The SS49E (Honeywell) magnetoresistive sensor was employed to sense the magnetic field from the field concentrator. The voltage received from SS49E then converted into digital by using analog to digital converter (ADC-10 bit). The digital data then processed in the microcontroller to be displayed as the value of the electric current in the LCD display. In addition the measurement was interfaced into Personal Computer (PC) using the communication protocols of RS232 which was finally displayed in real-time graphical form on the PC display. The performance test on the range ± 40 Ampere showed that the maximum relative error is 5.26%. It is concluded that the sensors and the measurement system worked properly according to the design with acceptable accuracy.
卫星电源控制中霍尔非接触测量技术%Hall noncontact measure technology in control of satellites power
曲鹏; 罗顺; 贾文涛
2009-01-01
1879年,美国物理学家爱德华·海博特·霍尔发现霍尔效应以来.霍尔技术越来越多地应用于工业控制的各个领域,特别是随着二十世纪中叶第三次产业革命产生的科学技术大爆发.使得基于霍尔效应原理研制而成的霍尔电流传感器.彻底改变了工业应用中对电压、电流的测量方法.霍尔电流传感器是一种新型磁敏传感器,介绍霍尔电流传感器的使用原理,及在卫星电源控制器中应用的典型霍尔电流传感器基本技术条件和在小卫星中对整星方阵电流、负载电流、放电电流的测量举例.%Since an American physical scientist Hay Bode Edward Hall discovered Hall Effect in 1879, technique of Hall has been used in a growing number of industrial fields. Especially with the third industry revolution breaking out in the middle of 20th, Hall current sensor as a new type of magnetic sensor developed based on the principle of Hall Effect has totally changed the ways of measuring current and voltage in the industrial application. The theory of Hall sensor and the basic technical conditions of typical Hall current sensor applied in satellite power controller were introduced in this article, and some examples of whole square current, load current and discharge current in moonlet have been given.
Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster
Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.
2009-01-01
The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.
High-temperature intrinsic quantum anomalous Hall effect in rare Earth monohalide
Wu, Menghao
2017-06-01
Although the quantum anomalous Hall effect was verified in 2013, presently its experimental realization is limited to doped magnetic topological insulators under extremely low temperature, while its theoretical existence is limited within doped or functionalized materials, or heterostructures. Based on first-principles calculations, LaCl and LaBr monolayer and bulk forms, which were fabricated in 1980s (Mattausch et al 1980 Z. Anorg. Allg. Chem. 466 7-22 Araujo and Corbett 1981 Inorg. Chem. 20 3082-6), are both revealed to exhibit intrinsic 2D/3D quantum anomalous Hall effect with energy gaps up to 36 meV. These simple binary compounds are also revealed to be ferromagnets with high Curie temperature, which guarantees that the quantum anomalous Hall effect survives at ambient condictions. Besides holding promise for low-dissipation electronics and quantum computing, this proposal realizes 3D quantum anomalous Hall effect.
Silicon Carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect Thrusters Project
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In this SBIR project, APEI, Inc. is proposing to develop a high efficiency, rad-hard 3.8 kW silicon carbide (SiC) Power Processing Unit (PPU) for Hall Effect...
Effect of electron-phonon scattering anisotropy on the Hall effect in molybdenum
Cherepanov, V.I.; Startsev, V.E.; Volkenshtein, N.V.
1979-10-01
The Hall effect is studied in the temperature interval 2--150 K in monocrystalline molybdenum with resistance ratio rho/sub 273.2//rho/sub 4.2/ =32000. For T<80 /sup 0/K the Hall coefficient is anisotropic and has a nonmonotonic temperature dependence. An extremum in R/sub H/(T) is observed at hydrogen temperatures and is sensitive to the magnitude of the magnetic field. The observed behavior of R/sub H/(T) is explained by the Fermi surface geometry of molybdenum and by the influence of the electron-phonon scattering anisotropy. The interpretation of the experimental data is supported by a comparison of the temperature dependences of the Hall coefficient for molybdenum and tungsten.
Inverse spin Hall effect in ferromagnetic metal with Rashba spin orbit coupling
M.-J. Xing
2012-09-01
Full Text Available We report an intrinsic form of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE in ferromagnetic (FM metal with Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC, which is driven by a normal charge current. Unlike the conventional form, the ISHE can be induced without the need for spin current injection from an external source. Our theoretical results show that Hall voltage is generated when the FM moment is perpendicular to the ferromagnetic layer. The polarity of the Hall voltage is reversed upon switching the FM moment to the opposite direction, thus promising a useful reading mechanism for memory or logic applications.
Fuzzy spaces, the M(atrix) model and the quantum Hall effect
Karabali, D; Randjbar-Daemi, S; Karabali, Dimitra
2004-01-01
This is a short review of recent work on fuzzy spaces in their relation to the M(atrix) theory and the quantum Hall effect. We give an introduction to fuzzy spaces and how the limit of large matrices is obtained. The complex projective spaces ${\\bf CP}^k$, and to a lesser extent spheres, are considered. Quantum Hall effect and the behavior of edge excitations of a droplet of fermions on these spaces and their relation to fuzzy spaces are also discussed.
Otake, A.; Ota, A. [Toyohashi Univ. of Tech., Aichi (Japan); Kawano, K.; Abell, S.
1999-11-10
We have measured the magnetic field distribution of silver sheath Bi2223 wire rod in the surface until now using the scanning Hall element method. In magnetic field distribution measuring method, there is magneto-optic method using the Faraday effect of a magnetism network film except for the Hall element method. We measured the magnetic field distribution of silver sheath Bi2223 wire rod using two techniques of the Hall element and magneto-optics method in order to understand magnetic field distribution further, and both results were compared and were examined. (NEDO)
Yu, H. L.; Jiang, C.; Zhai, Z. Y.
2017-01-01
We investigate numerically the integer quantum Hall effect in a three-band triangular-lattice model. The three bands own the Chern number C=2,-1,-1, respectively. The lowest topological flat band carrying Chern number C=2, which leads to the Hall plateau σH = 2 (e2 / h) . This Hall plateau is sensitive to the disorder scattering and is rapidly destroyed by the weak disorder. Further increasing the strength of disorder, the gap of density of states always disappears before the vanishing of the corresponding Hall plateau. The scaling behavior of quantum phase transition between an insulator and a quantum Hall plateau is studied. We find that the insulator-plateau transition becomes sharper with increasing the size of system. Due to the different of edge states, the critical energy Ec1 gradually shifts to the center of Hall plateau while Ec2 is unaffected with increasing the disorder strength.
Localization Exponent for the Second Landau Level in the Quantum Hall Effect
TU Tao; ZHAO Yong-Jie; HAO Xiao-Jie; WANG Cheng-You; GUO Guang-Can; GUO Guo-Ping
2008-01-01
@@ At temperature above 1 K,we measured the temperature dependence of the longitudinal and Hall resistivity ρxx,ρxy in the regime of the quantum Hall plateau-to-platean transitions.The localization exponent v is extracted with an approach based on the variable range hopping theory.We find the quantity v≈2.3 at the second Landau level,which is proven to be accurately universal.
Advanced laboratory for testing plasma thrusters and Hall thruster measurement campaign
Szelecka Agnieszka
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more efficient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LμPPT with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.
Temperature, Magnetic field, and Gate Bias Dependence of the Infrared Hall Effect in Graphene
Ellis, C. T.; Stier, A. V.; Stabile, A.; Kim, M.-H.; Sambandamurthy, G.; Cerne, J.; Banerjee, S.
2010-03-01
In our study we probe the infrared Hall conductivity (σxy) for single and bilayer graphene in the 120-1000 meV range as a function of gate bias at temperatures down to 7K and magnetic fields up to 7T using Faraday measurements. Unlike the longitudinal conductivity (σxx), which measures the sum of the optical responses for left and right circularly polarized light, σxy measures the difference and therefore is sensitive to small changes in symmetry. While σxx and the DC Hall effect have revealed extraordinary properties of graphene (Zhang, Nature 2005; Novoselov, Nature 2005; Jiang, PRL 2007; etc...) recent calculations (Morimoto, PRL 2009) predict remarkable step-like features in the infrared σxy. We also probe the chiral response of graphene due to spatial inversion symmetry breaking. Our graphene samples are prepared using several methods, including anodically bonding graphite to pyrex, which can produce a high yield of large single layer graphene flakes (>100 μm) (Shukla et al., Solid State Comm. 2009), normal mechanical exfoliation of kish graphite, and grown chemical vapor deposition techniques.
Hall probes: physics and application to magnetometry
Sanfilippo, S
2010-01-01
This lecture aims to present an overview of the properties of Hall effect devices. Descriptions of the Hall phenomenon, a review of the Hall effect device characteristics and of the various types of probes are presented. Particular attention is paid to the recent development of three-axis sensors and the related techniques to cancel the offsets and the planar Hall effect. The lecture introduces the delicate problem of the calibration of a three-dimensional sensor and ends with a section devoted to magnetic measurements in conventional beam line magnets and undulators.
Spin-Hall effect and circular birefringence of a uniaxial crystal plate
Bliokh, K Y; Prajapati, C; Puentes, G; Viswanathan, N K; Nori, F
2016-01-01
The linear birefringence of uniaxial crystal plates is known since the 17th century. Here we demonstrate, both theoretically and experimentally, a fine lateral circular birefringence of such crystal plates. We show that this effect is a novel example of the spin-Hall effect of light, i.e., a transverse spin-dependent shift of the paraxial light beam transmitted through the plate. The well-known linear birefringence and the new circular birefringence form an interesting analogy with the Goos-Hanchen and Imbert-Fedorov beam shifts that appear in the light reflection at a dielectric interface. We report the experimental observation of the effect in a remarkably simple system of a tilted half-wave plate and polarizers using polarimetric and quantum-weak-measurement techniques for the beam-shift measurements.
Magnetic vector sensors based on the Hall effect
Roumenin, Ch. S.
Integrated two- and three-dimensional vector versions of the parallel-field Hall microsensor proposed by Roumenin (1987) are presented. The characteristics of Roumenin's microsensor, which is activated by the external magnetic field parallel to the IC plane, are reviewed. The configurations of the magnetic two- and three-dimensional vector microsensors are illustrated and the operation of the microsensors is discussed.
Skyrmion crystal and topological Hall effect in B20-type transition-metal compounds
Onose, Yoshinori
2011-03-01
Topological objects in solids such as domain walls and vortices have been attracting much attention for long. Among them the spin texture called skyrmion is an unusual topological object, in which the spins point in all the directions wrapping a sphere. The skyrmion hosts finite spin chirality, and therefore is anticipated to induce novel electromagnetic phenomena such as topological Hall effect. In B20-type transition metal compounds MnSi and Fe 1-x Co x Si, the crystallization of skyrmions was observed by the neutron diffraction studies. , . Recently, we have observed the real-space images of skyrmion crystal in thin films of related compounds (Fe 0.5 Co 0.5 Si and FeGe) using Lorentz transmission electron spectroscopy., Nature material, inpress.} We have observed the hexagonal arrangement of skyrmions including the topological defects (chiral domains and dislocations) under the magnetic field normal to the films, and found that the two dimensional skyrmion crystal phase is fairly stabilized by the thin film form of the samples. We have also studied the topological Hall effect caused by the spin chirality of the skyrmion crystal in a related material MnGe. In terms of the Hall measurement, they have shown the real space nature of the fictitious magnetic field caused by the magnetic configuration of the skyrmion crystal, in contrast with the momentum-space fictitious field in another spin chirality system, Nd 2 Mo 2 O7 . This work was done in collaboration with X. Z. Yu, N. Kanazawa, J. H. Park, J. H. Han, K. Kimoto, W. Z. Zhang, S. Ishiwata, Y. Matsui, N. Nagaosa, and Y. Tokura. S. Mühlbauer et al. Science 323, 915 (2009).}
From magnetically doped topological insulator to the quantum anomalous Hall effect
He Ke; Ma Xu-Cun; Chen Xi; Lü Li; Wang Ya-Yu; Xue Qi-Kun
2013-01-01
Quantum Hall effect (QHE),as a class of quantum phenomena that occur in macroscopic scale,is one of the most important topics in condensed matter physics.It has long been expected that QHE may occur without Landau levels so that neither extemal magnetic field nor high sample mobility is required for its study and application.Such a QHE free of Landau levels,can appear in topological insulators (TIs) with ferromagnetism as the quantized version of the anomalous Hall effect,i.e.,quantum anomalous Hall (QAH) effect.Here we review our recent work on experimental realization of the QAH effect in magnetically doped TIs.With molecular beam epitaxy,we prepare thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)2Te3 TIs with wellcontrolled chemical potential and long-range ferromagnetic order that can survive the insulating phase.In such thin films,we eventually observed the quantization of the Hall resistance at h/e2 at zero field,accompanied by a considerable drop in the longitudinal resistance.Under a strong magnetic field,the longitudinal resistance vanishes,whereas the Hall resistance remains at the quantized value.The realization of the QAH effect provides a foundation for many other novel quantum phenomena predicted in TIs,and opens a route to practical applications of quantum Hall physics in low-power-consumption electronics.
The Quantum Spin Hall Effect: Theory and Experiment
Konig, Markus; Buhmann, Hartmut; Molenkamp, Laurens W.; /Wurzburg U.; Hughes, Taylor L.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Liu, Chao-Xing; /Tsinghua U., Beijing /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Qi, Xiao-Liang; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.
2010-03-19
The search for topologically non-trivial states of matter has become an important goal for condensed matter physics. Recently, a new class of topological insulators has been proposed. These topological insulators have an insulating gap in the bulk, but have topologically protected edge states due to the time reversal symmetry. In two dimensions the helical edge states give rise to the quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect, in the absence of any external magnetic field. Here we review a recent theory which predicts that the QSH state can be realized in HgTe/CdTe semiconductor quantum wells. By varying the thickness of the quantum well, the band structure changes from a normal to an 'inverted' type at a critical thickness d{sub c}. We present an analytical solution of the helical edge states and explicitly demonstrate their topological stability. We also review the recent experimental observation of the QSH state in HgTe/(Hg,Cd)Te quantum wells. We review both the fabrication of the sample and the experimental setup. For thin quantum wells with well width d{sub QW} < 6.3 nm, the insulating regime shows the conventional behavior of vanishingly small conductance at low temperature. However, for thicker quantum wells (d{sub QW} > 6.3 nm), the nominally insulating regime shows a plateau of residual conductance close to 2e{sup 2}/h. The residual conductance is independent of the sample width, indicating that it is caused by edge states. Furthermore, the residual conductance is destroyed by a small external magnetic field. The quantum phase transition at the critical thickness, d{sub c} = 6.3 nm, is also independently determined from the occurrence of a magnetic field induced insulator to metal transition.
Understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum hall effect state.
Pan, Wei; Crawford, Matthew; Tallakulam, Madhu; Ross, Anthony Joseph, III
2010-10-01
We wish to present in this report experimental results from a one-year Senior Council Tier-1 LDRD project that focused on understanding the physics of a possible non-Abelian fractional quantum Hall effect state. We first give a general introduction to the quantum Hall effect, and then present the experimental results on the edge-state transport in a special fractional quantum Hall effect state at Landau level filling {nu} = 5/2 - a possible non-Abelian quantum Hall state. This state has been at the center of current basic research due to its potential applications in fault-resistant topological quantum computation. We will also describe the semiconductor 'Hall-bar' devices we used in this project. Electron physics in low dimensional systems has been one of the most exciting fields in condensed matter physics for many years. This is especially true of quantum Hall effect (QHE) physics, which has seen its intellectual wealth applied in and has influenced many seemingly unrelated fields, such as the black hole physics, where a fractional QHE-like phase has been identified. Two Nobel prizes have been awarded for discoveries of quantum Hall effects: in 1985 to von Klitzing for the discovery of integer QHE, and in 1998 to Tsui, Stormer, and Laughlin for the discovery of fractional QHE. Today, QH physics remains one of the most vibrant research fields, and many unexpected novel quantum states continue to be discovered and to surprise us, such as utilizing an exotic, non-Abelian FQHE state at {nu} = 5/2 for fault resistant topological computation. Below we give a briefly introduction of the quantum Hall physics.
Optical imaging of the valley Hall effect in MoS2 transistors
Lee, Jieun
The newly emerged two-dimensional (2D) transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) with nonequivalent K and K' valleys have provided an ideal laboratory for exploring the valley degree of freedom of electrons, as well as their potential applications for information processing. Valley Hall effect (VHE), in which a transverse valley current is formed under a longitudinal electrical bias in the absence of a magnetic field, has been predicted in 2D TMDs with broken inversion symmetry. The effect has recently been demonstrated in monolayer MoS2 through a photo-induced anomalous Hall effect, which uses circularly polarized light to preferentially excite electrons into a specific valley. In this talk, we will present our recent results on the development of Kerr rotation microscopy to image the VHE. The valley polarizations of opposite sign accumulated on two opposing edges of MoS2 transistors from the VHE are measured directly. We will also discuss the possibility of electrical control of the VHE in bilayer MoS2, which possesses inversion symmetry. An application of a vertical electric field breaks the inversion symmetry and consequently yields the VHE.
Enhanced Hall effect in Co/Pd multilayered nanodomes with perpendicular anisotropy
Sebastian Michea
2017-05-01
Full Text Available In this work, multilayers of Co/Pd with out of plane anisotropy have been deposited on the bottom of porous alumina membranes, forming nanodomes films with 100 and 200 nm diameter. The magnetization reversal of the multilayers is investigated by magnetization curves, extraordinary Hall effect and magnetic force microscopy (MFM experiments. The results show that as the pore diameter increase, a larger hall resistivity is obtained, compared with the continuous film.
Song Hong-Zhou; Zhang Ping; Duan Su-Qing; Zhao Xian-Geng
2006-01-01
We have proposed a method to separate Rashba and Dresselhaus spin splittings in semiconductor quantum wells by using the intrinsic Hall effect. It is shown that the interference between Rashba and Dresselhaus terms can deflect the electrons in opposite transverse directions with a change of sign in the macroscopic Hall current, thus providing an alternative way to determine the different contributions to the spin-orbit coupling.
Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall-effect Thruster Simulation
2015-05-01
International Electric Propulsion Conference and 6th Nano-satellite Symposium Hyogo-Kobe, Japan July 410, 2015 Robert Martin∗ ERC Incorporated, Huntsville...Algorithms, . 8Koo, J. and Martin, R., Pseudospectral model for hybrid PIC Hall -eect thruster simulation, 34th Int. Electric Propul- sion Conf...Paper 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) May 2015-July 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Dynamic Particle Weight Remapping in Hybrid PIC Hall -effect Thruster
Non relativistic diffeomorphism and the geometry of the fractional quantum Hall effect
Banerjee, Rabin
2015-01-01
We show that our recently proposed method\\cite{BMM1,BMM2,BMM3,BM4} of constructing nonrelativistic diffeomorphism invariant field theories by gauging the Galilean symmetry provides a natural connection with the geometry of the fractional quantum Hall effect (FQHE). Specifically, the covariant derivative that appears on gauging, exactly reproduces the form that yields the Hall viscosity and Wen-Zee shift \\cite{CYF}.
Zhou, Jian; Sun, Qiang; Wang, Qian; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki; Jena, Puru
2016-06-07
Exploring a two-dimensional intrinsic quantum spin Hall state with a large band gap as well as an anomalous Hall state in realizable materials is one of the most fundamental and important goals for future applications in spintronics, valleytronics, and quantum computing. Here, by combining first-principles calculations with a tight-binding model, we predict that Sb or Bi can epitaxially grow on a stable and ferromagnetic MnO2 thin film substrate, forming a flat honeycomb sheet. The flatness of Sb or Bi provides an opportunity for the existence of Dirac points in the Brillouin zone, with its position effectively tuned by surface hydrogenation. The Dirac points in spin up and spin down channels split due to the proximity effects induced by MnO2. In the presence of both intrinsic and Rashba spin-orbit coupling, we find two band gaps exhibiting a large band gap quantum spin Hall state and a nearly quantized anomalous Hall state which can be tuned by adjusting the Fermi level. Our findings provide an efficient way to realize both quantized intrinsic spin Hall conductivity and anomalous Hall conductivity in a single material.
In-Situ Measurement of Hall Thruster Erosion Using a Fiber Optic Regression Probe
Polzin, Kurt; Korman, Valentin
2009-01-01
One potential life-limiting mechanism in a Hall thruster is the erosion of the ceramic material comprising the discharge channel. This is especially true for missions that require long thrusting periods and can be problematic for lifetime qualification, especially when attempting to qualify a thruster by analysis rather than a test lasting the full duration of the mission. In addition to lifetime, several analytical and numerical models include electrode erosion as a mechanism contributing to enhanced transport properties. However, there is still a great deal of dispute over the importance of erosion to transport in Hall thrusters. The capability to perform an in-situ measurement of discharge channel erosion is useful in addressing both the lifetime and transport concerns. An in-situ measurement would allow for real-time data regarding the erosion rates at different operating points, providing a quick method for empirically anchoring any analysis geared towards lifetime qualification. Erosion rate data over a thruster s operating envelope would also be useful in the modeling of the detailed physics inside the discharge chamber. There are many different sensors and techniques that have been employed to quantify discharge channel erosion in Hall thrusters. Snapshots of the wear pattern can be obtained at regular shutdown intervals using laser profilometry. Many non-intrusive techniques of varying complexity and sensitivity have been employed to detect the time-varying presence of erosion products in the thruster plume. These include the use quartz crystal microbalances, emission spectroscopy, laser induced flourescence, and cavity ring-down spectroscopy. While these techniques can provide a very accurate picture of the level of eroded material in the thruster plume, it is more difficult to use them to determine the location from which the material was eroded. Furthermore, none of the methods cited provide a true in-situ measure of erosion at the channel surface while
Anomalous Hall effect sensors based on magnetic element doped topological insulator thin films
Ni, Yan; Zhang, Zhen; Nlebedim, Ikenna; Jiles, David
Anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is recently discovered in magnetic element doped topological insulators (TIs), which promises low power consumption highly efficient spintronics and electronics. This discovery broaden the family of Hall effect (HE) sensors. In this work, both HE and AHE sensor based on Mn and Cr doped Bi2Te3 TI thin films will be systematically studied. The influence of Mn concentration on sensitivity of MnxBi2-xTe3 HE sensors will be discussed. The Hall sensitivity increase 8 times caused by quantum AHE will be reported. AHE senor based on Cr-doped Bi2Te3 TI thin films will also be studied and compared with Mn doped Bi2Te3 AHE sensor. The influence of thickness on sensitivity of CrxBi2-xTe3 AHE sensors will be discussed. Ultrahigh Hall sensitivity is obtained in Cr doped Bi2Te3. The largest Hall sensitivity can reach 2620 Ω/T in sensor which is almost twice higher than that of the normal semiconductor HE sensor. Our work indicates that magnetic element doped topological insulator with AHE are good candidates for ultra-sensitive Hall effect sensors.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect in magnetically doped InAs/GaSb quantum wells.
Wang, Qing-Ze; Liu, Xin; Zhang, Hai-Jun; Samarth, Nitin; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Liu, Chao-Xing
2014-10-03
The quantum anomalous Hall effect has recently been observed experimentally in thin films of Cr-doped (Bi,Sb)(2)Te(3) at a low temperature (∼ 30 mK). In this work, we propose realizing the quantum anomalous Hall effect in more conventional diluted magnetic semiconductors with magnetically doped InAs/GaSb type-II quantum wells. Based on a four-band model, we find an enhancement of the Curie temperature of ferromagnetism due to band edge singularities in the inverted regime of InAs/GaSb quantum wells. Below the Curie temperature, the quantum anomalous Hall effect is confirmed by the direct calculation of Hall conductance. The parameter regime for the quantum anomalous Hall phase is identified based on the eight-band Kane model. The high sample quality and strong exchange coupling make magnetically doped InAs/GaSb quantum wells good candidates for realizing the quantum anomalous Hall insulator at a high temperature.
Valley Hall effect in disordered monolayer MoS_{2} from first principles
Olsen, Thomas; Souza, Ivo
2015-01-01
-space Berry curvature accumulate in each of the two valleys. This is conveniently quantified by the integral of the Berry curvature over a single valley-the valley Hall conductivity. We generalize this definition to include contributions from disorder described with the supercell approach, by mapping...... conductivity of monolayer MoS2. In dirty samples the intrinsic valley Hall conductivity receives gating-dependent corrections that are only weakly dependent on the impurity concentration, consistent with side-jump scattering and the unfolded Berry curvature can be interpreted as a k-space resolved side jump....... At low impurity concentrations skew scattering dominates, leading to a divergent valley Hall conductivity in the clean limit. The implications for the recently observed photoinduced anomalous Hall effect are discussed....
Spin Hall Effect and Origins of Nonlocal Resistance in Adatom-Decorated Graphene.
Van Tuan, D; Marmolejo-Tejada, J M; Waintal, X; Nikolić, B K; Valenzuela, S O; Roche, S
2016-10-21
Recent experiments reporting an unexpectedly large spin Hall effect (SHE) in graphene decorated with adatoms have raised a fierce controversy. We apply numerically exact Kubo and Landauer-Büttiker formulas to realistic models of gold-decorated disordered graphene (including adatom clustering) to obtain the spin Hall conductivity and spin Hall angle, as well as the nonlocal resistance as a quantity accessible to experiments. Large spin Hall angles of ∼0.1 are obtained at zero temperature, but their dependence on adatom clustering differs from the predictions of semiclassical transport theories. Furthermore, we find multiple background contributions to the nonlocal resistance, some of which are unrelated to the SHE or any other spin-dependent origin, as well as a strong suppression of the SHE at room temperature. This motivates us to design a multiterminal graphene geometry which suppresses these background contributions and could, therefore, quantify the upper limit for spin-current generation in two-dimensional materials.
Theory of the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene
Toyoda, Tadashi, E-mail: toyoda@keyaki.cc.u-tokai.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokai University, 4-1-1 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan); Zhang, Chao, E-mail: czhang@uow.edu.au [School of Engineering Physics, University of Wollongong, Wollongong NSW 2522 (Australia)
2012-01-09
A Hall resistivity formula for the 2DES in graphene is derived from the zero-mass Dirac field model adopting the electron reservoir hypothesis. The formula reproduces perfectly the experimental resistivity data [K.S. Novoselov, et al., Nature 438 (2005) 201]. This perfect agreement cannot be achieved by any other existing models. The electron reservoir is shown to be the 2DES itself. -- Highlights: ► Quantum Hall resistivity formula is derived from the zero-mass Dirac model. ► The formula agrees with the graphene experiment perfectly. ► No existing theories can explain the experiment quantitatively. ► The electron reservoir hypothesis is adopted. ► Mechanism of the electron reservoir is clarified for the first time.
Murata, Masayuki; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro
2013-09-26
Ohmic contact electrodes for four-wire resistance and Hall measurements were fabricated on an individual single-crystal bismuth nanowire encapsulated in a cylindrical quartz template. Focused ion beam processing was utilized to expose the side surfaces of the bismuth nanowire in the template, and carbon and tungsten electrodes were deposited on the bismuth nanowire in situ to achieve electrical contacts. The temperature dependence of the four-wire resistance was successfully measured for the bismuth nanowire, and a difference between the resistivities of the two-wire and four-wire methods was observed. It was concluded that the two-wire method was unsuitable for estimation of the resistivity due to the influence of contact resistance, even if the magnitude of the bismuth nanowire resistance was greater than the kilo-ohm order. Furthermore, Hall measurement of a 4-μm-diameter bismuth microwire was also performed as a trial, and the evaluated temperature dependence of the carrier mobility was in agreement with that for bulk bismuth, which indicates that the carrier mobility was successfully measured using this technique. PACS: 81.07.Gf.
Masutomi, Ryuichi, E-mail: masutomi@phys.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Okamoto, Tohru [Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2015-06-22
An adsorbate-induced quantum Hall system at the cleaved InSb surfaces is investigated in magnetic fields up to 14 T using low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy combined with transport measurements. We show that an enhanced Zeeman splitting in the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations is explained by an exchange enhancement of spin splitting and potential disorder, both of which are obtained from the spatially averaged density of states (DOS). Moreover, the Altshuler–Aronov correlation gap is observed in the spatially averaged DOS at 0 T.
Theory of the integer quantum Hall effect in graphene
Toyoda, Tadashi; Zhang, Chao
2012-01-01
A Hall resistivity formula for the 2DES in graphene is derived from the zero-mass Dirac field model adopting the electron reservoir hypothesis. The formula reproduces perfectly the experimental resistivity data [K.S. Novoselov, et al., Nature 438 (2005) 201]. This perfect agreement cannot be achieved by any other existing models. The electron reservoir is shown to be the 2DES itself.
Anomalous Hall effect studies on Tb-Fe thin films
Rajasekhar, P.; Deepak Kumar, K.; Markandeyulu, G.
2016-08-01
Tbx Fe100-x (with x=11, 25, 31 and 44) thin films were prepared with the substrates kept at a temperature of 300 °C and the Hall resistivities and electrical resistivities were investigated in the temperature range 25-300 K. The sign of Hall resistivity is found to change from positive for x=31 to negative for x=44 film at temperatures 25 K and 300 K, reflecting the compensation of Tb and Fe magnetic moments between these two compositions. Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy was observed in the films of x=25 and 31 at 25 K as well as at 300 K. The Hall resistivity is seen to increase for the films of x=11 and 31 with increasing temperature, while it decreases for the films of x=25 and 44 with increasing temperature. The temperature coefficients of electrical resistivities of these films are seen to be positive. The presence of perpendicular magnetic anisotropy (refers to magnetic anisotropy, in this paper) in the temperature range 25-300 K in Tb25Fe75 and Tb31Fe69 and their metallic nature are indicators that the Tb-Fe films deposited at higher temperatures are more suitable for magneto optic data storage applications than their amorphous counterparts, due to the stability of the former.
Mixed-State Hall Effect in Chemically-Substituted YBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ Single Crystals
Han, S. H.; Herrmann, J.; Gajewski, D. A.; Paulius, L. M.; Almasan, C. C.; Maple, M. B.
1996-03-01
Longitudinal resistivity and Hall effect measurements on single crystals of Y_1-xPr_xBa_2Cu_3O_7-δ, YBa_2Cu_3O_7-y, and YBa_2Cu_3-zZn_zO_7-δ in the mixed-state reveal a ``negative Hall anomaly'' below T_c. The negative Hall signal decreases with decreasing CuO2 plane hole concentration and increasing disorder. The Hall conductivity has been analyzed using the expression σ_xy = C_1/B + C_2B + C_3, where C_1/B and C_2B are associated with the motion of the magnetic vortices and of the quasiparticles in the vortex cores, respectively. We extracted the scaling behavior of the parameters C1 and C2 with temperature in the form of A(1-T/T_c)^α and B_1(T_c/T)^β + B_2, respectively. We discovered a delayed onset of a finite transverse resistance with increasing applied magnetic fields, as compared to the longitudinal resistance. The results will be discussed in terms of a model involving quasiparticle density fluctuations in the vortex cores. This work was supported by the U. S. Department of Energy DE-FG03-86ER-45230. Financial support from LANL/INCOR (UC-91-6-A-110) (SHH) and DAAD (JH) is acknowledged. *Present Address: Department of Physics, Western Michigan University **Present Address: Department of Physics, Kent State University
X Marks the Spot: Scanning for Magnetic Scientific Treasure Using Hall-Effect Sensors
Chu, Ricky; David, Nigel; Chouinard, Taras; Schneider, Adam; Broun, David
2009-05-01
Scanning Hall probe microscopy is a quantitative magnetic imaging technique that provides high spatial resolution combined with high flux sensitivity, occupying a unique niche in magnetic microscopy [S.J. Bending, Adv. Phys. 48, 449 (1999)]. Hall sensors are useful in studying materials with microscopic or nanoscale magnetic structures, like high temperature superconductors and magnetic thin films. Development of conventional semiconductor Hall sensors has stalled due to problems with charge depletion and thermal noise. Sandhu recently produced bismuth Hall probes in an effort to avoid these effects [A. Sandhu et al. Jpn. J. Appl. Phys. 40, L524 (2001)]. The bismuth probes lack a good model to optimize their performance. I will propose a refinement of the current model with an increased emphasis on material parameters that can be more intuitively manipulated. I will show that the fundamental limit of the Hall probe flux sensitivity is comparable to that of a SQUID, the most sensitive known magnetic sensor. I will also propose a definition for spatial resolution to standardize characterization procedures for Hall sensors.
Elementary scaling laws for the design of low and high power hall effect thrusters
Dannenmayer, K.; Mazouffre, S.
2011-10-01
An advanced set of scaling laws for Hall effect thrusters running with Xenon as propellant is established on the basis of the existence of an optimum atom number density that warrants a high efficiency thruster operation. A set of general relationships between macroscopic quantities, like thrust and input power, dimensions, including the channel length, the channel width and the channel mean diameter, and magnetic field strength are inferred from the main physical processes at work in a Hall thruster discharge. The "atom density constraint" of which the nature is here critically interpreted allows simplifying those relationships as it leads to a linear dependency between the channel length and mean diameter. Scaling laws which represent an essential tool for sizing up and down Hall thrusters are eventually obtained after proportionnality coefficients are determined. This last step is realized by means of a vast database that presently encompasses 33 single-stage Hall thrusters. In order to illustrate the usefulness of this new set of scaling laws, two practical applications are given and discussed. The scaling laws are first employed to calculate the dimensions and the operating parameters for a 20-kilowatt Hall thruster capable of producing 1 N of thrust. Such an electrical engine would permit orbit transfer of large communication satellites. Finally, the geometry of a Hall thruster is determined for tolerating 100 kW, an interesting power level for interplanetary trips.
Lang, W. (Ludwig Boltzmann Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, Wien (Austria) Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik, Univ. Wien (Austria)); Kula, W. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Lab. for Laser Energetics, Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Inst. of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland)); Sobolewski, R. (Dept. of Electrical Engineering and Lab. for Laser Energetics, Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States) Inst. of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warszawa (Poland))
1994-02-01
We report a detailed study of the influence of thermodynamic fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter on various normal-state transport properties in 2223-(Bi,Pb)SrCaCuO thin films at temperatures near the superconducting transition. Measurements of the electrical resistivity, the magnetoresistance and the Hall effect were analyzed with regard to fluctuation contributions, using theories for 2-dimensional, layered superconductors. We obtained a consistent set of parameters, which fit all magneto-transport measurements above 118 K, but observed a remarkable enhancement of both excess Hall effect and negative magnetoconductivity closer to T[sub c], whereas the zero-field fluctuation conductivity follows the theoretical predictions down to 110 K. No significant contributions from the indirect (Maki-Thompson) fluctuations process were found. (orig.)
Effect of the Hollow Cathode Heat Power on the Performance of an Hall-Effect Thruster
NING Zhongxi; YU Daren; LI Hong; YAN Guojun
2009-01-01
Effect of the hollow cathode heat power on the performance of a Hall-effect thruster is investigated. The variations in the Hall-effect thruster's performance (thrust, specific impulse and anode efficiency) with the hollow cathode heat power was obtained from the analysis of the experimental data. Through an analysis on the coupling relationship between the electrons emitted from the hollow cathode and the environmental plasma, it was found that the heat power would affect the electron emission of the emitter and the space potential of the coupling zone, which would lead to a change in the effective discharge voltage. The experimental data agree well with the results of calculation which can be used to explain the experimental phenomena.
Sekine, Akihiko; Nomura, Kentaro
2016-03-04
We search for dynamical magnetoelectric phenomena in three-dimensional correlated systems with spin-orbit coupling. We focus on the antiferromagnetic insulator phases where the dynamical axion field is realized by the fluctuation of the antiferromagnetic order parameter. It is shown that the dynamical chiral magnetic effect, an alternating current generation by magnetic fields, emerges due to such time dependences of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic resonance. It is also shown that the anomalous Hall effect arises due to such spatial variations of the order parameter as antiferromagnetic domain walls. Our study indicates that spin excitations in antiferromagnetic insulators with spin-orbit coupling can result in nontrivial charge responses. Moreover, observing the chiral magnetic effect and anomalous Hall effect in our system is equivalent to detecting the dynamical axion field in condensed matter.
Nonlocal Spin Diffusion Driven by Giant Spin Hall Effect at Oxide Heterointerfaces.
Jin, Mi-Jin; Moon, Seon Young; Park, Jungmin; Modepalli, Vijayakumar; Jo, Junhyeon; Kim, Shin-Ik; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Min, Byoung-Chul; Lee, Hyun-Woo; Baek, Seung-Hyub; Yoo, Jung-Woo
2017-01-11
A two-dimensional electron gas emerged at a LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interface is an ideal system for "spin-orbitronics" as the structure itself strongly couple the spin and orbital degree of freedom through the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. One of core experiments toward this direction is the nonlocal spin transport measurement, which has remained elusive due to the low spin injection efficiency to this system. Here we bypass the problem by generating a spin current not through the spin injection from outside but instead through the inherent spin Hall effect and demonstrate the nonlocal spin transport. The analysis on the nonlocal spin voltage, confirmed by the signature of a Larmor spin precession and its length dependence, displays that both D'yakonov-Perel' and Elliott-Yafet mechanisms involve in the spin relaxation at low temperature. Our results show that the oxide heterointerface is highly efficient in spin-charge conversion with exceptionally strong spin Hall coefficient γ ∼ 0.15 ± 0.05 and could be an outstanding platform for the study of coupled charge and spin transport phenomena and their electronic applications.
Design and Characterization of a Three-Axis Hall Effect-Based Soft Skin Sensor.
Tomo, Tito Pradhono; Somlor, Sophon; Schmitz, Alexander; Jamone, Lorenzo; Huang, Weijie; Kristanto, Harris; Sugano, Shigeki
2016-04-07
This paper presents an easy means to produce a 3-axis Hall effect-based skin sensor for robotic applications. It uses an off-the-shelf chip and is physically small and provides digital output. Furthermore, the sensor has a soft exterior for safe interactions with the environment; in particular it uses soft silicone with about an 8 mm thickness. Tests were performed to evaluate the drift due to temperature changes, and a compensation using the integral temperature sensor was implemented. Furthermore, the hysteresis and the crosstalk between the 3-axis measurements were evaluated. The sensor is able to detect minimal forces of about 1 gf. The sensor was calibrated and results with total forces up to 1450 gf in the normal and tangential directions of the sensor are presented. The test revealed that the sensor is able to measure the different components of the force vector.
Planar Hall effect sensor bridge geometries optimized for magnetic bead detection
Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard; Rizzi, Giovanni; Henriksen, Anders Dahl
2014-01-01
Novel designs of planar Hall effect bridge sensors optimized for magnetic bead detection are presented and characterized. By constructing the sensor geometries appropriately, the sensors can be tailored to be sensitive to an external magnetic field, the magnetic field due to beads being magnetized...... by the sensor self-field or a combination thereof. The sensors can be made nominally insensitive to small external magnetic fields, while being maximally sensitive to magnetic beads, magnetized by the sensor self-field. Thus, the sensor designs can be tailored towards specific applications with minimal...... influence of external variables. Three different sensor designs are analyzed theoretically. To experimentally validate the theoretical signals, two sets of measurements are performed. First, the sensor signals are characterized as function of an externally applied magnetic field. Then, measurements...
A cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for real-time Hall thruster erosion measurements
Lee, B. C. [Physics Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 (United States); Huang, W. [NASA Glenn Research Center, 2100 Brookpark Rd., Cleveland, Ohio 44135 (United States); Tao, L.; Yamamoto, N.; Yalin, A. P., E-mail: ayalin@engr.colostate.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, Colorado 80521 (United States); Gallimore, A. D. [Aerospace Engineering Department, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)
2014-05-15
A continuous-wave cavity ring-down spectroscopy sensor for real-time measurements of sputtered boron from Hall thrusters has been developed. The sensor uses a continuous-wave frequency-quadrupled diode laser at 250 nm to probe ground state atomic boron sputtered from the boron nitride insulating channel. Validation results from a controlled setup using an ion beam and target showed good agreement with a simple finite-element model. Application of the sensor for measurements of two Hall thrusters, the H6 and SPT-70, is described. The H6 was tested at power levels ranging from 1.5 to 10 kW. Peak boron densities of 10 ± 2 × 10{sup 14} m{sup −3} were measured in the thruster plume, and the estimated eroded channel volume agreed within a factor of 2 of profilometry. The SPT-70 was tested at 600 and 660 W, yielding peak boron densities of 7.2 ± 1.1 × 10{sup 14} m{sup −3}, and the estimated erosion rate agreed within ∼20% of profilometry. Technical challenges associated with operating a high-finesse cavity in the presence of energetic plasma are also discussed.
Measurements of neutral and ion velocity distribution functions in a Hall thruster
Svarnas, Panagiotis; Romadanov, Iavn; Diallo, Ahmed; Raitses, Yevgeny
2015-11-01
Hall thruster is a plasma device for space propulsion. It utilizes a cross-field discharge to generate a partially ionized weakly collisional plasma with magnetized electrons and non-magnetized ions. The ions are accelerated by the electric field to produce the thrust. There is a relatively large number of studies devoted to characterization of accelerated ions, including measurements of ion velocity distribution function using laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic. Interactions of these accelerated ions with neutral atoms in the thruster and the thruster plume is a subject of on-going studies, which require combined monitoring of ion and neutral velocity distributions. Herein, laser-induced fluorescence technique has been employed to study neutral and single-charged ion velocity distribution functions in a 200 W cylindrical Hall thruster operating with xenon propellant. An optical system is installed in the vacuum chamber enabling spatially resolved axial velocity measurements. The fluorescence signals are well separated from the plasma background emission by modulating the laser beam and using lock-in detectors. Measured velocity distribution functions of neutral atoms and ions at different operating parameters of the thruster are reported and analyzed. This work was supported by DOE contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.
Guo, Zaibing
2015-05-01
The effect of interfacial intermixing on magnetization and anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in Co/Pd multilayers is studied by using rapid thermal annealing to enhance the interfacial diffusion. The dependence of saturation magnetization and coercivity on the temperature of rapid thermal annealing at 5 K is discussed. It is found that AHE is closely related to the relative thickness of the Co and Pd layers. Localized paramagnetism has been observed which destroys AHE, while AHE can be enhanced by annealing.
Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device
Jong-Gu Choi
2011-01-01
Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.
Deng, Ming-Xun; Luo, Wei; Deng, W. Y.; Chen, M. N.; Sheng, L.; Xing, D. Y.
2016-12-01
We investigate the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) on the surface of a topological insulator induced by a finite concentration of magnetic impurities, and find topologically nontrivial and trivial mechanisms simultaneously contributing to the Hall conductivity. In the topologically nontrivial mechanism, the impurities gap the surface spectrum and result in a half-integer quantized intrinsic Hall conductivity in units e2/h , while in the topologically trivial mechanism, the half-integer quantized plateau is modified by impurity-induced localized states via a gap-filling process. The nonmagnetic charge potential itself, though participating in the gap-filling process, cannot induce the AHE. In the presence of a finite magnetic potential, the charge potential would destroy the symmetric distribution of the Hall conductivity by redistributing the localized levels. More interestingly, the sign of the Hall conductivity is tunable by changing the strength of the charge potential.
Isogami, Shinji; Tsunoda, Masakiyo
2016-04-01
In this study, the output DC electric voltage (V out) generated by a Pt-capped Fe4N bilayer film (Fe4N/Pt) under ferromagnetic resonance conditions at room temperature was assessed. The contributions from the inverse spin-Hall effect (ISHE), the planar-Hall effect (PHE) and the anomalous-Hall effect (AHE) were separated from the output voltage by analysis of V out values determined at varying external field polar angles. The results showed that the polarity of the ISHE (V ISHE) component of V out was opposite to that of the PHE (V PHE). As a result, the magnitude of the intrinsic V ISHE was beyond V out by as much as the magnitude of V PHE. The X-ray diffraction structural analysis revealed the polycrystal of the Fe4N/Pt with (001) orientation, which might be one of the possible mechanisms for enhanced intrinsic V ISHE.
Hall effects on hydromagnetic flow on an oscillating porous plate
S.L. Maji; A.K. Kanch; M. Guria; R.N. Jana
2009-01-01
In this paper, an analysis is made on the unsteady flow of an incompressible electrically conducting viscous fluid bounded by an infinite porous flat plate. The plate executes harmonic oscillations at a frequency n in its own plane. A uniform magnetic field H0 is imposed perpendicular to the direction of the flow. It is found that the solution also exists for blowing at the plate. The temperature distribution is also obtained by taking viscous and Joule dissipation into account. The mean wall temperature 00(0) decreases with the increase in the Hall parameter m. It is found that no temperature distribution exists for the blowing at the plate.
Electrical control of the anomalous valley Hall effect in antiferrovalley bilayers
Tong, Wen-Yi; Duan, Chun-Gang
2017-08-01
In analogy to all-electric spintronics, all-electric valleytronics, i.e., valley manipulation via electric means, becomes an exciting new frontier as it may bring revolutions in the field of data storage with ultra-high speed and ultra-low power consumption. The existence of the anomalous valley Hall effect in ferrovalley materials demonstrates the possibility of electrical detection for valley polarization. However, in previously proposed valley-polarized monolayers, the anomalous valley Hall effect is controlled by external magnetic fields. Here, through elaborate structural design, we propose the antiferrovally bilayer as an ideal candidate for realizing all-electric valleytronic devices. Using the minimal k.p model, we show that the energy degeneracy between valley indexes in such system can be lifted by electric approaches. Subsequently, the anomalous valley Hall effect strongly depends on the electric field as well. Taking the bilayer VSe2 as an example, all-electric tuning and detecting of anomalous valley Hall effect is confirmed by density-functional theory calculations, indicating that the valley information in such antiferrovalley bilayer can be reversed by an electric field perpendicular to the plane of the system and easily probed through the sign of the Hall voltage.
Spin wave amplification using the spin Hall effect in permalloy/platinum bilayers
Gladii, O.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Cheng, C.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, Campus de l' Ecole Polytechnique, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Kim, J.-V. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)
2016-05-16
We investigate the effect of an electrical current on the attenuation length of a 900 nm wavelength spin-wave in a permalloy/Pt bilayer using propagating spin-wave spectroscopy. The modification of the spin-wave relaxation rate is linear in current density, reaching up to 14% for a current density of 2.3 × 10{sup 11} A/m{sup 2} in Pt. This change is attributed to the spin transfer torque induced by the spin Hall effect and corresponds to an effective spin Hall angle of 0.13, which is among the highest values reported so far. The spin Hall effect thus appears as an efficient way of amplifying/attenuating propagating spin waves.
Quantum anomalous Hall effect and tunable topological states in 3d transition metals doped silicene.
Zhang, Xiao-Long; Liu, Lan-Feng; Liu, Wu-Ming
2013-10-09
Silicene is an intriguing 2D topological material which is closely analogous to graphene but with stronger spin orbit coupling effect and natural compatibility with current silicon-based electronics industry. Here we demonstrate that silicene decorated with certain 3d transition metals (Vanadium) can sustain a stable quantum anomalous Hall effect using both analytical model and first-principles Wannier interpolation. We also predict the quantum valley Hall effect and electrically tunable topological states could be realized in certain transition metal doped silicene where the energy band inversion occurs. Our findings provide new scheme for the realization of quantum anomalous Hall effect and platform for electrically controllable topological states which are highly desirable for future nanoelectronics and spintronics application.
Effective-field-theory model for the fractional quantum Hall effect
Zhang, S. C.; Hansson, T. H.; Kivelson, S.
1989-01-01
Starting directly from the microscopic Hamiltonian, a field-theory model is derived for the fractional quantum Hall effect. By considering an approximate coarse-grained version of the same model, a Landau-Ginzburg theory similar to that of Girvin (1986) is constructed. The partition function of the model exhibits cusps as a function of density. It is shown that the collective density fluctuations are massive.
Coriolis effect and spin Hall effect of light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium.
Zhang, Yongliang; Shi, Lina; Xie, Changqing
2016-07-01
We theoretically investigate the spin Hall effect of spinning light in an inhomogeneous chiral medium. The Hamiltonian equations of the photon are analytically obtained within eikonal approximation in the noninertial orthogonal frame. Besides the usual spin curvature coupling, the chiral parameter enters the Hamiltonian as a spin-torsion-like interaction. We reveal that both terms have parallel geometric origins as the Coriolis terms of Maxwell's equations in nontrivial frames.
Giant Anomalous Hall Effect in the Chiral Antiferromagnet Mn3Ge
Kiyohara, Naoki; Tomita, Takahiro; Nakatsuji, Satoru
2016-06-01
The external field control of antiferromagnetism is a significant subject both for basic science and technological applications. As a useful macroscopic response to detect magnetic states, the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) is known for ferromagnets, but it has never been observed in antiferromagnets until the recent discovery in Mn3Sn . Here we report another example of the AHE in a related antiferromagnet, namely, in the hexagonal chiral antiferromagnet Mn3Ge . Our single-crystal study reveals that Mn3Ge exhibits a giant anomalous Hall conductivity |σx z|˜60 Ω-1 cm-1 at room temperature and approximately 380 Ω-1 cm-1 at 5 K in zero field, reaching nearly half of the value expected for the quantum Hall effect per atomic layer with Chern number of unity. Our detailed analyses on the anisotropic Hall conductivity indicate that in comparison with the in-plane-field components |σx z| and |σz y|, which are very large and nearly comparable in size, we find |σy x| obtained in the field along the c axis to be much smaller. The anomalous Hall effect shows a sign reversal with the rotation of a small magnetic field less than 0.1 T. The soft response of the AHE to magnetic field should be useful for applications, for example, to develop switching and memory devices based on antiferromagnets.
The role of the spin connection in quantum Hall effect: A perspective from geometric quantization
Karabali, Dimitra
2016-01-01
The topological terms of the bulk effective action for the integer quantum Hall effect, capturing the dynamics of gauge and gravitational fluctuations, reveal a curiosity, namely, the Abelian potential for the magnetic field appears in a particular combination with the Abelian spin connection. This seems to hold for quantum Hall effect on complex projective spaces of arbitrary dimensions. An interpretation of this in terms of the algebra of symplectic transformations is given. This can also be viewed in terms of the metaplectic correction in geometric quantization.
The magnetic flux leakage measurement by the hall sensor in the longitudinal magnetic field
Joo, Gwang Tae [Korea Industrial Testing Co., Ltd., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Son, Dae Rok; Han, Jung Hee; Park, Jae Hyung [Dept. of Physics, Hannam University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
1998-05-15
This paper is concerned with magnetic leakage flux measurement using by the hall sensor in the longitudinal magnetic field of the feromagnetic specimen. For detection sensitivity by the hall probe according to various depth of the subsurface defects, the specimen are prepared by six drilled holes of 0.5 mm φ from 1 mm depth to 4 mm depth in the carbon steel plate(10 x 35 x 265 mm). When the specimen applied by various frequency(2 - 9 Hz) of the AC through synthesizer and power amplifier in the yoke, the signals of the magnetic flux leakage using lack-in amplifier and synthesizer are decreased linearly with defect depth at 2 Hz, but these signals are decreased suddenly with defect depth from the surface and obscured with increasing frequency. And, when the specimen applied range of 1 Amp. to 5 Amp. by DC power supply in the yoke, the signals of the magnetic flux leakage through DVM decreased linearly with defect depth up to 2.5 mm depth and change slightly defect depth above 2.5 mm depth from the surface, but its signals appeared predominately.
D. Staack, Y. Raitses, and N.J. Fisch
2003-07-10
Electrostatic probes are widely used to measure spatial plasma parameters of the quasi-neutral plasma in Hall thrusters and similar ExB electric discharge devices. Significant perturbations of the plasma, induced by such probes, can mask the actual physics involved in operation of these devices. In Hall thrusters, probe-induced perturbations can produce changes in the discharge current and plasma parameters on the order of their steady state values. These perturbations are explored by varying the material, penetration distance, and residence time of various probe designs. A possible cause of these perturbations appears to be the secondary electron emission, induced by energetic plasma electrons, from insulator ceramic tubes in which the probe wire is inserted. A new probe in which a low secondary electron emission material, such as metal, shields the probe ceramic tube, is shown to function without producing such large perturbations. A segmentation of this shield further prevents probe -induced perturbations, by not shortening the plasma through the conductive shield. In a set of experiments with a segmented shield probe, the thruster was operated in the input power range of 500-2.5 kW and discharge voltages of 200-500 V, while the probe-induced perturbations of the discharge current were below 4% of its steady state value in the region in which 90% of the voltage drop takes place.
Effects of Landau level mixing on the fractional quantum Hall effect in monolayer graphene.
Peterson, Michael R; Nayak, Chetan
2014-08-22
We report results of exact diagonalization studies of the spin- and valley-polarized fractional quantum Hall effect in the N = 0 and N = 1 Landau levels in graphene. We use an effective model that incorporates Landau level mixing to lowest order in the parameter κ = ((e(2)/εℓ)/(ħv(F)/ℓ)) = (e(2)/εv(F)ħ), which is magnetic field independent and can only be varied through the choice of substrate. We find Landau level mixing effects are negligible in the N = 0 Landau level for κ ≲ 2. In fact, the lowest Landau level projected Coulomb Hamiltonian is a better approximation to the real Hamiltonian for graphene than it is for semiconductor based quantum wells. Consequently, the principal fractional quantum Hall states are expected in the N = 0 Landau level over this range of κ. In the N = 1 Landau level, fractional quantum Hall states are expected for a smaller range of κ and Landau level mixing strongly breaks particle-hole symmetry, producing qualitatively different results compared to the N = 0 Landau level. At half filling of the N = 1 Landau level, we predict the anti-Pfaffian state will occur for κ ∼ 0.25-0.75.
Anomalous, spin, and valley Hall effects in graphene deposited on ferromagnetic substrates
Dyrdał, A.; Barnaś, J.
2017-09-01
Spin, anomalous, and valley Hall effects in graphene-based hybrid structures are studied theoretically within the Green function formalism and linear response theory. Two different types of hybrid systems are considered in detail: (i) graphene/boron nitride/ferromagnetic metal (cobalt or nickel), and (ii) graphene/magnetic insulator (YIG). The main interest is focused on the proximity-induced exchange interaction between graphene and magnetic substrate and on the proximity-enhanced spin-orbit coupling. The proximity effects are shown to have a significant influence on the electronic and spin transport properties of graphene. To find the spin, anomalous and valley Hall conductivities we employ certain effective Hamiltonians which have been proposed recently for the hybrid systems under considerations. Both anomalous and valley Hall conductivities are shown to have universal values when the Fermi level is inside the energy gap in the electronic spectrum.
Topological Hubbard model and its high-temperature quantum Hall effect.
Neupert, Titus; Santos, Luiz; Ryu, Shinsei; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2012-01-27
The quintessential two-dimensional lattice model that describes the competition between the kinetic energy of electrons and their short-range repulsive interactions is the repulsive Hubbard model. We study a time-reversal symmetric variant of the repulsive Hubbard model defined on a planar lattice: Whereas the interaction is unchanged, any fully occupied band supports a quantized spin Hall effect. We show that at 1/2 filling of this band, the ground state develops spontaneously and simultaneously Ising ferromagnetic long-range order and a quantized charge Hall effect when the interaction is sufficiently strong. We ponder on the possible practical applications, beyond metrology, that the quantized charge Hall effect might have if it could be realized at high temperatures and without external magnetic fields in strongly correlated materials.
Parity effect of bipolar quantum Hall edge transport around graphene antidots.
Matsuo, Sadashige; Nakaharai, Shu; Komatsu, Katsuyoshi; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito; Moriyama, Takahiro; Ono, Teruo; Kobayashi, Kensuke
2015-06-30
Parity effect, which means that even-odd property of an integer physical parameter results in an essential difference, ubiquitously appears and enables us to grasp its physical essence as the microscopic mechanism is less significant in coarse graining. Here we report a new parity effect of quantum Hall edge transport in graphene antidot devices with pn junctions (PNJs). We found and experimentally verified that the bipolar quantum Hall edge transport is drastically affected by the parity of the number of PNJs. This parity effect is universal in bipolar quantum Hall edge transport of not only graphene but also massless Dirac electron systems. These results offer a promising way to design electron interferometers in graphene.
Perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in Co2MnGa and its anomalous Hall effect
Ludbrook, B. M.; Ruck, B. J.; Granville, S.
2017-02-01
We report perpendicular magnetic anisotropy in the ferromagnetic Heusler alloy Co2MnGa in a MgO/Co2MnGa/Pd trilayer stack for Co2MnGa thicknesses up to 3.5 nm. There is a thickness- and temperature-dependent spin reorientation transition from perpendicular to in-plane magnetic anisotropy, which we study through the anomalous Hall effect. From the temperature dependence of the anomalous Hall effect, we observe the expected scaling of ρx y A H E with ρxx, suggesting that the intrinsic and side-jump mechanisms are largely responsible for the anomalous Hall effect in this material.
Hall effect enhanced low-field sensitivity in a three-contact extraordinary magnetoresistance sensor
Sun, Jian
2012-06-06
An extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) device with a 3-contact geometry has been fabricated and characterized. A large enhancement of the output sensitivity at low magnetic fields compared to the conventional EMR device has been found, which can be attributed to an additional influence coming from the Hall effect. Output sensitivities of 0.19 mV/T at zero-field and 0.2 mV/T at 0.01 T have been measured in the device, which is equivalent to the ones of the conventional EMR sensors with a bias of ∼0.04 T. The exceptional performance of EMR sensors in the high field region is maintained in the 3-contact device.
Evidence for a fractional fractal quantum Hall effect in graphene superlattices
Wang, Lei; Gao, Yuanda; Wen, Bo; Han, Zheng; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Koshino, Mikito; Hone, James; Dean, Cory R.
2015-12-01
The Hofstadter energy spectrum provides a uniquely tunable system to study emergent topological order in the regime of strong interactions. Previous experiments, however, have been limited to low Bloch band fillings where only the Landau level index plays a role. We report measurements of high-mobility graphene superlattices where the complete unit cell of the Hofstadter spectrum is accessible. We observed coexistence of conventional fractional quantum Hall effect (QHE) states together with the integer QHE states associated with the fractal Hofstadter spectrum. At large magnetic field, we observed signatures of another series of states, which appeared at fractional Bloch filling index. These fractional Bloch band QHE states are not anticipated by existing theoretical pictures and point toward a distinct type of many-body state.
Design and Implementation of a Hall Effect Sensor Array Applied to Recycling Hard Drive Magnets
Kisner, Roger [ORNL; Lenarduzzi, Roberto [ORNL; Killough, Stephen M [ORNL; McIntyre, Timothy J [ORNL
2015-01-01
Rare earths are an important resource for many electronic components and technologies. Examples abound including Neodymium magnets used in mobile devices and computer hard drives (HDDs), and a variety of renewable energy technologies (e.g., wind turbines). Approximately 21,000 metric tons of Neodymium is processed annually with less than 1% being recycled. An economic system to assist in the recycling of magnet material from post-consumer goods, such as Neodymium Iron Boron magnets commonly found in hard drives is presented. A central component of this recycling measurement system uses an array of 128 Hall Effect sensors arranged in two columns to detect the magnetic flux lines orthogonal to the HDD. Results of using the system to scan planar shaped objects such as hard drives to identify and spatially locate rare-earth magnets for removal and recycling from HDDs are presented. Applications of the sensor array in other identification and localization of magnetic components and assemblies will be presented.
Effect of Background Pressure on the Performance and Plume of the HiVHAc Hall Thruster
Huang, Wensheng; Kamhawi, Hani; Haag, Thomas
2013-01-01
During the Single String Integration Test of the NASA HiVHAc Hall thruster, a number of plasma diagnostics were implemented to study the effect of varying facility background pressure on thruster operation. These diagnostics include thrust stand, Faraday probe, ExB probe, and retarding potential analyzer. The test results indicated a rise in thrust and discharge current with background pressure. There was also a decrease in ion energy per charge, an increase in multiply-charged species production, a decrease in plume divergence, and a decrease in ion beam current with increasing background pressure. A simplified ingestion model was applied to determine the maximum acceptable background pressure for thrust measurement. The maximum acceptable ingestion percentage was found to be around 1%. Examination of the diagnostics results suggest the ionization and acceleration zones of the thruster were shifting upstream with increasing background pressure.
Magnetic transport properties and Hall effect in Gd1-x Prx Ba2 Cu3O7- & delta system
H. Khosroabadi
2002-06-01
Full Text Available Single phase polycrystalline Gd1-xPrxBa2Cu3O7-δ samples with x=0.05 , 0.10, and 0.15 have been prepared by standard solid state reaction technique and characterized by XRD and SEM analysis. The electrical resistivity, Hall effect and magnetoresistance measurements have been on the samples. The electrical resistivity measurements indicate a reduction of transition temperature (Tc and an increase of superconducting transition width with increasing x. Hall measurements show anomalous temperature dependence for Hall coefficient (RH in the normal state. In Gd0.90Pr0.10Ba2Cu3O7- sample, we have seen an anomalous sign reversal in the Hall coefficient with respect to temperature. The magnetoresistance measurements in the range of 0 to 10 kOe also show small changes in the normal states, although the changes are large in the superconducting state. An anomaly at 260 K appears in the transverse magnetoresistance for x=0.1 sample, which is related to the presence of magnetic Gd ion. The superconducting transition width also increases with the magnetic field in all of the samples. An exponent behavior for Hc2 versus (1-T/T0(H and superconducting transition width versus H have been derived. Pinning energy (U has also been calculated from these measurements. Results show the reduction of pinning energy with the increase of magnetic field and x.Our results show that the exponent behavior of U α Hv , where v is independent of x.
Skew scattering dominated anomalous Hall effect in Cox(MgO)100-x granular thin films
Zhang, Qiang
2017-07-31
We investigated the mechanism(s) of the anomalous Hall effect (AHE) in magnetic granular materials by fabricating 100-nm-thick thin films of Co_{x}(MgO)_{100-x} with a Co volume fraction of 34≤x≤100 using co-sputtering at room temperature. We measured the temperature dependence of longitudinal resistivity (ρ_{xx}) and anomalous Hall resistivity (ρ_{AHE}) from 5 K to 300 K in all samples. We found that when x decreases from 100 to 34, the values of ρ_{xx} and ρ_{AHE} respectively increased by about four and three orders in magnitude. By linearly fitting the data, obtained at 5 K, of anomalous Hall coefficient (R_{s}) and of ρ_{xx} to log(R_{s})~γlog(ρ_{xx}), we found that our results perfectly fell on a straight line with a slope of γ= 0.97±0.02. This fitting value of γ in R_{s}∝ρ_{xx}^{γ} clearly suggests that skew scattering dominated the AHE in this granular system. To explore the effect of the scattering on the AHE, we performed the same measurements on annealed samples. We found that although both ρ_{xx} and ρ_{AHE} significantly reduced after annealing, the correlation between them was almost the same, which was confirmed by the fitted value, γ=0.99±0.03. These data strongly suggest that the AHE originates from the skew scattering in Co-MgO granular thin films no matter how strong the scatterings of electrons by the interfaces and defects is. This observation may be of importance to the development of spintronic devices based on MgO.
Zhang, Yuhe; Wójs, A.; Jain, J. K.
2016-09-01
The spin transitions in the fractional quantum Hall effect provide a direct measure of the tiny energy differences between differently spin-polarized states and thereby serve as an extremely sensitive test of the quantitative accuracy of the theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect, and, in particular, of the role of Landau-level mixing in lifting the particle-hole symmetry. We report on an accurate quantitative study of this physics, evaluating the effect of Landau-level mixing in a nonperturbative manner using a fixed-phase diffusion Monte Carlo method. We find excellent agreement between our calculated critical Zeeman energies and the experimentally measured values. In particular, we find, as also do experiments, that the critical Zeeman energies for fractional quantum Hall states at filling factors ν =2 -n /(2 n ±1 ) are significantly higher than those for ν =n /(2 n ±1 ), a quantitative signature of the lifting of particle-hole symmetry due to Landau-level mixing.
Zhang, Yuhe; Wójs, A; Jain, J K
2016-09-09
The spin transitions in the fractional quantum Hall effect provide a direct measure of the tiny energy differences between differently spin-polarized states and thereby serve as an extremely sensitive test of the quantitative accuracy of the theory of the fractional quantum Hall effect, and, in particular, of the role of Landau-level mixing in lifting the particle-hole symmetry. We report on an accurate quantitative study of this physics, evaluating the effect of Landau-level mixing in a nonperturbative manner using a fixed-phase diffusion Monte Carlo method. We find excellent agreement between our calculated critical Zeeman energies and the experimentally measured values. In particular, we find, as also do experiments, that the critical Zeeman energies for fractional quantum Hall states at filling factors ν=2-n/(2n±1) are significantly higher than those for ν=n/(2n±1), a quantitative signature of the lifting of particle-hole symmetry due to Landau-level mixing.
Valley Hall effect in disordered monolayer MoS2 from first principles
Olsen, Thomas; Souza, Ivo
2015-09-01
Electrons in certain two-dimensional crystals possess a pseudospin degree of freedom associated with the existence of two inequivalent valleys in the Brillouin zone. If, as in monolayer MoS2, inversion symmetry is broken and time-reversal symmetry is present, equal and opposite amounts of k -space Berry curvature accumulate in each of the two valleys. This is conveniently quantified by the integral of the Berry curvature over a single valley—the valley Hall conductivity. We generalize this definition to include contributions from disorder described with the supercell approach, by mapping ("unfolding") the Berry curvature from the folded Brillouin zone of the disordered supercell onto the normal Brillouin zone of the pristine crystal, and then averaging over several realizations of disorder. We use this scheme to study from first principles the effect of sulfur vacancies on the valley Hall conductivity of monolayer MoS2. In dirty samples the intrinsic valley Hall conductivity receives gating-dependent corrections that are only weakly dependent on the impurity concentration, consistent with side-jump scattering and the unfolded Berry curvature can be interpreted as a k -space resolved side jump. At low impurity concentrations skew scattering dominates, leading to a divergent valley Hall conductivity in the clean limit. The implications for the recently observed photoinduced anomalous Hall effect are discussed.
Quantum diagrammatic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect in graphene
Milletarı, Mirco; Ferreira, Aires
2016-10-01
We present a rigorous microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin Hall effect in disordered graphene based on a nonperturbative quantum diagrammatic treatment incorporating skew scattering and anomalous (impurity-concentration-independent) quantum corrections on equal footing. The leading skew-scattering contribution to the spin Hall conductivity is shown to quantitatively agree with Boltzmann transport theory over a wide range of parameters. Our self-consistent approach, where all topologically equivalent noncrossing diagrams are resummed, unveils that the skewness generated by spin-orbit-active impurities deeply influences the anomalous component of the spin Hall conductivity, even in the weak-scattering regime. This seemingly counterintuitive result is explained by the rich sublattice structure of scattering potentials in graphene, for which traditional Gaussian disorder approximations fail to capture the intricate correlations between skew scattering and side jumps generated through diffusion. Finally, we assess the role of quantum interference corrections by evaluating an important subclass of crossing diagrams recently considered in the context of the anomalous Hall effect, the X and Ψ diagrams [A. Ado et al., Europhys. Lett. 111, 37004 (2015), 10.1209/0295-5075/111/37004]. We show that Ψ diagrams, encoding quantum coherent skew scattering, display a strong Fermi energy dependence, dominating the anomalous spin Hall component away from the Dirac point. Our findings have direct implications for nonlocal transport experiments in spin-orbit-coupled graphene systems.
Planar Hall and Nernst effect in patterned ultrathin film of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3
Sharma, Himanshu; Bana, H.; Tomy, C. V.; Tulapurkar, A.
2015-01-01
We present the observation of a transverse thermopower, or Planar Nernst Effect, in patterned ultrathin film (8 nm) of La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) driven by heat current applied in-plane of the film and Planar Hall Effect (PHE) in the same LSMO ultrathin film with in-plane current of 100 microA is also investigated. Even for temperature difference of 5 K the Planar Nernst Effect in ultrathin film (8 nm) shows a coercivity of 3 Oe same as observed in Planar Hall Effect measurement and confirms the f...
Hall effect control of magnetotail dawn-dusk asymmetry: A three-dimensional global hybrid simulation
Lu, San; Lin, Y.; Angelopoulos, V.; Artemyev, A. V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Lu, Quanming; Wang, X. Y.
2016-12-01
Magnetotail reconnection and related phenomena (e.g., flux ropes, dipolarizing flux bundles, flow bursts, and particle injections) occur more frequently on the duskside than on the dawnside. Because this asymmetry can directly result in dawn-dusk asymmetric space weather effects, uncovering its physical origin is important for better understanding, modeling, and prediction of the space weather phenomena. However, the cause of this pervasive asymmetry is unclear. Using three-dimensional global hybrid simulations, we demonstrate that the Hall physics in the magnetotail current sheet is responsible for the asymmetry. The current sheet thins progressively under enhanced global convection; when its thickness reaches ion kinetic scales, some ions are decoupled from the magnetized electrons (the Hall effect). The resultant Hall electric field Ez is directed toward the neutral plane. The Hall effect is stronger (grows faster) on the duskside; i.e., more ions become unmagnetized there and do not comove with the magnetized dawnward Ez × Bx drifting electrons, thus creating a larger additional cross-tail current intensity jy (in addition to the diamagnetic current) on the duskside, compared to the dawnside. The stronger Hall effect strength on the duskside is controlled by the higher ion temperature, thinner current sheet, and smaller normal magnetic field Bz there. These asymmetric current sheet properties are in turn controlled by two competing processes that correspond to the Hall effect: (1) the dawnward E × B drift of the magnetic flux and magnetized ions and electrons and (2) the transient motion of the unmagnetized ions which do not execute E × B drift.
Sarma, Sankar Das
1996-01-01
The discovery of the quantized and fractional Quantum Hall Effect phenomena is among the most important physics findings in the latter half of this century. The precise quantization of the electrical resistance involved in the quantized Hall effect phenomena has led to the new definition of the resistance standard and has metrologically affected all of science and technology. This resource consists of contributions from the top researchers in the field who present recent experimental and theoretical developments. Each chapter is self-contained and includes its own set of references guiding rea
Analytic calculations of trial wave functions of the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere
Souza Batista, C.L. de [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Dingping Li [Perugia Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica
1996-07-01
We present a framework for the analytic calculations of the hierarchical wave functions and the composite fermion wave functions in the fractional quantum Hall effect on the sphere by using projective coordinates. Then we calculate the overlaps between these two wave functions at various fillings and small numbers of electrons. We find that the overlaps are most equal to one. This gives a further evidence that two theories of the fractional quantum Hall effect, the hierarchical theory, are physically equivalent. (author). 31 refs., 2 tabs.
The Fractional Statistics of Generalized Haldane Wave Function in 4D Quantum Hall Effect
WANGKe-Lin; WANShao-Long; CHENQing; XUFei
2003-01-01
Recently, a generalization of Laughlin's wave function expressed in Haldane's spherical geometry is con-structed in 4D quantum Hall effect. In fact, it is a membrane wave function in CP3 space. In this article, we use non-Abelian Berry phase to anaJyze the statistics of this membrane wave function. Our results show that the membrane wave function obeys fractional statistics. It is the rare example to realize fractional statistics in higher-dimensiona space than 2D. And, it will help to make clear the unresolved problems in 4D quantum Hall effect.
The Fractional Statistics of Generalized Haldane Wave Function in 4D Quantum Hall Effect
XU Fei; WANG Ke-Lin; WAN Shao-Long; CHEN Qing
2003-01-01
Recently, a generalization of Laughlin's wave function expressed in Haldane's spherical geometry is con-structed in 4D quantum Hall effect. In fact, it is a membrane wave function in CP3 space. In this article, we usenon-Abelian Berry phase to analyze the statistics of this membrane wave function. Our results show that the membranewave function obeys fractional statistics. It is the rare example to realize fractional statistics in higher-dimensional spacethan 2D. And, it will help to make clear the unresolved problems in 4D quantum Hall effect.