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Sample records for hall current plasma

  1. Parametric studies of the Hall current plasma thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazy, J.; Raitses, Y.; Appelbaum, G.

    1998-05-01

    The Hall current plasma thruster accelerates a plasma jet by an axial electric field and an applied radial magnetic field in an annular ceramic channel. A relatively large current density (>0.1 A/cm2) can be obtained as the acceleration mechanism is not limited by space charge effects. Such a device can be used as a small rocket engine on board spacecraft with the advantage of a large jet velocity compared to conventional rocket engines (10000-30000 m/s versus 2000-4800 m/s). An experimental Hall thruster was constructed and operated in a broad range of operating conditions and under various configuration variations. Electrical, magnetic and plasma diagnostics, and as well accurate thrust and gas flow rate measurements, have been used to investigate the dependence of thruster behavior on the applied voltage, gas flow rate, magnetic field, channel geometry and wall material. The studies conducted so far have demonstrated a significant effect of channel material on thruster electrical characteristics and the existence of an optimal channel length for a given flow rate. Representative results highlighting these findings are presented.

  2. Jeans instability of a rotating partially ionized and strongly coupled plasma with Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Shweta; Sharma, Prerana

    2016-04-01

    > A generalized hydrodynamic model is used to analyse the growth rate of the Jeans instability of a partially ionized strongly coupled plasma incorporating the effects of rotation and Hall current. The general dispersion relation is determined for the propagation of magnetohydrodynamic waves using the normal mode analysis theory. The general dispersion relation is further discussed in four different combinations of rotation and propagation of the system to signify the importance of rotation and neutral particles on the growth rates and conditions of Jeans instability in hydrodynamic and kinetic regimes. The different types of waves are also described in these cases. The influence of rotation and neutral particles on growth rate of the Jeans instability is analysed numerically and shown graphically. The possible applications of the present work are found in ultracold neutral plasmas, white dwarfs, neutron stars etc.

  3. Finite element study of three dimensional radiative nano-plasma flow subject to Hall and ion slip currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nawaz

    Full Text Available In this article, we developed a computer code of Galerikan Finite Element method (GFEM for three dimensional flow equations of nano-plasma fluid (blood in the presence of uniform applied magnetic field when Hall and ion slip current are significant. Lorentz force is calculated through generalized Ohm’s law with Maxwell equations. A series of numerical simulations are carried out to search ηmax and algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Seidel method with simulation tolerance 10-8. Simulated results for special case have an excellent agreement with the already published results. Velocity components and temperature of the nano-plasma (blood are influenced significantly by the inclusion of nano-particles of Copper (Cu and Silver (Ag. Heat enhancement is observed when copper and silver nonmagnetic nanoparticles are used instead of simple base fluid (conventional fluid. Radiative nature of nano-plasma in the presence of magnetic field causes a decrease in the temperature due to the transfer of heat by the electromagnetic waves. In contrast to this, due to heat dissipated by Joule heating and viscous dissipation phenomena, temperature of nano-plasmaincreases as thermal radiation parameter is increased. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be controlled by using radiative fluid instead of non-radiative fluid. Momentum boundary layer thickness can be reduced by increasing the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Temperature of plasma in the presence magnetic field is higher than the plasma in the absence of magnetic field. Keywords: Nanofluid, Grid independent study, Convergence, Error analysis, Skin friction, Joule heating, Viscous dissipation, Hall and ion currents

  4. Finite element study of three dimensional radiative nano-plasma flow subject to Hall and ion slip currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawaz, M.; Zubair, T.

    In this article, we developed a computer code of Galerikan Finite Element method (GFEM) for three dimensional flow equations of nano-plasma fluid (blood) in the presence of uniform applied magnetic field when Hall and ion slip current are significant. Lorentz force is calculated through generalized Ohm's law with Maxwell equations. A series of numerical simulations are carried out to search ηmax and algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Seidel method with simulation tolerance 10-8 . Simulated results for special case have an excellent agreement with the already published results. Velocity components and temperature of the nano-plasma (blood) are influenced significantly by the inclusion of nano-particles of Copper (Cu) and Silver (Ag). Heat enhancement is observed when copper and silver nonmagnetic nanoparticles are used instead of simple base fluid (conventional fluid). Radiative nature of nano-plasma in the presence of magnetic field causes a decrease in the temperature due to the transfer of heat by the electromagnetic waves. In contrast to this, due to heat dissipated by Joule heating and viscous dissipation phenomena, temperature of nano-plasmaincreases as thermal radiation parameter is increased. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be controlled by using radiative fluid instead of non-radiative fluid. Momentum boundary layer thickness can be reduced by increasing the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Temperature of plasma in the presence magnetic field is higher than the plasma in the absence of magnetic field.

  5. Experimental study of nonlinear interaction of plasma flow with charged thin current sheets: 2. Hall dynamics, mass and momentum transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Savin

    2006-01-01

    cyclotron one, in extended turbulent zones are a promising alternative in place of the usual parallel electric fields invoked in the macro-reconnection scenarios. Further cascading towards electron scales is supposed to be due to unstable parallel electron currents, which neutralize the potential differences, either resulted from the ion- burst interactions or from the inertial drift. The complicated MP shape suggests its systematic velocity departure from the local normal towards the average one, inferring domination for the MP movement of the non-local processes over the small-scale local ones. The measured Poynting vector indicates energy transmission from the MP into the upstream region with the waves triggering impulsive downstream flows, providing an input into the local flow balance and the outward movement of the MP. Equating the transverse electric field inside the MP TCS by the Hall term in the Ohm's law implies a separation of the different plasmas primarily by the Hall current, driven by the respective part of the TCS surface charge. The Hall dynamics of TCS can operate either without or as a part of a macro-reconnection with the magnetic field annihilation.

  6. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 37; Issue 3. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on Thermal Instability of Radiative Plasma for Star Formation in Interstellar Medium (ISM). Sachin Kaothekar. Research Article Volume 37 Issue 3 September 2016 Article ID 23 ...

  7. Effect of Hall Current and Finite Larmor Radius Corrections on ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The effects of finite ion Larmor radius (FLR) corrections,. Hall current and radiative heat-loss function on the thermal instability of an infinite homogeneous, viscous plasma incorporating the effects of finite electrical resistivity, thermal conductivity and permeability for star formation in interstellar medium have been ...

  8. Current correlations in quantum spin Hall insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Thomas L

    2011-08-26

    We consider a four-terminal setup of a two-dimensional topological insulator (quantum spin Hall insulator) with local tunneling between the upper and lower edges. The edge modes are modeled as helical Luttinger liquids and the electron-electron interactions are taken into account exactly. Using perturbation theory in the tunneling, we derive the cumulant generating function for the interedge current. We show that different possible transport channels give rise to different signatures in the current noise and current cross correlations, which could be exploited in experiments to elucidate the interplay between electron-electron interactions and the helical nature of the edge states. © 2011 American Physical Society

  9. Magnetic circuit for hall effect plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, David H. (Inventor); Jacobson, David T. (Inventor); Jankovsky, Robert S. (Inventor); Hofer, Richard (Inventor); Peterson, Peter (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A Hall effect plasma accelerator includes inner and outer electromagnets, circumferentially surrounding the inner electromagnet along a thruster centerline axis and separated therefrom, inner and outer magnetic conductors, in physical connection with their respective inner and outer electromagnets, with the inner magnetic conductor having a mostly circular shape and the outer magnetic conductor having a mostly annular shape, a discharge chamber, located between the inner and outer magnetic conductors, a magnetically conducting back plate, in magnetic contact with the inner and outer magnetic conductors, and a combined anode electrode/gaseous propellant distributor, located at a bottom portion of the discharge chamber. The inner and outer electromagnets, the inner and outer magnetic conductors and the magnetically conducting back plate form a magnetic circuit that produces a magnetic field that is largely axial and radially symmetric with respect to the thruster centerline.

  10. Reversed Hall effect and plasma conductivity in the presence of charged impurities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaroshenko, V. V.; Lühr, H.

    2018-01-01

    The Hall conductivity of magnetized plasma can be strongly suppressed by the contribution of negatively charged particulates (referred further as "dust"). Once the charge density accumulated by the dust exceeds a certain threshold, the Hall component becomes negative, providing a reversal in the Hall current. Such an effect is unique for dust-loaded plasmas, and it can hardly be achieved in electronegative plasmas. Further growth of the dust density leads to an increase in both the absolute value of the Hall and Pedersen conductivities, while the field-aligned component is decreased. These modifications enhance the role of transverse electric currents and reduce the anisotropy of a magnetized plasma when loaded with charged impurities. The findings provide an important basis for studying the generation of electric currents and transport phenomena in magnetized plasma systems containing small charged particulates. They can be relevant for a wide range of applications from naturally occurring space plasmas in planetary magnetospheres and astrophysical objects to laboratory dusty plasmas (Magnetized Dusty Plasma Experiment) and to technological and fusion plasmas.

  11. Numerical simulation of SMART-1 Hall-thruster plasma interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tajmar, Martin; Sedmik, René; Scharlemann, Carsten

    2009-01-01

    SMART-1 has been the first European mission using a Hall thruster to reach the moon. An onboard plasma diagnostic package allowed a detailed characterization of the thruster exhaust plasma and its interactions with the spacecraft. Analysis of in-flight data revealed, amongst others, an unpredicted

  12. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gourdain, P.-A.; Seyler, C. E.; Atoyan, L.; Greenly, J. B.; Hammer, D. A.; Kusse, B. R.; Pikuz, S. A.; Potter, W. M.; Schrafel, P. C.; Shelkovenko, T. A. [Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Hall physics is often neglected in high energy density plasma jets due to the relatively high electron density of such jets (n{sub e} ∼ 10{sup 19} cm{sup −3}). However, the vacuum region surrounding the jet has much lower densities and is dominated by Hall electric field. This electric field redirects plasma flows towards or away from the axis, depending on the radial current direction. A resulting change in the jet density has been observed experimentally. Furthermore, if an axial field is applied on the jet, the Hall effect is enhanced and ignoring it leads to serious discrepancies between experimental results and numerical simulations. By combining high currents (∼1 MA) and magnetic field helicity (15° angle) in a pulsed power generator such as COBRA, plasma jets can be magnetized with a 10 T axial field. The resulting field enhances the impact of the Hall effect by altering the density profile of current-free plasma jets and the stability of current-carrying plasma jets (e.g., Z-pinches)

  13. Hall viscosity: A link between quantum Hall systems, plasmas and liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lingam, Manasvi, E-mail: manasvi@physics.utexas.edu

    2015-07-17

    In this Letter, the assumption of two simple postulates is shown to give rise to a Hall viscosity term via an action principle formulation. The rationale behind the two postulates is clearly delineated, and the connections to an intrinsic angular momentum are emphasized. By employing this methodology, it is shown that Hall viscosity appears in a wide range of fields, and the interconnectedness of quantum Hall systems, plasmas and nematic liquid crystals is hypothesized. Potential avenues for experimental and theoretical work arising from this cross-fertilization are also indicated. - Highlights: • Connections between simple 2D fluid models in different fields of physics presented. • Structure emerges via varied physical mechanisms driven by internal angular momentum. • Properties of these models such as Casimirs, equilibria and stability are analyzed.

  14. Instabilities and transport in Hall plasmas with ExB drift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyakov, Andrei

    2016-10-01

    Low temperature plasma with moderate magnetic field, where the ions are not or just weakly magnetized, i.e. the ion Larmor radius being larger or comparable to the characteristic length scale of interest (e.g. the size ofthe system), have distinctly different properties from strongly magnetized plasmas such as that for fusion applications. Such parameters regimes are generally defined here as Hall plasmas. The natural scale separation between the ion and electron Larmor radii in Hall plasma, further exploited by the application of the external electric field, offers unique applications in various plasma devices for material processing and electric propulsion. Plasmas in such devices are in strongly non-equilibrium state making it prone to a number of instabilities. This talk presents physics description of the dominant unstable modes in ExB Hall plasmas resulting in highly turbulent state with nonlinear coherent structures and anomalous electron current. Since ions are un-magnetized, fundamental instabilities operating in low temperature Hall plasmas are very different from much studied gradients (density, temperature and magnetic field) driven drift-wave turbulence in strongly magnetized plasmas for fusion applications. As a result the nonlinear saturation mechanisms, role of the ExB shear flows are also markedly different in such plasmas. We review the basic instabilities in these plasmas which are related to the ion-sound, low-hybrid and anti-drift modes, discuss nonlinear saturation and anomalous transport mechanisms. The advanced nonlinear fluid model for such plasmas and results of nonlinear simulations of turbulence and anomalous transport performed within a modified BOUT++ framework will be presented. Research supported by NSERC Canada and US AFOSR FA9550-15-1-0226.

  15. Diffusion in plasma: The Hall effect, compositional waves, and chemical spots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urpin, V., E-mail: Vadim.urpin@uv.es [Ioffe Institute of Physics and Technology (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Diffusion caused by a combined influence of the electric current and Hall effect is considered, and it is argued that such diffusion can form inhomogeneities of a chemical composition in plasma. The considered mechanism can be responsible for the formation of element spots in laboratory and astrophysical plasmas. This current-driven diffusion can be accompanied by propagation of a particular type of waves in which the impurity number density oscillates alone. These compositional waves exist if the magnetic pressure in plasma is much greater than the gas pressure.

  16. 3D simulations of fluctuation spectra in the hall-MHD plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Dastgeer; Shukla, P K

    2009-01-30

    Turbulent spectral cascades are investigated by means of fully three-dimensional (3D) simulations of a compressible Hall-magnetohydrodynamic (H-MHD) plasma in order to understand the observed spectral break in the solar wind turbulence spectra in the regime where the characteristic length scales associated with electromagnetic fluctuations are smaller than the ion gyroradius. In this regime, the results of our 3D simulations exhibit that turbulent spectral cascades in the presence of a mean magnetic field follow an omnidirectional anisotropic inertial-range spectrum close to k(-7/3). The latter is associated with the Hall current arising from nonequal electron and ion fluid velocities in our 3D H-MHD plasma model.

  17. TOPICAL REVIEW: Spin current, spin accumulation and spin Hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saburo Takahashi and Sadamichi Maekawa

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonlocal spin transport in nanostructured devices with ferromagnetic injector (F1 and detector (F2 electrodes connected to a normal conductor (N is studied. We reveal how the spin transport depends on interface resistance, electrode resistance, spin polarization and spin diffusion length, and obtain the conditions for efficient spin injection, spin accumulation and spin current in the device. It is demonstrated that the spin Hall effect is caused by spin–orbit scattering in nonmagnetic conductors and gives rise to the conversion between spin and charge currents in a nonlocal device. A method of evaluating spin–orbit coupling in nonmagnetic metals is proposed.

  18. Hall MHD Stability and Turbulence in Magnetically Accelerated Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. R. Strauss

    2012-11-27

    The object of the research was to develop theory and carry out simulations of the Z pinch and plasma opening switch (POS), and compare with experimental results. In the case of the Z pinch, there was experimental evidence of ion kinetic energy greatly in excess of the ion thermal energy. It was thought that this was perhaps due to fine scale turbulence. The simulations showed that the ion energy was predominantly laminar, not turbulent. Preliminary studies of a new Z pinch experiment with an axial magnetic field were carried out. The axial magnetic is relevant to magneto - inertial fusion. These studies indicate the axial magnetic field makes the Z pinch more turbulent. Results were also obtained on Hall magnetohydrodynamic instability of the POS.

  19. Chirality and Current-Current Correlation in Fractional Quantum Hall Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Campagnano, G.; Lucignano, P.; Giuliano, D.

    2015-01-01

    We study current-current correlation in an electronic analog of a beam splitter realized with edge channels of a fractional quantum Hall liquid at Laughlin filling fractions. In analogy with the known result for chiral electrons, if the currents are measured at points located after the beam splitter, we find that the zero frequency equilibrium correlation vanishes due to the chiral propagation along the edge channels. Furthermore, we show that the current-current correlation, normalized to th...

  20. High Performance Plasma Channel Insulators for High Power Hall Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA missions for planetary exploration require high power, long-life Hall thrusters. However, thruster power and lifetime are limited by the erosion of plasma...

  1. Electric field control photo-induced Hall currents in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miah, M. Idrish [Nanoscale Science and Technology Centre, Griffith University, Nathan, Brisbane, QLD 4111 (Australia); Department of Physics, University of Chittagong, Chittagong, Chittagong 4331 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: m.miah@griffith.edu.au

    2008-10-15

    We generate spin-polarized carrier populations in GaAs and low temperature-grown GaAs (LT-GaAs) by circularly polarized optical beams and pull them by external electric fields to create spin-polarized currents. In the presence of the optically generated spin currents, anomalous Hall currents with an enhancement with increasing doping are observed and found to be almost steady in moderate electric fields up to {approx}120 mV {mu}m{sup -1}, indicating that photo-induced spin orientation of electrons is preserved in these systems. However, a field {approx}300 mV {mu}m{sup -1} completely destroys the electron spin polarization due to an increase of the D'yakonov-Perel' spin precession frequency of the hot electrons. This suggests that high field carrier transport conditions might not be suitable for spin-based technology with GaAs and LT-GaAs. It is also demonstrated that the presence of the excess arsenic sites in LT-GaAs might not affect the spin relaxation by Bir-Aronov-Pikus mechanism owing to a large number of electrons in n-doped materials.

  2. Influence of the magnetic field configuration on the plasma flow in Hall thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreussi, T.; Giannetti, V.; Leporini, A.; Saravia, M. M.; Andrenucci, M.

    2018-01-01

    In Hall propulsion, the thrust is provided by the acceleration of ions in a plasma generated in a cross-field configuration. Standard thruster configurations have annular channels with an almost radial magnetic field at the channel exit. A potential difference is imposed in the axial direction and the intensity of the magnetic field is calibrated in order to hinder the electron motion, while leaving the ions non-magnetised. Magnetic field lines can be assumed, as a first approximation, as lines of constant electron temperature and of thermalized potential. In typical thruster configurations, the discharge occurs inside a ceramic channel and, due to plasma–wall interactions, the electron temperature is typically low, less than few tens of eV. Hence, the magnetic field lines can be effectively used to tailor the distribution of the electrostatic potential. However, the erosion of the ceramic walls caused by the ion bombardment represents the main limiting factor of the thruster lifetime and new thruster configurations are currently under development. For these configurations, classical first order models of the plasma dynamics fail to grasp the influence of the magnetic topology on the plasma flow. In the present paper, a novel approach to investigate the correlation between magnetic field topology and thruster performance is presented. Due to the anisotropy induced by the magnetic field, the gradients of the plasma properties are assumed to be mainly in the direction orthogonal to the local magnetic field, thus enabling a quasi-one-dimensional description in magnetic coordinates. Theoretical and experimental investigations performed on a 5 kW class Hall thruster with different magnetic field configurations are then presented and discussed.

  3. Field-aligned current and auroral Hall current characteristics derived from the Swarm constellation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Tao; Wang, Hui; Hermann, Luehr

    2017-04-01

    On the basis of field-aligned currents (FACs) and Hall currents derived from high-resolution magnetic field data of the Swarm constellation the average characteristics of these two current systems in the auroral regions are comprehensively investigated by statistical methods. This is the first study considering both current types simultaneously and for both hemispheres. The FAC distribution, derived from the Swarm dual-spacecraft approach, reveals the well-known features of Region 1 (R1) and Region 2 (R2) FACs. At high latitudes, Region 0 (R0) FACs appear on the dayside. Their direction depends on the orientation of the interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) By component. Of particular interest is the distribution of auroral Hall currents. The most prominent auroral electrojets are found to be closely controlled by the solar wind input. But there is no dependence on the IMF By orientation. The eastward electrojet is about twice as strong in summer as in winter. Conversely, the westward electrojet shows less dependence on season. Part of the electrojet current is closed over the polar cap. Here the seasonal variation of conductivity mainly controls the current density. There is a clear channeling of return currents over the polar cap. Depending on IMF By orientation most of the current is flowing either on the dawn or dusk side. The direction of Hall currents in the noon sector depends directly on the orientation of the IMF By. This is true for both signs of the IMF Bz component. But largest differences between summer and winter seasons are found for northward IMF Bz. Around the midnight sector the westward substorm electrojet is dominating. As expected, it is highly dependent on magnetic activity, but shows only little response to the IMF By polarity.

  4. Advanced laboratory for testing plasma thrusters and Hall thruster measurement campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma engines are used for space propulsion as an alternative to chemical thrusters. Due to the high exhaust velocity of the propellant, they are more efficient for long-distance interplanetary space missions than their conventional counterparts. An advanced laboratory of plasma space propulsion (PlaNS at the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM specializes in designing and testing various electric propulsion devices. Inside of a special vacuum chamber with three performance pumps, an environment similar to the one that prevails in space is created. An innovative Micro Pulsed Plasma Thruster (LμPPT with liquid propellant was built at the laboratory. Now it is used to test the second prototype of Hall effect thruster (HET operating on krypton propellant. Meantime, an improved prototype of krypton Hall thruster is constructed.

  5. The impact of Hall physics on magnetized high energy density plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gourdain, Pierre-Alexandre

    2013-10-01

    Magnetized high energy density (HED) plasma jets produced by radial foil explosions on pulsed power machines have improved our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms driving flowing matter under extreme conditions. Experiments and simulations indicate that magnetic fields are crucial in the formation and stability of strongly collimated plasma jets, a property also shared by astrophysical jets originating from black holes and protostars. It is understood that these magnetic fields also generate electric fields, often associated with the dynamo effect. In fact, when the Lundquist number is large enough, the dynamo effect is frequently seen as the dominant electric field driver of flowing plasmas. This is true inside the collimated jet where the density (> 1019 cm-3) , velocity ( 50 eV) are high enough to preclude the dominance of any other type of electric fields. However, the ion flow speed is much lower than the speed of light. As a result, dynamo electric fields do not impact noticeably fluid motion since electric stresses are negligible compared to magnetic stresses. On the other hand, Hall physics dominates the low density plasma surrounding the jet (< 1018 cm-3) . In this region, electron speeds can be orders of magnitude higher than the bulk flow velocity as ion and electron fluids are decoupled. As a result, electric stresses can rival with magnetic stresses and Hall physics does impact the overall plasma dynamics. This talk will discuss how HED plasmas are subjected to Hall physics and how it impacts the particle confinement as well as the MHD stability of plasma jets. After focusing on experimental results and numerical simulations from the PERSEUS code, the talk will extend its conclusions to inertial fusion regimes where Hall physics could also alter plasma confinement and stability. Research supported by NNSA/DOE Grant Cooperative Agreements DE-FC52-06NA 00057, DE-NA 0001836 and NSF Grant PHY-1102471.

  6. Limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Howes

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The limitations of Hall MHD as a model for turbulence in weakly collisional plasmas are explored using quantitative comparisons to Vlasov-Maxwell kinetic theory over a wide range of parameter space. The validity of Hall MHD in the cold ion limit is shown, but spurious undamped wave modes exist in Hall MHD when the ion temperature is finite. It is argued that turbulence in the dissipation range of the solar wind must be one, or a mixture, of three electromagnetic wave modes: the parallel whistler, oblique whistler, or kinetic Alfvén waves. These modes are generally well described by Hall MHD. Determining the applicability of linear kinetic damping rates in turbulent plasmas requires a suite of fluid and kinetic nonlinear numerical simulations. Contrasting fluid and kinetic simulations will also shed light on whether the presence of spurious wave modes alters the nonlinear couplings inherent in turbulence and will illuminate the turbulent dynamics and energy transfer in the regime of the characteristic ion kinetic scales.

  7. Iodine Plasma Species Measurements in a Hall Effect Thruster Plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-01

    60 90 0 2 4 6 8 Current (mA/cm^2) A n g l e ( d e g ) Xenon Iodine 500 V, 2 A, I2 Presented at 2012 JPC 33 Distribution A: Approved for public...Over 1 hour of operation on iodine – Additional 1/2 hour with thruster flowing Xe – Current up to ~50 A into anode Presented at 2012 JPC

  8. Thermal convection of dusty compressible Rivlin-Ericksen viscoelastic fluid with hall currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Urvashi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation is made on the effect of Hall currents and suspended particles on the hydromagnetic stability of a compressible, electrically conducting Rivlin-Ericksen elastico-viscous fluid. The perturbation equations are analyzed in terms of normal modes after linearizing the relevant set of hydromagnetic equations. A dispersion relation governing the effects of viscoelasticity, magnetic field, Hall currents, compressibility and suspended particles is derived. For the stationary convection Rivlin-Ericksen fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the viscoelastic parameter. Compressibility and magnetic field are found to have a stabilizing effect on the system whereas Hall currents and suspended particles hasten the onset of thermal instability. These analytic results are confirmed numerically and the effects of various parameters on the stability parameter are depicted graphically. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wavenumbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection are obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers has been depicted graphically. It has been observed that oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of viscoelasticity, suspended particles and Hall currents which were not existing in the absence of these parameters.

  9. Effects of Hall current on convective heat generating fluid in slip flow regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, S.S.; Ram, P.C. (Kenyatta Univ., Nairobi (KE). Dept. of Mathematics); Stower, G.X. (Jomo Kenyatta Univ. College of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (KE). Dept. of Mathematics and Computer Science)

    1992-08-01

    The problem of free convection flow of a viscous heat generating rarefied gas is considered for the case when a strong magnetic field is imposed perpendicularly to the plane of flow. Analytical expressions for the velocity field and temperature are obtained, and the influence of the Hall currents m and the heat source parameter {delta} on the velocity field and temperature are discussed. (Author).

  10. Calibration of Hall sensor array for critical current measurement of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Yunpeng; Wang, Gang; Liu, Liyuan [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Yang, Xinsheng, E-mail: xsyang@swjtu.edu.cn [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Zhao, Yong [Key laboratory of Magnetic levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductor and New Energy R& D Center, Mail Stop 165#, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, 610031 (China); Superconductivity Research Group, School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wale, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Abstract : HAS (Hall sensor array) is a powerful tool to detect the uniformity of HTS (high temperature superconductor) tape through mapping the distribution of remanent or shielding field along the surface of the tape. However, measurement of HTS tape with ferromagnetic parts by HSA is still an issue because the ferromagnetic substrate has influence on the magnetic field around the HTS layer. In this work, a continuous HSA system has been designed to measure the critical current of the YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate. The relationship between the remanent field and critical current was calibrated by the finite element method. The result showed that the HSA is an effective method for evaluating the critical current of the HTS tape with ferromagnetic substrate. - Highlight: • A continuous Hall sensor array system has been designed. • The inhomogeneity of YBCO tape with ferromagnetic substrate can be detected by HAS. • Finite element method is an effective method for calibrating the remanent field.

  11. Hybrid-PIC Computer Simulation of the Plasma and Erosion Processes in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R.; Katz, Ira; Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Gamero-Castano, Manuel

    2010-01-01

    HPHall software simulates and tracks the time-dependent evolution of the plasma and erosion processes in the discharge chamber and near-field plume of Hall thrusters. HPHall is an axisymmetric solver that employs a hybrid fluid/particle-in-cell (Hybrid-PIC) numerical approach. HPHall, originally developed by MIT in 1998, was upgraded to HPHall-2 by the Polytechnic University of Madrid in 2006. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory has continued the development of HPHall-2 through upgrades to the physical models employed in the code, and the addition of entirely new ones. Primary among these are the inclusion of a three-region electron mobility model that more accurately depicts the cross-field electron transport, and the development of an erosion sub-model that allows for the tracking of the erosion of the discharge chamber wall. The code is being developed to provide NASA science missions with a predictive tool of Hall thruster performance and lifetime that can be used to validate Hall thrusters for missions.

  12. Transition in discharge plasma of Hall thruster type in presence of secondary electron emissive surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, I. V.; Yadrenkin, M. A.; Fomichev, V. P.

    2017-11-01

    Modification of the sheath structure near the emissive plate placed in magnetized DC discharge plasma of Hall thruster type was studied in the experiment and in kinetic simulations. The plate is made from Al2O3 which has enhanced secondary electron emission yield. The energetic electrons emitted by heated cathode provide the volume ionization and the secondary electron emission from the plate. An increase of the electron beam energy leads to an increase of the secondary electron generation, which initiates the transition in sheath structure over the emissive plate.

  13. Dissipationless Hall current in dense quark matter in a magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.J. Ferrer

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available We show the realization of axion electrodynamics within the Dual Chiral Density Wave phase of dense quark matter in the presence of a magnetic field. The system exhibits an anomalous dissipationless Hall current perpendicular to the magnetic field and an anomalous electric charge density. Connection to topological insulators and 3D optical lattices, as well as possible implications for heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars are outlined.

  14. Dissipationless Hall current in dense quark matter in a magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrer, E.J., E-mail: Efrain.Ferrer@csi.cuny.edu; Incera, V. de la

    2017-06-10

    We show the realization of axion electrodynamics within the Dual Chiral Density Wave phase of dense quark matter in the presence of a magnetic field. The system exhibits an anomalous dissipationless Hall current perpendicular to the magnetic field and an anomalous electric charge density. Connection to topological insulators and 3D optical lattices, as well as possible implications for heavy-ion collisions and neutron stars are outlined.

  15. A Redundancy Mechanism Design for Hall-Based Electronic Current Transformers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Long Chen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional current transformers (CTs suffer from DC and AC saturation and remanent magnetization in many industrial applications. Moreover, the drawbacks of traditional CTs, such as closed iron cores, bulky volume, and heavy weight, further limit the development of an intelligent power protection system. In order to compensate for these drawbacks, we proposed a novel current measurement method by using Hall sensors, which is called the Hall-effect current transformer (HCT. The existing commercial Hall sensors are electronic components, so the reliability of the HCT is normally worse than that of the traditional CT. Therefore, our study proposes a redundancy mechanism for the HCT to strengthen its reliability. With multiple sensor modules, the method has the ability to improve the accuracy of the HCT as well. Additionally, the proposed redundancy mechanism monitoring system provides a condition-based maintenance for the HCT. We verify our method with both simulations and an experimental test. The results demonstrate that the proposed HCT with a redundancy mechanism can almost achieve Class 0.2 for measuring CTs according to IEC Standard 60044-8.

  16. Spin current swapping and Hanle spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ka; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.

    2015-07-01

    We analyze the effect known as "spin current swapping" (SCS) due to electron-impurity scattering in a uniform spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas. In this effect a primary spin current Jia (lower index for spatial direction, upper index for spin direction) generates a secondary spin current Jai if i ≠a , or Jjj, with j ≠i , if i =a . Contrary to naive expectation, the homogeneous spin current associated with the uniform drift of the spin polarization in the electron gas does not generate a swapped spin current by the SCS mechanism. Nevertheless, a swapped spin current will be generated, if a magnetic field is present, by a completely different mechanism, namely, the precession of the spin Hall spin current in the magnetic field. We refer to this second mechanism as Hanle spin Hall effect, and we notice that it can be observed in an experiment in which a homogeneous drift current is passed through a uniformly magnetized electron gas. In contrast to this, we show that an unambiguous observation of SCS requires inhomogeneous spin currents, such as those that are associated with spin diffusion in a metal, and no magnetic field. An experimental setup for the observation of the SCS is therefore proposed.

  17. Currents between tethered electrodes in a magnetized laboratory plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzel, R. L.; Urrutia, J. M.

    1989-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on important plasma physics issues of electrodynamic tethers were performed. These included current propagation, formation of wave wings, limits of current collection, nonlinear effects and instabilities, charging phenomena, and characteristics of transmission lines in plasmas. The experiments were conducted in a large afterglow plasma. The current system was established with a small electron-emitting hot cathode tethered to an electron-collecting anode, both movable across the magnetic field and energized by potential difference up to V approx.=100 T(sub e). The total current density in space and time was obtained from complete measurements of the perturbed magnetic field. The fast spacecraft motion was reproduced in the laboratory by moving the tethered electrodes in small increments, applying delayed current pulses, and reconstructing the net field by a linear superposition of locally emitted wavelets. With this technique, the small-amplitude dc current pattern is shown to form whistler wings at each electrode instead of the generally accepted Alfven wings. For the beam electrode, the whistler wing separates from the field-aligned beam which carries no net current. Large amplitude return currents to a stationary anode generate current-driven microinstabilities, parallel electric fields, ion depletions, current disruptions and time-varying electrode charging. At appropriately high potentials and neutral densities, excess neutrals are ionized near the anode. The anode sheath emits high-frequency electron transit-time oscillations at the sheath-plasma resonance. The beam generates Langmuir turbulence, ion sound turbulence, electron heating, space charge fields, and Hall currents. An insulated, perfectly conducting transmission line embedded in the plasma becomes lossy due to excitation of whistler waves and magnetic field diffusion effects. The implications of the laboratory observations on electrodynamic tethers in space are discussed.

  18. Plasma Perturbations in High-Speed Probing of Hall Thruster Discharge Chambers: Quantification and Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorns, Benjamin A.; Goebel, Dan M.; Hofer, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental investigation is presented to quantify the effect of high-speed probing on the plasma parameters inside the discharge chamber of a 6-kW Hall thruster. Understanding the nature of these perturbations is of significant interest given the importance of accurate plasma measurements for characterizing thruster operation. An array of diagnostics including a high-speed camera and embedded wall probes is employed to examine in real time the changes in electron temperature and plasma potential induced by inserting a high-speed reciprocating Langmuir probe into the discharge chamber. It is found that the perturbations onset when the scanning probe is downstream of the electron temperature peak, and that along channel centerline, the perturbations are best characterized as a downstream shift of plasma parameters by 15-20% the length of the discharge chamber. A parametric study is performed to investigate techniques to mitigate the observed probe perturbations including varying probe speed, probe location, and operating conditions. It is found that the perturbations largely disappear when the thruster is operated at low power and low discharge voltage. The results of this mitigation study are discussed in the context of recommended methods for generating unperturbed measurements of the discharge chamber plasma.

  19. Laser Thomson scattering measurements of electron temperature and density in a hall-effect plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washeleski, Robert L.

    Hall-effect thrusters (HETs) are compact electric propulsion devices with high specific impulse used for a variety of space propulsion applications. HET technology is well developed but the electron properties in the discharge are not completely understood, mainly due to the difficulty involved in performing accurate measurements in the discharge. Measurements of electron temperature and density have been performed using electrostatic probes, but presence of the probes can significantly disrupt thruster operation, and thus alter the electron temperature and density. While fast-probe studies have expanded understanding of HET discharges, a non-invasive method of measuring the electron temperature and density in the plasma is highly desirable. An alternative to electrostatic probes is a non-perturbing laser diagnostic technique that measures Thomson scattering from the plasma. Thomson scattering is the process by which photons are elastically scattered from the free electrons in a plasma. Since the electrons have thermal energy their motion causes a Doppler shift in the scattered photons that is proportional to their velocity. Like electrostatic probes, laser Thomson scattering (LTS) can be used to determine the temperature and density of free electrons in the plasma. Since Thomson scattering measures the electron velocity distribution function directly no assumptions of the plasma conditions are required, allowing accurate measurements in anisotropic and non-Maxwellian plasmas. LTS requires a complicated measurement apparatus, but has the potential to provide accurate, non-perturbing measurements of electron temperature and density in HET discharges. In order to assess the feasibility of LTS diagnostics on HETs non-invasive measurements of electron temperature and density in the near-field plume of a Hall thruster were performed using a custom built laser Thomson scattering diagnostic. Laser measurements were processed using a maximum likelihood estimation method

  20. Kelvin's Canonical Circulation Theorem in Hall Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Shivamoggi, B K

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show that, thanks to the restoration of the legitimate connection between the current density and the plasma flow velocity in Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD), Kelvin's Circulation Theorem becomes valid in Hall MHD. The ion-flow velocity in the usual circulation integral is now replaced by the canonical ion-flow velocity.

  1. Magnetic Shielding of the Channel Walls in a Hall Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Katz, Ira; Hofer, Richard R.; Goebel, Dan M.; deGrys, Kristi; Mathers, Alex

    2011-01-01

    In a qualification life test of a Hall thruster it was found that the erosion of the acceleration channel practically stopped after approx 5,600 h. Numerical simulations using a two-dimensional axisymmetric plasma solver with a magnetic field-aligned mesh reveal that when the channel receded from its early-in-life to its steady-state configuration the following changes occurred near the wall: (1) reduction of the electric field parallel to the wall that prohibited ions from acquiring significant impact kinetic energy before entering the sheath, (2) reduction of the potential fall in the sheath that further diminished the total energy ions gained before striking the material, and (3) reduction of the ion number density that decreased the flux of ions to the wall. All these changes, found to have been induced by the magnetic field, constituted collectively an effective shielding of the walls from any significant ion bombardment. Thus, we term this process in Hall thrusters "magnetic shielding."

  2. Compact High Current Rare-Earth Emitter Hollow Cathode for Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Richard R. (Inventor); Goebel, Dan M. (Inventor); Watkins, Ronnie M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An apparatus and method for achieving an efficient central cathode in a Hall effect thruster is disclosed. A hollow insert disposed inside the end of a hollow conductive cathode comprises a rare-earth element and energized to emit electrons from an inner surface. The cathode employs an end opening having an area at least as large as the internal cross sectional area of the rare earth insert to enhance throughput from the cathode end. In addition, the cathode employs a high aspect ratio geometry based on the cathode length to width which mitigates heat transfer from the end. A gas flow through the cathode and insert may be impinged by the emitted electrons to yield a plasma. One or more optional auxiliary gas feeds may also be employed between the cathode and keeper wall and external to the keeper near the outlet.

  3. HEDSA Town Hall Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afeyan, Bedros

    2017-10-01

    HEDSA will hold its Town Hall meeting on Wednesday October 25 at 12:30pm in the Wisconsin Center. The new steering committee members and HEDSA leadership will be announced. A report will be given on 2017 HEDSA activities. Program Managers from Federal Funding Agencies such as OFES, NNSA, AFOSR and NSF will provide updates on the state of sponsored research in HED plasmas, and to engage the community in an open dialogue. The HEDSA Town Hall is a ``bring your own lunch'' meeting. Current members of HEDSA and all graduate students are strongly encouraged to attend. To join HEDSA please visit HEDSA.org

  4. Current drive for rotamak plasmas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fusion 30, 967 (1988). [6] D Brotherton-Ratcliffe and R G Storer, Plasma Phys. Contr. Fusion 31, 615 (1989). [7] I R Jones, C Deng, I M El-Fayoumi and P Euripides, Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 2072 (1998). [8] A Sykes et al, Nuclear fusion 32, 694 (1992). [9] L McCarthy, Nuclear fusion 42, 1304 (2002). [10] R Storer, Chinese Phys.

  5. Optical determination of Shockley-Read-Hall and interface recombination currents in hybrid perovskites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarritzu, Valerio; Sestu, Nicola; Marongiu, Daniela; Chang, Xueqing; Masi, Sofia; Rizzo, Aurora; Colella, Silvia; Quochi, Francesco; Saba, Michele; Mura, Andrea; Bongiovanni, Giovanni

    2017-03-01

    Metal-halide perovskite solar cells rival the best inorganic solar cells in power conversion efficiency, providing the outlook for efficient, cheap devices. In order for the technology to mature and approach the ideal Shockley-Queissier efficiency, experimental tools are needed to diagnose what processes limit performances, beyond simply measuring electrical characteristics often affected by parasitic effects and difficult to interpret. Here we study the microscopic origin of recombination currents causing photoconversion losses with an all-optical technique, measuring the electron-hole free energy as a function of the exciting light intensity. Our method allows assessing the ideality factor and breaks down the electron-hole recombination current into bulk defect and interface contributions, providing an estimate of the limit photoconversion efficiency, without any real charge current flowing through the device. We identify Shockley-Read-Hall recombination as the main decay process in insulated perovskite layers and quantify the additional performance degradation due to interface recombination in heterojunctions.

  6. Asymmetric SOL Current in Vertically Displaced Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrera, J. D.; Navratil, G. A.; Hanson, J. M.

    2017-10-01

    Experiments at the DIII-D tokamak demonstrate a non-monotonic relationship between measured scrape-off layer (SOL) currents and vertical displacement event (VDE) rates with SOL currents becoming largely n=1 dominant as plasma is displaced by the plasma control system (PCS) at faster rates. The DIII-D PCS is used to displace the magnetic axis 10x slower than the intrinsic growth time of similar instabilities in lower single-null plasmas. Low order (n control is disabled. Previous inquiry shows VDE asymmetry characterized by SOL current fraction and geometric parameters of tokamak plasmas. We note that, of plasmas displaced by the PCS, short displacement time scales near the limit of the PCS temporal control appear to result in larger n=1/n=2 asymmetries. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-FG02-04ER54761.

  7. Current-vortex filaments in magnetized plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergmans, J.; Kuvshinov, B. N.; Lakhin, V. P.; Schep, T. J.; Westerhof, E.

    1999-01-01

    Current-vortex filament solutions to the two-fluid plasma equations that describe drift-Alfven waves are presented. Such filament systems are Hamiltonian. Integrable three and four filament systems are discussed in some detail. A wide variety of orbit topologies exists in the plasma case. Special

  8. Thermal convection of magneto compressible couple-stress fluid saturated in a porous medium with Hall current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, C. B.; Singh, M.; Kumar, S.

    2016-02-01

    An investigation is made on the effect of Hall currents on thermal instability of a compressible couple-stress fluid in the presence of a horizontal magnetic field saturated in a porous medium. The analysis is carried out within the framework of the linear stability theory and normal mode technique. A dispersion relation governing the effects of viscoelasticity, Hall currents, compressibility, magnetic field and porous medium is derived. For the stationary convection a couple-stress fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the viscoelastic parameter. Compressibility, the magnetic filed and couple-stress parameter have stabilizing effects on the system whereas Hall currents and medium permeability have a destabilizing effect on the system, but in the absence of Hall current couple-stress has a destabilizing effect on the system. It has been observed that oscillatory modes are introduced due to the presence of viscoelasticity, magnetic field porous medium and Hall currents which were non-existent in their absence.

  9. MHD Flow with Hall Current and Ion-Slip Effects due to a Stretching Porous Disk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiza M. N. El-Fayez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A partially ionized fluid is driven by a stretching disk, in the presence of a magnetic field that is strong enough to produce significant hall current and ion-slip effects. The limiting behavior of the flow is studied, as the magnetic field strength grows indefinitely. The flow variables are properly scaled, and uniformly valid asymptotic expansions of the velocity components are obtained. The leading order approximations show sinusoidal behavior that is decaying exponentially, as we move away from the disk surface. The two-term expansions of the radial and azimuthal surface shear stress components, as well as the far field inflow speed, compare well with the corresponding finite difference solutions, even at moderate magnetic fields. The effect of mass transfer (suction or injection through the disk is also considered.

  10. Enhancing Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster (muCAT) Plasma Generation to Analyze Magnetic Field Angle Effects on Sheath Formation in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukas, Joseph Nicholas

    Using a Delta IV or Atlas V launch vehicle to send a payload into Low Earth Orbit can cost between 13,000 and 14,000 per kilogram. With payloads that utilize a propulsion system, maximizing the efficiency of that propulsion system would not only be financially beneficial, but could also increase the range of possible missions and allow for a longer mission lifetime. This dissertation looks into efficiency increases in the Micro-Cathode Arc Thruster (muCAT) and Hall Thruster. The muCAT is an electric propulsion device that ablates solid cathode material, through an electrical arc discharge, to create plasma and ultimately produce thrust. About 90% of the arc discharge current is conducted by electrons, which go toward heating the anode and contribute very little to thrust, with only the remaining 10% going toward thrust in the form of ion current. I will discuss the results of an experiment in which electron heating on a low melting point anode was shown to increase ion current, which theoretically should increase thrust levels at low frequencies. Another feature of the muCAT is the use of an external magnetic solenoid which increases thrust, ion current, and causes uniform cathode erosion. An experiment has shown that efficiency can also be increased by removing the external magnetic field power supply and, instead, utilizing the residual arc current to power the magnetic solenoid. A Hall Thruster is a type of electric propulsion device that accelerates ions across an electric potential between an anode and magnetically trapped electrons. The limiting factor in Hall Thruster operation is the lifetime of the wall material. During operation, a positively charged layer forms over the surface of the walls, known as a plasma sheath, which contributes to wall erosion. Therefore, by reducing or eliminating the sheath layer, Hall Thruster operational lifetime can increase. Computational modeling has shown that large magnetic field angles and large perpendicular electric

  11. Relation between magnetic fields and electric currents in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliunas

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Maxwell's equations allow the magnetic field B to be calculated if the electric current density J is assumed to be completely known as a function of space and time. The charged particles that constitute the current, however, are subject to Newton's laws as well, and J can be changed by forces acting on charged particles. Particularly in plasmas, where the concentration of charged particles is high, the effect of the electromagnetic field calculated from a given J on J itself cannot be ignored. Whereas in ordinary laboratory physics one is accustomed to take J as primary and B as derived from J, it is often asserted that in plasmas B should be viewed as primary and J as derived from B simply as (c/4π∇×B. Here I investigate the relation between ∇×B and J in the same terms and by the same method as previously applied to the MHD relation between the electric field and the plasma bulk flow vmv2001: assume that one but not the other is present initially, and calculate what happens. The result is that, for configurations with spatial scales much larger than the electron inertial length λe, a given ∇×B produces the corresponding J, while a given J does not produce any ∇×B but disappears instead. The reason for this can be understood by noting that ∇×B≠4π/cJ implies a time-varying electric field (displacement current which acts to change both terms (in order to bring them toward equality; the changes in the two terms, however, proceed on different time scales, light travel time for B and electron plasma period for J, and clearly the term changing much more slowly is the one that survives. (By definition, the two time scales are equal at λe. On larger scales, the evolution of B (and hence also of ∇×B is governed by ∇×E, with E determined by plasma dynamics via the generalized Ohm's law; as illustrative simple examples, I discuss the formation of magnetic drift currents in the magnetosphere and of Pedersen and Hall currents in

  12. Analytic non-Maxwellian electron velocity distribution function in a Hall discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shagayda, Andrey; Tarasov, Alexey

    2017-10-01

    The electron velocity distribution function in the low-pressure discharges with the crossed electric and magnetic fields, which occur in magnetrons, plasma accelerators, and Hall thrusters with a closed electron drift, is not Maxwellian. A deviation from equilibrium is caused by a large electron mean free path relative to the Larmor radius and the size of the discharge channel. In this study, we derived in the relaxation approximation the analytical expression of the electron velocity distribution function in a weakly ionized Lorentz plasma with the crossed electric and magnetic fields in the presence of the electron density and temperature gradients in the direction of the electric field. The solution was obtained in the stationary approximation far from boundary surfaces, when diffusion and mobility are determined by the classical effective collision frequency of electrons with ions and atoms. The moments of the distribution function including the average velocity, the stress tensor, and the heat flux were calculated and compared with the classical hydrodynamic expressions. It was shown that a kinetic correction to the drift velocity stems from a contribution of the off-diagonal component of the stress tensor. This correction becomes essential if the drift velocity in the crossed electric and magnetic fields would be comparable to the thermal velocity of electrons. The electron temperature has three different components at a nonzero effective collision frequency and two different components in the limit when the collision frequency tends to zero. It is shown that, in the presence of ionization collisions, the components of the heat flux have additives that are not related to the temperature gradient, and arise because of the electron drift.

  13. A one-dimensional with three-dimensional velocity space hybrid-PIC model of the discharge plasma in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Andrey; Lovtsov, Alexander; Tomilin, Dmitry

    2017-04-01

    According to present knowledge, countless numerical simulations of the discharge plasma in Hall thrusters were conducted. However, on the one hand, adequate two-dimensional (2D) models require a lot of time to carry out numerical research of the breathing mode oscillations or the discharge structure. On the other hand, existing one-dimensional (1D) models are usually too simplistic and do not take into consideration such important phenomena as neutral-wall collisions, magnetic field induced by Hall current and double, secondary, and stepwise ionizations together. In this paper a one-dimensional with three-dimensional velocity space (1D3V) hybrid-PIC model is presented. The model is able to incorporate all the phenomena mentioned above. A new method of neutral-wall collisions simulation in described space was developed and validated. Simulation results obtained for KM-88 and KM-60 thrusters are in a good agreement with experimental data. The Bohm collision coefficient was the same for both thrusters. Neutral-wall collisions, doubly charged ions, and induced magnetic field were proved to stabilize the breathing mode oscillations in a Hall thruster under some circumstances.

  14. Tunable current partition at zero-line intersection of quantum anomalous Hall topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yafei; Zeng, Junjie; Wang, Ke; Xu, Fuming; Qiao, Zhenhua

    2017-10-01

    At the interface between two-dimensional materials with different topologies, topologically protected one-dimensional states (also named zero-line modes) arise. Here, we focus on the quantum anomalous Hall-effect-based zero-line modes formed at the interface between regimes with different Chern numbers. We find that these zero-line modes are chiral and unilaterally conductive due to the breaking of time-reversal invariance. For a beam splitter consisting of two intersecting zero lines, the chirality ensures that a current can only be injected from two of the four terminals. Our numerical results further show that, in the absence of contact resistance, the (anti-)clockwise partitions of the currents from these two terminals are the same owing to the current conservation, which effectively simplifies the partition laws. We find that the partition is robust against the relative shift of Fermi energy but can be adjusted effectively by tuning the relative magnetization strengths at different regimes or relative angles between zero lines.

  15. THERMAL INSTABILITY OF COMPRESSIBLE WALTERS' (MODEL B' FLUID IN THE PRESENCE OF HALL CURRENTS AND SUSPENDED PARTICLES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urvashi GUPTA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Hall currents and suspended particles is considered on the hydromagnetic stability of a compressible, electrically conducting Walters' (Model B' elastico-viscous fluid. After linearizing the relevant hydromagnetic equations, the perturbation equations are analyzed in terms of normal modes. A dispersion relation governing the effects of visco-elasticity, magnetic field, Hall currents and suspended particles is derived. It has been found that for stationary convection, the Walters' (Model B' fluid behaves like an ordinary Newtonian fluid due to the vanishing of the visco-elastic parameter. The compressibility and magnetic field have a stabilizing effect on the system, as such their effect is to postpone the onset of thermal instability whereas Hall currents and suspended particles are found to hasten the onset of thermal instability for permissible range of values of various parameters. Also, the dispersion relation is analyzed numerically and the results shown graphically. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wavenumbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection are obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers has been depicted graphically. The visco-elasticity, suspended particles and Hall currents (hence magnetic field introduce oscillatory modes in the system which were non-existent in their absence.

  16. All-electrical generation of spin-polarized currents in quantum spin Hall insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, L. L.; Cheung, K. T.; Zhang, L.; Wang, J.

    2017-03-01

    The control and generation of spin-polarized current (SPC) without magnetic materials and an external magnetic field is a big challenge in spintronics and normally requires a spin-flip mechanism. In this Rapid Communication, we show the theoretical discovery of all-electrical generation of SPC without relying on spin-flip spin-orbit coupling (SOC). We find that the SPC can be produced as long as an energy-dependent phase difference between the spin up and down electrons can be established. We verify this through quantum transport calculations on a gated stanene zigzag nanoribbon, which is a quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator. Our calculations indicate that the transient current as well as ac conductance are significantly spin polarized, which results from the genetic phase difference between spin up and down electrons after traversing the system. Our results are robust against edge imperfections and generally valid for other QSH insulators, such as silicene and germanene, etc. These findings establish a different route for generating SPCs by purely electrical means and open the door for interesting applications of semiconductor spintronics.

  17. Current status and prospect of plasma control system for steady-state operation on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Makoto, E-mail: hasegawa@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Nakamura, Kazuo; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • Overall configuration of plasma control system on QUEST are presented. • Multi core system and reflective memories are used for the real-time control. • Hall sensors are used for the identification of plasma current and its position. • Repetitive gas fueling with the feed-back control of Hα signal is implemented. - Abstract: The plasma control system (PCS) of QUEST is developed according to the progress of QUEST project. Since one of the critical goals of the project is to achieve the steady-state operation with high temperature vacuum vessel wall, the PCS is also required to have the capability to control the plasma for a long period. For the increase of the loads to processing power of the PCS, the PCS is decentralized with the use of reflective memories (RFMs). The PCS controls the plasma edge position with the real-time identification of plasma current and its position. This identification is done with not only flux loops but also hall sensors. The gas fueling method by piezo valve with monitoring the Hα signal filtered by a digital low-pass filter are proposed and suitable for the steady-state operation on QUEST. The present status and prospect of the PCS are presented with recent topics.

  18. Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a rotating channel with convective boundary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tasawar Hayat

    Full Text Available The present article has been arranged to study the Hall current and Joule heating effects on peristaltic flow of viscous fluid in a channel with flexible walls. Both fluid and channel are in a state of solid body rotation. Convective conditions for heat transfer in the formulation are adopted. Viscous dissipation in energy expression is taken into account. Resulting differential systems after invoking small Reynolds number and long wavelength considerations are numerically solved. Runge-Kutta scheme of order four is implemented for the results of axial and secondary velocities, temperature and heat transfer coefficient. Comparison with previous limiting studies is shown. Outcome of new parameters of interest is analyzed. Keywords: Rotating frame, Hall current, Joule heating, Convective conditions, Wall properties

  19. Nonlinear current sheet formation in ideal plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voge, A.; Schindler, K.; Otto, A.

    1994-01-01

    We present a numerical study of the formation of current sheets in ideal plasmas. First we confirm the development of singular current sheets in a one-dimensional model. In a second step we extend the analysis to two-dimensional equilibria. Here it is found that the resulting structures are quiet insensitive to the boundary conditions. For the special case of a magnetotail like equilibrium it will be shown that the resulting current distribution provides a possibility to understand the onset of a localized anomalous resistivity from a macroscopic point of view. Furthermore, the resulting structures provide an explanation for the dramatic decrease of the thickness of the current sheet in the magnetotail prior to the onset of geomagnetic substorms.

  20. Lower hybrid current drive in tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ushigusa, Kenkichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    Past ten years progress on Lower Hybrid Current Drive (LHCD) experiments have demonstrated the largest non-inductive current (3.6 MA, JT-60U), the longest current sustainment (2 hours, TRIAM-1M), non-inductive current drive at the highest density (n-bar{sub e} - 10{sup 20}m{sup -3}, ALCATOR-C) and the highest current drive efficiency ({eta}{sub CD} = 3.5x10{sup 19} m{sup -2}A/W, JT-60). These results indicate that LHCD is one of the most promising methods to drive non-inductive current in the present tokamak plasmas. This paper presents recent experimental results on LHCD experiments. Basic theories of LH waves, the wave propagation and the current drive are briefly summarized. The main part of this paper describes several important results and their physical pictures on recent LHCD experiments; 1) the experimental set-up, 2) the current drive efficiency, 3) the control of current profile and MHD activities, 4) the global energy confinement, 5) the global power flow, 6) fast electron behavior, 7) interaction between LH waves and thermal/fast ions, 8) combination with other CD method. (author)

  1. Current-Nonlinear Hall Effect and Spin-Orbit Torque Magnetization Switching in a Magnetic Topological Insulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, K.; Tsukazaki, A.; Yoshimi, R.; Kondou, K.; Takahashi, K. S.; Otani, Y.; Kawasaki, M.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-09-01

    The current-nonlinear Hall effect or second harmonic Hall voltage is widely used as one of the methods for estimating charge-spin conversion efficiency, which is attributed to the magnetization oscillation by spin-orbit torque (SOT). Here, we argue the second harmonic Hall voltage under a large in-plane magnetic field with an in-plane magnetization configuration in magnetic-nonmagnetic topological insulator (TI) heterostructures, Crx (Bi1 -ySby )2 -xTe3 /(Bi1 -ySby )2Te3 , where it is clearly shown that the large second harmonic voltage is governed not by SOT but mainly by asymmetric magnon scattering without macroscopic magnetization oscillation. Thus, this method does not allow an accurate estimation of charge-spin conversion efficiency in TI. Instead, the SOT contribution is exemplified by current pulse induced nonvolatile magnetization switching, which is realized with a current density of 2.5 ×1010 A m-2 , showing its potential as a spintronic material.

  2. Ion beam and performance characteristics in the presence of multiply charged ions in annular and cylindrical type Hall thruster plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Holak; Lim, Youbong; Seon, Jongho; Choe, Wonho; Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST) Collaboration; Kyung Hee University Collaboration

    2014-10-01

    Operation performance and ion beam characteristics in the presence of multiply charged ions in cylindrical Hall thruster (CHT) and annular Hall thruster (AHT) plasmas are compared under identical conditions such as channel diameter, channel depth, and propellant flow rate. According to our previous results, the propellant utilization of the 200 W class CHT well exceeds unity [1,2] and the papers suggest that this may be related to the presence of multiply charged ions. In this work, we report the large fractions of Xe2+ and Xe3+ ions measured in the CHT plasma, which are about 16--26% and 6--7%, respectively. The measured values of specific impulse and thrust are higher by 1.4 times in CHT than in AHT at 300 V of the anode voltage, and it is found that the high fraction of multiply charged ions is responsible for the higher values of specific impulse and thrust. The details of the comparison of the overall performance and beam characteristics associated with multiply charged ions in AHT and CHT will be presented. This work was partly supported by the Space Core Technology Program (Grant No. 2014M1A3A3A02034510) and the Korea Institute of Materials Science (KIMS) (Grant No. 10043470).

  3. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA-300M Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A.; Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to aid in the design of high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for existing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the near-field plume of the NASA-300M Hall thruster. A probe array consisting of a Faraday probe, Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at four operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V, and 500 V at 20 kW as well as 300 V at 10 kW. Results show that the acceleration zone and high-temperature region were contained within 0.3 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all operating conditions. Isothermal lines were shown to strongly follow magnetic field lines in the near-field, with maximum temperatures ranging from 19 - 27 eV. The electron temperature spatial distribution created large drops in measured floating potentials in front of the magnetic pole surfaces where the plasma density was low, which suggests strong sheaths at these surfaces. The data taken have provided valuable information for future design and modeling validation, and complements ongoing internal measurement efforts on the NASA-300M.

  4. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA 300M Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, Daniel A; Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Soulas, George C.; KamHawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to aid in the design of high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for existing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed in the near-field plume of the NASA 300M Hall thruster. A probe array consisting of a Faraday probe, Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 DT,m downstream of the thruster exit plane at four operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V, and 500 V at 20 kW as well as 300 V at 10 kW. Results show that the acceleration zone and high-temperature region were contained within 0.3 DT,m from the exit plane at all operating conditions. Isothermal lines were shown to strongly follow magnetic field lines in the nearfield, with maximum temperatures ranging from 19 - 27 eV. The electron temperature spatial distribution created large drops in measured floating potentials in front of the magnetic pole surfaces where the plasma density was small, which suggests strong sheaths at these surfaces. The data taken have provided valuable information for future design and modeling validation, and complements ongoing internal measurement efforts on the NASA 300 M.

  5. Relation between magnetic fields and electric currents in plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Vasyliunas

    2005-10-01

    ∇×E, with E determined by plasma dynamics via the generalized Ohm's law; as illustrative simple examples, I discuss the formation of magnetic drift currents in the magnetosphere and of Pedersen and Hall currents in the ionosphere.

    Keywords. Ionosphere (Electric fields and currents – Magnetospheric physics (Magnetosphere-ionosphere interactions – Space plasma physics (Kinetic and MHD theory

  6. FEA Analysis of AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens (Current Design)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hurh, P.G.; Tang, Z.

    2001-06-22

    The AP-0 Target Hall Collection Lens is a pulsed device which focuses anti-protons just downstream of the Target. Since the angles at which the anti-protons depart the Target can be quite large, a very high focusing strength is required to maximize anti-proton capture into the downstream Debuncher Ring. The current design of the Collection Lens was designed to operate with a focusing gradient of 1,000 T/m. However, multiple failures of early devices resulted in lowering the normal operating gradient to about 750 T/m. At this gradient, the Lens design fares much better, lasting several million pulses, but ultimately still fails. A Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been performed on this Collection Lens design to help determine the cause and/or nature of the failures. The Collection Lens magnetic field is created by passing high current through a central conductor cylinder. A uniform current distribution through the cylinder will create a tangential or azimuthal magnetic field that varies linearly from zero at the center of the cylinder to a maximum at the outer surface of the cylinder. Anti-proton particles passing through this cylinder (along the longitudinal direction) will see an inward focusing kick back toward the center of the cylinder proportional to the magnetic field strength. For the current Lens design a gradient of 1,000 T/m requires a current of about 580,000 amps. Since the DC power and cooling requirements would be prohibitive, the Lens is operated in a pulsed mode. Each pulse is half sine wave in shape with a pulse duration of about 350 microseconds. Because of the skin effect, the most uniform current density actually occurs about two-thirds of the way through the pulse. This means that the maximum current of the pulse is actually higher than that required in the DC case (about 670,000 amps). Since the beam must pass through the central conductor cylinder it must be made of a conducting material that is also very 'transparent' to the beam

  7. Influence of Hall Current and Viscous Dissipation on Pressure Driven Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid with Heat Generation: A Mathematical Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saima Noreen

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the influence of heat sink (or source on the peristaltic motion of pseudoplastic fluid in the presence of Hall current, where channel walls are non-conducting in nature. Flow analysis has been carried out under the approximations of a low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Coupled equations are solved using shooting method for numerical solution for the axial velocity function, temperature and pressure gradient distributions. We analyze the influence of various interesting parameters on flow quantities. The present study can be considered as a mathematical presentation of the dynamics of physiological organs with stones.

  8. Influence of Hall Current and Viscous Dissipation on Pressure Driven Flow of Pseudoplastic Fluid with Heat Generation: A Mathematical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noreen, Saima; Qasim, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we study the influence of heat sink (or source) on the peristaltic motion of pseudoplastic fluid in the presence of Hall current, where channel walls are non-conducting in nature. Flow analysis has been carried out under the approximations of a low Reynolds number and long wavelength. Coupled equations are solved using shooting method for numerical solution for the axial velocity function, temperature and pressure gradient distributions. We analyze the influence of various interesting parameters on flow quantities. The present study can be considered as a mathematical presentation of the dynamics of physiological organs with stones.

  9. Spin dynamics simulations of topological magnon insulators: From transverse current correlation functions to the family of magnon Hall effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mook, Alexander; Henk, Jürgen; Mertig, Ingrid

    2016-11-01

    We demonstrate theoretically that atomistic spin dynamics simulations of topological magnon insulators (TMIs) provide access to the magnon-mediated transport of both spin and heat. The TMIs, modeled by kagome ferromagnets with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, exhibit nonzero transverse-current correlation functions from which conductivities are derived for the entire family of magnon Hall effects. Both longitudinal and transverse conductivities are studied in dependence on temperature and on an external magnetic field. A comparison between theoretical and experimental results for Cu(1,3-benzenedicarboxylate), a recently discovered TMI, is drawn.

  10. Diffusion-thermo effect with hall current on unsteady hydromagnetic flow past an infinite vertical porous plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.R. Pattnaik

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available An unsteady hydromagnetic flow past an infinite vertical porous plate has been analyzed to show the effect of an additional cross transport phenomenon, i.e. heat flux caused by concentration gradient in addition to the heat flux caused by temperature gradient. The effect of magnetic field on the fluid temperature and the heat transfer between fluid and wall is of considerable importance affecting the flow. Further, Hall current, an additional electric current density so generated perpendicular to both applied electric field and magnetic field has been taken into consideration in the present study. Moreover, the Dufour effect has been considered in energy equation leaving the equations of thermal diffusion and mass diffusion coupled. The coupled non-linear equations are solved by applying a special function Hhn(x. The effects of flow parameters are shown with the help of graphs and tables. A phenomenal observation, i.e. a radical change is marked near the plate in respect of Dufour number in the presence of suction. Further, it is to note that suction induces backflow in conjunction with opposing buoyancy forces. Hall current contributes to greater skin friction at the bounding surface.

  11. Optimizing pulsed current micro plasma arc welding parameters to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reveals the influences of pulsed current parameters namely peak current, back current, pulse and pulse width on the ultimate tensile strength of Micro Plasma Arc Welded Inconel 625 sheets. Mathematical model is developed to predict ultimate tensile strength of pulsed current micro plasma arc welded Inconel ...

  12. Theory of Topological Spin Hall Effect in Antiferromagnetic Skyrmion: Impact on Current-induced Motion

    KAUST Repository

    Akosa, Collins Ashu

    2017-09-09

    We demonstrate that the nontrivial magnetic texture of antiferromagnetic skyrmions (AFM-Sks) promotes a non-vanishing topological spin Hall effect (TSHE) on the flowing electrons. This results in a substantial enhancement of the non-adiabatic torque and hence improves the skyrmion mobility. This non-adiabatic torque increases when decreasing the skyrmion size, and therefore scaling down results in a much higher torque efficiency. In clean AFM-Sks, we find a significant boost of the TSHE close to van Hove singularity. Interestingly, this effect is enhanced away from the band gap in the presence of non-magnetic interstitial defects. Furthermore, unlike their ferromagnetic counterpart, TSHE in AFM-Sks increases with increase in disorder strength thus opening promising avenues for materials engineering of this effect.

  13. Plasma Current Start-up in a Spherical Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, Osamu; Kessel, Charles; Hirose, Akira

    The various plasma current start-up techniques and related topics in a spherical tokamak (ST) device are described. The Ohmic heating coil current clamp experiments in NSTX are described and discussed, and the plasma current start-up experiments in the STOR-M tokamak with iron core and the outer vertical field coil is presented as one of technique for a plasma current start-up in a ST.

  14. Plasma Medicine: Current Achievements and Future Prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laroussi, Mounir

    2012-10-01

    Research on the biomedical applications of low temperature plasmas started with small scale experiments that were simply aimed at discovering what happens to biological cells when exposed to the chemically rich environment of plasma. These early experiments took place in the mid to late 1990s. As interest in this multidisciplinary field dramatically rose, various engineering and physics groups collaborated with biologists and medical experts to investigate the use of plasma technology as a basis for innovative medical approaches to cure various diseases. However, many questions concerning the fundamental mechanisms involved in cell-plasma interaction remained unanswered. As a result various workshops were organized to gather the diverse research community in the field of plasma medicine in order to have a fruitful exchange of ideas regarding the scientific challenges that needed to be surmounted to advance and expand the field's knowledge base. The present GEC workshop continues this important tradition of scientific cooperation since there is still a significant lack of understanding of many of the biochemical and molecular pathways that come into play when biological cells are exposed to plasmas. In this talk, first background information on the various plasma devices developed in our institute will be presented. This will be followed by a summary of our work on the effects of plasmas on prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. The talk will be concluded by presenting our vision of the future of the field and an outline of the main challenges that need to be overcome if practical medical applications are to be achieved.

  15. Plasma Potential and Langmuir Probe Measurements in the Near-field Plume of the NASA-457Mv2 Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shastry, Rohit; Huang, Wensheng; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2012-01-01

    In order to further the design of future high-power Hall thrusters and provide experimental validation for ongoing modeling efforts, plasma potential and Langmuir probe measurements were performed on the 50-kW NASA-457Mv2. An electrostatic probe array comprised of a near-field Faraday probe, single Langmuir probe, and emissive probe was used to interrogate the near-field plume from approximately 0.1 - 2.0 mean thruster diameters downstream of the thruster exit plane at the following operating conditions: 300 V, 400 V and 500 V at 30 kW and 500 V at 50 kW. Results have shown that the acceleration zone is limited to within 0.4 mean thruster diameters of the exit plane while the high-temperature region is limited to 0.25 mean thruster diameters from the exit plane at all four operating conditions. Maximum plasma potentials in the near-field at 300 and 400 V were approximately 50 V with respect to cathode potential, while maximum electron temperatures varied from 24 - 32 eV, depending on operating condition. Isothermal lines at all operating conditions were found to strongly resemble the magnetic field topology in the high-temperature regions. This distribution was found to create regions of high temperature and low density near the magnetic poles, indicating strong, thick sheath formation along these surfaces. The data taken from this study are considered valuable for future design as well as modeling validation.

  16. Overview of current applications in plasma medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Thomas P.; Stalder, Kenneth R.

    2017-02-01

    Plasma medicine is a rapidly growing field of treatment, with the number and type of medical applications growing annually, such as dentistry, cancer treatment, wound treatment, Antimicrobial (bacteria, biofilm, virus, fungus, prions), and surface sterilization. Work promoting muscle and blood vessel regeneration and osteointegration is being investigated. This review paper will cover the latest treatments using gas-based plasmas in medicine. Disinfection of water and new commercial systems will also be reviewed, as well as vaccine deactivation. With the rapid increase in new investigators, development of new devices and systems for treatment, and wider clinical applications, Plasma medicine is becoming a powerful tool in in the field of medicine. There are a wide range of Plasma sources that allows customization of the effect. These variations include frequency (DC to MHz), voltage capacity (kV), gas source (He, Ar; O2, N2, air, water vapor; combinations), direct/indirect target exposure, and water targets.

  17. Effects of Hall current, radiation and rotation on natural convection heat and mass transfer flow past a moving vertical plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S. Seth

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An investigation of the effects of Hall current and rotation on unsteady hydromagnetic natural convection flow with heat and mass transfer of an electrically conducting, viscous, incompressible and optically thick radiating fluid past an impulsively moving vertical plate embedded in a fluid saturated porous medium, when temperature of the plate has a temporarily ramped profile, is carried out. Exact solution of the governing equations is obtained in closed form by Laplace transform technique. Exact solution is also obtained in case of unit Schmidt number. Expressions for skin friction due to primary and secondary flows and Nusselt number are derived for both ramped temperature and isothermal plates. Expression for Sherwood number is also derived. The numerical values of primary and secondary fluid velocities, fluid temperature and species concentration are displayed graphically whereas those of skin friction are presented in tabular form for various values of pertinent flow parameters.

  18. Enhancement of spin Hall effect induced torques for current-driven magnetic domain wall motion: Inner interface effect

    KAUST Repository

    Bang, Do

    2016-05-23

    We investigate the current-induced domain wall motion in perpendicular magnetized Tb/Co wires with structure inversion asymmetry and different layered structures. We find that the critical current density to drive domain wall motion strongly depends on the layered structure. The lowest critical current density ∼15MA/cm2 and the highest slope of domain wall velocity curve are obtained for the wire having thin Co sublayers and more inner Tb/Co interfaces, while the largest critical current density ∼26MA/cm2 required to drive domain walls is observed in the Tb-Co alloy magnetic wire. It is found that the Co/Tb interface contributes negligibly to Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, while the effective spin-orbit torque strongly depends on the number of Tb/Co inner interfaces (n). An enhancement of the antidamping torques by extrinsic spin Hall effect due to Tb rare-earth impurity-induced skew scattering is suggested to explain the high efficiency of current-induced domain wall motion.

  19. Two-Dimensional, Time-Dependent Plasma Structures of a Hall Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    This ultra-high speed imaging capability provides a two-dimensional description of the plasma field with time-resolved information. Moreover, this...47 3.7 Relative spectral response of the Shimadzu HPV -2 ultra-high speed camera taken from Shimadzu HPV -2 Spectral Response . 48 3.8 Sample...magnetic field. Operational characteristics of the thruster, such as a description of the parts and the fuel types, will also be discussed. Chapter II will

  20. Spin current swapping and Hanle spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, K.; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the effect known as “spin current swapping” (SCS) due to electron-impurity scattering in a uniform spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas. In this effect a primary spin current Jai (lower index for spatial direction, upper index for spin direction) generates a secondary spin current

  1. Experimental Studies of Coaxial Plasma Gun Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-09-01

    insertion into experimental systems (117-133), fueling for proposed thermonuclear reactors (134-138], breeding fissionable material [139, 140] and...Center Top Level Linear Exponential Yield Current Current Extrap . Extrap . (MA) (MA) Current Current (MA) (MA) 02901 2.8106 0.18 0.05 D3001 1.2x107...Exponential Yield Current Current Extrap . Extrap . (MA) (MA) Current Current (MA) (MA) 30703 1.610 8 1.57 0.64 0.54 0.59 J0706 4.040O 1.46 0.85 0.80 0.82 J

  2. Current sheets in the Earth’s magnetosphere and in laboratory experiments: The magnetic field structure and the Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frank, A. G., E-mail: annfrank@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation); Artemyev, A. V.; Zelenyi, L. M. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    The main characteristics of current sheets (CSs) formed in laboratory experiments are compared with the results of satellite observations of CSs in the Earth’s magnetotail. We show that many significant features of the magnetic field structure and the distributions of plasma parameters in laboratory and magnetospheric CSs exhibit a qualitative similarity, despite the enormous differences of scales, absolute values of plasma parameters, magnetic fields, and currents. In addition to a qualitative comparison, we give a number of dimensionless parameters that demonstrate the possibility of laboratory modeling of the processes occurring in the magnetosphere.

  3. Current flow instability and nonlinear structures in dissipative two-fluid plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshkarov, O.; Smolyakov, A. I.; Romadanov, I. V.; Chapurin, O.; Umansky, M. V.; Raitses, Y.; Kaganovich, I. D.

    2018-01-01

    The current flow in two-fluid plasma is inherently unstable if plasma components (e.g., electrons and ions) are in different collisionality regimes. A typical example is a partially magnetized E ×B plasma discharge supported by the energy released from the dissipation of the current in the direction of the applied electric field (perpendicular to the magnetic field). Ions are not magnetized so they respond to the fluctuations of the electric field ballistically on the inertial time scale. In contrast, the electron current in the direction of the applied electric field is dissipatively supported either by classical collisions or anomalous processes. The instability occurs due to a positive feedback between the electron and ion current coupled by the quasi-neutrality condition. The theory of this instability is further developed taking into account the electron inertia, finite Larmor radius and nonlinear effects. It is shown that this instability results in highly nonlinear quasi-coherent structures resembling breathing mode oscillations in Hall thrusters.

  4. Hall current effect on radiating span-wise fluctuating MHD convective flow through porous medium in a vertical porous channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dev Krishan Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of an unsteady MHD convective flow of an electrically conducting viscous incompressible fluid through porous medium filled in a vertical porous channel is carried out. The two porous plates are subjected to a constant injection and suction velocity as shown in Fig. 1a, b. The temperature of the plate at y*= + 9 2 is assumed to be varying in space and time as T*(y*, z*, t* = T1 (y* + (T2 - T1COS (πz*d -ω*t*. A magnetic field of uniform strength is applied perpendicular to the plates of the channel. The temperature difference between the plates is high enough to induce the heat due to radiation. It is also assumed that the conducting fluid is opticallythin gray gas, absorbing/ emitting radiation and non-scattering. The Hall current effects have also been taken into account. Exact solution of the partial differential equations governing the flow under the prescribed boundary conditions has been obtained for the velocity and the temperature fields. The primary and secondary velocities, temperature and the skin-friction and Nusselt number for the rate of heat transfer in terms of their amplitudes and phase angles have been shown graphically to observe the effects of suction parameter λ, Grashof number Gr, Hartmann number M, Hall parameter H, the permeability of the porous medium K, Prandtl number Pr, radiation parameter N, pressure gradient A and the frequency of oscillation ω. The final results are then discussed in detail in the last section of the paper with the help of figures.

  5. Scaling of the anomalous Hall current in Fe100−x(SiO2)x films

    KAUST Repository

    Xu, W. J.

    2011-05-20

    To study the origin of the anomalous Hall effect, Fe100−x(SiO2)x granular films with a volume fraction of SiO2 (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 40.51) were fabricated using cosputtering. Hall and longitudinal resistivities were measured in the temperature range of 5–350 K with magnetic fields up to 5 T. As x increased from 0 to 40.51, the anomalous Hall resistivity and longitudinal resistivity increased by about four and three orders in magnitude, respectively. Analysis of the results revealed that the normalized anomalous Hall conductivity is a constant for all of the samples, which may suggest a scattering-independent anomalous Hall conductivity in Fe.

  6. Signal conditioning and processing for metallic Hall sensors.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Entler, Slavomír; Ďuran, Ivan; Sládek, P.; Vayakis, G.; Kočan, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 123, November (2017), s. 783-786 ISSN 0920-3796. [SOFT 2016: Symposium on Fusion Technology /29./. Prague, 05.09.2016-09.09.2016] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14002 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Hall sensor * Lock-in * Synchronous detection * Current spinning * Hall effect * Planar hall effect suppression Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 1.319, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0920379617305070

  7. Tutorial: Physics and modeling of Hall thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeuf, Jean-Pierre

    2017-01-01

    Hall thrusters are very efficient and competitive electric propulsion devices for satellites and are currently in use in a number of telecommunications and government spacecraft. Their power spans from 100 W to 20 kW, with thrust between a few mN and 1 N and specific impulse values between 1000 and 3000 s. The basic idea of Hall thrusters consists in generating a large local electric field in a plasma by using a transverse magnetic field to reduce the electron conductivity. This electric field can extract positive ions from the plasma and accelerate them to high velocity without extracting grids, providing the thrust. These principles are simple in appearance but the physics of Hall thrusters is very intricate and non-linear because of the complex electron transport across the magnetic field and its coupling with the electric field and the neutral atom density. This paper describes the basic physics of Hall thrusters and gives a (non-exhaustive) summary of the research efforts that have been devoted to the modelling and understanding of these devices in the last 20 years. Although the predictive capabilities of the models are still not sufficient for a full computer aided design of Hall thrusters, significant progress has been made in the qualitative and quantitative understanding of these devices.

  8. Coupled Dzyaloshinskii walls and their current-induced dynamics by the spin Hall effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martínez, Eduardo, E-mail: edumartinez@usal.es [Dpto. de Fisica Aplicada, Universidad de Salamanca, Plaza de los Caídos s/n, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Alejos, Óscar [Dpto. de Electricidad y Electrónica, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo de Belén, 7, E-47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-07-14

    The nucleation of domain walls in ultrathin ferromagnetic/heavy-metal bilayers is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. In the presence of interfacial Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction, the nucleated walls naturally adopt a homochiral configuration with internal magnetization pointing antiparallely. The interaction between these walls was analyzed and described in terms of a classical dipolar force between the magnetic moments of the walls, which couples their dynamics. Additionally, the current-induced motion of two homochiral walls in the presence of longitudinal fields was also studied by means of a simple one-dimensional model and micromagnetic modeling, considering both one free-defect strip and another one with random edge roughness. It is evidenced that in the presence of pinning due to edge roughness, the in-plane longitudinal field introduces an asymmetry in the current-induced depinning, in agreement with recent experimental results.

  9. Diagnostics Systems for Permanent Hall Thrusters Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Soares Ferreira, Ivan; Santos, Jean; Miranda, Rodrigo; Possa, M. Gabriela

    This work describes the development of Permanent Magnet Hall Effect Plasma Thruster (PHALL) and its diagnostic systems at The Plasma Physics Laboratory of University of Brasilia. The project consists on the construction and characterization of plasma propulsion engines based on the Hall Effect. Electric thrusters have been employed in over 220 successful space missions. Two types stand out: the Hall-Effect Thruster (HET) and the Gridded Ion Engine (GIE). The first, which we deal with in this project, has the advantage of greater simplicity of operation, a smaller weight for the propulsion subsystem and a longer shelf life. It can operate in two configurations: magnetic layer and anode layer, the difference between the two lying in the positioning of the anode inside the plasma channel. A Hall-Effect Thruster-HET is a type of plasma thruster in which the propellant gas is ionized and accelerated by a magneto hydrodynamic effect combined with electrostatic ion acceleration. So the essential operating principle of the HET is that it uses a J x B force and an electrostatic potential to accelerate ions up to high speeds. In a HET, the attractive negative charge is provided by electrons at the open end of the Thruster instead of a grid, as in the case of the electrostatic ion thrusters. A strong radial magnetic field is used to hold the electrons in place, with the combination of the magnetic field and the electrostatic potential force generating a fast circulating electron current, the Hall current, around the axis of the Thruster, mainly composed by drifting electrons in an ion plasma background. Only a slow axial drift towards the anode occurs. The main attractive features of the Hall-Effect Thruster are its simple design and operating principles. Most of the Hall-Effect Thrusters use electromagnet coils to produce the main magnetic field responsible for plasma generation and acceleration. In this paper we present a different new concept, a Permanent Magnet Hall

  10. Predicting Hall Thruster Operational Lifetime Using a Kinetic Plasma Model and a Molecular Dynamics Simulation Method Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Hall thrusters are being considered for many space missions because their high specific impulse delivers a larger payload mass fraction than chemical rockets. With a...

  11. Alternating current plasma operation in the STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, O.; Xiao, Chijin; Zhang, Liyan; McColl, D.; Zhang, Wei; Conway, G.; Hirose, A.; Skarsgard, H. M.

    1996-10-01

    One cycle alternating current (AC) plasma operation without a dwell time has been achieved in the STOR-M tokamak with good reproducibility using a newly developed ohmic heating circuit. The plasma current of +24 kA is smoothly ramped down in 10 ms with a rampdown rate of around 2.0 kA/ms and then ramped up to between -20 and -24 kA directly without a dwell time. The plasma density of up to (3.7+or-0.6)*1018 m-3 remains at the current reversal as observed in recent soft landing experiments. The key to a successful, reproducible and direct transition in AC tokamak operations on STOR-M is to control both the total vertical field by a feedback control system and the plasma density by careful gas puffing during the current reversal phase. This experiment has demonstrated that the initial loop voltage for the second negative current is minimized when the dwell time approaches zero, and the AC operation without dwelling is possible whenever the plasma current can be softly terminated with a finite residual plasma density

  12. Hall voltage drives pulsing counter-currents of the sliding charge density wave and of quantized normal carriers at self-filled Landau levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Andrey P.; Sinchenko, Aleksander A.; Monceau, Pierre; Brazovskii, Serguei; Latyshev, Yuri I.

    2017-11-01

    Remnant pockets of carriers left over after formation of a charge density wave (CDW) were brought, by virtue of transverse electric and magnetic fields, to a current-carrying state at quantized Landau Levels. The generated Hall voltage polarizes and puts to sliding the flexible CDW background. The screening from the CDW allows for a so strong redistribution of normal electrons density under the action of the Lorentz force alone, that an integer filling of the lowest Landau level might be reached at one edge at the expense of the full depletion at another edge of the Hall bar. With the Hall field exceeding the sliding threshold, the regime of exactly compensated collective and normal counter-currents develops in the open-circuit direction across the bar. The annihilation of the two currents proceeds via a regular sequence of phase slips which are the space-time vortices of the CDW phase around the enforced amplitude nodes. The resulting spontaneous generation of coherent high ( GHz) frequency signals was detected by observations of multiple Shapiro steps. This picture results from studies of micron-sized Hall bars in crystals of NbSe3 prepared by means of focused ion beams. The interpretation is confirmed and illustrated by a numerical solution of the derived equations. The depinning pulse propagates from edges to the bulk and the sliding sets in, accompanied by the generation of periodic phase slips near the Hall bar edge where the CDW phase is advanced in steps of 2π at expense of the CDW amplitude passing through zero.

  13. Filamentary structures in dense plasma focus: Current filaments or vortex filaments?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo, E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl; Pavez, Cristian; Moreno, José [Comisión Chilena de Energía Nuclear, CCHEN, Casilla 188-D, Santiago (Chile); Center for Research and Applications in Plasma Physics and Pulsed Power, P4, Departamento de Ciencias Físicas, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, Universidad Andrés Bello, República 220, Santiago (Chile); Castillo, Fermin [Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Cuernavaca, México (Mexico); Veloso, Felipe [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 7820436 Santiago (Chile); Auluck, S. K. H. [Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Mumbai 400 085 (India)

    2014-07-15

    Recent observations of an azimuthally distributed array of sub-millimeter size sources of fusion protons and correlation between extreme ultraviolet (XUV) images of filaments with neutron yield in PF-1000 plasma focus have re-kindled interest in their significance. These filaments have been described variously in literature as current filaments and vortex filaments, with very little experimental evidence in support of either nomenclature. This paper provides, for the first time, experimental observations of filaments on a table-top plasma focus device using three techniques: framing photography of visible self-luminosity from the plasma, schlieren photography, and interferometry. Quantitative evaluation of density profile of filaments from interferometry reveals that their radius closely agrees with the collision-less ion skin depth. This is a signature of relaxed state of a Hall fluid, which has significant mass flow with equipartition between kinetic and magnetic energy, supporting the “vortex filament” description. This interpretation is consistent with empirical evidence of an efficient energy concentration mechanism inferred from nuclear reaction yields.

  14. Current-Driven Filament Instabilities in Relativistic Plasmas. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Chuang

    2013-02-13

    This grant has supported a study of some fundamental problems in current- and flow-driven instabilities in plasmas and their applications in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and astrophysics. It addressed current-driven instabilities and their roles in fast ignition, and flow-driven instabilities and their applications in astrophysics.

  15. Finite element and network electrical simulation of rotating magnetofluid flow in nonlinear porous media with inclined magnetic field and hall currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bég Anwar O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model is presented for viscous hydromagnetic flow through a hybrid non-Darcy porous media rotating generator. The system is simulated as steady, incompressible flow through a nonlinear porous regime intercalated between parallel plates of the generator in a rotating frame of reference in the presence of a strong, inclined magnetic field A pressure gradient term is included which is a function of the longitudinal coordinate. The general equations for rotating viscous magnetohydrodynamic flow are presented and neglecting convective acceleration effects, the two-dimensional viscous flow equations are derived incorporating current density components, porous media drag effects, Lorentz drag force components and Hall current effects. Using an appropriate group of dimensionless variables, the momentum equations for primary and secondary flow are rendered nondimensional and shown to be controlled by six physical parameters-Hartmann number (Ha, Hall current parameter (Nh, Darcy number (Da, Forchheimer number (Fs, Ekman number (Ek and dimensionless pressure gradient parameter (Np, in addition to one geometric parameter-the orientation of the applied magnetic field (θ . Several special cases are extracted from the general model, including the non-porous case studied earlier by Ghosh and Pop (2006. A numerical solution is presented to the nonlinear coupled ordinary differential equations using both the Network Simulation Method and Finite Element Method, achieving excellent agreement. Additionally very good agreement is also obtained with the earlier analytical solutions of Ghosh and Pop (2006. for selected Ha, Ek and Nh values. We examine in detail the effects of magnetic field, rotation, Hall current, bulk porous matrix drag, second order porous impedance, pressure gradient and magnetic field inclination on primary and secondary velocity distributions and also frictional shear stresses at the plates. Primary velocity is seen to decrease

  16. The Effects of Chemical Reaction, Hall, and Ion-Slip Currents on MHD Micropolar Fluid Flow with Thermal Diffusivity Using a Novel Numerical Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Motsa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of magnetomicropolar fluid flow, heat, and mass transfer with suction through a porous medium is numerically analyzed. The problem was studied under the effects of chemical reaction, Hall, ion-slip currents, and variable thermal diffusivity. The governing fundamental conservation equations of mass, momentum, angular momentum, energy, and concentration are converted into a system of nonlinear ordinary differential equations by means of similarity transformation. The resulting system of coupled nonlinear ordinary differential equations is the then solved using a fairly new technique known as the successive linearization method together with the Chebyshev collocation method. A parametric study illustrating the influence of the magnetic strength, Hall and ion-slip currents, Eckert number, chemical reaction and permeability on the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers, skin friction coefficients, velocities, temperature, and concentration was carried out.

  17. Mesoscopic current transport in two-dimensional materials with grain boundaries: Four-point probe resistance and Hall effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lotz, Mikkel Rønne; Boll, Mads; Østerberg, Frederik Westergaard

    2016-01-01

    to emulate a polycrystalline sheet, and a square sample was cut from the tessellated surface. Four-point resistances and Hall effect signals were calculated for a probe placed in the center of the square sample as a function of grain density n and grain boundary resistivity ρGB. We find that the dual......, this affects how measurements on defective systems should be interpreted in order to extract relevant sample parameters. The Hall effect response in all M4PP configurations was only significant for moderate grain densities and fairly large grain boundary resistivity....

  18. Preliminary scaling laws for plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density in the NASA Lewis bumpy torus plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, J. R.

    1976-01-01

    Parametric variation of independent variables which may affect the characteristics of bumpy torus plasma have identified those which have a significant effect on the plasma current, ion kinetic temperature, and plasma number density, and those which do not. Empirical power law correlations of the plasma current, and the ion kinetic temperature and number density were obtained as functions of potential applied to the midplane electrode rings, the background neutral gas pressure, and the magnetic field strength. Additional parameters studied included the type of gas, the polarity of the midplane electrode rings, the mode of plasma operation, and the method of measuring the plasma number density. No significant departures from the scaling laws appear to occur at the highest ion kinetic temperatures or number densities obtained to date.

  19. Measurement realities of current collection in dynamic space plasma environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szuszczewicz, Edward P.

    1990-01-01

    Theories which describe currents collected by conducting and non-conducting bodies immersed in plasmas have many of their concepts based upon the fundamentals of sheath-potential distributions and charged-particle behavior in superimposed electric and magnetic fields. Those current-collecting bodies (or electrodes) may be Langmuir probes, electric field detectors, aperture plates on ion mass spectrometers and retarding potential analyzers, or spacecraft and their rigid and tethered appendages. Often the models are incomplete in representing the conditions under which the current-voltage characteristics of the electrode and its system are to be measured. In such cases, the experimenter must carefully take into account magnetic field effects and particle anisotropies, perturbations caused by the current collection process itself and contamination on electrode surfaces, the complexities of non-Maxwellian plasma distributions, and the temporal variability of the local plasma density, temperature, composition and fields. This set of variables is by no means all-inclusive, but it represents a collection of circumstances guaranteed to accompany experiments involving energetic particle beams, plasma discharges, chemical releases, wave injection and various events of controlled and uncontrolled spacecraft charging. Here, an attempt is made to synopsize these diagnostic challenges and frame them within a perspective that focuses on the physics under investigation and the requirements on the parameters to be measured. Examples include laboratory and spaceborne applications, with specific interest in dynamic and unstable plasma environments.

  20. Complex Terahertz and Direct Current Inverse Spin Hall Effect in YIG/Cu1-xIrx Bilayers Across a Wide Concentration Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Joel; Seifert, Tom; Kronenberg, Alexander; Fuhrmann, Felix; Jakob, Gerhard; Jourdan, Martin; Kampfrath, Tobias; Kläui, Mathias

    2018-02-02

    We measure the inverse spin Hall effect of Cu1-xIrx thin films on yttrium iron garnet over a wide range of Ir concentrations (0.05 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.7). Spin currents are triggered through the spin Seebeck effect, either by a continuous (dc) temperature gradient or by ultrafast optical heating of the metal layer. The spin Hall current is detected by electrical contacts or measurement of the emitted terahertz radiation. With both approaches, we reveal the same Ir concentration dependence that follows a novel complex, nonmonotonous behavior as compared to previous studies. For small Ir concentrations a signal minimum is observed, whereas a pronounced maximum appears near the equiatomic composition. We identify this behavior as originating from the interplay of different spin Hall mechanisms as well as a concentration-dependent variation of the integrated spin current density in Cu1-xIrx. The coinciding results obtained for dc and ultrafast stimuli provide further support that the spin Seebeck effect extends to terahertz frequencies, thus enabling a transfer of established spintronic measurement schemes into the terahertz regime. Our findings also show that the studied material allows for efficient spin-to-charge conversion even on ultrafast time scales.

  1. Permanent magnet Hall Thrusters development and applications on future brazilian space missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre A.; Miranda, Rodrigo; Schelling, Adriane; de Souza Alves, Lais; Gonçalves Costa, Ernesto; de Oliveira Coelho Junior, Helbert; Castelo Branco, Artur; de Oliveira Lopes, Felipe Nathan

    2015-10-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPLUnB) has been developing a Permanent Magnet Hall Thruster (PHALL) for the Space Research Program for Universities (UNIESPAÇO), part of the Brazilian Space Activities Program (PNAE) since 2004. The PHALL project consists on a plasma source design, construction and characterization of the Hall type that will function as a plasma propulsion engine and characterized by several plasma diagnostics sensors. PHALL is based on a plasma source in which a Hall current is generated inside a cylindrical annular channel with an axial electric field produced by a ring anode and a radial magnetic field produced by permanent magnets. In this work it is shown a brief description of the plasma propulsion engine, its diagnostics instrumentation and possible applications of PHALL on orbit transfer maneuvering for future Brazilian geostationary satellite space missions.

  2. Current Density and Plasma Displacement Near Perturbed Rational Surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.H. Boozer and N. Pomphrey

    2010-10-10

    The current density in the vicinity of a rational surface of a force-free magnetic field subjected to an ideal perturbation is shown to be the sum of both a smooth and a delta-function distribution, which give comparable currents. The maximum perturbation to the smooth current density is comparable to a typical equilibrium current density and the width of the layer in which the current flows is shown to be proportional to the perturbation amplitude. In the standard linearized theory, the plasma displacement has an unphysical jump across the rational surface, but the full theory gives a continuous displacement.

  3. Thin current sheets caused by plasma flow gradients in space and astrophysical plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. H. Nickeler

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Strong gradients in plasma flows play a major role in space and astrophysical plasmas. A typical situation is that a static plasma equilibrium is surrounded by a plasma flow, which can lead to strong plasma flow gradients at the separatrices between field lines with different magnetic topologies, e.g., planetary magnetospheres, helmet streamers in the solar corona, or at the boundary between the heliosphere and interstellar medium. Within this work we make a first step to understand the influence of these flows towards the occurrence of current sheets in a stationary state situation. We concentrate here on incompressible plasma flows and 2-D equilibria, which allow us to find analytic solutions of the stationary magnetohydrodynamics equations (SMHD. First we solve the magnetohydrostatic (MHS equations with the help of a Grad-Shafranov equation and then we transform these static equilibria into a stationary state with plasma flow. We are in particular interested to study SMHD-equilibria with strong plasma flow gradients perpendicular to separatrices. We find that induced thin current sheets occur naturally in such situations. The strength of the induced currents depend on the Alfvén Mach number and its gradient, and on the magnetic field.

  4. The effects of variable properties and hall current on steady MHD laminar convective fluid flow due to a porous rotating disk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maleque, Kh. Abdul [Department of Mathematics, American International University-Bangladesh, House-53/B, 21, Kemal Ataturk Avenue, Banani, Dhaka-1213 (Bangladesh); Sattar, Md. Abdus [Department of CSE, North South University, 12 Kemal Ataturk Avenue, Banani, Dhaka-1213 (Bangladesh)

    2005-11-01

    The present investigation is concerned with the effects of variable properties [density (r), viscosity ({mu}) and thermal conductivity (k)], Hall current (m), magnetic field (M) and suction/injection (W{sub s}) on steady MHD laminar flow of an electrically conducting fluid on a porous rotating disk in presence of a uniform magnetic field. The fluid properties are taken to be strong functions of temperature. The induced magnetic field is neglected while the electron-atom collision frequency is assumed to be relatively high, so that the Hall effect is assumed to exist. The dimensionless steady governing equations are then solved numerically by using Runge-Kutta and Shooting method, and the effects of the relative parameters are examined. (author)

  5. Transport Signatures of the Hall Viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delacrétaz, Luca V; Gromov, Andrey

    2017-12-01

    Hall viscosity is a nondissipative response function describing momentum transport in two-dimensional systems with broken parity. It is quantized in the quantum Hall regime, and contains information about the topological order of the quantum Hall state. Hall viscosity can distinguish different quantum Hall states with identical Hall conductances, but different topological order. To date, an experimentally accessible signature of Hall viscosity is lacking. We exploit the fact that Hall viscosity contributes to charge transport at finite wavelengths, and can therefore be extracted from nonlocal resistance measurements in inhomogeneous charge flows. We explain how to determine the Hall viscosity from such a transport experiment. In particular, we show that the profile of the electrochemical potential close to contacts where current is injected is sensitive to the value of the Hall viscosity.

  6. Hall C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Hall C's initial complement of equipment (shown in the figure), includes two general-purpose magnetic spectrometers. The High Momentum Spectrometer (HMS) has a large...

  7. Hall A

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The instrumentation in Hall A at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility was designed to study electroand photo-induced reactions at very high luminosity...

  8. On the relationship between auroral absorption, electrojet currents and plasma convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Kellerman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between auroral absorption, electrojet currents, and ionospheric plasma convection velocity is investigated using a series of new methods where temporal correlations are calculated and analysed for different events and MLT sectors. We employ cosmic noise absorption (CNA observations obtained by the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS system in Kilpisjärvi, Finland, plasma convection measurements by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, and estimates of the electrojet currents derived from the Tromsø magnetometer data. The IRIS absorption and EISCAT plasma convection measurements are used as a proxy for the particle precipitation component of the Hall conductance and ionospheric electric field, respectively. It is shown that the electrojet currents are affected by both enhanced conductance and electric field but with the relative importance of these two factors varying with magnetic local time (MLT. The correlation between the current and electric field (absorption is the highest at 12:00–15:00 MLT (00:00–03:00 MLT. It is demonstrated that the electric-field-dominant region is asymmetric with respect to magnetic-noon-midnight meridian extending from 09:00 to 21:00 MLT. This may be related to the recently reported absence of mirror-symmetry between the effects of positive and negative IMF By on the high-latitude plasma convection pattern. The conductivity-dominant region is somewhat wider than previously thought extending from 21:00 to 09:00 MLT with correlation slowly declining from midnight towards the morning, which is interpreted as being in part due to high-energy electron clouds gradually depleting and drifting from midnight towards the morning sector. The conductivity-dominant region is further investigated using the extensive IRIS riometer and Tromsø magnetometer datasets with results showing a distinct seasonal dependence. The region of high current-absorption correlation extends

  9. On the relationship between auroral absorption, electrojet currents and plasma convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. Kellerman

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the relationship between auroral absorption, electrojet currents, and ionospheric plasma convection velocity is investigated using a series of new methods where temporal correlations are calculated and analysed for different events and MLT sectors. We employ cosmic noise absorption (CNA observations obtained by the Imaging Riometer for Ionospheric Studies (IRIS system in Kilpisjärvi, Finland, plasma convection measurements by the European Incoherent Scatter (EISCAT radar, and estimates of the electrojet currents derived from the Tromsø magnetometer data. The IRIS absorption and EISCAT plasma convection measurements are used as a proxy for the particle precipitation component of the Hall conductance and ionospheric electric field, respectively. It is shown that the electrojet currents are affected by both enhanced conductance and electric field but with the relative importance of these two factors varying with magnetic local time (MLT. The correlation between the current and electric field (absorption is the highest at 12:00–15:00 MLT (00:00–03:00 MLT. It is demonstrated that the electric-field-dominant region is asymmetric with respect to magnetic-noon-midnight meridian extending from 09:00 to 21:00 MLT. This may be related to the recently reported absence of mirror-symmetry between the effects of positive and negative IMF By on the high-latitude plasma convection pattern. The conductivity-dominant region is somewhat wider than previously thought extending from 21:00 to 09:00 MLT with correlation slowly declining from midnight towards the morning, which is interpreted as being in part due to high-energy electron clouds gradually depleting and drifting from midnight towards the morning sector. The conductivity-dominant region is further investigated using the extensive IRIS riometer and Tromsø magnetometer datasets with results showing a distinct seasonal dependence. The region of high current

  10. Optimizing pulsed current micro plasma arc welding parameters to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    tensile strength of pulsed current micro plasma arc welded Inconel 625 sheets. Four factors, five level, central composite rotatable design matrix is used to optimize the number of experiments. The mathematical model has been developed by using. Response Surface Method. The adequacy of the developed model is ...

  11. The rotation of discs around neutron stars: dependence on the Hall diffusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghei, Kazem; Salehi, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we study the dynamics of a geometrically thin, steady and axisymmetric accretion disc surrounding a rotating and magnetized star. The magnetic field lines of star penetrate inside the accretion disc and are twisted due to the differential rotation between the magnetized star and the disc. We apply the Hall diffusion effect in the accreting plasma, because of the Hall diffusion plays an important role in both fully ionized plasma and weakly ionized medium. In the current research, we show that the Hall diffusion is also an important mechanism in accreting plasma around neutron stars. For the typical system parameter values associated with the accreting X-ray binary pulsar, the angular velocity of the inner regions of disc departs outstandingly from Keplerian angular velocity, due to coupling between the magnetic field of neutron star and the rotating plasma of disc. We found that the Hall diffusion is very important in inner disc and increases the coupling between the magnetic field of neutron star and accreting plasma. On the other word, the rotational velocity of inner disc significantly decreases in the presence of the Hall diffusion. Moreover, the solutions imply that the fastness parameter decreases and the angular velocity transition zone becomes broad for the accreting plasma including the Hall diffusion.

  12. Current leakage for low altitude satellites. [to surrounding plasma sheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mccoy, J. E.; Konradi, A.; Garriott, O. K.

    1979-01-01

    Ionospheric plasma densities exceeding 1,000,000 per cu cm exist around satellites in low earth orbit. Operation of large solar arrays at high voltage may drive substantial leakage currents through this surrounding plasma. Power losses exceeding solar cell output have been observed for small arrays biased above +2,000 V. Estimates of these effects for very large power systems are developed. Recent large scale (10 meter) lab tests are reported. Estimates based on calculations of space charge limited sheath dimensions are identified as a good working model, leading to projected power losses for large arrays increasing much more slowly than for small arrays.

  13. Dynamics of the plasma current sheath in plasma focus discharges in different gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinogradov, V. P.; Krauz, V. I., E-mail: krauz-vi@nrcki.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Mokeev, A. N. [Project Center ITER (Russian Federation); Myalton, V. V.; Kharrasov, A. M. [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    The shape of the plasma current sheath (PCS) in the final stage of its radial compression, the dynamics of pinching, and the subsequent pinch decay in plasma focus (PF) discharges in different gases are studied using an improved multichannel system of electron-optical plasma photography and a newly elaborated synchronization system. The PCS structure in discharges in heavy gases (Ne, Ar) is found to differ significantly from that in discharges in hydrogen and deuterium. The influence of a heavy gas (Xe) additive to hydrogen and deuterium on the structure and compression dynamics of the PCS is investigated.

  14. Current status of plasma emission electronics: II. Hardware

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugaev, A. S.; Vizir, A. V.; Gushenets, V. I.; Nikolaev, A. G.; Oks, E. M.; Yushkov, G. Yu.; Burachevsky, Yu. A.; Burdovitsin, V. A.; Osipov, I. V.; Rempe, N. G.

    2003-04-01

    This paper is devoted to the engineering embodiment of the modern methods for producing charged ion and electron beams by extracting them from the plasma of a discharge. Electron beams use to execute electron-beam welding, annealing, and surface heating of materials and to realize plasmochemical reactions stimulated by fast electrons. Ion beams allow realization of technologies of ion implantation or ion-assisted deposition of coatings thereby opening new prospects for the creation of compounds and alloys by the method that makes it possible to obtain desired parameters and functional properties of the surface. A detailed description is given to the performance and design of devices producing beams of this type: the ion and electron sources being developed at the laboratory of plasma sources of the Institute of High-Current Electronics of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the laboratory of plasma electronics of Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics.

  15. Current and Perspective Applications of Dense Plasma Focus Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gribkov, V. A.

    2008-04-01

    Dense Plasma Focus (DPF) devices' applications, which are intended to support the main-stream large-scale nuclear fusion programs (NFP) from one side (both in fundamental problems of Dense Magnetized Plasma physics and in its engineering issues) as well as elaborated for an immediate use in a number of fields from the other one, are described. In the first direction such problems as self-generated magnetic fields, implosion stability of plasma shells having a high aspect ratio, etc. are important for the Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) programs (e.g. as NIF), whereas different problems of current disruption phenomenon, plasma turbulence, mechanisms of generation of fast particles and neutrons in magnetized plasmas are of great interest for the large devices of the Magnetic Plasma Confinement—MPC (e.g. as ITER). In a sphere of the engineering problems of NFP it is shown that in particular the radiation material sciences have DPF as a very efficient tool for radiation tests of prospect materials and for improvement of their characteristics. In the field of broad-band current applications some results obtained in the fields of radiation material sciences, radiobiology, nuclear medicine, express Neutron Activation Analysis (including a single-shot interrogation of hidden illegal objects), dynamic non-destructive quality control, X-Ray microlithography and micromachining, and micro-radiography are presented. As the examples of the potential future applications it is proposed to use DPF as a powerful high-flux neutron source to generate very powerful pulses of neutrons in the nanosecond (ns) range of its duration for innovative experiments in nuclear physics, for the goals of radiation treatment of malignant tumors, for neutron tests of materials of the first wall, blankets and NFP device's constructions (with fluences up to 1 dpa per a year term), and ns pulses of fast electrons, neutrons and hard X-Rays for brachytherapy.

  16. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  17. Time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches, referred to as Bu and Ej, can be used to examine the time development of electric fields and currents in space plasmas based on the fundamental laws of physics. From the Bu approach, the required equation involves the generalized Ohm's law with some simplifying assumptions. From the Ej approach, the required equation can be derived from the equation of particle motion, coupled self-consistently with Maxwell's equation, and the definition of electric current density. Recently, some strong statements against the Ej approach have been made. In this paper, we evaluate these statements by discussing (1 some limitations of the Bu approach in solving the time development of electric fields and currents, (2 the procedure in calculating self-consistently the time development of the electric current in space plasmas without taking the curl of the magnetic field in some cases, and (3 the dependency of the time development of magnetic field on electric current. It is concluded that the Ej approach can be useful to understand some magnetospheric problems. In particular, statements about the change of electric current are valid theoretical explanations of change in magnetic field during substorms.

  18. Plasma Heating by Pedersen Current Dissipation From the Photosphere to the Upper Chromosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, M. L.

    2002-12-01

    An MHD model is used to estimate the contribution of Pedersen current dissipation, as a function of height z, to plasma heating from the photosphere to the upper chromosphere. The model computes the particle diffusion velocities, normalized to the local drift velocity, transverse to a vertical magnetic field for a seven species plasma of electrons, protons, a proxy heavy ion, HeI, HeII, HeIII, and H. The proxy heavy ion is a single species representation of singly ionized C, Si, Al, Mg, Fe, Na, and Ca. The temperature and particle densities as functions of z are given by VAL model C. Collisions between all unlike particle species are taken into account. The diffusion velocities are used to compute the heating rate per unit volume Q(z), normalized to the maximum possible heating rate per unit volume at height z, due to Pedersen current dissipation. Q is the fraction of energy in the current density perpendicular to the magnetic field that is dissipated by collisions. Solutions to the model suggest that: (i) The solar chromosphere above photospheric magnetic fields with strengths ~ 102 - 103 G is heated by Pedersen current dissipation; (ii) This heating mechanism first becomes effective at heights corresponding to the lower chromosphere as defined by VAL; (iii) It is the rapid increase of charged particle magnetization with height in the lower chromosphere that triggers the rapid onset of intense heating by Pedersen current dissipation, where the magnetization is the ratio of the cyclotron frequency to the total collision frequency with unlike particles; (iv) Q(z) rapidly decreases to zero for z > ~ 2100 km due to strong magnetization transforming the current perpendicular to the magnetic field into a Hall current, which is not dissipative; (v) The protons and the proxy heavy ions carry essentially all of the Pedersen current. These results suggest that network and internetwork regions of the chromosphere are heated by Pedersen current dissipation. The model does not

  19. Formation of current singularity in a topologically constrained plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yao [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences; Huang, Yi-Min [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences; Qin, Hong [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences; Univ Sci & Technol China, Dept Modern Phys, Hefei 230026, Anhui, Peoples R China.; Bhattacharjee, A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Dept. of Astrophysical Sciences

    2016-02-01

    Recently a variational integrator for ideal magnetohydrodynamics in Lagrangian labeling has been developed. Its built-in frozen-in equation makes it optimal for studying current sheet formation. We use this scheme to study the Hahm-Kulsrud-Taylor problem, which considers the response of a 2D plasma magnetized by a sheared field under sinusoidal boundary forcing. We obtain an equilibrium solution that preserves the magnetic topology of the initial field exactly, with a fluid mapping that is non-differentiable. Unlike previous studies that examine the current density output, we identify a singular current sheet from the fluid mapping. These results are benchmarked with a constrained Grad-Shafranov solver. The same signature of current singularity can be found in other cases with more complex magnetic topologies.

  20. Experimental investigation of current free double layers in helicon plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahu, B. B. [Department of Applied Sciences and Humanities, Dronacharya College of Engineering, Gurgaon 123506 (India); Tarey, R. D. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India); Ganguli, A. [Centre for Energy Studies, Indian Institute of Technology, New Delhi 110016 (India)

    2014-02-15

    The paper presents investigations of current free double layer (CFDL) that forms in helicon plasmas. In contrast to the other work reporting on the same subject, in the present investigations the double layer (DL) forms in a mirror-like magnetic field topology. The RF compensated Langmuir probe measurements show multiple DLs, which are in connection with, the abrupt fall of densities along with potential drop of about 24 V and 18 V. The DLs strengths (e ΔV{sub p})/(k T{sub e}) are about 9.5 and 6, and the corresponding widths are about 6 and 5 D lengths. The potential drop is nearly equal to the thermal anisotropies between the two plasma regions forming the DL, which is present in the plateau region of mirror, unlike the earlier studies on the DL formation in the region of strong gradients in the magnetic field. Also, it presents a qualitative discussion on the mechanism of DL formation.

  1. Extraordinary hall balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. L.; Liu, Y.; Collins-McIntyre, L. J.; Hesjedal, T.; Zhang, J. Y.; Wang, S. G.; Yu, G. H.

    2013-01-01

    Magnetoresistance (MR) effects are at the heart of modern information technology. However, future progress of giant and tunnelling MR based storage and logic devices is limited by the usable MR ratios of currently about 200% at room-temperature. Colossal MR structures, on the other hand, achieve their high MR ratios of up to 106% only at low temperatures and high magnetic fields. We introduce the extraordinary Hall balance (EHB) and demonstrate room-temperature MR ratios in excess of 31,000%. The new device concept exploits the extraordinary Hall effect in two separated ferromagnetic layers with perpendicular anisotropy in which the Hall voltages can be configured to be carefully balanced or tipped out of balance. Reprogrammable logic and memory is realised using a single EHB element. PACS numbers: 85.75.Nn,85.70.Kh,72.15.Gd,75.60.Ej. PMID:23804036

  2. Positive Voltage Hazard to EMU Crewman from Currents through Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Leonard; Hamilton, Doug; Mikatarian, Ronald; Thomas, Joseph; Koontz, Steven

    2010-09-01

    The International Space Station(ISS) in its transit through the ionosphere experiences a variable electrical potential between its bonded structure and the overlying ionospheric plasma. The 160 volt solar arrays on ISS are grounded negative and drive structure to negative floating potential(FP) relative to plasma. This potential is a result of the asymmetric collection properties of currents from ions and electrons moderated by geomagnetic; so called v Å~ B induction distributing an additional 20 volts both positive and negative across ISS’s main structural truss element. Since the space suit or extravehicular mobility unit(EMU) does not protect the crewperson from electrical shock, during extra vehicular activity(EVA) the person is exposed to a hazard from the potential when any of the several metallic suit penetrations come in direct contact with ISS structure. The moisture soaked garment worn by the crewperson and the large interior metal contact areas facilitate currents through the crewperson’s body. There are two hazards; Negative and Positive FP. The Negative hazard is the better known risk created by a shock hazard from arcing of anodized material on the EMU. Negative hazard has been controlled by plasma contactor units(PCU) containing a reserve of Xenon gas which is expelled from ISS. The PCU provide a ground path for the negative charge from the structure to flow to exterior plasma bringing ISS FP closer to zero. The understanding has now emerged that the operation of PCUs to protect the crewmen from negative voltage exposes him to low to moderate positive voltage(≤15V). Positive voltage is also a hazard as it focuses electrons onto exposed metal EMU penetrations completing a circuit from plasma through interior contact with the moist crewman’s body and on to ISS ground through any of several secondary isolated metal penetrations. The resulting direct current from positive voltage exposure is now identified as an electrical shock hazard. This

  3. Nonlinear currents generated in plasma by a radiation pulse with a frequency exceeding the electron plasma frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    It is shown that the nonlinear currents generated in plasma by a radiation pulse with a frequency exceeding the electron plasma frequency change substantially due to a reduction in the effective electron–ion collision frequency.

  4. Scanning micro-Hall probe mapping of magnetic flux distributions and current densities in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xing, W.; Heinrich, B. [Simon Fraser Univ., British Columbia (Canada); Zhou, H. [CTF Systems, Inc., British Columbia (Canada)] [and others

    1994-12-31

    Mapping of the magnetic flux density B{sub z} (perpendicular to the film plane) for a YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} thin-film sample was carried out using a scanning micro-Hall probe. The sheet magnetization and sheet current densities were calculated from the B{sub z} distributions. From the known sheet magnetization, the tangential (B{sub x,y}) and normal components of the flux density B were calculated in the vicinity of the film. It was found that the sheet current density was mostly determined by 2B{sub x,y}/d, where d is the film thickness. The evolution of flux penetration as a function of applied field will be shown.

  5. Investigation of the Effects of Facility Background Pressure on the Performance and Voltage-Current Characteristics of the High Voltage Hall Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng; Haag, Thomas; Spektor, Rostislav

    2014-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Science Mission Directorate In-Space Propulsion Technology office is sponsoring NASA Glenn Research Center to develop a 4 kW-class Hall thruster propulsion system for implementation in NASA science missions. A study was conducted to assess the impact of varying the facility background pressure on the High Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) thruster performance and voltage-current characteristics. This present study evaluated the HiVHAc thruster performance in the lowest attainable background pressure condition at NASA GRC Vacuum Facility 5 to best simulate space-like conditions. Additional tests were performed at selected thruster operating conditions to investigate and elucidate the underlying physics that change during thruster operation at elevated facility background pressure. Tests were performed at background pressure conditions that are three and ten times higher than the lowest realized background pressure. Results indicated that the thruster discharge specific impulse and efficiency increased with elevated facility background pressure. The voltage-current profiles indicated a narrower stable operating region with increased background pressure. Experimental observations of the thruster operation indicated that increasing the facility background pressure shifted the ionization and acceleration zones upstream towards the thruster's anode. Future tests of the HiVHAc thruster are planned at background pressure conditions that are expected to be two to three times lower than what was achieved during this test campaign. These tests will not only assess the impact of reduced facility background pressure on thruster performance, voltage-current characteristics, and plume properties; but will also attempt to quantify the magnitude of the ionization and acceleration zones upstream shifting as a function of increased background pressure.

  6. Influence of Hall Current and Thermal Radiation on MHD Convective Heat and Mass Transfer in a Rotating Porous Channel with Chemical Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulal Pal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical study is carried out to obtain an analytic solution of heat and mass transfer in a vertical porous channel with rotation and Hall current. A constant suction and injection is applied to the two insulating porous plates. A strong magnetic field is applied in the transverse direction. The entire system rotates with uniform angular velocity Ω about the axis normal to the plates. The governing equations are solved by perturbation technique to obtain the analytical results for velocity, temperature, and concentration fields and shear stresses. The steady and unsteady resultant velocities along with the phase differences for various values of physical parameters are discussed in detail. The effects of rotation, buoyancy force, magnetic field, thermal radiation, and heat generation parameters on resultant velocity, temperature, and concentration fields are analyzed.

  7. Hall Effect Gyrators and Circulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Viola

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The electronic circulator and its close relative the gyrator are invaluable tools for noise management and signal routing in the current generation of low-temperature microwave systems for the implementation of new quantum technologies. The current implementation of these devices using the Faraday effect is satisfactory but requires a bulky structure whose physical dimension is close to the microwave wavelength employed. The Hall effect is an alternative nonreciprocal effect that can also be used to produce desired device functionality. We review earlier efforts to use an Ohmically contacted four-terminal Hall bar, explaining why this approach leads to unacceptably high device loss. We find that capacitive coupling to such a Hall conductor has much greater promise for achieving good circulator and gyrator functionality. We formulate a classical Ohm-Hall analysis for calculating the properties of such a device, and show how this classical theory simplifies remarkably in the limiting case of the Hall angle approaching 90°. In this limit, we find that either a four-terminal or a three-terminal capacitive device can give excellent circulator behavior, with device dimensions far smaller than the ac wavelength. An experiment is proposed to achieve GHz-band gyration in millimeter (and smaller scale structures employing either semiconductor heterostructure or graphene Hall conductors. An inductively coupled scheme for realizing a Hall gyrator is also analyzed.

  8. Dependence of various SOL widths on plasma current and density in NSTX H-mode plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J; Maingi, R; Boedo, J; Soukhanovskii, V A

    2009-02-12

    The dependence of various SOL widths on the line-averaged density ({ovr n}{sub e}) and plasma current (l{sub p}) for the quiescent H-mode plasmas with Type-V ELMs in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) was investigated. It is found that the heat flux SOL width ({lambda}{sub q}), measured by the IR camera, is virtually insensitive to {ovr n}{sub e} and has a strong negative dependence on l{sub p}. This insensitivity of {lambda}{sub q} to {ovr n}{sub e} is consistent with the scaling law from JET H-mode plasmas that shows a very weak dependence on the upstream density. The electron temperature, ion saturation current density, electron density, and electron pressure decay lengths ({lambda}{sub Te}, {lambda}{sub jsat}, {lambda}{sub ne}, and {lambda}{sub pe}, respectively) measured by the probe showed that {lambda}{sub Te} and {lambda}{sub jsat} have strong negative dependence on l{sub p}, whereas {lambda}{sub ne} and {lambda}{sub pe} revealed only a little or no dependence. The dependence of {lambda}{sub Te} on l{sub p} is consistent with the scaling law in the literature while {lambda}{sub ne} and {lambda}{sub pe} dependence shows a different trend.

  9. Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bound values for Hall conductivity under quantum Hall effect (QHE) conditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect conditions.

  10. Analysis of plasma equilibrium based on orbit-driven current density profile in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Alam, M.M. [IGSES, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Jiang, Y.Z. [Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Mitarai, O. [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M.; Takechi, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Araki, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Idei, H.; Nagashima, Y.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Nagata, T. [RIAM, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); and others

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • High energy particle guiding center orbit is calculated as a contour plot of conserved variable. • Current density profile is analyzed based on the orbit-driven current. • Plasma equilibrium is reconstructed by considering the hollow current profile. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven (ECCD) steady-state plasma on QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m), plasma current seems to flow in the open magnetic surface outside of the closed magnetic surface in the low-field region according to plasma current fitting (PCF) method. We consider that the current in the open magnetic surface is due to orbit-driven current by high-energy particles in RF-driven plasma. So based on the analysis of current density profile based on the orbit-driven current, plasma equilibrium is to be calculated. We calculated high energy particles guiding center orbits as a contour plot of conserved variable in Hamiltonian formulation and considered particles initial position with different levels of energy and pitch angles that satisfy resonance condition. Then the profile of orbit-driven current is estimated by multiplying the particle density on the resonance surface and the velocity on the orbits. This analysis shows negative current near the magnetic axis and hollow current profile is expected even if pressure driven current is considered. Considering the hollow current profile shifted toward the low-field region, the equilibrium is fitted by J-EFIT coded by MATLAB.

  11. Effect of limiter currents on plasma equilibrium and stability in a tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belashov, V. I.; Gribov, Yu. V.; Putvinskij, S. V.; Brevnov, N. N.

    The results of theoretical and experimental research of currents between diaphragms limiting plasma cord in tokamak on plasma equilibrium and stability with an arbitrary form of transverse cross section are presented. It is shown that plasma cord behaviour depends on applied voltage polarity. The phenomena considered can be important for tokamaks in which fast plasma compression in a big radius is invisaged.

  12. Formation of current filaments and magnetic field generation in a quantum current-carrying plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niknam, A. R.; Taghadosi, M. R.; Majedi, S.; Khorashadizadeh, S. M.

    2013-09-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of filamentation instability and magnetic field in a current-carrying plasma is investigated in the presence of quantum effects using the quantum hydrodynamic model. A new nonlinear partial differential equation is obtained for the spatiotemporal evolution of the magnetic field in the diffusion regime. This equation is solved by applying the Adomian decomposition method, and then the profiles of magnetic field and electron density are plotted. It is shown that the saturation time of filamentation instability increases and, consequently, the instability growth rate and the magnetic field amplitude decrease in the presence of quantum effects.

  13. The Role of the Hall Effect in Global Structure and Dynamics of Planetary Magnetospheres: Ganymede as a Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorelli, J. C.; Glocer, Alex; Collinson, Glyn; Toth, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution Hall MHD simulations of Ganymede's magnetosphere demonstrating that Hall electric fields in ion-scale magnetic reconnection layers have significant global effects not captured in resistive MHD simulations. Consistent with local kinetic simulations of magnetic reconnection, our global simulations show the development of intense field-aligned currents along the magnetic separatrices. These currents extend all the way down to the moon's surface, where they may contribute to Ganymede's aurora. Within the magnetopause and magnetotail current sheets, Hall J x B forces accelerate ions to the local Alfven speed in the out-of-plane direction, producing a global system of ion drift belts that circulates Jovian magnetospheric plasma throughout Ganymede's magnetosphere. We discuss some observable consequences of these Hall-induced currents and ion drifts: the appearance of a sub-Jovian 'double magnetopause' structure, an Alfvenic ion jet extending across the upstream magnetopause, and an asymmetric pattern of magnetopause Kelvin-Helmholtz waves.

  14. Plasma medicine—current state of research and medical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weltmann, K.-D.; von Woedtke, Th

    2017-01-01

    Plasma medicine means the direct application of cold atmospheric plasma (CAP) on or in the human body for therapeutic purposes. Further, the field interacts strongly with results gained for biological decontamination. Experimental research as well as first practical application is realized using two basic principles of CAP sources: dielectric barrier discharges (DBD) and atmospheric pressure plasma jets (APPJ). Originating from the fundamental insights that the biological effects of CAP are most probably caused by changes of the liquid environment of cells, and are dominated by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS, RNS), basic mechanisms of biological plasma activity are identified. It was demonstrated that there is no increased risk of cold plasma application and, above all, there are no indications for genotoxic effects. The most important biological effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma were identified: (1) inactivation of a broad spectrum of microorganisms including multidrug resistant ones; (2) stimulation of cell proliferation and tissue regeneration with lower plasma treatment intensity (treatment time); (3) inactivation of cells by initialization of programmed cell death (apoptosis) with higher plasma treatment intensity (treatment time). In recent years, the main focus of clinical applications was in the field of wound healing and treatment of infective skin diseases. First CAP sources are CE-certified as medical devices now which is the main precondition to start the introduction of plasma medicine into clinical reality. Plasma application in dentistry and, above all, CAP use for cancer treatment are becoming more and more important research fields in plasma medicine. A further in-depth knowledge of control and adaptation of plasma parameters and plasma geometries is needed to obtain suitable and reliable plasma sources for the different therapeutic indications and to open up new fields of medical application.

  15. Diagnostic Setup for Characterization of Near-Anode Processes in Hall Thrusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    L. Dorf; Y. Raitses; N.J. Fisch

    2003-09-08

    A diagnostic setup for characterization of near-anode processes in Hall-current plasma thrusters consisting of biased and emissive electrostatic probes, high-precision positioning system and low-noise electronic circuitry was developed and tested. Experimental results show that radial probe insertion does not cause perturbations to the discharge and therefore can be used for accurate near-anode measurements.

  16. The Double Star Plasma Electron and Current Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Fazakerley

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The Double Star Project is a collaboration between Chinese and European space agencies, in which two Chinese magnetospheric research spacecraft, carrying Chinese and European instruments, have been launched into equatorial (on 29 December 2003 and polar (on 25 July 2004 orbits designed to enable complementary studies with the Cluster spacecraft. The two Double Star spacecraft TC-1 and TC-2 each carry a Double Star Plasma Electron and Current Experiment (PEACE instrument. These two instruments were based on Cluster Flight Spare equipment, but differ from Cluster instruments in two important respects. Firstly, a Double Star PEACE instrument has only a single sensor, which must be operated in a manner not originally envisaged in the Cluster context in order to sample the full range of energies. Secondly, the DPU hardware was modified and major changes of onboard software were implemented, most notably a completely different approach to data compression has been adopted for Double Star, which allows high resolution 3-dimensional distributions to be transmitted almost every spin, a significant improvement over Cluster. This paper describes these instruments, and includes examples of data collected in various magnetospheric regions encountered by the spacecraft which have been chosen to illustrate the power of combined Double Star and Cluster measurements.

  17. Computational solutions for non-isothermal, nonlinear magneto-convection in porous media with hall/ionslip currents and ohmic dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Anwar Bég

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical and numerical study is presented to analyze the nonlinear, non-isothermal, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD free convection boundary layer flow and heat transfer in a non-Darcian, isotropic, homogenous porous medium, in the presence of Hall currents, Ionslip currents, viscous heating and Joule heating. A power-law variation is used for the temperature at the wall. The governing nonlinear coupled partial differential equations for momentum conservation in the x and z directions and heat conservation, in the flow regime are transformed from an (x, y, z coordinate system to a (ξ,η coordinate system in terms of dimensionless x-direction velocity (∂F/∂η and z-direction velocity (G and dimensionless temperature function (H under appropriate boundary conditions. Both Darcian and Forchheimer porous impedances are incorporated in both momentum equations. Computations are also provided for the variation of the x and z direction shear stress components and also local Nusselt number. Excellent correlation is achieved with a Nakamura tridiagonal finite difference scheme (NTM. The model finds applications in magnetic materials processing, MHD power generators and purification of crude oils.

  18. Plasma density scaling at the current reversal in the STOR-1M tokamak with AC operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, Osamu; Hirose, Akira; Skarsgard, Harvey M.

    1992-02-01

    Plasma density behavior in the STOR-1M tokamak with alternating current operation is described in the Murakami-Hugill diagram. At the current reversal, the density remains finite. Gas puffing before current reversal allows alternating current operation with larger currents, and improves its reproducibility. A qualitative explanation for the finite plasma density at the current reversal is presented, based on a short-circuit effect by the limiter.

  19. Spin Hall effect by surface roughness

    KAUST Repository

    Zhou, Lingjun

    2015-01-08

    The spin Hall and its inverse effects, driven by the spin orbit interaction, provide an interconversion mechanism between spin and charge currents. Since the spin Hall effect generates and manipulates spin current electrically, to achieve a large effect is becoming an important topic in both academia and industries. So far, materials with heavy elements carrying a strong spin orbit interaction, provide the only option. We propose here a new mechanism, using the surface roughness in ultrathin films, to enhance the spin Hall effect without heavy elements. Our analysis based on Cu and Al thin films suggests that surface roughness is capable of driving a spin Hall angle that is comparable to that in bulk Au. We also demonstrate that the spin Hall effect induced by surface roughness subscribes only to the side-jump contribution but not the skew scattering. The paradigm proposed in this paper provides the second, not if only, alternative to generate a sizable spin Hall effect.

  20. Influence of Cross-Diffusion on Slip Flow and Heat Transfer of Chemically Reacting UCM Fluid between Porous Parallel Plates with Hall and Ion Slip Currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odelu Ojjela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present paper deals with the Hall and ion slip currents on an incompressible unsteady free convection flow and heat transfer of an upper convected Maxwell fluid between porous parallel plates with Soret and Dufour effects by considering the velocity slip and convective boundary conditions. Assume that there are periodic injection and suction at the lower and upper plates, respectively. The temperature and concentration at the lower and upper plates change periodically with time. The flow field equations are reduced to nonlinear ordinary differential equations by using similarity transformations and a semi-analytical-numerical solution has been obtained by the differential transform method. The velocity components, temperature distribution, and concentration with respect to different fluid and geometric parameters are discussed in detail and presented in the form of graphs. It is observed that the Biot number increases the temperature and concentration of the fluid. Further, the concentration of the fluid is enhanced whereas the temperature decreases with increasing slip. The present results are compared with the existing literature and are found to be in good agreement.

  1. Bound values for Hall conductivity of heterogeneous medium under ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    - ditions in inhomogeneous medium has been studied. It is shown that bound values for. Hall conductivity differ from bound values for metallic conductivity. This is due to the unusual character of current percolation under quantum Hall effect ...

  2. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  3. MHD free convection flow of Eyring–Powell fluid from vertical surface in porous media with Hall/ionslip currents and ohmic dissipation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Abdul Gaffar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical study is presented to analyze the nonlinear, non-isothermal, magnetohydrodynamic (MHD free convection boundary layer flow, heat and mass transfer of non-Newtonian Eyring–Powell fluid from a vertical surface in a non-Darcy, isotropic, homogenous porous medium, in the presence of Hall currents and ionslip currents. The governing nonlinear coupled partial differential equations for momentum conservation in the x, and z directions, heat and mass conservation, in the flow regime are transformed from an (x, y, z coordinate system to a (ξ, η coordinate system in terms of dimensionless x-direction velocity (f′ and z-direction velocity (G, dimensionless temperature and concentration functions (θ and ϕ under appropriate boundary conditions. Both Darcian and Forchheimer porous impedances are incorporated in both momentum equations. Computations are also provided for the variation of the x and z direction shear stress components and also heat and mass transfer rates. It is observed that with increasing ɛ, primary velocity, secondary velocity, heat and mass transfer rates are decreased whereas, the temperature, concentration and skin friction are increased. An increasing δ is found to increase primary and secondary velocities, skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates. But the temperature and concentration decrease. Increasing βe and βi are seen to increase primary velocity, skin friction, heat and mass transfer rates whereas secondary velocity, temperature and concentration are decreased. Excellent correlation is achieved with a Nakamura tridiagonal finite difference scheme (NTM. The model finds applications in magnetic materials processing, MHD power generators and purification of crude oils.

  4. Periodic Beam Current Oscillations Driven by Electron Cyclotron Instabilities in ECRIS Plasmas

    OpenAIRE

    Tarvainen, Olli; Kalvas, Taneli; Koivisto, Hannu; Komppula, Jani; Kronholm, Risto; Laulainen, Janne; Izotov, I.; Mansfeld, D.; Skalyga, V.; Toivanen, V.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental observation of cyclotron instabilities in electron cyclotron resonance ion source plasma operated in cwmode is reported. The instabilities are associated with strong microwave emission and a burst of energetic electrons escaping the plasma, and explain the periodic oscillations of the extracted beam currents. The instabilities are shown to restrict the parameter space available for the optimization of high charge state ion currents.

  5. Optimizing pulsed current micro plasma arc welding parameters to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Fusion welding generally involves joining of metals by application of heat for melting of metals to be joined. Almost all the conventional .... Prasad et al. / International Journal of Engineering, Science and Technology, Vol. 3, No. 6, 2011, pp. 226-236. 228. Table 3 Welding conditions. Power source. Secheron Micro Plasma ...

  6. Current Control in ITER Steady State Plasmas With Neutral Beam Steering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.V. Budny

    2009-09-10

    Predictions of quasi steady state DT plasmas in ITER are generated using the PTRANSP code. The plasma temperatures, densities, boundary shape, and total current (9 - 10 MA) anticipated for ITER steady state plasmas are specified. Current drive by negative ion neutral beam injection, lower-hybrid, and electron cyclotron resonance are calculated. Four modes of operation with different combinations of current drive are studied. For each mode, scans with the NNBI aimed at differing heights in the plasma are performed to study effects of current control on the q profile. The timeevolution of the currents and q are calculated to evaluate long duration transients. Quasi steady state, strongly reversed q profiles are predicted for some beam injection angles if the current drive and bootstrap currents are sufficiently large.

  7. Propinquity of current and vortex structures: effects on collisionless plasma heating

    CERN Document Server

    Parashar, Tulasi N

    2016-01-01

    Intermittency of heating in weakly collisional plasma turbulence is an active subject of research, with significant potential impact on understanding of the solar wind, solar corona and astrophysical plasmas. Recent studies suggest a role of vorticity in plasma heating. In magnetohydrodynamics small scale vorticity is generated near current sheets and this effect persists in kinetic plasma, as demonstrated here with hybrid and fully kinetic Particle-In-Cell (PIC) simulations. Furthermore, vorticity enhances local kinetic effects, with a generalized resonance condition selecting sign-dependent enhancements or reductions of proton heating and thermal anisotropy. In such plasmas heating is correlated with vorticity and current density, but more strongly with vorticity. These results help explain several prior results that find kinetic effects and energization near to, but not centered on, current sheets. Evidently intermittency in kinetic plasma involves multiple physical quantities, and the associated coherent ...

  8. Wall current probe: a non-invasive in situ plasma diagnostic for space and time resolved current density distribution measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baude, R; Gaboriau, F; Hagelaar, G J M

    2013-08-01

    In the context of low temperature plasma research, we propose a wall current probe to determine the local charged particle fluxes flowing to the chamber walls. This non-intrusive planar probe consists of an array of electrode elements which can be individually biased and for which the current can be measured separately. We detail the probe properties and present the ability of the diagnostic to be used as a space and time resolved measurement of the ion and electron current density at the chamber walls. This diagnostic will be relevant to study the electron transport in magnetized low-pressure plasmas.

  9. Influence of the Hall term on KH instability and reconnection inside KH vortices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Nykyri

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability (KHI in its nonlinear stage can develop small-scale filamentary field and current structures at the flank boundaries of the magnetosphere. It has been shown previously with MHD simulations that magnetic reconnection can occur inside these narrow current layers, resulting in plasma transport from the solar wind into the magnetosphere. During periods of northward IMF, this transport is sufficient to generate a cold, dense plasma sheet on time scales consistent with satellite observations. However, when the length scales of these narrow current layers approach the ion inertia scale, the MHD approximation is not valid anymore and the Hall term in the Ohm's law must be included. We will study the influence of the Hall term on the KHI with 2-D Hall-MHD simulations and compare our results with corresponding MHD simulations. We estimate plasma transport velocities of the order of ~1.5km/s, thus confirming the results of the MHD approximation. However, the fine structure and the growth rates differ from the MHD approximation in an interesting way.

    Key words. Magnetospheric physics (magnetopause, cusp and boundary layers; plasma waves and instabilities, Space plasma physics (transport processes; magnetic reconnection; numerical simulation studies; nonlinear phenomena; turbulence

  10. Plasma density at the current reversal in the STOR-1M tokamak with AC operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, O.; Hirose, A.; Skarsgard, H. M.

    1992-10-01

    The plasma density behaviour in the STOR-1M tokamak with alternating current (AC) operation is described using the Murakami-Hugill diagram (1/qa, nR/Bt). At the current reversal, Ip = 0 (1/qa = 0), the plasma density remains finite and the Murakami parameter is nR/Bt = (0.66 ± 0.22) × 1018m-2.T-1. Gas puffing before the current reversal does not noticeably increase the plasma density at the current reversal, but allows AC operation with larger currents and improves its reproducibility. A qualitative explanation for the finite plasma density at the current reversal is given on the basis of a short circuit effect by the limiter

  11. Ventilation systems for high halls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodec, F.; Veldboer, W.

    1982-02-01

    A ventilation system for high halls is described which meets the demands of steady air flow in spite of inverse thermal currents, intensive ventilation of working areas during heating and cooling and ventilation free of draught. The main element of the ventilation system is the air outlet in the ceiling, with variable beam direction. The horizontal, rotated beams are superimposed by a vertical beam whose strength may be varied. This way, the beam direction can be adapted to the thermal load of the hall and the height of blowout. The blowout angle is large for heating and small for cooling. Studies have shown that halls are ventilated thoroughly and free of draught by this system. The variable, rotary outlet presented in the article is best suited for heights of 4.00 to 12.00 m. The outlet, with a rated diameter of 400 mm, has been in use for two years now in fields as varied as diecasting works, halls at fairs, sports halls, etc. The air volume flow rate is 1000 to 3000 m/sup 3//h per outlet. A bigger version is now being developed; it will have a rated diameter of 710 mm and an air volume flow rate of 3000 to 9000 m/sup 3//h.

  12. Nonlinear longitudinal current, generated by two transversal electromagnetic waves in collisionless plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V; Algazin, O D; Kopaev, A V; Popov, V S

    2015-01-01

    Classical plasma with any degree degeneration of electronic gas is considered. In plasma two external electromagnetic field are propagation. It is required to find the plasma response on these fields. From kinetic Vlasov equation for collisionless plasmas distribution function in square-law approximation on sizes of intensivities of two electric fields is received. The formula for calculation electric current at any temperature (any degree of degeneration electronic gas) is deduced. This formula contains an one-dimensional quadrature. It is shown, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current is perpendicular to known tranversal classical current, received at the linear analysis. The case of small values of wave number is considered. Graphic comparison of dimensionless size of the current depending on wave number and frequency of oscillation of the electromagnetic fields is carry out.

  13. Plasma sources for high-current electron beam generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasik, Ya. E.; Dunaevsky, A.; Felsteiner, J.

    2001-05-01

    A review of experimental studies of the operation of cathodes made of metal-ceramic, velvet, corduroy, carbon fibers, carbon fabric, and different types of ferroelectrics is presented. These cathodes operated at electric fields in the range of 5-60 kV/cm that allowed the generation of electron beams with duration of several hundreds of nanoseconds while keeping a quasi-constant diode impedance. All cathodes had the same diameter and were tested in a diode powered by a high-voltage generator (300 kV, 85 Ω, 250 ns, ⩽5 Hz). It was shown that the source of electrons for all the studied cathodes is a plasma which is formed as a result of surface discharges. Different types of electrical and optical diagnostics were used to study the formation and parameters of the plasma, the potential distribution inside the anode-cathode gap, and the uniformity and divergence of the extracted electron beam as a function of the amplitude and rise time of the accelerating pulse. Results of the lifetime of the tested cathodes and their compatibility with vacuum requirements are presented as well.

  14. Negative edge plasma currents in the SINP tokamak

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    toroidal electric field (ET), Rogowskii coil for the discharge current (Ip) measurements, cos and sin coils for the horizontal ( hor) and vertical ( ver) position measurements respec- tively, a current transformer for the vertical field measurements and toroidal flux loop for the measurements of poloidal beta (βp) and energy ...

  15. [Experimental investigation of the chemical effect of direct current arc plasma igniter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing-Bing; He, Li-Ming; Shen, Ying; Bai, Xiao-Feng; Yu, Jin-Lu

    2013-05-01

    To study the chemical effect of direct current arc plasma igniter, the emission spectrum of plasma jet was measured, and the active particles produced by the interaction of plasma jet with atmospheric air were analyzed. The NO and CO volume fractions were measured quantificationally by smoke analyzer at the 8cm downstream the plasma igniter exit, and the changing law between arc current and NO, CO volume fractions was obtained. The results show that the plasma jet interacting with atmospheric air produced active particles (H, O, N), charged particles (O2 +, N2+), and excited particles (N2 (A3), N2 (B3), N2 (C3), N2 (a1), O2 (a1), O2 (b1)). The NO and CO volume fractions increased with rising of are current and feedstock argon flow rate.

  16. Topological spin Hall effect resulting from magnetic skyrmions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Gen; Liu, Yizhou; Barlas, Yafis; Zang, Jiadong; Lake, Roger K.

    2015-07-01

    The intrinsic spin Hall effect originates from the topology of the Bloch bands in momentum space. The duality between real space and momentum space calls for a spin Hall effect induced from a real space topology in analogy to the topological Hall effect of skyrmions. We theoretically demonstrate the topological spin Hall effect in which a pure transverse spin current is generated from a skyrmion spin texture.

  17. Comparison of current density profiles based on particle orbit-driven current in steady-state plasma on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alam, Md Mahbub, E-mail: m.alam@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [IGSES, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuo [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan); Xia, Fan [CFS, SWIP, P.O. Box 432, 610041 Chengdu (China); Mitarai, Osamu [Tokai University, Kumamoto 862-8652 (Japan); Hasegawa, Makoto; Tokunaga, Kazutoshi; Araki, Kuniaki; Zushi, Hideki; Hanada, Kazuaki; Fujisawa, Akihide; Idei, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Yoshihiko; Kawasaki, Shoji; Nakashima, Hisatoshi; Higashijima, Aki; Nagata, Takahiro [RIAM, Kyushu University, 6-1 Kasuga-koen, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) of QUEST. • Particle guiding center orbit calculation. • Orbit-driven current density profile. • Hollow current density. • Equilibrium condition for steady-state operation of QUEST. - Abstract: In the present RF-driven divertor plasma of QUEST, it has been observed that orbit-driven current flows in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces. To observe this phenomenon and the characteristics of the orbit-driven current, current density profiles have been calculated on two different equilibrium conditions. We calculated current density profiles from particle guiding center orbits both for the fundamental and the second harmonic resonances for the 8.2 GHz electron cyclotron current drive. From this calculation, hollow current density profiles have been obtained with significant characteristics on both conditions. Only positive current distribution has been observed in the open magnetic surfaces outside of the closed magnetic surfaces.

  18. Two-dimensional electric current effects on a magnetized plasma in contact with a surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shumack, A. E.; de Blank, H. J.; Westerhout, J.; van Rooij, G. J.

    2012-01-01

    Significant electric fields both parallel and perpendicular to a magnetic field have been observed and modeled self-consistently in an ITER divertor relevant plasma–wall experiment. Due to magnetization, electric current is found to penetrate the plasma beam outside of the cascaded arc plasma source

  19. Influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ostrovskaya, G. V., E-mail: galya-ostr@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Ioffe Physical Technical Institute (Russian Federation); Markov, V. S.; Frank, A. G., E-mail: annfrank@fpl.gpi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-01-15

    The influence of the initial parameters of the magnetic field and plasma on the spatial structure of the electric current and electron density in current sheets formed in helium plasma in 2D and 3D magnetic configurations with X-type singular lines is studied by the methods of holographic interferometry and magnetic measurements. Significant differences in the structures of plasma and current sheets formed at close parameters of the initial plasma and similar configurations of the initial magnetic fields are revealed.

  20. Determination of plasma displacement based on eddy current diagnostics for the Keda Torus eXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Cui; Li, Hong; Liu, Adi; Li, Zichao; Zhang, Yuan; You, Wei; Tan, Mingsheng; Luo, Bing; Adil, Yolbarsop; Hu, Jintong; Wu, Yanqi; Yan, Wentan; Xie, Jinlin; Lan, Tao; Mao, Wenzhe; Ding, Weixing; Xiao, Chijin; Zhuang, Ge; Liu, Wandong

    2017-10-01

    The measurement of plasma displacement is one of the most basic diagnostic tools in the study of plasma equilibrium and control in a toroidal magnetic confinement configuration. During pulse discharge, the eddy current induced in the vacuum vessel and shell will produce an additional magnetic field at the plasma boundary, which will have a significant impact on the measurement of plasma displacement using magnetic probes. In the newly built Keda Torus eXperiment (KTX) reversed field pinch device, the eddy current in the composite shell can be obtained at a high spatial resolution. This device offers a new way to determine the plasma displacement for KTX through the multipole moment expansion of the eddy current, which can be obtained by unique probe arrays installed on the inner and outer surfaces of the composite shell. In an ideal conductor shell approximation, the method of multipole moment expansion of the poloidal eddy current for measuring the plasma displacement in toroidal coordinates, is more accurate than the previous method based on symmetrical magnetic probes, which yielded results in cylindrical coordinates. Through an analytical analysis of many current filaments and numerical simulations of the current distribution in toroidal coordinates, the scaling relation between the first moment of the eddy current and the center of gravity of the plasma current is obtained. In addition, the origin of the multipole moment expansion of the eddy current in KTX is retrieved simultaneously. Preliminary data on the plasma displacement have been collected using these two methods during short pulse discharges in the KTX device, and the results of the two methods are in reasonable agreement.

  1. Space-charge effects in ultrahigh current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Grüner, F. J; Schroeder, C. B; Maier, A. R; Becker, S; Mikhailova, J. M

    2009-01-01

    ...) generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process...

  2. Modeling of the Convection and Interaction of Ring Current, Plasmaspheric and Plasma Sheet Plasmas in the Inner Magnetosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Chen, Sheng-Hsien; Buzulukova, Natalia; Glocer, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Distinctive sources of ions reside in the plasmasphere, plasmasheet, and ring current regions at discrete energies constitute the major plasma populations in the inner/middle magnetosphere. They contribute to the electrodynamics of the ionosphere-magnetosphere system as important carriers of the global current system, in triggering; geomagnetic storm and substorms, as well as critical components of plasma instabilities such as reconnection and Kelvin-Helmholtz instability at the magnetospheric boundaries. Our preliminary analysis of in-situ measurements shoves the complexity of the plasmas pitch angle distributions at particularly the cold and warm plasmas, vary dramatically at different local times and radial distances from the Earth in response to changes in solar wind condition and Dst index. Using an MHD-ring current coupled code, we model the convection and interaction of cold, warm and energetic ions of plasmaspheric, plasmasheet, and ring current origins in the inner magnetosphere. We compare our simulation results with in-situ and remotely sensed measurements from recent instrumentation on Geotail, Cluster, THEMIS, and TWINS spacecraft.

  3. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode

    OpenAIRE

    Poehlmann, Flavio R.; Cappelli, Mark A.; Rieker, Gregory B.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma def...

  4. High Current Systems for HyperV and PLX Plasma Railguns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brockington, S.; Case, A.; Messer, S.; Elton, R.; Witherspoon, F. D.

    2011-10-01

    HyperV is developing gas fed, pulsed, plasma railgun accelerators for PLX and other high momentum plasma applications. The present 2.5 cm square-bore plasma railgun forms plasma armatures from high density neutral gas (argon), preionizes it electrothermally, and accelerates the armature with 30 cm long parallel-plate railgun electrodes driven by a pulse forming network (PFN). Recent experiments have successfully formed and accelerated plasma armatures of ~4 mg at 40 km/s, with PFN currents of ~400 kA. In order to further increase railgun performance to the PLX design goal of 8 mg at 50 km/s, the PFN was upgraded to support currents of up to ~750 kA. A high voltage, high current linear array spark-gap switch and flexible, low-inductance transmission line were designed and constructed to handle the increased current load. We will describe these systems and present initial performance data from high current operation of the plasma rail gun from spectroscopy, interferometry, and imaging systems as well as pressure, magnetic field, and optical diagnostics. High current performance of railgun bore materials for electrodes and insulators will also be discussed as well as plans for upcoming experimentation with advanced materials. Supported by the U.S. DOE Joint Program in HEDLP.

  5. Plasma Shape and Current Density Profile Control in Advanced Tokamak Operating Scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenyu

    The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Nuclear fusion has sufficient energy density to potentially supply the world population with its increasing energy demands. The tokamak is a magnetic confinement device used to achieve controlled fusion reactions. Experimental fusion technology has now reached a level where tokamaks are able to produce about as much energy as is expended in heating the fusion fuel. The next step towards the realization of a nuclear fusion tokamak power plant is ITER, which will be capable of exploring advanced tokamak (AT) modes, characterized by a high fusion gain and plasma stability. The extreme requirements of the advanced modes motivates researchers to improve the modeling of the plasma response as well as the design of feedback controllers. This dissertation focuses on several magnetic and kinetic control problems, including the plasma current, position and shape control, and data-driven and first-principles-driven modeling and control of plasma current density profile and the normalized plasma pressure ratio betaN. The plasma is confined within the vacuum vessel by an external electromagnetic field, produced primarily by toroidal and poloidal field coils. The outermost closed plasma surface or plasma boundary is referred to as the shape of the plasma. A central characteristic of AT plasma regimes is an extreme elongated shape. The equilibrium among the electromagnetic forces acting on an elongated plasma is unstable. Moreover, the tokamak performance is improved if the plasma is located in close proximity to the torus wall, which guarantees an efficient use of available volume. As a consequence, feedback control of the plasma position and shape is necessary. In this dissertation, an Hinfinity-based, multi-input-multi-output (MIMO) controller for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is developed, which is used to control the plasma position, shape, and X

  6. Longitudinal and transversal current in collisional plasma, generated by two transversal electromagnetic waves

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2015-01-01

    From kinetic Vlasov equation for collisional plasmas distribution function in square-law approximation on sizes of intensivities of electric fields is received. The known integral of collisions of relaxation type, so-called BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross, Krook) integral of collisions is considered. The formula for calculation electric current at any temperature (any degree of degeneration of electronic gas) is deduced. This formula contains an one-dimensional quadrature. It is shown, that the nonlinearity account leads to occurrence the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. This longitudinal current is orthogonal to a known transversal classical current, received at the linear analysis. When frequency of collisions tends to the zero, all received results for collisional plasmas pass in corresponding formulas for collisionless plasmas. The case of small values of wave number is considered. It is shown, that the received quantity of longitudinal current at aspiration of frequency of collisions to ...

  7. Skyrmions and Hall viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Bom Soo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the contribution of magnetic Skyrmions to the Hall viscosity and propose a simple way to identify it in experiments. The topological Skyrmion charge density has a distinct signature in the electric Hall conductivity that is identified in existing experimental data. In an electrically neutral system, the Skyrmion charge density is directly related to the thermal Hall conductivity. These results are direct consequences of the field theory Ward identities, which relate various physica...

  8. Surface Modification of Direct-Current and Radio-Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatments Enhance Cell Biocompatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wan-Ching; Wang, Rex C-C; Liu, Cheng; Yang, Chyun-Yu; Lee, Tzer-Min

    2017-10-25

    The sand-blasting and acid etching (SLA) method can fabricate a rough topography for mechanical fixation and long-term stability of titanium implant, but can not achieve early bone healing. This study used two kinds of plasma treatments (Direct-Current and Radio-Frequency plasma) to modify the SLA-treated surface. The modification of plasma treatments creates respective power range and different content functional OH groups. The results show that the plasma treatments do not change the micron scale topography, and plasma-treated specimens presented super hydrophilicity. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)-examined result showed that the functional OH content of the RF plasma-treated group was higher than the control (SLA) and DC treatment groups. The biological responses (protein adsorption, cell attachment, cell proliferation, and differentiation) promoted after plasma treatments, and the cell responses, have correlated to the total content of amphoteric OH groups. The experimental results indicated that plasma treatments can create functional OH groups on SLA-treated specimens, and the RF plasma-treated SLA implant thus has potential for achievement of bone healing in early stage of implantation.

  9. Surface Modification of Direct-Current and Radio-Frequency Oxygen Plasma Treatments Enhance Cell Biocompatibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan-Ching Chou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The sand-blasting and acid etching (SLA method can fabricate a rough topography for mechanical fixation and long-term stability of titanium implant, but can not achieve early bone healing. This study used two kinds of plasma treatments (Direct-Current and Radio-Frequency plasma to modify the SLA-treated surface. The modification of plasma treatments creates respective power range and different content functional OH groups. The results show that the plasma treatments do not change the micron scale topography, and plasma-treated specimens presented super hydrophilicity. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS-examined result showed that the functional OH content of the RF plasma-treated group was higher than the control (SLA and DC treatment groups. The biological responses (protein adsorption, cell attachment, cell proliferation, and differentiation promoted after plasma treatments, and the cell responses, have correlated to the total content of amphoteric OH groups. The experimental results indicated that plasma treatments can create functional OH groups on SLA-treated specimens, and the RF plasma-treated SLA implant thus has potential for achievement of bone healing in early stage of implantation.

  10. Quantum Spin Hall Effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernevig, B.Andrei; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2010-01-15

    The quantum Hall liquid is a novel state of matter with profound emergent properties such as fractional charge and statistics. Existence of the quantum Hall effect requires breaking of the time reversal symmetry caused by an external magnetic field. In this work, we predict a quantized spin Hall effect in the absence of any magnetic field, where the intrinsic spin Hall conductance is quantized in units of 2 e/4{pi}. The degenerate quantum Landau levels are created by the spin-orbit coupling in conventional semiconductors in the presence of a strain gradient. This new state of matter has many profound correlated properties described by a topological field theory.

  11. Suppression of vertical instability in elongated current-carrying plasmas by applying stellarator rotational transform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ArchMiller, M. C.; Cianciosa, M. R.; Ennis, D. A.; Hanson, J. D.; Hartwell, G. J.; Hebert, J. D.; Herfindal, J. L.; Knowlton, S. F.; Ma, X.; Maurer, D. A.; Pandya, M. D.; Traverso, P. [Physics Department, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The passive stability of vertically elongated current-carrying toroidal plasmas has been investigated in the Compact Toroidal Hybrid, a stellarator/tokamak hybrid device. In this experiment, the fractional transform f, defined as the ratio of the imposed external rotational transform from stellarator coils to the total rotational transform, was varied from 0.04 to 0.50, and the elongation κ was varied from 1.4 to 2.2. Plasmas that were vertically unstable were evidenced by motion of the plasma in the vertical direction. Vertical drifts are measured with a set of poloidal field pickup coils. A three chord horizontally viewing interferometer and a soft X-ray diode array confirmed the drifts. Plasmas with low fractional transform and high elongation are the most susceptible to vertical instability, consistent with analytic predictions that the vertical mode in elongated plasmas can be stabilized by the poloidal field of a relatively weak stellarator equilibrium.

  12. Nonlinear longitudinal current in degenerate plasma, arising under the influence of the transversal electromagnetic field

    CERN Document Server

    Latyshev, A V

    2015-01-01

    Kinetic Vlasov-Boltzmann equation for degenerate collisional plasmas with integral of collisions of relaxation type BGK (Bhatnagar, Gross and Krook) is used. Square-law expansion on size of intensity of electric field for kinetic equation, Lorentz's force and integral of collisions is considered. It is shown, that nonlinearity leads to generation of the longitudinal electric current directed along a wave vector. Longitudinal current is perpendicular to the known transversal classical current received at the linear analysis. The case of small values of wave number is considered. When frequency of collisions tends to the zero, all received results for collisional pass plasmas in corresponding results for collisionless plasmas. Graphic research of the real and imaginary part current density is carried out.

  13. Anomalous cross-field current and fluctuating equilibrium of magnetized plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rypdal, K.; Garcia, O.E.; Paulsen, J.V.

    1997-01-01

    It is shown by simple physical arguments and fluid simulations that electrostatic flute-mode fluctuations can sustain a substantial cross-field current in addition to mass and energy transport. The simulations show that this current determines essential features of the fluctuating plasma...

  14. Electron-Bernstein-wave current drive in an overdense plasma at the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laqua, H P; Maassberg, H; Marushchenko, N B; Volpe, F; Weller, A; Kasparek, W

    2003-02-21

    Electron-Bernstein-wave (EBW) current drive in an overdense plasma was demonstrated at the Wendelstein 7-AS stellarator for the first time. The EBWs were generated by O-X-B mode conversion. The relatively high current drive efficiency was consistent with theoretical predictions. The experiments provided first investigations of EBW phase space interaction for wave refractive indices much larger than unity.

  15. Glow-to-arc transition events in H2-Ar direct current pulsed plasma: automated measurement of current and voltage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Luciano A; Mafra, Márcio; Rodrigues, Jhonatam C

    2012-01-01

    The glow-to-arc transition phenomena (arcing) observed in plasma reactors used in materials processing was studied through the arcs characteristic current and voltage waveforms. In order to capture these arcs signals, a LABVIEW™ based automated instrumentation system (ARCVIEW) was developed, including the integration of an oscilloscope equipped with proper current and voltage probes. The system also allows capturing the process parameters at the arc occurrence moments, which were used to map the arcs events conditions. Experiments in H(2)-Ar DC pulsed plasma returned signals data from 215 arcs events, which were analyzed through software routines. According to the results, an anti-arcing system should react in the time order of few microseconds to prevent most of the damage caused by the undesired arcing phenomena.

  16. Eddy current-adjusted plasma shape reconstruction by Cauchy condition surface method on QUEST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, K., E-mail: nakamura@triam.kyushu-u.ac.jp [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Jiang, Y.; Liu, X.L. [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Mitarai, O. [Liberal Arts Education Center, Kumamoto Campus, Tokai University, Toroku, Kumamoto (Japan); Kurihara, K.; Kawamata, Y.; Sueoka, M. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan); Hasegawa, M.; Tokunaga, K.; Zushi, H.; Hanada, K.; Fujisawa, A.; Sakamoto, M.; Idei, H.; Kawasaki, S.; Nakashima, H.; Higashijima, A.; Araki, K. [Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan)

    2011-10-15

    CCS (Cauchy Condition Surface) method is a numerical approach to reproduce plasma shape, which has good precision in conventional tokamaks. In order to apply it in plasma shape reproduction of ST (Spherical Tokamak), the calculation precision of the CCS method in a spherical tokamak CPD (Compact PWI experimental Device) (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.3 m, a = 0.2 m) has been analyzed. The precision was confirmed also in ST and decided to be applied to a spherical tokamak QUEST (B{sub t} = 0.25 T, R = 0.68 m, a = 0.40 m).. In present stage from the magnetic measurement, it is known that the eddy current effect is large in QUEST experiment, and there are no special magnetic measurements for eddy current now, so some proper model should be selected to evaluate the eddy current effect. The eddy current density by not only CS (Center Solenoid) coil but also plasma current is calculated using EDDYCAL (JAEA). The eddy current magnitudes are taken as unknown variables and solved together with plasma shape reconstruction in ohmic discharge and ECCD (Electron Cyclotron Current Drive) discharge.

  17. Determination of plasma density from data on the ion current to cylindrical and planar probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voloshin, D. G., E-mail: dvoloshin@mics.msu.su; Vasil’eva, A. N.; Kovalev, A. S.; Mankelevich, Yu. A.; Rakhimova, T. V. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Nuclear Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-12-15

    To improve probe methods of plasma diagnostics, special probe measurements were performed and numerical models describing ion transport to a probe with allowance for collisions were developed. The current–voltage characteristics of cylindrical and planar probes were measured in an RF capacitive discharge in argon at a frequency of 81 MHz and plasma densities of 10{sup 10}–10{sup 11} cm{sup –3}, typical of modern RF reactors. 1D and 2D numerical models based on the particle-in-cell method with Monte Carlo collisions for simulating ion motion and the Boltzmann equilibrium for electrons are developed to describe current collection by a probe. The models were used to find the plasma density from the ion part of the current–voltage characteristic, study the effect of ion collisions, and verify simplified approaches to determining the plasma density. A 1D hydrodynamic model of the ion current to a cylindrical probe with allowance for ion collisions is proposed. For a planar probe, a method to determine the plasma density from the averaged numerical results is developed. A comparative analysis of different approaches to calculating the plasma density from the ion current to a probe is performed.

  18. Photovoltaic Hall effect in graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oka, Takashi; Aoki, Hideo

    2009-02-01

    Response of electronic systems in intense lights (ac electric fields) to dc source-drain fields is formulated with the Floquet method. We have then applied the formalism to graphene, for which we show that a nonlinear effect of a circularly polarized light can open a gap in the Dirac cone, which is predicted to lead to a photoinduced dc Hall current. This is numerically confirmed for a graphene ribbon attached to electrodes with the Keldysh Green’s function.

  19. Experimental study of current loss and plasma formation in the Z machine post-hole convolute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. R. Gomez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Z pulsed-power generator at Sandia National Laboratories drives high energy density physics experiments with load currents of up to 26 MA. Z utilizes a double post-hole convolute to combine the current from four parallel magnetically insulated transmission lines into a single transmission line just upstream of the load. Current loss is observed in most experiments and is traditionally attributed to inefficient convolute performance. The apparent loss current varies substantially for z-pinch loads with different inductance histories; however, a similar convolute impedance history is observed for all load types. This paper details direct spectroscopic measurements of plasma density, temperature, and apparent and actual plasma closure velocities within the convolute. Spectral measurements indicate a correlation between impedance collapse and plasma formation in the convolute. Absorption features in the spectra show the convolute plasma consists primarily of hydrogen, which likely forms from desorbed electrode contaminant species such as H_{2}O, H_{2}, and hydrocarbons. Plasma densities increase from 1×10^{16}  cm^{−3} (level of detectability just before peak current to over 1×10^{17}  cm^{−3} at stagnation (tens of ns later. The density seems to be highest near the cathode surface, with an apparent cathode to anode plasma velocity in the range of 35–50  cm/μs. Similar plasma conditions and convolute impedance histories are observed in experiments with high and low losses, suggesting that losses are driven largely by load dynamics, which determine the voltage on the convolute.

  20. Effect of gun current on the microstructure and crystallinity of plasma sprayed hydroxyapatite coatings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morks, M.F. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan)]. E-mail: magdimorks@hotmail.com; Kobayashi, A. [Joining and Welding Research Institute, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, 567-0047 Osaka (Japan)

    2007-06-30

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a bioactive material because its chemical structure is close to the natural bone. Its bioactive properties make it attractive material in biomedical applications. Gas tunnel type plasma spraying (GTPS) technique was employed in the present study to deposit HA coatings on SUS 304 stainless steel substrate. GTPS is composed of two plasma sources: gun which produces internal low power plasma (1.3-8 kW) and vortex which produces the main plasma with high power level (10-40 kW). Controlling the spraying parameters is the key role for spraying high crystalline HA coatings on the metallic implants. In this study, the arc gun current was changed while the vortex arc current was kept constant at 450 A during the spraying process of HA coatings. The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of gun current on the microstructure, phase crystallinity and hardness properties of HA coatings. The surface morphology and microstructure of as-sprayed coatings were examined by scanning electron microscope. The phase structure of HA coatings was investigated by X-ray diffraction analysis. HA coatings sprayed at high gun current (100 A) are dense, and have high hardness. The crystallinity of HA coatings was decreased with the increasing in the gun current. On the other hand, the hardness was slightly decreased and the coatings suffer from some porosity at gun currents 0, 30 and 50 A.

  1. Field-aligned currents, plasma waves, and anomalous resistivity in the disturbed polar cusp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredricks, R. W.; Scarf, F. L.; Russell, C. T.

    1973-01-01

    During the magnetic storm of November 1, 1968, the Ogo 5 spacecraft encountered the polar cusp region at low magnetic latitudes. We show that the region just outside the last closed field lines contained a warm magnetosheath plasma, magnetic field perturbations interpretable as field-aligned current layers, and electrostatic waves possibly due to plasma instabilities driven by these currents. Estimates of anomalous resistivity extrapolated along the field lines due to these electrostatic waves lead to estimates of field-aligned potential drops between Ogo 5 and the ionosphere on the order of 2 kV.

  2. Conducting wall Hall thrusters in magnetic shielding and standard configurations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimaud, Lou; Mazouffre, Stéphane

    2017-07-01

    Traditional Hall thrusters are fitted with boron nitride dielectric discharge channels that confine the plasma discharge. Wall properties have significant effects on the performances and stability of the thrusters. In magnetically shielded thrusters, interactions between the plasma and the walls are greatly reduced, and the potential drop responsible for ion acceleration is situated outside the channel. This opens the way to the utilization of alternative materials for the discharge channel. In this work, graphite walls are compared to BN-SiO2 walls in the 200 W magnetically shielded ISCT200-MS and the unshielded ISCT200-US Hall thrusters. The magnetically shielded thruster shows no significant change in the discharge current mean value and oscillations, while the unshielded thruster's discharge current increases by 25% and becomes noticeably less stable. The electric field profile is also investigated through laser spectroscopy, and no significant difference is recorded between the ceramic and graphite cases for the shielded thruster. The unshielded thruster, on the other hand, has its acceleration region shifted 15% of the channel length downstream. Lastly, the plume profile is measured with planar probes fitted with guard rings. Once again the material wall has little influence on the plume characteristics in the shielded thruster, while the unshielded one is significantly affected.

  3. Spherical 3-Axis Hall Probe Array Calibration and Implementation for The Big Red Ball

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Jacob; E. Peterson Collaboration; D. Endrizzi Collaboration; M. Clark Collaboration; C. B. Forest Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    A 3-axis Helmholtz coil capable of producing 100 G magnetic fields at frequencies ranging from DC to 1 kHz has been built to calibrate an array of 3-axis hall probes. Accurate magnetic field measurements are necessary for diagnosing plasma equilibria and the presence of any MHD instabilities. The array will consist of three single-axis Hall sensors mounted orthogonally, each of which has a frequency response of 100 kHz and a sensitivity of 28mV/G. These probes will be placed on the inner surface of the machine to create a spherical array of sensors. Such an array will provide the necessary data to constrain plasma equilibrium parameters, such as current density and plasma pressure from ∇P = J × B . Understanding the plasma equilibrium, and large-scale magnetic fields is critical to understanding the dynamics involved in many phenomena, like the dynamo. Details on the design, calibration, and implementation of the three-axis Helmholtz coil and Hall sensors will be presented. DoE and NSF.

  4. High current multicharged metal ion source using high power gyrotron heating of vacuum arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodopyanov, A V; Golubev, S V; Khizhnyak, V I; Mansfeld, D A; Nikolaev, A G; Oks, E M; Savkin, K P; Vizir, A V; Yushkov, G Yu

    2008-02-01

    A high current, multi charged, metal ion source using electron heating of vacuum arc plasma by high power gyrotron radiation has been developed. The plasma is confined in a simple mirror trap with peak magnetic field in the plug up to 2.5 T, mirror ratio of 3-5, and length variable from 15 to 20 cm. Plasma formed by a cathodic vacuum arc is injected into the trap either (i) axially using a compact vacuum arc plasma gun located on axis outside the mirror trap region or (ii) radially using four plasma guns surrounding the trap at midplane. Microwave heating of the mirror-confined, vacuum arc plasma is accomplished by gyrotron microwave radiation of frequency 75 GHz, power up to 200 kW, and pulse duration up to 150 micros, leading to additional stripping of metal ions by electron impact. Pulsed beams of platinum ions with charge state up to 10+, a mean charge state over 6+, and total (all charge states) beam current of a few hundred milliamperes have been formed.

  5. Expansion of a multicomponent current-carrying plasma jet into vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krasov, V. I.; Paperny, V. L., E-mail: paperny@math.isu.runnet.ru [Irkutsk State University (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    An expression for the ion−ion coupling in a multicomponent plasma jet is derived for an arbitrary ratio between the thermal and relative velocities of the components. The obtained expression is used to solve the problem on the expansion of a current-carrying plasma microjet emitted from the cathode surface into vacuum. Two types of plasmas with two ion components are analyzed: (i) plasma in which the ion components of equal masses are in the charge states Z{sub 1}= +1 and Z{sub 2}= +2 and (ii) plasma with ions in equal charge states but with the mass ratio m{sub 1}/m{sub 2} = 2. It is shown that, for such plasmas, the difference between the velocities of the plasma components remains substantial (about 10% of the average jet velocity in case (i) and 15% in case (ii)) at distances of several centimeters from the emission center, where it can be measured experimentally, provided that its initial value at the emitting cathode surface exceeds a certain threshold. This effect is investigated as a function of the mass ratio and charge states of the ion components.

  6. The effects of Soret and Dufour, chemical reaction, Hall and ion currents on magnetized micropolar flow through co-rotating cylinders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraju Gajjela

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The influence of cross diffusions, Hall and Ion slip of a dissipative magnetized micropolar fluid flow through an infinite concentric rotating vertical cylinders were investigated in addition to the first order chemical reaction. Cylinders are taken into account for Isothermal (constant temperature wall condition and mixed gradient condition at inner cylinder, while convection cooling and constant wall concentration condition is taken at outer cylinder. The governing equations in cylindrical polar coordinates are coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs and are solved numerically with help of Shooting method with fourth order Runge Kutta method. A parametric study illustrating the influence of the emerging parameters on flow, heat and mass transfer components as well as on Skin Friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number through graphical illustrations.

  7. The effects of Soret and Dufour, chemical reaction, Hall and ion currents on magnetized micropolar flow through co-rotating cylinders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajjela, Nagaraju; Matta, Anjanna; Kaladhar, K.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of cross diffusions, Hall and Ion slip of a dissipative magnetized micropolar fluid flow through an infinite concentric rotating vertical cylinders were investigated in addition to the first order chemical reaction. Cylinders are taken into account for Isothermal (constant temperature wall condition) and mixed gradient condition at inner cylinder, while convection cooling and constant wall concentration condition is taken at outer cylinder. The governing equations in cylindrical polar coordinates are coupled ordinary differential equations (ODEs) and are solved numerically with help of Shooting method with fourth order Runge Kutta method. A parametric study illustrating the influence of the emerging parameters on flow, heat and mass transfer components as well as on Skin Friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number through graphical illustrations.

  8. Effect of Hall current and thermal radiation on heat and mass transfer of a chemically reacting MHD flow of a micropolar fluid through a porous medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. Oahimire

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Heat and mass transfer effects on an unsteady flow of a chemically reacting micropolar fluid over an infinite vertical porous plate through a porous medium in the presence of a transverse magnetic field with Hall effect and thermal radiation are studied. The governing system of partial differential equations is transformed to dimensionless equations using dimensionless variables. The dimensionless equations are then solved analytically using the perturbation technique to obtain the expressions for velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration. With the help of graphs, the effects of the various important parameters entering into the problem on the velocity, microrotation, temperature and concentration fields within the boundary layer are discussed. Also the effects of the pertinent parameters on the skin friction coefficient and rates of heat and mass transfer in terms of the Nusselt number and Sherwood number are presented numerically in a tabular form. The results show that the observed parameters have a significant influence on the flow, heat and mass transfer.

  9. Direct Current Magnetron Glow Discharge Plasma Characteristics Study for Controlled Deposition of Titanium Nitride Thin Film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankar Moni Borah

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on the study of direct current (DC magnetron glow discharge plasma characteristics in a cylindrical magnetron system in argon-nitrogen. Presence of nitrogen gas makes the plasma environment reactive, and it results in significant changes of the plasma properties—number density, electron temperature, floating potential, and sheath thickness. Applied magnetic field is a parameter which is closely related to proper deposition of thin film. Cylindrical Langmuir probe and Emissive probe are used as diagnostics for the estimation of various plasma parameters indicated earlier. Controlled titanium nitride (TiN thin film deposition on bell-metal at different argon-nitrogen gases ratio is another important study reported.

  10. Parametric analysis of magnetic islands subject to halo-current perturbation in disrupting tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanov, N. V.; Kakurin, A. M.

    2017-11-01

    Results of simulation and parametric analysis of magnetic island production by helical magnetic perturbation generated under non-axisymmetric halo current are presented. Predictions are made for a cylindrical ITER-size plasma in conditions of disruption. Calculations are carried out with the TEAR code based on the visco-resistive MHD approximation. The radial distribution of the magnetic flux perturbation is calculated with account of the external helical field produced by halo current. The equations for the magnetic flux perturbation describe the dynamics of the tearing mode depending on plasma rotation. In sequence, this rotation is affected by electromagnetic forces depending on the tearing mode magnetic field and external magnetic perturbation. The coupled diffusion-type equations for the helical flux function and for the plasma rotation velocity are numerically treated in a similar way. The magnetic island behavior is analyzed for different plasma parameters expected at the Current Quench stage of disruption. The calculated width of the produced magnetic islands extends to a significant part of plasma minor radius.

  11. Extreme Degree of Ionization in Homogenous Micro-Capillary Plasma Columns Heated by Ultrafast Current Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaria, G.; Grisham, M.; Li, J.; Tomasel, F. G.; Shlyaptsev, V. N.; Busquet, M.; Woolston, M.; Rocca, J. J.

    2015-03-01

    Homogeneous plasma columns with ionization levels typical of megaampere discharges are created by rapidly heating gas-filled 520 -μ m -diameter channels with nanosecond rise time current pulses of 40 kA. Current densities of up to 0.3 GA cm-2 greatly increase Joule heating with respect to conventional capillary discharge Z pinches, reaching unprecedented degrees of ionization for a high-Z plasma column heated by a current pulse of remarkably low amplitude. Dense xenon plasmas are ionized to Xe28 + , while xenon impurities in hydrogen discharges reach Xe30 + . The unique characteristics of these hot, ˜300 :1 length-to-diameter aspect ratio plasmas allow the observation of unexpected spectroscopic phenomena. Axial spectra show the unusual dominance of the intercombination line over the resonance line of He-like Al by nearly an order of magnitude, caused by differences in opacities in the axial and radial directions. These plasma columns could enable the development of sub-10-nm x-ray lasers.

  12. City Hall and Territorial Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Borrás Querol

    1999-10-01

    Full Text Available The current economic conditions impose a new role upon the local administration, a new one added to its traditional role as administrators of public services and managers of the local territory. City Halls are increasingly widening their action area to include spheres of interest that were previously not dealt with: fundamentally – jobs promotion and encouraging economic development. With respect to this, the article describes the important experience of the City Hall of Alcalá la Real (Jaén, whose trajectory of enacting strategies for local development are alternatives to the model of speculative development, strategies whose objective is to direct the potential for local community development by matching the interests of the citizens and the system of productivity in a balanced and sustainable manner, thereby contributing not only to the creation of new businesses and favoring the creation of jobs, but the advancement of territorial balance and social cohesion.

  13. RF generator interlock by plasma grid bias current - An alternate to Hα interlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandyopadhyay, M.; Gahlaut, A.; Yadav, R. K.; Pandya, K.; Tyagi, H.; Vupugalla, M.; Bhuyan, M.; Bhagora, J.; Chakraborty, A.

    2017-08-01

    ROBIN is inductively coupled plasma (ICP) based negative hydrogen ion source, operated with a 100kW, 1MHz Tetrode based RF generator (RFG). Inductive plasma ignition by the RFG in ROBIN is associated with electron seeding by a hot filament and a gas puff. RFG is triggered by the control system to deliver power just at the peak pressure of the gas puff. Once plasma is ignited due to proper impedance matching, a bright light, dominated by Hα (˜656nm wavelength) radiation is available inside RF driver which is used as a feedback signal to the RFG to continue its operation. If impedance matching is not correct, plasma is not produced due to lack of power coupling and bright light is not available. During such condition, reflected RF power may damage the RFG. Therefore, to protect the RFG, it needs to be switched off automatically within 200ms by the control system in such cases. This plasma light based RFG interlock is adopted from BATMAN ion source. However, in case of vacuum immersed RF ion source in reactor grade NBI system, such plasma light based interlock may not be feasible due to lack of adequate optical fiber interfaces. In reactor grade NBI system, neutron and gamma radiations have impact on materials which may lead to frequent maintenance and machine down time. The present demonstration of RFG interlock by Bias Current (BC) in ROBIN testbed gives an alternate option in this regard. In ROBIN, a bias plate (BP) is placed in the plasma chamber near the plasma grid (PG). BP is electrically connected to the plasma chamber wall of the ion source and PG is isolated from the wall. A high current ˜85 A direct current (DC) power supply of voltage in the range of 0 - 33V is connected between the PG and the BP in such a way that PG can be biased positively with respect to the BP or plasma chamber. This arrangement is actually made to absorb electrons and correspondingly reduce co-extracted electron current during beam extraction. However, in case of normal plasma

  14. Giant thermal Hall effect in multiferroics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideue, T.; Kurumaji, T.; Ishiwata, S.; Tokura, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Multiferroics, in which dielectric and magnetic orders coexist and couple with each other, attract renewed interest for their cross-correlated phenomena, offering a fundamental platform for novel functionalities. Elementary excitations in such systems are strongly affected by the lattice-spin interaction, as exemplified by the electromagnons and the magneto-thermal transport. Here we report an unprecedented coupling between magnetism and phonons in multiferroics, namely, the giant thermal Hall effect. The thermal transport of insulating polar magnets (ZnxFe1-x)2Mo3O8 is dominated by phonons, yet extremely sensitive to the magnetic structure. In particular, large thermal Hall conductivities are observed in the ferrimagnetic phase, indicating unconventional lattice-spin interactions and a new mechanism for the Hall effect in insulators. Our results show that the thermal Hall effect in multiferroic materials can be an effective probe for strong lattice-spin interactions and provide a new tool for magnetic control of thermal currents.

  15. Processes in current sheets responsible for fast energy conversion in the magnetospheric collisionless plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Kropotkin, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Dynamics of the magnetospheric plasma configuration intrinsically features intermittent slow and fast phases. The fast transition is a nonlinear process, loss of equilibrium which ends up the slow quasi-static evolution. The process is analysed as a dynamical bifurcation. It appears when marginal stability state is reached in the course of that evolution, either for tearing mode or for ballooning mode disturbances. The resulting force imbalance leads to spontaneous formation of nonlinear kinetic thin current structures. Those are either a pair of slow collisionless shocks or a specific anisotropic thin current sheet embedded in a thicker plasma sheet structure. Both are the sites of intense energy conversion, and they implement fast magnetic reconnection in the magnetospheric collisionless plasma.

  16. Plasma Emission Characteristics from a High Current Hollow Cathode in an Ion Thruster Discharge Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John E.; Patterson, Michael J.

    2002-01-01

    The presence of energetic ions produced by a hollow cathodes operating at high emission currents (greater than 5A) has been documented in the literature. In order to further elucidate these findings, an investigation of a high current cathode operating in an ion thruster discharge chamber has been undertaken. Using Langmuir probes, a low energy charged particle analyzer and emission spectroscopy, the behavior of the near-cathode plasma and the emitted ion energy distribution was characterized. The presence of energetic ions was confirmed. It was observed that these ions had energies in excess of the discharge voltage and thus cannot be simply explained by ions falling out of plasma through a potential difference of this order. Additionally, evidence provided by Langmuir probes suggests the existence of a double layer essentially separating the hollow cathode plasma column from the main discharge. The radial potential difference associated with this double layer was measured to be of order the ionization potential.

  17. Non-inductive Solenoid-less Plasma Current Start-up in NSTX Using Transient CHI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R; Jarboe, T R; Nelson, B A; Bell, M G; Ono, M; Bigelow, T; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Lee, K C; Maqueda, R; Menard, J; Paul, S

    2007-05-23

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been successfully used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for a demonstration of closed flux current generation without the use of the central solenoid. The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. CHI is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. The method has now produced closed flux current up to 160 kA verifying the high current capability of this method in a large ST built with conventional tokamak components.

  18. Electromagnetic analysis of ITER generic equatorial port plug designs during three plasma current disruption cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guirao, J., E-mail: julio@natec-ingenieros.com [Numerical Technologies, S. L., Marques de San Esteban No. 52, 33206 Gijon (Spain); Rodriguez, E. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Ordieres, J. [Numerical Technologies, S. L., Marques de San Esteban No. 52, 33206 Gijon (Spain); Cabanas, M.F.; Garcia, C.H. Rojas [Electrical Engineering Department, University of Oviedo, Campus de Viesques, 33203 Gijon (Spain)

    2012-02-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Electromagnetic transient performance evaluation of the GEPP structure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three different plasma current disruption cases: MD UP LIN36, VDE UP LIN36 and VDE DW LIN36 were analyzed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three DSM-First Wall (FW) designs (horizontal and vertical drawers and monoblock) were compared. - Abstract: Electromagnetic phenomena due to plasma current disruptions are the cause for the main mechanical operation loads over the ITER equatorial level port plug structures. This paper presents a detailed finite element simulation and analysis of the transient electromagnetic effects of three different plasma current disruption cases over three designs of diagnostic shielding module (DSM) structure. The DSMs are contained into and supported by the generic equatorial port plug (GEPP) analyzed structure. The three plasma disruption cases studied were: major disruption upwards linear decay in 36 ms (MD UP LIN36), vertical displacements events, upwards and downwards linear decay in 36 ms (VDE UP LIN36 and VDE DW LIN36). A detailed analysis for GEPP structure and three DSM-first wall (FW) designs (horizontal and vertical drawers and monoblock) is also presented in order to extract the Eddy current distribution on these devices and thus the resultant electromagnetic forces and moments acting on them.

  19. Energy Transport in Tokamak Plasmas with Central Current Density Control Using Fast Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, C.B.; Petty, C.C.; Austin, M.E.; Baity, F.W.; Burrell, K.H.; Chiu, S.C.; Chu, M.S.; deGrassie, J.S.; Gohil, P.; Hyatt, A.W.; Ikezi, H.; Lazarus, E.A.; Murakami, M.; Pinsker, R.I.; Porkolab, M.; Prater, R.; Rice, B.W.; Staebler, G.M.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.; Whyte, D.G. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-9784 (United States)]|[University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742-3280 (United States)]|[Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8071 (United States)]|[Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States)]|[Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551-9900 (United States)]|[Centre Canadien de Fusion Magnetique, Varennes, Quebec (Canada)

    1996-10-01

    Fast wave current drive has been used to substantially modify the central current density profile in a tokamak plasma. Counter-fast wave current drive (FWCD) applied to discharges with negative central magnetic shear enhances the shear reversal and leads to a distinct transition to a mode of improved core confinement. In this state, the electron thermal diffusivity decreases by (50{plus_minus}20){percent} and the ion diffusivity by (80{plus_minus}20){percent}, compared to just before the transition. The FWCD and electron heating elucidates the role of the current profile on confinement and stability. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  20. Transport of fast electrons in lower hybrid current drive plasmas in the HT-7 tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Z Y [Institute of Plasma Physics, College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Fang, D; Dai, F; Duan, Z Q; Zhu, J X; Sun, W M [Department of Physics, Yunnan Normal University, Kunming 650092 (China); Wan, B N; Shi, Y J, E-mail: chenzy1003@163.com [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefe 230031 (China)

    2011-04-15

    The transport of fast electrons in lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) plasmas in the HT-7 tokamak was investigated in this work. The evolution of fast electron bremsstrahlung emission profiles after switching off the lower hybrid power was analyzed. We found that the dynamics of the fast electrons is governed by the slowing-down process, and the current density profile can be controlled by LHCD in the HT-7 tokamak.

  1. FARADAY PLASMA CURRENT SENSOR WITH COMPENSATION FOR RECIPROCAL BIREFRINGENCE INDUCED BY MECHANICALPERTURBATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. O. Barmenkov

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available A Faraday fiber-optic current sensor was employed to measure the tokamak plasma current. In order todecrease the influence of mechanical perturbations on the sensor sensitivity, a two-pass optical scheme witha variable Faraday mirror at the fiber end is proposed. A decrease, by two orders of magnitude, in theinfluence of the linear birefringence produced by an external piezoceramic fiber modulator was experimentallyobserved.

  2. A High Performance Cathode Heater for Hall Thrusters Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — High current hollow cathodes are the baseline electron source for next generation high power Hall thrusters. Currently for electron sources providing current levels...

  3. Halls Lake 1990

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Salt marsh habitats along the shoreline of Halls Lake are threatened by wave erosion, but the reconstruction of barrier islands to reduce this erosion will modify or...

  4. A Theoretical Model of a Thinning Current Sheet in the Low-β Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshige, Satoshi; Takasao, Shinsuke; Shibata, Kazunari

    2015-07-01

    Magnetic reconnection is an important physical process in various explosive phenomena in the universe. In previous studies, it was found that fast reconnection takes place when the thickness of a current sheet becomes on the order of a microscopic length such as the ion Larmor radius or the ion inertial length. In this study, we investigated the pinching process of a current sheet by the Lorentz force in a low-β plasma using one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations. It is known that there is an exact self-similar solution for this problem that neglects gas pressure. We compared the non-linear MHD dynamics with the analytic self-similar solution. From the MHD simulations, we found that with the gas pressure included the implosion process deviates from the analytic self-similar solution as t\\to {t}0, where t0 is the explosion time when the thickness of a current sheet of the analytic solution becomes 0. We also found that a pair of MHD fast-mode shocks is generated and propagates after the formation of the pinched current sheet as t\\to {t}0. On the basis of the Rankine-Hugoniot relations, we derived the scaling law of the physical quantities with respect to the initial plasma beta in the pinched current sheet. Our study could help us estimate the physical quantities in the pinched current sheet formed in a low-β plasma.

  5. Direct-current cathodic vacuum arc system with magnetic-field mechanism for plasma stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H-S; Komvopoulos, K

    2008-07-01

    Filtered cathodic vacuum arc (FCVA) deposition is characterized by plasma beam directionality, plasma energy adjustment via substrate biasing, macroparticle filtering, and independent substrate temperature control. Between the two modes of FCVA deposition, namely, direct current (dc) and pulsed arc, the dc mode yields higher deposition rates than the pulsed mode. However, maintaining the dc arc discharge is challenging because of its inherent plasma instabilities. A system generating a special configuration of magnetic field that stabilizes the dc arc discharge during film deposition is presented. This magnetic field is also part of the out-of-plane magnetic filter used to focus the plasma beam and prevent macroparticle film contamination. The efficiency of the plasma-stabilizing magnetic-field mechanism is demonstrated by the deposition of amorphous carbon (a-C) films exhibiting significantly high hardness and tetrahedral carbon hybridization (sp3) contents higher than 70%. Such high-quality films cannot be produced by dc arc deposition without the plasma-stabilizing mechanism presented in this study.

  6. Current fundamental science challenges in low temperature plasma science that impact energy security and international competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebner, Greg

    2010-11-01

    Products and consumer goods that utilize low temperature plasmas at some point in their creation touch and enrich our lives on almost a continuous basis. Examples are many but include the tremendous advances in microelectronics and the pervasive nature of the internet, advanced material coatings that increase the strength and reliability of products from turbine engines to potato chip bags, and the recent national emphasis on energy efficient lighting and compact fluorescent bulbs. Each of these products owes their contributions to energy security and international competiveness to fundamental research investments. However, it would be a mistake to believe that the great commercial success of these products implies a robust understanding of the complicated interactions inherent in plasma systems. Rather, current development of the next generation of low temperature plasma enabled products and processes is clearly exposing a new set of exciting scientific challenges that require leaps in fundamental understanding and interdisciplinary research teams. Emerging applications such as liquid-plasma systems to improve water quality and remediate hazardous chemicals, plasma-assisted combustion to increase energy efficiency and reduce emissions, and medical applications promise to improve our lives and the environment only if difficult science questions are solved. This talk will take a brief look back at the role of low temperature plasma science in enabling entirely new markets and then survey the next generation of emerging plasma applications. The emphasis will be on describing the key science questions and the opportunities for scientific cross cutting collaborations that underscore the need for increased outreach on the part of the plasma science community to improve visibility at the federal program level. This work is supported by the DOE, Office of Science for Fusion Energy Sciences, and Sandia National Laboratories, a multi-program laboratory managed and operated

  7. General footage ISOLDE experimental hall

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.

  8. Measuring Plasma Formation Field Strength and Current Loss in Pulsed Power Diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, Mark D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Patel, Sonal G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Falcon, Ross Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cartwright, Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Kiefer, Mark L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Cuneo, Michael E. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States). Advanced Radiographic Technologies Dept.; Maron, Yitzhak [Weizmann Inst. of Science, Rehovot (Israel)

    2017-11-01

    This LDRD investigated plasma formation, field strength, and current loss in pulsed power diodes. In particular the Self-Magnetic Pinch (SMP) e-beam diode was studied on the RITS-6 accelerator. Magnetic fields of a few Tesla and electric fields of several MV/cm were measured using visible spectroscopy techniques. The magnetic field measurements were then used to determine the current distribution in the diode. This distribution showed that significant beam current extends radially beyond the few millimeter x-ray focal spot diameter. Additionally, shielding of the magnetic field due to dense electrode surface plasmas was observed, quantified, and found to be consistent with the calculated Spitzer resistivity. In addition to the work on RITS, measurements were also made on the Z-machine looking to quantify plasmas within the power flow regions. Measurements were taken in the post-hole convolute and final feed gap regions on Z. Dopants were applied to power flow surfaces and measured spectroscopically. These measurements gave species and density/temperature estimates. Preliminary B-field measurements in the load region were attempted as well. Finally, simulation work using the EMPHASIS, electromagnetic particle in cell code, was conducted using the Z MITL conditions. The purpose of these simulations was to investigate several surface plasma generations models under Z conditions for comparison with experimental data.

  9. Plasma characteristics in the discharge region of a 20 A emission current hollow cathode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mingming, SUN; Tianping, ZHANG; Xiaodong, WEN; Weilong, GUO; Jiayao, SONG

    2018-02-01

    Numerical calculation and fluid simulation methods were used to obtain the plasma characteristics in the discharge region of the LIPS-300 ion thruster’s 20 A emission current hollow cathode and to verify the structural design of the emitter. The results of the two methods indicated that the highest plasma density and electron temperature, which improved significantly in the orifice region, were located in the discharge region of the hollow cathode. The magnitude of plasma density was about 1021 m‑3 in the emitter and orifice regions, as obtained by numerical calculations, but decreased exponentially in the plume region with the distance from the orifice exit. Meanwhile, compared to the emitter region, the electron temperature and current improved by about 36% in the orifice region. The hollow cathode performance test results were in good agreement with the numerical calculation results, which proved that that the structural design of the emitter and the orifice met the requirements of a 20 A emission current. The numerical calculation method can be used to estimate plasma characteristics in the preliminary design stage of hollow cathodes.

  10. Influence of thermal radiation and heat generation/absorption on MHD heat transfer flow of a micropolar fluid past a wedge considering hall and ion slip currents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uddin Ziya

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a numerical model is developed to examine the effect of thermal radiation on magnetohydrodynamic heat transfer flow of a micropolar fluid past a non-conducting wedge in presence of heat source/sink. In the model it is assumed that the fluid is viscous, incompressible and electrically conducting. The Hall and ion slip effects have also been taken into consideration. The model contains highly non-linear coupled partial differential equations which have been converted into ordinary differential equation by using the similarity transformations. These equations are then solved numerically by Shooting technique along with the Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg integration scheme for entire range of parameters with appropriate boundary conditions. The effects of various parameters involved in the problem have been studied with the help of graphs. Numerical values of skin friction coefficients and Nusselt number are presented in tabular form. The results showed that the micropolar fluids are better to reduce local skin drag as compared to Newtonian fluids and the presence of heat sink increases the heat transfer rate.

  11. Characterization of the plasma current quench during disruptions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerhardt, S.P., Menard, J.E., and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-12-17

    A detailed analysis of the plasma current quench in the National Spherical Torus Experiment [M.Ono, et al Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] is presented. The fastest current quenches are fit better by a linear waveform than an exponential one. Area-normalized current quench times down to .4 msec/m2 have been observed, compared to the minimum of 1.7 msec/m2 recommendation based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks; as noted in previous ITPA studies, the difference can be explained by the reduced self-inductance at low aspect ratio and high-elongation. The maximum instantaneous dIp/dt is often many times larger than the mean quench rate, and the plasma current before the disruption is often substantially less than the flat-top value. The poloidal field time-derivative during the disruption, which is directly responsible for driving eddy currents, has been recorded at various locations around the vessel. The Ip quench rate, plasma motion, and magnetic geometry all play important roles in determining the rate of poloidal field change.

  12. Study on the influences of ionization region material arrangement on Hall thruster channel discharge characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, HU; Ping, DUAN; Jilei, SONG; Wenqing, LI; Long, CHEN; Xingyu, BIAN

    2018-02-01

    There exists strong interaction between the plasma and channel wall in the Hall thruster, which greatly affects the discharge performance of the thruster. In this paper, a two-dimensional physical model is established based on the actual size of an Aton P70 Hall thruster discharge channel. The particle-in-cell simulation method is applied to study the influences of segmented low emissive graphite electrode biased with anode voltage on the discharge characteristics of the Hall thruster channel. The influences of segmented electrode placed at the ionization region on electric potential, ion number density, electron temperature, ionization rate, discharge current and specific impulse are discussed. The results show that, when segmented electrode is placed at the ionization region, the axial length of the acceleration region is shortened, the equipotential lines tend to be vertical with wall at the acceleration region, thus radial velocity of ions is reduced along with the wall corrosion. The axial position of the maximal electron temperature moves towards the exit with the expansion of ionization region. Furthermore, the electron-wall collision frequency and ionization rate also increase, the discharge current decreases and the specific impulse of the Hall thruster is slightly enhanced.

  13. Fluid modeling of radio frequency and direct currents in a biased magnetized plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faudot, E.; Heuraux, S. [IJL-P2M UMR 7198 CNRS, F-54506 Vandoeuvre les Nancy, IJL, P2M-Faculte des Sciences, Vandoeuvre les Nancy 54506 (France); Kubic, M.; Gunn, J.; Colas, L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2013-04-15

    This model aims at simulating a magnetized plasma column connected on one side to a probe and on the other side to an ICRH (Ion Cyclotron Resonant Heating) antenna. This is a double probe modeling of a plasma flux tube exchanging perpendicular currents: rf polarization current and dc currents (inertia, viscous, and friction) perpendicular to the magnetic field. A self consistent solution for the rectified potential and the density is obtained under the assumptions of flute hypothesis, inertialess electrons, and no collision in parallel direction. The main effect of rf biasing on the antenna side is to shift the IV characteristic so that the floating potential can be increased up to ln(I{sub 0}(eV{sub rf}/(k{sub B}T{sub e}))), with I{sub 0} the modified Bessel function of the first kind. On the contrary, the effect of dc currents is to decrease the plasma potential and the sheath potential which can be lower than 3k{sub B}T{sub e}/e or even be negative. Experimental characteristics are well matched by the 1D fluid code and exhibit very high negative currents (more than 30 j{sub i} the ion saturation current) for high positive biasing of the probe and for long flux tube (10 m). The non-saturation of the electron current is here due to high transverse transport enhanced by convective fluxes and dc currents able to bring an amount of density around the biased flux tube. During comparisons with experiments, the floating potential measured by a reciprocating probe is recovered by the code revealing that for a 120 V measured peak potential on the probe, the rf potential on the ICRH antenna is twice this value. Finally, the density profile can be flattened or steepened as a function of the transverse dc current direction.

  14. Reconstruction of the ion plasma parameters from the current measurements: mathematical tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Séran

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available Instrument d’Analyse du Plasma (IAP is one of the instruments of the newly prepared ionospheric mission Demeter. This analyser was developed to measure flows of thermal ions at the altitude of ~ 750 km and consists of two parts: (i retarding potential analyser (APR, which is utilised to measure the energy distribution of the ion plasma along the sensor look direction, and (ii velocity direction analyser (ADV, which is used to measure the arrival angle of the ion flow with respect to the analyser axis. The necessity to obtain quick and precise estimates of the ion plasma parameters has prompted us to revise the existing mathematical tool and to investigate different instrumental limitations, such as (i finite angular aperture, (ii grid transparency, (iii potential depression in the space between the grid wires, (iv losses of ions during their passage between the entrance diaphragm and the collector. Simple analytical expressions are found to fit the currents, which are measured by the APR and ADV collectors, and show a very good agreement with the numerical solutions. It was proven that the fitting of the current with the model functions gives a possibility to properly resolve even minor ion concentrations and to find the arrival angles of the ion flow in the multi-species plasma. The discussion is illustrated by an analysis of the instrument response in the ionospheric conditions which are predicted by the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI model.Key words. Ionosphere (plasma convection; instruments and techniques – Space plasma physics (experimental and mathematical techniques

  15. Effects of the current boundary conditions at the plasma-gun gap on density in SSPX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesnikov, Roman; Lodestro, L. L.; Meyer, W. H.

    2012-10-01

    The Sustained Spheromak Physics Experiment (SSPX) was a toroidal magnetic-confinement device without toroidal magnetic-field coils or a central transformer but which generated core-plasma currents by dynamo processes driven by coaxial plasma-gun injection into a flux-conserving vessel. Record electron temperatures in a spheromak (Te˜500eV) were achieved, and final results of the SSPX program were reported in [1]. Plasma density, which depended strongly on wall conditions, was an important parameter in SSPX. It was observed that density rises with Igun and that confinement improved as the density was lowered. Shortly after the last experiments, a new feature was added to the Corsica code's solver used to reconstruct SSPX equilibria. Motivated by n=0 fields observed in NIMROD simulations of SSPX, an insulating boundary condition was implemented at the plasma-gun gap. Using this option we will perform new reconstructions of SSPX equilibria and look for correlations between the location of the separatrix (which moves up the gun wall and onto the insulating gap as Igun increases) and plasma density and magnetic-flux amplification [2].[4pt] [1] H. S. McLean, APS, DPP, Dallas, TX, 2008.[0pt] [2] E. B. Hooper et al., Nucl. Fusion 47, 1064 (2007).

  16. Eddy current induced electromagnetic loads on shield blankets during plasma disruptions in ITER: A benchmark exercise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Duck-Hoi [ITER Korea: National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Dong-Keun, E-mail: spinhalf@nfri.re.k [ITER Korea: National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Pak, Sunil; Jhang, Hogun [ITER Korea: National Fusion Research Institute, Gwahangno 113, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jaeyoul [Tae Sung S and E Inc., Yongsan-dong 575, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Rozov, Vladimir [ITER Organization, Cadarache, F-13108 St. Paul-lez-Durance (France)

    2010-12-15

    According to recent updates of ITER shield blanket design, electromagnetic loads during the plasma disruption are being evaluated to verify the mechanical confidence and reliability. As a course of such evaluations, a benchmark activity for the electromagnetic analysis, coordinated by ITER Organization, is underway between ITER parties to compare the calculation results for disruption loads on the blankets. In this paper, we present calculation results for the electromagnetic loads on the simplified but practical model of ITER shield blankets with respect to six representative disruption scenarios of which ITER distributes simulation results based on the DINA code as a reference of the design and analysis. Commercial finite element method software, ANSYS/Emag{sup TM}, was employed to evaluate the eddy current on the blanket modules with the 40{sup o} sector model for major conducting structure of the tokamak including double-walled vacuum vessel, triangular support, and vertical targets of divertors. An interface between ANSYS/Emag{sup TM} and plasma simulator was implemented with a conversion tool assigning the plasma current density on the ANSYS elements corresponding to the current filaments in DINA outputs. Discussions are made of the possible improvement of the blanket model taking more realistic blanket configuration into account at the cost of the moderate increase in computational time. A final remark is given of the possibility of incorporating halo currents into ANSYS disruption simulations, which are major sources of electromagnetic loads on in-vessel components including blankets.

  17. Surface currents on the plasma-vacuum interface in MHD equilibria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, James

    2017-10-01

    The VMEC non-axisymmetric MHD equilibrium code can compute free-boundary equilibria. Since VMEC assumes that magnetic fields within the plasma form closed and nested flux surfaces, the plasma-vacuum interface is a flux surface, and the total magnetic field there has no normal component. VMEC imposes this condition of zero normal field using the potential formulation of Merkel, and solves a Neumann problem for the magnetic potential in the exterior region. This boundary condition necessarily admits the possibility of a surface current on the interface. While this surface current may be small in MHD equilibrium, it is readily computed in terms of the magnetic potentials in both the interior and exterior regions, evaluated on the surface. If only the external magnetic potential is known (as in VMEC), then the surface current can be computed from the discontinuity of the tangential field across the interface. Examples of the surface current for VMEC equilibria will be shown for a zero-pressure stellarator equilibrium. Field-line following of the vacuum magnetic field shows magnetic islands within the plasma region.

  18. Current sheet with medium scale developed turbulence and the formation of the plasma sheet of earth's magnetosphere and solar prominences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonova, E. E.; Ovchinnikov, I. L.

    1997-01-01

    A current sheet model with developed medium scale turbulence has been constructed. It is suggested that regular plasma flow in the current sheet is compensated by diffusive flux and plasma mixing, leading to temperature equalization. The analyzed turbulence has the form of electrostatic vortices in which electrons and ions move with the same velocities and hence does not lead to anomalous resistivity and current dissipation. It is possible to determine the plasma pressure dependence on magnetic vector potential and to find the Grad--Shafranov equation solutions. The theory is used to explain the Earth's magnetosphere plasma sheet characteristics. It is taken into account that experimentally observed plasma velocity fluctuations in the Earth's plasma sheet and quiescent prominences are much higher than regular plasma flow velocities. The analysis of turbulent current sheet dynamics after the regular motion weakening allows to construct the prominence formation theory. The decreasing of plasma pressure in the sheet due to diffusion leads to field-aligned plasma flow and plasma tube filling by cold chromospheric plasma by the action of siphon mechanism.

  19. Ultralow switching current in HfOx/ZnO bilayer with tunable switching power enabled by plasma treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yunfeng; Zeng, Zecun; Liao, Chenghao; Cheng, Shuying; Yu, Jinling; Zheng, Qiao; Lin, Peijie

    2016-08-01

    Decreasing switching power of a memory cell to meet demands of further downsizing is feasible with several methods. However, effects of plasma treatment on switching current and power are scarcely investigated. We therefore replaced traditional single storage layer with a HfOx/ZnO bilayer and also treated its interface with argon plasma. The switching current could be suppressed to μA due to a Schottky barrier at the HfOx/ZnO interface. Additionally, argon plasma treatment on the interface enables tunability of switching power and current, which is attributed to the tunable barrier height with the absorbed oxygen species introduced by plasma treatment.

  20. Space-charge effects in ultrahigh current electron bunches generated by laser-plasma accelerators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. J. Grüner

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in laser-plasma accelerators, including the generation of GeV-scale electron bunches, enable applications such as driving a compact free-electron laser (FEL. Significant reduction in size of the FEL is facilitated by the expected ultrahigh peak beam currents (10–100 kA generated in laser-plasma accelerators. At low electron energies such peak currents are expected to cause space-charge effects such as bunch expansion and induced energy variations along the bunch, potentially hindering the FEL process. In this paper we discuss a self-consistent approach to modeling space-charge effects for the regime of laser-plasma-accelerated ultracompact electron bunches at low or moderate energies. Analytical treatments are considered as well as point-to-point particle simulations, including the beam transport from the laser-plasma accelerator through focusing devices and the undulator. In contradiction to non-self-consistent analyses (i.e., neglecting bunch evolution, which predict a linearly growing energy chirp, we have found the energy chirp reaches a maximum and decreases thereafter. The impact of the space-charge induced chirp on FEL performance is discussed and possible solutions are presented.

  1. Impurities in a non-axisymmetric plasma: Transport and effect on bootstrap current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mollén, A., E-mail: albertm@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, Göteborg (Sweden); Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Landreman, M. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); Smith, H. M.; Helander, P. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); Braun, S. [Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 17491 Greifswald (Germany); German Aerospace Center, Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics, Pfaffenwaldring 38-40, D-70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-11-15

    Impurities cause radiation losses and plasma dilution, and in stellarator plasmas the neoclassical ambipolar radial electric field is often unfavorable for avoiding strong impurity peaking. In this work we use a new continuum drift-kinetic solver, the SFINCS code (the Stellarator Fokker-Planck Iterative Neoclassical Conservative Solver) [M. Landreman et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 042503 (2014)] which employs the full linearized Fokker-Planck-Landau operator, to calculate neoclassical impurity transport coefficients for a Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) magnetic configuration. We compare SFINCS calculations with theoretical asymptotes in the high collisionality limit. We observe and explain a 1/ν-scaling of the inter-species radial transport coefficient at low collisionality, arising due to the field term in the inter-species collision operator, and which is not found with simplified collision models even when momentum correction is applied. However, this type of scaling disappears if a radial electric field is present. We also use SFINCS to analyze how the impurity content affects the neoclassical impurity dynamics and the bootstrap current. We show that a change in plasma effective charge Z{sub eff} of order unity can affect the bootstrap current enough to cause a deviation in the divertor strike point locations.

  2. Plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition for YBCO film fabrication of superconducting fault-current limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jun, Byung Hyuk; Kim, Chan Joong

    2006-05-15

    Since the high-temperature superconductor of oxide type was founded, many researches and efforts have been performed for finding its application field. The YBCO superconducting film fabricated on economic metal substrate with uniform critical current density is considered as superconducting fault-current limiter (SFCL). There are physical and chemical processes to fabricate superconductor film, and it is understood that the chemical methods are more economic to deposit large area. Among them, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a promising deposition method in obtaining film uniformity. To solve the problems due to the high deposition temperature of thermal CVD, plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) is suggested. This report describes the principle and fabrication trend of SFCL, example of YBCO film deposition by PECVD method, and principle of plasma deposition.

  3. Analytical model of fast ion behavior in current hole tokamak plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoepf, K.; Yavorskij, V.; Goloborod' ko, V.; Neururer, P. [Innsbruck Univ., Institute for Theoretical Physics, Association EURATOM-OEAW (Austria); Goloborod' ko, V. [Ukrainian Academy of Sciences, Kiev Institute for Nuclear Research, Kiev (Ukraine)

    2004-07-01

    Though a current hole (CH) regime is recognized to provide better detention of the bulk plasma, it may negatively act on the confinement of fast ions such as fusion products and neutral beam injected ions. Since, however, the transport properties of these energetic particles determine the heating profiles and the power loading upon the first wall, and therefore are of crucial importance in a fusion reactor, we examine here analytically the CH effects on the fast ion behavior in a tokamak. For that we employ a simplified model based on an analytical approximation of the poloidal flux function allowing for a complete characterization of possible orbit topologies. In the constants-of-motion space we determine the confinement domains for the different types of ion orbits, calculate the CH induced alterations of the fast ion transport and derive the distribution of neutral beam injected ions for a specific JET current hole plasma scenario.

  4. Effect of Gun Current on Electrical Properties of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Lanthanum Silicate Coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Liao, Han-Lin; Coddet, Christian

    2013-10-01

    Apatite-type lanthanum silicate (ATLS) electrolyte coatings for use in intermediate-temperature solid oxide fuel cells were deposited by atmospheric plasma spraying (APS). Plasma-sprayed coatings with typical composition La10(SiO4)6O3 exhibiting good densification and high oxide ionic conductivity were obtained by properly adjusting the spraying parameters, particularly the gun current. The highest obtained ionic conductivity value of 3.3 mS/cm at 1,173 K in air is comparable to other ATLS conductors. This work demonstrated empirically that utilization of the APS technique is feasible to synthesize dense La10(SiO4)6O3 electrolyte coatings using gun currents within an unusually broad range.

  5. Transverse emittance and current of multi-GeV trapped electrons in a plasma wakefield accelerator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kirby

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Multi-GeV trapped electron bunches in a plasma wakefield accelerator (PWFA are observed with normalized transverse emittance divided by peak current, ϵ_{N,x}/I_{t}, below the level of 0.2  μm/kA. A theoretical model of the trapped electron emittance, developed here, indicates that emittance scales inversely with the square root of the plasma density in the nonlinear “bubble” regime of the PWFA. This model and simulations indicate that the observed values of ϵ_{N,x}/I_{t} result from multi-GeV trapped electron bunches with emittances of a few  μm and multi-kA peak currents.

  6. Multi-Inputs/Multi-Outputs control of plasma current and loop voltage on Tore Supra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nouailletas, R., E-mail: remy.nouailletas@cea.fr [CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France); Barana, O.; Saint-Laurent, F.; Brémond, S.; Moreau, P.; Ekedahl, A.; Artaud, J.-F. [CEA, F-13108 Saint Paul lez Durance (France)

    2013-10-15

    During a tokamak discharge, several control modes may have to be run in sequence in order to perform the control of the different discharge phases. The transitions between these control modes are not always easy to handle because in most cases the coupling between the controlled plasma quantities is not taken into account in each control mode design process. This paper presents a new Multi-Inputs/Multi-Outputs (MIMO) controller applied on Tore Supra to control both plasma current and flux variations through the central solenoid voltage and the lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) system power. It deals with the transition from a loop voltage floating mode to a loop voltage control mode. The controller, synthesized and tuned using a model-based approach, has been validated in simulation before its successful implementation on Tore Supra experiments.

  7. Current distribution measurements inside an electromagnetic plasma gun operated in a gas-puff mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poehlmann, Flavio R; Cappelli, Mark A; Rieker, Gregory B

    2010-12-01

    Measurements are presented of the time-dependent current distribution inside a coaxial electromagnetic plasma gun. The measurements are carried out using an array of six axially distributed dual-Rogowski coils in a balanced circuit configuration. The radial current distributions indicate that operation in the gas-puff mode, i.e., the mode in which the electrode voltage is applied before injection of the gas, results in a stationary ionization front consistent with the presence of a plasma deflagration. The effects of varying the bank capacitance, transmission line inductance, and applied electrode voltage were studied over the range from 14 to 112 μF, 50 to 200 nH, and 1 to 3 kV, respectively.

  8. Mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations in direct current glow discharges and in dusty plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Cho, Sung Nae

    2013-01-01

    An alternative explanation to the mechanism behind self-sustained oscillations of ions in direct current (DC) glow discharges is provided. Such description is distinguished from the one provided by fluid models, where oscillations are attributed to positive feedback mechanism associated with photoionization of particles and photoemission of electrons from the cathode. Here, oscillations arise as consequence of interaction between an ion and surface charges induced by it at the bounding electrodes. Such mechanism provides an elegant explanation to why self-sustained oscillations occur only in the negative resistance region of the voltage-current characteristic curve in DC glow discharges. It is found that oscillation frequencies increase with ion's surface charge density, but at the rate which is significantly slower than it does with electric field. The presented mechanism also describes the self-sustained oscillations of ions in dusty plasmas, demonstrating that oscillations in dusty plasmas and DC glow disc...

  9. Quantum Hall effect in multi-terminal suspended graphene devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahari, Fereshte; Zhao, Yue; Bolotin, Kirill; Kim, Philip

    2010-03-01

    The integer and fractional quantum hall effects have been already observed in two terminal suspended graphene devices. However in this two probe device geometry, mixing between magnetoresistance ρxx and Hall resistance ρxy for incompletely developed quantum Hall states leads to substantial deviation of conductance plateaus values. In this talk, we present the experimental results from four terminal suspended graphene devices. The quality of quantum Hall effect will be discussed in muti-terminal device geometry in conjunction with the current-induced annealing process to improve the quality of graphene samples.

  10. A uniform laminar air plasma plume with large volume excited by an alternating current voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xuechen; Bao, Wenting; Chu, Jingdi; Zhang, Panpan; Jia, Pengying

    2015-12-01

    Using a plasma jet composed of two needle electrodes, a laminar plasma plume with large volume is generated in air through an alternating current voltage excitation. Based on high-speed photography, a train of filaments is observed to propagate periodically away from their birth place along the gas flow. The laminar plume is in fact a temporal superposition of the arched filament train. The filament consists of a negative glow near the real time cathode, a positive column near the real time anode, and a Faraday dark space between them. It has been found that the propagation velocity of the filament increases with increasing the gas flow rate. Furthermore, the filament lifetime tends to follow a normal distribution (Gaussian distribution). The most probable lifetime decreases with increasing the gas flow rate or decreasing the averaged peak voltage. Results also indicate that the real time peak current decreases and the real time peak voltage increases with the propagation of the filament along the gas flow. The voltage-current curve indicates that, in every discharge cycle, the filament evolves from a Townsend discharge to a glow one and then the discharge quenches. Characteristic regions including a negative glow, a Faraday dark space, and a positive column can be discerned from the discharge filament. Furthermore, the plasma parameters such as the electron density, the vibrational temperature and the gas temperature are investigated based on the optical spectrum emitted from the laminar plume.

  11. Quasi-steady multiple flux tubes induced by localized current perturbation in toroidal plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Gunsu

    2015-11-01

    Quasi-steady helical modes with dual, triple, or more flux tubes are easily produced by localized current drive in the core of sawtoothing plasma on the KSTAR tokamak. Individual flux tubes have m / n = 1 / 1 helicity, co-rotate around the magnetic axis, and later merge into a single m = 1 mode. The merged mode eventually crashes with rapid collapse of the core pressure and the next cycle repeats the same pattern, exhibiting sawtooth-like oscillations in the core pressure. The generation mechanism of multiple flux tubes (MFTs) has been studied in two different approaches to understand the observed trend that the number of flux tubes increases as the current drive location moves away from the magnetic axis up to about the magnetic surface of the safety factor q = 1 at the mode collapse: (1) nonlinear reduced MHD simulation with a localized current source modeling the time-varying interaction between the current source and flux tubes and (2) linear MHD simulation with a prescribed q profile with a radially localized current blip. Both studies show that MFTs can be produced only in plasmas with nearly flat q profile close to unity, suggesting the collapse of the m = 1 mode (i.e., sawtooth crash) is complete. Recent observation of long-lived MFTs induced by localized current drive in non-sawtoothing plasma suggests that q profile evolution toward lower- m instability is required for the merging and crash of MFTs. Work supported by the National Research Foundation of Korea, US D.O.E., and Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  12. L-mode filament characteristics on MAST as a function of plasma current measured using visible imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Kirk, A; Harrison, J R; Militello, F; Walkden, N R

    2016-01-01

    Clear filamentary structures are observed at the edge of tokamak plasmas. These filaments are ejected out radially and carry plasma in the far Scrape Off Layer (SOL) region, where they are responsible for producing most of the transport. A study has been performed of the characteristics of the filaments observed in L-mode plasma on MAST, using visible imaging. A comparison has then been made with the observed particle and power profiles obtained at the divertor as a function of the plasma current. The radial velocity and to a lesser extent the radial size of the filaments are found to decrease as the plasma current is increased at constant density and input power. The results obtained in this paper on the dependence of the average filament dynamics on plasma current are consistent with the idea that the filaments are responsible for determining the particle profiles at the divertor.

  13. Asymmetric nonlinear response of the quantized Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiki, A.; Horas, J.; Kupidura, D.; Wegscheider, W.; Ludwig, S.

    2010-11-01

    An asymmetric breakdown of the integer quantized Hall effect (IQHE) is investigated. This rectification effect is observed as a function of the current value and its direction in conjunction with an asymmetric lateral confinement potential defining the Hall bar. Our electrostatic definition of the Hall bar via Schottky gates allows a systematic control of the steepness of the confinement potential at the edges of the Hall bar. A softer edge (flatter confinement potential) results in more stable Hall plateaus, i.e. a breakdown at a larger current density. For one soft and one hard edge, the breakdown current depends on its direction, resembling rectification. This nonlinear magneto-transport effect confirms the predictions of an emerging screening theory of the IQHE.

  14. Experimental Study of Low Density Quantum Hall Fabry-Perot Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinskis, Simas; An, Sanghun; Kang, Woowon; Ocola, Leonidas; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken; Baldwin, Kirk

    2015-03-01

    In this talk we report on study of interference oscillations observed in Fabry-Perot 1 . 5 μm diameter interferometers fabricated from low density, high mobility AlGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. The Fabry-Perot interferometers were fabricated using e-beam lithography and inductively coupled plasma etching to minimize sample damage. Optimization of the quantum point contacts were made by systematically varying the etching depth and monitoring the resistance of the device. So far we have been able to detect clear interference oscillations which are observed at integer quantum Hall states. The interference oscillations occur in the low magnetic field side of the Hall plateaus when there is substantial backscattering at the quantum point contacts. A linear relationship between filled Landau levels and oscillation frequencies establishes that our interferometers are in the Coulomb dominated regime described by the interacting model of quantum Hall Fabry-Perot interferometers. Study of interference oscillations in the fractional quantum Hall states are currently under progress and will be discussed.

  15. Pressure and energy balance of stagnating plasmas in z-pinch experiments: implications to current flow at stagnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maron, Y; Starobinets, A; Fisher, V I; Kroupp, E; Osin, D; Fisher, A; Deeney, C; Coverdale, C A; Lepell, P D; Yu, E P; Jennings, C; Cuneo, M E; Herrmann, M C; Porter, J L; Mehlhorn, T A; Apruzese, J P

    2013-07-19

    Detailed spectroscopic diagnostics of the stagnating plasma in two disparate z pinches allow, for the first time, the examination of the plasma properties within a 1D shock wave picture, demonstrating a good agreement with this picture. The conclusion is that for a wide range of imploding-plasma masses and current amplitudes, in experiments optimizing non-Planckian hard radiation yields, contrary to previous descriptions the stagnating plasma pressure is balanced by the implosion pressure, and the radiation energy is provided by the imploding-plasma kinetic energy, rather than by the magnetic-field pressure and magnetic-field-energy dissipation, respectively.

  16. 3D nonlinear numerical simulation of the current-convective instability in detached diverter plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanenko, Alexander; Krasheninnikov, Sergei

    2017-10-01

    One of the possible mechanisms responsible for strong radiation fluctuations observed in the recent experiments with detached plasmas at ASDEX Upgrade [Potzel et al., Nuclear Fusion, 2014] can be related to the onset of the current-convective instability (CCI) driven by strong asymmetry of detachment in the inner and outer tokamak divertors [Krasheninnikov and Smolyakov, PoP, 2016]. In this study we present the first results of 3D nonlinear numerical simulations of the CCI in divertor plasma for the conditions relevant to the AUG experiment. The general physical model used to simulate the CCI, qualitative estimates for the instability characteristic growth rate and transverse wavelengths derived for plasma, which is spatially inhomogeneous both across and along the magnetic field lines, are presented. The simulation results, demonstrating nonlinear dynamics of the CCI, provide the frequency spectra of turbulent divertor plasma fluctuations showing good agreement with the available experimental data. This material is based upon the work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Award No. DE-FG02-04ER54739 at UCSD and by the Russian Ministry of Education and Science Grant No. 14.Y26.31.0008 at MEPhI.

  17. Experimental Estimation for Beat-Wave Current Generation in an Unmagnetized Plasma and Preliminary Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fei; Horton, Robert; Hwang, David; Zhu, Ben; Evans, Russell

    2009-11-01

    Beat-wave current generation experiment in a high density compact torus (CT) is being conducted on CTIX using CO2 lasers. Tunability of the CO2 lasers provides many options for the wave-particle interaction experiment at a variety of plasma densities with plasma frequency in THz range. For example strong lines such as 9R(12) and 9R(30) could be chosen for an easily obtainable density of 1.28x10^15cm-3. After restoration, two Lumonics CO2 lasers are expected to produce approximately 100MW output power in a 50ns pulse. The amount of energy transfer from laser to plasma is determined by the laser power intensity, and by the CT density scale length [1]. The desired power density can be achieved by designing a suitable optical focusing system. In addition, the CT density can be matched to the beat-wave frequency by appropriately selecting the plasma operating conditions and timing. Extensive testing of the Marx banks and pre-ionization boards was done under a variety of operating conditions. Other preliminary results and plans for the wave-particle interaction experiment will also be reported. [1] A. N. Kaufman, B. I. Cohen, PRL, 30 1306 (1973)

  18. Mode Transitions in Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekerak, Michael J.; Longmier, Benjamin W.; Gallimore, Alec D.; Brown, Daniel L.; Hofer, Richard R.; Polk, James E.

    2013-01-01

    Mode transitions have been commonly observed in Hall Effect Thruster (HET) operation where a small change in a thruster operating parameter such as discharge voltage, magnetic field or mass flow rate causes the thruster discharge current mean value and oscillation amplitude to increase significantly. Mode transitions in a 6-kW-class HET called the H6 are induced by varying the magnetic field intensity while holding all other operating parameters constant and measurements are acquired with ion saturation probes and ultra-fast imaging. Global and local oscillation modes are identified. In the global mode, the entire discharge channel oscillates in unison and azimuthal perturbations (spokes) are either absent or negligible. Downstream azimuthally spaced probes show no signal delay between each other and are very well correlated to the discharge current signal. In the local mode, signals from the azimuthally spaced probes exhibit a clear delay indicating the passage of "spokes" and are not well correlated to the discharge current. These spokes are localized oscillations propagating in the ExB direction that are typically 10-20% of the mean value. In contrast, the oscillations in the global mode can be 100% of the mean value. The transition between global and local modes occurs at higher relative magnetic field strengths for higher mass flow rates or higher discharge voltages. The thrust is constant through mode transition but the thrust-to-power decreased by 25% due to increasing discharge current. The plume shows significant differences between modes with the global mode significantly brighter in the channel and the near-field plasma plume as well as exhibiting a luminous spike on thruster centerline. Mode transitions provide valuable insight to thruster operation and suggest improved methods for thruster performance characterization.

  19. Magnetic diagnostics: general principles and the problem of reconstruction of plasma current and pressure profiles in toroidal systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pustovitov, V.D.

    2000-04-01

    The restrictions of the magnetic diagnostics are discussed. Being related to the integral nature of the measurable quantities, they follow from the fundamental laws of electromagnetism. A series of particular examples demonstrating the strength of these restrictions is given and analyzed. A general rule is emphasized that the information obtained from external magnetic measurements is obviously insufficient for the reliable evaluation of plasma current and pressure profiles in tokamaks or in stellarators. The underlying reason is that outside the plasma the own field of the equilibrium plasma currents is determined by the boundary conditions on the plasma surface only. (author)

  20. Three modes of a direct-current plasma jet operated underwater to degrade methylene blue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuechen, LI; Biao, WANG; Pengying, JIA; Linwei, YANG; Yaru, LI; Jingdi, CHU

    2017-11-01

    A direct-current air plasma jet operated underwater presents three stable modes including an intermittently-pulsed discharge, a periodically-pulsed discharge and a continuous discharge with increasing the power voltage. The three discharge modes have different appearances for the plasma plumes. Moreover, gap voltage-current characteristics indicate that the continuous discharge is in a normal glow regime. Spectral lines from reactive species (OH, N2, N2 +, H α , and O) have been revealed in the emission spectrum of the plasma jet operated underwater. Spectral intensities emitted from OH radical and oxygen atom increase with increasing the power voltage or the gas flow rate, indicating that reactive species are abundant. These reactive species cause the degradation of the methylene blue dye in solution. Effects of the experimental parameters such as the power voltage, the gas flow rate and the treatment time are investigated on the degradation efficiency. Results indicate that the degradation efficiency increases with increasing the power voltage, the gas flow rate or the treatment time. Compared with degradation in the intermittently-pulsed mode or the periodically-pulsed one, it is more efficient in the continuous mode, reaching 98% after 21 min treatment.

  1. Plasma flows, Birkeland currents and auroral forms in relation to the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Sandholt

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The traditional explanation of the polar cap magnetic deflections, referred to as the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect, is in terms of currents associated with ionospheric flow resulting from the release of magnetic tension on newly open magnetic field lines. In this study, we aim at an updated description of the sources of the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect based on recent observations of configurations of plasma flow channels, Birkeland current systems and aurorae in the magnetosphere-ionosphere system. Central to our description is the distinction between two different flow channels (FC 1 and FC 2 corresponding to two consecutive stages in the evolution of open field lines in Dungey cell convection, with FC 1 on newly open, and FC 2 on old open, field lines. Flow channel FC 1 is the result of ionospheric Pedersen current closure of Birkeland currents flowing along newly open field lines. During intervals of nonzero interplanetary magnetic field By component FC 1 is observed on either side of noon and it is accompanied by poleward moving auroral forms (PMAFs/prenoon and PMAFs/postnoon. In such cases the next convection stage, in the form of flow channel FC 2 on the periphery of the polar cap, is particularly important for establishing an IMF By-related convection asymmetry along the dawn-dusk meridian, which is a central element causing the Svalgaard-Mansurov effect. FC 2 flows are excited by the ionospheric Pedersen current closure of the northernmost pair of Birkeland currents in the four-sheet current system, which is coupled to the tail magnetopause and flank low-latitude boundary layer. This study is based on a review of recent statistical and event studies of central parameters relating to the magnetosphere-ionosphere current systems mentioned above. Temporal-spatial structure in the current systems is obtained by ground-satellite conjunction studies. On this point we emphasize the important information derived from the continuous ground monitoring

  2. Laurance David Hall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxon, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    An account is given of the life, scientific contributions, and passing of Laurance David Hall (1938-2009), including his early history and education at the University of Bristol, UK, and the synthesis and NMR spectroscopy of carbohydrates and other natural products during ∼20 years of research and teaching at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, Canada. Lists of graduate students, post-doctoral fellows, and sabbatical visitors are provided for this period. Following a generous endowment by Dr. Herchel Smith, Professor Hall built a new Department of Medicinal Chemistry at Cambridge University, UK, and greatly expanded his researches into the technology and applications of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and zero quantum NMR. MRI technology was applied both to medical problems such as the characterization of cartilage degeneration in knee joints, the measurement of ventricular function, lipid localization in animal models of atherosclerosis, paramagnetic metal complexes of polysaccharides as contrast agents, and studies of many other anatomical features, but also to several aspects of materials analysis, including food analyses, process control, and the elucidation of such physical phenomena as the flow of liquids through porous media, defects in concrete, and the visualization of fungal damage to wood. Professor Hall's many publications, patents, lectures, and honors and awards are described, and also his successful effort to keep the Asilomar facility in Pacific Grove, California as the alternating venue for the annual Experimental NMR Conference. Two memorial services for Professor Hall are remembered. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. The Monty Hall Dilemma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Barteld Kooi, [No Value

    2006-01-01

    Samenvatting: In het begin van de jaren negentig brak een wereldwijde discussie los over een probleem dat in het Engels 'The Monty Hall Dilemma' wordt genoemd. Marilyn vos Savant, die in het Guinness Book of World Records wordt genoemd als degene met het

  4. Halle, Prof. Thore Gustaf.

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Fellowship. Fellow Profile. Elected: 1947 Honorary. Halle, Prof. Thore Gustaf. Date of birth: 25 September 1884. Date of death: 12 May 1964. YouTube; Twitter; Facebook; Blog. Academy News. IAS Logo. Theory Of Evolution. Posted on 23 January 2018. Joint Statement by the Three Science Academies of India on ...

  5. Hall Sweet Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguntoyinbo, Lekan

    2011-01-01

    Many urban and commuter universities have their sights set on students who are unlikely to connect with the college and likely to fail unless the right strategies are put in place to help them graduate. In efforts to improve retention rates, commuter colleges are looking to an unusual suspect: residence halls. The author discusses how these…

  6. Hall Sensor Output Signal Fault-Detection & Safety Implementation Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee SangHun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently BLDC motors have been popular in various industrial applications and electric mobility. Recently BLDC motors have been popular in various industrial applications and electric mobility. In most brushless direct current (BLDC motor drives, there are three hall sensors as a position reference. Low resolution hall effect sensor is popularly used to estimate the rotor position because of its good comprehensive performance such as low cost, high reliability and sufficient precision. Various possible faults may happen in a hall effect sensor. This paper presents a fault-tolerant operation method that allows the control of a BLDC motor with one faulty hall sensor and presents the hall sensor output fault-tolerant control strategy. The situations considered are when the output from a hall sensor stays continuously at low or high levels, or a short-time pulse appears on a hall sensor signal. For fault detection, identification of a faulty signal and generating a substitute signal, this method only needs the information from the hall sensors. There are a few research work on hall effect sensor failure of BLDC motor. The conventional fault diagnosis methods are signal analysis, model based analysis and knowledge based analysis. The proposed method is signal based analysis using a compensation signal for reconfiguration and therefore fault diagnosis can be fast. The proposed method is validated to execute the simulation using PSIM.

  7. Magnetic field deformation due to electron drift in a Hall thruster

    OpenAIRE

    Han Liang; Ding Yongjie; Zhang Xu; Wei Liqiu; Yu Daren

    2017-01-01

    The strength and shape of the magnetic field are the core factors in the design of the Hall thruster. However, Hall current can affect the distribution of static magnetic field. In this paper, the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is used to obtain the distribution of Hall current in the discharge channel. The Hall current is separated into a direct and an alternating part to calculate the induced magnetic field using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM). The results show that the direct Hall c...

  8. The microscopic Z-pinch process of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Cheng; Feng, Zhixing; Xue, Chuang; Li, Baiwen

    2015-02-01

    For insight into the microscopic mechanism of Z-pinch dynamic processes, a code of two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation has been developed in cylindrical coordinates. In principle, the Z-pinch of current-carrying rarefied deuterium plasma shell has been simulated by means of this code. Many results related to the microscopic processes of the Z-pinch are obtained. They include the spatio-temporal distributions of electromagnetic field, current density, forces experienced by the ions and electrons, positions and energy distributions of particles, and trailing mass and current. In radial direction, the electric and magnetic forces exerted on the electrons are comparable in magnitude, while the forces exerted on the ions are mainly the electric forces. So in the Z-pinch process, the electrons are first accelerated in Z direction and get higher velocities; then, they are driven inwards to the axis at the same time by the radial magnetic forces (i.e., Lorentz forces) of them. That causes the separations between the electrons and ions because the ion mass is much larger than the electron's, and in turn a strong electrostatic field is produced. The produced electrostatic field attracts the ions to move towards the electrons. When the electrons are driven along the radial direction to arrive at the axis, they shortly move inversely due to the static repellency among them and their tiny mass, while the ions continue to move inertially inwards, and later get into stagnation, and finally scatter outwards. Near the stagnation, the energies of the deuterium ions mostly range from 0.3 to 6 keV, while the electron energies are mostly from 5 to 35 keV. The radial components, which can contribute to the pinched plasma temperature, of the most probable energies of electron and ion at the stagnation are comparable to the Bennett equilibrium temperature (about 1 keV), and also to the highest temperatures of electron and ion obtained in one dimensional radiation

  9. Fast wave current drive in neutral beam heated plasmas on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, C.C.; Forest, C.B.; Pinsker, R.I.; deGrassie, J.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Baity, F.W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Chiu, S.C.; Freeman, R.L.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Ikezi, H. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Jaeger, E.F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Lin-Liu, Y.R. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Murakami, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Prater, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Rice, B.W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The physics of non-inductive current drive and current profile control using the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on the DIII-D tokamak. In non-sawtoothing discharges formed by neutral beam injection (NBI), the radial profile of the fast wave current drive (FWCD) was determined by the response of the loop voltage profile to co, counter, and symmetric antenna phasings, and was found to be in good agreement with theoretical models. The application of counter FWCD increased the magnetic shear reversal of the plasma and delayed the onset of sawteeth, compared to co FWCD. The partial absorption of fast waves by energetic beam ions at high harmonics of the ion cyclotron frequency was also evident from a build up of fast particle pressure near the magnetic axis and a correlated increase in the neutron rate. The anomalous fast particle pressure and neutron rate increased with increasing NBI power and peaked when a harmonic of the deuterium cyclotron frequency passed through the center of the plasma. The experimental FWCD efficiency was highest at 2 T where the interaction between the fast waves and the beam ions was weakest; as the magnetic field strength was lowered, the FWCD efficiency decreased to approximately half of the maximum theoretical value. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  10. 3D MHD modelling of low current-high voltage dc plasma torch under restrike mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebouvier, A.; Delalondre, C.; Fresnet, F.; Cauneau, F.; Fulcheri, L.

    2012-01-01

    We present in this paper a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modelling of the gliding arc behaviour of a dc plasma torch operating with air under low current and high voltage conditions. The low current leads to instabilities and difficulties with simulating the process because the magnetic field is not sufficient to constrict the arc. The model is 3D, time dependent and the MHD equations are solved using CFD software Code_Saturne®. Although the arc is definitively non-local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE), the LTE assumption is considered as a first approach. The injection of air is tangential. A hot gas channel reattachment model has been used to simulate the restriking process of the arc root. After the description of the model, the most appropriate electrical voltage breakdown parameter has been selected in comparing with experimental results. A typical operating point is then studied in detail and shows the helical shape of the arc discharge in the nozzle. Finally, the mass flow rate and the current have been varied in the range 0.16-0.5 g s-1 and 100-300 mA, respectively, corresponding to typical glidarc operating points of our experimental plasma torch. The model shows good consistency with experimental data in terms of global behaviour, arc length, mean voltage and glidarc frequency.

  11. Preliminary investigation on the use of low current pulsed power Z-pinch plasma devices for the study of early stage plasma instabilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaselouris, E.; Dimitriou, V.; Fitilis, I.; Skoulakis, A.; Koundourakis, G.; Clark, E. L.; Chatzakis, J.; Bakarezos, Μ; Nikolos, I. K.; Papadogiannis, N. A.; Tatarakis, M.

    2018-01-01

    This article addresses key features for the implementation of low current pulsed power plasma devices for the study of matter dynamics from the solid to the plasma phase. The renewed interest in such low current plasma devices lies in the need to investigate methods for the mitigation of prompt seeding mechanisms for the generation of plasma instabilities. The low current when driven into thick wires (skin effect mode) allows for the simultaneous existence of all phases of matter from solid to plasma. Such studies are important for the concept of inertial confinement fusion where the mitigation of the instability seeding mechanisms arising from the very early moments within the target’s heating is of crucial importance. Similarly, in the magnetized liner inertial fusion concept it is an open question as to how much surface non-uniformity correlates with the magneto-Rayleigh–Taylor instability, which develops during the implosion. This study presents experimental and simulation results, which demonstrate that the use of low current pulsed power devices in conjunction with appropriate diagnostics can be important for studying seeding mechanisms for the imminent generation of plasma instabilities in future research.

  12. The quantum Hall impedance standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schurr, J.; Kučera, J.; Pierz, K.; Kibble, B. P.

    2011-02-01

    Alternating current measurements of double-shielded quantum Hall devices have revealed a fascinating property of which only a quantum effect is capable: it can detect its own frequency dependence and convert it to a current dependence which can be used to eliminate both of them. According to an experimentally verified model, the residual frequency dependence is smaller than the measuring uncertainty of 1.3 × 10-9 kHz-1. In this way, a highly precise quantum standard of impedance can be established, without having to correct for any calculated frequency dependence and without the need for any artefact with a calculated frequency dependence. Nothing else like that is known to us and we hope that our results encourage other national metrology institutes to also apply it to impedance metrology and further explore its beautiful properties.

  13. Reduction of poloidal magnetic flux consumption during plasma current ramp-up in DEMO relevant plasma regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakatsuki, T.; Suzuki, T.; Hayashi, N.; Shiraishi, J.; Sakamoto, Y.; Ide, S.; Kubo, H.; Kamada, Y.

    2017-01-01

    The method for reducing a poloidal magnetic flux consumption of external coils is investigated to reduce the size of the central solenoid (CS) in the DEMO reactor. The reduction of the poloidal magnetic flux consumption during a plasma current ramp-up phase by electron cyclotron (EC) heating is investigated using an integrated modeling code suite, TOPICS. A strongly reversed shear q profile tends to be produced if intense off-axis EC heating is applied to obtain a large reduction of the flux consumption. In order to overcome this tendency, we find a method to obtain the optimum temperature profile which minimizes the poloidal flux consumption for a wide range of the q profile. We try to reproduce the optimum temperature profile for a weakly reversed shear q profile using six EC rays of 20 MW. As a result, the resistive flux consumption during the current ramp-up can be reduced by 63% from the estimation using the Ejima constant of 0.45 and the total flux consumption can be reduced by 20% from the conventional estimation. In addition, we find that the resistive flux consumption is closely related to the volume averaged electron temperature and not to the profile shape. Using this relation, the required heating power is estimated to be 31 MW based on a well established global confinement scaling, ITER L-89P. As a result, it is clarified that the poloidal magnetic flux consumption can be reduced by 20% using 20-31 MW of EC heating for a weakly reversed shear q profile. This reduction of the flux consumption accounts for 10% reduction of the CS radius.

  14. Magnetometria por efeito Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández Pinto, Janeth

    2010-01-01

    Construímos um magnetômetro utilizando dois sensores Hall de GaAs (Toshiba- THS118) operando em um modo diferencial. Cada sensor tem um circuito préamplificador associado a ele e a diferencia de voltagem entre eles é amplificada com um ganho variável de 30 - 7000. Os sensores Hall têm dimensões típicas de 1,5 x 1,7 x 0,6 mm3 e foram montados separados um do outro de 0,71 mm, em uma configuração espacial planar. O magnetômetro foi testado usando tanto correntes dc (Idc) quant...

  15. Relativistic Hall effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bliokh, Konstantin Y; Nori, Franco

    2012-03-23

    We consider the relativistic deformation of quantum waves and mechanical bodies carrying intrinsic angular momentum (AM). When observed in a moving reference frame, the centroid of the object undergoes an AM-dependent transverse shift. This is the relativistic analogue of the spin-Hall effect, which occurs in free space without any external fields. Remarkably, the shifts of the geometric and energy centroids differ by a factor of 2, and both centroids are crucial for the Lorentz transformations of the AM tensor. We examine manifestations of the relativistic Hall effect in quantum vortices and mechanical flywheels and also discuss various fundamental aspects of this phenomenon. The perfect agreement of quantum and relativistic approaches allows applications at strikingly different scales, from elementary spinning particles, through classical light, to rotating black holes.

  16. Synthesis and characterization of diamond microcrystals and nanorods deposited by hot cathode direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeng, L.; Peng, H.; Wang, W.; Chen, Y.; Lei, D.; Qi, W.; Liang, J.; Zhao, J.; Kong, X.; Zhang, H.

    2008-01-01

    (111) diamond microcrystals and (100) diamond microcrystals and nanorods were synthesized on Si substrate by hot cathode direct current plasma chemical vapor deposition method. The morphology, structure, and optical properties of the diamond films were characterized by scanning electron microscopy,

  17. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452013 (India)

    2011-02-15

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is {approx}4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  18. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S; Aneesh, K; Navathe, C P; Gupta, P D

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ∼4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  19. A diagnostic system for electrical faults in a high current discharge plasma setup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Navathe, C. P.; Gupta, P. D.

    2011-02-01

    A diagnostic system to detect electrical faults inside a coaxial high current discharge device is presented here. This technique utilizes two biconical antennas picking up electromagnetic radiation from the discharge device, a voltage divider sensing input voltage, and a Rogowski coil measuring the main discharge current. A computer program then analyses frequency components in these signals and provides information as to whether the discharge event was normal or any breakdown fault occurred inside the coaxial device. The diagnostic system is developed for a 450 kV and 50 kA capillary discharge plasma setup. For the setup various possible faults are analyzed by electrical simulation, followed by experimental results. In the case of normal discharge through the capillary load the dominant frequency is ˜4 MHz. Under faulty conditions, the peak in magnitude versus frequency plot of the antenna signal changes according to the fault position which involves different paths causing variation in the equivalent circuit elements.

  20. Quantum critical Hall exponents

    CERN Document Server

    Lütken, C A

    2014-01-01

    We investigate a finite size "double scaling" hypothesis using data from an experiment on a quantum Hall system with short range disorder [1-3]. For Hall bars of width w at temperature T the scaling form is w(-mu)T(-kappa), where the critical exponent mu approximate to 0.23 we extract from the data is comparable to the multi-fractal exponent alpha(0) - 2 obtained from the Chalker-Coddington (CC) model [4]. We also use the data to find the approximate location (in the resistivity plane) of seven quantum critical points, all of which closely agree with the predictions derived long ago from the modular symmetry of a toroidal sigma-model with m matter fields [5]. The value nu(8) = 2.60513 ... of the localisation exponent obtained from the m = 8 model is in excellent agreement with the best available numerical value nu(num) = 2.607 +/- 0.004 derived from the CC-model [6]. Existing experimental data appear to favour the m = 9 model, suggesting that the quantum Hall system is not in the same universality class as th...

  1. Return current instability driven by a temperature gradient in ICF plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozmus, W.; Brantov, A. V.; Sherlock, M.; Bychenkov, V. Yu

    2018-01-01

    Hot plasmas with strong temperature gradients in inertial confinement fusion experiments are examined for ion acoustic instabilities produced by electron heat flow. The return current instability (RCI) due to a neutralizing current of cold electrons arising in response to a large electron heat flux has been considered. First, the linear threshold and growth rates are derived in the non-local regime of thermal transport. They are compared with the results of Vlasov–Fokker–Planck (VFP) simulations in one spatial dimension. Very good agreement has been found between kinetic VFP simulations and the linear theory of the RCI. A quasi-stationary state of ion acoustic turbulence (IAT) produced by the RCI is achieved in the VFP simulations. Saturation of the RCI involves heating of ions in the tail of the ion distribution function and convection of the enhanced ion acoustic fluctuations from the unstable region of the plasma. Further evolution of the IAT and its effects on absorption and transport are also discussed.

  2. Some experimental observations on circulating currents in a crossed field plasma accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, J.; Haacker, J.

    1971-01-01

    Experiments on a thermally ionized argon plasma suggest that applying a Lorentz force by means of orthogonal electric and magnetic fields to an electrically conducting fluid flow imposes necessary but not sufficient conditions for acceleration. There are, in fact, many combinations of current and magnetic field which cause decelerations of the fluid. The deceleration arises from a retarding force which may be larger than the applied Lorentz force. The retarding force causing the deceleration is a consequence of currents circulating completely within the fluid. These currents arise from differences in velocity between the central and wall regions of the duct which interact with the imposed magnetic field to produce differences in induced voltages. The observed physical effects of the circulating currents cause a loss in velocity in the central region of the duct, an increase in thermal energy in the sidewall region, and little change in thermal energy near the electrode wall region. For similar velocity profiles, the adverse effects appear to be related to the product of electrical conductivity and velocity, and performance as an accelerator appears to be controlled by the Hoffman loading parameter (i.e., the ratio of the applied to the induced currents).

  3. Calculation of the non-inductive current profile in high-performance NSTX plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Yuh, H.

    2011-03-01

    The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557); these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast-ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast-ion diffusivity of ~0.5-1 m2 s-1 is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, the time rate of change in the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped and reconstructed on-axis current density.

  4. Construction and Operation of a Differential Hall Element Magnetometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Matthew W.; Javernick, Philip D.; Quintero, Pedro A.; Calm, Yitzi M.; Meisel, Mark W.

    2012-02-01

    A Differential Hall Element Magnetometer (DHEM) was constructed to measure the magnetic saturation and coercive fields of small samples consisting of magnetic nanoparticles that may have biomedical applications. The device consists of two matched Hall elements that can be moved through the room temperature bore of a 9 Tesla superconducting magnet. The Hall elements are wired in opposition such that a null response, to within a small offset, is measured in the absence of a sample that may be located on top of one unit. A LabVIEW program controls the current through the Hall elements and measures the net Hall voltage while simultaneously moving the probe through the magnetic field by regulating a linear stepper motor. Ultimately, the system will be tested to obtain a figure of merit using successively smaller samples. Details of the apparatus will be provided along with preliminary data.

  5. High Current, High Density Arc Plasma as a New Source for WiPAL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waleffe, Roger; Endrizzi, Doug; Myers, Rachel; Wallace, John; Clark, Mike; Forest, Cary; WiPAL Team

    2016-10-01

    The Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab (WiPAL) has installed a new array of nineteen plasma sources (plasma guns) on its 3 m diameter, spherical vacuum vessel. Each gun is a cylindrical, molybdenum, washer-stabilized, arc plasma source. During discharge, the guns are maintained at 1.2 kA across 100 V for 10 ms by the gun power supply establishing a high density plasma. Each plasma source is fired independently allowing for adjustable plasma parameters, with densities varying between 1018 -1019 m-3 and electron temperatures of 5-15 eV. Measurements were characterized using a 16 tip Langmuir probe. The plasma source will be used as a background plasma for the magnetized coaxial plasma gun (MCPG), the Terrestrial Reconnection Experiment (TREX), and as the plasma source for a magnetic mirror experiment. Temperature, density, and confinement results will be presented. This work is supported by the DoE and the NSF.

  6. Measurement of magnetic field fluctuations and diamagnetic currents within a laser ablation plasma interacting with an axial magnetic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, S.; Horioka, K.; Okamura, M.

    2017-10-01

    The guiding of laser ablation plasmas with axial magnetic fields has been used for many applications, since its effectiveness has been proven empirically [L. Gray et al., J. Appl. Phys. 53(10), 6628 (1982); J. Wolowski, Laser Part. Beams 20(01), 113 (2002); M. Okamura et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81, 02A510 (2010); Y. Tsui et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 70(15), 1953 (1997); C. Pagano and J. Lunney, J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 43(30), 305202 (2010)]. For more sophisticated and complicated manipulations of the plasma flow, the behavior of the magnetic field during the interaction and the induced diamagnetic current in the plasma plume needs to be clearly understood. To achieve the first milestone for establishing magnetic plasma manipulation, we measured the spatial and temporal fluctuations of the magnetic field caused by the diamagnetic current. We showed that the small fluctuations of the magnetic field can be detected by using a simple magnetic probe. We observed that the field penetrates to the core of the plasma plume. The diamagnetic current estimated from the magnetic field had temporal and spatial distributions which were confirmed to be correlated with the transformation of the plasma plume. Our results show that the measurement by the magnetic probe is an effective method to observe the temporal and spatial distributions of the magnetic field and diamagnetic current. The systematic measurement of the magnetic field variations is a valuable method to establish the magnetic field manipulation of the laser ablation plasma.

  7. Plasma current start-up experiments without a central solenoid in the iron core STOR-M tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, O.; Tomney, G.; Rohollohi, A.; Lewis, E.; McColl, D.; Xiao, C.; Hirose, A.

    2015-06-01

    Reproducible plasma current start-up without a central solenoid (CS) has been demonstrated using the outer ohmic heating (OH) coils in the iron core STOR-M tokamak (Mitarai et al 2014 Fusion Eng. Des. 89 2467-71). Although the outer OH coil current saturates the iron core eventually, it has been demonstrated that the plasma current can be maintained during the iron core saturation phase. In this work, further studies have been conducted to investigate the effects of the turn number of the outer OH coils (N = 4 or N = 6) in the CS-less discharges and to evaluate the plasma stability with respect to the n-decay index of the vertical magnetic field. For the loose coupling of the iron core with N = 4 turns, the plasma current can be sustained after the additional third capacitor bank is applied near the iron core saturation phase, showing the slow transition from the unsaturated to the partially saturated phase. For the case of stronger coupling of N = 6 turns, the plasma current is increased at the same fast bank voltage, but the main discharge is shortened from 35 to 20 ms. As the magnetizing current is smaller due to stronger coupling between the OH coils and the plasma current, the transition from the unsaturated to the saturated phase is slightly difficult at present. The present experimental results suggest a feasible operation scenario in a future spherical tokamak (ST) at least using loose iron core coupling for smoother transition from the unsaturated to the saturated iron core phase. Thus, a reliable plasma current start-up by the outer OH coils and the current ramp-up to a steady state by additional heating power and vertical field coils could be considered as an operation scenario for future ST reactors with an iron core transformer.

  8. Experimental study on a plasma focus in erosion plasma accelerators. Pt. 5. On the mechanism of a plasma focus formation in a magnetoplasma compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, N.P.; Protasov, Yu.S. (Moskovskoe Vysshee Tekhnicheskoe Uchilishche (USSR))

    1982-08-01

    The results of experimental investigation into dynamics, microstructure and stability of consequent stages of development of heavy-current plasma-dynamical discharges in erosion type magnetoplasma compressors under the conditions of intense radiation transfer are presented. Special attention is paid to sharply non-stationary stage of plasma focus formation outside the cut of the accelerating channel and processes of secondary pinching in the second half-period of discharge current, methods of their analysis at limited possibilities of diagnostics. It is shown that at the stages of formation and quasistationary flow in the compressed zone the dominating instabilities of superheating type do not result in appearance of anomalous thermodynamical and transfer properties of non-ideal discharge plasma; thermalized in compression zone and accelerated plasma is macroscopically stable during the interaction of current envelope with relatively cold vapor followed by formation of intense shock-wave structure and force instabilities of different modes. Irrespective of chemical and ionization composition of electric-discharge plasma shown is a possibility of exercising and inertial (in combination with Hall effect) mechanism of plasma focus formation or two-stage inertial subcompression of plasma-plasma compression at the expense of Hall effect to the central cathode in the accelerating channel and additional pinching in output zet-currents that permits to provide control of dimensions, dynamical and energy characteristics of plasma flow at self-coordinated introduction of energy in the zone of MHD compression.

  9. Internal oscillating current-sustained RF plasmas: Parameters, stability, and potential for surface engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrikov, K.; Tsakadze, E.L.; Tsakadze, Z.L.

    2005-01-01

    . Moreover, under certain conditions, the plasma becomes unstable due to spontaneous transitions between low-density (electrostatic, E) and high-density (electromagnetic, H) operating modes. Excellent uniformity of high-density plasmas makes the plasma reactor promising for various plasma processing...... applications and surface engineering. (c) 2005 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved....

  10. Constructing Current Singularity in a 3D Line-tied Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yao; Huang, Yi-Min; Qin, Hong; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-01-01

    We revisit Parker’s conjecture of current singularity formation in 3D line-tied plasmas using a recently developed numerical method, variational integration for ideal magnetohydrodynamics in Lagrangian labeling. With the frozen-in equation built-in, the method is free of artificial reconnection, and hence it is arguably an optimal tool for studying current singularity formation. Using this method, the formation of current singularity has previously been confirmed in the Hahm–Kulsrud–Taylor problem in 2D. In this paper, we extend this problem to 3D line-tied geometry. The linear solution, which is singular in 2D, is found to be smooth for arbitrary system length. However, with finite amplitude, the linear solution can become pathological when the system is sufficiently long. The nonlinear solutions turn out to be smooth for short systems. Nonetheless, the scaling of peak current density versus system length suggests that the nonlinear solution may become singular at finite length. With the results in hand, we can neither confirm nor rule out this possibility conclusively, since we cannot obtain solutions with system length near the extrapolated critical value.

  11. Extracted beam and electrode currents in the inductively driven surface-plasma negative hydrogen ion source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belchenko, Yu.; Ivanov, A.; Sanin, A.; Sotnikov, O.

    2017-08-01

    The data on long-pulsed operation of RF surface-plasma source is presented. The source regularly produces the H- ion beam with current >1A, energy ≥90 keV and pulse duration ≥2 s. The total H- beam curent, transported to the distant Faraday cup and the currents in the circuits of ion-optical system elements were measured. The composition of accelerated and extracted grid currents was clarified. The relatively high level of acceleration grid current 0.4 A was observed. It consists mainly of secondary electrons, emitted from extraction grid apertures and stripped from H- ions and could be decreased by optimization of positive PG bias applied. The test stand experiments on beam transport through the LEBT were carried out. About 90% of the H- ion beam was transported from the source to the distant calorimeter plane. The full size of 93 keV beam, transported to the calorimeter plane, was larger, than the size of the calorimeter inlet window. As a result, ˜ 60% of the initial beam power was registered by the calorimeter with window 24×24 cm2.

  12. Low-Cost, High-Performance Hall Thruster Support System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesterman, Bryce

    2015-01-01

    Colorado Power Electronics (CPE) has built an innovative modular PPU for Hall thrusters, including discharge, magnet, heater and keeper supplies, and an interface module. This high-performance PPU offers resonant circuit topologies, magnetics design, modularity, and a stable and sustained operation during severe Hall effect thruster current oscillations. Laboratory testing has demonstrated discharge module efficiency of 96 percent, which is considerably higher than current state of the art.

  13. Experimental study of plasma focusing in erosion plasma accelerators. V - Mechanism of plasma focusing in a magnetoplasma compressor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlov, N. P.; Protasov, Iu. S.

    1982-08-01

    The dynamics, microscopic structure, and stability of successive developmental stages of high-current plasmodynamic discharges in erosion type magnetoplasma compressors are investigated under conditions of intense radiation transport. It is found that thermal instabilities, which dominate during the stages of formation and quasi-steady flow in the compressed zone, do not cause the nonideal discharge plasma to have anomalous thermodynamic and transport properties; while the accelerated plasma, which is thermalized in the compressed zone, is macroscopically stable when the current shell interacts with the relatively cold vapor. It is demonstrated that either a combined inertial and Hall mechanism of plasma focusing or a two-stage inertial compression of the plasma is possible, regardless of the chemical composition and ionization state of the electric discharge plasma. In the two stage mechanism, the plasma is compressed toward the central anode in the accelerating channel by the Hall effect and as a result of additional pinching in the outgoing Z currents. The dimensions and the dynamic and energy characteristics of the plasma stream can be controlled by a self-consistent input of energy into the MHD compression zone.

  14. Resonant scattering as a sensitive diagnostic of current collisional plasma models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogorzalek, Anna; Zhuravleva, Irina; Allen, Steven W.; Pinto, Ciro; Werner, Norbert; Mantz, Adam; Canning, Rebecca; Fabian, Andrew C.; Kaastra, Jelle S.; de Plaa, Jelle

    2017-08-01

    Resonant scattering is a subtle process that suppresses fluxes of some of the brightest optically thick X-ray emission lines produced by collisional plasmas in galaxy clusters and massive early-type galaxies. The amplitude of the effect depends on the turbulent structure of the hot gas, making it a sensitive velocity probe. It is therefore crucial to properly model this effect in order to correctly interpret high resolution X-ray spectra. Our measurements of resonant scattering with XMM-Newton Reflection Grating Spectrometer in giant elliptical galaxies and with Hitomi in the center of Perseus Cluster show that the potentially rich inference from this effect is limited by the uncertainties in the atomic data underlying plasma codes such as APEC and SPEX. Typically, the effect is of the order of 10-20%, while the discrepancy between the two codes is of similar order or even higher. Precise knowledge of the emissivity and oscillator strengths of lines emitted by Fe XVII and Fe XXV, as well as their respective uncertainties propagated through plasma codes are key to understanding gas dynamics and microphysics in giant galaxies and cluster ICM, respectively. This is especially crucial for massive ellipticals, where sub-eV resolution would be needed to measure line broadening precisely, making resonant scattering an important velocity diagnostic in these systems for the foreseeable future. In this poster, I will summarize current status of resonant scattering measurements and show how they depend on the assumed atomic data. I will also discuss which improvements are essential to maximize scientific inference from future high resolution X-ray spectra.

  15. Microstructural characterization of radio frequency and direct current plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H. C.; Pfender, E.; Dzur, B.; Nutsch, G.

    2000-06-01

    Microstructures of radio frequency (RF) and direct current (DC) plasma-sprayed Al2O3 coatings deposited onto steel substrates were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), electron microprobe analysis (EMPA), polarizing optical microscopy (OM), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Because RF and DC plasmas produce different particle heating and acceleration, the morphology, phase structure, and fracture modes of the coatings vary substantially. In the case of RF coatings, a clear lamellar microstructure with relatively thick lamellae was observed, which is due to the large particles and the low particle velocities, with α-Al2O3 as the predominant phase and with delamination type of fracture detected on the fracture surface. In contrast, the DC coatings consisted of predominantly metastable γ-Al2O3 as well as amorphous phases, with a mixed fracture mode of the coating observed. In spite of limited interfacial interdiffusion detected by EMPA, TEM showed an interfacial layer existing at the interface between the coating and the substrate for both cases. For RF coatings, the interfacial layer on the order of 1 µm was composed of three sublayers, each of which was different in composition and morphology. However, the interfacial layer for the DC coating consisted primarily of an amorphous phase, containing both coating and substrate materials with or without platelike microcrystals; although in some regions a thick amorphous Al2O3 layer was in direct contact with the substrate.

  16. Control of plasma properties in a short direct-current glow discharge with active boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. F. [Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); Demidov, V. I., E-mail: vladimir.demidov@mail.wvu.edu [Air Force Research Laboratory, WPAFB, Ohio 45433 (United States); West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Bogdanov, E. A.; Kudryavtsev, A. A. [St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Koepke, M. E. [West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    To demonstrate controlling electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature by applying negative voltages to the active (conducting) discharge wall in a low-pressure plasma with nonlocal electron energy distribution function, modeling has been performed in a short (lacking the positive-column region) direct-current glow discharge with a cold cathode. The applied negative voltage can modify the trapping of the low-energy part of the energetic electrons that are emitted from the cathode sheath and that arise from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. These electrons are responsible for heating the slow, thermal electrons, while production of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms is mostly due to the energetic electrons with higher energies. Increasing electron temperature results in increasing decay rate of slow, thermal electrons (ions), while decay rate of metastable atoms and production rates of slow electrons (ions) and metastable atoms practically are unchanged. The result is in the variation of electron/metastable density ratio and electron temperature with the variation of the wall negative voltage.

  17. Silicon measurement in serum and urine by direct current plasma emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, N B; Williams, P

    1990-08-01

    Elemental silicon, present as soluble silicic acid in serum and urine, has been measured by direct current plasma emission spectrometry. The method is precise and accurate, yields a standard curve that is linear up to 1000 mumol/L, and requires only a simple dilution in 10 mL/L HNO3. No spectral or background interferences have been observed from serum or urine; the absolute detection limit for silicon was 0.5 mumol/L. Silicon concentrations in serum increase by up to 20-fold in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis, an increase apparently related to dietary silicon intake. No relationship with aluminum was observed in hemodialysis patients, with or without aluminum toxicity. In the undialyzed patient with chronic renal failure, the concentrations of silicon in plasma increased with decreasing glomerular filtration rate. This increase may protect renal-failure patients from possible aluminum toxicity by promoting formation of the relatively inactive aluminosilicate complex. Silicon concentrations in urine of healthy individuals exceed their serum concentrations by 20- to 100-fold. Silicon excretion in patients with renal stones was not different from that in healthy controls and showed no relationship with calcium and (or) oxalate excretion.

  18. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  19. European definitions, current use, and EMA stance of platelet-rich plasma in sports medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentino, Stefano; Roffi, Alice; Filardo, Giuseppe; Marcacci, Maurilio; Kon, Elizaveta

    2015-02-01

    Platelet-rich plasma has been the focus of much attention over the last few years as an appealing biological approach to favor the healing of tissues otherwise doomed by a low healing potential. In Europe, the regulatory framework concerning the blood system is currently disciplined by Directive 2002/98/EC of the European Parliament and Council of January 27, 2003, which sets out quality and safety rules for collecting, controlling, processing, preserving, and distributing human blood and its components, acknowledged in the various States of the Union with internal regulations. This lack of homogeneity in the European legal landscape will probably lead the Community legislature to intervene in the near future, to even out the "rules of engagement" of this peculiar class of biomaterials. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy Shchavlev

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Electron beam welding (EBW shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  1. Plasma charge current for controlling and monitoring electron beam welding with beam oscillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, Dmitriy; Belenkiy, Vladimir; Shchavlev, Valeriy; Piskunov, Anatoliy; Abdullin, Aleksandr; Mladenov, Georgy

    2012-12-14

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which substantially limits the operation speed of these systems and has a negative effect on weld joint quality. The purpose of this study is to develop a method for operational control of the electron beam focus during welding in the deep penetration mode. The method uses the plasma charge current signal as an additional informational parameter. This parameter allows identification of the electron beam focus regime in electron-beam welding without application of additional low-frequency scanning of focus. It can be used for working out operational electron beam control methods focusing exactly on the welding. In addition, use of this parameter allows one to observe the shape of the keyhole during the welding process.

  2. Numerical modeling of lower hybrid current drive in fully non-inductive plasma start-up experiments on TST-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujii, N.; Takase, Y.; Ejiri, A.; Shinya, T.; Togashi, H.; Yajima, S.; Yamazaki, H.; Moeller, C. P.; Roidl, B.; Sonehara, M.; Takahashi, W.; Toida, K.; Yoshida, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Non-inductive plasma start-up is a critical issue for spherical tokamaks since there is not enough room to provide neutron shielding for the center solenoid. Start-up using lower hybrid (LH) waves has been studied on the TST-2 spherical tokamak. Because of the low magnetic field of a spherical tokamak, the plasma density needs to be kept at a very low value during the plasma current ramp-up so that the plasma core remains accessible to the LH waves. However, we have found that higher density was required to sustain larger plasma current. The achievable plasma current was limited by the maximum operational toroidal field of TST-2. The existence of an optimum density for LH current drive and its toroidal field dependence is explained through a numerical simulation based on a ray tracing code and a Fokker-Planck solver. In order to access higher density at the same magnetic field, a top-launch antenna was recently installed in addition to the existing outboard-launch antenna. Increase in the density limit was observed when the power was launched from the top antenna, consistently with the numerical predictions.

  3. Large Spin Hall Angle in Vanadium Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Fan, Xin; Wang, Wenrui; Xie, Yunsong; Warsi, Muhammad A.; Wu, Jun; Chen, Yunpeng; Lorenz, Virginia O.; Xiao, John Q.

    We report the large spin Hall angle observed in Vanadium film with small grain size and distorted lattice parameter. The spin Hall angle is quantified by measuring current-induced spin-orbit torque in V/CoFeB bilayer using optical spin torque magnetometer based on polar magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE). The spin Hall angle as large as θSH = -0.071 has been observed in V/CoFeB bilayer Structural analysis, using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and selected area electron diffraction (SAED), confirms films grown at room temperature have very small grain size and enlarged lattice parameter. The Vanadium films with distorted crystal structure also have high resistivity (>200 μΩ cm) and long spin diffusion length (~16.3 nm) measured via spin pumping experiment. This finding of spin Hall effect enhancement in more disordered structure will provide insights for understanding and exploiting materials with strong spin orbit interaction, especially in light 3d transition metals which promise long spin diffusion length.

  4. Dust exposure in indoor climbing halls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinbruch, Stephan; Dirsch, Thomas; Ebert, Martin; Hofmann, Heiko; Kandler, Konrad

    2008-05-01

    The use of hydrated magnesium carbonate hydroxide (magnesia alba) for drying the hands is a strong source for particulate matter in indoor climbing halls. Particle mass concentrations (PM10, PM2.5 and PM1) were measured with an optical particle counter in 9 indoor climbing halls and in 5 sports halls. Mean values for PM10 in indoor climbing halls are generally on the order of 200-500 microg m(-3). For periods of high activity, which last for several hours, PM10 values between 1000 and 4000 microg m(-3) were observed. PM(2.5) is on the order of 30-100 microg m(-3) and reaches values up to 500 microg m(-3), if many users are present. In sports halls, the mass concentrations are usually much lower (PM10 indoor climbing were observed. The size distribution and the total particle number concentration (3.7 nm-10 microm electrical mobility diameter) were determined in one climbing hall by an electrical aerosol spectrometer. The highest number concentrations were between 8000 and 12 000 cm(-3), indicating that the use of magnesia alba is no strong source for ultrafine particles. Scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis revealed that virtually all particles are hydrated magnesium carbonate hydroxide. In-situ experiments in an environmental scanning electron microscope showed that the particles do not dissolve at relative humidities up to 100%. Thus, it is concluded that solid particles of magnesia alba are airborne and have the potential to deposit in the human respiratory tract. The particle mass concentrations in indoor climbing halls are much higher than those reported for schools and reach, in many cases, levels which are observed for industrial occupations. The observed dust concentrations are below the current occupational exposure limits in Germany of 3 and 10 mg m(-3) for respirable and inhalable dust. However, the dust concentrations exceed the German guide lines for work places without use of hazardous substances. In addition

  5. Laser-Plasma Modeling Using PERSEUS Extended-MHD Simulation Code for HED Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlin, Nathaniel; Seyler, Charles

    2017-10-01

    We discuss the use of the PERSEUS extended-MHD simulation code for high-energy-density (HED) plasmas in modeling the influence of Hall and electron inertial physics on laser-plasma interactions. By formulating the extended-MHD equations as a relaxation system in which the current is semi-implicitly time-advanced using the Generalized Ohm's Law, PERSEUS enables modeling of extended-MHD phenomena (Hall and electron inertial physics) without the need to resolve the smallest electron time scales, which would otherwise be computationally prohibitive in HED plasma simulations. We first consider a laser-produced plasma plume pinched by an applied magnetic field parallel to the laser axis in axisymmetric cylindrical geometry, forming a conical shock structure and a jet above the flow convergence. The Hall term produces low-density outer plasma, a helical field structure, flow rotation, and field-aligned current, rendering the shock structure dispersive. We then model a laser-foil interaction by explicitly driving the oscillating laser fields, and examine the essential physics governing the interaction. This work is supported by the National Nuclear Security Administration stewardship sciences academic program under Department of Energy cooperative agreements DE-FOA-0001153 and DE-NA0001836.

  6. External kinks in plasmas with helical boundary deformation and net toroidal current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardelea, A. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale, Lausanne (Switzerland). Centre de Recherche en Physique des Plasma (CRPP)

    1997-11-01

    The investigation of the global ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability of plasmas with helical boundary shape and nonvanishing toroidal plasma current constitutes the principal aim of this work. Global external modes with small values of m,n (typically n = 1,2,3 and m = n+1) are studied, where m and n are the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers, respectively. The first and main part of the work concentrates on fixed boundary equilibria generated by systematically varying parameters such as the type and the magnitude of the boundary deformation, the number of equilibrium field periods N{sub per}, the aspect ratio, the toroidal current density profile, {beta} and the pressure profile. Due to the periodicity of the equilibrium, couplings between Fourier perturbation components with different toroidal mode numbers n occur and lead to the apparition of families of modes. The study of a particular (m,n) mode has to take into account all (m{sub l}, n{sub l}) perturbation components with n{sub 1} belonging to the same family as n. The stability analysis is carried out in the parameter region where the inverse rotational transform (the safety factor in the traditional tokamak notation) q{<=}2.0 and {beta}{<=}2%. A particular property of the configurations investigated is that equilibrium Fourier components (m{sub e}, N{sub per}n{sub e}) which are involved in the couplings between the (m,n) mode studied and the (m{sub k},n{sub k}) perturbation components with m{sub k}>n{sub k}>n that exhibit resonances in the q>1 region are very small. As a consequence, the contributions of the (m,n)x(m{sub k},n{sub k}) couplings to the potential energy are very weak. It is shown that a helical boundary deformation can stabilize the n=1,2,3 external modes; if {delta} is a measure of the plasma boundary deformation, then windows of stability [{delta}{sub min}, {delta}{sub max}] may exist for a large variety of equilibrium parameters. (author) figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  7. Hall Potential Distribution in Anti-Hall bar Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Vinicio; Knighton, Talbot; Wu, Zhe; Huang, Jian; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken

    A high quality system has been fabricated in an Anti-Hall bar geometry, by opening a 1.4 x 2.0 mm rectangular window using wet etching in the middle of a 2.4 x 3.0 mm two-dimensional high-mobility (μ = 2 . 6 × 106 cm2/(V .s)) hole system confined in a 20 nm wide (100) GaAs quantum well. Topologically this system is equivalent to a normal Hall bar even though there is an extra set of edges in the center. This configuration allows us to probe the Hall potential distribution in relation to the formation of edge channels. The Quantum Hall measurements at 30 mK show a standard behavior of the outer edges. At each Hall plateau the inner edge becomes an equipotential and the Hall voltage between the inner and outer edges exhibits a drastic asymmetry for the upper and lower arms of the sample. At various integer fillings, depending on the chirality, the voltage drop across one of the arms measures 0 while the drop across the other one is equal to the Hall voltage. This behavior will be explained in terms of the dynamical process of forming the edge channels which also will account for the more irregular behavior of the Hall potential in more disordered systems. NSF DMR-1410302.

  8. Quantum Hall Electron Nematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Allan

    In 2D electron systems hosted by crystals with hexagonal symmetry, electron nematic phases with spontaneously broken C3 symmetry are expected to occur in the quantum Hall regime when triplets of Landau levels associated with three different Fermi surface pockets are partially filled. The broken symmetry state is driven by intravalley Coulombic exchange interactions that favor spontaneously polarized valley occupations. I will discuss three different examples of 2D electron systems in which this type of broken symmetry state is expected to occur: i) the SnTe (111) surface, ii) the Bi (111) surface. and iii) unbalanced bilayer graphene. This type of quantum Hall electron nematic state has so far been confirmed only in the Bi (111) case, in which the anisotropic quasiparticle wavefunctions of the broken symmetry state were directly imaged. In the SnTe case the nematic state phase boundary is controlled by a competition between intravalley Coulomb interactions and intervalley scattering processes that increase in relative strength with magnetic field. An in-plane Zeeman field alters the phase diagram by lifting the three-fold Landau level degeneracy, yielding a ground state energy with 2 π/3 periodicity as a function of Zeeman-field orientation angle. I will comment on the possibility of observing similar states in the absence of a magnetic field. Supported by DOE Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering Grant DE-FG03-02ER45958.

  9. The ISOLDE hall

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2002-01-01

    Since 1992, after its move from the 600 MeV SC, ISOLDE is a customer of the Booster (then 1 GeV, now 1.4 GeV). The intense Booster beam (some 3E13 protons per pulse) is directed onto a target, from which a mixture of isotopes emanates. After ionization and electrostatic acceleration to 60 keV, they enter one of the 2 spectrometers (General Purpose Separator: GPS, and High Resolution Separator: HRS) from which the selected ions are directed to the experiments. The photos show: the REX-ISOLDE post accelerator; the mini-ball experiment; an overview of the ISOLDE hall. In the picture (_12) of the hall, the separators are behind the wall. From either of them, beams can be directed into any of the many beamlines towards the experiments, some of which are visible in the foreground. The elevated cubicle at the left is EBIS (Electron Beam Ion Source), which acts as a charge-state multiplier for the REX facility. The ions are further mass analzyzed and passed on to the linac which accelerates them to higher energies. T...

  10. Plasma response to sustainment with imposed-dynamo current drive in HIT-SI and HIT-SI3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, A. C.; Jarboe, T. R.; Chandra, R. N.; Morgan, K. D.; Sutherland, D. A.; Penna, J. M.; Everson, C. J.; Nelson, B. A.

    2017-07-01

    The helicity injected torus—steady inductive (HIT-SI) program studies efficient, steady-state current drive for magnetic confinement plasmas using a novel experimental method. Stable, high-beta spheromaks have been sustained using steady, inductive current drive. Externally induced loop voltage and magnetic flux are oscillated together so that helicity and power injection are always positive, sustaining the edge plasma current indefinitely. Imposed-dynamo current drive (IDCD) theory further shows that the entire plasma current is sustained. The method is ideal for low aspect ratio, toroidal geometries with closed flux surfaces. Experimental studies of spheromak plasmas sustained with IDCD have shown stable magnetic profiles with evidence of pressure confinement. New measurements show coherent motion of a stable spheromak in response to the imposed perturbations. On the original device two helicity injectors were mounted on either side of the spheromak and the injected mode spectrum was predominantly n  =  1. Coherent, rigid motion indicates that the spheromak is stable and a lack of plasma-generated n  =  1 energy indicates that the maximum q is maintained below 1 during sustainment. Results from the HIT-SI3 device are also presented. Three inductive helicity injectors are mounted on one side of the spheromak flux conserver. Varying the relative injector phasing changes the injected mode spectrum which includes n  =  2, 3, and higher modes.

  11. Effect of an iron core on the stability of a current-carrying plasma: application to RINGBOOG 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanwees, A.C.A.; Dekock, L.C.J.M.; Manintveld, P.

    1980-09-01

    A practical solution is given for realizing the poloidal field of a Tokamak plasma situated very close to an iron core. For the geometry of RINGBOOG 2 the expanding force of the toroidal current-carrying plasma is nearly compensated by the magnetic force generated by the stray field of the iron core. This field configuration is very unstable for horizontal plasma displacements. An external field is proposed which mainly compensates the unfavorable gradient of the vertical field, and to a lesser extent, gives the right position.

  12. Effect of Inductive Coil Geometry and Current Sheet Trajectory of a Conical Theta Pinch Pulsed Inductive Plasma Accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallock, Ashley K.; Polzin, Kurt A.; Bonds, Kevin W.; Emsellem, Gregory D.

    2011-01-01

    Results are presented demonstrating the e ect of inductive coil geometry and current sheet trajectory on the exhaust velocity of propellant in conical theta pinch pulsed induc- tive plasma accelerators. The electromagnetic coupling between the inductive coil of the accelerator and a plasma current sheet is simulated, substituting a conical copper frustum for the plasma. The variation of system inductance as a function of plasma position is obtained by displacing the simulated current sheet from the coil while measuring the total inductance of the coil. Four coils of differing geometries were employed, and the total inductance of each coil was measured as a function of the axial displacement of two sep- arate copper frusta both having the same cone angle and length as the coil but with one compressed to a smaller size relative to the coil. The measured relationship between total coil inductance and current sheet position closes a dynamical circuit model that is used to calculate the resulting current sheet velocity for various coil and current sheet con gura- tions. The results of this model, which neglects the pinching contribution to thrust, radial propellant con nement, and plume divergence, indicate that in a conical theta pinch ge- ometry current sheet pinching is detrimental to thruster performance, reducing the kinetic energy of the exhausting propellant by up to 50% (at the upper bound for the parameter range of the study). The decrease in exhaust velocity was larger for coils and simulated current sheets of smaller half cone angles. An upper bound for the pinching contribution to thrust is estimated for typical operating parameters. Measurements of coil inductance for three di erent current sheet pinching conditions are used to estimate the magnetic pressure as a function of current sheet radial compression. The gas-dynamic contribution to axial acceleration is also estimated and shown to not compensate for the decrease in axial electromagnetic acceleration

  13. Assessment of quasi-linear effect of RF power spectrum for enabling lower hybrid current drive in reactor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesario, Roberto; Cardinali, Alessandro; Castaldo, Carmine; Amicucci, Luca; Ceccuzzi, Silvio; Galli, Alessandro; Napoli, Francesco; Panaccione, Luigi; Santini, Franco; Schettini, Giuseppe; Tuccillo, Angelo Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The main research on the energy from thermonuclear fusion uses deuterium plasmas magnetically trapped in toroidal devices. To suppress the turbulent eddies that impair thermal insulation and pressure tight of the plasma, current drive (CD) is necessary, but tools envisaged so far are unable accomplishing this task while efficiently and flexibly matching the natural current profiles self-generated at large radii of the plasma column [1-5]. The lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) [6] can satisfy this important need of a reactor [1], but the LHCD system has been unexpectedly mothballed on JET. The problematic extrapolation of the LHCD tool at reactor graded high values of, respectively, density and temperatures of plasma has been now solved. The high density problem is solved by the FTU (Frascati Tokamak Upgrade) method [7], and solution of the high temperature one is presented here. Model results based on quasi-linear (QL) theory evidence the capability, w.r.t linear theory, of suitable operating parameters of reducing the wave damping in hot reactor plasmas. Namely, using higher RF power densities [8], or a narrower antenna power spectrum in refractive index [9,10], the obstacle for LHCD represented by too high temperature of reactor plasmas should be overcome. The former method cannot be used for routinely, safe antenna operations, Thus, only the latter key is really exploitable in a reactor. The proposed solutions are ultimately necessary for viability of an economic reactor.

  14. Synthesis of thick diamond films by direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition

    CERN Document Server

    Jin Zeng Sun; Bai Yi Zhen; Lu Xian Yi

    2002-01-01

    The method of direct current hot-cathode plasma chemical vapour deposition has been established. A long-time stable glow discharge at large discharge current and high gas pressure has been achieved by using a hot cathode in the temperature range from 1100 degree C to 1500 degree C and non-symmetrical configuration of the poles, in which the diameter of the cathode is larger than that of anode. High-quality thick diamond films, with a diameter of 40-50 mm and thickness of 0.5-4.2 mm, have been synthesized by this method. Transparent thick diamond films were grown over a range of growth rates between 5-10 mu m/h. Most of the thick diamond films have thermal conductivities of 10-12 W/K centre dot cm. The thick diamond films with high thermal conductivity can be used as a heat sink of semiconducting laser diode array and as a heat spreading and isolation substrate of multichip modules. The performance can be obviously improved

  15. Cosmopolitanism - Conversation with Stuart Hall

    OpenAIRE

    Hall, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    Forty minute conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner, filmed and edited by Haim Bresheeth. Synopsis by Sarah Harrison. Conversation between Stuart Hall and Pnina Werbner on the theme of Cosmopolitanism (to be shown at the Association of Social Anthropologists Silver Jubilee conference in 2006), in March 2006

  16. Fast Magnetic Reconnection: “Ideal” Tearing and the Hall Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucci, Fulvia; Velli, Marco; Tenerani, Anna

    2017-08-01

    One of the main questions in magnetic reconnection is the origin of triggering behavior with on/off properties that, once it is activated, accounts for the fast magnetic energy conversion to kinetic and thermal energies at the heart of explosive events in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. Over the past decade, progress has been made on the initiation of fast reconnection via the plasmoid instability and what has been called “ideal” tearing, which sets in once current sheets thin to a critical inverse aspect ratio {(a/L)}c. As shown by Pucci & Velli, at {(a/L)}c˜ {S}-1/3, the timescale for the instability to develop becomes of the order of the Alfvén time and independent of the Lundquist number (here defined in terms of current sheet length L). However, given the large values of S in natural plasmas, this transition might occur for thicknesses of the inner resistive singular layer that are comparable to the ion inertial length d I . When this occurs, Hall currents produce a three-dimensional quadrupole structure of the magnetic field, and the dispersive waves introduced by the Hall effect accelerate the instability. Here we present a linear study showing how the “ideal” tearing mode critical aspect ratio is modified when Hall effects are taken into account, including more general scaling laws of the growth rates in terms of sheet inverse aspect ratio: the critical inverse aspect ratio is amended to a/L≃ {({di}/L)}0.29{(1/S)}0.19, at which point the instability growth rate becomes Alfvénic and does not depend on either of the (small) parameters {d}I/L,1/S. We discuss the implications of this generalized triggering aspect ratio for recently developed phase diagrams of magnetic reconnection.

  17. Kinetic analysis of spin current contribution to spectrum of electromagnetic waves in spin-1/2 plasma, Part I: Dielectric permeability tensor for magnetized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Andreev, Pavel A

    2016-01-01

    The dielectric permeability tensor for spin polarized plasmas is derived in terms of the spin-1/2 quantum kinetic model in six-dimensional phase space. Expressions for the distribution function and spin distribution function are derived in linear approximations on the path of dielectric permeability tensor derivation. The dielectric permeability tensor is derived the spin-polarized degenerate electron gas. It is also discussed at the finite temperature regime, where the equilibrium distribution function is presented by the spin-polarized Fermi-Dirac distribution. Consideration of the spin-polarized equilibrium states opens possibilities for the kinetic modeling of the thermal spin current contribution in the plasma dynamics.

  18. Hybrid-PIC Modeling of a High-Voltage, High-Specific-Impulse Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandon D.; Boyd, Iain D.; Kamhawi, Hani; Huang, Wensheng

    2013-01-01

    The primary life-limiting mechanism of Hall thrusters is the sputter erosion of the discharge channel walls by high-energy propellant ions. Because of the difficulty involved in characterizing this erosion experimentally, many past efforts have focused on numerical modeling to predict erosion rates and thruster lifespan, but those analyses were limited to Hall thrusters operating in the 200-400V discharge voltage range. Thrusters operating at higher discharge voltages (V(sub d) >= 500 V) present an erosion environment that may differ greatly from that of the lower-voltage thrusters modeled in the past. In this work, HPHall, a well-established hybrid-PIC code, is used to simulate NASA's High-Voltage Hall Accelerator (HiVHAc) at discharge voltages of 300, 400, and 500V as a first step towards modeling the discharge channel erosion. It is found that the model accurately predicts the thruster performance at all operating conditions to within 6%. The model predicts a normalized plasma potential profile that is consistent between all three operating points, with the acceleration zone appearing in the same approximate location. The expected trend of increasing electron temperature with increasing discharge voltage is observed. An analysis of the discharge current oscillations shows that the model predicts oscillations that are much greater in amplitude than those measured experimentally at all operating points, suggesting that the differences in oscillation amplitude are not strongly associated with discharge voltage.

  19. Hall Thruster Plume Measurements On-Board the Russian Express Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzella, David; Jankovsky, Robert; Elliott, Frederick; Mikellides, Ioannis; Jongeward, Gary; Allen, Doug

    2001-01-01

    The operation of North-South and East-West station-keeping Hall thruster propulsion systems on-board two Russian Express-A geosynchronous communication satellites were investigated through a collaborative effort with the manufacturer of the spacecraft. Over 435 firings of 16 different thrusters with a cumulative run time of over 550 hr were reported with no thruster failures. Momentum transfer due to plume impingement was evaluated based on reductions in the effective thrust of the SPT-100 thrusters and induced disturbance torques determined based on attitude control system data and range data. Hall thruster plasma plume effects on the transmission of C-band and Ku-band communication signals were shown to be negligible. On-orbit ion current density measurements were made and subsequently compared to predictions and ground test data. Ion energy, total pressure, and electric field strength measurements were also measured on-orbit. The effect of Hall thruster operation on solar array performance over several months was investigated. A subset of these data is presented.

  20. Use of a Secondary Current Sensor in Plasma during Electron-Beam Welding with Focus Scanning for Process Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy Trushnikov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider questions of building a closed-loop focus control system for electron-beam welding. As a feedback signal, we use the secondary current in the plasma that forms above the welding zone. This article presents a model of a secondary current sensor in plasma during electron-beam welding with focus scanning. A comparison of modeled results with experimental data confirms the adequacy of the model. We show that the best results for focus control are obtained when using phase relationships rather than amplitude relationships. We outline the principles for building an EBW focus control system based on parameters of the secondary current in plasma. We simulate the work of a control system’s circuits and demonstrate the stability of the synthesized system. We have conducted pilot tests on an experimental prototype.

  1. Feasibility of ultra-sensitive 2D layered Hall elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joo, Min-Kyu; Kim, Joonggyu; Lee, Gwanmu; Kim, Hyun; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    2017-06-01

    A Hall effect sensor is an analog transducer that detects a magnetic flux. The general requirements for its high magnetic sensitivity in conventional semiconductors are high carrier mobility and ultra-thin conduction channel in the material’s and the device’s point of view. Recently, graphene Hall elements (GHEs) that satisfy those conditions have been demonstrated with a current-normalized magnetic sensitivity (S I) superior to that of Si-based Hall sensors. Nevertheless, the feasibility of Hall elements based on an atomically thin monolayer transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) system has not been studied thus far, although such a system would further enable a largely suppressed 2D carrier density. Herein, we show the strategy how to achieve the highest possible S I in a TMD-based Hall element in terms of the device structure as well as the operating bias condition. A monolayer molybdenum disulfide Hall element (MHE) on a hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) thin film was fabricated, and the best bias conditions were selected based on the analytical model for zero-field transconductance data. Finally, the maximum S I of MHE/h-BN was found to be ~3000 V/AT. This work sheds light on the feasibility of TMD-based Hall element systems.

  2. Current-voltage characteristics of a cathodic plasma contactor with discharge chamber for application in electrodynamic tether propulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Kan; Martinez, Rafael A.; Williams, John D.

    2014-04-01

    This paper focuses on the net electron-emission current as a function of bias voltage of a plasma source that is being used as the cathodic element in a bare electrodynamic tether system. An analysis is made that enables an understanding of the basic issues determining the current-voltage (C-V) behaviour. This is important for the efficiency of the electrodynamic tether and for low impedance performance without relying on the properties of space plasma for varying orbital altitudes, inclinations, day-night cycles or the position of the plasma contactor relative to the wake of the spacecraft. The cathodic plasma contactor considered has a cylindrical discharge chamber (10 cm in diameter and ˜11 cm in length) and is driven by a hollow cathode. Experiments and a 1D spherical model are both used to study the contactor's C-V curves. The experiments demonstrate how the cathodic contactor would emit electrons into space for anode voltages in the range of 25-40 V, discharge currents in the range of 1-2.5 A, and low xenon gas flows of 2-4 sccm. Plasma properties are measured and compared with (3 A) and without net electron emission. A study of the dependence of relevant parameters found that the C-V behaviour strongly depends on electron temperature, initial ion energy and ion emission current at the contactor exit. However, it depended only weakly on ambient plasma density. The error in the developed model compared with the experimental C-V curves is within 5% at low electron-emission currents (0-2 A). The external ionization processes and high ion production rate caused by the discharge chamber, which dominate the C-V behaviour at electron-emission currents over 2 A, are further highlighted and discussed.

  3. Farm Hall: The Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, David C.

    2013-03-01

    It's July 1945. Germany is in defeat and the atomic bombs are on their way to Japan. Under the direction of Samuel Goudsmit, the Allies are holding some of the top German nuclear scientists-among them Heisenberg, Hahn, and Gerlach-captive in Farm Hall, an English country manor near Cambridge, England. As secret microphones record their conversations, the scientists are unaware of why they are being held or for how long. Thinking themselves far ahead of the Allies, how will they react to the news of the atomic bombs? How will these famous scientists explain to themselves and to the world their failure to achieve even a chain reaction? How will they come to terms with the horror of the Third Reich, their work for such a regime, and their behavior during that period? This one-act play is based upon the transcripts of their conversations as well as the author's historical work on the subject.

  4. Use of a Secondary Current Sensor in Plasma during Electron-Beam Welding with Focus Scanning for Process Control

    OpenAIRE

    Dmitriy Trushnikov; Elena Krotova; Elena Koleva

    2016-01-01

    We consider questions of building a closed-loop focus control system for electron-beam welding. As a feedback signal, we use the secondary current in the plasma that forms above the welding zone. This article presents a model of a secondary current sensor in plasma during electron-beam welding with focus scanning. A comparison of modeled results with experimental data confirms the adequacy of the model. We show that the best results for focus control are obtained when using phase relationship...

  5. HbA1c, fasting and 2 h plasma glucose in current, ex- and never-smokers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soulimane, Soraya; Simon, Dominique; Herman, William H

    2014-01-01

    without known diabetes in 12 DETECT-2 consortium studies and in the French Data from an Epidemiological Study on the Insulin Resistance Syndrome (DESIR) and Telecom studies. Means of three glycaemic variables in current, ex- and never-smokers were modelled by linear regression, with study as a random......AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The relationships between smoking and glycaemic variables have not been well explored. We compared HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose (FPG) and 2 h plasma glucose (2H-PG) in current, ex- and never-smokers. METHODS: This meta-analysis used individual data from 16,886 men and 18,539 women...

  6. Tunnelling anomalous and planar Hall effects (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor

    2016-10-01

    We theoretically show how the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and magnetism can result in a finite tunneling Hall conductance, transverse to the applied bias. For two-dimensional tunnel junctions with a ferromagnetic lead and magnetization perpendicular to the current flow, the detected anomalous Hall voltage can be used to extract information not only about the spin polarization but also about the strength of the interfacial SOC. In contrast, a tunneling current across a ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) can induce a planar Hall response even when the magnetization is oriented along the current flow[1]. The tunneling nature of the states contributing to the planar Hall conductance can be switched from the ordinary to the Klein regimes by the electrostatic control of the barrier strength. This allows for an enhancement of the transverse response and a giant Hall angle, with the tunneling planar Hall conductance exceeding the longitudinal component. Despite the simplicity of a single ferromagnetic region, the TI/ferromagnet system exhibits a variety of functionalities. In addition to a spin-valve operation for magnetic sensing and storing information, positive, negative, and negative differential conductances can be tuned by properly adjusting the barrier potential and/or varying the magnetization direction. Such different resistive behaviors in the same system are attractive for potential applications in reconfigurable spintronic devices. [1] B. Scharf, A. Matos-Abiague, J. E. Han, E. M. Hankiewicz, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1601.01009 (2016).

  7. A model of plasma current through a hole of Rogowski probe including sheath effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furui, H; Ejiri, A; Nagashima, Y; Takase, Y; Sonehara, M; Tsujii, N; Yamaguchi, T; Shinya, T; Togashi, H; Homma, H; Nakamura, K; Takeuchi, T; Yajima, S; Yoshida, Y; Toida, K; Takahashi, W; Yamazaki, H

    2016-04-01

    In TST-2 Ohmic discharges, local current is measured using a Rogowski probe by changing the angle between the local magnetic field and the direction of the hole of the Rogowski probe. The angular dependence shows a peak when the direction of the hole is almost parallel to the local magnetic field. The obtained width of the peak was broader than that of the theoretical curve expected from the probe geometry. In order to explain this disagreement, we consider the effect of sheath in the vicinity of the Rogowski probe. A sheath model was constructed and electron orbits were numerically calculated. From the calculation, it was found that the electron orbit is affected by E × B drift due to the sheath electric field. Such orbit causes the broadening of the peak in the angular dependence and the dependence agrees with the experimental results. The dependence of the broadening on various plasma parameters was studied numerically and explained qualitatively by a simplified analytical model.

  8. Effect of current and atomized grain size distribution on the solidification of Plasma Transferred Arc coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Bond

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Transferred Arc (PTA is the only thermal spray process that results in a metallurgical bond, being frequently described as a hardfacing process. The superior properties of coatings have been related to the fine microstructures obtained, which are finer than those processed under similar heat input with welding techniques using wire feedstock. This observation suggests that the atomized feedstock plays a role on the solidification of coatings. In this study a model for the role of the powders grains in the solidification of PTA coatings is put forward and discussed. An experiment was setup to discuss the model which involved the deposition of an atomized Co-based alloy with different grain size distributions and deposition currents. X ray diffraction showed that there were no phase changes due to the processing parameters. Microstructure analysis by Laser Confocal Microscopy, dilution with the substrate steel and Vickers microhardness were used the characterized coatings and enriched the discussion confirming the role of the powdered feedstock on the solidification of coatings.

  9. Hall effect on tearing mode instabilities in tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, W.; Ma, Z. W.; Wang, S.

    2017-10-01

    The tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulting from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, can cause fast development and rotation of the perturbation structure of the tearing mode. A high-accuracy nonlinear magnetohydrodynamics code is developed to study Hall effects on the evolution of tearing modes in the Tokamak geometry. It is found that the linear growth rate increases with the increase in the ion skin depth and the self-consistently generated rotation can greatly alter the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode.

  10. Inverse spin Hall effect in a closed loop circuit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omori, Y.; Auvray, F.; Wakamura, T.; Niimi, Y., E-mail: niimi@issp.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); Fert, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS/Thales, 91767 Palaiseau France associée à l' Université de Paris-Sud, 91405 Orsay (France); Otani, Y. [Institute for Solid State Physics, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwa-no-ha, Kashiwa, Chiba 277-8581 (Japan); RIKEN-CEMS, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan)

    2014-06-16

    We present measurements of inverse spin Hall effects (ISHEs), in which the conversion of a spin current into a charge current via the ISHE is detected not as a voltage in a standard open circuit but directly as the charge current generated in a closed loop. The method is applied to the ISHEs of Bi-doped Cu and Pt. The derived expression of ISHE for the loop structure can relate the charge current flowing into the loop to the spin Hall angle of the SHE material and the resistance of the loop.

  11. Double Hall sensor structure reducing voltage offset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oszwaldowski, M.; El-Ahmar, S.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper, we report on the double Hall sensor structure (DHSS) in which the voltage offset can be effectively reduced. The DHSS is composed of two standard Hall sensors that are activated with two currents from electrically independent current sources. The operation principle of the DHSS is explained in detail, and the concluded properties of the DHSS are confirmed in the experimental part of the paper. The measurements are performed on DHSSs based on InSb thin films. The offset is reduced by about three orders of magnitude. The minimum value of the reduced offset obtained is 10 μV. It appears that the minimum reduced offset is limited by the electric noise. The advantage of DHSS is that it can be manufactured with the standard thin film technology enabling effective miniaturization of the system. The DHSS can effectively be used for the measurements of the Hall effect in ultra-thin layers containing the two dimensional electron gas, such as the epitaxial graphene.

  12. Development of 4.6 GHz lower hybrid current drive system for steady state and high performance plasma in EAST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, F.K.; Li, J.G.; Shan, J.F.; Wang, M.; Liu, L.; Zhao, L.M.; Hu, H.C.; Feng, J.Q.; Yang, Y.; Jia, H.; Wang, X.J.; Wu, Z.G.; Ma, W.D.; Huang, Y.Y.; Xu, H.D.; Zhang, J.; Cheng, M.; Xu, L.; Li, M.H.; Li, Y.C.; and others

    2016-12-15

    In order to achieve steady state and high performance plasma in EAST, a new lower hybrid current drive system at a frequency of 4.6 GHz has been built. The system is composed of 24 continuous wave (CW) klystron amplifiers to generate 6MW/CW microwave, 24 standard rectangle waveguide transmission lines with water-cooling plate, a multi-junction grill composed of 576 active (in groups of 8) and 84 passive sub-waveguides arranged in 12 rows and 6 columns, and four sets of high voltage power supplies. The power value and the spectrum of the launched microwave from the antenna can be controlled by the low-power microwave circuits in front of the klystrons. The new LHCD system has been applied to the experiments on EAST tokmak since 2014, and the obtained results suggest that it is effective to couple the wave into plasma and drive plasma current.

  13. Topological Hall and spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame

    2017-02-24

    We carry out a thorough study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy-band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real-space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and find that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that the topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering.

  14. Topological Hall and Spin Hall Effects in Disordered Skyrmionic Textures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndiaye, Papa Birame; Akosa, Collins; Manchon, Aurelien; Spintronics Theory Group Team

    We carry out a throughout study of the topological Hall and topological spin Hall effects in disordered skyrmionic systems: the dimensionless (spin) Hall angles are evaluated across the energy band structure in the multiprobe Landauer-Büttiker formalism and their link to the effective magnetic field emerging from the real space topology of the spin texture is highlighted. We discuss these results for an optimal skyrmion size and for various sizes of the sample and found that the adiabatic approximation still holds for large skyrmions as well as for few atomic size-nanoskyrmions. Finally, we test the robustness of the topological signals against disorder strength and show that topological Hall effect is highly sensitive to momentum scattering. This work was supported by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) through the Award No OSR-CRG URF/1/1693-01 from the Office of Sponsored Research (OSR).

  15. Obtaining the high-current low-energy electron beams in the systems with a plasma emitter

    CERN Document Server

    Devyatkov, V N; Shchanin, P M

    2001-01-01

    Using gas filled diodes with arc and glow-discharge base plasma emitters one investigated into generation and transfer of high-current electron beams. Using a diode with arc discharge base plasma emitter at 15 kV accelerating voltage one obtained a space charge compensated with up to 1 kA current compressed by proper magnetic field from 8 cm diameter up to 1 cm and transported at over 20 cm distance with 70% efficiency. Using a diode with a glow-discharge one obtained a 80 A current and up to 100 A/cm current density beam. In a weak axial magnetic field with B=0.015 T induction such a beam is transported at 30 cm distance

  16. High-current electron beam nonlinear relaxation in plasma and electron acceleration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karfidov, D.M. (AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. of General Physics (USSR)); Nikolov, N.A.; Malinov, P.N.; Trifonov, I.P. (Sofia Univ. (Bulgaria). Fizicheski Fakultet (Bulgaria))

    1988-08-01

    A nonlinear relaxation is observed when an electron beam interacts with plasma in an external magnetic field. An acceleration of electrons to energies which are more than twice that of the initial beam energy is observed. The acceleration mechanism is connected with the modulation instability of the plasma waves which is excited when the beam relaxes. (author).

  17. Experimental study of plasma focusing in erosion plasma accelerators. V. Mechanism of plasma focusing in a magnetoplasma compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, N.P.; Protasov, Y.S.

    1982-08-01

    Experimental results are reported from a study of the dynamics, microscopic structure, and stability of successive developmental stages of high-current plasmodynamic discharges in magnetoplasma compressors of the erosion type under conditions of intense radiation transport. Particular attention was given to the transient stage of plasma focusing behind the cutoff of the accelerating channel, and to secondary pinching processes in the second half-period of the discharge current and methods for analyzing them when limited diagnostic facilities are available. It is shown that thermal instabilities, which dominate during the stages of formation and quasisteady flow in the compressed zone, do not cause the nonideal discharge plasma to have anomalous thermodynamic and transport properties; the accelerated plasma, which is thermalized in the compressed zone, is macroscopically stable when the current shell interacts with the relatively cold vapor (this interaction is accompanied by development of an intense shock-wave structure and power instabilities in various modes). It is demonstrated that either an inertial + Hall mechanism of plasma focusing or two-stage inertial compression of the plasma is possible, regardless of the chemical composition and ionization state of the electric discharge plasma. In the two-stage method of plasma compression, the plasma is compressed toward the central anode in the accelerating channel by the Hall effect and as a result of additional pinching in the outgoing Z currents; when energy is input to the MHD compression zone in a self-consistent manner, this makes it possible to control the dimensions and the dynamic and energy characteristics of the plasma stream.

  18. Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.

    2010-01-01

    Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....

  19. Anisotropic anomalous Hall effect in triangular itinerant ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yihao; Xian, Cong; Wang, Jian; Liu, Bingjie; Ling, Langsheng; Zhang, Lei; Cao, Liang; Qu, Zhe; Xiong, Yimin

    2017-10-01

    Magnetic frustrated materials are of great interest for their novel spin-dependent transport properties. We report an anisotropic anomalous Hall effect in the triangular itinerant ferromagnet Fe3GeTe2 . When the current flows along the a b plane, Fe3GeTe2 exhibits the conventional anomalous Hall effect below the Curie temperature Tc, which can be depicted by Karplus-Luttinger theory. On the other hand, the topological Hall effect shows up below Tc with current along the c axis. The enhancement of Hall resistivity can be attributed to the chiral effect during the spin-flop process.

  20. "Hall mees" Linnateatris / Triin Sinissaar

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Sinissaar, Triin

    1999-01-01

    Tallinn Linnateatri ja Raadioteatri ühislavastus "Hall mees" Gill Adamsi näidendi järgi, lavastaja Eero Spriit, osades Helene Vannari ja Väino Laes, kunstnik Kustav - Agu Püüman. Esietendus 22. okt

  1. Herstructurering Stageprocessen Van Hall Larenstein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schelvis-Smit, A.A.M.

    2009-01-01

    Verslag van de herstructurering van het stageproces bij het Onderwijsbureau van Hogelschool VanHall Larenstein. Uitgangspunt hierbij was het onderling uitwisselbaar worden van personeel bij het uitvoeren van werkzaamheden met betrekking tot stages.

  2. Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase II program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...

  3. A game generalizing Hall's theorem

    OpenAIRE

    Rabern, Landon

    2012-01-01

    We characterize the initial positions from which the first player has a winning strategy in a certain two-player game. This provides a generalization of Hall's theorem. Vizing's edge coloring theorem follows from a special case.

  4. Shared Magnetics Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the proposed Phase I program, Busek Co. will demonstrate an innovative methodology for clustering Hall thrusters into a high performance, very high power...

  5. Sheldon-Hall syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamshad Michael J

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Sheldon-Hall syndrome (SHS is a rare multiple congenital contracture syndrome characterized by contractures of the distal joints of the limbs, triangular face, downslanting palpebral fissures, small mouth, and high arched palate. Epidemiological data for the prevalence of SHS are not available, but less than 100 cases have been reported in the literature. Other common clinical features of SHS include prominent nasolabial folds, high arched palate, attached earlobes, mild cervical webbing, short stature, severe camptodactyly, ulnar deviation, and vertical talus and/or talipes equinovarus. Typically, the contractures are most severe at birth and non-progressive. SHS is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern but about half the cases are sporadic. Mutations in either MYH3, TNNI2, or TNNT3 have been found in about 50% of cases. These genes encode proteins of the contractile apparatus of fast twitch skeletal muscle fibers. The diagnosis of SHS is based on clinical criteria. Mutation analysis is useful to distinguish SHS from arthrogryposis syndromes with similar features (e.g. distal arthrogryposis 1 and Freeman-Sheldon syndrome. Prenatal diagnosis by ultrasonography is feasible at 18–24 weeks of gestation. If the family history is positive and the mutation is known in the family, prenatal molecular genetic diagnosis is possible. There is no specific therapy for SHS. However, patients benefit from early intervention with occupational and physical therapy, serial casting, and/or surgery. Life expectancy and cognitive abilities are normal.

  6. Nonlocal control of electron temperature in short direct current glow discharge plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demidov, V. I. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506 (United States); Kudryavtsev, A. A.; Stepanova, O. M. [Department of Optics and Spectroscopy, St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg 199034 (Russian Federation); Kurlyandskaya, I. P. [International Laboratory “Nonlocal Plasma in Nanotechnology and Medicine”, ITMO University, Kronverkskiy pr. 49, St. Petersburg 197101 (Russian Federation); St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of EMERCOM RF, Murmansk Branch, Murmansk 183040 (Russian Federation)

    2014-09-15

    To demonstrate controlling the electron temperature in nonlocal plasma, experiments have been performed on a short (without positive column) dc glow discharge with a cold cathode by applying different voltages to the conducting discharge wall. The experiments have been performed for low-pressure noble gas discharges. The applied voltage can modify trapping the energetic electrons emitted from the cathode sheath and arising from the atomic and molecular processes in the plasma within the device volume. This phenomenon results in the energetic electrons heating the slow plasma electrons, which consequently modifies the electron temperature. Furthermore, a numerical model of the discharge has demonstrated the electron temperature modification for the above case.

  7. Studies of high-current relativistic electron beam interaction with gas and plasma in Novosibirsk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinitsky, S. L., E-mail: s.l.sinitsky@inp.nsk.su; Arzhannikov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Acad. Lavrentyev Ave, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, 2 Pirogova St., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Burdakov, A. V. [Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, 11 Acad. Lavrentyev Ave, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State Technical University, 20 Prospekt K. Marksa, Novosibirsk, 630073 (Russian Federation)

    2016-03-25

    This paper presents an overview of the studies on the interaction of a high-power relativistic electron beam (REB) with dense plasma confined in a long open magnetic trap. The main goal of this research is to achieve plasma parameters close to those required for thermonuclear fusion burning. The experimental studies were carried over the course of four decades on various devices: INAR, GOL, INAR-2, GOL-M, and GOL-3 (Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics) for a wide range of beam and plasma parameters.

  8. Transient, Small-Scale Field-Aligned Currents in the Plasma Sheet Boundary Layer During Storm Time Substorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, R.; Sergeev, V. A.; Baumjohann, W.; Plaschke, F.; Magnes, W.; Fischer, D.; Varsani, A.; Schmid, D.; Nakamura, T. K. M.; Russell, C. T.; hide

    2016-01-01

    We report on field-aligned current observations by the four Magnetospheric Multiscale (MMS) spacecraft near the plasma sheet boundary layer (PSBL) during two major substorms on 23 June 2015. Small-scale field-aligned currents were found embedded in fluctuating PSBL flux tubes near the Separatrix region. We resolve, for the first time, short-lived earthward (downward) intense field-aligned current sheets with thicknesses of a few tens of kilometers, which are well below the ion scale, on flux tubes moving equatorward earth ward during outward plasma sheet expansion. They coincide with upward field-aligned electron beams with energies of a few hundred eV. These electrons are most likely due to acceleration associated with a reconnection jet or high-energy ion beam-produced disturbances. The observations highlight coupling of multiscale processes in PSBL as a consequence of magnetotail reconnection.

  9. Bodies in flowing plasmas - Laboratory studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, N. H.; Samir, U.

    1981-01-01

    A brief review of early rudimentary laboratory studies of bodies in flowing, rarefied plasmas is presented (e.g., Birkeland, 1908), along with a discussion of more recent parametric studies conducted in steady plasma wind tunnels, which includes the study by Hall et al. (1964), in which a strong ion density enhancement in the center of the ion void created downstream from the body was observed. Good agreement was found between the experimental results and theoretical calculations which omit ion thermal motion. Examples in which in situ data on the interaction between satellites and the ionospheric plasma have been elucidated by the laboratory results are presented, and include evidence for a midwake axial ion peak, and ion current density in the near-wake region. The application of the ionospheric laboratory to basic space plasma physics is discussed, and its application to some types of solar system plasma phenomena is illustrated.

  10. General footage ISOLDE experimental hall HD

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.

  11. Performance of a Permanent-Magnet Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Sooby, E. S.; Kimberlin, A. C.; Raites, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2009-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic topologies. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying higher thrust efficiency. Thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 70-350 W and with the cathode orifice located at three different axial positions relative to the thruster exit plane. The thrust levels over this power range were 1.25-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 4-21% and 400-1950 s, respectively. The anode efficiency of the permanent-magnet thruster compares favorable with the efficiency of the electromagnet thruster when the power consumed by the electromagnets is taken into account.

  12. ULTRAVIOLET INDUCED MOTION OF A FLUORESCENT DUST CLOUD IN AN ARGON DIRECT CURRENT GLOW DISCHARGE PLASMA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hvasta, M.G.; and Zwicker, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dusty plasmas consist of electrons, ions, neutrals and nm-μm sized particles commonly referred to as dust. In man-made plasmas this dust may represent impurities in a tokamak or plasma etching processing. In astrophysical plasmas this dust forms structures such as planetary rings and comet tails. To study dusty plasma dynamics an experiment was designed in which a 3:1 silica (<5 μm diameter) and fl uorescent dust mixture was added to an argon DC glow discharge plasma and exposed to UV radiation. This fl uorescent lighting technique offers an advantage over laser scattering (which only allows two-dimensional slices of the cloud to be observed) and is simpler than scanning mirror techniques or particle image velocimetry. Under typical parameters (P=150 mTorr, V anode= 100 V, Vcathode= -400 V, Itotal < 2mA) when the cloud is exposed to the UV light (100W, λ = 365 nm) the mixture fl uoresces, moves ~2mm towards the light source and begins rotating in a clockwise manner (as seen from the cathode). By calibrating a UV lamp and adjusting the relative intensity of the UV with a variable transformer it was found that both translational and rotational velocities are a function of UV intensity. Additionally, it was determined that bulk cloud rotation is not seen when the dust tray is not grounded while bulk translation is. This ongoing experiment represents a novel way to control contamination in man-made plasmas and a path to a better understanding of UV-bathed plasma systems in space..

  13. The role of current sheet formation in driven plasmoid reconnection in laser-produced plasma bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lezhnin, Kirill; Fox, William; Bhattacharjee, Amitava

    2017-10-01

    We conduct a multiparametric study of driven magnetic reconnection relevant to recent experiments on colliding magnetized laser produced plasmas using the PIC code PSC. Varying the background plasma density, plasma resistivity, and plasma bubble geometry, the results demonstrate a variety of reconnection behavior and show the coupling between magnetic reconnection and global fluid evolution of the system. We consider both collision of two radially expanding bubbles where reconnection is driven through an X-point, and collision of two parallel fields where reconnection must be initiated by the tearing instability. Under various conditions, we observe transitions between fast, collisionless reconnection to a Sweet-Parker-like slow reconnection to complete stalling of the reconnection. By varying plasma resistivity, we observe the transition between fast and slow reconnection at Lundquist number S 103 . The transition from plasmoid reconnection to a single X-point reconnection also happens around S 103 . We find that the criterion δ /di < 1 is necessary for fast reconnection onset. Finally, at sufficiently high background density, magnetic reconnection can be suppressed, leading to bouncing motion of the magnetized plasma bubbles.

  14. Spin Hall effects for cold atoms in a light induced gauge potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Shi-Liang; /Michigan U., MCTP /South China Normal U.; Fu, Hao; /Michigan U., MCTP; Wu, C.-J.; /Santa Barbara, KITP; Zhang, S.-C.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Duan, L.-M. /Michigan U., MCTP

    2010-03-16

    We propose an experimental scheme to observe spin Hall effects with cold atoms in a light induced gauge potential. Under an appropriate configuration, the cold atoms moving in a spatially varying laser field experience an effective spin-dependent gauge potential. Through numerical simulation, we demonstrate that such a gauge field leads to observable spin Hall currents under realistic conditions. We also discuss the quantum spin Hall state in an optical lattice.

  15. Preliminary Results of Performance Measurements on a Cylindrical Hall-Effect Thruster with Magnetic Field Generated by Permanent Magnets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, K. A.; Raitses, Y.; Merino, E.; Fisch, N. J.

    2008-01-01

    The performance of a low-power cylindrical Hall thruster, which more readily lends itself to miniaturization and low-power operation than a conventional (annular) Hall thruster, was measured using a planar plasma probe and a thrust stand. The field in the cylindrical thruster was produced using permanent magnets, promising a power reduction over previous cylindrical thruster iterations that employed electromagnets to generate the required magnetic field topology. Two sets of ring-shaped permanent magnets are used, and two different field configurations can be produced by reorienting the poles of one magnet relative to the other. A plasma probe measuring ion flux in the plume is used to estimate the current utilization for the two magnetic configurations. The measurements indicate that electron transport is impeded much more effectively in one configuration, implying a higher thrust efficiency. Preliminary thruster performance measurements on this configuration were obtained over a power range of 100-250 W. The thrust levels over this power range were 3.5-6.5 mN, with anode efficiencies and specific impulses spanning 14-19% and 875- 1425 s, respectively. The magnetic field in the thruster was lower for the thrust measurements than the plasma probe measurements due to heating and weakening of the permanent magnets, reducing the maximum field strength from 2 kG to roughly 750-800 G. The discharge current levels observed during thrust stand testing were anomalously high compared to those levels measured in previous experiments with this thruster.

  16. Effects of Duty Cycle, Current Frequency, and Current Density on Corrosion Behavior of the Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Coatings on 6061 Al Alloy in Artificial Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakili-Azghandi, Mojtaba; Fattah-alhosseini, Arash

    2017-10-01

    In this study, the effects of duty cycle, current frequency, and current density on corrosion behavior of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings on 6061 Al alloy in artificial seawater (3.5 wt pct NaCl solution) were investigated. To serve this purpose, the electrical parameters of a unipolar pulsed current were applied during the PEO process on 6061 Al alloy in alkaline silicate electrolyte with and without Al2O3 nanoparticles. The coating morphology and microstructure were characterized by the scanning electron microscopy. The corrosion behavior and electrochemical response of the specimens treated by plasma electrolytic oxidation were analyzed by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and the potentiodynamic polarization in artificial seawater. It was found that PEO coatings formed in the presence of Al2O3 nanoparticle had lower porosity and exhibited better corrosion behavior compared with the coatings formed in the absence of Al2O3 nanoparticle in the structure. This can be attributed to the nanoparticles' incorporation and penetration through the PEO coatings. On the other hand, the decrease in the current density and increases in the duty cycle and frequency lead to further reduction of the nanoparticles' incorporation and distribution on the coating surface.

  17. Iodine Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, James

    2015-01-01

    Iodine enables dramatic mass and cost savings for lunar and Mars cargo missions, including Earth escape and near-Earth space maneuvers. The demonstrated throttling ability of iodine is important for a singular thruster that might be called upon to propel a spacecraft from Earth to Mars or Venus. The ability to throttle efficiently is even more important for missions beyond Mars. In the Phase I project, Busek Company, Inc., tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high-flow iodine feed system and supported by an existing Busek hollow cathode flowing xenon gas. The Phase I propellant feed system was evolved from a previously demonstrated laboratory feed system. Throttling of the thruster between 2 and 11 kW at 200 to 600 V was demonstrated. Testing showed that the efficiency of iodine fueled BHT-8000 is the same as with xenon, with iodine delivering a slightly higher thrust-to-power (T/P) ratio. In Phase II, a complete iodine-fueled system was developed, including the thruster, hollow cathode, and iodine propellant feed system. The nominal power of the Phase II system is 8 kW; however, it can be deeply throttled as well as clustered to much higher power levels. The technology also can be scaled to greater than 100 kW per thruster to support megawatt-class missions. The target thruster efficiency for the full-scale system is 65 percent at high specific impulse (Isp) (approximately 3,000 s) and 60 percent at high thrust (Isp approximately 2,000 s).

  18. Modelling of transitions between L- and H-mode in JET high plasma current plasmas and application to ITER scenarios including tungsten behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koechl, F.; Loarte, A.; Parail, V.; Belo, P.; Brix, M.; Corrigan, G.; Harting, D.; Koskela, T.; Kukushkin, A. S.; Polevoi, A. R.; Romanelli, M.; Saibene, G.; Sartori, R.; Eich, T.; Contributors, JET

    2017-08-01

    The dynamics for the transition from L-mode to a stationary high Q DT H-mode regime in ITER is expected to be qualitatively different to present experiments. Differences may be caused by a low fuelling efficiency of recycling neutrals, that influence the post transition plasma density evolution on the one hand. On the other hand, the effect of the plasma density evolution itself both on the alpha heating power and the edge power flow required to sustain the H-mode confinement itself needs to be considered. This paper presents results of modelling studies of the transition to stationary high Q DT H-mode regime in ITER with the JINTRAC suite of codes, which include optimisation of the plasma density evolution to ensure a robust achievement of high Q DT regimes in ITER on the one hand and the avoidance of tungsten accumulation in this transient phase on the other hand. As a first step, the JINTRAC integrated models have been validated in fully predictive simulations (excluding core momentum transport which is prescribed) against core, pedestal and divertor plasma measurements in JET C-wall experiments for the transition from L-mode to stationary H-mode in partially ITER relevant conditions (highest achievable current and power, H 98,y ~ 1.0, low collisionality, comparable evolution in P net/P L-H, but different ρ *, T i/T e, Mach number and plasma composition compared to ITER expectations). The selection of transport models (core: NCLASS  +  Bohm/gyroBohm in L-mode/GLF23 in H-mode) was determined by a trade-off between model complexity and efficiency. Good agreement between code predictions and measured plasma parameters is obtained if anomalous heat and particle transport in the edge transport barrier are assumed to be reduced at different rates with increasing edge power flow normalised to the H-mode threshold; in particular the increase in edge plasma density is dominated by this edge transport reduction as the calculated neutral influx across the

  19. Plasma-material Interactions in Current Tokamaks and their Implications for Next-step Fusion Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Federici, G.; Skinner, C.H.; Brooks, J.N.; Coad, J.P.; Grisolia, C. [and others

    2001-01-10

    The major increase in discharge duration and plasma energy in a next-step DT [deuterium-tritium] fusion reactor will give rise to important plasma-material effects that will critically influence its operation, safety, and performance. Erosion will increase to a scale of several centimeters from being barely measurable at a micron scale in today's tokamaks. Tritium co-deposited with carbon will strongly affect the operation of machines with carbon plasma-facing components. Controlling plasma wall interactions is critical to achieving high performance in present-day tokamaks and this is likely to continue to be the case in the approach to practical fusion reactors. Recognition of the important consequences of these phenomena has stimulated an internationally coordinated effort in the field of plasma-surface interactions supporting the Engineering Design Activities of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project and significant progress has been made in better under standing these issues. This paper reviews the underlying physical processes and the existing experimental database of plasma-material interactions both in tokamaks and laboratory simulation facilities for conditions of direct relevance to next-step fusion reactors. Two main topical groups of interactions are considered: (i) erosion/redeposition from plasma sputtering and disruptions, including dust and flake generation, (ii) tritium retention and removal. The use of modeling tools to interpret the experimental results and make projections for conditions expected in future devices is explained. Outstanding technical issues and specific recommendations on potential R and D [Research and Development] avenues for their resolution are presented.

  20. Development of soft ionization using direct current pulse glow discharge plasma source in mass spectrometry for volatile organic compounds analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunome, Yoko; Kodama, Kenji; Ueki, Yasuaki; Yoshiie, Ryo; Naruse, Ichiro; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2018-01-01

    This study describes an ionization source for mass analysis, consisting of glow discharge plasma driven by a pulsed direct-current voltage for soft plasma ionization, to detect toxic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) rapidly and easily. The novelty of this work is that a molecular adduct ion, in which the parent molecule attaches with an NO+ radical, [M + NO]+, can be dominantly detected as a base peak with little or no fragmentation of them in an ambient air plasma at a pressure of several kPa. Use of ambient air as the discharge plasma gas is suitable for practical applications. The higher pressure in an ambient air discharge provided a stable glow discharge plasma, contributing to the soft ionization of organic molecules. Typical mass spectra of VOCs toluene, benzene, o-xylene, chlorobenzene and n-hexane were observed as [M + NO]+ adduct ion whose peaks were detected at m/z 122, 108, 136, 142 and 116, respectively. The NO generation was also confirmed by emission bands of NO γ-system. The ionization reactions were suggested, such that NO+ radical formed in an ambient air discharge could attach with the analyte molecule.

  1. Structure of the tail plasma/current sheet at ~11 RE and its changes in the course of a substorm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeev, V. A.; Mitchell, D. G.; Russell, C. T.; Williams, D. J.

    1993-10-01

    At the end of April 2, 1978, the ISEE 1 and 2 spacecraft moved inbound at ~11 RE on the nightside (0130 MLT). Due to a flapping motion of the plasma sheet the spacecraft crossed the neutral sheet region (central region of the plasma sheet) more than 10 times in the hour between 2115 and 2215 UT. This provided a unique opportunity to study the structure of the plasma/current region and its evolution during substorm growth and early expansion before the final disruption of the current sheet. Using minimum variance analysis of the magnetic field variations during the crossings as well as finite ion gyroradius diagnostics, we determine the orientation of the current sheet (CS) and then estimate the CS thickness as well as the value of its normal component, Bn. Typically, the current distribution was inferred to be very inhomogeneous with a current concentrated in a very thin CS (only 0.2 to 0.8 RE as thick) embedded inside the thicker plasma sheet. Current sheet crossings could be classified as regular or turbulent. The first type prevailed during the growth phase and at the initial stage of expansion when the spacecraft were well outside (in longitude) of the active region of the substorm and no large plasma flow was detected. The normal field component Bn was typically very small (~1 nT) in the CS center in comparison to the larger shear magnetic By component. In the course of the growth phase we inferred as increase of the lobe field Bx and a decrease of the CS half thickness h (from h~3000 km to ~800 km just before the expansion onset), i.e., a very large increase (up to an order of magnitude) of the current density. At the same time, in disagreement with the usual cartoon picture of magnetic reconfiguration, the magnetic field magnitude in the CS center increased (instead of decreased) at the expense of the shear component. Three turbulent crossings were found during substorm expansion within the longitude range of the substorm current wedge (SCW). The second of

  2. Current-driven ion-acoustic and potential-relaxation instabilities excited in plasma plume during electron beam welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushnikov, D. N.; Mladenov, G. M.; Belenkiy, V. Ya.; Koleva, E. G.; Varushkin, S. V.

    2014-04-01

    Many papers have sought correlations between the parameters of secondary particles generated above the beam/work piece interaction zone, dynamics of processes in the keyhole, and technological processes. Low- and high-frequency oscillations of the current, collected by plasma have been observed above the welding zone during electron beam welding. Low-frequency oscillations of secondary signals are related to capillary instabilities of the keyhole, however; the physical mechanisms responsible for the high-frequency oscillations (>10 kHz) of the collected current are not fully understood. This paper shows that peak frequencies in the spectra of the collected high-frequency signal are dependent on the reciprocal distance between the welding zone and collector electrode. From the relationship between current harmonics frequency and distance of the collector/welding zone, it can be estimated that the draft velocity of electrons or phase velocity of excited waves is about 1600 m/s. The dispersion relation with the properties of ion-acoustic waves is related to electron temperature 10 000 K, ion temperature 2 400 K and plasma density 1016 m-3, which is analogues to the parameters of potential-relaxation instabilities, observed in similar conditions. The estimated critical density of the transported current for creating the anomalous resistance state of plasma is of the order of 3 A.m-2, i.e. 8 mA for a 3-10 cm2 collector electrode. Thus, it is assumed that the observed high-frequency oscillations of the current collected by the positive collector electrode are caused by relaxation processes in the plasma plume above the welding zone, and not a direct demonstration of oscillations in the keyhole.

  3. Current-driven ion-acoustic and potential-relaxation instabilities excited in plasma plume during electron beam welding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. N. Trushnikov

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Many papers have sought correlations between the parameters of secondary particles generated above the beam/work piece interaction zone, dynamics of processes in the keyhole, and technological processes. Low- and high-frequency oscillations of the current, collected by plasma have been observed above the welding zone during electron beam welding. Low-frequency oscillations of secondary signals are related to capillary instabilities of the keyhole, however; the physical mechanisms responsible for the high-frequency oscillations (>10 kHz of the collected current are not fully understood. This paper shows that peak frequencies in the spectra of the collected high-frequency signal are dependent on the reciprocal distance between the welding zone and collector electrode. From the relationship between current harmonics frequency and distance of the collector/welding zone, it can be estimated that the draft velocity of electrons or phase velocity of excited waves is about 1600 m/s. The dispersion relation with the properties of ion-acoustic waves is related to electron temperature 10 000 K, ion temperature 2 400 K and plasma density 1016 m−3, which is analogues to the parameters of potential-relaxation instabilities, observed in similar conditions. The estimated critical density of the transported current for creating the anomalous resistance state of plasma is of the order of 3 A·m−2, i.e. 8 mA for a 3–10 cm2 collector electrode. Thus, it is assumed that the observed high-frequency oscillations of the current collected by the positive collector electrode are caused by relaxation processes in the plasma plume above the welding zone, and not a direct demonstration of oscillations in the keyhole.

  4. Determination of plasma pinch time and effective current radius of double planar wire array implosions from current measurements on a 1-MA linear transformer driver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiner, Adam M.; Yager-Elorriaga, David A.; Patel, Sonal G.; Jordan, Nicholas M.; Gilgenbach, Ronald M.; Safronova, Alla S.; Kantsyrev, Victor L.; Shlyaptseva, Veronica V.; Shrestha, Ishor; Schmidt-Petersen, Maximillian T.

    2016-10-01

    Implosions of planar wire arrays were performed on the Michigan Accelerator for Inductive Z-pinch Experiments, a linear transformer driver (LTD) at the University of Michigan. These experiments were characterized by lower than expected peak currents and significantly longer risetimes compared to studies performed on higher impedance machines. A circuit analysis showed that the load inductance has a significant impact on the current output due to the comparatively low impedance of the driver; the long risetimes were also attributed to high variability in LTD switch closing times. A circuit model accounting for these effects was employed to measure changes in load inductance as a function of time to determine plasma pinch timing and calculate a minimum effective current-carrying radius. These calculations showed good agreement with available shadowgraphy and x-ray diode measurements.

  5. Comparison of H-mode plasma simulations using toroidal velocity models depending on plasma current density and ion temperature in presence of an ITB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonyarit Chatthong

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Two different approaches for predicting plasma toroidal velocity (v are developed and used in self-consistent simulations of H-mode plasmas with the presence of ITB using BALDUR integrated predictive modelling code. In the first approach, the toroidal velocity depends on the plasma current density; while in the second approach the toroidal velocity is directly proportional to the ion temperature. The profile of v is used to calculate the ExB flow shear which is a main mechanism for plasma transport suppression, leading to the ITB formation. In all simulations, the core transport model is a combination of NCLASS neoclassical transport and semi-empirical Mixed Bohm/gyro-Bohm model that includes the ITB effects. The boundary condition is set at top of the pedestal and is estimated using a pedestal model based on a combination of magnetic and flow shear stabilization pedestal width scaling and an infinite-n ballooning pressure gradient. Two toroidal velocity models are used to simulate the time evolution of plasma temperature and density profiles of 10 JET discharges. The root mean square error (RMSE is used to compare simulation results of those 10 JET discharges with experimental data. It is found that RMSE of Ti , Te , ne are 28.1%, 31.8%, and 15.0% for the first toroidal velocity model and 25.5%, 30.2%, and 15.1% for the second toroidal velocity model, respectively. Furthermore, this suite of codes is used to predict the ITER performance under standard type I ELMy H-mode. It is found that the simulation yields formation of a narrow ITB near r/a = 0.7 in the simulation using the current density dependent model and a wide ITB from r/a = 0.5 to 0.8 in the simulation using the ion temperature dependent model. The average of central ion temperature, total fusion power output and alpha power are predicted to be 36 keV, 159 MW and 492 MW for the current density dependent model and 49 keV, 218 MW and 786 MW for the ion temperature dependent

  6. Multi-dimensional collective effects in high-current relativistic beams relevant to High Density Laboratory Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shvets, Gennady

    2014-05-09

    In summary, an analytical model describing the self-pinching of a relativistic charge-neutralized electron beam undergoing the collisionless Weibel instability in an overdense plasma has been developed. The model accurately predicts the final temperature and size of the self-focused filament. It is found that the final temperature is primarily defined by the total beam’s current, while the filament’s radius is shown to be smaller than the collisionless skin depth in the plasma and primarily determined by the beam’s initial size. The model also accurately predicts the repartitioning ratio of the initial energy of the beam’s forward motion into the magnetic field energy and the kinetic energy of the surrounding plasma. The density profile of the final filament is shown to be a superposition of the standard Bennett pinch profile and a wide halo surrounding the pinch, which contains a significant fraction of the beam’s electrons. PIC simulations confirm the key assumption of the analytic theory: the collisionless merger of multiple current filaments in the course of the Weibel Instability provides the mechanism for Maxwellization of the beam’s distribution function. Deviations from the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution are explained by incomplete thermalization of the deeply trapped and halo electrons. It is conjectured that the simple expression derived here can be used for understanding collsionless shock acceleration and magnetic field amplification in astrophysical plasmas.

  7. Optical detection of spin Hall effect in metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    van T Erve, Olaf; Hanbicki, Aubrey; Li, Connie; Jonker, Berend

    Spin Hall effects in metals have been successfully measured using electrical methods such as nonlocal spin valve transport, ferromagnetic resonance or spin torque transfer experiments. These methods require complex processing techniques and measuring setups. Here we present room temperature measurements of the spin Hall effect in non-magnetic metals such as Pt and β-W using a standard bench top magneto-optic Kerr effect (MOKE) system. With this system, one can readily determine the angular dependence of the induced polarization on the bias current direction. When a bias current is applied, the spin Hall effect causes electrons of opposite spin to be scattered in opposite directions, resulting in a spin accumulation at the surface of the film. The MOKE signal tracks the applied square wave bias current with an amplitude and phase directly related to the spin Hall angle. Using this technique, we show that the spin-Hall angle of β-W is opposite in sign and significantly larger than that of Pt. In addition, we use this technique to detect spin diffusion from β-W into Al thin films, as well as spin diffusion from the topological surface states of Bi2Se3 into Al. We will also show direct modulation of the reflected light up to 100 kHz, using Bi doped Cu samples. This work was supported by internal programs at NRL.

  8. Effect of the deviation of the current density profile center on the three-dimensional non-transferred arc plasma torch

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Z; Yin, S; Qian, Z; Liao, H; Gu, S

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the three-dimensional steady-state non-transferred plasma arc was investigated using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) with user defined functions (UDFs). A two-equation current density profile was developed to simulate the complex plasma flow inside the torch. The effect of the deviation distance (distance between the cathode tip center and the current density profile center) on the plasma flow features was systematically investigated for the first time. It is found that the ...

  9. Some historic and current aspects of plasma diagnostics using atomic spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutton, Roger; Zou, Yaming; Andersson, Martin; Brage, Tomas; Martinson, Indrek

    2010-07-01

    In this paper we give a short introduction to the use of atomic spectroscopy in plasma diagnostics. Both older works and exciting new branches of atomic physics, which have relevance to diagnostics, are discussed. In particular we focus on forbidden lines in Be-like ions, lines sensitive to magnetic fields and levels which have a lifetime dependence on the nuclear spin of the ion, i.e. f-dependent lifetimes. Finally we mention a few examples of where tokamaks, instead of needing atomic data, actually provide new data and lead to developments in atomic structure studies. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Nicol J Peacock (1931-2008), a distinguished plasma scientist who contributed much to the field of spectroscopy applied to plasma, and in particular, fusion plasma diagnostics. During the final stages of the preparation of this paper Professor Indrek Martinson passed away peacefully in his sleep on 14 November 2009. Indrek will be greatly missed by many people, both for his contributions to atomic spectroscopy and for his great kindness and friendliness, which many of us experienced.

  10. Control of plasma profiles and stability through localised Electron Cyclotron Current Drive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Merkulov, Oleksiy

    2006-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis addresses several topics from the physics of the magnetically confined plasma inside a tokamak. At the moment, the tokamak is the most successful concept for becoming a future thermonuclear reactor. However, there are plenty of physics and engineering problems to

  11. Hydrodynamic and direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis (H-DC-iDEP) microfluidic blood plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Mahdi; Madadi, Hojjat; Casals-Terré, Jasmina; Sellarès, Jordi

    2015-06-01

    Evaluation and diagnosis of blood alterations is a common request for clinical laboratories, requiring a complex technological approach and dedication of health resources. In this paper, we present a microfluidic device that owing to a novel combination of hydrodynamic and dielectrophoretic techniques can separate plasma from fresh blood in a microfluidic channel and for the first time allows optical real-time monitoring of the components of plasma without pre- or post-processing. The microchannel is based on a set of dead-end branches at each side and is initially filled using capillary forces with a 2-μL droplet of fresh blood. During this process, stagnation zones are generated at the dead-end branches and some red blood cells (RBCs) are trapped there. An electric field is then applied and dielectrophoretic trapping of RBCs is used to prevent more RBCs entering into the channel, which works like a sieve. Besides, an electroosmotic flow is generated to sweep the rest of the RBCs from the central part of the channel. Consequently, an RBC-free zone of plasma is formed in the middle of the channel, allowing real-time monitoring of the platelet behavior. To study the generation of stagnation zones and to ensure RBC trapping in the initial constrictions, two numerical models were solved. The proposed experimental design separates up to 0.1 μL blood plasma from a 2-μL fresh human blood droplet. In this study, a plasma purity of 99 % was achieved after 7 min, according to the measurements taken by image analysis. Graphical Abstract Schematics of a real-time plasma monitoring system based on a Hydrodynamic and direct-current insulator-based dielectrophoresis microfluidic channel.

  12. Modeling of the influences of multiple modulated electron cyclotron current drive on NTMs in rotating plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Long; Liu, Jinyuan; Duan, Ping; Liu, Guangrui; Bian, Xingyu

    2017-02-01

    In this work, physical models of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) including bootstrap current and multiple modulated electron cyclotron current drive model are applied. Based on the specific physical problems during the suppression of NTMs by driven current, this work compares the efficiency of continuous and modulated driven currents, and simulates the physical processes of multiple modulated driven currents on suppressing rotating magnetic island. It is found that when island rotates along the poloidal direction, the suppression ability of continuous driven current can be massively reduced due to current deposition outside the island separatrix and reverse deposition direction at the X point, which can be avoided by current drive modulation. Multiple current drive has a better suppressing effect than single current drive. This work gives realistic numerical simulations by optimizing the model and parameters based on the experiments, which could provide references for successful suppression of NTMs in future advanced tokamak such as international thermonuclear experimental reactor.

  13. Novel concepts in Hall sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mani, R. G.

    1996-03-01

    Hall effect devices are widely used as position sensors and contactless switches in applications ranging from electric motors to soft drink machines and automobiles. Such devices typically operate in an adverse environment where offset voltages originating from various physical effects limit the effective sensitivity of the sensor to the weak magnetic field (B device that automatically reduces such spurious offsets is desirable because improved 'signal to offset' would relax manufacturing tolerances and other constraints within the sensor system. Here, we examine some techniques and sensor configurations (R. G. Mani, K. von Klitzing, F. Jost, K. Marx, S. Lindenkreuz, and H. P. Trah, Appl. Phys. Lett. 67, 2223, 1995.) based on the so called 'anti Hall bar' geometry that promise the possibility of a Silicon based Hall sensor with a field equivalent offset well below 1 mT.

  14. Nonlinear analysis of magnetization dynamics excited by spin Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Tomohiro

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the possibility of exciting self-oscillation in a perpendicular ferromagnet by the spin Hall effect on the basis of a nonlinear analysis of the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation. In the self-oscillation state, the energy supplied by the spin torque during a precession on a constant energy curve should equal the dissipation due to damping. Also, the current to balance the spin torque and the damping torque in the self-oscillation state should be larger than the critical current to destabilize the initial state. We find that these conditions in the spin Hall system are not satisfied by deriving analytical solutions of the energy supplied by the spin transfer effect and the dissipation due to the damping from the nonlinear LLG equation. This indicates that the self-oscillation of a perpendicular ferromagnet cannot be excited solely by the spin Hall torque.

  15. Study and Developement of Compact Permanent Magnet Hall Thrusters for Future Brazillian Space Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Jose Leonardo; Martins, Alexandre; Cerda, Rodrigo

    2016-07-01

    . The main difficulty to reach these minor bodies is related to their specific orbits with high eccentricity and inclination. A good example is the case for sample return missions to NEOs-Near Earth Objects. They are small bodies consisting of primitive left over building blocks of the Solar System formation processes. These missions can be accomplished by using low thrust trajectories with spacecrafts propelled by plasma thrusters with total thrust below 0.5 N, and a specific impulse around2500 s. In this work, we will show the brazilian contribution to the development of a compact electrical propulsion engine named PHALL III, designed with DCFH and foreseen to be used in future cubesats microsatellites but with possible applications in geostationary attitude control systems and on low thrust trajectory missions to the Near Earth Asteroids region. We will show a particular new permanent magnet field designed for PHALL III . Computer based simulation codes such as VSIM are also used on the design of this new proposed cuped magnet field Hall Thruster. Based on the first results wee believed PHALL III will also allow a good spacecraft performance of long duration space missions for small size spacecrafts with limited low electric source power consumption. The PHALL III plasma source characterization is presented together with the ejected plasma plume ion current intensity, ion energy and plasma flow velocity parameters measured by an integrated Plasma Diagnostic Bench (BID). Based on plasma source and plume ejected parameters a merit figure of PHALL III is constructed and compared to computer calculated low thrust transfer requirements. From these results it is goig to be possible to analyse the potential use of PHALL III on future brazillian space missions , its working parameters are compared with parameters of existing space tested plasma thrusters already used on moon , deep space missions and also on satellite geostationary positioning using low thrust orbit

  16. Optimization Of Pulsed Current Parameters To Minimize Pitting Corrosion İn Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welded Aısı 304l Sheets Using Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kondapalli Siva Prasad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Austenitic stainless steel sheets have gathered wide acceptance in the fabrication of components, which require high temperature resistance and corrosion resistance, such as metal bellows used in expansion joints in aircraft, aerospace and petroleum industry. In case of single pass welding of thinner sections of this alloy, Pulsed Current Micro Plasma Arc Welding (PCMPAW was found beneficial due to its advantages over the conventional continuous current process. This paper highlights the development of empirical mathematical equations using multiple regression analysis, correlating various process parameters to pitting corrosion rates in PCMPAW of AISI 304L sheets in 1 Normal HCl. The experiments were conducted based on a five factor, five level central composite rotatable design matrix. A Genetic Algorithm (GA was developed to optimize the process parameters for minimizing the pitting corrosion rates.

  17. Influence of the optical fiber type on the performances of fiber-optics current sensor dedicated to plasma current measurement in ITER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerssens, Matthieu; Descamps, Frédéric; Gusarov, Andrei; Mégret, Patrice; Moreau, Philippe; Wuilpart, Marc

    2015-07-01

    In this paper, we compare, by means of simulations using the Jones formalism, the performances of several optical fiber types (low birefringence and spun fibers) for the measurement of plasma current in international thermonuclear experimental reactor (ITER). The main results presented in this paper concern the minimum value of the ratio between the beat length and the spun period, which allows meeting the ITER current measurement specifications. Assuming a high-birefringence spun fiber with a beat length of 3 mm, we demonstrate that the minimum ratio between the beat length and the spun period is 4.4 when considering a 28 m long sensing fiber surrounding the vacuum vessel. This minimum ratio rises to 10.14 when a 100 m long lead fiber connecting the interrogating system to the sensing fiber is taken into account.

  18. Electrostatic interaction between Interball-2 and the ambient plasma. 1. Determination of the spacecraft potential from current calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available The Interball-2 spacecraft travels at altitudes extending up to 20 000 km, and becomes positively charged due to the low-plasma densities encountered and the photoemission on its sunlit surface. Therefore, a knowledge of the spacecraft potential Fs is required for correcting accurately thermal ion measurements on Interball-2. The determination of Fs  is based on the balance of currents between escaping photoelectrons and incoming plasma electrons. A three-dimensional model of the potential structure surrounding Interball-2, including a realistic geometry and neglecting the space-charge densities, is used to find, through particle simulations, current-voltage relations of impacting plasma electrons Ie (Fs and escaping photoelectrons Iph (Fs . The inferred relations are compared to analytic relationships in order to quantify the effects of the spacecraft geometry, the ambient magnetic field B0 and the electron temperature Te . We found that the complex geometry has a weak effect on the inferred currents, while the presence of B0 tends to decrease their values. Providing that the photoemission saturation current density Jph0 is known, a relation between Fs and the plasma density Ne can be derived by using the current balance. Since Jph0 is critical to this process, simultaneous measurements of Ne from Z-mode observations in the plasmapause, and data on the potential difference Fs  - Fp  between the spacecraft and an electric probe (p are used in order to reverse the process. A value Jph0 ~ = 32 µAm-2 is estimated, close to laboratory tests, but less than typical measurements in space. Using this value, Ne and Fs  can be derived systematically from electric field measurements without any additional calculation. These values are needed for correcting the distributions of low-energy ions measured by the Hyperboloid experiment on Interball-2. The effects of the potential structure on ion trajectories reaching Hyperboloid are discussed

  19. Infrared gas phase study on plasma-polymer interactions in high-current diffuse dielectric barrier discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y.; Welzel, S.; Starostin, S. A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.; Engeln, R.; de Vries, H. W.

    2017-06-01

    A roll-to-roll high-current diffuse dielectric barrier discharge at atmospheric pressure was operated in air and Ar/N2/O2 gas mixtures. The exhaust gas from the discharge was studied using a high-resolution Fourier-transform infrared spectrometer in the range from 3000 to 750 cm-1 to unravel the plasma-polymer interactions. The absorption features of HxNyOz, COx, and HCOOH (formic acid) were identified, and the relative densities were deduced by fitting the absorption bands of the detected molecules. Strong interactions between plasma and polymer (Polyethylene-2,6-naphthalate, or PEN) in precursor-free oxygen-containing gas mixtures were observed as evidenced by a high COx production. The presence of HCOOH in the gas effluent, formed through plasma-chemical synthesis of COx, turns out to be a sensitive indicator for etching. By adding tetraethylorthosilicate precursor in the plasma, dramatic changes in the COx production were measured, and two distinct deposition regimes were identified. At high precursor flows, a good agreement with the precursor combustion and the COx production was observed, whereas at low precursor flows an etching-deposition regime transpires, and the COx production is dominated by polymer etching.

  20. Long-lived Ar-Hg plasma in the afterglow of a high-current pulsed discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sergeichev, K. F.; Lukina, N. A.; Fesenko, A. A. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Prokhorov General Physics Institute (Russian Federation)

    2013-02-15

    High-density (n > 10{sup 12} cm{sup -3}) argon-mercury plasma produced by a short (t {approx} 20 {mu}s) high-power pulsed discharge in argon with an admixture of mercury vapor at a discharge current of {approx}50 A, an argon pressure of {approx}4 mm Hg, and a mercury vapor pressure of {approx}10{sup -3} mm Hg was studied using optical spectroscopy and radio physics methods. It is found that the lifetime of this plasma after the end of the discharge pulse is up to 10{sup -2} s. It is shown that such an abnormally long lifetime of such an afterglow plasma, as compared to the plasma of an argon discharge without an admixture of mercury vapor, is related to the long residence time of atoms and ions of both argon and mercury in highly excited states due to chemi-ionization processes involving long-lived metastable argon ions. It is suggested that dissociative recombination of highly excited molecular ions of argon play an important role in the transfer of excitation to argon atoms and ions that are close to autoionization states.

  1. Field-aligned currents and magnetospheric generator in experiments on a laser-produced plasma flowing around a magnetic dipole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikhislamov, I. F.; Antonov, V. M.; Zakharov, Yu. P.; Boyarintsev, E. L.; Melekhov, A. V.; Posukh, V. G.; Ponomarenko, A. G.

    2014-07-01

    A laboratory experiment on modeling the magnetospheric generator of the field-aligned currents and the Earth's transpolar potential in the absence of IMF is illustrated. The measurements of the total field-aligned current in the generator shorted mode and the transpolar potential in the circuit disconnection mode made it possible to determine the generator internal resistance. A model that explains the saturation current and internal resistance by the feedback between the field-aligned current and plasma flank motions has been proposed. This feedback is described through the effective resistance, which is proportional to the flow rate and the ratio of the boundary layer to the dimension of the magnetosphere. For the experimental conditions, the calculated generator resistance was in good agreement with the measured value. The estimates for the Earth's magnetosphere indicate that the MHD generator internal resistance in the boundary layer is usually much lower than the reverse integral conductivity of the ionosphere.

  2. The Role of Social Influence on How Residence Hall Inhabitants Respond to Fire Alarms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leytem, Michael; Stark, Emily

    2016-01-01

    College resident halls pose a threat for a catastrophic event in the case of fire, but little research has examined potential influences on students' responses to fire alarms, particularly the role of social influence in affecting their behaviors. In the current study, residence hall inhabitants reported their knowledge about fire safety, their…

  3. Global Linear Stability Analysis of the Spoke Oscillation in Hall Effect Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Stubbers, B.E. Jurczyk, et al. Hall Thruster Electron Mobility Investigation using Full 3DMonte Carlo Trajectory Simulations. In Proceedings of the...112] A. Dinklage, T. Klinger, G. Marx , and L. Schweikhard. Plasma physics: confinement, transport and collective effects. Berlin Springer Verlag...Garrigues. Study of stochastic effects in a Hall effect thruster using a test particles Monte- Carlo model. In Proceedings of the 32nd International

  4. Thermal stability of the krypton Hall effect thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szelecka Agnieszka

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Krypton Large IMpulse Thruster (KLIMT ESA/PECS project, which has been implemented in the Institute of Plasma Physics and Laser Microfusion (IPPLM and now is approaching its final phase, was aimed at incremental development of a ~500 W class Hall effect thruster (HET. Xenon, predominantly used as a propellant in the state-of-the-art HETs, is extremely expensive. Krypton has been considered as a cheaper alternative since more than fifteen years; however, to the best knowledge of the authors, there has not been a HET model especially designed for this noble gas. To address this issue, KLIMT has been geared towards operation primarily with krypton. During the project, three subsequent prototype versions of the thruster were designed, manufactured and tested, aimed at gradual improvement of each next exemplar. In the current paper, the heat loads in new engine have been discussed. It has been shown that thermal equilibrium of the thruster is gained within the safety limits of the materials used. Extensive testing with both gases was performed to compare KLIMT’s thermal behaviour when supplied with krypton and xenon propellants.

  5. The investigation of heterogeneous flow generated by the direct current plasma torch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evmenchikov, N. L.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Shatan, I. N.

    2016-11-01

    In the article, the two-phase flow of electric arc gas heater of the linear scheme is studied. The power of the plasma torch can be varied from 200 to 1500 kW. For stabilization of the electric arc a magnetic coil is used. The operation of the plasma torch took place at overpressure in the discharge chamber. Injection of the powder was made near the exit of the nozzle. A powder of SiO2 was used as a disperse phase. The size of the particles was not more than 50 microns. The dispensing device was used for the powder injection. The technique of velocity measurement in high-temperature heterogeneous flow from the registration of flow by the high-speed camera is presented. The results of measurements indicate that the speed of the particles much lower than the speed of the gas. The results of measuring the heat flux along the axis of the plasma torch are presented. The heat flux was measured by means of regular mode uncooled sensors with tablet type calorimeters.

  6. Electrodeless plasma thrusters for spacecraft: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bathgate, S. N.; Bilek, M. M. M.; McKenzie, D. R.

    2017-08-01

    The physics of electrodeless electric thrusters that use directed plasma to propel spacecraft without employing electrodes subject to plasma erosion is reviewed. Electrodeless plasma thrusters are potentially more durable than presently deployed thrusters that use electrodes such as gridded ion, Hall thrusters, arcjets and resistojets. Like other plasma thrusters, electrodeless thrusters have the advantage of reduced fuel mass compared to chemical thrusters that produce the same thrust. The status of electrodeless plasma thrusters that could be used in communications satellites and in spacecraft for interplanetary missions is examined. Electrodeless thrusters under development or planned for deployment include devices that use a rotating magnetic field; devices that use a rotating electric field; pulsed inductive devices that exploit the Lorentz force on an induced current loop in a plasma; devices that use radiofrequency fields to heat plasmas and have magnetic nozzles to accelerate the hot plasma and other devices that exploit the Lorentz force. Using metrics of specific impulse and thrust efficiency, we find that the most promising designs are those that use Lorentz forces directly to expel plasma and those that use magnetic nozzles to accelerate plasma.

  7. Sawtooth control using electron cyclotron current drive in the presence of energetic particles in high performance ASDEX Upgrade plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Chapman, I T; Maraschek, M; McCarthy, P J; Tardini, G

    2013-01-01

    Sawtooth control using steerable electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has been demonstrated in ASDEX Upgrade plasmas with a significant population of energetic ions in the plasma core and long uncontrolled sawtooth periods. The sawtooth period is found to be minimised when the ECCD resonance is swept to just inside the q = 1 surface. By utilising ECCD inside q = 1 for sawtooth control, it is possible to avoid the triggering of neoclassical tearing modes, even at significnatly higher pressure than anticipated in the ITER baseline scenario. Operation at 25% higher normalised pressure has been achieved when only modest ECCD power is used for sawtooth control compared to identical discharges without sawtooth control when neo-classical tearing modes are triggered by the sawteeth. Modelling suggests that the destabilisation arising from the change in the local magnetic shear caused by the ECCD is able to compete with the stabilising influence of the energetic particles inside the q = 1 surface.

  8. ATLAS Assembly Hall Open Day

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2004-01-01

    To mark the 50th Anniversary of the founding of CERN, a day of tours, displays and presentations was held in October 2004. The assembly halls for the experiments that were waiting to be installed on the LHC, such as ATLAS shown here, were transformed into display areas and cafés.

  9. Heating of coronal plasma by anomalous current dissipation. [induced by solar magnetic flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosner, R.; Golub, L.; Coppi, B.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that there exist heating mechanisms which connect the observed radiative properties of the inner corona in a simple way to the underlying solar magnetic field. The mechanisms considered involve the generation and consequent dissipation of coronal currents. It is argued that the spatially and temporally inhomogeneous nature of the erupting solar magnetic field is an essential element of coronal heating. Unlike heating theories conceived in the context of the 'homogeneous' corona, this class of current heating models incorporates the observed stochastic coronal structuring at the onset, and does not view it as a complication of an otherwise straightforward model. Attention is given to the generation of coronal currents, the flux-tube emergence, the gradual growth and decay of active regions, the energetics of current dissipation, current sheath geometry and heat transport, and anomalous current dissipation.

  10. Closed-Loop Simulation of Model-Based Current Profile Control with the DIII-D Plasma Control System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. E.; Schuster, E.; Walker, M. L.; Humphreys, D. A.

    2010-11-01

    Current profile control has proven to be a critical requirement for advanced operating scenarios with improved confinement and possible steady-state operation. Limitations exhibited by non-model-based controllers tested at DIII-D motivated the design of model-based controllers that account for the dynamics of the q profile evolution. A control-oriented model of the current profile evolution in DIII-D was recently developed and used to design both open-loop and closed-loop control schemes. In this work, we report on the design and implementation of these advanced model-based controllers in the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) and on the evaluation of these controllers by connecting the PCS to a simulation of the current profile evolution represented by a magnetic diffusion equation.

  11. Spin Hall magnetoresistance in antiferromagnet/normal metal bilayers

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2017-01-01

    We investigate the emergence of spin Hall magnetoresistance in a magnetic bilayer composed of a normal metal adjacent to an antiferromagnet. Based on a recently derived drift diffusion equation, we show that the resistance of the bilayer depends on the relative angle between the direction transverse to the current flow and the Néel order parameter. While this effect presents striking similarities with the spin Hall magnetoresistance recently reported in ferromagnetic bilayers, its physical origin is attributed to the anisotropic spin relaxation of itinerant spins in the antiferromagnet.

  12. Low-frequency noise in planar Hall effect bridge sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Persson, Anders; Bejhedb, R.S.; Bejhed, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    The low-frequency characteristics of planar Hall effect bridge sensors are investigated as function of the sensor bias current and the applied magnetic field. The noise spectra reveal a Johnson-like spectrum at high frequencies, and a 1/f-like excess noise spectrum at lower frequencies, with a knee...

  13. Stress dependence of the Hall coefficient of a nickel-base superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosaka, Daigo; Frishman, Anatoli; Nakagawa, Norio

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the Hall Effect and their stress dependence, observed experimentally on the superalloy Inconel® 718. The work is motivated by the desire to develop a nondestructive method of characterizing the near-surface protective residual stress in metals. Our approach is based on Hall Effect measurements, because it is anticipated that these measurements are less contaminated by cold work and other effects than conductivity-based measurements such as eddy current. The challenge is that, in metals, the Hall coefficient is very small. To achieve the required sensitivity, the Hall coefficient was measured with an AC injected current and an AC magnetic field. The measurements were performed on a thin film sample. The Hall coefficient was found to be positive, and varies proportionally to the applied tension. The proportionality coefficient is significantly larger than estimated from the volumetric effect in a free carrier model.

  14. Plasma current start-up by the outer ohmic heating coils in the Saskatchewan TORus Modified (STOR-M) iron core tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitarai, O.; Xiao, C.; McColl, D.; Dreval, M.; Hirose, A.; Peng, M.

    2015-03-01

    A plasma current up to 15 kA has been driven with outer ohmic heating (OH) coils in the STOR-M iron core tokamak. Even when the inner OH coil is disconnected, the outer OH coils alone can induce the plasma current as primary windings and initial breakdown are even easier in this coil layout. This result suggests a possibility to use an iron core in a spherical tokamak to start up the plasma current without a central solenoid. The effect of the iron core saturation on the extension of the discharge pulse length has been estimated for further experiments in the STOR-M tokamak.

  15. Diaphragm Effect of Steel Space Roof Systems in Hall Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet FENKLİ

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hall structures have been used widely for different purposes. They have are reinforced concrete frames and shear wall with steel space roof systems. Earthquake response of hall structures is different from building type structures. One of the most critical nodes is diaphragm effect of steel space roof on earthquake response of hall structures. Diaphragm effect is depending on lateral stiffness capacity of steel space roof system. Lateral stiffness of steel space roof system is related to modulation geometry, support conditions, selected sections and system geometry. In current paper, three representative models which are commonly used in Turkey were taken in to account for investigation. Results of numerical tests were present comparatively

  16. Crossover between spin swapping and Hall effect in disordered systems

    KAUST Repository

    Saidaoui, Hamed Ben Mohamed

    2015-07-16

    We theoretically study the crossover between spin Hall effect and spin swapping, a recently predicted phenomenon that consists of the interchange between the current flow and its spin polarization directions [M. B. Lifshits and M. I. Dyakonov, Phys. Rev. Lett. 103, 186601 (2009)]. Using a tight-binding model with spin-orbit coupled disorder, spin Hall effect, spin relaxation, and spin swapping are treated on equal footing. We demonstrate that spin swapping and spin Hall effect present very different dependencies as a function of the spin-orbit coupling and disorder strengths and confirm that the former exceeds the latter in the parameter range considered. Three setups are proposed for the experimental observation of the spin swapping effect.

  17. Hall effect on thermosolutal convection of ferromagnetic fluids in porous medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aggarwal, A. K.; Makhija, Suman

    2017-10-01

    The present study deals with effect of Hall currents on thermal convection of ferromagnetic fluids in porous medium. The combined effect of solute gradient, medium permeability, magnetic field and Hall currents on the thermal stability has been investigated. It is found that Hall currents destabilize the system. The magnetic field and solute gradient have stabilizing effect on the convection. The medium permeability has conditional effect on the stability. The principle of exchange of stabilities (PES) is not satisfied under these conditions. In the absence of magnetic field and solute gradient, PES is valid.

  18. Laser plasma acceleration with a negatively chirped pulse: all-optical control over dark current in the blowout regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalmykov, S. Y.; Beck, A.; Davoine, X.; Lefebvre, E.; Shadwick, B. A.

    2012-03-01

    Recent experiments with 100 terawatt-class, sub-50 femtosecond laser pulses show that electrons self-injected into a laser-driven electron density bubble can be accelerated above 0.5 gigaelectronvolt energy in a sub-centimetre-length rarefied plasma. To reach this energy range, electrons must ultimately outrun the bubble and exit the accelerating phase; this, however, does not ensure high beam quality. Wake excitation increases the laser pulse bandwidth by red-shifting its head, keeping the tail unshifted. Anomalous group velocity dispersion of radiation in plasma slows down the red-shifted head, compressing the pulse into a few-cycle-long piston of relativistic intensity. Pulse transformation into a piston causes continuous expansion of the bubble, trapping copious numbers of unwanted electrons (dark current) and producing a poorly collimated, polychromatic energy tail, completely dominating the electron spectrum at the dephasing limit. The process of piston formation can be mitigated by using a broad-bandwidth (corresponding to a few-cycle transform-limited duration), negatively chirped pulse. Initial blue-shift of the pulse leading edge compensates for the nonlinear frequency red-shift and delays the piston formation, thus significantly suppressing the dark current, making the leading quasi-monoenergetic bunch the dominant feature of the electron spectrum near dephasing. This method of dark current control may be feasible for future experiments with ultrahigh-bandwidth, multi-joule laser pulses.

  19. Dynamic Response of a Magnetized Plasma to AN External Source: Application to Space and Solid State Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huai-Bei

    This dissertation examines the dynamic response of a magnetoplasma to an external time-dependent current source. To achieve this goal a new method which combines analytic and numerical techniques to study the dynamic response of a 3-D magnetoplasma to a time-dependent current source imposed across the magnetic field was developed. The set of the cold electron and/or ion plasma equations and Maxwell's equations are first solved analytically in (k, omega)^ace; inverse Laplace and 3 -D complex Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) techniques are subsequently used to numerically transform the radiation fields and plasma currents from the (k, omega) ^ace to the (r, t) space. The dynamic responses of the electron plasma and of the compensated two-component plasma to external current sources are studied separately. The results show that the electron plasma responds to a time -varying current source imposed across the magnetic field by exciting whistler/helicon waves and forming of an expanding local current loop, induced by field aligned plasma currents. The current loop consists of two anti-parallel field-aligned current channels concentrated at the ends of the imposed current and a cross-field current region connecting these channels. The latter is driven by an electron Hall drift. A compensated two-component plasma responds to the same current source as following: (a) For slow time scales tau > Omega_sp{i}{-1} , it generates Alfven waves and forms a non-local current loop in which the ion polarization currents dominate the cross-field current; (b) For fast time scales tau emf inducing tethered satellite systems (TSS), generation of ELF/VLF waves by ionospheric heating, current closure and quasineutrality in thin magnetopause transitions, and short electromagnetic pulse generation in solid state plasmas. The cross-field current in TSS builds up on a time scale corresponding to the whistler waves and results in local current closure. Amplitude modulated HF ionospheric heating

  20. A miniature high voltage plasma interaction flight experiment - Project MINX. [for measuring solar cell array parasitic current drain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, T. J.; Triner, J. E.; Sater, B. L.; Cohen, D.; Somberg, H.

    1974-01-01

    A miniature high-voltage array was fabricated, incorporating the multi-junction edge illuminated (MJC) cell technique. The array consists of 32 2x2.2 cm MJCs, series connected, capable of 1600 V open circuit at 1 AMO and 1.2 mA short circuit. A solid state, high-voltage relay is connected across each 4-cell subgroup of the array. It was built to test plasma current drain on space systems using high voltage as might occur when a high-voltage solar array is operated from low to synchronous orbit.

  1. A topological Dirac insulator in a quantum spin Hall phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, D; Qian, D; Wray, L; Xia, Y; Hor, Y S; Cava, R J; Hasan, M Z

    2008-04-24

    When electrons are subject to a large external magnetic field, the conventional charge quantum Hall effect dictates that an electronic excitation gap is generated in the sample bulk, but metallic conduction is permitted at the boundary. Recent theoretical models suggest that certain bulk insulators with large spin-orbit interactions may also naturally support conducting topological boundary states in the quantum limit, which opens up the possibility for studying unusual quantum Hall-like phenomena in zero external magnetic fields. Bulk Bi(1-x)Sb(x) single crystals are predicted to be prime candidates for one such unusual Hall phase of matter known as the topological insulator. The hallmark of a topological insulator is the existence of metallic surface states that are higher-dimensional analogues of the edge states that characterize a quantum spin Hall insulator. In addition to its interesting boundary states, the bulk of Bi(1-x)Sb(x) is predicted to exhibit three-dimensional Dirac particles, another topic of heightened current interest following the new findings in two-dimensional graphene and charge quantum Hall fractionalization observed in pure bismuth. However, despite numerous transport and magnetic measurements on the Bi(1-x)Sb(x) family since the 1960s, no direct evidence of either topological Hall states or bulk Dirac particles has been found. Here, using incident-photon-energy-modulated angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (IPEM-ARPES), we report the direct observation of massive Dirac particles in the bulk of Bi(0.9)Sb(0.1), locate the Kramers points at the sample's boundary and provide a comprehensive mapping of the Dirac insulator's gapless surface electron bands. These findings taken together suggest that the observed surface state on the boundary of the bulk insulator is a realization of the 'topological metal'. They also suggest that this material has potential application in developing next-generation quantum computing devices that may

  2. Magnetic flux pile-up and ion heating in a current sheet formed by colliding magnetized plasma flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suttle, L.; Hare, J.; Lebedev, S.; Ciardi, A.; Loureiro, N.; Niasse, N.; Burdiak, G.; Clayson, T.; Lane, T.; Robinson, T.; Smith, R.; Stuart, N.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.

    2017-10-01

    We present data from experiments carried out at the Magpie pulsed power facility, which show the detailed structure of the interaction of counter-streaming magnetized plasma flows. In our quasi-2D setup, continuous supersonic flows are produced with strong embedded magnetic fields of opposing directions. Their interaction leads to the formation of a dense and long-lasting current sheet, where we observe the pile-up of the magnetic flux at the sheet boundary, as well as the annihilation of field inside, accompanied by an increase in plasma temperature. Spatially resolved measurements with Faraday rotation polarimetry, B-dot probes, XUV imaging, Thomson scattering and laser interferometry diagnostics show the detailed distribution of the magnetic field and other plasma parameters throughout the system. This work was supported in part by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) Grant No. EP/G001324/1, and by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Awards No. DE-F03-02NA00057 and No. DE-SC-0001063.

  3. The use of segmented cathodes to determine the spoke current density distribution in high power impulse magnetron sputtering plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poolcharuansin, Phitsanu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom); The Technological Plasma Research Unit, Department of Physics, Mahasarakham University, Maha Sarakham 44150 (Thailand); Estrin, Francis Lockwood; Bradley, James W., E-mail: j.w.bradley@liverpool.ac.uk [Department of Electrical Engineering and Electronics, University of Liverpool, Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L69 3GJ (United Kingdom)

    2015-04-28

    The localized target current density associated with quasi-periodic ionization zones (spokes) has been measured in a high power impulse magnetron sputtering (HiPIMS) discharge using an array of azimuthally separated and electrical isolated probes incorporated into a circular aluminum target. For a particular range of operating conditions (pulse energies up to 2.2 J and argon pressures from 0.2 to 1.9 Pa), strong oscillations in the probe current density are seen with amplitudes up to 52% above a base value. These perturbations, identified as spokes, travel around the discharge above the target in the E×B direction. Using phase information from the angularly separated probes, the spoke drift speeds, angular frequencies, and mode number have been determined. Generally, at low HiPIMS pulse energies E{sub p} < 0.8 J, spokes appear to be chaotic in nature (with random arrival times), however as E{sub p} increases, coherent spokes are observed with velocities between 6.5 and 10 km s{sup −1} and mode numbers m = 3 or above. At E{sub p} > 1.8 J, the plasma becomes spoke-free. The boundaries between chaotic, coherent, and no-spoke regions are weakly dependent on pressure. During each HiPIMS pulse, the spoke velocities increase by about 50%. Such an observation is explained by considering spoke velocities to be determined by the critical ionization velocity, which changes as the plasma composition changes during the pulse. From the shape of individual current density oscillations, it appears that the leading edge of the spoke is associated with a slow increase in local current density to the target and the rear with a more rapid decrease. The measurements show that the discharge current density associated with individual spokes is broadly spread over a wide region of the target.

  4. The Investigation of Laser Ignited Plasma with the Application of Current Probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Trevor; Amos, James; Ujj, Laszlo

    Among a variety of atomic emission spectroscopy methods Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is the one which can analyze any solid, liquid or gas sample. The elemental composition and the relative abundance of the constituent elements in the samples can be determined when the emission spectra of short laser pulses igniting plasma is then recorded and analyzed(e.g.). In our studies we have made a LIBS system which includes, but is not limited to investigating the physical phenomena and properties of the emitting plasma. Active research is going on concerning Lithium-ion batteries to increase the stored charge and energy per volume properties of the device. LIBS is proposed to test the manufacturing process and analyze the chemical constituents of the newly developed batteries. The composition of the battery itself consists of two pieces of foil, typically aluminum and copper acting as a cathode and anode respectively. Separating these two pieces of foil is a lithium based compound. The general chemical composition is Lix [Metal]y Oz where [Metal] is the specific element that is used to achieve the purpose of the battery (one metal may increase the out-put while another helps with capacity etc.). We have chosen the Li-Ion battery composed of LiCoO2 from a mobile phone in order to investigate the Stark-effect (Stark shift and Stark broadening) of the lithium present in the sample. Effects of line broadening and reabsorption of the signals are addressed by recording LIBS spectra from the powder electrolyte extracted from a Lithium-ion battery.

  5. Plasma Charge Current for Controlling and Monitoring Electron Beam Welding with Beam Oscillation

    OpenAIRE

    Valeriy Shchavlev; Anatoliy Piskunov; Aleksandr Abdullin; Vladimir Belenkiy; Georgy Mladenov; Dmitriy Trushnikov

    2012-01-01

    Electron beam welding (EBW) shows certain problems with the control of focus regime. The electron beam focus can be controlled in electron-beam welding based on the parameters of a secondary signal. In this case, the parameters like secondary emissions and focus coil current have extreme relationships. There are two values of focus coil current which provide equal value signal parameters. Therefore, adaptive systems of electron beam focus control use low-frequency scanning of focus, which sub...

  6. Galvanomagnetic Effects ¨Sensors based on Hall Effect¨

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis D. Dimitropoulos

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The Hall effect is the generation of a transverse electromotive force in a sample carrying an electric current and exposed to perpendicular magnetic field. Depending on the sample geometry, this electromotive force may cause the appearance of a transverse voltage across the sample, or a current deflection in the sample. The generation of this transverse voltage, called Hall voltage, is the generally known way for the of the appearance of the Hall effect.The resistance of this sample increasing under influence of the magnetic field, this called magnetoresistance effect. Both the Hall effect and the magnetoresistance effect belong to the more general class of phenomena called galvanomagnetic effects. Galvamomagnetic effects are the manifestations of charge transport phenomena in condensed matter in the presence of a magnetic field.The sensor applications of Hall effect became important only with the development of semiconductor technology. For one thing, the Hall effect is only strong enough for this propose in some semiconductors. Therefore, the first Hall effect magnetic sensor became commercially available in the mid 1950s, a few year after the discovery of high-mobility compound semiconductors. Our goal in this paper is to understand the physically background of the Hall and the magnetoresistance effects. We are going to discuss the effect of parameters in those phenomena and how we can make better our technology to improve better efficiency.

  7. Spin Hall effect-driven spin torque in magnetic textures

    KAUST Repository

    Manchon, Aurelien

    2011-07-13

    Current-induced spin torque and magnetization dynamics in the presence of spin Hall effect in magnetic textures is studied theoretically. The local deviation of the charge current gives rise to a current-induced spin torque of the form (1 - ΒM) × [(u 0 + αH u 0 M) ∇] M, where u0 is the direction of the injected current, H is the Hall angle and is the non-adiabaticity parameter due to spin relaxation. Since αH and ×can have a comparable order of magnitude, we show that this torque can significantly modify the current-induced dynamics of both transverse and vortex walls. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  8. Bootstrap current control studies in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator using the free-plasma-boundary version of the SIESTA MHD equilibrium code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peraza-Rodriguez, H.; Reynolds-Barredo, J. M.; Sanchez, R.; Tribaldos, V.; Geiger, J.

    2018-02-01

    The recently developed free-plasma-boundary version of the SIESTA MHD equilibrium code (Hirshman et al 2011 Phys. Plasmas 18 062504; Peraza-Rodriguez et al 2017 Phys. Plasmas 24 082516) is used for the first time to study scenarios with considerable bootstrap currents for the Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) stellarator. Bootstrap currents in the range of tens of kAs can lead to the formation of unwanted magnetic island chains or stochastic regions within the plasma and alter the boundary rotational transform due to the small shear in W7-X. The latter issue is of relevance since the island divertor operation of W7-X relies on a proper positioning of magnetic island chains at the plasma edge to control the particle and energy exhaust towards the divertor plates. Two scenarios are examined with the new free-plasma-boundary capabilities of SIESTA: a freely evolving bootstrap current one that illustrates the difficulties arising from the dislocation of the boundary islands, and a second one in which off-axis electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) is applied to compensate the effects of the bootstrap current and keep the island divertor configuration intact. SIESTA finds that off-axis ECCD is indeed able to keep the location and phase of the edge magnetic island chain unchanged, but it may also lead to an undesired stochastization of parts of the confined plasma if the EC deposition radial profile becomes too narrow.

  9. Hall Sensors for Extreme Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Oszwaldowski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the preparation of the first complete extreme temperature Hall sensor. This means that the extreme-temperature magnetic sensitive semiconductor structure is built-in an extreme-temperature package especially designed for that purpose. The working temperature range of the sensor extends from −270 °C to +300 °C. The extreme-temperature Hall-sensor active element is a heavily n-doped InSb layer epitaxially grown on GaAs. The magnetic sensitivity of the sensor is ca. 100 mV/T and its temperature coefficient is less than 0.04 %/K. This sensor may find applications in the car, aircraft, spacecraft, military and oil and gas industries.

  10. Symmetric functions and Hall polynomials

    CERN Document Server

    MacDonald, Ian Grant

    1998-01-01

    This reissued classic text is the acclaimed second edition of Professor Ian Macdonald's groundbreaking monograph on symmetric functions and Hall polynomials. The first edition was published in 1979, before being significantly expanded into the present edition in 1995. This text is widely regarded as the best source of information on Hall polynomials and what have come to be known as Macdonald polynomials, central to a number of key developments in mathematics and mathematical physics in the 21st century Macdonald polynomials gave rise to the subject of double affine Hecke algebras (or Cherednik algebras) important in representation theory. String theorists use Macdonald polynomials to attack the so-called AGT conjectures. Macdonald polynomials have been recently used to construct knot invariants. They are also a central tool for a theory of integrable stochastic models that have found a number of applications in probability, such as random matrices, directed polymers in random media, driven lattice gases, and...

  11. Library rooms or Library halls

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Serrai

    2013-01-01

    Library Halls, understood as Renaissance and Baroque architectural creations, along with the furnishings and decorations, accomplish a cognitive task and serve to transmit knowledge. The design of these spaces based on the idea that they should reflect the merits and content of the collections housed within them, in order to prepare the mind of the reader to respect and admire the volumes. In accordance with this principle, in the fifteenth century library rooms had a basilican shape, with tw...

  12. Dihydropyridine-sensitive ion currents and charge movement in vesicles derived from frog skeletal muscle plasma membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, J; Carapia, A; Calvo, J; García, M C; Sánchez, J A

    1999-10-01

    1. Whole-cell voltage clamp experiments were performed in vesicles derived from frog skeletal muscle plasma membranes to characterize the electrophysiological properties of dihydropyridine (DHP) receptors. This preparation allows control of the composition of the internal medium and the recording of currents, without the influence of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR). 2. In solutions containing Ba2+, Bay K 8644-sensitive, L-type inward currents were recorded. Peak Ba2+ currents (IBa) averaged 3.0 microA microF-1 and inactivated in a voltage-dependent manner. Half-maximal steady-state inactivation occurred at -40 mV. No major facilitation of tail currents was observed. 3. The time course of activation of L-type Ca2+ channels was voltage dependent and 10 times faster than that in muscle fibres; the current density values were also much lower. 4. Lowering [Mg2+]i from 2 to 0.1 mM shifted the time to peak of IBa versus voltage relation by -13 mV. 5. In solutions that contained mostly impermeant ions, non-linear capacitive currents were recorded. Charge movement with properties resembling charge 1 was observed in polarized vesicles. The charge movement depended on voltage with Boltzmann parameters: Qmax (maximum charge), 45.6 nC microF-1; V (potential at which Q = 0.5 Qmax), -58.4 mV; and k (slope factor), 22. 3 mV. There was no indication of the presence of Qgamma (the 'hump' component of charge movement). 6. In depolarized vesicles, non-linear currents were observed during hyperpolarizing pulses. The currents produced an excessive charge during 'on' transients only. Charge during 'off' transients was linear from -180 to +60 mV. There was no evidence of the presence of charge 2.

  13. Electrostatic interaction between Interball-2 and the ambient plasma. 1. Determination of the spacecraft potential from current calculations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bouhram

    Full Text Available The Interball-2 spacecraft travels at altitudes extending up to 20 000 km, and becomes positively charged due to the low-plasma densities encountered and the photoemission on its sunlit surface. Therefore, a knowledge of the spacecraft potential Fs is required for correcting accurately thermal ion measurements on Interball-2. The determination of Fs  is based on the balance of currents between escaping photoelectrons and incoming plasma electrons. A three-dimensional model of the potential structure surrounding Interball-2, including a realistic geometry and neglecting the space-charge densities, is used to find, through particle simulations, current-voltage relations of impacting plasma electrons Ie (Fs and escaping photoelectrons Iph (Fs . The inferred relations are compared to analytic relationships in order to quantify the effects of the spacecraft geometry, the ambient magnetic field B0 and the electron temperature Te . We found that the complex geometry has a weak effect on the inferred currents, while the presence of B0 tends to decrease their values. Providing that the photoemission saturation current density Jph0 is known, a relation between Fs and the plasma density Ne can be derived by using the current balance. Since Jph0 is critical to this process, simultaneous measurements of Ne from Z-mode observations in the plasmapause, and data on the potential difference Fs  - Fp  between the spacecraft and an electric probe (p are used in order to reverse the process. A value Jph0 ~ = 32 µAm-2 is estimated, close to laboratory tests, but less

  14. Tearing mode dynamics and sawtooth oscillation in Hall-MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Zhiwei; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Sheng

    2017-10-01

    Tearing mode instability is one of the most important dynamic processes in space and laboratory plasmas. Hall effects, resulted from the decoupling of electron and ion motions, could cause the fast development and perturbation structure rotation of the tearing mode and become non-negligible. We independently developed high accuracy nonlinear MHD code (CLT) to study Hall effects on the dynamic evolution of tearing modes with Tokamak geometries. It is found that the rotation frequency of the mode in the electron diamagnetic direction is in a good agreement with analytical prediction. The linear growth rate increases with increase of the ion inertial length, which is contradictory to analytical solution in the slab geometry. We further find that the self-consistently generated rotation largely alters the dynamic behavior of the double tearing mode and the sawtooth oscillation. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program of China under Grant No. 2013GB104004 and 2013GB111004.

  15. Inverse spin Hall effect in ferromagnetic metal with Rashba spin orbit coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-J. Xing

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an intrinsic form of the inverse spin Hall effect (ISHE in ferromagnetic (FM metal with Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC, which is driven by a normal charge current. Unlike the conventional form, the ISHE can be induced without the need for spin current injection from an external source. Our theoretical results show that Hall voltage is generated when the FM moment is perpendicular to the ferromagnetic layer. The polarity of the Hall voltage is reversed upon switching the FM moment to the opposite direction, thus promising a useful reading mechanism for memory or logic applications.

  16. Performance Comparison of Cross-Like Hall Plates with Different Covering Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Lyu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the effects of the covering layers on the performance of a cross-like Hall plate. Three different structures of a cross-like Hall plate in various sizes are designed and analyzed. The Hall plate sensitivity and offset are characterized using a self-built measurement system. The effect of the P-type region over the active area on the current-related sensitivity is studied for different Hall plate designs. In addition, the correlation between the P-type covering layer and offset is analyzed. The best structure out of three designs is determined. Besides, a modified eight-resistor circuit model for the Hall plate is presented with improved accuracy by taking the offset into account.

  17. Generation of Alfvén wave energy during magnetic reconnection in Hall MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingjie; Ma, Zhiwei; Wang, Licheng

    2017-10-01

    The effect of the reconnection rate on the generation of Alfvén wave energy is systematically investigated using Hall magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is well known that a decrease in magnetic energy is proportional to the reconnection rate. It is found that an instantaneous increase in Alfvén wave energy in unit Alfvén time is the square dependence on the reconnection rate. The converted Alfvén wave energy is strongly enhanced due to the large increase in the reconnection rate in Hall MHD. For solar-terrestrial plasmas, the maximum converted Alfvén wave energy in unit Alfvén time with the Hall effect can be over 50 times higher than that without the Hall effect during magnetic reconnection.

  18. A relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive efficiency in tokamak plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin-Liu Y.R.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A fully relativistic model of electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD efficiency based on the adjoint function techniques is considered. Numerical calculations of the current drive efficiency in a tokamak by using the variational approach are performed. A fully relativistic extension of the variational principle with the modified basis functions for the Spitzer function with momentum conservation in the electron-electron collision is described in general tokamak geometry. The model developed has generalized that of Marushchenko’s (N.B . Marushchenko, et al. Fusion Sci. & Tech., 2009, which is extended for arbitrary temperatures and covers exactly the asymptotic for u ≫ 1 when Z → ∞, and suitable for ray-tracing calculations.

  19. Hall mobility in lead selenide and its analysis in MathCad computer environment

    OpenAIRE

    Budzhak, Ya. S.; Zub, O. V.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis demonstrates that current carriers in an experimental crystal diffuse on the thermal vibrations of lattice by means of regression analysis of experimental data for Hall mobility of PbSe crystals.

  20. The most intense electrical currents in the solar wind: Comparisons between single-spacecraft measurements and plasma turbulence simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, John J.; Roytershteyn, Vadim

    2017-07-01

    Three-dimensional hybrid simulations of solar wind turbulence near the orbit of the Earth are used to investigate the plasma current density over the range of scales from 0.5 proton inertial lengths to hundreds of proton inertial lengths. The data are analyzed along a simulated spacecraft trajectory in order to directly compare the results against single-spacecraft measurements. The most intense current densities are identified using an amplitude threshold technique and the properties of 5σ events identified in the true current density are compared to the properties of 5σ events identified using a proxy for the current density designed for studies of single-spacecraft solar wind measurements. The proxy is proportional to the magnitude of the directional derivative of the magnetic field along the spacecraft trajectory. The results from the simulation show that the average properties of 5σ events observed in the proxy are quantitatively similar to those observed in the true current density, properties such as the spatial size of the events, the nearest neighbor distance, and the peak current density of the events. This provides some justification for the use of the proxy for the statistical analysis of solar wind data even though the simulation indicates that the occurrence times of large-amplitude events in the proxy are not always a reliable indicator of the occurrence times of large-amplitude events in the true current density. The physical properties of 5σ events in simulated spacecraft data show remarkable quantitative agreement with the properties of 5σ events observed in solar wind data.

  1. A Hybrid Kinetic Model of Asymmetric Thin Current Sheets with Sheared Flows in a Collisionless Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-27

    different regimes. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Asymmetric Collisionless Current Sheet Solar Wind Theory Reconnection Hybrid Simulation 16. SECllRITY...Pritchett, 2008]. Cas.sak and Shay [2007] provided a theory and simulation of asymmetric reconnection in the MHD regime. Malova et al. [2007] proposed a...z are aligned with those of the usual Geocentric Sun- Earth (aSE) coordinates. In this frame, +x points from the Earth to the Sun, +y points out of

  2. Particle dynamics and current-free double layers in an expanding, collisionless, two-electron-population plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hairapetian, G.; Stenzel, R. L.

    1991-01-01

    The expansion of a two-electron-population, collisionless plasma into vacuum has been examined in detail. Plasma density, plasma potential, electric field, and particle disribution functions have been measured in situ. It is demonstrated that the presence of a low-pressure (P not less than 2 x 10 to the -5th torr) background neutral gas modifies the expansion of the plasma. A new plasma source creating dense, pulsed discharge plasma with a low background pressure (P not greater than 2 x 10 to the -6th torr) has been developed to perform in situ measurements of the temporal and spatial plasma evolution during its expansion into vacuum.

  3. Phenomenology of plasma engine cathodes at high current rates and low pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huegel, H.; Kruelle, G.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of low surrounding pressures on cathodes of arc jet engines with electromagnetic acceleration are investigated for pressure and current energies of 20 to 100 Torr. and 400 to 1000 A. Experiments with 50 mm long and 8 mm diameter tungsten-thorium cathode in a coaxial gas flow show that pre-heating of the cathode reduces the duration of the instable arc discharge and thus material loss. The use of lighter gases also reduces instability effects, as well as the use of increased pressures and a massive gas influx.

  4. Spectroscopic studies of non-thermal plasma jet at atmospheric pressure formed in low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demkin, V. P.; Melnichuk, S. V.; Demkin, O. V. [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin 36, 634050 Tomsk, The Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Kingma, H.; Van de Berg, R. [National Research Tomsk State University, Lenin 36, 634050 Tomsk, The Russian Federation (Russian Federation); Department of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Maastricht University Medical Centre, Minderbroedersberg 4-6, 6211 LK Maastricht (Netherlands)

    2016-04-15

    The optical and electrophysical characteristics of the nonequilibrium low-temperature plasma formed by a low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron are experimentally investigated in the present work. It is demonstrated that experimental data on the optical diagnostics of the plasma jet can provide a basis for the construction of a self-consistent physical and mathematical plasma model and for the creation of plasma sources with controllable electrophysical parameters intended for the generation of the required concentration of active particles. Results of spectroscopic diagnostics of plasma of the low-current nonsteady-state plasmatron confirm that the given source is efficient for the generation of charged particles and short-wavelength radiation—important plasma components for biomedical problems of an increase in the efficiency of treatment of biological tissues by charged particles. Measurement of the spatial distribution of the plasma jet potential by the probe method has demonstrated that a negative space charge is formed in the plasma jet possibly due to the formation of electronegative oxygen ions.

  5. Dynamic Turbulence Evolution during current ramp in ITER-like plasmas on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, G. R.; Yan, Z.; Holland, C.; Bravenec, R.; Luce, T.

    2016-10-01

    Low-wavenumber density fluctuations exhibit rapidly changing characteristics during the current ramp-up of ITER-like discharges that reflect a complex interaction between electron transport, safety factor (q), and ne and Te profiles. These measurements and analysis may help explain discrepancies between transport models and measurements during ramp-up. Measurements of the 2D fluctuation properties are obtained across the outer half-radius with Beam Emission Spectroscopy. Density fluctuations at rho=0.55 exhibit fluctuations that decrease in amplitude with time. Transient windows of suppressed fluctuations are observed during ramp-up, which correspond to low-order-rational q-surfaces that are associated with localized improved transport. At rho=0.82, a large amplitude burst of low-frequency turbulence occurs early in the current ramp. The amplitude profile of low-k fluctuations exhibits a strong reduction in turbulence with reduced q95; thermal energy confinement likewise increases with decreasing q95. Supported by US Department of Energy under DE-FG02-08ER54999.

  6. Optimal control of a class of nonlinear parabolic PDE systems arising in fusion plasma current profile dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yongsheng

    The need for new sources of energy is expected to become a critical problem within the next few decades. Nuclear fusion arises as a potential source of energy with sufficient energy density to supply the world population with its steadily increasing energy demands. The need to optimize the tokamak concept for the design of an economical, possibly steady state, fusion power plant have motivated extensive international research aimed at finding the so-called "advanced tokamak (AT) operation scenarios." It has been demonstrated that simultaneous real-time control of the current and pressure profiles could lead to the steady state sustainment of an internal transport barrier (ITB), and so to a stationary optimized plasma regime. It has also been suggested that global current profile control, eventually combined with pressure profile control, can be an effective mechanism for neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) control and avoidance. The control of linear or quasi-linear parabolic diffusion-reaction partial differential equations (PDE) has been extensively studied using interior control (see [1] and references therein) or boundary control (see [2] and references therein). Recently, the control of bilinear parabolic partial differential equations via actuation of the diffusive coefficient term, named diffusivity control here, has caught increasing interest. The diffusive coefficient term in a parabolic PDE is not necessary fixed or uncontrollable. For example, the diffusivity control problem arises in the control of the current density profile in magnetically confined fusion plasmas [3], where physical actuators such as plasma total current, line-averaged density and non-inductive total power are used to steer the plasma current density to a desired profile in a designated time period. By modulating these physical actuators it is possible not only to vary the amount of non-inductive current driven into the system (interior control) and the total plasma current (boundary

  7. Field-aligned current associated with low-latitude plasma blobs as observed by the CHAMP satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we give two examples of low-latitude plasma blobs accompanied by linearly polarized perpendicular magnetic deflections which imply that associated field-aligned currents (FACs have a 2-D sheet structure located at the blob walls. The estimated FAC density is of the order of 0.1 μA/m2. The direction of magnetic deflections points westward of the magnetic meridian and there is a linear correlation between perpendicular and parallel variations. All these properties are similar to those of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs. According to CHAMP observations from August 2000 to July 2004, blobs show except for these two good examples no clear signatures of 2-D FAC sheets at the walls. Generally, perpendicular magnetic deflections inside blobs are weaker than inside EPBs on average. Our results are consistent with existing theories: if a blob exists, (1 a significant part of EPB FAC will be closed through it, exhibiting similar perpendicular magnetic deflection inside EPBs and blobs, (2 the FAC closure through blobs leads to smaller perpendicular magnetic deflection at its poleward/downward side, and (3 superposition of different FAC elements might result in a complex magnetic signature around blobs.

  8. Field-aligned current associated with low-latitude plasma blobs as observed by the CHAMP satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we give two examples of low-latitude plasma blobs accompanied by linearly polarized perpendicular magnetic deflections which imply that associated field-aligned currents (FACs have a 2-D sheet structure located at the blob walls. The estimated FAC density is of the order of 0.1 μA/m2. The direction of magnetic deflections points westward of the magnetic meridian and there is a linear correlation between perpendicular and parallel variations. All these properties are similar to those of equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs. According to CHAMP observations from August 2000 to July 2004, blobs show except for these two good examples no clear signatures of 2-D FAC sheets at the walls. Generally, perpendicular magnetic deflections inside blobs are weaker than inside EPBs on average. Our results are consistent with existing theories: if a blob exists, (1 a significant part of EPB FAC will be closed through it, exhibiting similar perpendicular magnetic deflection inside EPBs and blobs, (2 the FAC closure through blobs leads to smaller perpendicular magnetic deflection at its poleward/downward side, and (3 superposition of different FAC elements might result in a complex magnetic signature around blobs.

  9. Characterization of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on Zircaloy-4 formed in different electrolytes with AC current regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheng Yingliang, E-mail: chengyingliang@hnu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Matykina, Enzhe [Dpt. Ciencia de los Materiales e Ingenieria Metalurgica, Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain); Skeldon, Peter; Thompson, George [Corrosion and Protection Centre, School of Materials, University of Manchester, Sackville Street, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    Highlights: > ZrO{sub 2} coatings are grown on Zircaloy-4 by AC plasma electrolytic oxidation. > Tetragonal and monoclinic ZrO{sub 2} are formed using silicate electrolyte. > Pyrophosphate electrolyte results in flawed coatings of monoclinic ZrO{sub 2}. > Silicate favours formation of tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}, with coating hardness {approx}8 GPa. > Microstructures are related to temperature gradients and solidification rates. - Abstract: Plasma electrolytic oxidation was undertaken on Zircaloy-4 in alkaline silicate and pyrophosphate electrolytes, with a square waveform AC current regime. The resultant coatings were examined using scanning electron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and nanoindentation. The coatings formed in silicate electrolyte comprised mainly a porous inner layer and a more compact outer layer, with characteristic solidification structures being evident following prolonged treatment. The coatings contained monoclinic and tetragonal ZrO{sub 2}, the latter being mainly present in the outer layer, which was of hardness up to {approx}8 GPa. In contrast, extensively cracked coatings resulted from use of pyrophosphate electrolyte; the coating integrity was improved by the addition of silicate to the pyrophosphate electrolyte. The different morphologies of the coatings appeared to be related to the differing nature of the microdischarges and to the incorporation of silicon species that enhanced the formation of t-ZrO{sub 2}.

  10. Observation of the Zero Hall Plateau in a Quantum Anomalous Hall Insulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Yang; Feng, Xiao; Ou, Yunbo; Wang, Jing; Liu, Chang; Zhang, Liguo; Zhao, Dongyang; Jiang, Gaoyuan; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; He, Ke; Ma, Xucun; Xue, Qi-Kun; Wang, Yayu

    2015-09-16

    We report experimental investigations on the quantum phase transition between the two opposite Hall plateaus of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator. We observe a well-defined plateau with zero Hall conductivity over a range of magnetic field around coercivity when the magnetization reverses. The features of the zero Hall plateau are shown to be closely related to that of the quantum anomalous Hall effect, but its temperature evolution exhibits a significant difference from the network model for a conventional quantum Hall plateau transition. We propose that the chiral edge states residing at the magnetic domain boundaries, which are unique to a quantum anomalous Hall insulator, are responsible for the novel features of the zero Hall plateau.

  11. Turbulence evolution and transport behavior during current ramp-up in ITER-like plasmas on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, G. R.; Austin, M.; Boedo, J.; Bravenec, R.; Holland, C.; Jackson, G.; Luce, T. C.; Rhodes, T. L.; Rudakov, D.; Wang, G.; Yan, Z.; Zeng, L.; Zhao, Y.

    2017-08-01

    Low-wavenumber density fluctuations exhibit unique characteristics during the current ramp-up phase of ITER-like discharges that can partially explain the challenges of correctly modeling transport behavior and predicting global plasma parameters during this period. A strong interaction takes place between the evolving transport, safety factor (q) and kinetic profiles as well as the appearance and evolution of low-order rational surfaces. Density fluctuations from 0.75  modelling and the higher electron temperature found previously over the outer half radius. Comparison of turbulence properties with time-varying linear growth rates with GYRO and GENE demonstrate qualitative consistency with measured fluctuation levels, but calculations don’t exhibit reduced growth rates near low-order rational surfaces, which is inconsistent with experimental observations. This indicates a mechanism that can contribute to reconciling observed turbulence behavior with transport models, allowing for the development of more accurate predictive tools.

  12. The characteristics of field-aligned currents associated with equatorial plasma bubbles as observed by the CHAMP satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Park

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Field-aligned currents (FACs generate magnetic deflections perpendicular to the ambient Earth magnetic field. We investigate the characteristics of FACs associated with equatorial plasma bubbles (EPBs as deduced from magnetic field measurements by the CHAMP satellite. Meridional magnetic deflections inside EPBs show a clear hemispheric anti-symmetry for events observed before 21:00 LT: inward in the Northern Hemisphere and outward in the Southern Hemisphere. When an eastward electric field is assumed the magnetic signature signifies a Poynting flux directed downward along the magnetic field lines. This means that FACs are driven by a high-altitude equatorial source. Such a scheme cannot be drawn as strictly from our observations after 22:00 LT, possibly because of a westward turning of the electric field inside EPBs and/or a decay of EPBs later at night. The perpendicular magnetic deflection is tilted by 40° from the magnetic meridional plane in westward direction, which implies that the depleted volume of EPBs, as well as the FAC structure, is tilted westward by 40° above the magnetic equator. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the FAC density is found to range typically between 0.1–0.5 μA/m2. The field-aligned sheet current density and the diamagnetic current strength show no correlation.

  13. Determination of plasma sheath current distributions by comparison of Zeeman spectroscopy with B-dot measurements in laser ablation Z-pinch experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Eric; Presura, Radu; Angermeier, William; Mancini, Roberto; Covington, Aaron

    2017-10-01

    In plasma pinch experiments, measurements of current distributions and losses across the anode-cathode (A-K) gap are needed to ensure uniform and repeatable implosions. Traditional B-dots measure current a considerable distance away from the plasma source and provide little detailed information on the current distribution across the plasma sheath near the pinch. In the experiments presented here, visible spectroscopic techniques were used to measure magnetically induced Zeeman splitting. Ionic plasma species were chosen such that the Zeeman splitting of different fine structure doublets split non-uniformly with increasing magnetic field strength in the plasma. This differential splitting enables measurements of non-directional B-field strengths in the plasma across a wide range of conditions. More specifically, the optical emission of Al III, C IV, and O VI doublets, 2P3/2 to 2S1/2 and 2P1/2 to 2S1/2 transitions were measured and used to determine the Zeeman broadening. We have applied this technique to diagnose time- and space-resolved B-field strengths in laser ablation Z-pinch experiments (LAZE). Experiments were conducted at the Nevada Terawatt Facility (NTF) using the TW-class Leopard laser and the 1 MA Zebra Z-pinch. The currents inferred from Zeeman spectroscopy measurements were compared to those determined from the B-dot diagnostics. DOE/NV/25946 ''3272.

  14. Three dimensional equilibrium solutions for a current-carrying reversed-field pinch plasma with a close-fitting conducting shell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koliner, J. J.; Boguski, J., E-mail: boguski@wisc.edu; Anderson, J. K.; Chapman, B. E.; Den Hartog, D. J.; Duff, J. R.; Goetz, J. A.; McGarry, M.; Morton, L. A.; Parke, E. [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Cianciosa, M. R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Hanson, J. D. [Department of Physics, Auburn University, Auburn, Alabama 36849 (United States); Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2016-03-15

    In order to characterize the Madison Symmetric Torus (MST) reversed-field pinch (RFP) plasmas that bifurcate to a helical equilibrium, the V3FIT equilibrium reconstruction code was modified to include a conducting boundary. RFP plasmas become helical at a high plasma current, which induces large eddy currents in MST's thick aluminum shell. The V3FIT conducting boundary accounts for the contribution from these eddy currents to external magnetic diagnostic coil signals. This implementation of V3FIT was benchmarked against MSTFit, a 2D Grad-Shafranov solver, for axisymmetric plasmas. The two codes both fit B{sub θ} measurement loops around the plasma minor diameter with qualitative agreement between each other and the measured field. Fits in the 3D case converge well, with q-profile and plasma shape agreement between two distinct toroidal locking phases. Greater than 60% of the measured n = 5 component of B{sub θ} at r = a is due to eddy currents in the shell, as calculated by the conducting boundary model.

  15. Anomalous Hall effect in polycrystalline Ni films

    KAUST Repository

    Guo, Zaibing

    2012-02-01

    We systematically studied the anomalous Hall effect in a series of polycrystalline Ni films with thickness ranging from 4 to 200 nm. It is found that both the longitudinal and anomalous Hall resistivity increased greatly as film thickness decreased. This enhancement should be related to the surface scattering. In the ultrathin films (46 nm thick), weak localization corrections to anomalous Hall conductivity were studied. The granular model, taking into account the dominated intergranular tunneling, has been employed to explain this phenomenon, which can explain the weak dependence of anomalous Hall resistivity on longitudinal resistivity as well. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Mini array of quantum Hall devices based on epitaxial graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novikov, S.; Lebedeva, N. [Department of Micro and Nanosciences, Aalto University, Micronova, Tietotie 3, Espoo (Finland); Hämäläinen, J.; Iisakka, I.; Immonen, P.; Manninen, A. J.; Satrapinski, A. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland Ltd., Centre for Metrology MIKES, P.O. Box 1000, 02044 VTT (Finland)

    2016-05-07

    Series connection of four quantum Hall effect (QHE) devices based on epitaxial graphene films was studied for realization of a quantum resistance standard with an up-scaled value. The tested devices showed quantum Hall plateaux R{sub H,2} at a filling factor v = 2 starting from a relatively low magnetic field (between 4 T and 5 T) when the temperature was 1.5 K. The precision measurements of quantized Hall resistance of four QHE devices connected by triple series connections and external bonding wires were done at B = 7 T and T = 1.5 K using a commercial precision resistance bridge with 50 μA current through the QHE device. The results showed that the deviation of the quantized Hall resistance of the series connection of four graphene-based QHE devices from the expected value of 4×R{sub H,2} = 2 h/e{sup 2} was smaller than the relative standard uncertainty of the measurement (<1 × 10{sup −7}) limited by the used resistance bridge.

  17. Interaction Induced Quantum Valley Hall Effect in Graphene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. C. Marino

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We use pseudo-quantum electrodynamics in order to describe the full electromagnetic interaction of the p electrons in graphene in a consistent 2D formulation. We first consider the effect of this interaction in the vacuum polarization tensor or, equivalently, in the current correlator. This allows us to obtain the T→0 conductivity after a smooth zero-frequency limit is taken in Kubo’s formula. Thereby, we obtain the usual expression for the minimal conductivity plus corrections due to the interaction that bring it closer to the experimental value. We then predict the onset of an interaction-driven spontaneous quantum valley Hall effect below an activation temperature of the order of 2 K. The transverse (Hall valley conductivity is evaluated exactly and shown to coincide with the one in the usual quantum Hall effect. Finally, by considering the effects of pseudo-quantum electrodynamics, we show that the electron self-energy is such that a set of P- and T-symmetric gapped electron energy eigenstates are dynamically generated, in association with the quantum valley Hall effect.

  18. Magnetic field deformation due to electron drift in a Hall thruster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Liang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The strength and shape of the magnetic field are the core factors in the design of the Hall thruster. However, Hall current can affect the distribution of static magnetic field. In this paper, the Particle-In-Cell (PIC method is used to obtain the distribution of Hall current in the discharge channel. The Hall current is separated into a direct and an alternating part to calculate the induced magnetic field using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM. The results show that the direct Hall current decreases the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region and also changes the shape of the magnetic field. The maximum reduction in radial magnetic field strength in the exit plane is 10.8 G for an anode flow rate of 15 mg/s and the maximum angle change of the magnetic field line is close to 3° in the acceleration region. The alternating Hall current induces an oscillating magnetic field in the whole discharge channel. The actual magnetic deformation is shown to contain these two parts.

  19. Magnetic field deformation due to electron drift in a Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Han; Yongjie, Ding; Xu, Zhang; Liqiu, Wei; Daren, Yu

    2017-01-01

    The strength and shape of the magnetic field are the core factors in the design of the Hall thruster. However, Hall current can affect the distribution of static magnetic field. In this paper, the Particle-In-Cell (PIC) method is used to obtain the distribution of Hall current in the discharge channel. The Hall current is separated into a direct and an alternating part to calculate the induced magnetic field using Finite Element Method Magnetics (FEMM). The results show that the direct Hall current decreases the magnetic field strength in the acceleration region and also changes the shape of the magnetic field. The maximum reduction in radial magnetic field strength in the exit plane is 10.8 G for an anode flow rate of 15 mg/s and the maximum angle change of the magnetic field line is close to 3° in the acceleration region. The alternating Hall current induces an oscillating magnetic field in the whole discharge channel. The actual magnetic deformation is shown to contain these two parts.

  20. The Current Status of the Magnetoplasma Compressor Device in Belgrade – Study of Plasma Facing Materials Important for Fusion Reactors

    OpenAIRE

    Trklja, Nora

    2015-01-01

    The magnetoplasma compressor, a quasi stationary plasma accelerator, is a source of supersonic compression plasma flow. High plasma parameters of compression flow, large flow velocity and discharge duration enable their efficient usage for development of new plasma technologies, including material surface modification, creation of sub microstructures and nanostructures. In this paper spatial and temporal distribution of emissivity was studied using inverse Abel transform. This has been realiz...

  1. On the gauge invariant and topological nature of the localization determining the Quantum Hall Effect plateaus

    CERN Document Server

    Cabo-Montes de Oca, Alejandro

    2002-01-01

    It is shown how the electromagnetic response of 2DEG under Quantum Hall Effect regime, characterized by the Chern-Simons topological action, transforms the sample impurities and defects in charge-reservoirs that stabilize the Hall conductivity plateaus. The results determine the basic dynamical origin of the singular properties of localization under the occurrence of the Quantum Hall Effect obtained in the pioneering works of Laughlin and of Joynt and Prange, by means of a gauge invariance argument and a purely electronic analysis, respectively. The common intuitive picture of electrons moving along the equipotential lines gets an analytical realization through the Chern-Simons current and charge densities.

  2. Magnetic mirror effect in a cylindrical Hall thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiwei; Tang, Haibin; Ren, Junxue; Li, Min; Cao, Jinbin

    2018-01-01

    For cylindrical Hall thrusters, the magnetic field geometry is totally different from that in conventional Hall thrusters. In this study, we investigate the magnetic mirror effect in a fully cylindrical Hall thruster by changing the number of iron rings (0–5), which surround the discharge channel wall. The plasma properties inside the discharge channel and plume area are simulated with a self-developed PIC-MCC code. The numerical results show significant influence of magnetic geometry on the electron confinement. With the number of rings increasing above three, the near-wall electron density gap is reduced, indicating the suppression of neutral gas leakage. The electron temperature inside the discharge channel reaches its peak (38.4 eV) when the magnetic mirror is strongest. It is also found that the thruster performance has strong relations with the magnetic mirror as the propellant utilisation efficiency reaches the maximum (1.18) at the biggest magnetic mirror ratio. Also, the optimal magnetic mirror improves the multi-charged ion dynamics, including the ion production and propellant utilisation efficiency.

  3. Library rooms or Library halls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Serrai

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Library Halls, understood as Renaissance and Baroque architectural creations, along with the furnishings and decorations, accomplish a cognitive task and serve to transmit knowledge. The design of these spaces based on the idea that they should reflect the merits and content of the collections housed within them, in order to prepare the mind of the reader to respect and admire the volumes. In accordance with this principle, in the fifteenth century library rooms had a basilican shape, with two or three naves, like churches, reflecting thus the spiritual value of the books contained there. Next to that inspiring function, library rooms had also the task of representing the entire logical and conceptual universe of human knowledge in a figurative way, including for this purpose also the and Kunst- und Wunderkammern, namely the collections of natural, artficial objects, and works of art. The importance of library rooms and their function was understood already in the early decades of the seventeenth century, as underlined in the treatise, Musei sive Bibliothecae tam privatae quam publicae Extructio, Instructio, Cura, Usus, written by the Jesuit Claude Clément and published in 1635. Almost the entire volume is dedicated to the decoration and ornamentation of the Saloni, and the function of the library is identified exclusively with the preservation and decoration of the collection, neglecting more specifically bibliographic aspects or those connected to library science. The architectural structure of the Saloni was destined to change in relation to two factors, namely the form of books, and the sources of light. As a consequence, from the end of the sixteenth century – or perhaps even before if one considers the fragments of the Library of Urbino belonging to Federico da Montefeltro – shelves and cabinets have been placed no longer in the center of the room, but were set against the walls. This new disposition of the furniture, surmounted by

  4. A Comparative Study of the Efficacy of Intervention Strategies on Student Electricity Use in Campus Residence Halls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisecup, Allison K.; Grady, Dennis; Roth, Richard A.; Stephens, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine whether, and how, electricity consumption by students in university residence halls were impacted through three intervention strategies. Design/methodology/approach: The current investigation uses a quasi-experimental design by exposing freshman students in four matched residence halls and the…

  5. The Duesseldorf fairground. New building of hall 6; Messe Duesseldorf. Neubau der Halle 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gampfer, W.; Wendt, W.; Paar, A.; Schwarz, A.; Klemp, P.; Ambaum, P.; Joppen, H.; Hesse, D.; Hauser, K. [Messe Duesseldorf GmbH (Germany)

    2001-07-01

    The Duesseldorf fairground is highly successful and is constantly growing. With the inauguration of the new Hall 6 in May 2000, the former twelve halls have now become 17. The new Hall 6 will also be used for sports events, concerts, meetings etc. [German] Der Erfolg der Messe Duesseldorf laesst sich am stetigen Wachstum der Ausstellungsbereiche ablesen. So wurden aus den ehemals zwoelf Hallen bis heute mit der Einweihung der Neuen Halle 6 im Mai 2000 17 Hallen. Die zuletzt hinzugekommene Halle 6 wird neben der ueberwiegenden Nutzung als Messehalle auch als tagesbelichtete Mehrzweckhalle fuer Veranstaltungen, wie z.B. Sportveranstaltungen, Grosskonzerte, Versammlungen etc., genutzt. (orig.)

  6. Algorithm and exploratory study of the Hall MHD Rayleigh-Taylor instability.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardiner, Thomas Anthony

    2010-09-01

    This report is concerned with the influence of the Hall term on the nonlinear evolution of the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. This begins with a review of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations including the Hall term and the wave modes which are present in the system on time scales short enough that the plasma can be approximated as being stationary. In this limit one obtains what are known as the electron MHD (EMHD) equations which support two characteristic wave modes known as the whistler and Hall drift modes. Each of these modes is considered in some detail in order to draw attention to their key features. This analysis also serves to provide a background for testing the numerical algorithms used in this work. The numerical methods are briefly described and the EMHD solver is then tested for the evolution of whistler and Hall drift modes. These methods are then applied to study the nonlinear evolution of the MHD RT instability with and without the Hall term for two different configurations. The influence of the Hall term on the mixing and bubble growth rate are analyzed.

  7. Shape, size, velocity and field-aligned currents of dayside plasma injections: a multi-altitude study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On 20 February 2005, Cluster in the outer magnetosphere and Double Star-2 (TC-2 at mid-altitude are situated in the vicinity of the northern cusp/mantle, with Cluster moving sunward and TC-2 anti-sunward. Their magnetic footprints come very close together at about 15:28 UT, over the common field-of-view of SuperDARN radars. Thanks to this conjunction, we determine the velocity, the transverse sizes, perpendicular and parallel to this velocity, and the shape of three magnetic flux tubes of magnetosheath plasma injection. The velocity of the structures determined from the Cluster four-spacecraft timing analysis is almost purely antisunward, in contrast with the antisunward and duskward convection velocity inside the flux tubes. The transverse sizes are defined from the Cluster-TC-2 separation perpendicular to the magnetic field, and from the time spent by a Cluster spacecraft in one structure; they are comprised between 0.6 and 2 RE in agreement with previous studies. Finally, using a comparison between the eigenvectors deduced from a variance analysis of the magnetic perturbation at the four Cluster and at TC-2, we show that the upstream side of the injection flux tubes is magnetically well defined, with even a concave front for the third one giving a bean-like shape, whereas the downstream side is far more turbulent. We also realise the first quantitative comparison between field-aligned currents at Cluster calculated with the curlometer technique and with the single-spacecraft method, assuming infinite parallel current sheets and taking into account the velocity of the injection flux tubes. The results agree nicely, confirming the validity of both methods. Finally, we compare the field-aligned current distribution of the three injection flux tubes at the altitudes of Cluster and TC-2. Both profiles are fairly similar, with mainly a pair of opposite field-aligned currents, upward at low-latitude and downward at high

  8. Shape, size, velocity and field-aligned currents of dayside plasma injections: a multi-altitude study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Marchaudon

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available On 20 February 2005, Cluster in the outer magnetosphere and Double Star-2 (TC-2 at mid-altitude are situated in the vicinity of the northern cusp/mantle, with Cluster moving sunward and TC-2 anti-sunward. Their magnetic footprints come very close together at about 15:28 UT, over the common field-of-view of SuperDARN radars. Thanks to this conjunction, we determine the velocity, the transverse sizes, perpendicular and parallel to this velocity, and the shape of three magnetic flux tubes of magnetosheath plasma injection. The velocity of the structures determined from the Cluster four-spacecraft timing analysis is almost purely antisunward, in contrast with the antisunward and duskward convection velocity inside the flux tubes. The transverse sizes are defined from the Cluster-TC-2 separation perpendicular to the magnetic field, and from the time spent by a Cluster spacecraft in one structure; they are comprised between 0.6 and 2 RE in agreement with previous studies. Finally, using a comparison between the eigenvectors deduced from a variance analysis of the magnetic perturbation at the four Cluster and at TC-2, we show that the upstream side of the injection flux tubes is magnetically well defined, with even a concave front for the third one giving a bean-like shape, whereas the downstream side is far more turbulent. We also realise the first quantitative comparison between field-aligned currents at Cluster calculated with the curlometer technique and with the single-spacecraft method, assuming infinite parallel current sheets and taking into account the velocity of the injection flux tubes. The results agree nicely, confirming the validity of both methods. Finally, we compare the field-aligned current distribution of the three injection flux tubes at the altitudes of Cluster and TC-2. Both profiles are fairly similar, with mainly a pair of opposite field-aligned currents, upward at low-latitude and downward at high-latitude. In terms of

  9. Mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 58; Issue 2 ... Mesoscopic effects; quantum Hall transitions; finite-size scaling. ... When band mixing between multiple Landau levels is present, mesoscopic effects cause a crossover from a sequence of quantum Hall transitions for weak disorder to classical behavior ...

  10. Mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    may be of relevance to experimentally observed transitions between quantum Hall states and the insulating phase ... In this paper, we discuss the mesoscopic effects in the quantum Hall regime, in particu- lar the effects of ...... finite sizes, due to the presence of long length scales, quantum interference effects can be cut-off at ...

  11. Novel optical probe for quantum Hall system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Surface photovoltage spectroscopy; quantum Hall effect; Landau levels; edge states. Abstract. Surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy has been used for the first time to explore Landau levels of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in modulation doped InP/InGaAs/InP QW in the quantum Hall regime. The technique ...

  12. Hall devices improve electric motor efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeussermann, W.

    1979-01-01

    Efficiency of electric motors and generators is reduced by radial magnetic forces created by symmetric fields within device. Forces are sensed and counteracted by Hall devices on excitation or control windings. Hall generators directly measure and provide compensating control of anu asymmetry, eliminating additional measurements needed for calibration feedback control loop.

  13. The Current Status of the Magnetoplasma Compressor Device in Belgrade - Study of Plasma Facing Materials Important for Fusion Reactors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Trklja

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The magnetoplasma compressor, a quasi stationary plasma accelerator, is a source of supersonic compression plasma flow. High plasma parameters of compression flow, large flow velocity and discharge duration enable their efficient usage for development of new plasma technologies, including material surface modification, creation of sub microstructures and nanostructures. In this paper spatial and temporal distribution of emissivity was studied using inverse Abel transform. This has been realized in LabVIEW environment. The plasma flow generated by quasi stationary plasma accelerators can be used for simulation of high energy plasma interaction with different materials of interest for fusion experiments. Surface phenomena are results of specific conditions during plasma flow interaction with target surface. As the next step in our research, spectral analysis of the plasma area around targets surface, after interaction between target and plasma, generated by magnetoplasma compressor, is planned. The first material which will be subjected to interaction with plasma will be a carbon fiber - material of big importance for divertor region in fusion devices.

  14. Particle-in-cell simulation of an electronegative plasma under direct current bias studied in a large range of electronegativity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oudini, N. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Laboratoire des plasmas de Decharges, Centre de Developement des Technologies Avancees, Cite du 20 Aout BP 17 Baba Hassen, 16081 Algiers (Algeria); Raimbault, J.-L.; Chabert, P.; Aanesland, A. [Laboratoire de Physique des Plasmas, Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France); Meige, A. [PRESANS / X-Technologies/Ecole Polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau Cedex (France)

    2013-04-15

    A one-dimensional electronegative plasma situated between two symmetrical parallel electrodes under DC bias is studied by Particle-In-Cell simulation with Monte Carlo Collisions. By varying the electronegativity {alpha}{identical_to}n{sub -}/n{sub e} from the limit of electron-ion plasmas (negative ion free) to ion-ion plasmas (electron free), the sheaths formation, the negative ion flux flowing towards the electrodes, and the particle velocities at the sheath edges are investigated. Depending on {alpha}, it is shown that the electronegative plasma behavior can be described by four regimes. In the lowest regime of {alpha}, i.e., {alpha} < 50, negative ions are confined by two positive sheaths within the plasma, while in the higher regimes of {alpha}, a negative sheath is formed and the negative ion flux can be extracted from the bulk plasma. In the two intermediate regimes of {alpha}, i.e., 50 < {alpha} < 10{sup 5}, both the electron and the negative ion fluxes are involved in the neutralization of the positive ions flux that leaves the plasma. In particular, we show that the velocity of the negative ions entering the negative sheath is affected by the presence of the electrons, and is not given by the modified Bohm velocity generally accepted for electronegative plasmas. For extremely high electronegativity, i.e., {alpha} > 10{sup 5}, the presence of electrons in the plasma is marginal and the electronegative plasma can be considered as an ion-ion plasma (electron free).

  15. Chemical mechanisms inducing a dc current measured in the flowing post-discharge of an RF He-O2 plasma torch

    CERN Document Server

    Dufour, Thierry; Vandencasteele, N; Reniers, F

    2016-01-01

    The post-discharge of an RF plasma torch supplied with helium and oxygen gases is characterized by mass spectrometry, optical emission spectroscopy and electrical measurements. We have proved the existence of a dc current in the post-discharge (1--20 A), attributed to the Penning ionization of atmospheric nitrogen and oxygenated species. The mechanisms ruling this dc current are investigated through experiments in which we discuss the influence of the O2 flow rate, the He flow rate and the distance separating the plasma torch from a material surface located downstream.

  16. Physical processes in an electron current layer causing intense plasma heating and formation of x-lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Nagendra; Wells, B. E. [Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States); Khazanov, Igor [CSPAR, University of Alabama, Huntsville, Alabama 35899 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    We study the evolution of an electron current layer (ECL) through its several stages by means of three-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations with ion to electron mass ratio M/m{sub e} = 400. An ECL evolves through the following stages: (i) Electrostatic (ES) current-driven instability (CDI) soon after its formation with half width w about 2 electron skin depth (d{sub e}), (ii) current disruption in the central part of the ECL by trapping of electrons and generation of anomalous resistivity, (iii) electron tearing instability (ETI) with significantly large growth rates in the lower end of the whistler frequency range, (iv) widening of the ECL and modulation of its width by the ETI, (v) gradual heating of electrons by the CDI-driven ES ion modes create the condition that the electrons become hotter than the ions, (vi) despite the reduced electron drift associated with the current disruption by the CDI, the enhanced electron temperature continues to favor a slow growth of the ion waves reaching nonlinear amplitudes, (vii) the nonlinear ion waves undergo modulation and collapse into localized density cavities containing spiky electric fields like in double layers (DLs), (viii) such spiky electric fields are very effective in further rapid heating of both electrons and ions. As predicted by the electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) theories, the ETI growth rate maximizes at wave numbers in the range 0.4 < k{sub x}W < 0.8 where k{sub x} is the wave number parallel to the ECL magnetic field and w is the evolving half width of the ECL. The developing ETI generates in-plane currents that support out-of-plane magnetic fields around the emerging x-lines. The ETI and the spiky electrostatic structures are accompanied by fluctuations in the magnetic fields near and above the lower-hybrid (ion plasma) frequency, including the whistler frequency range. We compare our results with experimental results and satellite observation.

  17. Toroidal current profile control during low confinement mode plasma discharges in DIII-D via first-principles-driven model-based robust control synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Justin E.; Boyer, Mark D.; Shi, Wenyu; Schuster, Eugenio; Luce, Tim C.; Ferron, John R.; Walker, Michael L.; Humphreys, David A.; Penaflor, Ben G.; Johnson, Robert D.

    2012-12-01

    In order for ITER to be capable of operating in advanced tokamak operating regimes, characterized by a high fusion gain, good plasma confinement, magnetohydrodynamic stability and a non-inductively driven plasma current, for extended periods of time, several challenging plasma control problems still need to be solved. Setting up a suitable toroidal current density profile in the tokamak is key for one possible advanced operating scenario characterized by non-inductive sustainment of the plasma current. At the DIII-D tokamak, the goal is to create the desired current profile during the ramp-up and early flat-top phases of the plasma discharge and then actively maintain this target profile for the remainder of the discharge. The evolution in time of the toroidal current profile in tokamaks is related to the evolution of the poloidal magnetic flux profile, which is modelled in normalized cylindrical coordinates using a first-principles, nonlinear, dynamic partial differential equation (PDE) referred to as the magnetic diffusion equation. The magnetic diffusion equation is combined with empirical correlations developed from physical observations and experimental data from DIII-D for the electron temperature, the plasma resistivity and the non-inductive current drive to develop a simplified, control-oriented, nonlinear, dynamic PDE model of the poloidal flux profile evolution valid for low confinement mode discharges. In this work, we synthesize a robust feedback controller to reject disturbances and track a desired reference trajectory of the poloidal magnetic flux gradient profile by employing the control-oriented model of the system. A singular value decomposition of the static gain matrix of the plant model is utilized to identify the most relevant control channels and is combined with the dynamic response of system around a given operating trajectory to design the feedback controller. A general framework for real-time feedforward + feedback control of magnetic and

  18. Quantum pump in quantum spin Hall edge states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Fang

    2016-09-01

    We present a theory for quantum pump in a quantum spin Hall bar with two quantum point contacts (QPCs). The pump currents can be generated by applying harmonically modulating gate voltages at QPCs. The phase difference between the gate voltages introduces an effective gauge field, which breaks the time-reversal symmetry and generates pump currents. The pump currents display very different pump frequency dependence for weak and strong e-e interaction. These unique properties are induced by the helical feature of the edge states, and therefore can be used to detect and control edge state transport.

  19. Exploring X-ray lasing in nitrogen pinch plasma at very high and fast discharge current excitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnwal, S.; Nigam, S.; Aneesh, K.; Prasad, Y. B. S. R.; Sharma, M. L.; Tripathi, P. K.; Joshi, A. S.; Naik, P. A.; Vora, H. S.; Gupta, P. D.

    2017-06-01

    The possibility to demonstrate X-ray lasing in nitrogen at 13.4 nm through recombination scheme driven by capillary discharge excitation has been explored at a high discharge current of 95 kA, with 46 ns quarter period. The emission from nitrogen pinch plasma showed a fast pulse at the instant of pinch formation, overriding the long duration Bremsstrahlung emission. The spectroscopic study revealed dominant X-ray line emissions at 2.8 and 2.1 nm, apart from various X-ray line emissions at higher wavelengths. Line emission at 2.8 nm confirms the formation of NVI charge state of nitrogen. At lower pressures, faint emission of Ly-α line at 2.4 nm indicated formation of NVII ions by further heating. The favourable role of pre-pulse in the formation of higher charge states of nitrogen was also established beyond doubt. This study provides important inputs for future experiments towards demonstration of X-ray lasing at 13.4 nm.

  20. Cluster observation of plasma flow reversal in the magnetotail during a substorm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Y. Lui

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available We investigate in detail a reversal of plasma flow from tailward to earthward detected by Cluster at the downstream distance of ~19 RE in the midnight sector of the magnetotail on 22 August 2001. This flow reversal was accompanied by a sign reversal of the Bz component and occurred during the late substorm expansion phase as revealed by simultaneous global view of auroral activity from IMAGE. We examine the associated Hall current system signature, current density, electric field, Lorentz force, and current dissipation/dynamo term, the last two parameters being new features that have not been studied previously for plasma flow reversals. It is found that (1 there was no clear quadrupole Hall current system signature organized by the flow reversal time, (2 the x-component of the Lorentz force did not change sign while the other two did, (3 the timing sequence of flow reversal from the Cluster configuration did not match tailward motion of a single plasma flow source, (4 the electric field was occasionally dawnward, producing a dynamo effect, and (5 the electric field was occasionally larger at the high-latitude plasma sheet than near the neutral sheet. These observations are consistent with the current disruption model for substorms in which these disturbances are due to shifting dominance of multiple current disruption sites and turbulence at the observing location.

  1. The effects of electron cyclotron heating and current drive on toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes in tokamak plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharapov, S. E.; Garcia-Munoz, M.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Bobkov, B.; Classen, I. G. J.; Ferreira, J.; Figueiredo, A.; Fitzgerald, M.; Galdon-Quiroga, J.; Gallart, D.; Geiger, B.; Gonzalez-Martin, J.; Johnson, T.; Lauber, P.; Mantsinen, M.; Nabais, F.; Nikolaeva, V.; Rodriguez-Ramos, M.; Sanchis-Sanchez, L.; Schneider, P. A.; Snicker, A.; Vallejos, P.; the AUG Team; the EUROfusion MST1 Team

    2018-01-01

    Dedicated studies performed for toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAEs) in ASDEX-Upgrade (AUG) discharges with monotonic q-profiles have shown that electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) can make TAEs more unstable. In these AUG discharges, energetic ions driving TAEs were obtained by ion cyclotron resonance heating (ICRH). It was found that off-axis ECRH facilitated TAE instability, with TAEs appearing and disappearing on timescales of a few milliseconds when the ECRH power was switched on and off. On-axis ECRH had a much weaker effect on TAEs, and in AUG discharges performed with co- and counter-current electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD), the effects of ECCD were found to be similar to those of ECRH. Fast ion distributions produced by ICRH were computed with the PION and SELFO codes. A significant increase in T e caused by ECRH applied off-axis is found to increase the fast ion slowing-down time and fast ion pressure causing a significant increase in the TAE drive by ICRH-accelerated ions. TAE stability calculations show that the rise in T e causes also an increase in TAE radiative damping and thermal ion Landau damping, but to a lesser extent than the fast ion drive. As a result of the competition between larger drive and damping effects caused by ECRH, TAEs become more unstable. It is concluded, that although ECRH effects on AE stability in present-day experiments may be quite significant, they are determined by the changes in the plasma profiles and are not particularly ECRH specific.

  2. Experimental behaviour of a argon plasma, which is passed by a high current intensity, with different magnetic field configurations; Comportamiento experimental de un plasma de argon en diferentes configuraciones de campo magnetico y a elevadas corrientes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lozano, J.

    1964-07-01

    In a lineal discharge, the longitudinal and azimuthal magnetic fields produced by the current through the tube and the returning conductors, which have 4 different forms, are determined with a magnetic probe, which has a radial and longitudinal displacement. The plasma is produced discharging a 135{mu}F and 9 KV capacitor bank through Argon at 10{sup -}1 Torr. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Direct comparison of fractional and integer quantized Hall resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Franz J.; Götz, Martin; Pierz, Klaus

    2017-08-01

    We present precision measurements of the fractional quantized Hall effect, where the quantized resistance {{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]} in the fractional quantum Hall state at filling factor 1/3 was compared with a quantized resistance {{R}[2]} , represented by an integer quantum Hall state at filling factor 2. A cryogenic current comparator bridge capable of currents down to the nanoampere range was used to directly compare two resistance values of two GaAs-based devices located in two cryostats. A value of 1-(5.3  ±  6.3) 10-8 (95% confidence level) was obtained for the ratio ({{R}≤ft[ 1/3 \\right]}/6{{R}[2]} ). This constitutes the most precise comparison of integer resistance quantization (in terms of h/e 2) in single-particle systems and of fractional quantization in fractionally charged quasi-particle systems. While not relevant for practical metrology, such a test of the validity of the underlying physics is of significance in the context of the upcoming revision of the SI.

  4. The quantum Hall effects: Philosophical approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lederer, P.

    2015-05-01

    The Quantum Hall Effects offer a rich variety of theoretical and experimental advances. They provide interesting insights on such topics as gauge invariance, strong interactions in Condensed Matter physics, emergence of new paradigms. This paper focuses on some related philosophical questions. Various brands of positivism or agnosticism are confronted with the physics of the Quantum Hall Effects. Hacking's views on Scientific Realism, Chalmers' on Non-Figurative Realism are discussed. It is argued that the difficulties with those versions of realism may be resolved within a dialectical materialist approach. The latter is argued to provide a rational approach to the phenomena, theory and ontology of the Quantum Hall Effects.

  5. Determination of Vanadium, Tin and Mercury in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cement Dust Samples by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Kamal T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution study applies direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) to samples of total suspended particulate matter collected in two industrial areas and one residential area, and cement dust collected near major cement factories. These samples were analyzed for vanadium, tin, and mercury. The results indicate the…

  6. Optical properties of the atmospheric pressure helium plasma jet generated by alternative current (a.c.) power supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilik, Erkan, E-mail: eilik@ogu.edu.tr; Akan, Tamer [Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, Eskisehir Osmangazi University, 26480 Eskisehir (Turkey)

    2016-05-15

    In this work, an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) was produced to generate cold flowing post-discharge plasma of pure helium gas. The main aim of this study was to generate cold flowing APPJ of pure helium gas and to determine how their optical emission spectrum change influences varying different flow rates. Lengths of early, middle, and late post-discharge plasma (jet) regions and their fluctuations were determined, respectively. Then, ignition condition dependence of the post-discharge plasma for flow rate was specified at a constant voltage. Spectroscopic studies of an atmospheric pressure plasma jet of helium were presented via analyzing OH, N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}{sup +}, oxygen, and helium intensities for various flow rates.

  7. Controlling Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Background Plasma by Application of a Small Solenoidal Magnetic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D.; Startsev, E. A.; Sefkow, A. B.; Davidson, R. C.

    2007-08-01

    Propagation of an intense charged particle beam pulse through a background plasma is a common problem in astrophysics and plasma applications. The plasma can effectively neutralize the charge and current of the beam pulse, and thus provides a convenient medium for beam transport. The application of a small solenoidal magnetic field can drastically change the self-magnetic and self-electric fields of the beam pulse, thus allowing effective control of the beam transport through the background plasma. An analytical model is developed to describe the self-magnetic field of a finite-length ion beam pulse propagating in a cold background plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field. The analytical studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field starts to influence the self-electric and self-magnetic fields when ωce ≥ ωpeβb, where ωce = eΒ/mec is the electron gyrofrequency, ωpe is the electron plasma frequency, and βb = Vb/c is the ion beam velocity relative to the speed of light. This condition typically holds for relatively small magnetic fields (about 100G). Analytical formulas are derived for the effective radial force acting on the beam ions, which can be used to minimize beam pinching. The results of analytical theory have been verified by comparison with the simulation results obtained from two particle-in-cell codes, which show good agreement.

  8. Controlling Charge and Current Neutralization of an Ion Beam Pulse in a Background Plasma by Application of a Solenoidal Magnetic Field I: Weak Magnetic Field Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D., Startsev, E. A., Sefkow, A. B., Davidson, R. C.

    2008-10-10

    Propagation of an intense charged particle beam pulse through a background plasma is a common problem in astrophysics and plasma applications. The plasma can effectively neutralize the charge and current of the beam pulse, and thus provides a convenient medium for beam transport. The application of a small solenoidal magnetic field can drastically change the self-magnetic and self- electric fields of the beam pulse, thus allowing effective control of the beam transport through the background plasma. An analytic model is developed to describe the self-magnetic field of a finite- length ion beam pulse propagating in a cold background plasma in a solenoidal magnetic field. The analytic studies show that the solenoidal magnetic field starts to infuence the self-electric and self-magnetic fields when ωce > ωpeβb, where ωce = eβ/mec is the electron gyrofrequency, ωpe is the electron plasma frequency, and βb = Vb/c is the ion beam velocity relative to the speed of light. This condition typically holds for relatively small magnetic fields (about 100G). Analytical formulas are derived for the effective radial force acting on the beam ions, which can be used to minimize beam pinching. The results of analytic theory have been verified by comparison with the simulation results obtained from two particle-in-cell codes, which show good agreement.

  9. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek Co. Inc. proposes to develop a high power (high thrust) electric propulsion system featuring an iodine fueled Hall Effect Thruster (HET). The system to be...

  10. Iodine Hall Thruster for Space Exploration Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In the Phase I program, Busek Co. Inc. tested an existing Hall thruster, the BHT-8000, on iodine propellant. The thruster was fed by a high flow iodine feed system,...

  11. AA under construction in its hall

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN PhotoLab

    1980-01-01

    The Antiproton Accumulator was installed in a specially built hall. Here we see it at an "early" stage of installation, just a few magnets on the floor, no vacuum chamber at all, but: 3 months later there was circulating beam !

  12. Success of Hall technique crowns questioned.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nainar, S M Hashim

    2012-01-01

    Hall technique is a method of providing stainless steel crowns for primary molars without tooth preparation and requires no local anesthesia. Literature review showed inconclusive evidence and therefore this technique should not be used in clinical practice.

  13. Dual Mode Low Power Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Sample and return missions desire and missions like Saturn Observer require a low power Hall thruster that can operate at high thrust to power as well as high...

  14. Light Metal Propellant Hall Thruster Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Busek proposes to develop light metal Hall Effect thrusters that will help reduce the travel time, mass, and cost of SMD spacecraft. Busek has identified three...

  15. Two LHC dipole magnets in assembly hall

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    The final LHC components are completed in the assembly hall, prior to installation in the tunnel. These pictures show two 15-m long LHC cryogenic magnets, both before and after insertion into their blue vacuum vessel.

  16. Magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents in Jupiter’s middle magnetosphere: dependence on the effective ionospheric Pedersen conductivity and iogenic plasma mass outflow rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. D. Nichols

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The amplitude and spatial distribution of the coupling currents that flow between Jupiter’s ionosphere and middle magnetosphere, which enforce partial corotation on outward-flowing iogenic plasma, depend on the values of the effective Pedersen conductivity of the jovian ionosphere and the mass outflow rate of iogenic plasma. The values of these parameters are, however, very uncertain. Here we determine how the solutions for the plasma angular velocity and current components depend on these parameters over wide ranges. We consider two models of the poloidal magnetospheric magnetic field, namely the planetary dipole alone, and an empirical current sheet field based on Voyager data. Following work by Hill (2001, we obtain a complete normalized analytic solution for the dipole field, which shows in compact form how the plasma angular velocity and current components scale in space and in amplitude with the system parameters in this case. We then obtain an approximate analytic solution in similar form for a current sheet field in which the equatorial field strength varies with radial distance as a power law. A key feature of the model is that the current sheet field lines map to a narrow latitudinal strip in the ionosphere, at ≈ 15° co-latitude. The approximate current sheet solutions are compared with the results of numerical integrations using the full field model, for which a power law applies beyond ≈ 20 RJ, and are found to agree very well within their regime of applicability. A major distinction between the solutions for the dipole field and the current sheet concerns the behaviour of the field-aligned current. In the dipole model the direction of the current reverses at moderate equatorial distances, and the current system wholly closes if the model is extended to infinity in the equatorial plane and to the pole in the ionosphere. In the approximate current sheet model, however, the field-aligned current is unidirectional, flowing

  17. NAS Decadal Review Town Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academies of Sciences, Engineering and Medicine is seeking community input for a study on the future of materials research (MR). Frontiers of Materials Research: A Decadal Survey will look at defining the frontiers of materials research ranging from traditional materials science and engineering to condensed matter physics. Please join members of the study committee for a town hall to discuss future directions for materials research in the United States in the context of worldwide efforts. In particular, input on the following topics will be of great value: progress, achievements, and principal changes in the R&D landscape over the past decade; identification of key MR areas that have major scientific gaps or offer promising investment opportunities from 2020-2030; and the challenges that MR may face over the next decade and how those challenges might be addressed. This study was requested by the Department of Energy and the National Science Foundation. The National Academies will issue a report in 2018 that will offer guidance to federal agencies that support materials research, science policymakers, and researchers in materials research and other adjoining fields. Learn more about the study at http://nas.edu/materials.

  18. The fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle in type-II superconductor under magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinh, Bui Duc, E-mail: tinhbd@hnue.edu.vn [Institute of Research and Development, Duy Tan University, K7/25 Quang Trung, Danang (Viet Nam); Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Hoc, Nguyen Quang; Thu, Le Minh [Department of Physics, Hanoi National University of Education, 136 Xuan Thuy, Cau Giay, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2016-02-15

    Highlights: • The time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau was used to calculate fluctuation Hall conductivity and Hall angle in type-II superconductor in 2D and 3D. • We obtain analytical expressions for the fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle summing all Landau levels without need to cutoff higher Landau levels to treat arbitrary magnetic field. • The results were compared to the experimental data on YBCO. - Abstract: The fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle, describing the Hall effect, are calculated for arbitrary value of the imaginary part of the relaxation time in the frame of the time-dependent Ginzburg–Landau theory in type II-superconductor with thermal noise describing strong thermal fluctuations. The self-consistent Gaussian approximation is used to treat the nonlinear interaction term in dynamics. We obtain analytical expressions for the fluctuation Hall conductivity and the Hall angle summing all Landau levels without need to cutoff higher Landau levels to treat arbitrary magnetic field. The results are compared with experimental data on high-T{sub c} superconductor.

  19. Generic Superweak Chaos Induced by Hall Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Ben-Harush, Moti; Dana, Itzhack

    2016-01-01

    We introduce and study the "kicked Hall system" (KHS), i.e., charged particles periodically kicked in the presence of uniform magnetic ($\\mathbf{B}$) and electric ($\\mathbf{E}$) fields that are perpendicular to each other and to the kicking direction. We show that for resonant values of $B$ and $E$ and in the weak-chaos regime of sufficiently small nonintegrability parameter $\\kappa$ (the kicking strength), there exists a \\emph{generic} family of periodic kicking potentials for which the Hall...

  20. Hanbury Brown and Twiss correlations in quantum Hall systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campagnano, Gabriele; Zilberberg, Oded; Gornyi, Igor V.; Gefen, Yuval

    2013-12-01

    We study a Hanbury Brown and Twiss (HBT) interferometer formed with chiral edge channels of a quantum Hall system. HBT cross correlations are calculated for a device operating both in the integer and fractional quantum Hall regimes, the latter at Laughlin filling fractions. We find that in both cases, when the current is dominated by electron tunneling, current-current correlations show antibunching, characteristic of fermionic correlations. When the current-current correlations are dominated by quasiparticle tunneling, the correlations reveal bunching, characteristic of bosons. For electron tunneling, we use the Keldysh technique, and show that the result for fractional filling factors can be obtained in a simple way from the results of the integer case. It is shown that quasiparticle-dominated cross-current correlations can be analyzed by means of a quantum master-equation approach. We present here a detailed derivation of the results [Campagnano , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.109.106802 109, 106802 (2012)] and generalize them to all Laughlin fractions.

  1. In situ measurement of the two-dimensional temperature field of a dual-jet direct-current arc plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Heng; Li, Peng; Li, He-Ping; Ge, Nan; Bao, Cheng-Yu

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, a real time method for an in situ measurement of the two-dimensional (2-D) temperature filed of thermal plasmas is developed with the combination of the visible image processing technique and the spectroscopic line-ratio method at two specified wavelengths. After the calibration of the gray scale values of the recorded images with the CCD cameras by the emission intensity received using a spectrometer, the 2-D temperature field of the plasma arc-jet can be obtained conveniently based on the derived gray scale values of the CCD images at two specified wavelengths and the formula similar to that of spectroscopic line-ratio method. The experimental results show that the obtained temperature fields of the plasma arc-jet at different times are qualitatively reasonable and consistent with the modeling result. This newly developed method can be employed to measure the transient temperature fields of the plasmas with fluctuations during discharges effectively.

  2. Spin Hall effect-controlled magnetization dynamics in NiMnSb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dürrenfeld, P., E-mail: philipp.durrenfeld@physics.gu.se; Ranjbar, M. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); Gerhard, F.; Gould, C.; Molenkamp, L. W. [Physikalisches Institut (EP3), Universität Würzburg, 97074 Würzburg (Germany); Åkerman, J. [Department of Physics, University of Gothenburg, 412 96 Gothenburg (Sweden); NanOsc AB, 164 40 Kista (Sweden); Materials Physics, School of ICT, KTH-Royal Institute of Technology, Electrum 229, 164 40 Kista (Sweden)

    2015-05-07

    We investigate the influence of a spin current generated from a platinum layer on the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) properties of an adjacent ferromagnetic layer composed of the halfmetallic half-Heusler material NiMnSb. Spin Hall nano-oscillator devices are fabricated, and the technique of spin torque FMR is used to locally study the magnetic properties as in-plane anisotropies and resonance fields. A change in the FMR linewidth, in accordance with the additional spin torque produced by the spin Hall effect, is present for an applied dc current. For sufficiently large currents, this should yield auto-oscillations, which however are not achievable in the present device geometry.

  3. Spin-torque switching of a nano-magnet using giant spin hall effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish V. Penumatcha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Giant Spin Hall Effect(GSHE in metals with high spin-orbit coupling is an efficient way to convert charge currents to spin currents, making it well-suited for writing information into magnets in non-volatile magnetic memory as well as spin-logic devices. We demonstrate the switching of an in-plane CoFeB magnet using a combination of GSHE and an external magnetic field. The magnetic field dependence of the critical current is used to estimate the spin hall angle with the help of a thermal activation model for spin-transfer torque switching of a nanomagnet.

  4. Turbulence Measurements in a Tropical Zoo Hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eugster, Werner; Denzler, Basil; Bogdal, Christian

    2017-04-01

    The Masoala rainforest hall of the Zurich Zoo, Switzerland, covers a ground surface area of 10,856 m2 and reaches 30 m in height. With its transparent ETFE foiled roof it provides a tropical climate for a large diversity of plants and animals. In combination with an effort to estimate dry deposition of elemental mercury, we made an attempt to measure turbulent transfer velocity with an ultrasonic anemometer inside the hall. Not surprising, the largest turbulence elements were on the order of the hall dimension. Although the dimensions of the hall seem to be small (200,000 m3) for eddy covariance flux measurements and the air circulation inside the hall was extremely weak, the spectra of wind velocity components and virtual (sonic) temperature obeyed the general statistical description expected under unconstrained outdoor measurement conditions. We will present results from a two-week measurement campaign in the Masoala rainforest hall and make a suggestion for the deposition velocity to be used to estimate dry deposition of atmospheric components to the tropical vegetation surface.

  5. Hall effect on thermal stability of ferromagnetic fluid in porous medium in the presence of horizontal magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aggarwal Amrish Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the theoretical investigation of the effect of Hall currents on the thermal stability of a ferromagnetic fluid heated from below in porous medium. For a fluid layer between two free boundaries, an exact solution is obtained using a linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis. A dispersion relation governing the effects of medium permeability, a uniform horizontal magnetic field, magnetization and Hall currents is derived. For the case of stationary convection, it is found that the magnetic field and magnetization have a stabilizing effect on the system, as such their effect is to postpone the onset of thermal instability whereas Hall currents are found to hasten the onset of thermal instability. The medium permeability hastens the onset of convection under certain conditions. The principle of exchange of stabilities is not valid for the problem under consideration whereas in the absence of Hall currents (hence magnetic field, it is valid under certain conditions.

  6. Spin Chirality and Hall-Like Transport Phenomena of Spin Excitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jung Hoon; Lee, Hyunyong

    2017-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical aspects of Hall-type transport of spins in magnetic insulators are reviewed. A general formalism for linear response theory of thermal Hall transport in the spin model is developed, which is general enough to be applicable to both the magnon and the paramagnetic, spin-liquid regimes. The expression of the energy current operator in the spin language is shown to be closely related to the spin chirality operator. Recent experiments on magnon-mediated thermal Hall transport in the two-dimensional kagome, and three-dimensional pyrochlore ferromagnetic insulators are reviewed in light of the multi-band magnon theory of Hall transport, and compared to the more mysterious thermal Hall transport found in the putative quantum spin ice material. As realizations of spin-chirality driven magnon transport in the real space, we review the general theory of emergent gauge fields governing the magnon dynamics in the textured magnet, and discuss its application to the magnon-Skyrmion scattering problem. Topological magnon Hall effect driven by the Skyrmion texture is discussed.

  7. The signal-to-noise ratio and a hidden symmetry of Hall plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausserlechner, Udo

    2017-09-01

    In a Hall plate with finite size and contacts the Hall output voltage is given by the product of sheet resistance, input current, Hall mobility, magnetic flux density, and Hall geometry factor GH . GH ∈ [ 0, 1 ] accounts for the loss in signal due to the contacts. At weak magnetic field GH →GH0 is a function of geometrical parameters only, which makes it the crucial point for layout optimization. We show how to express GH0 alternatively as a function of electrical parameters only, namely of input and output resistances over sheet resistance. This allows for an analytical optimization of signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) without getting lost in the multitude of geometrical representations of equivalent Hall plates. In the course of this investigation we notice a hidden symmetry property of GH , which we prove rigorously in the limit of small magnetic fields. The physical meaning of this symmetry in the case of Hall plates with equal input and output resistances is also explained.

  8. Using nutrition labeling as a potential tool for changing eating habits of university dining hall patrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driskell, Judy A; Schake, Marian C; Detter, Hillary A

    2008-12-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine the influence of the nutritional labeling Nutrition Bytes on the eating habits of adults eating in dining halls at a Midwestern university and to assess differences between sexes. Dining hall patrons (114 men, 91 women) 19 years of age or older voluntarily completed a descriptive 15-item written questionnaire that examined the use and nonuse of Nutrition Bytes, which contains much of the information included in the Nutrition Facts label. A significantly higher percentage of women than men patrons reported currently using Nutrition Bytes labels (PNutrition Bytes labels were: general knowledge, concern about overall health, calorie counting, and concern about a certain nutrient(s). Predominant reasons given for not using Nutrition Bytes labels were: will not change my mind about food items selected and not enough time. Reasons given by men and women for using or not using Nutrition Bytes labels were similar. Significantly higher percentages of women than men using Nutrition Bytes labels indicated being interested in having serving sizes (Pusers who indicated nearly always and sometimes changing their food choices after reading Nutrition Bytes labels inside the dining halls were 12% and 80%, respectively, whereas 23% and 65%, respectively, indicated changing their food choices after reading the nutrition label when eating outside the dining halls. Nutrition Bytes labeling seemed to positively impact food choices of these adult dining hall patrons, and likely would do so at other dining halls.

  9. A new method to obtain narrowband emission from a broadband current using increased impedance of plasma-like media (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Min Sup; Ersfeld, Bernhard; Noble, Adam; Suk, Hyyong; Jaroszynski, Dino A.

    2017-05-01

    In conventional radiation sources, narrowband radiation emission can be obtained by narrowband current oscillation. Usually the spectrum of the oscillating current is made narrow by a large or complicated structure for wave-particle interaction. One good example is the beam-undulator system. In this presentation, we introduce a new method to obtain a radiation emission with a well-collimated frequency without changing the broadband nature of a given current source. The method is based on our recent discovery of the new physical properties of the cut-off phenomenon, which broadly exists in general plasma-like media, such as plasma, waveguide, or photonic crystal, etc. A common feature of these media is the Bohm-Gross dispersion relation, which has a frequency condition to make the wavenumber zero. In the zero-wavenumber state, an electromagnetic wave cannot propagate through the medium, but instead, is reflected (i.e. cut-off). In regular steady-state analysis, the cut-off condition is characterized by infinite radiation impedance. An interesting question here is what would happen to the radiation power, if a non-zero current oscillating with the cut-off frequency were enforced in a medium (a current source, in contrast with the regular voltage source). A regular steady-state analysis for this situation leads to infinite power of radiation from Ohm's law. We could solve such a paradoxical situation by analyzing the non-steady-state system; we found that the system can be described by a time-dependent Schroedinger equation with an external driving term. The solution of this equation shows a temporally growing electromagnetic field. When this concept is extended to a generally broadband current source, the spectral density at the cut-off frequency can be selectively enhanced (selectively enhanced emission, SEE). Hence a general broadband radiation source can be easily converted to a narrowband source by enclosing the system with a plasma-like medium. The current

  10. Inactivation of Candida Strains in Planktonic and Biofilm Forms Using a Direct Current, Atmospheric-Pressure Cold Plasma Micro-Jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Wei-Dong; Sun, Peng; Sun, Yi; Yu, Shuang; Wu, Haiyan; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Jue; Fang, Jing

    A direct-current, atmospheric-pressure, He/O2 (2%) cold plasma ­microjet is applied to Candida species (C. glabrata, C. albicansand C. krusei). Effective inactivation is achieved both in air and in water within 5 min of plasma treatment. Same plasma treatment also successfully inactivated candida biofilms on Petri dish. The inactivation was verified by cell viability test (XTT assay). Severe deformation of Candida biofilms after the plasma treatment was observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM). Optical emission spectroscopy shows strong atomic oxygen emission at 777 nm. Hydroxyl radical (•OH), superoxide anion radical (•O2-) and singlet molecular oxygen (1O2) are detected by electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. The sessile minimal inhibitory concentrations (SMICs) of fluconazole, amphotericin B, and caspofungin against the Candida spp. biofilms were decreased to 2-6 fold dilutions in plasma microjet treated group in comparison with the controls. This novel approach may become a new tool for the treatment of clinical dermatosis

  11. Transport of thermal-energy ionospheric oxygen (O+) ions between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet and ring current at quiet times preceding magnetic storms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yau, Andrew W.; Howarth, Andrew; Peterson, W. K.; Abe, Takumi

    2012-07-01

    The presence of energetic O+ ions in the ring current at the onset of a magnetic storm prompts the question of the possible role of “in-transit” ionospheric O+ ions between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet and ring current in the quiet periods immediately preceding the main phase of a magnetic storm. Thermal-energy O+ ions are often observed in the quiet time high-altitude (>7000 km) polar ionosphere on Akebono, at temperatures of ˜0.2-0.3 eV and flow velocities of a few km/s. In this paper, we use single-particle trajectory simulation to study the transport of these ions in the periods preceding a number of large magnetic storms (Dst wind and other low-energy O+ ions reaches the plasma sheet during such periods; the actual percentage is a factor of ˜3 larger in the dusk sector on average compared with the dawn sector and dependent on the IMF and the O+ ion temperature. This provides a low but non-negligible flux of O+ ions between the ionosphere and the plasma sheet and ring current, which is believed to constitute a significant “in-transit” oxygen ion population over a period of a few (˜4) hours preceding a magnetic storm. Such a population could explain the presence of energetic O+ ions at the onset of the main phase of the storm, when the heavy ions could potentially modify the evolution of the ring current.

  12. Hall Effect on Thermal Instability of Viscoelastic Dusty Fluid in Porous Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M.; Gupta, R. K.

    2013-08-01

    The effect of Hall currents and suspended dusty particles on the hydromagnetic stability of a compressible, electrically conducting Rivlin-Ericksen elastico viscous fluid in a porous medium is considered. Following the linearized stability theory and normal mode analysis the dispersion relation is obtained. For the case of stationary convection, Hall currents and suspended particles are found to have destabilizing effects whereas compressibility and magnetic field have stabilizing effects on the system. The medium permeability, however, has stabilizing and destabilizing effects on thermal instability in contrast to its destabilizing effect in the absence of the magnetic field. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wave numbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection are obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers are depicted graphically. The magnetic field, Hall currents and viscoelasticity parameter are found to introduce oscillatory modes in the systems, which did not exist in the absence of these parameters

  13. Voltage transients in thin-film InSb Hall sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey Bardin

    Full Text Available The work is reached to study temperature transients in thin-film Hall sensors. We experimentally study InSb thin-film Hall sensor. We find transients of voltage with amplitude about 10 μV on the sensor ports after current switching. We demonstrate by direct measurements that the transients is caused by thermo-e.m.f., and both non-stationarity and heterogeneity of temperature in the film. We find significant asymmetry of temperature field for different direction of the current, which is probably related to Peltier effect. The result can be useful for wide range of scientist who works with switching of high density currents in any thin semiconductor films. 2000 MSC: 41A05, 41A10, 65D05, 65D17, Keywords: Thin-films, Semiconductors, Hall sensor, InSb, thermo-e.m.f.

  14. Spin wave amplification using the spin Hall effect in permalloy/platinum bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gladii, O.; Henry, Y.; Bailleul, M. [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Matériaux de Strasbourg, UMR 7504 CNRS, Université de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, BP 43, 67034 Strasbourg Cedex 2 (France); Collet, M.; Garcia-Hernandez, K.; Cheng, C.; Bortolotti, P.; Cros, V.; Anane, A. [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS, Thales, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Xavier, S. [Thales Research and Technology, 1 Av. A. Fresnel, Campus de l' Ecole Polytechnique, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Kim, J.-V. [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, CNRS, Univ. Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, 91405 Orsay (France)

    2016-05-16

    We investigate the effect of an electrical current on the attenuation length of a 900 nm wavelength spin-wave in a permalloy/Pt bilayer using propagating spin-wave spectroscopy. The modification of the spin-wave relaxation rate is linear in current density, reaching up to 14% for a current density of 2.3 × 10{sup 11} A/m{sup 2} in Pt. This change is attributed to the spin transfer torque induced by the spin Hall effect and corresponds to an effective spin Hall angle of 0.13, which is among the highest values reported so far. The spin Hall effect thus appears as an efficient way of amplifying/attenuating propagating spin waves.

  15. Hall Effect on Bénard Convection of Compressible Viscoelastic Fluid through Porous Medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahinder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An investigation made on the effect of Hall currents on thermal instability of a compressible Walter’s B′ elasticoviscous fluid through porous medium is considered. The analysis is carried out within the framework of linear stability theory and normal mode technique. For the case of stationary convection, Hall currents and compressibility have postponed the onset of convection through porous medium. Moreover, medium permeability hasten postpone the onset of convection, and magnetic field has duel character on the onset of convection. The critical Rayleigh numbers and the wave numbers of the associated disturbances for the onset of instability as stationary convection have been obtained and the behavior of various parameters on critical thermal Rayleigh numbers has been depicted graphically. The magnetic field, Hall currents found to introduce oscillatory modes, in the absence of these effects the principle of exchange of stabilities is valid.

  16. Physics of the interaction between runaway electrons and the background plasma of the current quench in tokamak disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reux, Cedric

    2017-10-01

    Runaway electrons are created during disruptions of tokamak plasmas. They can be accelerated in the form of a multi-MA beam at energies up to several 10's of MeV. Prevention or suppression of runaway electrons during disruptions will be essential to ensure a reliable operation of future tokamaks such as ITER. Recent experiments showed that the suppression of an already accelerated beam with massive gas injection was unsuccessful at JET, conversely to smaller tokamaks. This was attributed to a dense, cold background plasma (up to several 1020 m-3 accompanying the runaway beam. The present contribution reports on the latest experimental results obtained at JET showing that some mitigation efficiency can be restored by changing the features of the background plasma. The density, temperature, position of the plasma and the energy of runaways were characterized using a combined analysis of interferometry, soft X-rays, bolometry, magnetics and hard X-rays. It showed that lower density background plasmas were obtained using smaller amounts of gas to trigger the disruption, leading to an improved penetration of the mitigation gas. Based on the observations, a physical model of the creation of the background plasma and its subsequent evolution is proposed. The plasma characteristics during later stages of the disruption are indeed dependent on the way it was initially created. The sustainment of the plasma during the runaway beam phase is then addressed by making a power balance between ohmic heating, power transfer from runaway electrons, radiation and atomic processes. Finally, a model of the interaction of the plasma with the mitigation gas is proposed to explain why massive gas injection of runaway beams works only in specific situations. This aims at pointing out which parameters bear the most importance if this mitigation scheme is to be used on larger devices like ITER. Acknowledgement: This work has been carried out within the framework of the EUROfusion Consortium

  17. Physics of partially ionized plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Krishan, Vinod

    2016-01-01

    Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter; the other three being solid, liquid and gas. Several components, such as molecular clouds, diffuse interstellar gas, the solar atmosphere, the Earth's ionosphere and laboratory plasmas, including fusion plasmas, constitute the partially ionized plasmas. This book discusses different aspects of partially ionized plasmas including multi-fluid description, equilibrium and types of waves. The discussion goes on to cover the reionization phase of the universe, along with a brief description of high discharge plasmas, tokomak plasmas and laser plasmas. Various elastic and inelastic collisions amongst the three particle species are also presented. In addition, the author demonstrates the novelty of partially ionized plasmas using many examples; for instance, in partially ionized plasma the magnetic induction is subjected to the ambipolar diffusion and the Hall effect, as well as the usual resistive dissipation. Also included is an observation of kinematic dynam...

  18. Clustering of Hall effect thrusters for high-power electric propulsion applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Brian Eric

    This thesis presents research aimed at understanding the technical issues related to operating multiple Hall effect thrusters in close proximity to each other. This will facilitate development of electric propulsion systems capable of operating at power levels beyond the current state of the art. An extensive array of plume data was obtained using a variety of plasma diagnostics. Measurements were taken downstream of a cluster of four thrusters, each of which was coupled to its own hollow cathode and operated from its own set of power supplies. Comparing data obtained in this configuration to measurements taken in the plume of a single thruster showed that three of the most basic properties in the cluster plume: plasma density, electron temperature, and plasma potential, could be predicted based solely on knowledge of a single thruster. Predictions made using the methods presented in this dissertation appear to be accurate to within the margin of error of typical plasma diagnostics. Secondary properties such as the ion current density and ion energy spectrum were also studied in the cluster plume. It was found that the beam profile of a cluster is slightly narrower than predicted by linear superposition of the contributions from each individual engine. A particle tracking algorithm revealed this behavior to be the result of low-energy ions being preferentially deflected downstream by the unique plasma potential profiles in the cluster plume. Measurements of the ion energy spectrum showed a significant increase in ions occurring at energy to charge ratios below the main peak in the distribution when multiple thrusters were operated. This appears to indicate an increase in elastic scattering due to clustering. Finally, several alternative cluster configurations have been studied to examine parallel and shared cathode operation. It was found that parallel operation generally caused one cathode to dominate the discharge. When multiple thrusters were coupled to a single

  19. Growth of β-Tungsten Films Towards a Giant Spin Hall Effect Logic Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayanthinarasimham, Avyaya; Medikonda, Manasa; Matsubayashi, Akitomo; Nolting, Westly; Diebold, Alain; Labella, Vincent

    2014-03-01

    Spin orbit interaction in a semiconductor and metal result in spin current transverse to a charge current, this is spin Hall effect. It was theoretically predicted by Dyakonov. et. al and J.E.Hirsch, but not until it was experimentally confirmed in 2004 by Kato, Y.K. et al. did it attract the much attention. Recent spin Hall effect studies in metals like β-Ta, β-W produce spin currents strong enough to switch an adjacent magnetic layer. α and β phases of Tungsten are strongly governed by film resistance, thickness, base pressure and oxygen availability. The metastable β-W is known to exhibit giant spin Hall effect. Deposition conditions selective to β phase should be used to fabricate these devices. A step wise process flow for a fully functioning device that combines the giant spin Hall effect and magnetic tunnel junction needs to be explored. This poster will present our work on fabricating and characterizing thicker tungsten films, dominated with β-phase, towards a giant spin Hall Effect structures utilizing the 300 mm wafer processing facilities at CNSE.

  20. Numerical simulation of sheath structure and current-voltage characteristics of a conductor-dielectric disk in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaky, R. C.; Nonnast, J. H.; Enoch, J.

    1981-01-01

    A computer program is being developed to simulate the interaction of a plasma with a conducting disk. Two configurations are examined: (1) the conductor is a 'button' in the center of a larger dielectric disk, and (2) the conducting disk is covered by a dielectric disk to the same size with a circular hole in the center of the dielectric, exposing a region of conductor. Results of the electrostatic plasma simulation are presented both with and without secondary electron emission from the dielectric; characteristic curves and voltage profiles are included.

  1. Laser Diagnostic Method for Plasma Sheath Potential Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Sean P.

    Electric propulsion systems are gaining popularity in the aerospace field as a viable option for long term positioning and thrusting applications. In particular, Hall thrusters have shown promise as the primary propulsion engine for space probes during interplanetary journeys. However, the interaction between propellant xenon ions and the ceramic channel wall continues to remain a complex issue. The most significant source of power loss in Hall thrusters is due to electron and ion currents through the sheath to the channel wall. A sheath is a region of high electric field that separates a plasma from a wall or surface in contact. Plasma electrons with enough energy to penetrate the sheath may result emission of a secondary electron from the wall. With significant secondary electron emission (SEE), the sheath voltage is reduced and so too is the electron retarding electric field. Therefore, a lower sheath voltage further increases the particle loss to the wall of a Hall thruster and leads to plasma cooling and lower efficiency. To further understand sheath dynamics, laser-induced fluorescence is employed to provide a non-invasive, in situ, and spatially resolved technique for measuring xenon ion velocity. By scanning the laser wavelength over an electronic transition of singly ionized xenon and collecting the resulting fluorescence, one can determine the ion velocity from the Doppler shifted absorption. Knowing the velocity at multiple points in the sheath, it can be converted to a relative electric potential profile which can reveal a lot about the plasma-wall interaction and the severity of SEE. The challenge of adequately measuring sheath potential profiles is optimizing the experiment to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio. A strong signal with low noise, enables high resolution measurements and increases the depth of measurement in the sheath, where the signal strength is lowest. Many improvements were made to reduce the background luminosity, increase the

  2. Feedback control of current drive by using hybrid wave in tokamaks; Asservissement de la generation de courant par l`onde hybride dans un plasma de tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wijnands, T.J. [Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d`Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Dept. de Recherches sur la Fusion Controlee]|[CEA Centre d`Etudes de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere

    1997-03-01

    This work is focussed on an important and recent development in present day Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research and Tokamaks. The aim is to optimise the energy confinement for a certain magnetic configuration by adapting the radial distribution of the current. Of particular interest are feedback control scenarios with stationary modifications of the current profile using current, driven by Lower Hybrid waves. A new feedback control system has been developed for Tore Supra and has made a large number of new operation scenarios possible. In one of the experiments described here, there is no energy exchange between the poloidal field system and the plasma, the current is controlled by the power of the Lower Hybrid waves while the launched wave spectrum is used to optimise the current profile shape and the energy confinement. (author) 151 refs.

  3. Assessment of Pole Erosion in a Magnetically Shielded Hall Thruster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikellides, Ioannis G.; Ortega, Alejandro L.

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulations of a 6-kW laboratory Hall thruster called H6 have been performed to quantify the erosion rate at the inner pole. The assessments have been made in two versions of the thruster, namely the unshielded (H6US) and magnetically shielded (H6MS) configurations. The simulations have been performed with the 2-D axisymmetric code Hall2De which employs a new multi-fluid ion algorithm to capture the presence of low-energy ions in the vicinity of the poles. It is found that the maximum computed erosion rate at the inner pole of the H6MS exceeds the measured rate of back-sputtered deposits by 4.5 times. This explains only part of the surface roughening that was observed after a 150-h wear test, which covered most of the pole area exposed to the plasma. For the majority of the pole surface the computed erosion rates are found to be below the back-sputter rate and comparable to those in the H6US which exhibited little to no sputtering in previous tests. Possible explanations for the discrepancy are discussed.

  4. Magnetoelectric tuning of the inverse spin-Hall effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas, José M.; Gómez, Javier E.; Avilés-Félix, Luis; Butera, Alejandro

    2017-05-01

    We demonstrate in this article that the magnetoelectric (ME) mechanism can be exploited to control the spin current emitted in a spin pumping experiment using moderate electric fields. Spin currents were generated at the interface of a ferromagnet/metal bilayer by driving the system to the ferromagnetic resonance condition at X-Band (9.78 GHz) with an incident power of 200 mW. The ME structure, a thin (20 nm) FePt film grown on top of a polished 011-cut single crystal lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) slab, was prepared by dc magnetron sputtering. The PMN-PT/FePt was operated in the L-T mode (longitudinal magnetized-transverse polarized). This hybrid composite showed a large ME coefficient of 140 Oe cm/kV, allowing to easily tune the ferromagnetic resonance condition with electric field strengths below 4 kV/cm. A thin layer of Pt (10 nm) was grown on top of the PMN-PT/FePt structure and was used to generate and detect the spin current by taking advantage of its large spin-orbit coupling that produces a measurable signal via the inverse spin-Hall effect. These results proved an alternative way to tune the magnetic field at which the spin current is established and consequently the inverse spin-Hall effect signal, which can promote advances in hybrid spintronic devices.

  5. Collisionless Hall MHD Reconnection Dynamics: Is the Nonlinear Reconnection Rate Independent of the Mechanism that Breaks Field Lines?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, A.; Germaschewski, K.; Wang, X.; Linde, T.; Rosner, R.; Siegel, A.

    2002-12-01

    There has been considerable interest in recent years in collisionless reconnection dynamics governed by the generalized Ohm's law in which electron inertia provides the mechanism for breaking field lines. It has been suggested in several theoretical studies that the nonlinear reconnection dynamics, to leading order, is independent of the mechanism that breaks field lines (that is, electron inertia). We test this suggestion carefully using the new Magnetic Reconnection Code (MRC) developed at the Center for Magnetic Reconnection Studies. The MRC is a new massively parallel code with Adaptive Mesh Refinement (AMR) that integrates the equations of Hall MHD. The use of AMR enables unprecedented levels of resolution of the current and vorticity layers and uncovers interesting secondary dynamics not seen in previous studies. We apply the MRC to the study of two problems, one involving free reconnection caused by a spontaneous and fast collisionless instability, the other involving forced reconnection induced by boundary perturbations on a stable plasma. In the case of free reconnection, over the range of parameters covered by our simulations, it is shown that the nonlinear reconnection rate is near-explosive, and furthermore, that the nonlinear magnetic island width is an invariant function of a dimensionless variable which is the product of the linear growth rate and time. Now, since the linear growth rate is a function of the ion sound radius as well as the electron skin depth, we conclude that the nonlinear reconnection rate is not independent of electron inertia. In the case of forced reconnection, after a slow growth phase, the dynamics exhibits an impulsive growth in the amplitude of the thin current sheet, and a subsequent current disruption mediated by secondary instabilities. These results, in which electron inertia provides the mechanism for breaking field lines, are contrasted with resistive Hall MHD simulations in which resistivity provides the mechanism for

  6. Air temperature gradient in large industrial hall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpuk, Michał; Pełech, Aleksander; Przydróżny, Edward; Walaszczyk, Juliusz; Szczęśniak, Sylwia

    2017-11-01

    In the rooms with dominant sensible heat load, volume airflow depends on many factors incl. pre-established temperature difference between exhaust and supply airflow. As the temperature difference is getting higher, airflow volume drops down, consequently, the cost of AHU is reduced. In high industrial halls with air exhaust grids located under the ceiling additional temperature gradient above working zone should be taken into consideration. In this regard, experimental research of the vertical air temperature gradient in high industrial halls were carried out for the case of mixing ventilation system The paper presents the results of air temperature distribution measurements in high technological hall (mechanically ventilated) under significant sensible heat load conditions. The supply airflow was delivered to the hall with the help of the swirl diffusers while exhaust grids were located under the hall ceiling. Basing on the air temperature distribution measurements performed on the seven pre-established levels, air temperature gradient in the area between 2.0 and 7.0 m above the floor was calculated and analysed.

  7. Zeeman and spin orbit effects on the spin-Hall conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipparini, Enrico; Barranco, Manuel

    2007-02-01

    We show that when a two-dimensional interacting electron gas is submitted to a perpendicular magnetic field, the application of an in-plane electric field E induces a spin current perpendicular to E whose conductivity is quantized. This current can lead to spin accumulation that might be detected by means of optical experiments. The appearance of this intrinsic spin-Hall effect is crucially based on the validity of Kohn's theorem and on the presence of the Zeeman term in the electron Hamiltonian. The possibility of resonant effects in the spin-Hall conductivity due to the combined effect of Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings is discussed.

  8. Hemostatic resuscitation for massive bleeding: the paradigm of plasma and platelets--a review of the current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Continued hemorrhage remains a major contributor of mortality in massively transfused patients and controversy regarding the optimal management exists. Recent studies indicate a possible survival benefit in patients receiving a higher ratio of plasma and platelets (PLTs) to red blood cells (RBCs...

  9. Hemostatic resuscitation for massive bleeding: the paradigm of plasma and platelets--a review of the current literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, Pär I; Stensballe, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    Continued hemorrhage remains a major contributor of mortality in massively transfused patients and controversy regarding the optimal management exists. Recent studies indicate a possible survival benefit in patients receiving a higher ratio of plasma and platelets (PLTs) to red blood cells (RBCs)...

  10. Redundant speed control for brushless Hall effect motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A speed control system for a brushless Hall effect device equipped direct current (D.C.) motor is described. Separate windings of the motor are powered by separate speed responsive power sources. A change in speed, upward or downward, because of the failure of a component of one of the power sources results in a corrective signal being generated in the other power source to supply an appropriate power level and polarity to one winding to cause the motor to be corrected in speed.

  11. Microwave generation by spin Hall nanooscillators with nanopatterned spin injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zholud, A., E-mail: azholud@emory.edu; Urazhdin, S. [Department of Physics, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia 30322 (United States)

    2014-09-15

    We experimentally study spin Hall nano-oscillators based on Pt/ferromagnet bilayers with nanopatterned Pt spin injection layer. We demonstrate that both the spectral characteristics and the electrical current requirements can be simultaneously improved by reducing the spin injection area. Moreover, devices with nanopatterned Pt spin injector exhibit microwave generation over a wide temperature range that extends to room temperature. Studies of devices with additional Pt spacers under the device electrodes show that the oscillation characteristics are affected not only by the spin injection geometry but also by the effects of Pt/ferromagnet interface on the dynamical properties of the ferromagnet.

  12. "High-Power Hall Devices: Status and Current Challenges"

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Semenkin, Alexander V; Kim, V; Manzella, D; Murashko, V; Tverdokhlebov, S

    2004-01-01

    ...) with using xenon as a propellant, 150 kW for bismuth thruster (TSNIIMASH, Russia). It is necessary to underline, that principal limits have not been identified for the further increasing of the thruster...

  13. Photoinduced inverse spin-Hall effect: Conversion of light-polarization information into electric voltage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ando, K.; Morikawa, M.; Trypiniotis, T.; Fujikawa, Y.; Barnes, C. H. W.; Saitoh, E.

    2010-02-01

    The photoinduced inverse spin-Hall effect was observed in a Pt/GaAs hybrid structure. In the GaAs layer, circularly polarized light generates spin-polarized carriers, inducing a pure spin current into the Pt layer through the interface. This pure spin current is, by the inverse spin-Hall effect in the Pt layer, converted into electric voltage. By changing the direction and ellipticity of the circularly polarized light, the electromotive force varies systematically, consistent with the prediction of the photoinduced inverse spin-Hall effect. The observed phenomenon allows the direct conversion of circular-polarization information into electric voltage; this phenomenon can be used as a spin photodetector.

  14. Modulation of Jupiter's plasma flow, polar currents, and auroral precipitation by solar wind-induced compressions and expansions of the magnetosphere: a simple theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a simple model of the plasma flow, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents, and auroral precipitation in Jupiter's magnetosphere, and examine how they respond to compressions and expansions of the system induced by changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. The main simplifying assumption is axi-symmetry, the system being modelled principally to reflect dayside conditions. The model thus describes three magnetospheric regions, namely the middle and outer magnetosphere on closed magnetic field lines bounded by the magnetopause, together with a region of open field lines mapping to the tail. The calculations assume that the system is initially in a state of steady diffusive outflow of iogenic plasma with a particular equatorial magnetopause radius, and that the magnetopause then moves rapidly in or out due to a change in the solar wind dynamic pressure. If the change is sufficiently rapid (~2–3 h or less the plasma angular momentum is conserved during the excursion, allowing the modified plasma angular velocity to be calculated from the radial displacement of the field lines, together with the modified magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents and auroral precipitation. The properties of these transient states are compared with those of the steady states to which they revert over intervals of ~1–2 days. Results are shown for rapid compressions of the system from an initially expanded state typical of a solar wind rarefaction region, illustrating the reduction in total precipitating electron power that occurs for modest compressions, followed by partial recovery in the emergent steady state. For major compressions, however, typical of the onset of a solar wind compression region, a brightened transient state occurs in which super-rotation is induced on closed field lines, resulting in a reversal in sense of the usual magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system. Current system reversal results in accelerated auroral electron

  15. Modulation of Jupiter's plasma flow, polar currents, and auroral precipitation by solar wind-induced compressions and expansions of the magnetosphere: a simple theoretical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. W. H. Cowley

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available We construct a simple model of the plasma flow, magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents, and auroral precipitation in Jupiter's magnetosphere, and examine how they respond to compressions and expansions of the system induced by changes in solar wind dynamic pressure. The main simplifying assumption is axi-symmetry, the system being modelled principally to reflect dayside conditions. The model thus describes three magnetospheric regions, namely the middle and outer magnetosphere on closed magnetic field lines bounded by the magnetopause, together with a region of open field lines mapping to the tail. The calculations assume that the system is initially in a state of steady diffusive outflow of iogenic plasma with a particular equatorial magnetopause radius, and that the magnetopause then moves rapidly in or out due to a change in the solar wind dynamic pressure. If the change is sufficiently rapid (~2–3 h or less the plasma angular momentum is conserved during the excursion, allowing the modified plasma angular velocity to be calculated from the radial displacement of the field lines, together with the modified magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling currents and auroral precipitation. The properties of these transient states are compared with those of the steady states to which they revert over intervals of ~1–2 days. Results are shown for rapid compressions of the system from an initially expanded state typical of a solar wind rarefaction region, illustrating the reduction in total precipitating electron power that occurs for modest compressions, followed by partial recovery in the emergent steady state. For major compressions, however, typical of the onset of a solar wind compression region, a brightened transient state occurs in which super-rotation is induced on closed field lines, resulting in a reversal in sense of the usual magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling current system. Current system reversal results in accelerated auroral

  16. Investigation of electrode erosion products of alternating current plasma torch operating on mixture of steam, carbon dioxide, methane and carbon tetrachloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchina, J. A.; Kuznetsov, V. E.; Subbotin, D. I.; Popov, V. E.; Serba, E. O.; Dudnik, J. D.; Litvyakova, A. I.; Cherepkova, I. A.; Surov, A. V.

    2017-11-01

    The most important unit of the plasma torch mainly subjected to the thermal load of the electric arc is electrode. Tungsten, hafnium, yttrium, aluminum, copper, iron and their alloys are used as electrode materials depending on the plasma-forming gas. Copper-based alloys can be rationally used for gases containing oxygen. The experiments were performed on the three-phase alternating current vortex plasma torch with power of 120 kW working on a mixture of steam, carbon dioxide, methane and carbon tetrachloride for the following flow rates 2.9 g/s, 2.9 g/s, 1.21 g/s and 2.44 g/s respectively. The material of erosion of copper rod electrodes was sampled from water-cooled walls of electric arc plasma torch channels made of stainless steel. The sample was divided into magnetized and non-magnetic parts. According to the energy-dispersive elemental analysis the products of electrode erosion contain oxides and chlorides of copper and iron, as well as metallic copper and iron.

  17. Acoustics in rock and pop music halls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adelman-Larsen, Niels Werner; Thompson, Eric Robert; Gade, Anders Christian

    2007-01-01

    The existing body of literature regarding the acoustic design of concert halls has focused almost exclusively on classical music, although there are many more performances of rhythmic music, including rock and pop. Objective measurements were made of the acoustics of twenty rock music venues...... in Denmark and a questionnaire was used in a subjective assessment of those venues with professional rock musicians and sound engineers. Correlations between the objective and subjective results lead, among others, to a recommendation for reverberation time as a function of hall volume. Since the bass...

  18. Prototype dining hall energy efficiency study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzucchi, R.P.; Bailey, S.A.; Zimmerman, P.W.

    1988-06-01

    The energy consumption of food service facilities is among the highest of any commercial building type, owing to the special requirements for food preparation, sanitation, and ventilation. Consequently, the US Air Force Engineering and Services Center (AFESC) contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to collect and analyze end-use energy consumption data for a prototypical dining hall and make specific recommendations on cost-effective energy conservation options. This information will be used to establish or update criteria for dining hall designs and retrofits as appropriate. 6 refs., 21 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. EL CROWN HALL. CONTEXTO Y PROYECTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Lizondo Sevilla

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN El artículo enmarca el edificio del Crown Hall en el contexto docente y arquitectónico de Mies van der Rohe. Revisa sus inicios en la Bauhaus con su primera intervención en un espacio docente para la Bauhaus de Berlín en 1932, así como su marcha a Estados Unidos, los planteamientos arquitectónicos del campus del IIT y el proyecto del Crown Hall. El texto incide en el estudio del proceso proyectual del Crown Hall analizando la evolución de su concepción arquitectónica a través de las diferentes versiones del proyecto. Se constata la transición desde los primeros planteamientos arquitectónicos de los edificios del campus del IIT proyectados por Mies hacia el planteamiento del gran espacio unitario del Crown Hall. Este proyecto se puede entender desde la creciente importancia de la estructura, la claridad constructiva y el manejo del acero y vidrio como únicos materiales de la imagen del edificio y el carácter flexible y unitario del espacio. Finalmente se hace referencia al concepto del "espacio universal" en la arquitectura de Mies, como un concepto abstracto que supera los de flexibilidad de uso o unidad espacial, insinuando, a modo de reflexión, las principales variables que definirían el espacio universal miesiano.SUMMARY The article showcases the Crown Hall building in the educational and architectural context of Mies van der Rohe. It reviews his beginnings in the Bauhaus with his first intervention in an educational space for the Bauhaus of Berlin in 1932, as well as his sojourn to the United States, and the architectural approaches to the IIT campus and the Crown Hall project. The text touches on the study of the planning process for the Crown Hall, analysing the evolution of its architectural conception, through the different versions of the project. The article covers the transition from the first architectural approaches for the IIT campus buildings, planned by Mies, to the approach of the large unitary space of

  20. Ionization of Xenon to the Nickel-Like Stage and Beyond in Micro-Capillary Plasma Columns Heated by Ultrafast Current Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avaria, G.; Grisham, M.; Li, J.; Tomasel, F. G.; Shlyapstsev, V. N.; Busquet, M.; Woolston, M.; Rocca, J. J.

    Homogeneous plasma columns with ionization levels typical of MA discharges were created by rapidly heating gas-filled 520 µm diameter channels with ns rise-time current pulses of unusually low amplitude, 40 kA. These conditions allow the generation of high aspect ratio (eg. > 300:1) plasma columns with very high degrees of ionization (e.g. Ni-like Xenon) of interest for soft x-ray lasers below λ = 10 nm. Spectra and simulations of plasmas generated in 520 µm diameter alumina capillaries driven by 35-40 kA current pulses with 4 ns rise time were obtained for discharges in Xenon and Neon discharges. The first shows the presence of lines corresponding to ionization stages up to Fe-like Xe. The latter show that Al impurities from the walls are ionized to the H-like and He-like stages. He-like Al spectra containing the resonance line significantly broaden by opacity, the intercombination line, and Li-like satellites are analyzed. For Xenon discharges, the spectral lines from the Ni-like transitions the 3d94d (3/2, 3/2)J = 0 to the 3d94p(5/2, 3/2)J = 1 and to 3d94p(3/2, 1/2)J = 1 are observed.