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Sample records for haliclona exigua kirkpatrick

  1. Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LimnaMol, V.P.; Raveendran, T.V.; Parameswaran, P.S.

    stream_size 29406 stream_content_type text/plain stream_name Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt stream_source_info Int_Biodeterior_Biodegrad_63_67.pdf.txt Content-Encoding UTF-8 Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8... 1    Author version: Int. Biodeterior. Biodegrad.: 63(1); 2009; 67-72 Antifouling activity exhibited by secondary metabolites of the marine sponge, Haliclona exigua (Kirkpatrick) VP LIMNA MOL a , TV RAVEENDRAN a, * & PS PARAMESWARAN b a...

  2. Antiamoebic activity of marine sponge Haliclona exigua (Krikpatrick

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Lakshmi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The methanol and methanol-chloroform (1:1 extracts of the freshly collected Haliclona exigua showed minumim inhibitory concentration (MIC of 125 ug/ml and 250 ug/ml respectively in in vitro studies, but when both of these were tested in vivo in rats, only methanol-chloroform showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at the dose of 900 mg/kg body weight against Entamoeba histolytica. Therefore only methanol-chloroform extract was further fractionated into four fractions (hexane, chloroform, n-butanol soluble and n-butanol insoluble fractions. Out of these, only hexane and n-butanol soluble fractions showed 80% inhibition of trophozoites at 900 mg/kg dose. Further the chromatography of the n-butanol fraction yielded araguspongin-C which showed promising results at different doses.

  3. Macrofauna Associated with the Sponge Neopetrosia exigua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in Marine Biology, Annamalai University, Parangipettai-608 502, Tamil Nadu, India. Keywords: Neopetrosia exigua, sponge, associated-fauna, species richness,. Mauritius, Indian Ocean. Abstract — The macrofaunal community associated with the sponge Neopetrosia exigua (Kirkpatrick, 1900) was studied across a ...

  4. Lipid contents of the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Das, B.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Several fatty acids, sterols, batyl alcohol and its analogs and an N-acylated sphingosine (ceramide) have been isolated from the lipid fraction of the extract of the sponge Haliclona sp. The major sterol is found to be cholesterol (54%), followed...

  5. Biological characterisation of Haliclona (?gellius) sp.: sponge and associated microorganisms.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sipkema, D.; Holmes, B.; Nichols, S.A.; Blanch, H.W.

    2009-01-01

    We have characterised the northern Pacific undescribed sponge Haliclona (?gellius) sp. based on rDNA of the sponge and its associated microorganisms. The sponge is closely related to Amphimedon queenslandica from the Great Barrier Reef as the near-complete 18S rDNA sequences of both sponges were

  6. The occurrence and pathogenicity of Phoma exigua Desm. var. exigua for selected species of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available P. exigua var. exigua was isolated from underground and aboveground organs of different herb plant species in the years 1998-2006. Pathogenicity tests of three randomly chosen isolates of the fungus T 299, T 261 and T 277 for thyme and of three isolates M 1657, M 1193 and M 1635 for lemon balm were carried out. The effect of water suspension of fungus spores on the germination ability of schizocarps and of infected soil on sprouting and seedling health was studied. The study of microscopic structures of the fungus developing on plants, isolation of the fungus on artificial media and macro- and microscopic analysis on standard media are essential for the correct identification of P. exigua var. exigua. The polyphagous nature of the fungus is confirmed by the obtained results. The tested isolates were found to be occasional pathogens of thyme and lemon balm in the studied conditions. The harmfulness of the tested isolates pointed to inhibition of schizocarp germination, sprouting of plants and the ability to cause necrosis of germs, roots and epicotyl.

  7. An Empirical Study of Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Model in the Hospitality Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ya-Hui Elegance

    2010-01-01

    This study examined Kirkpatrick's training evaluation model (Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick, 2006) by assessing a sales training program conducted at an organization in the hospitality industry. The study assessed the employees' training outcomes of knowledge and skills, job performance, and the impact of the training upon the organization. By…

  8. Interactions between Meteorus pulchricornis and Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui-Fang; Fang, Ji-Chao; Zhong, Wan-Fang; Liu, Bao-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Baculoviruses may interact with parasitoids in the same host. A previous study has shown that infection of larvae with Spodoptera litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltNPV) was deleterious to the survival and development of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). In this paper, the interactions between M. pulchricornis and Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) in Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a permissive host of the virus and parasitoid, were investigated. The results showed that the effect of M. pulchricornis on SeMNPV and the effect of the virus on the parasitoid both depended on the concentration of the virus and the interval between viral infection and parasitism. Whether S. exigua was treated with the parasitoid and virus simultaneously or 1 day apart, the biological activities of 10(5), 10(6), and 10(7) OBs/mL SeMNPV were all significantly improved by M. pulchricornis. In contrast, the biological activity of 10(3) OBs/mL SeMNPV was significantly decreased when the host was exposed to the virus and parasitoid simultaneously. Regarding the impact of SeMNPV on M. pulchricornis, exposing the host to the parasitoid and SeMNPV with concentrations lower than 10(6) occlusion bodies (OBs)/mL produced no negative effects on the parasitoid. The results also showed that ingestion of SeMNPV by adult stage M. pulchricornis significantly increased the number of parasitoid offspring that successfully emerged from the host. Furthermore, M. pulchricornis was found to transmit SeMNPV among populations of S. exigua. Taken together, these findings indicate that M. pulchricornis integrated with an appropriate concentration of SeMNPV has the potential to improve the efficacy of biological control against S. exigua.

  9. Vitellogenin and vitellogenin receptor gene expression profiles in Spodoptera exigua are related to host plant suitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Sun, Yang; Xiao, Liubin; Tan, Yongan; Jiang, Yiping; Bai, Lixin

    2018-04-01

    The beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a worldwide phytophagous pest, causes considerable economic agricultural losses. Understanding the relationship between its fecundity and the host plant is a basic and important component of early forecasting of beet armyworm outbreaks. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism by which distinct hosts affect S. exigua fecundity. In this study, key life-history parameters of S. exigua reared on distinct hosts were investigated; the host plants could be ranked as lettuce > shallot > tomato > celery in their order of suitability. Full-length S. exigua vitellogenin receptor (SeVgR) cDNA was cloned, and sex-, stage- and tissue-specific expression characteristics were assessed. Spodoptera exigua vitellogenin (SeVg) and SeVgR expression levels were markedly modulated by host nutrients (P lettuce, the most preferred and most nutritive host, than in those reared on tomato and celery. Interestingly, significant linear regression correlations were found between SeVg and SeVgR expression levels and key S. exigua life-history parameters, especially life span, pupa weight, and female fecundity (P < 0.01). Host plant type and suitability could affect the expression pattern of SeVg and SeVgR, which influenced S. exigua fecundity. Vg and VgR have the potential to be used as molecular markers of S. exigua fecundity and for forecasting outbreaks of S. exigua on different hosts. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Cyclic Bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums from the Sponge Haliclona sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongheon Shin

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Eight novel cyclic bis-1,3-dialkylpyridiniums, as well as two known compounds from the cyclostellettamine class, were isolated from the sponge Haliclona sp. from Korea. Structures of these novel compounds were determined using combined NMR and FAB-MS/MS analyses. Several of these compounds exhibited moderate cytotoxic and antibacterial activities against A549 cell-line and Gram-positive strains, respectively. The structure-activity relationships of cyclostellettamines are discussed based on their bioactivities.

  11. Cyclic 3-alkyl pyridinium alkaloid monomers from a New Zealand Haliclona sp. marine sponge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damodaran, Vidhiya; Ryan, Jason L; Keyzers, Robert A

    2013-10-25

    Bioassay and NMR approaches have been used to guide the isolation of one known and two new cyclic 3-alkyl pyridinium alkaloid (3-APA) monomers from the New Zealand marine sponge Haliclona sp. The new compounds, dehydrohaliclocyclins C (3) and F (4), are the first reported examples of cyclic 3-APA monomers with unsaturation in the alkyl chain. The known compound haliclocyclin C (2) was also isolated from a mixture with 4. The structures of compounds 2-4 were elucidated using NMR spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and chemical degradation.

  12. A Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for the National Ignition Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; McCarville, T.; Decker, T.; Pardini, T.; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Bradley, D.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Izumi, N.; Mirkarimi, P.; Pivovaroff, M.; Smalyuk, V.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    Current pinhole x ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is limited in resolution and signal throughput to the detector for Inertial Confinement Fusion applications, due to the viable range of pinhole sizes (10–25 μm) that can be deployed. A higher resolution and throughput diagnostic is in development using a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope system (KBM). The system will achieve <9 μm resolution over a 300 μm field of view with a multilayer coating operating at 10.2 keV. Presented here are the first images from the uncoated NIF KBM configuration demonstrating high resolution has been achieved across the full 300 μm field of view.

  13. Optical design of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope for ICF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Huang Shengling; Wang Zhanshan

    2008-01-01

    A new flux-resolution optical design method of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KB microscope) is proposed. In X-ray imaging diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion(ICF), spatial resolution and flux are always the key parameters. While the traditional optical design of KB microscope is to correct on-axis spherical aberration and astigmatic aberration, flux-resolution method is based on lateral aberration of full field and astigmatic aberration. Thus the spatial resolution related to field dimension and light flux can be estimated. By the expressions of spatial resolution and actual limits in ICF, rules of how to set original structure and optical design flow are summarized. An instance is presented and it shows that the design has met the original targets and overcome the shortcomings of image characterization in compressed core by traditional spherical aberration correction. (authors)

  14. The National Ignition Facility modular Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pickworth, L. A., E-mail: pickworth1@llnl.gov; Ayers, J.; Bell, P.; Brejnholt, N. F.; Buscho, J. G.; Bradley, D.; Decker, T.; Hau-Riege, S.; McCarville, T.; Pardini, T.; Vogel, J.; Walton, C. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kilkenny, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Current two-dimensional X-ray imaging at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) uses time resolved pinhole cameras with ∼10-25 μm pinholes. This method has limitations in the smallest resolvable features that can be imaged with reasonable photon statistics for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) applications. ICF sources have a broadband self-emission spectrum that causes the pinhole images obtained, through thin foil filters, to contain a similarly broadband spectrum complicating the interpretation of structure in the source. In order to study phenomena on the scale of ∼5 μm, such as dopant mix in the ICF capsule, a narrow energy band, higher spatial resolution microscope system with improved signal/noise has been developed using X-ray optics. Utilizing grazing incidence mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope (KBM) configuration [P. Kirkpatrick and A. V. Baez, J. Opt. Soc. Am. 38, 766–774 (1948)], an X-ray microscope has been designed and fielded on NIF with four imaging channels. The KBM has ∼12 × magnification, <8 μm resolution, and higher throughput in comparison to similar pinhole systems. The first KBM mirrors are coated with a multilayer mirror to allow a “narrow band” energy response at 10.2 keV with ΔE ∼ 3 keV. By adjusting the mirror coating only, the energy response can be matched to the future experimental requirements. Several mirror packs have been commissioned and are interchangeable in the diagnostic snout.

  15. EVALUASI 4 TAHAP DARI KIRKPATRICK SEBAGAI ALAT DALAM EVALUASI PASCA PELATIHAN

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    Evie Sopacua

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes the theory of Kirkpatrick on 4 level evaluation as a tool to measure a post training evaluation. The implementation on a post evaluation of research methodology training was conducted to 13 study program lectors of health polythecnics in Surabaya. Development instruments to measure each level evaluation according to the Kirkpatrick guidance was done. The validity and reliability test for development instruments showed significant at a = 0. 05. The kirkpatrick 4-level evaluation can be used as a tool to measure objectives of a training program, especially for post training evaluation on participants and also the post training on participants in their daiiy works. The development instruments to measure each of the level could not be separated from goals to be achieved of the training that has been planned in a comprehensive training program. Key words: Kirkpatrick 4 levels evaluation, post training, evaluation

  16. Studies on the Red Sea Sponge Haliclona sp. for its Chemical and Cytotoxic Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Massarani, Shaza Mohamed; El-Gamal, Ali Ali; Al-Said, Mansour Sulaiman; Abdel-Kader, Maged S; Ashour, Abdelkader E; Kumar, Ashok; Abdel-Mageed, Wael M; Al-Rehaily, Adnan Jathlan; Ghabbour, Hazem A; Fun, Hoong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    A great number of novel compounds with rich chemical diversity and significant bioactivity have been reported from Red Sea sponges. To isolate, identify, and evaluate the cytotoxic activity of the chemical constituents of a sponge belonging to genus Haliclona collected from the Eastern coast of the Red Sea. The total ethanolic extract of the titled sponge was subjected to intensive chromatographic fractionation and purification guided by cytotoxic bioassay toward various cancer cell lines. The structures of the isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic techniques including one-dimension and two-dimension nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, ultraviolet, and infrared data, as well as comparison with the reported spectral data for the known compounds. X-ray single-crystal structure determination was performed to determine the absolute configuration of compound 4. The screening of antiproliferative activity of the compounds was carried on three tumor cell lines, namely the human cervical cancer (HeLa), human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), and human medulloblastoma (Daoy) cells using MTT assay. This investigation resulted in the isolation of a new indole alkaloid, 1-(1H-indol-3-yloxy) propan-2-ol (1), with the previously synthesized pyrrolidine alkaloid, (2R, 3S, 4R, 5R) pyrrolidine-(1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-diol hydrochloride (4), isolated here from a natural source for the first time. In addition, six known compounds tetillapyrone (2), nortetillapyrone (3), 2-methyl maleimide-5-oxime (5), maleimide-5-oxime (6), 5-(hydroxymethyl) dihydrofuran-2 (3H)-one (7), and ergosta-5,24 (28)-dien-3-ol (8) were also identified. Most of the isolated compounds exhibited weak cytotoxic activity against HepG-2, Daoy, and HeLa cancer cell lines. This is the first report of the occurrence of the indole and pyrrolidine alkaloids, 1-(1H-indol-2-yloxy) propan-2-ol (1), and the - (1-hydroxyethyl)-3,4-diol hydrochloride (4), in the Red Sea Haliclona sp. From the Red Sea

  17. Relationship between abundance and morphology of benthic foraminifera Epistominella exigua: Palaeoclimatic implications

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Deopujari, A.; Nigam, R.; Henriques, P.J.

    The relationship between abundance (relative as well as absolute abundance) and morphology (size of the shell, numbers and proloculus size) of benthic foraminifera Epistominella exigua has been studied in a core to understand the influence...

  18. Keefektifan Bahan Pelindung Alami Dalam Mempertahankan Infektivitas Spodoptera Exigua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Senpv)' [the Effectiveness of Natural Protectant to Maintain the Spodoptera Exigua Nucleopolyhedrovirus (Senpv) Infectivity

    OpenAIRE

    Samsudin, Samsudin; Santoso, Teguh; Rauf, Aunu; Kusumah, Yayi Munara

    2011-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeNPV) is a viral pathogen of onion caterpillar S. exigua with high pathogenicity. One of the major constraints to the use of SeNPV for biocontrol of onion caterpillar is its sensitivity to ultraviolet (UV) degradation. The purposes of this research were to determine the effect of sunlight exposure on the virulence of SeNPV and to find out the effective natural UV protectant to maintain the SeNPV virulence. The results showed that the sunlight radiation...

  19. Effect of plant and fungous metabolites on Meloidogyne exigua Efeito de metabólitos vegetais e fúngicos sobre Meloidogyne exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Rufino Amaral

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available As nematodes cause great damage to Brazilian coffee production, effective methods to control these parasites are necessary. In a previous work Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. and Coffea arabica L. produced active substances against Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, a nematode widely disseminated through Brazilian coffee fields. Thus, aqueous extracts of such plants, collected in a different season from that of the previous work, as well as crude metabolites produced in liquid medium by Fusarium moniliforme Shelden and Cylindrocarpon magnusianum (Sacc. Woll., were submitted to in vitro assays with M. exigua second-stage juveniles (J2. All plants and fungi produced active substances against J2. Therefore, their metabolites were applied to six-month-old coffee plants inoculated with M. exigua. After 90 days in a greenhouse, those samples obtained from A. cepa, L. leucocephala, R. graveolens and F. moniliforme inhibited the production of galls and eggs by M. exigua, demonstrating potential to control such parasite.Os nematóides acarretam grandes perdas aos produtores brasileiros de café, sendo necessário o desenvolvimento de métodos eficientes para o seu controle. Em trabalho anterior, Allium cepa L., Cajanus cajan (L. Mill., Crotalaria juncea L., Ficus elastica Roxb., Ruta graveolens L., Stylosanthes guianensis Aubl., Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Dewit., Brachiaria decumbens Stapf., Catharanthus roseus G. Don, Tagetes minuta L., Ricinus communis L. e Coffea arabica L. produziram substâncias ativas contra o nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, que é amplamente disseminado pelos cafezais brasileiros. Dando continuidade a esse trabalho, extratos aquosos das plantas mencionadas, coletadas em época diferente daquela

  20. 40 CFR 180.1118 - Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis... Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) PESTICIDE PROGRAMS TOLERANCES AND EXEMPTIONS FOR... tolerance is established for the microbial pest control agent Spodoptera exigua nuclear polyhedrosis virus...

  1. Spodoptera exigua nucleopolyhedrovirus is not infectious for Agrotis segetum larvae per os, but only after intrahemocoelic injection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Ince, I.A.; Herrero, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and Agrotis segetum NPV are close relatives, but distinct baculovirus species. Their genomic organization is remarkably similar. The cross infectivity of these two viruses for S. exigua and A. segetum larvae has been analyzed. AgseNPV was able

  2. Modeling climate change impacts on overwintering of Spodoptera exigua Hübner in regions of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xia-Lin Zheng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Inferential models are usually used to evaluate the effect of winter warming on range expansion of insects. Generally, correlative approaches used to predict changes in the distributions of organisms are based on the assumption that climatic boundaries are fixed. Spodoptera exigua Htibner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae overwinters as larvae or pupae in China regions. To understand the climate change impacts on overwintering of this species in regions of China, CLIMEX and Arc-GIS models were used to predict possible changes of distribution based on temperature. The climate change projection clearly indicated that the northern boundary of overwintering for S. exigua will shift northward from current distribution. Thus, the ongoing winter warming is likely to increase the frequency of S. exigua outbreaks.

  3. Temperature-dependent development and reproduction of rice leaffolder, Marasmia exigua (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Ju Liao

    Full Text Available Marasmia exigua (Butler (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae is one of the major rice leaffolders negatively affecting the rice production in the world. The growth and development of M. exigua was studied at seven constant temperatures (10, 15, 20, 25, 27, 30 and 35°C. The results showed that M. exigua eggs failed to hatch at 10°C and the larvae could not complete development at 15 and 35°C. The developmental times of each stage, survival rates of pre-adult, adult longevity, fecundities and oviposition days of M. exigua at 20, 25, 27 and 30°C were investigated using age-stage, two-sex life table. The total pre-adult development time decreased with the increase in temperature decreasing from 61.58 days at 20°C to 28.94 days at 30°C. The highest survival rate was observed at 25°C (73%. Male adult longevities were generally longer than that of females, except at 30°C. The highest mean fecundity, age-stage specific fecundity and age-specific fecundity peak values were all observed at 27°C. The maximum intrinsic rate of increase r and finite rate of increase λ were observed at 27°C, while the maximum net reproduction rate R0 was observed at 25°C. The longest mean generation time occurred at 20°C and the shortest at 27°C. These results provide better understanding on the development, reproduction and dynamic of M. exigua populations, their distribution, and might be utilized to forecast and manage M. exigua outbreaks in China.

  4. Preliminary results of a feasibility study for a hard x-ray Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joensen, Karsten D.; Gorenstein, Paul; Wood, James L.

    1994-01-01

    the preliminary results of a feasibility study of a multifocus Kirkpatrick-Baez telescope. We conclude that high quality multilayers can be performed on relevant thin large flat substrate with adequate uniformity, and that existing deposition chambers can produce the multilayers at a rate of 0.42 m2 per day, so...

  5. On the locally stable states of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parga, N.; Parisi, G.

    1985-07-01

    By using a steepest descent algorithm we calculate the attraction basin of locally stable states of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of spin glasses. Looking for correlations among these states we show the existence of clusters of spins and construct a cluster Hamiltonian. (author)

  6. Going beyond Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model: The Role of Workplace Factors in Distance Learning Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluko, F. R.; Shonubi, O. K.

    2014-01-01

    This article emanates from a longitudinal study of the impact of a distance education programme for teacher training on graduates' job performance, in which the authors built on the findings of a previous pilot study. After using Kirkpatrick's Training Evaluation Model in a previous study, one of the authors found there to be a strong relationship…

  7. Identification and recombinant expression of a novel chymotrypsin from Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Combes, E.; Oers, van M.M.; Vlak, J.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Beekwilder, M.J.

    2005-01-01

    A novel chymotrypsin which is expressed in the midgut of the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera exigua is described. This enzyme, referred to as SeCT34, represents a novel class of chymotrypsins. Its amino-acid sequence shares common features of gut chymotrpysins, but can be clearly distinguished from

  8. Effects of silicon on the penetration and reproduction events of Meloidogyne exigua on coffee roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Vieira Silva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Considering that the root-knot nematode Meloidogyne exigua has caused great yield losses to coffee production in Brazil, this study aimed to determine whether the penetration and the reproduction events of this nematode on the roots of plants from two coffee cultivars with different levels of basal resistance to this nematode could be affected by silicon (Si. Coffee plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, which are susceptible and resistant, respectively, to M. exigua, were grown in pots containing Si-deficient soil that was amended with either calcium silicate (+Si or calcium carbonate (–Si. The Si concentration on the root tissue significantly increased by 159 and 97% for the +Si plants from the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59, respectively, compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. The population of M. exigua, the number of galls and the number of eggs were significantly reduced on the roots of the +Si plants of the cultivars Catuaí and IAPAR 59 compared to the –Si plants of these cultivars. It was concluded that the development and reproduction events of M. exigua were negatively impacted on the roots of coffee plants supplied with Si.

  9. Screening for resistance to the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) in Allium cepa and its wild relatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.; Henken, B.; Sofiari, E.; Wietsma, W.A.; Jacobsen, E.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2000-01-01

    The beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) is the most important pest in tropical Allium cultivations. All shallot ( Allium cepa L. group Aggregatum) cultivars are susceptible to this pest. Therefore accessions from three wild Allium species, namely A. galanthum Kar. et Kir., A. fistulosum L. and

  10. First European record of Haliclona loosanoffi Hartman, 1958 (Porifera, Haplosclerida), a species hitherto known only from the New England coast (U.S.A.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soest, van R.W.M.

    1976-01-01

    An encrusting gemmuliferous haliclonid species is described from the Oosterschelde (S.W.- part of the Netherlands), which is demonstrated to be conspecific with Haliclona loosanoffi Hartman, 1958. This species was hitherto only known from the New England coast (U.S.A.). The species is compared with

  11. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Ren-Mao; Lee, On On; Wang, Yong; Cai, Lin; Bougouffa, Salim; Chiu, Jill Man Ying; Wu, Rudolf Shiu Sun; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2014-01-01

    . In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2',4,4'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our

  12. Kirkpatrick evaluation model for in-service training on cardiopulmonary resuscitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safoura Dorri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several evaluation models that can be used to evaluate the effect of in-service training; one of them is the Kirkpatrick model. The aim of the present study is to assess the in-service training of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR for nurses based on the Kirkpatrick′s model. Materials and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional study based on the Kirkpatrick′s model in which the efficacy of in-service training of CPR to nurses was assessed in the Shahadaye Lenjan Hospital in Isfahan province in 2014. 80 nurses and Nurse′s aides participated in the study after providing informed consent. The in-service training course was evaluated in reaction, learning, behavior, and results level of the Kirkpatrick model. Data were collected through a researcher-made questionnaire. Results: The mean age of the participants was 35 ± 8.5 years. The effectiveness score obtained in the reaction level (first level in the Kirkpatrick model was 4.2 ± 0.32. The effectiveness score in the second level of model or the learning level was 4.70 ± 0.09, which is statistically significant (P < 0.001. The effectiveness score at the third and fourth level were 4.1 ± 0.34 and 4.3 ± 0.12, respectively. Total effectiveness score was 4.35. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that CPR in-service training has a favorable effect on all four levels of the Kirkpatrick model for nurses and nurse′s aides.

  13. Development of a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a large visual field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Ikeda, N.; Kato, Y.

    1995-01-01

    The authors have developed an advanced Kirkpatrick-Baez (AKB) microscope to diagnose a laser-produced-plasma. The AKB microscope optics are two pairs of hyperbolical and elliptical cylindrical-mirrors to avoid a spherical aberration and field obliquity. Ray trace calculation was applied to optimize the characterization. The microscope has attained a spatial resolution of less than 3 mm at 2.5-keV x-ray in the field of 800 mm from experiments

  14. Variable magnification with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics for synchrotron x-ray microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jach, T.; Bakulin, A. S.; Durbin, S. M.; Pedulla, J.; Macrander, A.

    2006-01-01

    We describe the distinction between the operation of a short focal length x-ray microscope forming a real image with a laboratory source (convergent illumination) and with a highly collimated intense beam from a synchrotron light source (Kohler illumination). We demonstrate the distinction with a Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope consisting of short focal length multilayer mirrors operating at an energy of 8 keV. In add...

  15. A case of bacteremia caused by Dialister pneumosintes and Slackia exigua in a patient with periapical abscess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Min Young; Kim, Young Jin; Gu, Hyun Jung; Lee, Hee Joo

    2016-04-01

    Dialister pneumosintes and Slackia exigua are both obligatory anaerobe and known to be associated with periodontal diseases and other oral infection. We report a case of blood stream infection caused by D. pneumosintes and S. exigua. This occurred in a 78-year-old female patient that presented with general weakness and fever. We revealed that she had a periapical abscess. The blood culture was positive for D. pneumosintes and S. exigua; however, identifying them was challenging. Ultimately, 16S rRNA sequencing was used to identify the organisms. The patient recovered after being treated with ceftriaxone and clindamycin. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of bacteremia caused by mixed infection of D. pneumosintes and S. exigua. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cross-resistance and Inheritance of Resistance to Emamectin Benzoate in Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Wunan; Huang, Jianlei; Guan, Fang; Wu, Yidong; Yang, Yihua

    2015-08-01

    Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a worldwide pest of many crops. Chemical insecticides are heavily used for its control in China, and serious resistance has been evolved in the field to a variety of insecticides including emamectin benzoate. Through repeated backcrossing to a susceptible strain (WH-S) and selection with emamectin benzoate, the trait conferring resistance to emamectin benzoate in a field-collected population of S. exigua (moderately resistant to emamectin benzoate and strongly resistant to pyrethroids and indoxacarb) was introgressed into WH-S to generate a near-isogenic resistant strain (WH-EB). Compared with WH-S, the WH-EB strain developed a 1,110-fold resistance to emamectin benzoate and a high level of cross-resistance to abamectin (202-fold), with low levels of cross-resistance to cypermethrin (10-fold) and chlorfluazuron (7-fold), but no cross-resistance to representatives of another six different classes of insecticides (chlorantraniliprole, chlorfenapyr, indoxacarb, spinosad, tebufenozide, and chlorpyrifos). Resistance to emamectin benzoate in WH-EB was autosomal, incompletely dominant, and polygenic. Limited cross-resistance in WH-EB indicates that emamectin benzoate can be rotated with other classes of insecticides to which it does not show cross-resistance to delay the evolution of resistance in S. exigua. The incompletely dominant nature of resistance in S. exigua may explain the rapid evolution of resistance to emamectin benzoate in the field, and careful deployment of this chemical within a resistance management program should be considered. © The Authors 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Resistensi populasai hama bawang merah Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae terhadap klorfluazuron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Negara

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Resistance of Onion Pest Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae Populations to Chlorfluazuron. The research was conducted from August 2001 until April 2002 in the Kalitiro Agriculture Training and Development Research Station, Gadjah Mada University. The objective of research was to determine the resistance level of Spodoptera exigua populations collected from the district of Sanden, Kretek, Wates, Temon, Panjatan, Wonosari, Panggang and Playen (all are in Yogyakarta Province to chlorfluazuron insecticide. Research was conducted by dipping artificial diet about 30 seconds in insecticide solution and there are used test two hours after they were air dried. Based on the preliminary test, different concentrations were tested to determine the toxicity of the insecticide to each population. Third instar larvae (five days old of the first generation were used in bioassays. Each larvae with its artificial diet was placed in a plastic cup (diameter 3,5 cm. Larval mortality was recorded at 72 hours after exposure. Data was analyzed using probit analysis to determine LC50 values. The result showed that the LC50 values of chlorfluazuron againsts eight population of S. exigua at 72 hours after exposure varied from 16,10 ppm (Panggang to 84,76 ppm (Panjatan. The results suggested that all populations from Panggang, Playen, Kretek, Sanden, Wates, Wonosari and Temon were still susceptible to chlorfluazuron. Population from Panjatan indicated to be resistant to chlorfluazuron.

  18. Susceptibility of Spodoptera frugiperda and S. exigua to Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa insecticidal protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakroun, Maissa; Bel, Yolanda; Caccia, Silvia; Abdelkefi-Mesrati, Lobna; Escriche, Baltasar; Ferré, Juan

    2012-07-01

    The Vip3Aa protein is an insecticidal protein secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative stage of growth. The activity of this protein has been tested after different steps/protocols of purification using Spodoptera frugiperda as a control insect. The results showed that the Vip3Aa protoxin was stable and retained full toxicity after being subjected to common biochemical steps used in protein purification. Bioassays with the protoxin in S. frugiperda and S. exigua showed pronounced differences in LC(50) values when mortality was measured at 7 vs. 10d. At 7d most live larvae were arrested in their development. LC(50) values of "functional mortality" (dead larvae plus larvae remaining in the first instar), measured at 7d, were similar or even lower than the LC(50) values of mortality at 10d. This strong growth inhibition was not observed when testing the trypsin-activated protein (62 kDa) in either species. S. exigua was less susceptible than S. frugiperda to the protoxin form, with LC(50) values around 10-fold higher. However, both species were equally susceptible to the trypsin-activated form. Processing of Vip3Aa protoxin to the activated form was faster with S. frugiperda midgut juice than with S. exigua midgut juice. The results strongly suggest that the differences in the rate of activation of the Vip3Aa protoxin between both species are the basis for the differences in susceptibility towards the protoxin form. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. SUSPENSION-FEEDING IN MARINE SPONGES HALICHONDRIA-PANICEA AND HALICLONA-URCEOLUS - EFFECTS OF TEMPERATURE ON FILTRATION-RATE AND ENERGY-COST OF PUMPING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riisgård, H.U.; Thomassen, S.; Jakobsen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Filtration rate (measured as clearance of algal cells) was measured at different temperatures in the sponge Halichondria panicea. An increase in water temperature from 6 to 12-degrees-C caused the mean filtration rate to increase 4.3 +/- 2.3 times. This value was higher than previously found...... for other marine ciliary suspension-feeding animals. Filtration rate at 12-degrees-C was also measured in Haliclona urceolus by means of an indirect clearance method in addition to a direct technique for measuring pumping rate. It was found that the 2 sponge species had near-identical filtration rates......, with maximum rates of approximately 60 ml min-1 (g dry weight)-1 at 12-degrees-C. The normal pump pressure, or operating point O(p), of a standard sponge (based on our own measurements and calculations from literature data for a 0.1 g dry weight Haliclona sp.) was estimated as the sum of main contributions...

  20. Effectiveness of thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin and vinclozolin on canker caused by Phoma exigua Desm. on ash tree seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuvelier M.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years several cases of cankers caused by Phoma exigua on ash tree seedlings have been reported in Belgian nurseries, leading to a total loss of the affected crops. Similar symptoms have been observed on ash tree seedlings elsewhere in Europe, notably in France and in Great Britain, but the pathogenicity was never established. Inoculation and re-isolation tests were therefore undertaken and demonstrated the phytopathogenic character of P. exigua on ash. Moreover the effectiveness of three fungicides (thiophanate-methyl, trifloxystrobin, vinclozolin against stem canker of ash tree seedlings was studied. In vitro tests were conducted to evaluate the ability of these fungicides to inhibit mycelium growth and spore germination. The extent to which they reduced the symptoms was estimated in a field trial. The results of this study allowed to get by the Belgian proper authorities the use extension of thiophanate-methyl for the control of canker caused by P. exigua in forest nurseries.

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moar William J

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of four APN cDNAs from Spodoptera exigua. Results Suppression Subtractive Hybridization (SSH was used to construct cDNA libraries of genes that are up-and down-regulated in the midgut of last instar larvae of beet armyworm, S. exigua exposed to B. thuringiensis Cry1Ca toxin. Among the clones from the SSH libraries, cDNA fragments coding for two different APNs were obtained (APN2 and APN4. A similar procedure was employed to compare mRNA differences between susceptible and Cry1Ca resistant S. exigua. Among the clones from this last comparison, cDNA fragments belonging to a third APN (APN1 were detected. Using sequences obtained from the three APN cDNA fragments and degenerate primers for a fourth APN (APN3, the full length sequences of four S. exigua APN cDNAs were obtained. Northern blot analysis of expression of the four APNs showed complete absence of APN1 expression in the resistant insects, while the other three APNs showed similar expression levels in the resistant and susceptible insects. Conclusion We have cloned and characterized four different midgut APN cDNAs from S. exigua. Expression analysis revealed the lack of expression of one of these APNs in the larvae of a Cry1Ca-resistant colony. Combined with previous evidence that shows the importance of APN in the mode of action of B. thuringiensis toxins, these results suggest that the lack of APN1 expression plays a role in the resistance to Cry1Ca in this S. exigua colony.

  2. Levantamento de Meloidogyne exigua na cultura da seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernardo Eduardo Roberto de Almeida

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de efetuar um levantamento da ocorrência de Meloidogyne exigua em seringueira em São José do Rio Claro, MT. Foram amostradas 191 propriedades agrícolas, totalizando cerca de 18.000ha. Os nematóides foram identificados no Laboratório de Nematologia do Departamento de Fitossanidade da FCAV/UNESP, em Jaboticabal, SP. Foram encontrados níveis populacionais de M. exigua entre 0 e 61.824 juvenis/5g de raízes.

  3. MEN ARE INNOCENT UNTIL PROVEN GUILTY - A COMMENT ON THE EXAMINATION OF SEX-DIFFERENCES BY PIERCE AND KIRKPATRICK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PICKERSGILL, MJ; ARRINDELL, WA

    1992-01-01

    Pierce and Kirkpatrick (1992, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 415-418) addressed the finding that men reported lower levels of fear than women in response to specific fear items and concluded on the basis of their experiment that this was because the men were lying. Their conclusion is

  4. Effect of Copper Treatment on the Composition and Function of the Bacterial Community in the Sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, R.-M.

    2014-11-04

    Marine sponges are the most primitive metazoan and host symbiotic microorganisms. They are crucial components of the marine ecological system and play an essential role in pelagic processes. Copper pollution is currently a widespread problem and poses a threat to marine organisms. Here, we examined the effects of copper treatment on the composition of the sponge-associated bacterial community and the genetic features that facilitate the survival of enriched bacteria under copper stress. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis harbored symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing Ectothiorhodospiraceae and photosynthetic Cyanobacteria as dominant species. However, these autotrophic bacteria decreased substantially after treatment with a high copper concentration, which enriched for a heterotrophic-bacterium-dominated community. Metagenomic comparison revealed a varied profile of functional genes and enriched functions, including bacterial motility and chemotaxis, extracellular polysaccharide and capsule synthesis, virulence-associated genes, and genes involved in cell signaling and regulation, suggesting short-period mechanisms of the enriched bacterial community for surviving copper stress in the microenvironment of the sponge. Microscopic observation and comparison revealed dynamic bacterial aggregation within the matrix and lysis of sponge cells. The bacteriophage community was also enriched, and the complete genome of a dominant phage was determined, implying that a lytic phage cycle was stimulated by the high copper concentration. This study demonstrated a copper-induced shift in the composition of functional genes of the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of copper treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge. IMPORTANCE This study determined the bacterial community structure of the common sponge Haliclona cymaeformis and examined the effect of copper

  5. Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) and Lobster Eye (LE) Optics for Astronomical and Laboratory Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hudec, R.; Hudec, R.

    2010-01-01

    Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy and in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there were proposed also other designs and configurations, which are considered for future applications for both in laboratory and (finitely) in space. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye (LE) optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. The KB systems have already found wide usage in laboratory and synchrotron, both application are reviewed and discussed in detail in this paper. While this paper focuses on future possible applications of non-Wolter grazing incidence systems in space and astronomy, we also discuss in detail applications in other areas of science, where (in contrary to astronomy) some of these systems have demonstrated their advantages

  6. Design a Learning-Oriented Fall Event Reporting System Based on Kirkpatrick Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Sicheng; Kang, Hong; Gong, Yang

    2017-01-01

    Patient fall has been a severe problem in healthcare facilities around the world due to its prevalence and cost. Routine fall prevention training programs are not as effective as expected. Using event reporting systems is the trend for reducing patient safety events such as falls, although some limitations of the systems exist at current stage. We summarized these limitations through literature review, and developed an improved web-based fall event reporting system. The Kirkpatrick model, widely used in the business area for training program evaluation, has been integrated during the design of our system. Different from traditional event reporting systems that only collect and store the reports, our system automatically annotates and analyzes the reported events, and provides users with timely knowledge support specific to the reported event. The paper illustrates the design of our system and how its features are intended to reduce patient falls by learning from previous errors.

  7. Aiming of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope based on auxiliary optical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shengling; Mu Baozhong; Yi Shengzhen; Wang Xin; Wang Zhanshan; Ding Yongkun; Miao Wenyong; Dong Jianjun

    2009-01-01

    An auxiliary optical system has been designed, which can provide precise positioning for aiming Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscope object location. An 8 keV X-ray imaging system by KB microscope with periodic multilayer films has been designed. The field of view and depth of field in the resolution of 5 μm are got, and then the corresponding point and depth of field in diagnostic experiments are calculated. Based on the object-image relations and precision of the KB microscope, an auxiliary visible light imaging system is designed and X-ray imaging experiments are performed, which can achieve equivalent aiming between the visible imaging system and the KB microscope. The results show that ±20 μm vertical axis plane and ±300 μm axial accuracy are achieved through the auxiliary optical path, which can meet the object point positioning requirements of the KB microscope. (authors)

  8. Research methodology workshops evaluation using the Kirkpatrick's model: translating theory into practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulghani, Hamza Mohammad; Shaik, Shaffi Ahamed; Khamis, Nehal; Al-Drees, Abdulmajeed Abdulrahman; Irshad, Mohammad; Khalil, Mahmoud Salah; Alhaqwi, Ali Ibrahim; Isnani, Arthur

    2014-04-01

    Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of academic programs can enhance the development, effectiveness, and dissemination of comparative quality reports as well as quality improvement efforts. To evaluate the five research methodology workshops through assessing participants' satisfaction, knowledge and skills gain and impact on practices by the Kirkpatrick's evaluation model. The four level Kirkpatrick's model was applied for the evaluation. Training feedback questionnaires, pre and post tests, learner development plan reports and behavioral surveys were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the workshop programs. Of the 116 participants, 28 (24.1%) liked with appreciation, 62 (53.4%) liked with suggestions and 26 (22.4%) disliked the programs. Pre and post MCQs tests mean scores showed significant improvement of relevant basic knowledge and cognitive skills by 17.67% (p ≤ 0.005). Pre-and-post tests scores on workshops sub-topics also significantly improved for the manuscripts (p ≤ 0.031) and proposal writing (p ≤ 0.834). As for the impact, 56.9% of participants started research, and 6.9% published their studies. The results from participants' performance revealed an overall positive feedback and 79% of participant reported transfer of training skills at their workplace. The course outcomes achievement and suggestions given for improvements offer insight into the program which were encouraging and very useful. Encouraging "research culture" and work-based learning are probably the most powerful determinants for research promotion. These findings therefore encourage faculty development unit to continue its training and development in the research methodology aspects.

  9. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-01-01

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter−1), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC50 between 6 × 10−5 mg a.i. liter−1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter−1). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults. PMID:27958333

  10. Toxicity of nine insecticides on four natural enemies of Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yongqiang; Li, Xiangying; Zhou, Chao; Liu, Feng; Mu, Wei

    2016-12-13

    Spodoptera exigua, which feeds on various crops worldwide, has natural enemies that are susceptible to the insecticides used against S. exigua. We investigate the toxicity and residue risk of 9 insecticides on the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus. S. manilae and T. remus adults were sensitive to all 9 insecticides (LC 50 less than 2.75 mg a.i. liter -1 ), while H. axyridis and C. sinica adults were less sensitive (LC 50 between 6 × 10 -5  mg a.i. liter -1 and 78.95 mg a.i. liter -1 ). Emamectin benzoate, spinosad, indoxacarb, alpha-cypermethrin, chlorfenapyr and chlorantraniliprole showed no toxicity on H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus pupae with the recommended field concentrations. The risk analysis indicated that chlorantraniliprole is harmless to larvae of four natural enemies and adult of H. axyridis, C. sinica and S. manilae. Emamectin benzoate and spinosad had higher safety to the development of H. axyridis, C. sinica, S. manilae and T. remus with the risk duration less than 4d. Indoxacarb, tebufenozide, chlorfenapyr, methomyl, alpha-cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos showed dangerously toxic and long risk duration on S. manilae and T. remus adults.

  11. Subtilomycin: A New Lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis Strain MMA7 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona simulans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Robert W.; Barret, Matthieu; Cotter, Paul D.; O’Connor, Paula M.; Chen, Rui; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; O’Gara, Fergal; Barbosa, Teresa M.

    2013-01-01

    Bacteriocins are attracting increased attention as an alternative to classic antibiotics in the fight against infectious disease and multidrug resistant pathogens. Bacillus subtilis strain MMA7 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans displays a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, as well as several pathogenic Candida species. This activity is in part associated with a newly identified lantibiotic, herein named as subtilomycin. The proposed biosynthetic cluster is composed of six genes, including protein-coding genes for LanB-like dehydratase and LanC-like cyclase modification enzymes, characteristic of the class I lantibiotics. The subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster in B. subtilis strain MMA7 is found in place of the sporulation killing factor (skf) operon, reported in many B. subtilis isolates and involved in a bacterial cannibalistic behaviour intended to delay sporulation. The presence of the subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster appears to be widespread amongst B. subtilis strains isolated from different shallow and deep water marine sponges. Subtilomycin possesses several desirable industrial and pharmaceutical physicochemical properties, including activity over a wide pH range, thermal resistance and water solubility. Additionally, the production of the lantibiotic subtilomycin could be a desirable property should B. subtilis strain MMA7 be employed as a probiotic in aquaculture applications. PMID:23736764

  12. Subtilomycin: A New Lantibiotic from Bacillus subtilis Strain MMA7 Isolated from the Marine Sponge Haliclona simulans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa M. Barbosa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Bacteriocins are attracting increased attention as an alternative to classic antibiotics in the fight against infectious disease and multidrug resistant pathogens. Bacillus subtilis strain MMA7 isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans displays a broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, which includes Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, as well as several pathogenic Candida species. This activity is in part associated with a newly identified lantibiotic, herein named as subtilomycin. The proposed biosynthetic cluster is composed of six genes, including protein-coding genes for LanB-like dehydratase and LanC-like cyclase modification enzymes, characteristic of the class I lantibiotics. The subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster in B. subtilis strain MMA7 is found in place of the sporulation killing factor (skf operon, reported in many B. subtilis isolates and involved in a bacterial cannibalistic behaviour intended to delay sporulation. The presence of the subtilomycin biosynthetic cluster appears to be widespread amongst B. subtilis strains isolated from different shallow and deep water marine sponges. Subtilomycin possesses several desirable industrial and pharmaceutical physicochemical properties, including activity over a wide pH range, thermal resistance and water solubility. Additionally, the production of the lantibiotic subtilomycin could be a desirable property should B. subtilis strain MMA7 be employed as a probiotic in aquaculture applications.

  13. Isolation and analysis of bacteria with antimicrobial activities from the marine sponge Haliclona simulans collected from Irish waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Jonathan; Baker, Paul; Piper, Clare; Cotter, Paul D; Walsh, Marcella; Mooij, Marlies J; Bourke, Marie B; Rea, Mary C; O'Connor, Paula M; Ross, R Paul; Hill, Colin; O'Gara, Fergal; Marchesi, Julian R; Dobson, Alan D W

    2009-01-01

    Samples of the marine sponge Haliclona simulans were collected from Irish coastal waters, and bacteria were isolated from these samples. Phylogenetic analyses of the cultured isolates showed that four different bacterial phyla were represented; Bacteriodetes, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes. The sponge bacterial isolates were assayed for the production of antimicrobial substances, and biological activities against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and fungi were demonstrated, with 50% of isolates showing antimicrobial activity against at least one of the test strains. Further testing showed that the antimicrobial activities extended to the important pathogens Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium difficile, multi-drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, and pathogenic yeast strains. The Actinomycetes were numerically the most abundant producers of antimicrobial activities, although activities were also noted from Bacilli and Pseudovibrio isolates. Surveys for the presence of potential antibiotic encoding polyketide synthase and nonribosomal peptide synthetase genes also revealed that genes for the biosynthesis of these secondary metabolites were present in most bacterial phyla but were particularly prevalent among the Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. This study demonstrates that the culturable fraction of bacteria from the sponge H. simulans is diverse and appears to possess much potential as a source for the discovery of new medically relevant biological active agents.

  14. Isolation of a Spodoptera exigua baculovirus recombinant with retained biological activity despite a 10.6 kb deletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dai, X.; Hajos, J.P.; Joosten, N.N.; Oers, van M.M.; IJkel, W.F.J.; Zuidema, D.; Yi, P.

    2000-01-01

    When Spodoptera exigua multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) is grown in insect cell culture, defective viruses are generated. These viruses lack about 25 kbp of sequence information and are no longer infectious for insects. This makes the engineering of SeMNPV for improved insecticidal activity

  15. The Mechanism by Which Dodecyl Dimethyl Benzyl Ammonium Chloride Increased the Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos to Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Cui

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner is one of the most destructive pests that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, S. exigua have developed resistance toward the majority of insecticides. Synergists may provide an important choice to deal with the resistance problems. Dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC is a cationic surfactant, which displayed enhancement effect when combined with chlorpyrifos against S. exigua, giving enhancement factors of 1.50 and 1.57 at the concentrations of 90 and 810 mg L−1. In order to clarify the possible mechanisms, we investigate the effects of DDBAC on detoxification enzymes. However, DDBAC showed no inhibition on these enzymes activities. Meanwhile, scanning electron microscope images indicated DDBAC did not affect the cuticle super micro structure of S. exigua. The alterations in cuticular penetration rate have also been observed; indeed, it has been suggested that synergism is obtained by an acceleration of insecticide penetration through the cuticle. The chlorpyrifos penetration increased sharply when combined with 90 and 810 mg L−1 DDBAC, with only 12.6 and 8.5% of the initial chlorpyrifos recovered by external rinsing after 8 h. In contrast, when there was no DDBAC, more than 23.3% of the initial dose was recovered after 8 h.

  16. Host-range expansion of Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus to Agrotis segetum larvae when the midgut is bypassed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Lynn, D.E.; Herrero, S.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2010-01-01

    Given the high similarity in genome content and organization between Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) and Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgseNPV), as well as the high percentages of similarity found between their 30 core genes, the specificity of these NPVs was

  17. Temperature dependent development parameters and population life table of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HonQing Dai

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner, is an important insect pest fed on many crops. Temperature and host plant dependent development, survival, and population parameters of S. exigua were studied in present article. The results showed that the generation duration of S. exigua at temperatures 20, 25, 27, 30, and 35 ℃ were 37.61, 30.78, 22.40, 18.57, and 13.74 days, respectively. S. exigua could not survive at 38 ℃. The generation duration of S. exigua, feeding on Lactuca sativa, Lactuca Sativa L., Raphanus sativus L., and Allium fistulosum at 27 ℃, were 18.86, 20.10, 22.67, and 22.50 days respectively. And the generation survivorship was 30.91, 29.00, 22.00, and 27.50% respectively, far less than observed 81.91% feeding on artificial diet. S. exigua feeding on L. sativa showed the highest net reproduction rate (216.29, intrinsic rate for increase (0.34, population trend index (76.59, finite rate for increase (1.33, and fecundity (606.5 eggs, while these values were the lowest when it fed on A. fistulosum. Relationship between development rate and temperature was fitted with three models, the linear model, Logistic model and Wang model, and Wang model produced the best fitting goodness. Wang model showed that for the egg, the 1st-5th instar larvae, pupa and adult of S. exigua, the upper limit temperatures for development are 45, 44.5, 44.4, 40.3, 43.6, 38.9, 38, and 38 ℃, resepctively; the lower limit temperatures for development are 7.5, 7.2, 13.4, 7.3, 6.6, 5.3, 5.6, and 5.6 ℃, respectively, and the optimum temperatures for development are 21.9, 28.9, 25.5, 24.5, 26, 31.6, 30.6, and 29.1 ℃, respectively. The upper limit, lower limit and optimum temperatures for development of the entire generation are 38, 5.7 and 30 ℃, resepctively.

  18. Proliferative Activity of Mammary Carcinoma Cells by AgNOR Count in C3H mice Receiving Ethanol Extract of Sponge Haliclona sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sijabat, Lanceria; Susilaningsih, Neni; Trianto, Agus; Murwani, Retno

    2018-02-01

    Quantification of argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region (AgNORs) was considered as one of markers of proliferative activity of cancer cells. Sponge Haliclona sp extract contains anticancer bioactive compounds and our previous study showed that the extract was able to improve histological grade of induced mammary adenocarcinoma in mice. The following research was conducted to study the extract administration on the proliferative activity of the carcinoma cells represented by AgNOR count in mice. This experimental study applied post test only control group design. Twenty C3H mice were divided into four groups namely C (control), H1, H2 and H3. Each group was given 0, 0.15, 1.5, and 15 mg Haliclona sp extract respectively. After three weeks of extract administration, mice were inoculated with breast cancer cells from donor mice. The extract administration were continued for another three weeks. AgNOR count was performed on tumor sections and expressed as mean of AgNOR (mAgNOR) and percentage of AgNOR (pAgNOR). Means of mAgNOR in C, H1, H2 and H3 were 4.070, 3.195, 3.450, and 3.190 respectively. Means of pAgNOR in C, H1, H2 and H3 were 34,40, 25,40, 38,40 and 19,80 respectively. The lowest means of mAgNOR and pAgNOR which is an indication of lower proliferative activity of the cancer cells was found in H3. However no significant difference can be found among treatment groups (p>0.05). Using AgNOR count, the ethanol extract of Haliclona sp could not show significant reduction in proliferation of mammary carcinoma cells of C3H mice. This finding support the view that AgNOR alone could not be used to determine pathology of cancer cells.

  19. Knockout of a P-glycoprotein gene increases susceptibility to abamectin and emamectin benzoate in Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuo, Y-Y; Huang, J-L; Wang, J; Feng, Y; Han, T-T; Wu, Y-D; Yang, Y-H

    2018-02-01

    P-glycoprotein [P-gp or the ATP-binding cassette transporter B1 (ABCB1)] is an important participant in multidrug resistance of cancer cells, yet the precise function of this arthropod transporter is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of P-gp for susceptibility to insecticides in the beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) using clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/CRISPR-associated 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) gene-editing technology. We cloned an open reading frame (ORF) encoding the S. exigua P-gp protein (SeP-gp) predicted to display structural characteristics common to P-gp and other insect ABCB1 transporters. A knockout line with a frame shift deletion of four nucleotides in the SeP-gp ORF was established using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system to test its potential role in determining susceptibility to chemical insecticides or insecticidal proteins from the bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt). Results from comparative bioassays demonstrate that knockout of SeP-gp significantly increases susceptibility of S. exigua by around threefold to abamectin and emamectin benzoate (EB), but not to spinosad, chlorfenapyr, beta-cypermethrin, carbosulfan indoxacarb, chlorpyrifos, phoxim, diafenthiuron, chlorfluazuron, chlorantraniliprole or two Bt toxins (Cry1Ca and Cry1Fa). Our data support an important role for SeP-gp in susceptibility of S. exigua to abamectin and EB and imply that overexpression of SeP-gp may contribute to abamectin and EB resistance in S. exigua. © 2017 The Royal Entomological Society.

  20. Optimization of recombinant bacteria expressing dsRNA to enhance insecticidal activity against a lepidopteran insect, Spodoptera exigua.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Vatanparast

    Full Text Available Double-stranded RNA (dsRNA has been applied to control insect pests due to its induction of RNA interference (RNAi of a specific target gene expression. However, developing dsRNA-based insecticidal agent has been a great challenge especially against lepidopteran insect pests due to variations in RNAi efficiency. The objective of this study was to screen genes of chymotrypsins (SeCHYs essential for the survival of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, to construct insecticidal dsRNA. In addition, an optimal oral delivery method was developed using recombinant bacteria. At least 7 SeCHY genes were predicted from S. exigua transcriptomes. Subsequent analyses indicated that SeCHY2 was widely expressed in different developmental stages and larval tissues by RT-PCR and its expression knockdown by RNAi caused high mortality along with immunosuppression. However, a large amount of dsRNA was required to efficiently kill late instars of S. exigua because of high RNase activity in their midgut lumen. To minimize dsRNA degradation, bacterial expression and formulation of dsRNA were performed in HT115 Escherichia coli using L4440 expression vector. dsRNA (300 bp specific to SeCHY2 overexpressed in E. coli was toxic to S. exigua larvae after oral administration. To enhance dsRNA release from E. coli, bacterial cells were sonicated before oral administration. RNAi efficiency of sonicated bacteria was significantly increased, causing higher larval mortality at oral administration. Moreover, targeting young larvae possessing weak RNase activity in the midgut lumen significantly enhanced RNAi efficiency and subsequent insecticidal activity against S. exigua.

  1. Long-Chain Acetylenic Ketones from the Micronesian Sponge Haliclona sp. Importance of the 1-yn-3-ol Group for Antitumor Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guang-Xiong Zhou

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Two new long-chain C33 polyacetylenic compounds, halicynones A and B were isolated from the marine sponge Haliclona sp. along with known analogs. The known compound pellynol A possessing a 1-yn-3-ol terminus, exhibited strong antitumor activity against the human colon tumor cell line HCT-116 (IC50 0.026 μg/mL, however, the corresponding 1-yn-3-one, halicynone A, was inactive, which suggests an important role for the terminal 1-yn-3-ol functional group in mediating cytotoxic activity.

  2. Increased RNAi Efficacy in Spodoptera exigua via the Formulation of dsRNA With Guanylated Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Christiaens

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Lepidoptera comprise some of the most devastating herbivorous pest insects worldwide. One of the most promising novel pest control strategies is exploiting the RNA interference (RNAi mechanism to target essential genes for knockdown and incite toxic effects in the target species without harming other organisms in the ecosystem. However, many insects are refractory to oral RNAi, often due to rapid degradation of ingested dsRNA in their digestive system. This is the case for many lepidopteran insects, including the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, which is characterized by a very alkaline gut environment (pH > 9.0 and a strong intestinal nucleolytic activity. In this research, guanidine-containing polymers were developed to protect dsRNA against nucleolytic degradation, specifically in high pH environments. First, their ability to protect dsRNA against nucleolytic degradation in gut juice of the beet armyworm S. exigua was investigated ex vivo. Polymers with high guanidine content provided a strong protection against nucleolytic degradation at pH 11, protecting the dsRNA for up to 30 h. Next, cellular uptake of the dsRNA and the polyplexes in lepidopteran CF203 midgut cells was investigated by confocal microscopy, showing that the polymer also enhanced cellular uptake of the dsRNA. Finally, in vivo feeding RNAi bioassays demonstrated that using these guanidine-containing polymer nanoparticles led to an increased RNAi efficiency in S. exigua. Targeting the essential gene chitin synthase B, we observed that the mortality increased to 53% in the polymer-protected dsRNA treatment compared to only 16% with the naked dsRNA and found that polymer-protected dsRNA completely halted the development of the caterpillars. These results show that using guanylated polymers as a formulation strategy can prevent degradation of dsRNA in the alkaline and strongly nucleolytic gut of lepidopteran insects. Furthermore, the polymer also enhances cellular uptake in

  3. Characterization and expression patterns of a membrane-bound trehalase from Spodoptera exigua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Weihua

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The chitin biosynthesis pathway starts with trehalose in insects and the main functions of trehalases are hydrolysis of trehalose to glucose. Although insects possess two types, soluble trehalase (Tre-1 and membrane-bound trehalase (Tre-2, very little is known about Tre-2 and the difference in function between Tre-1 and Tre-2. Results To gain an insight into trehalase functions in insects, we investigated a putative membrane-bound trehalase from Spodoptera exigua (SeTre-2 cloned from the fat body. The deduced amino acid sequence of SeTre-2 contains 645 residues and has a predicted molecular weight of ~74 kDa and pI of 6.01. Alignment of SeTre-2 with other insect trehalases showed that it contains two trehalase signature motifs and a putative transmembrane domain, which is an important characteristic of Tre-2. Comparison of the genomic DNA and cDNA sequences demonstrated that SeTre-2 comprises 13 exons and 12 introns. Southern blot analysis revealed that S. exigua has two trehalase genes and that SeTre-2 is a single-copy gene. Northern blot analyses showed that the SeTre-2 transcript is expressed not only in the midgut, as previously reported for Bombyx mori, but also in the fat body and Malpighian tubules, although expression patterns differed between the midgut and fat body. SeTre-2 transcripts were detected in the midgut of feeding stage larvae, but not in pupae, whereas SeTre-2 mRNA was detected in the fat body of fifth instar larvae and pupae. Conclusion These findings provide new data on the tissue distribution, expression patterns and potential function of membrane-bound trehalase. The results suggest that the SeTre-2 gene may have different functions in the midgut and fat body.

  4. Cryptic species obscure introduction pathway of the blue Caribbean sponge (Haliclona (Soestella caerulea, (order: Haplosclerida to Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid S. Knapp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic species are widespread across the phylum Porifera making the identification of non-indigenous species difficult, an issue not easily resolved by the use of morphological characteristics. The widespread order Haplosclerida is a prime example due to limited and plastic morphological features. Here, we study the reported introduction of Haliclona (Soestella caerulea from the Caribbean to Palmyra Atoll via Hawaiʻi using morphological characteristics and genetic analyses based on one nuclear (18s rDNA and three mitochondrial (COI, the barcoding COI extension (COI ext. and rnl rDNA markers. Despite no clear division in lengths of the oxea spicules between the samples, both mtDNA and nDNA phylogenetic trees supported similar topologies resolving two distinct clades. Across the two clades, the concatenated mtDNA tree resolved twelve subclades, with the COI ext. yielding most of the variability between the samples. Low sequence divergence values (0.68% between two of the subclades indicate that the same species is likely to occur at Palmyra, Hawaiʻi and the Caribbean, supporting the hypothesis that H. caerulea was introduced to Palmyra from the Caribbean, although whether species came directly from the Caribbean to Palmyra or from Hawaiʻi remains unresolved. Conversely, the pattern of highly divergent cryptic species supports the notion that traditionally used spicule measurements are taxonomically unreliable in this group. This study illustrates how understanding the scale of within- as opposed to between-species level genetic variation is critical for interpreting biogeographic patterns and inferring the origins of introduced organisms.

  5. Many-body localization-delocalization transition in the quantum Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Nag, Sabyasachi; Garg, Arti

    2018-04-01

    We analyze the many-body localization- (MBL) to-delocalization transition in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model of Ising spin glass in the presence of a transverse field Γ . Based on energy-resolved analysis, which is of relevance for a closed quantum system, we show that the quantum SK model has many-body mobility edges separating the MBL phase, which is nonergodic and nonthermal, from the delocalized phase, which is ergodic and thermal. The range of the delocalized regime increases with an increase in the strength of Γ , and eventually for Γ larger than ΓCP the entire many-body spectrum is delocalized. We show that the Renyi entropy is almost independent of the system size in the MBL phase while the delocalized phase shows extensive Renyi entropy. We further obtain the spin-glass transition curve in the energy density ɛ -Γ plane from the collapse of the eigenstate spin susceptibility. We demonstrate that in most of the parameter regime, the spin-glass transition occurs close to the MBL transition, indicating that the spin-glass phase is nonergodic and nonthermal while the paramagnetic phase is delocalized and thermal.

  6. A framed, 16-image Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, F. J.; Bahr, R. E.; Goncharov, V. N.; Glebov, V. Yu.; Peng, B.; Regan, S. P.; Sangster, T. C.; Stoeckl, C.

    2017-09-01

    A 16-image Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB)-type x-ray microscope consisting of compact KB mirrors [F. J. Marshall, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83, 10E518 (2012)] has been assembled for the first time with mirrors aligned to allow it to be coupled to a high-speed framing camera. The high-speed framing camera has four independently gated strips whose emission sampling interval is ˜30 ps. Images are arranged four to a strip with ˜60-ps temporal spacing between frames on a strip. By spacing the timing of the strips, a frame spacing of ˜15 ps is achieved. A framed resolution of ˜6-μm is achieved with this combination in a 400-μm region of laser-plasma x-ray emission in the 2- to 8-keV energy range. A principal use of the microscope is to measure the evolution of the implosion stagnation region of cryogenic DT target implosions on the University of Rochester's OMEGA Laser System [T. R. Boehly et al., Opt. Commun. 133, 495 (1997)]. The unprecedented time and spatial resolutions achieved with this framed, multi-image KB microscope have made it possible to accurately determine the cryogenic implosion core emission size and shape at the peak of stagnation. These core size measurements, taken in combination with those of ion temperature, neutron-production temporal width, and neutron yield allow for inference of core pressures, currently exceeding 50 Gbar in OMEGA cryogenic target implosions [Regan et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 117, 025001 (2016)].

  7. Sponge epizoism in the Caribbean and the discovery of new Plakortis and Haliclona species, and polymorphism of Xestospongia deweerdtae (Porifera).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente, Jan; Zea, Sven; Hill, Russell T

    2016-10-24

    The new discovery by Vicente et al. (2014) of specialized epizoic symbioses between sponges of the genera Plakortis and Xestospongia revealed the obligate interaction of two new Plakortis spp. associating with Xestospongia deweerdtae and a new Xestospongia sp. In this study we formally describe the two new Plakortis spp. as Plakortis deweerdtaephila sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 1), Plakortis symbiotica sp. nov. (previously reported as Plakortis sp. 2) and describe the new Xestospongia sp. epibiont as Haliclona (Halichoclona) plakophila sp. nov.  Plakortis deweerdtaephila associates only with X. deweerdtae, and has very small to large straight diods (24.2-233.7 μm long) and triods (26.4-102.6 μm long) that form large ectosomal circular meshes (114-329 μm diameter). P. symbiotica associates with both X. deweerdtae and H. plakophila, has larger curved diods (71.9-141.8 μm long) and triods (20.4-70.6 μm long) that form smaller ectosomal circular meshes (43-121 μm diameter) than P. deweerdtaephila. Phylogenetic analysis of cox1 and cob gene fragments revealed a strongly supported clade that grouped both Plakortis spp. nov. distantly from any other known Plakortis spp. H. plakophila is described as a thin encrusting veneer of tissue with occasional papillae, so far only found associated with P. symbiotica in La Parguera, Puerto Rico. Phylogenetic analysis of 18S rRNA and cox1 gene fragments place it distantly from any known clade of Haplosclerida. We found a new associated morphotype of X. deweerdtae from Bocas del Toro Panama, which completely overgrew P. deweerdtaephila. In addition, free-living morphotypes from Panama produce larger S-shaped and round bracket shaped strongyles never before observed for this species, leading us to redescribe X. deweerdtae. All X. deweerdtae morphotypes shared >99% sequence homology of cox1, 18S rRNA and 28S rRNA genes with the holotype of X. deweerdtae. This study highlights the highly variable morphological

  8. Effect of coupling asymmetry on mean-field solutions of the direct and inverse Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakellariou, Jason; Roudi, Yasser; Mezard, Marc

    2012-01-01

    We study how the degree of symmetry in the couplings influences the performance of three mean field methods used for solving the direct and inverse problems for generalized Sherrington-Kirkpatrick models. In this context, the direct problem is predicting the potentially time-varying magnetizations...... than the other two approximations, TAP outperforms MF when the coupling matrix is nearly symmetric, while MF works better when it is strongly asymmetric. For the inverse problem, MF performs better than both TAP and nMF, although an ad hoc adjustment of TAP can make it comparable to MF. For high...

  9. The effectiveness of clinical teaching of mental health courses in nursing using clinical supervision and Kirkpatrick's model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddineshat, Maryam; Hashemi, Mitra; Besharati, Reza; Gholami, Sepideh; Ghavidel, Fatemeh

    2018-01-01

    Clinical experience associated with the fear and anxiety of nursing students in the psychiatric unit. Mental health nursing instructors find it challenging to teach nursing students to deal with patients with mental disorders in an environment where they need to provide patient teaching and clinical decision-making based on evidence and new technology. To measure the effectiveness of clinical teaching of mental health courses in nursing using clinical supervision and Kirkpatrick's model evaluation in the psychiatry unit of Imam Reza Hospital, Bojnurd, Iran. This cross-sectional study was carried out from 2011 to 2016 on 76 nursing students from a university as part of a clinical mental health course in two semesters. The students were selected by a non-probable convenient sampling method. After completing their clinical education, each student responded to checklist questions based on the four-level Kirkpatrick's model evaluation and open questions relating to clinical supervision. Finally, all data was analyzed using the SPSS version 16. The students have evaluated clinical supervision as a useful approach, and appreciated the instructor's supportive behavior during teaching and imparting clinical skills. This has made them feel relaxed at the end of the clinical teaching course. In addition, in the evaluation through Kirkpatrick's model, more than 70% of the students have been satisfied with the method of conducting the teaching and average score of nursing students' attitude toward mental health students: Their mean self-confidence score was 18.33±1.69, and the mean score of their performance in the study was evaluated to be 93.74±5.3 from 100 points. The results of clinical mental health teaching through clinical supervision and Kirkpatrick's model evaluation show that the satisfaction, self-esteem, attitude, and skill of nursing students are excellent, thereby portraying the effectiveness of clinical teaching. But this program still needs to be reformed. To

  10. Two new bradykinin-related peptides from the venom of the social wasp Protopolybia exigua (Saussure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Maria Anita; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2006-11-01

    Two bradykinin-related peptides (Protopolybiakinin-I and Protopolybiakinin-II) were isolated from the venom of the social wasp Protopolybia exigua by RP-HPLC, and sequenced by Edman degradation method. Peptide sequences of Protopolybiakinin-I and Protopolybiakinin-II were DKNKKPIRVGGRRPPGFTR-OH and DKNKKPIWMAGFPGFTPIR-OH, respectively. Synthetic peptides with identical sequences to the bradykinin-related peptides and their biological functions were characterized. Protopolybiakinin-I caused less potent constriction of the isolated rat ileum muscles than bradykinin (BK). In addition, it caused degranulation of mast cells which was seven times more potent than BK. This peptide causes algesic effects due to the direct activation of B(2)-receptors. Protopolybiakinin-II is not an agonist of rat ileum muscle and had no algesic effects. However, Protopolybiakinin-II was found to be 10 times more potent as a mast cell degranulator than BK. The amino acid sequence of Protopolybiakinin-I is the longest among the known wasp kinins.

  11. Genomic sequence of Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3g isolated from Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guo-Hua; Wang, Yun-Sheng; Wang, Xing; Garretson, Tyler A; Dai, Liang-Ying; Zhang, Chuan-Xi; Cheng, Xiao-Wen

    2012-11-01

    Heliothis virescens ascovirus 3a (HvAV-3a), a member of the family Ascoviridae, has the highest diversity among ascovirus species that have been reported in Australia, Indonesia, China, and the United States. To understand the diversity and origin of this important ascovirus, the complete genome of the HvAV Indonesia strain (HvAV-3g), isolated from Spodoptera exigua, was determined to be 199,721 bp, with a G+C content of 45.9%. Therefore, HvAV-3g has the largest genome among the reported ascovirus genomes to date. There are 194 predicted open reading frames (ORFs) encoding proteins of 50 or more amino acid residues. In comparison to HvAV-3e reported from Australia, HvAV-3g has all the ORFs in HvAV-3e with 6 additional ORFs unique to HvAV-3g, including 1 peptidase C26 gene with the highest identity to Drosophila spp. and 2 gas vesicle protein U (GvpU) genes with identities to Bacillus megaterium. The five unique homologous regions (hrs) and 25 baculovirus repeat ORFs (bro) of HvAV-3g are highly variable.

  12. Characterization of DNA topoisomerase-1 in Spodoptera exigua for toxicity evaluation of camptothecin and hydoxy-camptothecin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Zhang

    Full Text Available Camptothecin (CPT, a plant alkaloid originally isolated from the native Chinese tree, Camptotheca acuminate, exerts the toxic effect by targeting eukaryotic DNA topoisomerase 1 (DNA Topo1. Besides as potent anti-cancer agents, CPT and its derivatives are now being explored as potential pesticides for insect control. In this study, we assessed their toxicity to an insect homolog, the Topo1 protein from beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua Hübner, a worldwide pest of many important crops. The S. exigua Topo1 gene contains an ORF of 2790 base pairs that is predicted to encode a polypeptide of 930 amino acids. The deduced polypeptide exhibits polymorphism at residue sites V420, L530, A653 and T729 (numbered according to human Topo1 among insect species, which are predicted to confer sensitivity to CPT. The DNA relaxation activity of this protein was subsequently examined using a truncated form that contained the residues 337-930 and was expressed in bacteria BL21 cells. The purified protein retained the ability to relax double-stranded DNA and was susceptible to CPT and its derivative hydroxy-camptothecin (HCPT in a dose-dependent manner. The same inhibitory effect was also found on the native Topo1 extracted from IOZCAS-Spex-II cells, a cell line established from beet armyworms. Additionally, CPT and HCPT treatment reduced the steady accumulation of Topo1 protein despite the increased mRNA expression in response to the treatment. Our studies provide information of the S. exigua Topo1 gene and its amino acid polymorphism in insects and uncover some clues about potential mechanisms of CPT toxicity against insect pests. These results also are useful for development of more effective Topo1-targeted CPT insecticides in the future.

  13. Transcriptome Analysis and Screening for Potential Target Genes for RNAi-Mediated Pest Control of the Beet Armyworm, Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hang; Jiang, Weihua; Zhang, Zan; Xing, Yanru; Li, Fei

    2013-01-01

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a serious pest worldwide that causes significant losses in crops. Unfortunately, genetic resources for the beet armyworm is extremely scarce. To improve these resources we sequenced the transcriptome of S. exigua representing all stages including eggs, 1(st) to 5(th) instar larvae, pupae, male and female adults using the Illumina Solexa platform. We assembled the transcriptome with Trinity that yielded 31,414 contigs. Of these contigs, 18,592 were annotated as protein coding genes by Blast searches against the NCBI nr database. It has been shown that knockdown of important insect genes by dsRNAs or siRNAs is a feasible mechanism to control insect pests. The first key step towards developing an efficient RNAi-mediated pest control technique is to find suitable target genes. To screen for effective target genes in the beet armyworm, we selected nine candidate genes. The sequences of these genes were amplified using the RACE strategy. Then, siRNAs were designed and chemically synthesized. We injected 2 µl siRNA (2 µg/µl) into the 4(th) instar larvae to knock down the respective target genes. The mRNA abundance of target genes decreased to different levels (∼20-94.3%) after injection of siRNAs. Knockdown of eight genes including chitinase7, PGCP, chitinase1, ATPase, tubulin1, arf2, tubulin2 and arf1 caused a significantly high level of mortality compared to the negative control (Ppest control.

  14. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with spherical multilayer mirrors around 2.5keV photon energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ning; Du, Xuewei; Wang, Qiuping; Cao, Zhurong; Jiang, Shaoen; Ding, Yongkun

    2014-09-01

    A Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) x-ray microscope has been developed for the diagnostics of inertial confinement fusion (ICF). The KB microscope system works around 2.5keV with the magnification of 20. It consists of two spherical multilayer mirrors. The grazing angle is 3.575° at 2.5keV. The influence of the slope error of optical components and the alignment errors is simulated by SHADOW software. The mechanical structure which can perform fine tuning is designed. Experiment result with Manson x-ray source shows that the spatial resolution of the system is about 3-4μm over a field of view of 200μm.

  15. Study of laser-imploded core plasmas with an advanced Kirkpatrick endash Baez x-ray microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, R.; Shiraga, H.; Miyanaga, M.; Matsushita, T.; Nakai, M.; Azechi, H.; Mima, K.; Kato, Y.

    1997-01-01

    We developed an advanced Kirkpatrick endash Baez (AKB) x-ray microscope which consisted of two hyperbolic mirrors and two elliptic mirrors. The spatial resolution of approx-lt 3 μm was realized over ∼1 mm diam. This AKB microscope was used for x-ray imaging in laser fusion experiments. Laser absorption nonuniformity with a large wave number on a spherical solid target or a plane slab target was estimated by measurements of x-ray emission from the target surface with the microscope. The x-ray images of the imploded core plasmas were also obtained with the AKB microscope, changing the laser focus condition and the laser energy balance. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  16. Note: Tandem Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with sixteen channels for high-resolution laser-plasma diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Shengzhen; Zhang, Zhe; Huang, Qiushi; Zhang, Zhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Wei, Lai; Liu, Dongxiao; Cao, Leifeng; Gu, Yuqiu

    2018-03-01

    Multi-channel Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microscopes, which have better resolution and collection efficiency than pinhole cameras, have been widely used in laser inertial confinement fusion to diagnose time evolution of the target implosion. In this study, a tandem multi-channel KB microscope was developed to have sixteen imaging channels with the precise control of spatial resolution and image intervals. This precise control was created using a coarse assembly of mirror pairs with high-accuracy optical prisms, followed by precise adjustment in real-time x-ray imaging experiments. The multilayers coated on the KB mirrors were designed to have substantially the same reflectivity to obtain a uniform brightness of different images for laser-plasma temperature analysis. The study provides a practicable method to achieve the optimum performance of the microscope for future high-resolution applications in inertial confinement fusion experiments.

  17. Rebooting Kirkpatrick: Integrating Information System Theory Into the Evaluation of Web-based Continuing Professional Development Interventions for Interprofessional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Nelson; Yufe, Shira; Saadatfard, Omid; Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Wiljer, David

    2017-01-01

    Information system research has stressed the importance of theory in understanding how user perceptions can motivate the use and adoption of technology such as web-based continuing professional development programs for interprofessional education (WCPD-IPE). A systematic review was conducted to provide an information system perspective on the current state of WCPD-IPE program evaluation and how current evaluations capture essential theoretical constructs in promoting technology adoption. Six databases were searched to identify studies evaluating WCPD-IPE. Three investigators determined eligibility of the articles. Evaluation items extracted from the studies were assessed using the Kirkpatrick-Barr framework and mapped to the Benefits Evaluation Framework. Thirty-seven eligible studies yielded 362 evaluation items for analysis. Most items (n = 252) were assessed as Kirkpatrick-Barr level 1 (reaction) and were mainly focused on the quality (information, service, and quality) and satisfaction dimensions of the Benefits Evaluation. System quality was the least evaluated quality dimension, accounting for 26 items across 13 studies. WCPD-IPE use was reported in 17 studies and its antecedent factors were evaluated in varying degrees of comprehensiveness. Although user reactions were commonly evaluated, greater focus on user perceptions of system quality (ie, functionality and performance), usefulness, and usability of the web-based platform is required. Surprisingly, WCPD-IPE use was reported in less than half of the studies. This is problematic as use is a prerequisite to realizing any individual, organizational, or societal benefit of WCPD-IPE. This review proposes an integrated framework which accounts for these factors and provides a theoretically grounded guide for future evaluations.

  18. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Barreto, L.

    –west monsoon. For the first time, a strong correlation is observed in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of E. exigua. Based on coherent variation in mean proloculus diameter and abundance, it is postulated that mean proloculus diameter can also be used...

  19. Palaeoceanographic implications of abundance and mean proloculus diameter of benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua in sub-surface sediments from distal Bay of Bengal fan

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Saraswat, R.; Nigam, R.; Barreto, L.

    -west monsoon. For the first time, a strong correlation is observed in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of E. exigua. Based on coherent variation in mean proloculus diameter and abundance, it is postulated that mean proloculus diameter can also be used...

  20. The effect of leaf biopesticide Mirabilis jalapa and fungi Metarhizium anisopliae to immune response and mortality of Spodoptera exigua instar IV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryani, A. Irma; Anggraeni, Tjandra

    2014-03-01

    Spodoptera exigua is one of insect causing damage in agriculture sector. This insect can be controlled by a natural biopesticide by combining two agents of biological control, biopesticides Mirabilis jalapa and entomopathogenic fungi Metarhizium anisopliae, considered to be virulent toward a wide range of insects. The objective of research was to determine the effect of biopesticides M. jalapa and fungi M. anisopliae against immune system and mortality of S. exigua. This research used a complete randomized block design with five concentrations Mirabilis jalapa and optimum dose of M. anisopliae. A high dose of M. jalapa (0.8% w/v) is the most effective one to decrease total haemocytes especially granulocyt and plasmatocyt (cellular immune) and decrease the concentration of lectin (humoral immune) from S. exigua (p < 0.05). The combination of M. jalapa (0, 8% w/v) and lethal dose of M. anisopliae 2.59 × 107 spore/ml were significant to increase mortality of S. exigua within 48 hours (p < 0.05).

  1. Effect of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) treatment on the composition and function of the bacterial community in the sponge Haliclona cymaeformis.

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, Ren-Mao

    2014-01-01

    Marine sponges play important roles in benthic environments and are sensitive to environmental stresses. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have been widely used as flame retardants since the 1970s and are cytotoxic and genotoxic to organisms. In the present study, we studied the short-period effect of PBDE-47 (2,2\\',4,4\\'-tetrabromodiphenyl ether) treatment on the community structure and functional gene composition of the bacterial community inhabiting the marine sponge Haliclona cymaeformis. Our results showed that the bacterial community shifted from an autotrophic bacteria-dominated community to a heterotrophic bacteria-dominated community in response to PBDE-47 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. A potentially symbiotic sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) was dominant (>80% in abundance) in the untreated sponge. However, exposure to a high concentration (1 μg/L) of PBDE-47 caused a substantial decrease in the potential symbiont and an enrichment of heterotrophic bacteria like Clostridium. A metagenomic analysis showed a selective effect of the high concentration treatment on the functional gene composition of the enriched heterotrophic bacteria, revealing an enrichment for the functions responsible for DNA repair, multidrug efflux pumping, and bacterial chemotaxis and motility. This study demonstrated that PBDE-47 induced a shift in the composition of the community and functional genes in the sponge-associated bacterial community, revealing the selective effect of PBDE-47 treatment on the functions of the bacterial community in the microenvironment of the sponge.

  2. Bacterial Diversity Associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, Cohabiting Sponges in the Coral Reef Ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, Southeast Coast of India.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Jasmin

    Full Text Available Sponges are abundant, diverse and functionally important organisms of coral reef ecosystems. Sponge-associated microorganisms have been receiving greater attention because of their significant contribution to sponge biomass, biogeochemical cycles and biotechnological potentials. However, our understanding of the sponge microbiome is limited to a few species of sponges from restricted geographical locations. Here, we report for the first time the bacterial diversity of two cohabiting sponges, viz. Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, as well as that in the ambient water from the coral reef ecosystems of the Gulf of Mannar, located along the southeast coast of India. Two hundred and fifty two clones in the 16S rRNA gene library of these sponges were grouped into eight distinct phyla, of which four belonged to the core group that are associated only with sponges. Phylogenetic analysis of the core bacteria showed close affinity to other sponge-associated bacteria from different geographical locations. γ-Proteobacteria, Chloroflexi, Planctomycetes and Deferribacter were the core groups in C. cavernosa while β and δ-Proteobacteria performed this role in H. pigmentifera. We observed greater OTU diversity for C. cavernosa (Hǀ 2.07 compared to H. pigmentifera (Hǀ 1.97. UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water (p<0.001. The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge microbiome.

  3. Influence ofAmaranthus hybridus L. allelochemics on oviposition behavior ofSpodoptera exigua andS. eridania (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, E R; Heath, R R

    1985-05-01

    Common pigweed,Amaranthus hybridus L., is a favorite host of the beet army worm (BAW),Spodoptera exigua L. Chemicals extracted from homogenized pigweed with distilled water, ethanol, or dichloromethane and sprayed back on pigweed deterred oviposition by the BAW. Similarly, water extracts of frass from conspecific larvae or southern armyworm (SAW) larvae,S. eridania (Cramer), fed pigweed leaves and sprayed back on pigweed plants also deterred BAW oviposition, thus confirming that deterrence was due to plant allelochemics rather than specific compounds associated with the metabolic or excretory products of the larvae. Confirmation of the presence of oviposition-deterring chemicals in pigweed was used to explain a previously observed seasonal displacement of BAW by SAW on pigweed in the field.

  4. Efeito de indutores de resistência sobre Meloidogyne exigua do cafeeiro Effect of resistance inducers on Meloidogyne exígua of coffee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sônia Maria de Lima Salgado

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A possibilidade de manejo de Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, pela ativação de mecanismos de defesa no cafeeiro representa uma alternativa potencialmente útil no manejo desse patógeno. Com este trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar a eclosão e mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estádio (J2 de M. exigua na presença de produtos indutores de resistência e avaliar o efeito do acibenzolar-S-metil (ASM, Bion® na indução de resistência do cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L. 'Catuaí- 144' contra M. exigua. A eclosão e mortalidade do J2 foram avaliadas no ASM e ácido salicílico (AS nas dosagens de 0,2; 0,35 e 0,5 g. i. a./L; e no fosfito de potássio (Hortifós® PK e silicato de potássio (Supa-potássio® nas dosagens 5,0; 7,5 e 10,0 mL/L, empregando água e aldicarbe como testemunhas. No segundo ensaio o ASM (0,2 g i.a./L foi aplicado na quantidade de 125 mL por planta de 'Catuaí-144' com um ano de idade, via pulverização foliar e diretamente ao solo aos 7 dias antes da inoculação e aos 2 e 7 dias após a inoculação de aproximadamente 7000 ovos de M. exigua/planta. Foram utilizadas 8 plantas/tratamento/bloco, totalizando 6 tratamentos (3 épocas de aplicação do ASM, testemunhas absoluta e inoculada, em 4 blocos. Aos 90 dias da inoculação, foi feita a avaliação da população final (número de ovos e juvenis de M. exigua, número de galhas, fator de reprodução (população final/população inicial e peso da matéria fresca da raiz. A dosagem dos produtos não influenciou a eclosão e mortalidade dos J2 de M. exigua. Menor eclosão dos J2 de M. exigua ocorreu igualmente no Supa-potássio® e ácido salicílico, enquanto que a eclosão no ASM e na água foi igual (P The parasitism of coffee roots by Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi, 1887, widespread nematode in the main producing regions, can provoke a series of modifications in the normal development of the plant. The induction of resistance for the activation of existing latent mechanisms of

  5. Men are innocent until proven guilty: a comment on the examination of sex differences by Pierce and Kirkpatrick (1992).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickersgill, M J; Arrindell, W A

    1994-01-01

    Pierce and Kirkpatrick (1992, Behaviour Research and Therapy, 30, 415-418) addressed the finding that men reported lower levels of fear than women in response to specific fear items and concluded on the basis of their experiment that this was because the men were lying. Their conclusion is questioned on various grounds, including inappropriate statistical analyses, inadequate treatment of physiological data, failure to address the possibility of sample selection bias (signalled by the high drop-out rate) and the inadequacy of self-assessed fear measures based on a small number of single items. An alternative interpretation of their data is offered, based on the inverse correlation between initial response level and size of increment, demonstrable in their study in males but not in females. It is argued here that the increments may have been due to anticipatory arousal, a mediating factor that would also account for the facilitation of generalization between certain specific items. It is further suggested that, if this explanation is correct, the men were acting with more rather than less honesty, and it may on the other hand be the reports of the females that were affected by their sex-role stereotype. Another possible explanation of the findings is discussed. If men relatively high in masculinity had a greater tendency to drop out, the experimental sample at the second testing would be biased towards men relatively low in masculinity and reporting higher fear levels.

  6. Possible ergodic-nonergodic regions in the quantum Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass model and quantum annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sudip; Rajak, Atanu; Chakrabarti, Bikas K.

    2018-02-01

    We explore the behavior of the order parameter distribution of the quantum Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model in the spin glass phase using Monte Carlo technique for the effective Suzuki-Trotter Hamiltonian at finite temperatures and that at zero temperature obtained using the exact diagonalization method. Our numerical results indicate the existence of a low- but finite-temperature quantum-fluctuation-dominated ergodic region along with the classical fluctuation-dominated high-temperature nonergodic region in the spin glass phase of the model. In the ergodic region, the order parameter distribution gets narrower around the most probable value of the order parameter as the system size increases. In the other region, the Parisi order distribution function has nonvanishing value everywhere in the thermodynamic limit, indicating nonergodicity. We also show that the average annealing time for convergence (to a low-energy level of the model, within a small error range) becomes system size independent for annealing down through the (quantum-fluctuation-dominated) ergodic region. It becomes strongly system size dependent for annealing through the nonergodic region. Possible finite-size scaling-type behavior for the extent of the ergodic region is also addressed.

  7. Effectiveness of Online Cancer Education for Nurses and Allied Health Professionals; a Systematic Review Using Kirkpatrick Evaluation Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Karen; Taylor, Vanessa; Douglas, Sheila

    2017-12-12

    Embedding online learning within higher education can provide engaging, cost-effective, interactive and flexible education. By evaluating the impact, outcomes and pedagogical influence of online cancer and education, future curricula can be shaped and delivered by higher education providers to better meet learner, health care provider and educational commissioners' requirements for enhanced patient care and service delivery needs. Using the Kirkpatrick's four-level model of educational evaluation, a systematic review of the effectiveness of online cancer education for nurses and allied health professionals was conducted. From 101 articles, 30 papers were included in the review. Educational theory is not always employed. There is an absence of longitudinal studies to examine impact; an absence of reliability and/or validity testing of measures, limited experimental designs taking account of power and few attempts to mitigate bias. There is, however, an emerging innovative use of mobile/spaced learning techniques. Evidence for clinical and educational effectiveness is weak offering insights into experiences and participant perceptions rather than concrete quantitative data and patient-reported outcomes. More pedagogical research is merited to inform effective evaluation of online cancer education, which incorporates and demonstrates a longer-term impact.

  8. Toxicity of ethyl acetate extract from Jatropha gossypifolia senescent leaves against Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and Meteorus pulchricornis (Hymenoptera: Braconidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumrungsee, N; Pluempanupat, W; Kainoh, Y; Saguanpong, U; Bullangpotin, V

    2010-01-01

    This study explored the insecticidal effects of Thai botanical, senescent leaf Jatropha gossypifolia extracts on second instar Spodoptera exigua larvae by the dipping method and topical sprayer method. The leaf crude extract was extracted using Soxhlet apparatus with ethyl acetate as solvent. The leaf crude extracts showed insecticidal activity with a LC50 of 6182 ppm at 24 hours after treatment. In addition, this research was observed its toxicity to worm parasitoid, Meteorus pulchricornis by contact method. The result shows 60 percent mortality of this parasitoid species at dose up to 40,000 ppm. Thus, Jatropha gossypifolia leaf crude extracts can be as alternative IPM control tool for Spodoptera exigua which friendly to benefit insect such as Meteorus pulchricornis.

  9. Down-regulation of a chitin synthase a gene by RNA interference enhances pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana ANU1 against Spodoptera exigua (HÜBNER).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jung-Bok; Kim, Hyun Soo; Park, Youngjin

    2017-02-01

    Chitin synthase (CHS) is an important enzymatic component, which is required for chitin formation in the cuticles and cuticular linings of other tissues in insects. CHSs have been divided into two classes, classes A and B, based on their amino acid sequence similarities and functions. Class A CHS (CHS-A) is specifically expressed in the epidermis and related ectodermal cells such as tracheal cells, while class B CHS (CHS-B) is expressed in gut epithelial cells that produce peritrophic matrices. In this study, we cloned the CHS-A gene from the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (SeCHS-A). The SeCHS-A contains an open reading frame of 4,698 nucleotides, encoding a protein of 1,565 amino acids with a predicted molecular mass of approximately 177.8 kDa. The SeCHS-A mRNA was expressed in all developmental stages and specifically in the epidermis and tracheae tissue by quantitative real-time-PCR analysis. Expression of SeCHS-A gene was suppressed by feeding double-stranded RNA (dsCHS-A, 400 ng/larva) in the third instar larvae of S. exigua. Suppression of the SeCHS-A gene expression significantly increased 35% of mortality on pupation of S. exigua. Also, the third instar larvae fed with dsCHS-A significantly increased susceptibility to entomopathogenic fungi, Beauveria bassiana ANU1 at 3 days after treatment. These results suggest that the SeCHS-A gene plays an important role in development of S. exigua and RNA interference may apply to effective pest control with B. bassiana. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Structural and biological characterization of three novel mastoparan peptides from the venom of the neotropical social wasp Protopolybia exigua (Saussure).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendes, Maria Anita; de Souza, Bibiana Monson; Palma, Mario Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The venom of the Neotropical social wasp Protopolybia exigua(Saussure) was fractionated by RP-HPLC resulting in the elution of 20 fractions. The homogeneity of the preparations were checked out by using ESI-MS analysis and the fractions 15, 17 and 19 (eluted at the most hydrophobic conditions) were enough pure to be sequenced by Edman degradation chemistry, resulting in the following sequences: Protopolybia MPI I-N-W-L-K-L-G-K-K-V-S-A-I-L-NH2 Protopolybia-MP II I-N-W-K-A-I-I-E-A-A-K-Q-A-L-NH2 Protopolybia-MP III I-N-W-L-K-L-G-K-A-V-I-D-A-L-NH2 All the peptides were manually synthesized on-solid phase and functionally characterized. Protopolybia-MP I is a hemolytic mastoparan, probably acting on mast cells by assembling in plasma membrane, resulting in pore formation; meanwhile, the peptides Protopolybia-MP II and -MP III were characterized as a non-hemolytic mast cell degranulator toxins, which apparently act by virtue of their binding to G-protein receptor, activating the mast cell degranulation.

  11. Characterization of a confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray fluorescence facility based on polycapillary X-ray optics and Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Tianxi; Ding Xunliang; Liu Zhiguo; Zhu Guanghua; Li Yude; Wei Xiangjun; Chen Dongliang; Xu Qing; Liu Quanru; Huang Yuying; Lin Xiaoyan; Sun Hongbo

    2008-01-01

    A new confocal three-dimensional micro X-ray fluorescence (3D micro-XRF) facility based on polycapillary X-ray optics in the detection channel and Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors in the excitation channel is designed. The lateral resolution (l x , l y ) of this confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence facility is 76.3(l x ) and 53.4(l y ) μm respectively, and its depth resolution d z is 77.1 μm at θ = 90 o . A plant sample (twig of B. microphylla) and airborne particles are analyzed

  12. The initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios of the Kirwan Volcanics of Dronning Maud Land: Comparison with the Kirkpatrick Basalt, Transantarctic Mountains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, G.; Bowman, J.R.; Elliot, D.H.

    1979-01-01

    A series of lava flows from Mountain B (6 0 13.9'W, 74 0 06.9'S) of the Kirwan Escarpment in Dronning Maud Land, Antarctica, is composed of tholeiite basalts of Jurassic age. Their chemical compositions are similar to those of Jurassic basalts elsewhere in Dronning Maud Land but differ from those of the Kirkpatrick Basalt of the Transantarctic Mountains. The basalts on Mountain B contain 50.39% SiO 2 , 9.7 ppm Rb, 174.4 ppm Sr, have a Rb/Sr ratio of 0.057, and a K/Rb ratio of 417. Their average initial 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio is 0.7044 +- 0.0010 (1sigma) which suggests that the magma from which they formed could have been derived from the upper mantle without extensive contamination with 87 Sr and other elements. These results confirm earlier suggestions that the Jurassic basalts of Dronning Maud Land differ significantly from the Kirkpatrick Basalt and the Ferrar Dolerite of the Transantarctic Mountains. These differences in chemical and Sr-isotopic composition may be related to tectonic activity and magma formation during the break-up of Gondwanaland. (Auth.)

  13. [Schedule for evaluation of the deficit syndrome in schizophrenia: Schedule for Deficit Syndrome (SDS) (Kirkpatrick et al.). Importance pertinence of the SDS. Introduction of the French version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeyre, J M; Dollfus, S; Lesieur, P; Ménard, J F; Petit, M

    1994-01-01

    The negative symptoms of schizophrenia have generated a great interest leading some authors (Crow, Andreasen, Kay) to delineate schizophrenic subtypes based on their presence or absence. Carpenter et al. have recently proposed another subtype, the deficit syndrome, based on Kraepelin's clinical description. This differs from other proposed negative subtypes and refers to the presence or absence of prominent, enduring and primary negative symptoms. Primary negative symptoms have to be due to psychophrenia itself, in other words, independent of factors such as depression, anxiety, akinesia... Kirkpatrick et al. have proposed the Schedule for the Deficit Syndrome (SDS) to reliably identify this deficit syndrome. Some studies using this instrument have supported the validity of the deficit syndrome concept. Particularly, deficit patients have clinical, neuropsychological, neurological, eye-tracking and brain imaging impairments compared to nondeficit patients. We realized a french translation of SDS and used it to study a biological index (plasma homovanillic acid, pHVA) among deficit and nondeficit schizophrenic patients. Our data suggest a specific biochemical basis for the deficit syndrome, ie, significant lower mean pHVA levels with a lack of diurnal variation for deficit patients. The french version of SDS was validated by Kirkpatrick after english back translation. We present here our psychometric data regarding reliability (assessed by weighted and unweighted kappa coefficients) and cohesiveness of the construct (assessed by rank-order correlations of each negative symptoms with the other five, using Spearman's rho). These data are quite significant and in agreement with the SDS authors.

  14. Possible Insecticidal Mechanisms Mediated by Immune-Response-Related Cry-Binding Proteins in the Midgut Juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Keyu; Gu, Yuqing; Liu, Xiaoping; Lin, Yi; Yu, Xiao-Qiang

    2017-03-15

    Cry toxins are insecticidal toxin proteins produced by a spore-forming Gram-positive bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. Interactions between the Cry toxins and the receptors from midgut brush border membrane vesicles (BBMVs), such as cadherin, alkaline phosphatase, and aminopeptidase, are key steps for the specificity and insecticidal activity of Cry proteins. However, little is known about the midgut juice proteins that may interfere with Cry binding to the receptors. To validate the hypothesis that there exist Cry-binding proteins that can interfere with the insecticidal process of Cry toxins, we applied Cry1Ab1-coupled Sepharose beads to isolate Cry-binding proteins form midgut juice of Plutella xylostella and Spodoptera exigua. Trypsin-like serine proteases and Dorsal were found to be Cry1Ab1-binding proteins in the midgut juice of P. xylostella. Peroxidase-C (POX-C) was found to be the Cry1Ab1-binding protein in the midgut juice of S. exigua. We proposed possible insecticidal mechanisms of Cry1Ab1 mediated by the two immune-related proteins: Dorsal and POX-C. Our results suggested that there exist, in the midgut juice, Cry-binding proteins, which are different from BBMV-specific receptors.

  15. DENSIDAD CRÍTICA DE Meloidogyne exigua EN PLANTAS DE ALMÁCIGO DE CAFÉ VARIEDAD CATURRA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mainor Rojas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del estudio fue evaluar el efecto de densidad creciente de Meloidogyne exigua sobre el desarrollo de plantas de almácigo. Se trasplantaron plántulas de café variedad caturra a bolsas de polietileno con 1335 cm3 de sustrato desinfectado, para establecer un ensayo con diseño de bloques completos al azar, con 8 repeticiones. Los tratamientos aplicados consistieron de poblaciones iniciales (Pi de 0; 0,125; 0,25; 0,5; 1; 2; 4; 8; 16; 32 y 64 huevos+J2/ cm3 de sustrato, aplicadas un mes después del trasplante. El modelo y=m+(1-m ZP-T aplicado 234 días después del trasplante para la altura, diámetro, número de nudos y peso fresco aéreo, indicó que el límite de tolerancia (T fue de 0,66; 0,06; 0,13 y 0,88 huevos+J2/cm3, respectivamente; la producción mínima relativa (m fue de 0,79; 0,79; 0,33 y 0,54 respectivamente, a Pi iguales o mayores a 64 huevos+J2/cm3. El índice de agallas alcanzó el máximo a partir de una Pi de 2; el pico máximo de nematodos en el suelo y las raíces se alcanzó con Pi entre 2 y 4; mientras la tasa máxima de reproducción fue de 114 con Pi de 0,125. Se concluyó que la densidad crítica fue cercana a cero huevos/cm3 de sustrato como población inicial, y que el almácigo se debe desarrollar libre de nematodos, ya que aún con Pi bajas se puede alcanzar la máxima población en corto tiempo.

  16. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF): a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; Gruyter, de J.; Turco, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to

  17. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) : a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aveskamp, M.M.; Woudenberg, J.H.C.; de Gruyter, J.; Turco, E.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2009-01-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to

  18. Progress on the artificial rearing of the army worm, Spodoptera (Laphygma) exigua Hb. and radiation sterilization in the male of this species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaharanu, S.; Chiravathanapong, S.

    1971-01-01

    The army worm, Spodoptera exigua Hb. was reared for 6 more generations in an artificial medium containing Mung bean as a major component. By improving the rearing temperature and humidity conditions, better rearing results were obtained. The average percentage of development from eggs to pupae, from eggs to adults, and from pupae to adults was 41.7+-4.93, 38.44+-6.32 and 88.1+-1.48 respectively. The pupal weight was also calculated. In sterilization studies, the 3-day-old male pupae were subjected to gamma rays at 0, 5 and 10 krads. Upon emerging into adults, they were mated with non-irradiated female moths. Male moths emerged from pupae subjected to 10 krads of gamma rays could significantly induce infertility in eggs deposited

  19. Development of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) markers based on actin sequences and DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF): a case study in the Phoma exigua species complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveskamp, Maikel M; Woudenberg, Joyce H C; de Gruyter, Johannes; Turco, Elena; Groenewald, Johannes Z; Crous, Pedro W

    2009-05-01

    Phoma exigua is considered to be an assemblage of at least nine varieties that are mainly distinguished on the basis of host specificity and pathogenicity. However, these varieties are also reported to be weak pathogens and secondary invaders on non-host tissue. In practice, it is difficult to distinguish P. exigua from its close relatives and to correctly identify isolates up to the variety level, because of their low genetic variation and high morphological similarity. Because of quarantine issues and phytosanitary measures, a robust DNA-based tool is required for accurate and rapid identification of the separate taxa in this species complex. The present study therefore aims to develop such a tool based on unique nucleotide sequence identifiers. More than 60 strains of P. exigua and related species were compared in terms of partial actin gene sequences, or analysed using DNA amplification fingerprinting (DAF) with short, arbitrary, mini-hairpin primers. Fragments in the fingerprint unique to a single taxon were identified, purified and sequenced. Alignment of the sequence data and subsequent primer trials led to the identification of taxon-specific sequence characterized amplified regions (SCARs), and to a set of specific oligonucleotide combinations that can be used to identify these organisms in plant quarantine inspections.

  20. PHENOTYPIC PLASTICITY INDUCED IN TRANSPLANT EXPERIMENTS IN A MUTUALISTIC ASSOCIATION BETWEEN THE RED ALGA JANIA ADHAERENS (RHODOPHYTA, CORALLINALES) AND THE SPONGE HALICLONA CAERULEA (PORIFERA: HAPLOSCLERIDA): MORPHOLOGICAL RESPONSES OF THE ALGA(1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enríquez, Susana; Ávila, Enrique; Carballo, José Luis

    2009-02-01

    The association between the red macroalga Jania adhaerens J. V. Lamour. and the sponge Haliclona caerulea is the most successful life-form between 2 and 4 m depth in Mazatlán Bay (Mexican Pacific). J. adhaerens colonizes the rocky intertidal area and penetrates into deeper areas only when it lives in association with H. caerulea. The aposymbiotic form of the sponge has not been reported in the bay. To understand the ecological success of this association, we examined the capacity of J. adhaerens to acclimate in Mazatlán Bay using transplant experiments. The transplanted aposymbiotic J. adhaerens did not survive the first 2 weeks; however, J. adhaerens when living in association with H. caerulea, acclimated easily to depth, showing no sign of mortality during the 103 d of the experiment. We conclude that the ability of J. adhaerens to colonize in deeper areas in this hydrodynamic environment may in part rely on the protection provided by the sponge to the algal canopy. Both species contribute to the shape of the associated form. Nevertheless, the morphological variation in the association appears to be dominated by the variation in J. adhaerens canopy to regulate pigment self-shading under light-limited conditions and/or tissue resistance under high hydrodynamics. Consequently, our results are consistent with light as the abiotic controlling factor, which regulates the lower depth distribution of the association in Mazatlán Bay, through limiting the growth rate of J. adhaerens. Hydrodynamics may determine the upper limit of the association by imposing high mass losses. © 2009 Phycological Society of America.

  1. Evaluation of learning from Practical Obstetric Multi-Professional Training and its impact on patient outcomes in Australia using Kirkpatrick's framework: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Arunaz; Sturrock, Sam; Wallace, Euan M; Nestel, Debra; Lucey, Donna; Stoyles, Sally; Morgan, Jenny; Neil, Peter; Schlipalius, Michelle; Dekoninck, Philip

    2018-02-17

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the implementation of the Practical Obstetric Multi-Professional Training (PROMPT) simulation using the Kirkpatrick's framework. We explored participants' acquisition of knowledge and skills, its impact on clinical outcomes and organisational change to integrate the PROMPT programme as a credentialing tool. We also aimed to assess participants' perception of usefulness of PROMPT in their clinical practice. Mixed methods approach with a pre-test/post-test design. Healthcare network providing obstetric care in Victoria, Australia. Medical and midwifery staff attending PROMPT between 2013 and 2015 (n=508); clinical outcomes were evaluated in two cohorts: 2011-2012 (n=15 361 births) and 2014-2015 (n=12 388 births). Attendance of the PROMPT programme, a simulation programme taught in multidisciplinary teams to facilitate teaching emergency obstetric skills. Clinical outcomes compared before and after embedding PROMPT in educational practice. Assessment of knowledge gained by participants through a qualitative analysis and description of process of embedding PROMPT in educational practice. There was a change in the management of postpartum haemorrhage by early recognition and intervention. The key learning themes described by participants were being prepared with a prior understanding of procedures and equipment, communication, leadership and learning in a safe, supportive environment. Participants reported a positive learning experience and increase in confidence in managing emergency obstetric situations through the PROMPT programme, which was perceived as a realistic demonstration of the emergencies. Participants reported an improvement of both clinical and non-technical skills highlighting principles of teamwork, communication, leadership and prioritisation in an emergency situation. An improvement was observed in management of postpartum haemorrhage, but no significant change was noted in clinical outcomes over a 2-year period

  2. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G. (Univ. of California, Riverside (United States))

    1991-05-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 {times} 2 {times} 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems.

  3. Population genetic diversity and genetic structure of Spodoptera exigua around the Bohai Gulf area of China based on mitochondrial DNA signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, L-H; Wang, X-Y; Lei, J-J

    2016-09-30

    The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), is an economically important pest that causes major losses in some main crop-producing areas of China. To control this pest effectively, it is necessary to investigate its population genetic diversity and genetic structure around the Bohai Gulf area of China. In this study, we used two mitochondrial genes, COI (578 bp) and Cytb (724 bp), to investigate its genetic diversity. We obtained 622 COI sequences and 462 Cytb sequences from 23 populations, and 28 and 73 haplotypes, respectively, were identified. Low to moderate levels of genetic diversity (COI: Hd = 0.267 ± 0.023, Pi = 0.00082 ± 0.00010; Cytb: Hd = 0.689 ± 0.018, Pi = 0.00255 ± 0.00029) for the total populations were observed. Phylogenetic and median-joining network analyses indicated no distinct geographical distribution pattern among the haplotypes. Overall, this study revealed that there was significant differentiation among the populations (COI: F ST = 0.158, P neutrality test results, showed a recent population expansion of the beet armyworm around the Bohai Gulf area of China.

  4. Impact of UV radiation on activity of linear furanocoumarins and Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki against Spodoptera exigua: Implications for tritrophic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trumble, J.T.; Moar, W.J.; Brewer, M.J.; Carson, W.G.

    1991-01-01

    Acidic fogs with a pH of 2.0 and duration of 2 hr did not reduce the efficacy of Bacillus thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Therefore, the impact of UV radiation was investigated on the interactions between (1) levels of the antibacterial linear furanocoumarins psoralen, bergapten, and xanthotoxin in Apium graveolens (L.) occurring following a 2.0 pH acidic fog episode, (2) the noctuid Spodoptera exigua, and (3) a sublethal dosage of the microbial pathogen B. thuringiensis var. kurstaki. Mean time to pupation in the absence of UV radiation was significantly extended by the addition of either psoralens or B. thuringiensis. Larvae developing on diets containing B. thuringiensis plus psoralens required nearly 40% longer to pupate than controls, but their effects were additive as the interaction was not significant. Mean time to mortality, a weighted average time of death, was not significantly affected by any of the treatments. In a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial analysis, all main effects reduced survival significantly, as did the three-way interaction. Thus, antagonistic interactions with psoralens that would reduce the effectiveness of B. thuringiensis in the field were not observed. When pairs of main effects were nested within the two levels of the third factor, several two-way interactions were found. Interestingly, the activity of B. thuringiensis and the psoralens, individually or in combination, was enhanced by exposure to UV radiation. Implications of this research are discussed for both natural and agricultural ecosystems

  5. Avaliando as práticas de educação corporativa à distância por meio do modelo de Kirkpatrick: um estudo de caso numa empresa do ramo de energia no estado do Paraná (Evaluating the distance corporate education practices by using Kirkpatrick's model: a case study in an energy company in the state of Paraná

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayara Cristina Ghedini Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Resumo: As organizações adotam estratégias complexas para desenvolver a aprendizagem dentro do contexto organizacional. O presente artigo busca avaliar as práticas de Educação Corporativa à Distância por meio do modelo de Kirkpatrick: um estudo de caso numa empresa do ramo de energia no estado do Paraná. Como referencial teórico foram abordados os conceitos de Educação Corporativa, de Educação à Distância, e as formas de avaliação de programas de qualificação à distância. A metodologia utilizada foi apoiada no estudo de caso e os instrumentos empregados para coletas dos dados foram as entrevistas, questionários e a observação direta. O estudo foi efetuado tendo por base o modelo de análise de Kirkpatrick, que define os níveis de avaliação: reação, aprendizado, comportamento (aplicação e resultado. Os resultados demonstraram que a atividade desenvolvida sensibilizou os colaboradores quanto à continuação da qualificação via EaD, o método de avaliação adotado mostra as impressões dos participantes. Com os resultados da avaliação, torna-se possível efetuar ações corretivas nas qualificações disponibilizadas pela organização, assegurando o êxito do processo de aprendizagem. Abstract: Organizations adopt complex strategies to develop learning in the organizational context. The present paper aims at evaluating the Distance Corporate Education via Kirkpatrick’s model: a case study in an energy company in the state of Parana. As theoretical reference, the Corporate Education concepts were approached as well as the evaluation methods of the Distance Education programs. The case study served as basis to the chosen methodology, and interviews, questionnaires and direct observation were used to collect data. The study was based on Kirkpatrick’s model of analysis, which defines the levels of evaluation: reaction, learning, behavior (use and results. The results showed that the developed activity made the

  6. Comprehensive analysis of gene expression profiles of the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua larvae challenged with Bacillus thuringiensis Vip3Aa toxin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yolanda Bel

    Full Text Available Host-pathogen interactions result in complex relationship, many aspects of which are not completely understood. Vip proteins, which are Bacillus thuringensis (Bt insecticidal toxins produced during the vegetative stage, are selectively effective against specific insect pests. This new group of Bt proteins represents an interesting alternative to the classical Bt Cry toxins because current data suggests that they do not share the same mode of action. We have designed and developed a genome-wide microarray for the beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua, a serious lepidopteran pest of many agricultural crops, and used it to better understand how lepidopteran larvae respond to the treatment with the insecticidal protein Vip3Aa. With this approach, the goal of our study was to evaluate the changes in gene expression levels caused by treatment with sublethal doses of Vip3Aa (causing 99% growth inhibition at 8 and 24 h after feeding. Results indicated that the toxin provoked a wide transcriptional response, with 19% of the microarray unigenes responding significantly to treatment. The number of up- and down-regulated unigenes was very similar. The number of genes whose expression was regulated at 8 h was similar to the number of genes whose expression was regulated after 24 h of treatment. The up-regulated sequences were enriched for genes involved in innate immune response and in pathogen response such as antimicrobial peptides (AMPs and repat genes. The down-regulated sequences were mainly unigenes with homology to genes involved in metabolism. Genes related to the mode of action of Bt Cry proteins were found, in general, to be slightly overexpressed. The present study is the first genome-wide analysis of the response of lepidopteran insects to Vip3Aa intoxication. An insight into the molecular mechanisms and components related to Vip intoxication will allow designing of more effective management strategies for pest control.

  7. Anti-bacterial compounds from the sponge Haliclona sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Kamat, S.Y.; Chandramohan, D.; Nair, S.; Das, B.

    located the active principles in petroleum ether and ethyl acetate fractions Further purification of these active fractions on silica gel columns and subsequently on HPLC yielded several active compounds two of which have been identified as demethyl...

  8. Renieramycins H and I, two novel alkaloids from the sponge Haliclona cribricutis Dendy

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Parameswaran, P.S.; Naik, C.G.; Kamat, S.Y.; Pramanik, B.N.

    The known alkaloid, mimosamycin 1, along with its moon- and di hydroxy derivaties, 4-hydroxy mimosamycin 2 and 1, 4-dihydroxymimosamycin 3 and two new dimeric alkaloids: namely renieramycins H and I 4 and 5 have been isolated from the MeOH extract...

  9. Applying the Kirkpatrick Model: Evaluating an "Interaction for Learning Framework" Curriculum Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paull, Megan; Whitsed, Craig; Girardi, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    Global perspectives and interpersonal and intercultural communication competencies are viewed as a priority within higher education. For management educators, globalisation, student mobility and widening pathways present numerous challenges, but afford opportunities for curriculum innovation. The "Interaction for Learning Framework"…

  10. A tendem mass spectrometric approach for determining the structure of molecular species of ceramide in the marine sponge, Haliclona cribricutis

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Tilvi, S.; Majik, M.; Naik, C.G.

    , “Squid nerve Sphingomyelin containing an unusual sphingoid base”, J. Lipid Res. 41, 1118 (2000). 24. J.D. Watts, M. Gu, A.J. Polverino, S.D. Patterson and R. Aebersold, “Fas-induced apoptosis of T cells occurs independently of ceramide generation...

  11. Effect of Copper Treatment on the Composition and Function of the Bacterial Community in the Sponge Haliclona cymaeformis

    KAUST Repository

    Tian, R.-M.; Wang, Y.; Bougouffa, Salim; Gao, Z.-M.; Cai, L.; Zhang, W.-P.; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Qian, P.-Y.

    2014-01-01

    and poses a threat to marine organisms. Here, we examined the effects of copper treatment on the composition of the sponge-associated bacterial community and the genetic features that facilitate the survival of enriched bacteria under copper stress. The 16S

  12. Constitutive Activation of the Midgut Response to Bacillus thuringiensis in Bt-Resistant Spodoptera exigua

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez-Martinez, P.; Navarro-Cerrillo, G.; Caccia, S.; Maagd, de R.A.; Moar, W.J.; Ferre, J.; Escriche, B.; Herrero, S.

    2010-01-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis is the most effective microbial control agent for controlling numerous species from different insect orders. The main threat for the long term use of B. thuringiensis in pest control is the ability of insects to develop resistance. Thus, the identification of insect genes

  13. Spin glass: thermal properties and characterization of the ± J Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model partition function zeros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria, A.C. de.

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study of the S-K model through the analysis of the zeros of the partition function in the complex temperature plane is performed. By the exact way, the notable thermodynamical properties of the system to a variety of the length (N=5→25 spins) are calculated, using only standards concepts (without the use of tricks like that of replicas). Dilute models had been also considered. The principal result of this work is the characterization of the zeros of the partition function of the S-K model. (author)

  14. Professional Development of New Higher Education Teachers with Information and Communication Technology in Shanghai: A Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Bian; Hu, Yiling; Gu, Xiaoqing; Lim, Cher Ping

    2016-01-01

    As information and communication technology (ICT) continues to develop, it is essential for teachers to acquire ability for teaching with ICT. In China, new higher education (HE) teachers often lack teaching experience because there are limited teaching opportunities during their postgraduate studies. This status quo may compromise the quality of…

  15. Adaptation of Kirkpatrick's Four Level Model of Training Criteria to Assessment of Learning Outcomes and Program Evaluation in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Praslova, Ludmila

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of educational effectiveness provides vitally important feedback to Institutions of Higher Education. It also provides important information to external stakeholders, such as prospective students, parents, governmental and local regulatory entities, professional and regional accrediting organizations, and representatives of the…

  16. Bracovirus derived genes in the genome of Spodoptera exigua Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and their role in host susceptibility to pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Gasmi, Laila

    2015-01-01

    La asociación entre los himenópteros parasitoides, polydnavirus (PDV) y lepidópteros representa un modelo interesante para estudiar la transferencia horizontal de genes. Está bien documentado que miles de himenópteros parasitoides pertenecientes a las familias Braconidae e Ichneumonidae han domesticado virus simbióticos denominados respectivamente Bracovirus o Ichnovirus. El virus se inyecta junto con los huevos del parásito en el hemocele del lepidóptero huésped, donde se expresan proteínas ...

  17. Rac1 mediates cytokine-stimulated hemocyte spreading via prostaglandin biosynthesis in the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cell spreading is an integral component of insect hemocytic immune reactions to infections and invasions. Cell spreading is accomplished by cytoskeleton rearrangement, which is activated by three major immune mediators, biogenic monoamines, plasmatocyte-spreading peptide (PSP), and eicosanoids, part...

  18. Genome sequence of an enhancin gene-rich nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) from Agrotis segetum: collinearity with Spodoptera exigua multiple NPV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jakubowska, A.K.; Peters, S.A.; Ziemnicka, J.; Vlak, J.M.; Oers, van M.M.

    2006-01-01

    The genome sequence of a Polish isolate of Agrotis segetum nucleopolyhedrovirus (AgseNPV-A) was determined and analysed. The circular genome is composed of 147 544 bp and has a G+C content of 45¿7 mol%. It contains 153 putative, non-overlapping open reading frames (ORFs) encoding predicted proteins

  19. Bacillus thuringiensis Cry1Ca-resistant Spodoptera exigua lacks expression of one of four Aminopeptidase N genes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrero, S.; Gechev, T.; Bakker, P.L.; Moar, W.; Maagd, de R.A.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Insecticidal toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis bind to receptors on midgut epithelial cells of susceptible insect larvae. Aminopeptidases N (APNs) from several insect species have been shown to be putative receptors for these toxins. Here we report the cloning and expression analysis of

  20. Bacterial diversity associated with Cinachyra cavernosa and Haliclona pigmentifera, cohabiting sponges in the coral reef ecosystem of Gulf of Mannar, southeast coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jasmin, C; Anas, A.; Nair, S.

    1.97). UniFrac analysis confirmed the difference in bacterial diversity of the two sponge species and also between the sponges and the reef water(p<0.001). The results of our study restate the existence of a host driven force in shaping the sponge...

  1. Evaluation of the Effectiveness of a First Aid Health Volunteers' Training Programme Using Kirkpatrick's Model: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizeshfar, Fatemeh; Momennasab, Marzieh; Yektatalab, Shahrzad; Iman, Mohamad Taghi

    2018-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a health volunteers' complementary training programme on first aid. Design: Quasi-experimental study. Setting: A comprehensive health centre in the southwest of Iran. Method: The study was conducted in the second half of 2015 with all 25 health volunteers in the Qamar Bani Hashem…

  2. Large-grazing-angle, multi-image Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope as the front end to a high-resolution streak camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D.D.

    2003-01-01

    A high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX - a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  3. Large-Grazing-Angle, Multi-Image Kirkpatrick-Baez Microscope as the Front End to a High-Resolution Streak Camera for OMEGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotchev, O.V.; Hayes, L.J.; Jaanimagi, P.A.; Knauer, J.P.; Marshall, F.J.; Meyerhofer, D. D.

    2003-01-01

    (B204)A new, high-resolution x-ray microscope with a large grazing angle has been developed, characterized, and fielded at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. It increases the sensitivity and spatial resolution in planar direct-drive hydrodynamic stability experiments, relevant to inertial confinement fusion (ICF) research. It has been designed to work as the optical front end of the PJX-a high-current, high-dynamic-range x-ray streak camera. Optical design optimization, results from numerical ray tracing, mirror-coating choice, and characterization have been described previously [O. V. Gotchev, et al./Rev. Sci. Instrum. 74, 2178 (2003)]. This work highlights the optics' unique mechanical design and flexibility and considers certain applications that benefit from it. Characterization of the microscope's resolution in terms of its modulation transfer function (MTF) over the field of view is shown. Recent results from hydrodynamic stability experiments, diagnosed with the optic and the PJX, are provided to confirm the microscope's advantages as a high-resolution, high-throughput x-ray optical front end for streaked imaging

  4. David Kirkpatrick, Efekt Facebooka, przekład Michał Lipa, Warszawa, Wydawnictwo Wolters Kluwer Polska, 2011, 360 s., ISBN 978-83-264-1173-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Banaśkiewicz

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Autorka recenzji analizuje publikację poświęconą portalowi społecznościowemu Facebook. Prezentuje ważniejsze problemy poruszone w książce, proponuje typologię funkcji portalu oraz rekonstruuje sylwetkę prezentującą postać Marka Zuckerberga - twórcy tytułowego serwisu.English abstractThe author of this reviews tells about a book publication dedicated to the social networking Facebook. Presents important issues raised in the book, proposes a typology of portal functionality and grade figures showing Mark Zuckerberg - creator of this website.

  5. Towards onions and shallots (Allium cepa L.) resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner) by transgenesis and conventional breeding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, S.J.

    2000-01-01

    Onion ( Allium cepa L. group Common Onion) and shallot ( A. cepa L. group Aggregatum) are two subspecies of A. cepa . Both onion and shallot together with other Allium species like garlic ( A.

  6. PROPIEDADES ENTOMOTÓXICAS DE LOS EXTRACTOS VEGETALES DE Azaradichta indica, Piper auritum y Petiveria alliacea PARA EL CONTROL DE Spodoptera exigua Hübner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Delgado Barreto

    2012-01-01

    porcentajes de mortalidad para A. indica, P. auritum y P. alliacea fueron 38.88, 28.8 y 21.22 %, respectivamente; la misma tendencia que en condiciones de laboratorio, se encontró en campo. La CL50 mostró que el extracto metanólico de A. indica fue el más tóxico (4.03 ppm, y le siguió en efectividad el de P. auritum (42.08 ppm. En campo, la CL50 de los extractos metanólico de A. indica, P. auritum y P. alliaceae fueron 9.61, 21.21 y 104.1 ppm, respectivamente.

  7. Baculovirus PTP2 functions as a pro-apoptotic protein

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Yue; Houte, van Stineke; Oers, van Monique M.; Ros, Vera I.D.

    2018-01-01

    The family Baculoviridae encompasses a large number of invertebrate viruses, mainly infecting caterpillars of the order Lepidoptera. The baculovirus Spodoptera exigua multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (SeMNPV) induces physiological and behavioral changes in its host Spodoptera exigua, as well as

  8. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke; Sun, Jin; Lee, On On; Yim, Him Wong; Qian, Pei Yuan

    2011-01-01

    ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria

  9. The development of a reproducible Agrobacterium tumefaciens transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and the production of transgenic garlic resistant to beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hübner)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng Sijun, S.J.; Henken, B.; Ahn, Y.K.; Krens, F.A.; Kik, C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a reliable transformation system for garlic (Allium sativum L.) and its application in producing insect resistant GM garlic lines. The transformation system is based on Agrobacterium tumefaciens as a vector, using young callus derived from different callus

  10. Algunas citas recientes de especies del género Phoma Sacc. en Catalunya

    OpenAIRE

    Nadal i Puigdefabregas, Martí

    1991-01-01

    Se citan 14 táxones del género Phoma (Ph. cava, Ph. epicoccinu, Ph. exigua, Ph.exigua var. foveata, Ph. glomerata, Ph. hedericola, Ph. herbarum, Ph. jolyana, Ph. leveillei, Ph. lycopersici, Ph. macrostoma, Ph. medicaginis var. pinodella, Ph. pomorum y Ph.tracheiphila). Para cada uno de los táxones se indica la fecha de recolección y la especie vegetal sobre la cual se desarrollaba. On cite 14 taxons du genre Phoma (Ph. cava, Ph. epicoccina, Ph. exigua, Ph.exigua var. foveata, Ph. glomerata...

  11. 77 FR 2539 - Pesticide Experimental Use Permit; Receipt of Application; Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-18

    ...), tobacco budworm (Heliothis virescens), pink bollworm (Pectinophora gossypiella), fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda), and beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua). A copy of the application and any information submitted...

  12. Final Technical Report

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Tommy Ngai

    2014-03-31

    Mar 31, 2014 ... framework, based on the Kirkpatrick model (Kirkpatrick, D.L. ..... organizations provide education and training services in water and sanitation. .... Although this resulted in slightly more complicated administrative processes, the new structure ..... water and sanitation supplies in rural sub-Saharan Africa.

  13. Family Caregivers as Lay Trainers: Perceptions of Learning and the Relationship between Life Experience and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Simone C.O.; Johaningsmeir, Sarah; Colby, Holly; Gordon, John

    2014-01-01

    This article describes an initiative to train lay people, predominantly parents of children and youth with special health care needs (CYSHCN), to teach "Bridge to Independence"--a care coordination curriculum--to other family caregivers of CYSHCN. Using a model based on Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's levels of evaluation, the goal…

  14. Carbon conversion and metabolic rate in two marine sponges

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, M.; Van Rijswijk, P.; Martens, D.; Egorova-Zachernyuk, T.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Wijffels, R.H.

    2011-01-01

    The carbon metabolism of two marine sponges, Haliclona oculata and Dysidea avara, has been studied using a 13C isotope pulse-chase approach. The sponges were fed 13C-labeled diatoms (Skeletonema costatum) for 8 h and they took up between 75 and 85%. At different times, sponges were sampled for total

  15. Haplosclerida (Porifera: Demospongiae) from the coast of Maranhao State, Brazil, Southwestern Atlantic.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campos, M.; Mothes, B.; Eckert, R.; van Soest, R.W.M.

    2005-01-01

    This work deals with haplosclerid sponges off the coast of Maranhão State, northeastern coast of Brazilian shelf (southwestern Atlantic). A new species is described, Haliclona (Halichoclona) lernerae. Four species are recorded for the first time for the Brazilian coast: Amphimedon caribica

  16. 78 FR 31479 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Designation of Critical Habitat for Leavenworthia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ... outcrops in an area of the Caneyville- Crider soil association (Whitaker and Waters 1986, p. 16). Baskin.... exigua var. laciniata populations and habitat from impacts such as sedimentation, erosion, and... [[Page 31487

  17. Reflective Optics for Microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ice, G.E.

    2007-01-01

    Nondispersive optics are essential for emerging microdiffraction and nanobeam research. Here we describe extensions to traditional Kirkpatrick Baez optics required to develop nondispersive microdiffraction and nanoprobe optics with 1-10 nm spatial resolution

  18. 76 FR 17584 - Approval and Promulgation of Implementation Plans; Oklahoma; Regional Haze State Implementation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    ..., Springlake Campus, Business Conference Center, Meeting Rooms H and I, 1900 Springlake Drive, Oklahoma City... Campus, Business Conference Center, Meeting Rooms H and I, 1900 Springlake Drive, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma... City Zoo and Kirkpatrick Center. Parking for the [[Page 17585

  19. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to undertake the initial development of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) type X-ray mirror using the relatively recent availability of high quality, inexpensive,...

  20. Silicon Wafer X-ray Mirror

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose to undertake the initial development of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) type X-ray mirror using the relatively recent availability of high quality, inexpensive,...

  1. Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of five marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC fingerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood; Mahdian; Milad; Iranshahy; Abolfazl; Shakeri; Azar; Hoseini; Hoda; Yavari; Melika; Nazemi; Mehrdad; Iranshahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells.Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata(I. echinata), Dysidea avara,Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf(Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths(254 and 280 nm).Results: Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties.Conclusions: I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy.Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.

  2. Cytotoxicity evaluation of extracts and fractions of ifve marine sponges from the Persian Gulf and HPLC ifngerprint analysis of cytotoxic extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Davood Mahdian; Milad Iranshahy; Abolfazl Shakeri; Azar Hoseini; Hoda Yavari; Melika Nazemi; Mehrdad Iranshahi

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To screen the cytotoxic effects of some marine sponges extracts on HeLa and PC12 cells. Methods: Five marine sponges including Ircinia echinata (I. echinata), Dysidea avara, Axinella sinoxea, Haliclona tubifera and Haliclona violacea were collected from the Persian Gulf (Hengam Island). The cytotoxic effect of these sponges was evaluated by using MTT assay. The metabolic high performance liquid chromatography fingerprint of I. echinata was also carried out at two wavelengths (254 and 280 nm). Results:Among the sponges tested in this study, the extracts of I. echinata and Dysidea avara possessed the cytotoxic effect on HeLa and PC12 cells. The obtained fractions from high performance liquid chromatography were evaluated for their cytotoxic properties against the cell lines. The isolated fractions did not show significant cytotoxic properties. Conclusions:I. echinata could be considered as a potential extract for chemotherapy. Further investigation is needed to determine the accuracy of mechanism.

  3. Identification of an entomopathogenic bacterium, Serratia sp. ANU101, and its hemolytic activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yonggyun; Kim, Keunseob; Seo, Jiae; Shrestha, Sony; Kim, Hosanna H; Nalini, Madanagopal; Yi, Youngkeun

    2009-03-01

    Four different bacterial colonies were isolated from an old stock of an entomopathogenic nematode, Steinernema monticolum. They all showed entomopathogenicity to final instar larvae of beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, by hemocoelic injection. However, they varied in colony form, susceptibility to antibiotics, and postmortem change of the infected host insects. Biolog microbial identification and 16S rDNA sequence analyses indicate that these are four different species classified into different bacterial genera. owing to high entomopathogenicity and a cadaver color of infected insect host, Serratia sp. was selected as a main symbiotic bacterial species and analyzed for its pathogenicity. Although no virulence of Serratia sp. was detected at oral administration, the bacteria gave significant synergistic pathogenicity to fifth instar S. exigua when it was treated along with a spore-forming entomopathogenic bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis. The synergistic effect was explained by an immunosuppressive effect of Serratia sp. by its high cytotoxic effect on hemocytes of S. exigua, because Serratia sp. caused septicemia of S. exigua when the bacterial cells were injected into S. exigua hemocoel. The cytotoxic factor(s) was present in the culture medium because the sterilized culture broth possessed high potency in the cytotoxicity, which was specific to granular cells and plasmatocytes, two main immune-associated hemocytes in insects.

  4. Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Vernonia amygdalina L. in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was carried out on the use of Vernonia amygdalina del. extract to control fungi associated with groundnut (Arachis hypogeae L) seeds. Aspergillus niger van Tiegh, A. flavus link ex fries, Cercospora arachidicola Hori, Phoma exigua desm., Macrophomina phaseolina (Tassi) Goid, Fusarium oxysporium schl., ...

  5. Application of a frequency distribution method for determining instars of the beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from widths of cast head capsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y. Chen; S. J. Seybold

    2013-01-01

    Instar determination of field-collected insect larvae has generally been based on the analysis of head capsule width frequency distributions or bivariate plotting, but few studies have tested the validity of such methods. We used head capsules from exuviae of known instars of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae),...

  6. Evaluation of the potential of Trichoderma viride in the control of fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad Parizi, T; Ansaria, Mehdi; Elaminejad, Tahereh

    2012-04-01

    The potential of Trichoderma viride as a bio-control agent was evaluated in vitro against Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani[1] using the dual culture technique. Volatile and non-volatile inhibitors of Trichoderma were also evaluated for this purpose. T. viride[2] was shown to have a marked inhibitory effect on the tested pathogens in vitro. Maximum inhibition occurred against P. exigua, with 71.76% reduction in mycelial radial growth. The three pathogens, P. exigua, F. nygamai and R. solani were also found to be susceptible to the volatile inhibitors produced by T. viride, giving rise to growth inhibition of about 68% in each case. When T. viride non-volatile metabolites were tested against the pathogens, maximum inhibition occurred against R. solani (73.95% mycelial growth inhibition), followed by P. exigua (37.17% inhibition). The inhibitory effect of the non-volatile metabolites on F. nygamai was, however, minimal. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Morphological characteristics and pathogenicity of fungi associated with Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa) diseases in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslaminejad, Touba; Zakaria, Maziah

    2011-11-01

    Roselle, or Jamaica sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) is a popular vegetable in many tropical regions, cultivated for its leaves, seeds, stems and calyces which, the dried calyces are used to prepare tea, syrup, jams and jellies and as beverages. The main objectives of this study were to identify and characterise fungal pathogens associated with Roselle diseases based on their morphological and cultural characteristics and to determine the pathogenicity of four fungi infecting Roselle seedlings, namely Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai, Fusarium tgcq and Rhizoctonia solani in Penang. A total of 200 fungal isolates were obtained from 90 samples of symptomatic Roselle tissues. The isolates were identified based on cultural and morphological characteristics, as well as their pathogenicity. The fungal pathogen most frequently isolated was P. exigua (present in 45% of the samples), followed by F. nygamai (25%), Rhizoctonia solani (19%) and F. camptoceras (11%). Pathogenicity tests showed that P. exigua, F. nygamai, F. camptoceras and R. solani were able to infect both wounded and unwounded seedlings with different degrees of severity as indicated by the Disease severity (DS). R. solani was the most pathogenic fungus affecting both wounded and unwounded Roselle seedlings, followed by P. exigua that was highly pathogenic on wounded seedlings. F. nygamai was less pathogenic while the least pathogenic fungus was F. camptoceras, infecting only the unwounded seedlings but, surprisingly, not the wounded plants. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore induced volatiles in Zea mays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defense mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of atmospheric changes on this form of plant defense. To in...

  9. Translation of both 5'TOP and non-TOP host mRNAs continues into the late phase of Baculovirus infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oers, van M.M.; Doitsidou, M.; Thomas, A.A.M.; Maagd, de R.A.; Vlak, J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Complete cDNA sequences were obtained for ribosomal protein (rp) L15 and eukaryotic initiation factor eIF2 from the lepidopteran insect Spodoptera frugiperda, and for elongation factor eEF2 from S. exigua. The presence of a 5' terminal oligopyrimidine (TOP) tract classified the lepidopteran rpL15

  10. Different domains of Bacillus thuringiensis delta-endotoxins can bind to insect midgut membrane proteins on ligand blots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maagd, de R.A.; Klei, van der H.; Bakker, P.L.; Stiekema, W.J.; Bosch, D.

    1996-01-01

    We investigated the role of the constituent domains of the CryIA(b) and CryIA(c) δ-endotoxins in binding to midgut epithelial cell membrane proteins of Spodoptera exigua and Manduca sexta on ligand blots. A collection of wild- type and CryIC-CryIA hybrid toxins was used for this purpose. As

  11. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    potentially new strains were isolated from 11 sponge species ... several times in sterile seawater to remove any tran- ... broth via a DNA Isolation Kit (UltraClean Microbial, ... Media composition for the isolation of actinomycetes from Neopetrosia exigua and Spheciospongia vagabunda. ...... Chapman and Hall, New York.

  12. OBSERVATIONS ON THE SUSCEPTIBILITY OF SOME WILD SPECIES OF THE GENUS NICOTINA AND OF SOME VARIETIES OF NICOTIANA TABACUM L. AND N. RUSTICA L. TO BLUE MOULD (PERONOSPORA TABACINA ADAM) -- PULAWY 1962

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicotiana , no manifestations of the mould were observed on the species of N. debneyi and N. exigua. Very weak symptoms appeared in N. paniculata and N... plumbaginifolia . In the group of cigarette-tobacco varieties only the Hicks Resistant and Hicks fixed A2 (varieties of Australian origin, obtained by

  13. REAÇÃO DA PINHA (Annona squamosa L. A TRÊS ESPÉCIES DE FITONEMATÓIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.R. Monteiro

    1996-05-01

    Full Text Available Em ensaio conduzido em vasos, a céu aberto, estudou-se a reação de Annona squamosa em relação a três nematóides fitoparasitos. As plantas foram inoculadas com 10.000 exemplares de Radopholus similis, Rotylenchulus reniformis ou Meloidogyne exigua por recipiente. Avaliaram-se, após três meses da inoculação, a altura das plantas, o peso fresco do sistema radicular e o número de nematóides nas raízes e no solo. O estudo revelou que a Annona squamosa comportou-se como resistente a Rotylenchulus reniformis e a Meloidogyne exigua, e intolerante a Radopholus similis.The host reaction of custard apple (Annona squamosa to three species of nematodes was studied. The plants were inoculated with 10,000 specimens per plant of Radopholus similis, Rotylenchulus reniformis or Meloidogyne exigua. Nematode population and plant growth parameters were evaluated three months later. The results showed that custard apple was resistent to Rotylenchulus reniformis and Meloidogyne exigua but intolerant to Radopholus similis.

  14. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Temporal variation in abundance and mean proloculus diameter of the benthic foraminiferal species Epistominella exigua has been reconstructed over the last ∼ 50,000 yr BP,from a core collected from the distal Bay of Bengal fan,to assess its potential application in palaeoceanographic reconstruction studies.

  15. Mechanism of resistance to synthetic pyrethroids in buffalo flies in south-east Queensland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffalo fly (Haematobia irritans exigua) and horn fly (Haematobia irritans irritans) cause irritation and production loss in much of the cattle producing area of the world. In Australia losses from buffalo fly were recently estimated at A$78m per year. Control is largely performed by using organoph...

  16. Interactive effects of above- and belowground herbivory and plant competition on plant growth and defence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jing, Y.; Raaijmakers, C.; Kostenko, O.; Kos, M.; Mulder, P.P.J.; Bezemer, T.M.

    2015-01-01

    Competition and herbivory are two major factors that can influence plant growth and plant defence. Although these two factors are often studied separately, they do not operate independently. We examined how aboveground herbivory by beet armyworm larvae (Spodoptera exigua) and belowground herbivory

  17. RNAi-based silencing of genes encoding the vacuolar- ATPase ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-11-09

    Nov 9, 2016 ... Spodoptera exigua larval development by silencing chitin synthase gene with RNA interference. Bull. Entomol. Res. 98:613-619. Dow JAT (1999). The Multifunctional Drosophila melanogaster V-. ATPase is encoded by a multigene family. J. Bioenerg. Biomembr. 31:75-83. Fire A, Xu SQ, Montgomery MK, ...

  18. In silico approaches in the identification of Cryptococcus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    taylorsadmin

    2012-06-07

    Jun 7, 2012 ... alignment was performed using the Clustal W software. exigua and Spodoptera litura based on the knowledge of highly conserved chemoreceptors in Drosophila melanogaster. Their research group employed bioinformatics approaches to identify the desired sequences and web-based TMHMM software to.

  19. The resistance of insects to plant proteinase inhibitors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongsma, M.A.

    1995-01-01

    The research reported in this thesis describes the induction of proteinase inhibitor synthesis in solanaceous plants (tobacco and tomato), when lepidopteran larvae (Manduca sexta and Spodoptera exigua) are feeding on leaves. It is shown that the

  20. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflections optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1983-01-01

    The role of Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices is discussed. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  1. X-ray microscopy using grazing-incidence reflection optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    The Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes are described along with their role as the workhorse of the x-ray imaging devices. This role is being extended with the development of a 22X magnification Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray microscope with multilayer x-ray mirrors. These mirrors can operate at large angles, high x-ray energies, and have a narrow, well defined x-ray energy bandpass. This will make them useful for numerous experiments. However, where a large solid angle is needed, the Woelter microscope will still be necessary and the technology needed to build them will be useful for many other types of x-ray optics

  2. The three-box paradox revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ravon, Tamar; Vaidman, Lev

    2007-01-01

    The classical three-box paradox of Kirkpatrick (2003 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 36 4891) is compared to the original quantum three-box paradox of Aharonov and Vaidman (1991 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 24 2315). It is argued that the quantum three-box experiment is a 'quantum paradox' in the sense that it is an example of a classical task which cannot be accomplished using classical means, but can be accomplished using quantum devices. It is shown that Kirkpatrick's card game is analogous to a different game with a particle in three boxes which does not contain paradoxical features

  3. Design of KB complex type microscope for ICF x-ray diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qing; Mu, Baozhong; Li, Yaran; Huang, Qiushi; Wang, Zhanshan; Cao, Zhurong; Dong, Jianjun; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2016-09-01

    In the field of target diagnostics for Initial Confinement Fusion experiment, high resolution X-ray imaging system is seriously necessary to record the evolution details of target ablation-front disturbance at different energy points of backlight conditions. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror is a wide used imaging system to achieve a large efficient field of view with high spatial resolution and energy transmitting capability. In this paper, we designed a novel type of reflective microscope based on Kirkpatrick-Baez structure, and this system can achieve 5μm spatial resolution at 600μm field of view specific energy point in one dimension.

  4. New records of five sponge species (Porifera) for the Black Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evcen, Alper; Çinar, Melih Ertan; Zengin, Mustafa; Süer, Serdar; Rüzgar, Melih

    2016-04-13

    The present study deals with five sponge species [Chalinula renieroides, Haliclona (Halichoclona) fulva, H. (Rhizoniera) rosea, Hymedesmia (Hymedesmia) pansa and Ircinia variabilis] belonging to 3 families (Chalinidae, Hymedesmiidae, and Irciniidae) found at one locality (near the opening of Kızılırmak River) on the Black Sea coast of Turkey. All these species are new records for the Black Sea. Three species (Chalinula renieroides, H. (R.) rosea and H. (H.) pansa] are also new records for the marine fauna of Turkey. All these species were previously reported from Mediterranean Sea and the eastern Atlantic Ocean. The morphological and distributional features of these species are presented.

  5. Differences in Nicotine Metabolism of Two Nicotiana attenuata Herbivores Render Them Differentially Susceptible to a Common Native Predator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Rathi, Preeti; Schöttner, Matthias; Baldwin, Ian T.; Pandit, Sagar

    2014-01-01

    Background Nicotiana attenuata is attacked by larvae of both specialist (Manduca sexta) and generalist (Spodoptera exigua) lepidopteran herbivores in its native habitat. Nicotine is one of N. attenuata's important defenses. M. sexta is highly nicotine tolerant; whether cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated oxidative detoxification and/or rapid excretion is responsible for its exceptional tolerance remains unknown despite five decades of study. Recently, we demonstrated that M. sexta uses its nicotine-induced CYP6B46 to efflux midgut-nicotine into the hemolymph, facilitating nicotine exhalation that deters predatory wolf spiders (Camptocosa parallela). S. exigua's nicotine metabolism is uninvestigated. Methodology/Principal Findings We compared the ability of these two herbivores to metabolize, tolerate and co-opt ingested nicotine for defense against the wolf spider. In addition, we analyzed the spider's excretion to gain insights into its nicotine metabolism. Contrary to previous reports, we found that M. sexta larvae neither accumulate the common nicotine oxides (cotinine, cotinine N-oxide and nicotine N-oxide) nor excrete them faster than nicotine. In M. sexta larvae, ingestion of nicotine as well as its oxides increases the accumulation of CYP6B46 transcripts. In contrast, S. exigua accumulates nicotine oxides and exhales less (66%) nicotine than does M. sexta. Spiders prefer nicotine-fed S. exigua over M. sexta, a preference reversed by topical or headspace nicotine supplementation, but not ingested or topically-coated nicotine oxides, suggesting that externalized nicotine but not the nicotine detoxification products deter spider predation. The spiders also do not accumulate nicotine oxides. Conclusions Nicotine oxidation reduces S. exigua's headspace-nicotine and renders it more susceptible to predation by spiders than M. sexta, which exhales unmetabolized nicotine. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that generalist herbivores incur costs of

  6. A Systematic Literature Review of Faculty Development for Teacher Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuong, Tam T.; Cole, S. Catherine; Zarestky, Jill

    2018-01-01

    Although ample literature exists regarding the effectiveness of faculty development (FD) activities, there is a gap in the literature synthesizing its outcomes. This review, using a predetermined review protocol, analyzed 22 publications on FD for teacher educators using Kirkpatrick's training evaluation taxonomy. We found that North American…

  7. Using Outdoor Adventure Education to Develop Students' Groupwork Skills: A Quantitative Exploration of Reaction and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sam J.; Burns, Victoria E.; Cumming, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the initial development of groupwork skills through outdoor adventure education (OAE) and the factors that predict the extent of this development, using the first two levels of Kirkpatrick's model of training evaluation. University students (N = 238) completed questionnaires measuring their initial reactions to OAE (Level 1…

  8. Developing the Model for Optimal Learning and Transfer (MOLT) Following an Evaluation of Outdoor Groupwork Skills Programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Sam Joseph; Cumming, Jennifer; Holland, Mark J. G.; Burns, Victoria E.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to evaluate the perceived efficacy of outdoor groupwork skills programmes for the undergraduate and postgraduate students, and the factors that influence its success. It also illustrates the use of Kirkpatrick's (1994) 4-level model of training evaluation as a framework for qualitative investigation of learning and…

  9. Asset Allocation to Cover a Region of Piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    1087-1092. 8. Kirkpatrick, S., Optimization by Simulated Annealing. Science, 1983. 220(4598): p. 671-680. 9. Daskin , M. S., A bibliography for some...... a uniform piracy risk and where some areas are more vulnerable than others. Simulated annealing was used to allocate the patrolling naval assets

  10. Fatal Syngamus trachea Infection in a Barn Owl (Tyto alba) in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    in a Pea fowl (Pavo cristatus) ZooPrint Journal 18(9):1204. TARELLO, W. (2008). Efficacy of ivermectins against intestinal capillariosis in falcons Parasite 15(2):. 171-174. WELTE, S.C. and KIRKPATRICK, C.E.. (1986) Syngamiasis injuvenile American robins (Turdus migratorius) with a note on prevalence of other faecal ...

  11. 75 FR 4844 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    .... Mr. Charles J. Weir. Mr. Barry A. Passett. Mr. James G. McCleaf, II. Mr. John A. Ziegler. Mrs. Mary E.... Gilford. Brother James Kirkpatrick. Dr. George E. Lewis, Jr. Mr. Charles D. McElrath. Ms. Patricia Schooley. Mr. Jack Reeder. Ms. Merrily Pierce. Topics that will be presented during the meeting include: 1...

  12. 75 FR 65376 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    .... Charles J. Weir Mr. Barry A. Passett Mr. James G. McCleaf II Mr. John A. Ziegler Mrs. Mary E. Woodward Mrs... Kirkpatrick Dr. George E. Lewis, Jr. Mr. Charles D. McElrath Ms. Patricia Schooley Mr. Jack Reeder Ms. Merrily Pierce Topics that will be presented during the meeting include: 1. Update on park operations. 2. Update...

  13. 75 FR 41520 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... Rabb Weidenfeld, Chairperson Mr. Charles J. Weir Mr. Barry A. Passett Mr. James G. McCleaf II Mr. John... Reynolds Dr. James H. Gilford Brother James Kirkpatrick Dr. George E. Lewis, Jr. Mr. Charles D. McElrath Ms. Patricia Schooley Mr. Jack Reeder Ms. Merrily Pierce Topics that will be presented during the meeting...

  14. 75 FR 17158 - Chesapeake and Ohio Canal National Historical Park Advisory Commission; Notice of Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... members of the Commission are as follows: Mrs. Sheila Rabb Weidenfeld, Chairperson. Mr. Charles J. Weir... Kirkpatrick. Dr. George E. Lewis, Jr. Mr. Charles D. McElrath. Ms. Patricia Schooley. Mr. Jack Reeder. Ms. Merrily Pierce. Topics that will be presented during the meeting include: 1. Update on park operations. 2...

  15. Microcomputer Interfaces with U.S. Marine Corps Tactical Communications Systems,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-04-01

    Schneider and Mrs. Kirkpatrick at the Communications officer School Quantico, Virginia This document has been approvedf or p,bic Yleaze cncd sae; its...communications systems; however, there is not a comprehensive USMC Command, Control, Communications, and Computers (C4) operational policy that documents these...5-6 COMMUNICATIONS SYSTEMS .... ............. 5-6 ADP SYSTEMS ....... .................. 5-6 OPERATIONAL POLICIES

  16. Is there a delocalization transition in a two-dimensional model for quantum percolation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dasgupta, I.; Saha, T.; Mookerjee, A.; Chakrabarti, B.K.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, the authors estimate the transmittance of the quantum percolation model of Eggarter and Kirkpatrick on the square lattice of various sizes using the vector recursion method. The authors note from finite size scaling that there is no delocalization transition for any degree of disorder in two dimensions

  17. An Attachment Theory Approach to Narrating the Faith Journey of Children of Parental Divorce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiesling, Chris

    2011-01-01

    This study explores the effects of parental divorce on a child's faith. Drawing from attachment theory, Granqvist and Kirkpatrick proposed two probable developmental pathways to religion. For those with secure attachment, whose cumulative experiences of sensitive, religious caregivers enhance the development of a God image as loving; belief…

  18. 75 FR 36089 - Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ... FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM [OP-1385] Payment System Risk Policy; Daylight Overdraft Posting Rules... Payment System Risk Policy, the Board is announcing posting rules for a new same-day automated clearing... Kirkpatrick, Senior Financial Services Analyst, Payment System Risk (202-452-2796), or Jennifer Davidson...

  19. WEDC International Conference Paper

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Brittany Coff

    2013-03-01

    Mar 1, 2013 ... sanitation technology: Case studies in Nepal and Peru ... framework was applied to evaluate CAWST's training activities in Peru and Nepal. ... Studies at Mount Royal University (MRU) has collaborated to address this research problem. Objectives ... For example, for Kirkpatrick level 1 the interviewees were.

  20. Big Data, Small Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grant Bollmer

    2014-08-01

    Andrew Dubber Radio in the Digital Age Polity, Cambridge, 2013   Charles Ess Digital Media Ethics, Second Edition Polity, Cambridge, 2014   Graeme Kirkpatrick Computer Games and the Social Imaginary Polity, Cambridge, 2013   Dhiraj Murthy Twitter: Social Communication in the Twitter Age Polity, Cambrige, 2013   Jill Walker Rettberg Blogging, Second Edition Polity, Cambridge, 2014

  1. Providing Demonstrable Return-on-Investment for Organisational Learning and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Michael; Dawson, Ray; Edwards, Janet

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this paper is to present a holistic approach to training, that clearly demonstrates cost savings with improved effectiveness and efficiencies that are aligned to business objectives. Design/methodology/approach: Extending Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework with Phillips's return-on-investment (ROI) concepts, the paper conveys a…

  2. Thinking outside the Evaluation Box.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abernathy, Donna J.

    1999-01-01

    Discusses Donald J. Kirkpatrick's Level 4 evaluation model and how and whether to measure the value of training today. Suggests that a balanced view is needed to measure hard- and soft-skill performance gauges, tangible and intangible benefits, and long- and short-term results. (JOW)

  3. DVD-d / Rain Kooli

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kooli, Rain

    2008-01-01

    Uued DVD-d USA filmidest : põnevik "Laskur" ("Shooter"; režii Antoine Fuqua), joonisfilm "Üle heki" ("Over the Hedge", režii Tim Johnson, Karey Kirkpatrick), ulmefilm "Transformerid" ("Transformers", režii Michael Bay) ja dokfilm "Laulev revolutsioon" ("The Singing Revolution"; režii James Tusty, Maureen Castle Tusty)

  4. Mind Maps as Facilitative Tools in Science Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safar, Ammar H.; Jafer,Yaqoub J.; Alqadiri, Mohammad A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions, attitudes, and willingness of pre-service science teachers in the College of Education at Kuwait University about using concept/mind maps and its related application software as facilitative tools, for teaching and learning, in science education. The first level (i.e., reaction) of Kirkpatrick's/Phillips'…

  5. Oracle or Monacle: Research Concerning Attitudes Toward Feminism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Suzanne; Schmid, Margaret

    Both popular studies and more serious empirical studies of attitudes toward feminism are reviewed beginning with Clifford Kirkpatrick's early empirical work and including the more recent empirical studies completed since 1970. The review examines the contents of items used to measure feminism, and the methodology and sampling used in studies, as…

  6. An Evaluation System for the Online Training Programs in Meteorology and Hydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yong; Zhi, Xiefei

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies the current evaluation system for the online training program in meteorology and hydrology. CIPP model that includes context evaluation, input evaluation, process evaluation and product evaluation differs from Kirkpatrick model including reactions evaluation, learning evaluation, transfer evaluation and results evaluation in…

  7. Spin glasses and neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parga, N.; Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, San Carlos de Bariloche

    1989-01-01

    The mean-field theory of spin glass models has been used as a prototype of systems with frustration and disorder. One of the most interesting related systems are models of associative memories. In these lectures we review the main concepts developed to solve the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and its application to neural networks. (orig.)

  8. 76 FR 16420 - Ocean Transportation Intermediary License; Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-23

    ...), Andrew P. Bottomley, Managing Partner, Application Type: QI Change and Add OFF Service. All Transport... Type: New NVO & OFF License. Andrea Bigi dba AB Global Logistics Consulting (OFF), 1010 19th Street, 10.... Officers: Joanne Kirkpatrick, International Logistics Officer (Qualifying Individual), Jack R. Lentz, CEO...

  9. Metabolic Profiling as a Screening Tool for Cytotoxic Compounds: Identification of 3-Alkyl Pyridine Alkaloids from Sponges Collected at a Shallow Water Hydrothermal Vent Site North of Iceland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eydis Einarsdottir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight sponge specimens were collected at a shallow water hydrothermal vent site north of Iceland. Extracts were prepared and tested in vitro for cytotoxic activity, and eight of them were shown to be cytotoxic. A mass spectrometry (MS-based metabolomics approach was used to determine the chemical composition of the extracts. This analysis highlighted clear differences in the metabolomes of three sponge specimens, and all of them were identified as Haliclona (Rhizoniera rosea (Bowerbank, 1866. Therefore, these specimens were selected for further investigation. Haliclona rosea metabolomes contained a class of potential key compounds, the 3-alkyl pyridine alkaloids (3-APA responsible for the cytotoxic activity of the fractions. Several 3-APA compounds were tentatively identified including haliclamines, cyclostellettamines, viscosalines and viscosamines. Among these compounds, cyclostellettamine P was tentatively identified for the first time by using ion mobility MS in time-aligned parallel (TAP fragmentation mode. In this work, we show the potential of applying metabolomics strategies and in particular the utility of coupling ion mobility with MS for the molecular characterization of sponge specimens.

  10. Ultrasound-Guided Regional Anesthesia Simulation Training: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiao Xu; Trivedi, Vatsal; AlSaflan, AbdulHadi A; Todd, Suzanne Clare; Tricco, Andrea C; McCartney, Colin J L; Boet, Sylvain

    Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia (UGRA) has become the criterion standard of regional anesthesia practice. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia teaching programs often use simulation, and guidelines have been published to help guide URGA education. This systematic review aimed to examine the effectiveness of simulation-based education for the acquisition and maintenance of competence in UGRA. Studies identified in MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ERIC were included if they assessed simulation-based UGRA teaching with outcomes measured at Kirkpatrick level 2 (knowledge and skills), 3 (transfer of learning to the workplace), or 4 (patient outcomes). Two authors independently reviewed all identified references for eligibility, abstracted data, and appraised quality. After screening 176 citations and 45 full-text articles, 12 studies were included. Simulation-enhanced training improved knowledge acquisition (Kirkpatrick level 2) when compared with nonsimulation training. Seven studies measuring skill acquisition (Kirkpatrick level 2) found that simulation-enhanced UGRA training was significantly more effective than alternative teaching methods or no intervention. One study measuring transfer of learning into the clinical setting (Kirkpatrick level 3) found no difference between simulation-enhanced UGRA training and non-simulation-based training. However, this study was discontinued early because of technical challenges. Two studies examined patient outcomes (Kirkpatrick level 4), and one of these found that simulation-based UGRA training improved patient outcomes compared with didactic teaching. Ultrasound-guided regional anesthesia knowledge and skills significantly improved with simulation training. The acquired UGRA skills may be transferred to the clinical setting; however, further studies are required to confirm these changes translate to improved patient outcomes.

  11. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activities of Novel Phthalic Acid Diamides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫涛; 李玉新; 李永强; 王多义; 陈伟; 刘卓; 李正名

    2012-01-01

    In order to discover novel insecticides with the new action mode on ryanodine receptor (RyR), a series of novel phthalic acid diamide derivatives were designed and synthesized. All compounds were characterized by 1H NMR spectra and HRMS. The preliminary results of biological activity assessment indicated that some title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal activities against Mythimna separata, Spodoptera exigua, and Plutella xylostella. The title compound 3-nitro-N-cyclopropyl-N'-[2-methyl-4-(perfluoropropan-2-yl)phenyl]phthalamidte (4a) was more efficient against diamondback moths than the control (chlorantraniliprole). The effects of some title compounds on intracellular calcium of neurons from the Spodoptera exigua proved that the title compounds were RyR activators.

  12. Design, Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Phenylurea Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A series of novel phenylurea derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active groups linkage and the principle of aromatic groups bioisosterism in this study. The structures of the novel phenylurea derivatives were confirmed based on ESI-MS, IR and 1H-NMR spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for the insecticidal activity against the third instars larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner and Pieris rapae Linne respectively, at the concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed strong insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, chlorbenzuron and metaflumizone. Among the synthesized compounds, 3b, 3d, 3f, 4b and 4g displayed broad spectrum insecticidal activity.

  13. Design, Synthesis, and Insecticidal Activity of Some Novel Diacylhydrazine and Acylhydrazone Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialong Sun

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study a series of diacylhydrazine and acylhydrazone derivatives were designed and synthesized according to the method of active group combination and the principles of aromatic group bioisosterism. The structures of the novel derivatives were determined on the basis on 1H-NMR, IR and ESI-MS spectral data. All of the compounds were evaluated for their in vivo insecticidal activity against the third instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hiibner, Helicoverpa armigera Hubner, Plutella xyllostella Linnaeus and Pieris rapae Linne, respectively, at a concentration of 10 mg/L. The results showed that all of the derivatives displayed high insecticidal activity. Most of the compounds presented higher insecticidal activity against S. exigua than the reference compounds tebufenozide, metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad, and approximately identical insecticidal activity against H. armigera, P. xyllostella and P. rapae as the references metaflumizone and tolfenpyrad.

  14. Transmission of Different Nucleopolyhedroviruses by Two Ectoparasitoids – Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and Euplectrus plathypenae (Howard) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Emanouela E. Stoianova; Nikolay A. Balevski

    2010-01-01

    The transmission of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs) of Autographa gamma (AgNPV), Mamestra brassicae (MbNPV), Lacanobia oleraceae (LoNPV), Helicoverpa armigera (HaNPV) and Xantia c-nigrum (XnNPV) to their relevant larvae by the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetor and the transmission of the multiple-enveloped NPVs of Spodoptera exigua (SeMNPV) and Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV) by the ectoparasitoid Euplectrus plathypenae was examined. Two methods of contamination of the both parasitoids (exposure to ...

  15. Validation of reference genes for quantitative expression analysis by real-time rt-PCR in four lepidopteran insects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zan; He, Guiling; Yang, Liwen; Li, Fei

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is an efficient and widely used technique to monitor gene expression. Housekeeping genes (HKGs) are often empirically selected as the reference genes for data normalization. However, the suitability of HKGs used as the reference genes has been seldom validated. Here, six HKGs were chosen (actin A3, actin A1, GAPDH, G3PDH, E2F, rp49) in four lepidopteran insects Bombyx mori L. (Lepidoptera: Bombycidae), Plutella xylostella L. (Plutellidae), Chilo suppressalis Walker (Crambidae), and Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Noctuidae) to study their expression stability. The algorithms of geNorm, NormFinder, stability index, and ΔCt analysis were used to evaluate these HKGs. Across different developmental stages, actin A1 was the most stable in P. xylostella and C. suppressalis, but it was the least stable in B. mori and S. exigua. Rp49 and GAPDH were the most stable in B. mori and S. exigua, respectively. In different tissues, GAPDH, E2F, and Rp49 were the most stable in B. mori, S. exigua, and C. suppressalis, respectively. The relative abundances of Siwi genes estimated by 2(-ΔΔCt) method were tested with different HKGs as the reference gene, proving the importance of internal controls in qPCR data analysis. The results not only presented a list of suitable reference genes in four lepidopteran insects, but also proved that the expression stabilities of HKGs were different among evolutionarily close species. There was no single universal reference gene that could be used in all situations. It is indispensable to validate the expression of HKGs before using them as the internal control in qPCR.

  16. Vegetation Resources of Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Adams County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-01

    SUCCULENTS Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Table 4 .(cont’d.) Scientific Name Common Name Family Name Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae...Lycium halimitolium Matrim~ony Bush Solanceae Salix exigua Coyote Willow Salicaceae CACTI AND SUCCULENTS Coryphantha vivipara Ball Cactus Cactaceae ...Qpuntia compressa Prickly Pear Cactus Cactaceae Opuntia polyacantha Plains Prickly Pear Cactaceae Yucca glauca Spanish Bayonet Agavaceae cq Nl Nl Co~ V c0

  17. Anti-fungal activity of cold and hot water extracts of spices against fungal pathogens of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Touba, Eslaminejad Parizi; Zakaria, Maziah; Tahereh, Eslaminejad

    2012-02-01

    Crude extracts of seven spices, viz. cardamom, chilli, coriander, onion, garlic, ginger, and galangale were made using cold water and hot water extraction and they were tested for their anti-fungal effects against the three Roselle pathogens i.e. Phoma exigua, Fusarium nygamai and Rhizoctonia solani using the 'poisoned food technique'. All seven spices studied showed significant anti-fungal activity at three concentrations (10, 20 and 30% of the crude extract) in-vitro. The cold water extract of garlic exhibited good anti-fungal activity against all three tested fungi. In the case of the hot water extracts, garlic and ginger showed the best anti-fungal activity. Of the two extraction methods, cold water extraction was generally more effective than hot water extraction in controlling the pathogens. Against P. exigua, the 10% cold water extracts of galangale, ginger, coriander and cardamom achieved total (100%) inhibition of pathogen mycelial growth. Total inhibition of F. nygamai mycelial growth was similarly achieved with the 10% cold water extracts garlic. Against R. solani, the 10% cold water extract of galangale was effective in imposing 100% inhibition. Accordingly, the 10% galangale extract effectively controlled both P. exigua and R. solani in vitro. None of the hot water extracts of the spices succeeded in achieving 100% inhibition of the pathogen mycelial growth. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Microbiological and chemical characteristics of tarubá, an indigenous beverage produced from solid cassava fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Cíntia L; de Sousa, Edinaira S O; Ribeiro, Jessimara; Almeida, Tayanny M M; Santos, Claudia Cristina A do A; Abegg, Maxwel A; Schwan, Rosane F

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the microbiota present during fermentation and in the final beverage, tarubá, by culture-dependent and -independent methods. In addition, target chemical compounds (carbohydrates, organic acids, and ethanol) were evaluated. Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and mesophilic bacteria were the predominant microorganisms. Among them, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus brevis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, and Bacillus subtilis were frequently isolated and detected by DGGE analysis. Torulaspora delbrueckii was the dominant yeast species. Yeast isolates Pichia exigua, Candida rugosa, T. delbrueckii, Candida tropicalis, Pichia kudriavzevii, Wickerhamomyces anomalus, and Candida ethanolica and bacteria isolates Lb. plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus sp., and Chitinophaga terrae showed amylolytic activity. Only isolates of P. exigua and T. delbrueckii and all species of the genus Bacillus identified in this work exhibited proteolytic activity. All microbial isolates grew at 38 °C, and only the isolates belonging to Hanseniaspora uvarum species did not grow at 42 °C. These characteristics are important for further development of starter cultures; isolates of T. delbrueckii, P. exigua, and Bacillus species identified in this work displayed all of these properties and are potential strains for use as starter culture in cassava fermented food. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Floral Morphology and Some Other Characteristics of Iso-genomic Alloplasmics of Nicotianatabacum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berbec A

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Cytoplasms of several Nicotiana species - N. amplexicaulis, N. bigelovii, N. debneyi, N. eastii, N. exigua, N. glauca, N. glutinosa, N. goodspeedii, N. knightiana, N. occidentalis, N. plumbaginifolia, N. raimondii, N. suaveolens, N. undulata - were bred into the N. tabacum genomic background of flue cured tobacco cv. Zamojska 4. The collection includes also a cytoplasmic male sterile (cms analogue of cv. Zamojska 4 with mutated cytoplasm of N. tabacum. Some of the alloplasmics were originally obtained in this laboratory (N. amplexicaulis, N. eastii, N. exigua, N. glauca, N. knightiana, N. raimondii. The remaining ones were acquired from other laboratories and backcrossed into Zamojska 4. All alien cytoplasms except that of N. knightiana produced full male sterility in Zamojska 4. The extent of male organ modifications varied from complete absence of stamens (N. suaveolens, N. tabacum to petaloid and stigmatoid structures (most common effect to malformed stamens (N. amplexicaulis, N. glauca to apparently normal stamens (N. raimondii, N. knightiana. The majority of the alloplasmics showed response to tentoxin that was compatible with the cytoplasm donor. The exceptions were those involving N. exigua, N. raimondii, (N. raimondii I, and the cytoplasmic mutant of N. tabacum. There was some variation in growth and morphology among the alloplasmic variants of Zamojska 4. Under field infestation alloplasmics with the cytoplasm of N. plumbaginifoliaand N. eastiishowed symptoms of blue mold whereas the remaining alloplasmics and cv. Zamojska 4 were highly tolerant of that disease.

  20. Charge transport in conjugated polymers: a multiscale picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruehle, Victor; Kirkpatrick, James; Kremer, Kurt; Andrienko, Denis

    2009-03-01

    A framework to study charge transport in conjugated polymers using realistic morphologies is developed. First, the atomistic force field is refined using first-principles calculations. Systematic coarse graining is then performed to extend simulation times and system sizes accessible to molecular dynamics simulations. Material morphologies are generated using the coarse grained and atomistic models. Finally, the charge mobility is obtained using temperature activated hopping picture for charge transport [1]. The framework is tested on neutral and oxidized polypyrrole with different structural ordering [2]. [4pt] [1] J. Kirkpatrick, V. Marcon, J. Nelson, K. Kremer, D. Andrienko, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 227402 (2007)[0pt] [2] V. Ruehle, J. Kirkpatrick, K. Kremer, D. Andrienko, Phys. Stat. Solidi B, 245, 844 (2008)

  1. Evaluating methods to improve safeguards training courses of ISCN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okumura, Yukiko; Nakamura, Yo; Kawata, Norio

    2014-01-01

    Although questionnaires were used to receive feedbacks from participants at the end of each training course, Integrated Support Center for Nuclear Nonproliferation and Nuclear Security (ISCN) of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) did not establish a structured evaluation method. To this end, ISCN has started to study on methods to accurately evaluate the courses since April and started to introduce the evaluation method on trial, according to the Donald Kirkpatrick's Four-Level Training Evaluation Model, so as to better develop and conduct more effective courses. This paper will focus on how ISCN has modified the Kirkpatrick's Four-level to adapt to its safeguards training courses. This will then be followed by two particular cases of how the evaluation method functioned for the Additional Protocol training courses held in Malaysia in 2014, and the feedbacks received to improve future training courses. (author)

  2. Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Ceremony celebrates 50 years of rocket launches PL00C-10364.12 At the 50th anniversary ceremony celebrating the first rocket launch from pad 3 on what is now Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Norris Gray waves to the audience. Gray was part of the team who successfully launched the first rocket, known as Bumper 8. The ceremony was hosted by the Air Force Space & Missile Museum Foundation, Inc. , and included launch of a Bumper 8 model rocket, presentation of a Bumper Award to Florida Sen. George Kirkpatrick by the National Space Club; plus remarks by Sen. Kirkpatrick, KSC's Center Director Roy Bridges, and the Commander of the 45th Space Wing, Brig. Gen. Donald Pettit. Also attending the ceremony were other members of the original Bumper 8 team. A reception followed at Hangar C. Since 1950 there have been a total of 3,245 launches from Cape Canaveral.

  3. Team training in the skies: does crew resource management (CRM) training work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, E; Burke, C S; Bowers, C A; Wilson, K A

    2001-01-01

    The aviation community has invested great amounts of money and effort into crew resource management (CRM) training. Using D. L. Kirkpatrick's (1976) framework for evaluating training, we reviewed 58 published accounts of CRM training to determine its effectiveness within aviation. Results indicated that CRM training generally produced positive reactions, enhanced learning, and promoted desired behavioral changes. However, we cannot ascertain whether CRM has an effect on an organization's bottom line (i.e., safety). We discuss the state of the literature with regard to evaluation of CRM training programs and, as a result, call for the need to conduct systematic, multilevel evaluation efforts that will show the true effectiveness of CRM training. As many evaluations do not collect data across levels (as suggested by D. L. Kirkpatrick, 1976, and by G. M. Alliger, S. I. Tannenbaum, W. Bennett, Jr., & H. Traver, 1997), the impact of CRM cannot be truly determined; thus more and better evaluations are needed and should be demanded.

  4. ORA User’s Guide 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    on public health organizations in Duchess County, NY. Identifying reports with AIS data. Organizations where ORA has been used include: AFIT, SOCOM...described by Scott Kirkpatrick, C. Daniel Gelatt and Mario P. Vecchi in 1983,[ 1 ] and by Vlado Cerný in 1985.[ 2 ] The method is an adaptation of the...or less likely to email, or interact face-to-face. Spectral Analysis provides a framework to understand periodicity. Spectral analysis is

  5. Disengaging from Insurgencies: Insights from History and Implications for Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    Nagl, “Counterinsurgency in Vietnam,” 136-137. 69. Pentagon Papers, vol. 2, 277-278; Phillips, Why Vietnam Matters, 241; & Millet and Maslowski, For...Communist Party (PCS), 19. Montgomery, Revolution in El Salvador, 37-38. 20. Elisabeth Jean ...38. Rabasa, “El Salvador (1980-1992),” 41-42. 39. Rabasa, “El Salvador (1980-1992),” 42. 40. Quoted in Jeane Kirkpatrick, “Dictatorships

  6. Enhancing Fires and Maneuver Capability Through Greater Air-Ground Joint Interdependence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    Washington, D.C.: Air Warfare College University, February 25, 2005). 2 Charles E. Kirkpatrick, Joint Fires as They Were Meant to Be: V Corps and the 4th Air...Sup- port Operations Group During Operation Iraqi Freedom, Land Warfare Paper No. 48, Arling- ton, Va.: The Institute of Land Warfare , Association of...forces are also based on dif- ferential equations, but ones that follow a slightly modified Lanchester square law that includes the effects of Blue

  7. Fractal effects on excitations in diluted ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.

    1981-08-01

    The low energy spin-wave like excitations in diluted ferromagnets near percolation threshold are studied. For this purpose an explicit use of the fractal model for the backbone of the infinite percolating cluster due to Kirkpatrick is made. Three physical effects are identified, which cause the softening of spin-waves as the percolation point is approached. The importance of fractal effects in the calculation of density of states and the low temperature thermodynamics is pointed out. (author)

  8. Construction of Optimal-Path Maps for Homogeneous-Cost-Region Path-Planning Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-09-01

    of Artificial Inteligence , 9%,4. 24. Kirkpatrick, S., Gelatt Jr., C. D., and Vecchi, M. P., "Optinization by Sinmulated Ani- nealing", Science, Vol...studied in depth by researchers in such fields as artificial intelligence, robot;cs, and computa- tional geometry. Most methods require homogeneous...the results of the research. 10 U. L SLEVANT RESEARCH A. APPLICABLE CONCEPTS FROM ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE 1. Search Methods One of the central

  9. Cosmic clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anninos, Dionysios [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University,Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Denef, Frederik [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Leuven,Leuven 3000 (Belgium); Center for the Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-06-30

    We show that the late time Hartle-Hawking wave function for a free massless scalar in a fixed de Sitter background encodes a sharp ultrametric structure for the standard Euclidean distance on the space of field configurations. This implies a hierarchical, tree-like organization of the state space, reflecting its genesis as a branched diffusion process. An equivalent mathematical structure organizes the state space of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of a spin glass.

  10. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    OpenAIRE

    Mahsa Rashidi; Fatemeh Sharif Mousavi; Korosh Esmaeili

    2016-01-01

    Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, em...

  11. X-ray fluorescence beamline at LNLS: components and some associated techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, CArlos A.; Radtke, Martin; Perez, Carlos; Tolentino, Helio; Vicentin, Flavio; Sanchez, Hector Jorge; Perez, Roberto D.

    1997-01-01

    Full text. In this work a general description of the Total Reflection X-Ray Fluorescence (TXRF) and the X-Ray Fluorescence Microprobe (XRFM) is presented. Components, equipment and experimental stations for the x-ray fluorescence beamline are described, regarding to the techniques mentioned above. Results from the simulations of a pair bended mirrors in a Kirkpatrick-Baez configuration, are shown. The simulations were performed with Shadow program. (author)

  12. ASSESSING THE SO CALLED MARKED INFLECTIONAL FEATURES OF NIGERIAN ENGLISH: A SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORY ACCOUNT

    OpenAIRE

    Boluwaji Oshodi

    2014-01-01

    There are conflicting claims among scholars on whether the structural outputs of the types of English spoken in countries where English is used as a second language gives such speech forms the status of varieties of English. This study examined those morphological features considered to be marked features of the variety spoken in Nigeria according to Kirkpatrick (2011) and the variety spoken in Malaysia by considering the claims of the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH) a Second Lan...

  13. Implicit Personality and Leadership in Stressful and Dangerous Situations: A First Step

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Galloway , & Popp, 1995; Friedl, Mays, Kramer, & Shippee, 1995; Opstad, 1995; Walker, 1995; Ranger Handbook, 2000; Lock, 2005; Nindl et al., 2007...D. V. (2004). Can chameleons lead? The Leadership Quarterly, 15, 687-718. Bernton, E., Hoover, D., Galloway , R., & Popp, K. (1995). Adaptation to...Organizational Influence Processes (pp. 17-32). Glenview, IL: Scott , Foresman and Company. Kirkpatrick, S. A., & Locke, E. A. (1991

  14. Muon spin relaxation in ferromagnetic PdMn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodds, S.A.; Gist, G.A.; Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; MacLaughlin, D.E.; Mydosh, J.A.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J.; Schillaci, M.E.

    1983-01-01

    Positive-muon (μ + ) spin relaxation experiments have been carried out in the dilute ferromagnetic alloy Pd + 2 at % Mn (T/sub c/ = 5.8 0 K). In the paramagnetic state the inhomogeneous μ + linewidth is proportional to the bulk magnetization. Below T/sub c/ the μ + linewidth and the width of the μ + local field distribution in zero applied field are both in qualitative accord with the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick theory of disordered magnets

  15. Muon spin relaxation in ferromagnetic PdMn

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodds, S.A.; Gist, G.A. (Rice Univ., Houston, TX (USA)); Heffner, R.H.; Leon, M.; Schillaci, M.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); MacLaughlin, D.E. (California Univ., Riverside (USA)); Mydosh, J.A.; Nieuwenhuys, G.J. (Rijksuniversiteit Leiden (Netherlands). Kamerlingh Onnes Lab.)

    1984-01-01

    Positive-muon (..mu../sup +/) spin relaxation experiments have been carried out in the dilute ferromagnetic alloy Pd + 2 at.% Mn (Tsub(c) = 5.8 K). In the paramagnetic state the inhomogeneous ..mu../sup +/ linewidth is proportional to the bulk magnetization. Below Tsub(c) the ..mu../sup +/ linewidth and the width of the ..mu../sup +/ local field distribution in zero applied field are both in qualitative accord with the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick theory of disordered magnets.

  16. Cross-check of ex-situ and in-situ metrology of a bendable temperature stabilized KB mirror

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Sheng; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Richard; McKinney, Wayne R.; Morrison, Gregory; Macdougall, James; Mochi, Iacopo; Warwick, Tony

    2011-01-01

    At the Advanced Light Source (ALS), we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in-situ, at-wavelength wavefront slope measurement techniques for Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror nano-focusing. In this paper, we report an initial cross-check of ex-situ and in-situ metrology of a bendable temperature stabilized KB mirror. This cross-check provides a validation of the in-situ shearing interferometry, currently under development at the ALS.

  17. Heavy metal distribution in organic and siliceous marine sponge tissues measured by square wave anodic stripping voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Illuminati, S; Annibaldi, A; Truzzi, C; Scarponi, G

    2016-10-15

    May sponge spicules represent a "tank" to accumulate heavy metals? In this study we test this hypothesis determining the distribution of Cd, Pb and Cu concentrations between organic and siliceous tissues in Antarctic Demospongia (Sphaerotylus antarcticus, Kirkpatrikia coulmani and Haliclona sp.) and in the Mediterranean species Petrosia ficiformis. Results show that although, in these sponges, spicules represent about 80% of the mass content, the accumulation of pollutant is lower in the spicules than in the corresponding organic fraction. The contribution of tissues to the total sponge content of Cd, Pb and Cu is respectively 99%, 82% and 97% for Antarctic sponges and 96%, 95% and 96% for P. ficiformis, similar in polar and temperate organisms. These results pave the way to a better understanding of the role of marine sponges in uptaking heavy metals and to their possible use as monitor of marine ecosystems, recommend by the Water Framework Directive. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Chemistry of Renieramycins. Part 14: Total Synthesis of Renieramycin I and Practical Synthesis of Cribrostatin 4 (Renieramycin H

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    Masashi Yokoya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The first total synthesis of (±-renieramycin I, which was isolated from the Indian bright blue sponge Haliclona cribricutis, is described. The key step is the selenium oxide oxidation of pentacyclic bis-p-quinone derivative (3 stereo- and regioselectively. We also report a large-scale synthesis of cribrostatin 4 (renieramycin H via the C3-C4 double bond formation in an early stage based on the Avendaño’s protocol, from readily available 1-acetyl-3-(3-methyl-2,4,5-trimethylphenylmethyl-piperazine-2,5-dione (8 in 18 steps (8.3% overall yield. The synthesis provides unambiguous evidence supporting the original structure of renieramycin I.

  19. Experiencias en la implementación de un programa de formación en docencia para profesores de medicina en una universidad de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Triviño

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos. Describir la experiencia y resultados de la implementación de un programa de formación en docencia para profesores de Medicina del Diplomado en Educación Médica, desarrollado en la Escuela de Medicina de la Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Materiales y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, transversal, de carácter cuantitativo y cualitativo. La población estuvo compuesta por todos los graduados del programa hasta el 2011. Se aplicó un cuestionario con preguntas abiertas y cerradas explorando diferentes niveles de impacto, utilizando el modelo de evaluación de Kirkpatrick. Resultados. Sobre el 97% expresó un alto grado de satisfacción (nivel 1 Kirkpatrick. La mayoría reportó cambios en el aprendizaje de conocimientos y competencias docentes (nivel 2 Kirkpatrick con diferencias pre y posretrospectivas estadísticamente significativas. El 93% refirió haber mejorado globalmente su desempeño docente y sobre el 85% en desempeños específicos (nivel 3 Kirkpatrick. En el nivel 4 de Kirkpatrick, la mayoría percibió un incremento del interés por la docencia y 69% reconoció una mayor valoración a nivel institucional. Del análisis cualitativo emergieron cinco categorías: valoración de la docencia y de la formación en docencia, relevancia de las habilidades docentes, aporte de la docencia al rol profesional, contribución al desarrollo personal y fortalecimiento de la comunidad académica. Conclusiones. Los efectos de este programa de formación en educación médica han sido positivos. Los profesores de Medicina, además de perfeccionar sus desempeños docentes, perciben cambios en el desarrollo personal, en su rol de médico, en la comunidad académica y en la institución.

  20. Comparative evaluation of phenoloxidase activity in different larval stages of four lepidopteran pests after exposure to Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valadez-Lira, J A; Alcocer-Gonzalez, J M; Damas, G; Nuñez-Mejía, G; Oppert, B; Rodriguez-Padilla, C; Tamez-Guerra, P

    2012-01-01

    Microbial entomopathogen-based bioinsecticides are recognized as alternatives to synthetic pesticides. Insects defend themselves against microbial pathogens by innate mechanisms, including increased phenoloxidase (PO) activity, but its relationship with microbial bioinsecticides efficacy is little known. This study evaluated the differences in PO activity at different developmental stages of the tobacco budworm Heliothis virescens Fabricius (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Indian meal moth Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Pyralidae), beet armyworm Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) (Noctuidae), and cabbage looper Trichoplusia ni (Hübner) (Noctuidae). Additionally, 2(nd)- and 4(th)-instars were exposed to the LC(50) value of the commercial Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) spray, Biobit(®). The percentage of insecticidal activity (IA%) on 2(nd)-instar Biobit-exposed larvae was approximately the predicted 50 % mortality for all species except S. exigua. With all 4(th) instar Biobit-exposed larvae, mortality was not significantly different from that of unexposed larvae. Unexposed insects had a significantly higher PO activity in pre-pupae and pupae than early-instar larvae and adults, whereas PO activity was higher in adult females than in males. Correlation analysis between IA% and PO activity revealed significant r-values (p < 0.01) in 2(nd) instar H. virescens (r = 0.979) and P. interpunctella (r = 0.930). Second instar Biobit-exposed P. interpunctella had 10 times more PO activity than unexposed larvae. Similarly, the amount of total protein was lower in 4(th) instar Biobit-exposed H. virescens and higher in S. exigua. Therefore, the results indicated a relationship between Biobit susceptibility and PO activity in some cases. This information may be useful if the Biobit application period is timed for a developmental stage with low PO activity. However, more studies are needed to determine the correlation of each insect with a particular bioinsecticide.

  1. Transgenic cotton coexpressing Vip3A and Cry1Ac has a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Bo; Lu, Guo-Qing; Cheng, Hong-Mei; Liu, Chen-Xi; Xiao, Yu-Tao; Xu, Chao; Shen, Zhi-Cheng; Wu, Kong-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Although farmers in China have grown transgenic Bt-Cry1Ac cotton to resist the major pest Helicoverpa armigera since 1997 with great success, many secondary lepidopteran pests that are tolerant to Cry1Ac are now reported to cause considerable economic damage. Vip3AcAa, a chimeric protein with the N-terminal part of Vip3Ac and the C-terminal part of Vip3Aa, has a broad insecticidal spectrum against lepidopteran pests and has no cross resistance to Cry1Ac. In the present study, we tested insecticidal activities of Vip3AcAa against Spodoptera litura, Spodoptera exigua, and Agrotis ipsilon, which are relatively tolerant to Cry1Ac proteins. The bioassay results showed that insecticidal activities of Vip3AcAa against these three pests are superior to Cry1Ac, and after an activation pretreatment, Vip3AcAa retained insecticidal activity against S. litura, S. exigua and A. ipsilon that was similar to the unprocessed protein. The putative receptor for this chimeric protein in the brush border membrane vesicle (BBMV) in the three pests was also identified using biotinylated Vip3AcAa toxin. To broaden Bt cotton activity against a wider spectrum of pests, we introduced the vip3AcAa and cry1Ac genes into cotton. Larval mortality rates for S. litura, A. ipsilon and S. exigua that had fed on this new cotton increased significantly compared with larvae fed on non-Bt cotton and Bt-Cry1Ac cotton in a laboratory experiment. These results suggested that the Vip3AcAa protein is an excellent option for a "pyramid" strategy for integrated pest management in China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Activity of vegetative insecticidal proteins Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 of Bacillus thuringiensis against lepidopteran pests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranek, Jakub; Kaznowski, Adam; Konecka, Edyta; Naimov, Samir

    2015-09-01

    Vegetative insecticidal proteins (Vips) secreted by some isolates of Bacillus thuringiensis show activity against insects and are regarded as insecticides against pests. A number of B. thuringiensis strains harbouring vip3A genes were isolated from different sources and identified by using a PCR based approach. The isolates with the highest insecticidal activity were indicated in screening tests, and their vip genes were cloned and sequenced. The analysis revealed two polymorphic Vip protein forms, which were classified as Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59. After expression of the vip genes, the proteins were isolated and characterized. The activity of both toxins was estimated against economically important lepidopteran pests of woodlands (Dendrolimus pini), orchards (Cydia pomonella) and field crops (Spodoptera exigua). Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 were highly toxic and their potency surpassed those of many Cry proteins used in commercial bioinsecticides. Vip3Aa59 revealed similar larvicidal activity as Vip3Aa58 against S. exigua and C. pomonella. Despite 98% similarity of amino acid sequences of both proteins, Vip3Aa59 was significantly more active against D. pini. Additionally the effect of proteolytic activation of Vip58Aa and Vip3Aa59 on toxicity of D. pini and S. exigua was studied. Both Vip3Aa proteins did not show any activity against Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera) larvae. The results suggest that the Vip3Aa58 and Vip3Aa59 toxins might be useful for controlling populations of insect pests of crops and forests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Gamma Radiation to Increase Efficiency of Bacillus thuringiensis Thai Strain for Insect Pets Control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanpaisaeng, Jariya; Keawsompong, Suttipun; Piadang, Nattaya; Tephan, Prakai; Keawchingduang, Wannapa

    2006-09-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) isolates JCPT16 and JCPT68 were gamma-irradiated at 2, 4, 6 and 8 kGy. The efficiency of these Bt isolates on S. litura control was also undertaken. It was found that the 4 kGy irradiated JCPT16 isolate had lowest LC 50 of 6.6x10 3 spore/ml while the non-irradiated JCPT 16 isolate had LC 50 of 6.2x10 3 spore/ml. Whereas the irradiated JCPT68 isolate at 8 kGy was noticed to have the lowest LC 50 of 2.7 x 10 3 spores/ml, the non-irradiated JCPT68 had LC 50 of 1.8x10 3 spores/ml. The efficiency test of B. thuringiensis isolate on S. exigua showed that the 2 kGy irradiated JCPT16 isolate had the lowest LC 50 of 2.52x10 4 spores/ml while the non-irradiated JCPT16 isolate had LC 50 of 6.04x10 3 spores/ml. The irradiated JCPT68 isolate at 4 kGy had the lowest LC 50 of 5.41x10 4 spores/ml, the non irradiated JCPT68 had LC 50 of 1.51x10 4 spores/ml. According to LC 50 values, there were no significant differences of efficiency on S. litura and S. exigua control among Bt isolates irradiated at various concentrations. The isolate JCPT16, JCPT35, JCPT50 and JCPT68 irradiated at dose of 10 kGy showed higher UV tolerance. After expose by UV ray, most of irradiated isolates still displayed high efficiency of controlling S. litura, S. exigua and Plutella xylostell.

  4. Local biotic adaptation of trees and shrubs to plant neighbors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, Kevin C.; Wood, Troy E.; Kolb, Thomas E.; Hersch-Green, Erika; Shuster, Stephen M.; Gehring, Catherine A.; Hart, Stephen C.; Allan, Gerard J.; Whitham, Thomas G.

    2017-01-01

    Natural selection as a result of plant–plant interactions can lead to local biotic adaptation. This may occur where species frequently interact and compete intensely for resources limiting growth, survival, and reproduction. Selection is demonstrated by comparing a genotype interacting with con- or hetero-specific sympatric neighbor genotypes with a shared site-level history (derived from the same source location), to the same genotype interacting with foreign neighbor genotypes (from different sources). Better genotype performance in sympatric than allopatric neighborhoods provides evidence of local biotic adaptation. This pattern might be explained by selection to avoid competition by shifting resource niches (differentiation) or by interactions benefitting one or more members (facilitation). We tested for local biotic adaptation among two riparian trees, Populus fremontii and Salix gooddingii, and the shrub Salix exigua by transplanting replicated genotypes from multiple source locations to a 17 000 tree common garden with sympatric and allopatric treatments along the Colorado River in California. Three major patterns were observed: 1) across species, 62 of 88 genotypes grew faster with sympatric neighbors than allopatric neighbors; 2) these growth rates, on an individual tree basis, were 44, 15 and 33% higher in sympatric than allopatric treatments for P. fremontii, S. exigua and S. gooddingii, respectively, and; 3) survivorship was higher in sympatric treatments for P. fremontiiand S. exigua. These results support the view that fitness of foundation species supporting diverse communities and dominating ecosystem processes is determined by adaptive interactions among multiple plant species with the outcome that performance depends on the genetic identity of plant neighbors. The occurrence of evolution in a plant-community context for trees and shrubs builds on ecological evolutionary research that has demonstrated co-evolution among herbaceous taxa, and

  5. Increased long-flight activity triggered in beet armyworm by larval feeding on diet containing Cry1Ac protoxin.

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    Xing Fu Jiang

    Full Text Available Evaluating ecological safety and conducting pest risk analysis for transgenic crops are vitally important before their commercial planting. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, a long-distance migratory insect pest, is not a direct target of transgenic Cry1Ac-expressing cotton in China, but nevertheless it has recently become an important pest. Migrants leaving their natal field arrive in other appropriate habitat far away in a short time, often followed by larval outbreaks. S. exigua has low susceptibility to Cry1Ac. However, our results from laboratory experiments identified (i sublethal effects of Cry1Ac protoxin on larval development rate, larval and pupal weight, and adult lifetime fecundity, and (ii increased long-flight behavior triggered by Cry1Ac which may contribute to larval outbreaks elsewhere. No significant differences in larval mortality, pupation rate, adult emergence rate, longevity, pre-oviposition period, or oviposition period were observed between controls and larvae fed on artificial diet incorporating a low concentration of Cry1Ac protoxin. The negative sublethal effects on some developmental and reproductive traits and lack of effect on others suggest they do not contribute to the observed severity of S. exigua outbreaks after feeding on Cry1Ac cotton. Interestingly, the percentage of long fliers increased significantly when larvae were reared on diet containing either of two low-dose treatments of Cry1Ac, suggesting a possible increased propensity to disperse long distances triggered by Cry1Ac. We hypothesize that negative effects on development and reproduction caused by Cry1Ac in the diet are offset by increased flight propensity triggered by the poor food conditions, thereby improving the chances of escaping adverse local conditions before oviposition. Increased long-flight propensity in turn may amplify the area damaged by outbreak populations. This phenomenon might be common in other migratory insect pests receiving

  6. Incorporating climate change and exotic species into forecasts of riparian forest distribution.

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    Dana H Ikeda

    Full Text Available We examined the impact climate change (CC will have on the availability of climatically suitable habitat for three native and one exotic riparian species. Due to its increasing prevalence in arid regions throughout the western US, we predicted that an exotic species, Tamarix, would have the greatest increase in suitable habitat relative to native counterparts under CC. We used an ecological niche model to predict range shifts of Populus fremontii, Salix gooddingii, Salix exigua and Tamarix, from present day to 2080s, under five general circulation models and one climate change scenario (A1B. Four major findings emerged. 1 Contrary to our original hypothesis, P. fremontii is projected to have the greatest increase in suitable habitat under CC, followed closely by Tamarix. 2 Of the native species, S. gooddingii and S. exigua showed the greatest loss in predicted suitable habitat due to CC. 3 Nearly 80 percent of future P. fremontii and Salix habitat is predicted to be affected by either CC or Tamarix by the 2080s. 4 By the 2080s, 20 percent of S. gooddingii habitat is projected to be affected by both Tamarix and CC concurrently, followed by S. exigua (19 percent and P. fremontii (13 percent. In summary, while climate change alone will negatively impact both native willow species, Tamarix is likely to affect a larger portion of all three native species' distributions. We discuss these and other results in the context of prioritizing restoration and conservation efforts to optimize future productivity and biodiversity. As we are accounting for only direct effects of CC and Tamarix on native habitat, we present a possible hierarchy of effects- from the direct to the indirect- and discuss the potential for the indirect to outweigh the direct effects. Our results highlight the need to account for simultaneous challenges in the face of CC.

  7. El estudio de las psicopatologías en Puerto Rico

    OpenAIRE

    Alfonso Martínez Taboas

    1995-01-01

    El estudio de las psicopatologías en Puerto Rico fue un campo poco productivo durante las primeras siete décadas de este siglo. Durante este término de tiempo las publicaciones profesionales fueron exiguas y mayormente anecdóticas. Sin embargo, la década de los años ochenta fue una muy productiva en términos de publicaciones profesionales y estudios de corte empírico. Principalmente se destacan una serie programática de estudios epidemiológicos que abarcan poblaciones de niñ...

  8. Observaciones antecológicas sobre recolección de polen por vibración

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    Osorno-Mesa Hermano

    1947-12-01

    Full Text Available Este articulo trata del notable método de recolección de polen por vibración, muy generalizado entre los Bombus, Xylocopidae y otras familias de Hymenoptera. Posiblemente no lo practican las abejas del género Apis, por desempeñar papel importante en dicho método la capa vellosa y amplitud de la región ventro abdominal, que son muy exiguas en las abejas (Apis. En la literatura apícola disponible, no se hace mención de su empleo por las abejas y nunca lo hemos observado en estos himenópteros.

  9. Las Teorías de Elton Mayo, La Teoría de las Necesidades Humanas de Abrahan Maslow para Desarrollar las Relaciones Interpersonales, En La Institución Educativa Nº 10103 “Carmen Rosa Fernández Barrera” Del Caserío La Capilla – Pueblo Nuevo - Ferreñafe

    OpenAIRE

    Duran Chambergo, Elizabeth; Ugaz Castillo, Gustavo

    2017-01-01

    El objetivo del trabajo es diseñar estrategias para mejorar las relaciones interpersonales de los directivos y docentes de la Institución Educativa Nº 10103 “Carmen Rosa Fernández Barrera” del Caserío la Capilla – Pueblo Nuevo – Ferreñafe, que permita mejorar la gestión institucional, cuyos indicadores dan cuenta de: a) ineficientes relaciones interpersonales, b) equivocados estilos de dirección, c) falta de comunicación laboral, d) exiguas retribuciones y e) escasa disponibilidad de espacios...

  10. Characterization and stability of lactobacilli and yeast microbiota in kefir grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardjan, T; Mohar Lorbeg, P; Rogelj, I; Čanžek Majhenič, A

    2013-05-01

    Characterization and stability of lactobacilli and yeasts from kefir grains using culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were investigated in this study. Culture-dependent analysis, followed by sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA for bacteria and 26S rRNA gene for yeasts, revealed 3 different species of lactobacilli and yeasts, respectively. The most frequently isolated bacterial species were Lactobacillus kefiranofaciens ssp. kefirgranum, Lb. parakefiri, and Lb. kefiri, whereas yeasts belonged to Kluyveromyces marxianus, Kazachstania exigua, and Rhodosporidium kratochvilovae. This study is the first to report on the presence of R. kratochvilovae in kefir grains. On the other hand, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis in the culture-independent method showed that the dominant microorganisms were Lb. kefiranofaciens ssp. kefirgranum, Kl. marxianus and Ka. exigua, but did not reveal bands corresponding to Lb. parakefiri, Lb. kefiri, or R. kratochvilovae. Our results support the necessity of combining more techniques for detailed and reliable study of microbial communities in kefir grains. Another interesting finding confirmed that the detected dominant microbiota of kefir grains is very stable and did not change over experimental time. This finding is important to ensure consistent product quality. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prey and Non-prey Arthropods Sharing a Host Plant: Effects on Induced Volatile Emission and Predator Attraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hordijk, Cornelis A.; Posthumus, Maarten A.; Dicke, Marcel

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that plants infested with a single herbivore species can attract specific natural enemies through the emission of herbivore-induced volatiles. However, it is less clear what happens when plants are simultaneously attacked by more than one species. We analyzed volatile emissions of lima bean and cucumber plants upon multi-species herbivory by spider mites (Tetranychus urticae) and caterpillars (Spodoptera exigua) in comparison to single-species herbivory. Upon herbivory by single or multiple species, lima bean and cucumber plants emitted volatile blends that comprised mostly the same compounds. To detect additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effects, we compared the multi-species herbivory volatile blend with the sum of the volatile blends induced by each of the herbivore species feeding alone. In lima bean, the majority of compounds were more strongly induced by multi-species herbivory than expected based on the sum of volatile emissions by each of the herbivores separately, potentially caused by synergistic effects. In contrast, in cucumber, two compounds were suppressed by multi-species herbivory, suggesting the potential for antagonistic effects. We also studied the behavioral responses of the predatory mite Phytoseiulus persimilis, a specialized natural enemy of spider mites. Olfactometer experiments showed that P. persimilis preferred volatiles induced by multi-species herbivory to volatiles induced by S. exigua alone or by prey mites alone. We conclude that both lima bean and cucumber plants effectively attract predatory mites upon multi-species herbivory, but the underlying mechanisms appear different between these species. PMID:18185960

  12. Elevated carbon dioxide reduces emission of herbivore-induced volatiles in Zea mays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, Anna; Vaughan, Martha M; Christensen, Shawn A; Alborn, Hans T; Tumlinson, James H

    2017-09-01

    Terpene volatiles produced by sweet corn (Zea mays) upon infestation with pests such as beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua) function as part of an indirect defence mechanism by attracting parasitoid wasps; yet little is known about the impact of climate change on this form of plant defence. To investigate how a central component of climate change affects indirect defence, we measured herbivore-induced volatile emissions in plants grown under elevated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ). We found that S. exigua infested or elicitor-treated Z. mays grown at elevated CO 2 had decreased emission of its major sesquiterpene, (E)-β-caryophyllene and two homoterpenes, (3E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene and (3E,7E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetraene. In contrast, inside the leaves, elicitor-induced (E)-β-caryophyllene hyper-accumulated at elevated CO 2 , while levels of homoterpenes were unaffected. Furthermore, gene expression analysis revealed that the induction of terpene synthase genes following treatment was lower in plants grown at elevated CO 2 . Our data indicate that elevated CO 2 leads both to a repression of volatile synthesis at the transcriptional level and to limitation of volatile release through effects of CO 2 on stomatal conductance. These findings suggest that elevated CO 2 may alter the ability of Z. mays to utilize volatile terpenes to mediate indirect defenses. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Toxicities of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to Lepidoptera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argentine, Joseph A; Jansson, Richard K; Starner, Van R; Halliday, W Ross

    2002-12-01

    The toxicity of a number of emamectin benzoate homologues and photodegradates to five species of Lepidoptera was investigated using diet and foliar bioassays. The emamectin benzoate homologues B1a and B1b were equally toxic in the diet and foliar assays to Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), Heliothis virescens (F.), Tricoplusia ni (Hübner), and Spodoptera frugiperda (J. E. Smith), within each of these species. Plutella xylostella (L.) was the most sensitive species to emamectin benzoate. The AB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound in the diet assay. However, in the foliage assay AB1a was 4.4-fold less toxic to S. exigua than the parent compound. The MFB1a photodegradate of emamectin benzoate was as toxic as the parent compound to P. xylostella, and 3.1 to 6.2 times as toxic as the parent compound to the other species in the diet assay. The order of toxicity of the photodegradates were AB1a > MFB1a > FAB1a > 8,9-Z-MAB1a > PAB1a.

  14. Purificação do flavonóide trans-tilirosídeo do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (asteraceae e avaliação da sua atividade nematicida Purification of the flavonoid trans-tiliroside from the methanolic extract of Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves and evaluation of the nematicidal activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio Martins dos Santos Júnior

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available O fracionamento do extrato metanólico das folhas de Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae resultou no isolamento do flavonol glicosídico trans-tilirosídeo [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-cumaroil-glicopiranosídeo], que nunca tinha sido identificado na referida espécie vegetal. Em teste realizado in vitro, observou-se que tal substância a 500 μg/mL, não tem efeito sobre a mortalidade de juvenis do segundo estágio do nematóide Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.Fractionation of the methanolic extract from Gochnatia barrosii Cabrera (Asteraceae leaves resulted in the isolation of the flavonol glycoside trans-tiliroside [kaempferol 3-O- -D-(6''-O-E-p-coumaroyl-glucopyranoside], which had never been found in such plant species. Such substance at 500 μg/mL caused no in vitro effect on the mortality of second-stage juveniles of the nematode Meloidogyne exigua Goeldi.

  15. Drought and flooding have distinct effects on herbivore-induced responses and resistance in Solanum dulcamara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Duy; D'Agostino, Nunzio; Tytgat, Tom O G; Sun, Pulu; Lortzing, Tobias; Visser, Eric J W; Cristescu, Simona M; Steppuhn, Anke; Mariani, Celestina; van Dam, Nicole M; Rieu, Ivo

    2016-07-01

    In the field, biotic and abiotic stresses frequently co-occur. As a consequence, common molecular signalling pathways governing adaptive responses to individual stresses can interact, resulting in compromised phenotypes. How plant signalling pathways interact under combined stresses is poorly understood. To assess this, we studied the consequence of drought and soil flooding on resistance of Solanum dulcamara to Spodoptera exigua and their effects on hormonal and transcriptomic profiles. The results showed that S. exigua larvae performed less well on drought-stressed plants than on well-watered and flooded plants. Both drought and insect feeding increased abscisic acid and jasmonic acid (JA) levels, whereas flooding did not induce JA accumulation. RNA sequencing analyses corroborated this pattern: drought and herbivory induced many biological processes that were repressed by flooding. When applied in combination, drought and herbivory had an additive effect on specific processes involved in secondary metabolism and defence responses, including protease inhibitor activity. In conclusion, drought and flooding have distinct effects on herbivore-induced responses and resistance. Especially, the interaction between abscisic acid and JA signalling may be important to optimize plant responses to combined drought and insect herbivory, making drought-stressed plants more resistant to insects than well-watered and flooded plants. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The diversity of fungi colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron (Rhododendron L.

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    Małgorzata Żołna

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The infection of rhododendron (Rhododendron L. inflorescence buds caused by pathogenic fungi induces its browning, withering, and dieback. The identification of fungi causing the infection of rhododendron inflorescence buds can be a reason for creating new improved cultivars with genetically determined resistance to pathogens. The investigations were carried out in 2010–2011 on the collection of ornamental plants of the Faculty of Horticulture, University of Agriculture in Kraków. The material comprised infected inflorescence buds collected from nine newly bred taxa and one botanical species of rhododendron. 596 colonies of fungi belonging to 31 species were isolated from infected rhododendron inflorescence buds. The dominant species were: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Truncatella truncata, Alternaria alternata, Phialophora asteris, and Trichoderma viride, which constituted almost 74% of the isolated fungi population. Boeremia exigua var. exigua, Epicoccum nigrum, Fusarium poae, Mammaria echinobotryoides, Paraphoma chrysanthemicola, Phialophora cyclaminis, Phoma eupyrena, Talaromyces wortmannii, Umbelopsis isabellina, and other fungi were isolated in a lower number. The results of mycological analysis confirm the diversity of species colonizing necrotic inflorescence buds of rhododendron. .

  17. Fungi transporting by sowing seed material of herbs

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    Zofia Machowicz-Stefaniak

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sowing seed material of33 species of herbs obtained in 1997-1999 from the Herb Seed-Testing Station, in Bydgoszcz were examined. Fungi were isolated using the method of artificial cultures on the mineral medium. Sixty seeds superficially disinfected and sixty undisinfected seeds were taken from each sample. Obtained single-spore cultures of the fungi grown on malt-agar or on standard medium were identified up to the species level. Fungi species belonging to the genus Fusarium were identified on the PDA and SNA, Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. on the malt-agar and Czapek-Dox and Phoma spp. on the malt-agar, oat-meal-agar and cherry-agar. Mycological analyses showed that the superficial disinfection of seeds reduced by three times the number of isolates obtained. The fungi most frequently isolated from both the inside and the outside seed tissues were Botrytis cinerea, Phoma exigua var. exigua and species of Alternaria, Epicoccum, Fusarium, Penicillium, Phyllosticta, Rhizopus, Trichothecium.

  18. Fate of vinclozolin, thiabendazole and dimethomorph during storage, handling and forcing of chicory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spanoghe, Pieter; Ryckaert, Bert; Van Gheluwe, Cindy; Van Labeke, Marie-Christine

    2010-02-01

    As part of ongoing research for a sustainable production of Belgian endives, the fate of three fungicides during storage, handling and forcing of witloof chicory roots was investigated. Storage roots are protected against Sclerotinia sp. Fuckel and Phoma exigua var. exigua Desm. by means of vinclozolin and thiabendazole respectively. During hydroponic forcing, the most imminent pathogen is Phytophthora cryptogea Pethybr. & Laff., which is controlled by the use of dimethomorph. Vinclozolin and thiabendazole concentrations on roots remained constant during storage at -1 degrees C. Dermal exposure of the workers in hydroponics was exceeded. Vinclozolin and thiabendazole residues were not detected 2 weeks after hydroponic forcing; dimethomorph was still detected at harvest. At harvest, the vinclozolin concentration in the chicory heads was below the maximum residue limit, but the chicory roots contained residues much above the thiabendazole and dimethomorph maximum residue level. Vinclozolin and thiabendazole residues applied before storage are still present on the roots at the start of the forcing cycle. During the set-up of chicory roots, preventive measures are recommended, as effects of repeated human exposure to low doses of applied fungicides cannot be excluded. Dimethomorph applied at the start of the hydroponic forcing is the only pesticide detected in the drainage water at harvest. The chicory heads were safe for human consumption. However, more attention should be paid to the residues of fungicides in the roots used for cattle feeding.

  19. Arterial disease after radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigot, J.M.; Mathieu, D.; Reizine, D.

    1983-01-01

    Disease of the large arterial vessels is a relatively unknown complication of radiotherapy. However, it should be considered in the same manner as the other complications of irradiation when a tumour recurrence is suspected. The experimental studies of Kirkpatrick and Konings, demonstrating the synergy between irradiation and hypercholesterolemia in the precocity and gravity of vascular complications are recalled. The different localisations reported in the litterature are discussed: coronary, pulmonary, thoracic aorta, supra aortic, renal, digestive and ilio-femoral arteries. Finally, the difficulty of diagnosis of post-radiotherapy without clinical, radiological or anatomopathological confirmation, is underlined [fr

  20. Replica Approach for Minimal Investment Risk with Cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinzato, Takashi

    2018-06-01

    In the present work, the optimal portfolio minimizing the investment risk with cost is discussed analytically, where an objective function is constructed in terms of two negative aspects of investment, the risk and cost. We note the mathematical similarity between the Hamiltonian in the mean-variance model and the Hamiltonians in the Hopfield model and the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, show that we can analyze this portfolio optimization problem by using replica analysis, and derive the minimal investment risk with cost and the investment concentration of the optimal portfolio. Furthermore, we validate our proposed method through numerical simulations.

  1. Dynamics of sexual populations structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait

    KAUST Repository

    Mirrahimi, Sepideh

    2013-03-01

    We study sexual populations structured by a phenotypic trait and a space variable, in a non-homogeneous environment. Departing from an infinitesimal model, we perform an asymptotic limit to derive the system introduced in Kirkpatrick and Barton (1997). We then perform a further simplification to obtain a simple model. Thanks to this simpler equation, we can describe rigorously the dynamics of the population. In particular, we provide an explicit estimate of the invasion speed, or extinction speed of the species. Numerical computations show that this simple model provides a good approximation of the original infinitesimal model, and in particular describes quite well the evolution of the species\\' range. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  2. The simplest possible design for a KB microfocus mirror system?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, S. P., E-mail: steve.collins@diamond.ac.uk; Scott, S. M.; Hawkins, D. M.; Fabrizi, F.; Moser, B.; Nisbet, G.; Sutter, J. P. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Harwin, R. C. [Diamond Light Source, Harwell Science & Innovation Campus, Didcot, OX11 0DE (United Kingdom); Department of Physics, Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Harwin, W. S. [School of Systems Engineering, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading, Berkshire, RG6 6AH (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-27

    We report a design for a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) microfocussing mirror system. The main components are described, with emphasis on a ‘tripod’ manipulator, where we outline the required coordinate transformation calculations. The merit of this device lies in its simplicity of design, minimal degrees of freedom, and speed and ease of setup on a beamline. Test results and an example of the mirrors in use on Diamond Beamline I16, showing a high-resolution polar domain map of KTiOPO{sub 4} with a spot size of 1.25 µm × 1.5 µm, are presented.

  3. Dynamics of sexual populations structured by a space variable and a phenotypical trait

    KAUST Repository

    Mirrahimi, Sepideh; Raoul, Gaë l

    2013-01-01

    We study sexual populations structured by a phenotypic trait and a space variable, in a non-homogeneous environment. Departing from an infinitesimal model, we perform an asymptotic limit to derive the system introduced in Kirkpatrick and Barton (1997). We then perform a further simplification to obtain a simple model. Thanks to this simpler equation, we can describe rigorously the dynamics of the population. In particular, we provide an explicit estimate of the invasion speed, or extinction speed of the species. Numerical computations show that this simple model provides a good approximation of the original infinitesimal model, and in particular describes quite well the evolution of the species' range. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Spherical 2+p spin-glass model: An exactly solvable model for glass to spin-glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crisanti, A.; Leuzzi, L.

    2004-01-01

    We present the full phase diagram of the spherical 2+p spin-glass model with p≥4. The main outcome is the presence of a phase with both properties of full replica symmetry breaking phases of discrete models, e.g., the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, and those of one replica symmetry breaking. This phase has a finite complexity which leads to different dynamic and static properties. The phase diagram is rich enough to allow the study of different kinds of glass to spin glass and spin glass to spin glass phase transitions

  5. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements.

  6. Evaluating a surgeon led training program: Targeting kidney disease in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P. Slakey

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The curriculum improved multidisciplinary team performance in the short and long term. Course design provided a structured training framework, and enhanced the learning. The methods used to deliver the educational material and simulation training overcame potential language and cultural barriers. Follow-up demonstrated a sustained acceptance and application of the training in the care of complex kidney disease patients. The Kirkpatrick evaluation method assisted in determining the effectiveness of this training methodology. Using this platform for education and training can foster improvements in patient outcomes effectiveness.

  7. Knowledge, Experience, and Training in Incentive Contracting for the Department of Defense

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Defense (DoD) Acquisition Workforce (DAW) through the implementation of various incentive arrangements to influence more favorable performance outcomes... etc .? ^Åèìáëáíáçå=oÉëÉ~êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 423 - Research suggests that as much as 90% of training resources are...Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model, the DoD Acquisition Workforce survey volunteers provided useful information about themselves and their peers. The data

  8. High-energy x-ray microscopy of laser-fusion plasmas at the National Ignition Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, J.A.; Landen, O.L.; Hammel, B.A.

    1997-01-01

    Multi-keV x-ray microscopy will be an important laser-produced plasma diagnostic at future megajoule facilities such as the National Ignition Facility (NIF).In preparation for the construction of this facility, we have investigated several instrumentation options in detail, and we conclude that near normal incidence single spherical or toroidal crystals may offer the best general solution for high-energy x-raymicroscopy at NIF and at similar large facilities. Kirkpatrick-Baez microscopes using multi-layer mirrors may also be good secondary options, particularly if apertures are used to increase the band-width limited field of view

  9. Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy using a high-energy microbeam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, Y.; Hirose, Y.; Seno, Y.

    2016-01-01

    A scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope apparatus with a high-energy microbeam was installed at the BL33XU Toyota beamline at SPring-8. The size of the 50 keV beam focused using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors was 1.3 μm wide and 1.6 μm high in full width at half maximum. The scanning 3DXRD method was tested for a cold-rolled carbon steel sheet sample. A three-dimensional orientation map with 37 "3 voxels was obtained.

  10. Scanning three-dimensional x-ray diffraction microscopy using a high-energy microbeam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Y., E-mail: y-hayashi@mosk.tytlabs.co.jp; Hirose, Y.; Seno, Y. [Toyota Central R& D Toyota Central R& D Labs., Inc., 41-1 Nagakute Aichi 480-1192 Japan (Japan)

    2016-07-27

    A scanning three-dimensional X-ray diffraction (3DXRD) microscope apparatus with a high-energy microbeam was installed at the BL33XU Toyota beamline at SPring-8. The size of the 50 keV beam focused using Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors was 1.3 μm wide and 1.6 μm high in full width at half maximum. The scanning 3DXRD method was tested for a cold-rolled carbon steel sheet sample. A three-dimensional orientation map with 37 {sup 3} voxels was obtained.

  11. Evaluation of a Radiation Worker Safety Training Program at a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsey, J.E.

    1993-05-01

    A radiation safety course was evaluated using the Kirkpatrick criteria of training evaluation as a guide. Thirty-nine employees were given the two-day training course and were compared with 15 employees in a control group who did not receive the training. Cognitive results show an immediate gain in knowledge, and substantial retention at 6 months. Implications of the results are discussed in terms of applications to current radiation safety training was well as follow-on training research and development requirements

  12. Are we doing the right thing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giangreco, Antonio; Carugati, Andrea; Sebastiano, Antonio

    2010-01-01

    /Methodology/Approach - The main argument of the paper - the need to design new evaluation tools - emerges from an extensive literature review of the criticism brought to the Kirkpatrick model. The approach is deductive as we let the argument emerge from extant literature. Findings - The main findings from the literature review....../Implications - The article is based on literature review and presents a call for new research. As such, it is not grounded in original empirical evidence beside the ones presented in the cited articles. Practical Implications - The article is chiefly a call for training evaluation tools that are more aligned with the modern...

  13. High-pressure pair distribution function (PDF) measurement using high-energy focused x-ray beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Xinguo, E-mail: xhong@bnl.gov; Weidner, Donald J. [Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Ehm, Lars [Mineral Physics Institute, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Zhong, Zhong; Ghose, Sanjit [National Synchrotron Light Source II, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Duffy, Thomas S. [Department of Geosciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    In this paper, we report recent development of the high-pressure pair distribution function (HP-PDF) measurement technique using a focused high-energy X-ray beam coupled with a diamond anvil cell (DAC). The focusing optics consist of a sagittally bent Laue monochromator and Kirkpatrick-Baez (K–B) mirrors. This combination provides a clean high-energy X-ray beam suitable for HP-PDF research. Demonstration of the HP-PDF technique for nanocrystalline platinum under quasi-hydrostatic condition above 30 GPa is presented.

  14. Inverse Ising Inference Using All the Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aurell, Erik; Ekeberg, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    We show that a method based on logistic regression, using all the data, solves the inverse Ising problem far better than mean-field calculations relying only on sample pairwise correlation functions, while still computationally feasible for hundreds of nodes. The largest improvement in reconstruction occurs for strong interactions. Using two examples, a diluted Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and a two-dimensional lattice, we also show that interaction topologies can be recovered from few samples with good accuracy and that the use of l1 regularization is beneficial in this process, pushing inference abilities further into low-temperature regimes.

  15. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A

  16. Geriatrics Curricula for Internal and Family Medicine Residents: Assessing Study Quality and Learning Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Huai Yong; Davis, Molly

    2017-02-01

    Prior reviews of geriatrics curricula for internal medicine (IM) and family medicine (FM) residents have not evaluated study quality or assessed learning objectives or specific IM or FM competencies. This review of geriatrics curricula for IM and FM residents seeks to answer 3 questions: (1) What types of learning outcomes were measured? (2) How were learning outcomes measured? and (3) What was the quality of the studies? We evaluated geriatrics curricula that reported learning objectives or competencies, teaching methods, and learning outcomes, and those that used a comparative design. We searched PubMed and 4 other data sets from 2003-2015, and assessed learning outcomes, outcome measures, and the quality of studies using the Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument (MERSQI) and Best Evidence Medical Education (BEME) methods. Fourteen studies met inclusion criteria. Most curricula were intended for IM residents in the inpatient setting; only 1 was solely dedicated to FM residents. Median duration was 1 month, and minimum geriatrics competencies covered were 4. Learning outcomes ranged from Kirkpatrick levels 1 to 3. Studies that reported effect size showed a considerable impact on attitudes and knowledge, mainly via pretests and posttests. The mean MERSQI score was 10.5 (range, 8.5-13) on a scale of 5 (lowest quality) to 18 (highest quality). Few geriatrics curricula for IM and FM residents that included learning outcome assessments were published recently. Overall, changes in attitudes and knowledge were sizeable, but reporting was limited to low to moderate Kirkpatrick levels. Study quality was moderate.

  17. Informing web-based communication curricula in veterinary education: a systematic review of web-based methods used for teaching and assessing clinical communication in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artemiou, Elpida; Adams, Cindy L; Toews, Lorraine; Violato, Claudio; Coe, Jason B

    2014-01-01

    We determined the Web-based configurations that are applied to teach medical and veterinary communication skills, evaluated their effectiveness, and suggested future educational directions for Web-based communication teaching in veterinary education. We performed a systematic search of CAB Abstracts, MEDLINE, Scopus, and ERIC limited to articles published in English between 2000 and 2012. The review focused on medical or veterinary undergraduate to clinical- or residency-level students. We selected studies for which the study population was randomized to the Web-based learning (WBL) intervention with a post-test comparison with another WBL or non-WBL method and that reported at least one empirical outcome. Two independent reviewers completed relevancy screening, data extraction, and synthesis of results using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's framework. The search retrieved 1,583 articles, and 10 met the final inclusion criteria. We identified no published articles on Web based communication platforms in veterinary medicine; however, publications summarized from human medicine demonstrated that WBL provides a potentially reliable and valid approach for teaching and assessing communication skills. Student feedback on the use of virtual patients for teaching clinical communication skills has been positive,though evidence has suggested that practice with virtual patients prompted lower relation-building responses.Empirical outcomes indicate that WBL is a viable method for expanding the approach to teaching history taking and possibly to additional tasks of the veterinary medical interview.

  18. Saving lives: A meta-analysis of team training in healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Ashley M; Gregory, Megan E; Joseph, Dana L; Sonesh, Shirley C; Marlow, Shannon L; Lacerenza, Christina N; Benishek, Lauren E; King, Heidi B; Salas, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    As the nature of work becomes more complex, teams have become necessary to ensure effective functioning within organizations. The healthcare industry is no exception. As such, the prevalence of training interventions designed to optimize teamwork in this industry has increased substantially over the last 10 years (Weaver, Dy, & Rosen, 2014). Using Kirkpatrick's (1956, 1996) training evaluation framework, we conducted a meta-analytic examination of healthcare team training to quantify its effectiveness and understand the conditions under which it is most successful. Results demonstrate that healthcare team training improves each of Kirkpatrick's criteria (reactions, learning, transfer, results; d = .37 to .89). Second, findings indicate that healthcare team training is largely robust to trainee composition, training strategy, and characteristics of the work environment, with the only exception being the reduced effectiveness of team training programs that involve feedback. As a tertiary goal, we proposed and found empirical support for a sequential model of healthcare team training where team training affects results via learning, which leads to transfer, which increases results. We find support for this sequential model in the healthcare industry (i.e., the current meta-analysis) and in training across all industries (i.e., using meta-analytic estimates from Arthur, Bennett, Edens, & Bell, 2003), suggesting the sequential benefits of training are not unique to medical teams. Ultimately, this meta-analysis supports the expanded use of team training and points toward recommendations for optimizing its effectiveness within healthcare settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Clinical Simulation in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing: Post-Graduation Follow Up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilly, Mary LuAnne; Hermanns, Melinda; Crawley, Bill

    2016-10-01

    In psychiatric-mental health, creating an innovative strategy to help students learn content that may not be frequently seen in a clinical setting is challenging. Thus, simulation helps narrow this gap. Using Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's model of evaluation to guide the current study, faculty contacted baccalaureate nursing program graduates who completed a psychiatric-mental health clinical simulation scenario featuring a hanging suicide and wrist cutting suicide attempt scenario in the "Behind the Door" series as part of the clinical component of their undergraduate psychiatric-mental health course. Eleven nurses responded to a survey regarding their post-graduate encounters with these types of clinical situations, and their perception of recall and application of knowledge and skills acquired during the simulation experience to the clinical situation. Nursing graduates' responses are expressed through three major themes: emotional, contextual/behavioral, and assessment outcomes. Data from the survey indicate that nursing graduates perceived the "Behind the Door" simulations as beneficial to nursing practice. This perception is important in evaluating knowledge transfer from a simulation experience as a student into application in nursing practice. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 54(10), 40-45.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  20. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Brown dwarf surface gravities with Keck/NIRSPEC (Martin , 2017)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, E. C.; Mace, G. N.; McLean, I. S.; Logsdon, S. E.; Rice, E. L.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Burgasser, A. J.; McGovern, M. R.; Prato, L.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper, we follow up on prior NIR spectroscopy by our group and use a modified Allers & Liu (A13, 2013ApJ...772...79A) method to determine surface gravities for 228 M, L, and T dwarfs. We present medium-resolution (R~20000) J-band spectra of 85 M dwarfs, 92 L dwarfs, and 51 T dwarfs obtained as part of the Keck NIRSPEC Brown Dwarf Spectroscopic Survey (BDSS). Ninety-seven spectra were published previously in McLean+ (2003ApJ...596..561M), Burgasser+ (2003ApJ...592.1186B), McGovern+ (2004ApJ...600.1020M), Rice+ (2010ApJS..186...63R), Kirkpatrick+ (2010, J/ApJS/190/100), Luhman (2012ARA&A..50...65L), Thompson+ (2013PASP..125..809T), Mace+ (2013, J/ApJS/205/6), Mace+ (2013ApJ...777...36M), and Kirkpatrick+ (2014, J/ApJ/783/122), and the remaining 131 are presented here for the first time. Observation information (spanning 1999 Apr to 2015 Mar) for all of the targets in our sample is listed in Table 1. (4 data files).

  1. Design and evaluation of an IPE module at the beginning of professional training in medicine, nursing, and physiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirn, Lena; Körner, Mirjam; Luzay, Leonie; Sandeck, Florian; Müller-Fröhlich, Christa; Straub, Christine; Stößel, Ulrich; Silbernagel, Waltraud; Fischer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) is a central feature of modern education in the health care professions. Despite this, empirically founded and systematically structured IPE courses are absent from many curricula. To answer the WHO's call for improved interprofessional collaboration in the health care system, a seminar was designed, implemented and evaluated. The target group consisted of students beginning nursing and medical studies (first and second semesters) and physiotherapy students (first year of training). The aim was to develop a basic IPE module focusing not only on the demands placed by academia and politics, but also the interests of the target group. This module was evaluated on the basis of the modified four-level Kirkpatrick approach. Based on focus group interviews analyzed qualitatively using Mayring's content analysis, it was possible to define five learning objectives and develop four practice-oriented modules. The seminar was then implemented and evaluated using written pre- and post-seminar evaluations and group discussions. Analysis confirmed the success of the IPE concept in that the seminar was positively rated by attendees not only in terms of their immediate reactions, but also attitude, knowledge and skills according to Kirkpatrick. In the future, it is intended to offer the IPE module on a permanent basis and assess the competencies acquired in the seminar using observation. Courses to ensure sustained learning outcomes would also be desirable.

  2. ANALYSIS OF THE RELATIONSHIP OF THE TRAINING PROGRAM (DIKLATPIM TO INCREASE THE QUALITY OF LEADERSHIP (LEADERSHIP OF CIVIL SERVANTS IN THE OFFICE OF THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT DISTRICT OF AGAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Amaluis

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The principal functions of human resources management, there is a function evaluation. Program training as one strategy for human resource development that requires function evaluation to determine the effectiveness of a training Program. On the Organization of the public sector, the implementation of a training Program is set based on the Government Regulation No. 101 in 2000. Training programs for civil servants aims to improve the ability of lead as well as performance improvements. In this study, the intended training program is a level III leadership Training. This research aims to quantify relationships training programme to improve the quality of leadership. Respondents consisted of 96 people level III Leadership Training Program evaluation method using the method of Kirkpatrick & Kirkpatrick. Analysis of the correlation used is simple by looking at the significance of the values between variables. Based on the research results obtained that the only training Program correlates on taraf was strong but not significantly to improve the quality of leadership. From this research can be disimpulan that the organizers of the training program is considered necessary to conduct a training needs Analysis in depth, so knowable Competency Gapsetiap potential participants and prepare a suitable training method to improve the Gap.

  3. Design and evaluation of an IPE module at the beginning of professional training in medicine, nursing, and physiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirn, Lena; Körner, Mirjam; Luzay, Leonie; Sandeck, Florian; Müller-Fröhlich, Christa; Straub, Christine; Stößel, Ulrich; Silbernagel, Waltraud; Fischer, Julia

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Interprofessional education (IPE) is a central feature of modern education in the health care professions. Despite this, empirically founded and systematically structured IPE courses are absent from many curricula. To answer the WHO’s call for improved interprofessional collaboration in the health care system, a seminar was designed, implemented and evaluated. The target group consisted of students beginning nursing and medical studies (first and second semesters) and physiotherapy students (first year of training). The aim was to develop a basic IPE module focusing not only on the demands placed by academia and politics, but also the interests of the target group. This module was evaluated on the basis of the modified four-level Kirkpatrick approach. Method: Based on focus group interviews analyzed qualitatively using Mayring’s content analysis, it was possible to define five learning objectives and develop four practice-oriented modules. The seminar was then implemented and evaluated using written pre- and post-seminar evaluations and group discussions. Results: Analysis confirmed the success of the IPE concept in that the seminar was positively rated by attendees not only in terms of their immediate reactions, but also attitude, knowledge and skills according to Kirkpatrick. Conclusion: In the future, it is intended to offer the IPE module on a permanent basis and assess the competencies acquired in the seminar using observation. Courses to ensure sustained learning outcomes would also be desirable. PMID:27280135

  4. Design and evaluation of an IPE module at the beginning of professional training in medicine, nursing, and physiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zirn, Lena

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Interprofessional education (IPE is a central feature of modern education in the health care professions. Despite this, empirically founded and systematically structured IPE courses are absent from many curricula. To answer the WHO’s call for improved interprofessional collaboration in the health care system, a seminar was designed, implemented and evaluated. The target group consisted of students beginning nursing and medical studies (first and second semesters and physiotherapy students (first year of training.The aim was to develop a basic IPE module focusing not only on the demands placed by academia and politics, but also the interests of the target group. This module was evaluated on the basis of the modified four-level Kirkpatrick approach.Method: Based on focus group interviews analyzed qualitatively using Mayring’s content analysis, it was possible to define five learning objectives and develop four practice-oriented modules. The seminar was then implemented and evaluated using written pre- and post-seminar evaluations and group discussions.Results: Analysis confirmed the success of the IPE concept in that the seminar was positively rated by attendees not only in terms of their immediate reactions, but also attitude, knowledge and skills according to Kirkpatrick.Conclusion: In the future, it is intended to offer the IPE module on a permanent basis and assess the competencies acquired in the seminar using observation. Courses to ensure sustained learning outcomes would also be desirable.

  5. Residents-as-Teachers Publications: What Can Programs Learn From the Literature When Starting a New or Refining an Established Curriculum?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bree, Kelly K; Whicker, Shari A; Fromme, H Barrett; Paik, Steve; Greenberg, Larrie

    2014-06-01

    Teaching residents how to teach is a critical part of resident education because residents are often the major teachers of medical students. The importance of formal residents-as-teachers (RAT) curricula has been emphasized throughout the literature, yet not all residency programs have such a curriculum in place. The purpose of our study was to (1) review the medical education literature for established RAT curricula, (2) assess published curricula's reproducibility, (3) evaluate the type of outcomes achieved using the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation, and (4) identify curricula that training programs could feasibly adopt. We performed a literature review using PubMed, Medline, Scopus, PsycINFO, ERIC, and Embase. Key search words included residents, residents as teachers, teaching, internship and residency, and curriculum. In addition, a search of MedEdPORTAL was performed using the same key terms. Articles were evaluated based on the reproducibility of curricula and the assessment tools. Evaluation of educational outcomes was performed using the Kirkpatrick model. Thirty-nine articles were deemed appropriate for review. Interventions and evaluation techniques varied greatly. Only 1 article from the literature was deemed to have both curricula and assessments that would be fully reproducible by other programs. A literature review on RAT curricula found few articles that would be easily reproduced for residency programs that want to start or improve their own RAT curricula. It also demonstrated the difficulty and lack of rigorous outcome measurements for most curricula.

  6. Product training for the technical expert the art of developing and delivering hands-on learning

    CERN Document Server

    Bixby, Daniel W

    2018-01-01

    I was pleased to review Dan's new book - pleased because he addresses an old topic in a new way. He is making no assumptions for trainers who are not fully experienced and seasoned. He takes them step-by-step through practical and realistic methods to set up training graduates to actually be on-the-job performers. Enjoy, learn and be inspired. Jim Kirkpatrick, PhD Senior Consultant, Kirkpatrick Partners, USA Daniel Bixby's approach to Product Training for technical experts is practical, relevant and exactly what anyone who is required to train others on technical content really needs. He writes with candor and with a sense of ease, making the reader feel as though he is right there with you helping to develop your training competency. A must read for anyone on your team required to provide technical training to others! Jennifer Alfaro Chief Human Resources Officer, USA An expert guide to developing and delivering technical product training programs While there are many books on talent developmen...

  7. Sphingosines Derived from Marine Sponge as Potential Multi-Target Drug Related to Disorders in Cancer Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biegelmeyer, Renata; Schröder, Rafael; Rambo, Douglas F.; Dresch, Roger R.; Carraro, João L. F.; Mothes, Beatriz; Moreira, José Cláudio F.; da Frota Junior, Mário L. C.; Henriques, Amélia T.

    2015-01-01

    Haliclona tubifera, marine sponge species abundant in Brazilian coastline, presents only a few papers published in the literature. Recently, we have reported the isolation of two modified C18 sphingoid bases: (2R,3R,6R,7Z)-2-aminooctadec-7-ene-1,3,6-triol and and (2R,3R,6R)-2-aminooctadec-1,3,6-triol. In order to continue our research, in this work aimed at the biological investigation of fractions that led to the isolation of these compounds. We evaluated the cytotoxic effect of marine sponge H. tubifera fractions in glioma (U87) and neuroblastoma (SH-SY5Y) human cell lines. In addition, considering the link between cancer, imbalance of reactive oxygen species and coagulation disorders, we also investigated the in vitro effects on blood coagulation and their redox properties. We showed that the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fraction, rich in sphingoid bases, had important cytotoxic effects in both cancer cell lines with an IC50 < 15 μg/mL and also can inhibit the production of peroxyl radicals. Interestingly, this fraction increased the recalcification time of human blood, showing anticoagulant properties. The present study indicates the sphingosines fraction as a promising source of chemical prototypes, especially multifunctional drugs in cancer therapy. PMID:26308014

  8. Gene Expression Dynamics Accompanying the Sponge Thermal Stress Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, Christine; Conaco, Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Marine sponges are important members of coral reef ecosystems. Thus, their responses to changes in ocean chemistry and environmental conditions, particularly to higher seawater temperatures, will have potential impacts on the future of these reefs. To better understand the sponge thermal stress response, we investigated gene expression dynamics in the shallow water sponge, Haliclona tubifera (order Haplosclerida, class Demospongiae), subjected to elevated temperature. Using high-throughput transcriptome sequencing, we show that these conditions result in the activation of various processes that interact to maintain cellular homeostasis. Short-term thermal stress resulted in the induction of heat shock proteins, antioxidants, and genes involved in signal transduction and innate immunity pathways. Prolonged exposure to thermal stress affected the expression of genes involved in cellular damage repair, apoptosis, signaling and transcription. Interestingly, exposure to sublethal temperatures may improve the ability of the sponge to mitigate cellular damage under more extreme stress conditions. These insights into the potential mechanisms of adaptation and resilience of sponges contribute to a better understanding of sponge conservation status and the prediction of ecosystem trajectories under future climate conditions.

  9. Phylogenetic diversity and community structure of sponge-associated bacteria from mangroves of the Caribbean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Jiangke

    2011-02-08

    To gain insight into the species richness and phylogeny of the microbial communities associated with sponges in mangroves, we performed an extensive phylogenetic analysis, based on terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism profiling and 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequences, of the 4 sponge species Aplysina fulva, Haliclona hogarthi, Tedania ignis and Ircinia strobilina as well as of ambient seawater. The sponge-associated bacterial communities contained 13 phyla, including Poribacteria and an unclassified group not found in the ambient seawater community, 98% of which comprised Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria and Bacteroidetes. Although the sponges themselves were phylogenetically distant and bacterial community variation within the host species was observed, microbial phyla such as Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi and the unclassified group were consistently observed as the dominant populations within the communities. The sponge-associated bacterial communities resident in the Caribbean Sea mangroves are phylogenetically similar but significantly distinct from communities found in other biogeographical sites such as the deep-water environments of the Caribbean Sea, the South China Sea and Australia. The interspecific variation within the host species and the distinct biogeographical characteristics that the sponge-associated bacteria exhibited indicate that the acquisition, establishment and formation of functional sponge-associated bacterial communities may initially be the product of both vertical and horizontal transmission, and is then shaped by the internal environment created by the sponge species and certain external environmental factors. © Inter-Research 2011.

  10. Sponge-Associated Bacteria Produce Non-cytotoxic Melanin Which Protects Animal Cells from Photo-Toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, Vijitha; Jasmin, Chekidhenkuzhiyil; Anas, Abdulaziz; Parakkaparambil Kuttan, Sreelakshmi; Vinothkumar, Saradavey; Perunninakulath Subrayan, Parameswaran; Nair, Shanta

    2017-09-01

    Melanin is a photo-protective polymer found in many organisms. Our research shows that the bacteria associated with darkly pigmented sponges (Haliclona pigmentifera, Sigmadocia pumila, Fasciospongia cavernosa, Spongia officinalis, and Callyspongia diffusa) secrete non-cytotoxic melanin, with antioxidant activity that protects animal cells from photo-toxicity. Out of 156 bacterial strains screened, 22 produced melanin and these melanin-producing bacteria (MPB) were identified as Vibrio spp., Providencia sp., Bacillus sp., Shewanella sp., Staphylococcus sp., Planococcus sp., Salinococcus sp., and Glutamicibacter sp. Maximum melanin production was exhibited by Vibrio alginolyticus Marine Microbial Reference Facility (MMRF) 534 (50 mg ml -1 ), followed by two isolates of Vibrio harveyi MMRF 535 (40 mg ml -1 ) and MMRF 546 (30 mg ml -1 ). Using pathway inhibition assay and FT-IR spectral analysis, we identified the melanin secreted into the culture medium of MPB as 1,8-dihydroxynaphthalene-melanin. The bacterial melanin was non-cytotoxic to mouse fibroblast L929 cells and brine shrimps up to a concentration of 200 and 500 ppm, respectively. Bacterial melanin showed antioxidant activity at very low concentration (IC 50 -9.0 ppm) and at 50 ppm, melanin protected L929 cells from UV-induced intracellular reactive oxygen stress. Our study proposes sponge-associated bacteria as a potential source of non-cytotoxic melanin with antioxidant potentials.

  11. Integrative Taxonomy of Amazon Reefs' Arenosclera spp.: A New Clade in the Haplosclerida (Demospongiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille V. Leal

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Two new Arenosclera are described here on the basis of materials obtained from Amazon reefs in 2014, A. amazonensis sp. nov. and A. klausi sp. nov. Both are clearly distinct from all other Arenosclera by their erect, solid funnel to lamellate habit, larger oxeas, and ectosomal architecture bearing occasional multispicular tracts. An integrative approach to find the best classification for both new species failed to group them and A. heroni, the genus' type species. Nearly complete 28S rRNA sequences obtained from these species' metagenomes suggested instead a better placement for the new species and A. brasiliensis in clade C (sensu Redmond et al., 2013, while A. heroni fits best in clade A. We propose to name three clades according to the rules of the PhyloCode: Arenospiculap, Dactyclonap, and Dactyspiculap, respectively for the clade originating with the most recent common ancestor of the three Brazilian Arenosclera spp.; the most inclusive clade containing Dactylia varia (Gray, 1843 and Haliclona curacaoensis (van Soest, 1980; and the least inclusive clade containing Arenospiculap and Dactyclonap. A Karlin dinucleotide dissimilarity analysis of metagenomes carried out on cryopreserved samples recognized A. amazonensis sp. nov. as the most dissimilar species, thus suggesting a more particular microbiota is present in this Amazon species, an open avenue for extended applied study of this holobiont.

  12. Screening of broad spectrum natural pesticides against conserved target arginine kinase in cotton pests by molecular modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakthivel, Seethalakshmi; Habeeb, S K M; Raman, Chandrasekar

    2018-03-12

    Cotton is an economically important crop and its production is challenged by the diversity of pests and related insecticide resistance. Identification of the conserved target across the cotton pest will help to design broad spectrum insecticide. In this study, we have identified conserved sequences by Expressed Sequence Tag profiling from three cotton pests namely Aphis gossypii, Helicoverpa armigera, and Spodoptera exigua. One target protein arginine kinase having a key role in insect physiology and energy metabolism was studied further using homology modeling, virtual screening, molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation to identify potential biopesticide compounds from the Zinc natural database. We have identified four compounds having excellent inhibitor potential against the identified broad spectrum target which are highly specific to invertebrates.

  13. Instituciones microfinancieras y cajas de ahorro en Santo Tomás Hueyotlipan, Puebla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristiano Raccanello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available La exigua presencia de los intermediarios financieros formales en los municipios rurales mexicanos impulsa el uso de tandas y solicitud de dinero a prestamistas, familiares o amigos. Las cajas de ahorro constituyen una alternativa a estos métodos tradicionales y aprovechan el capital social comunitario. Esta investigación, fundamentado en una muestra realizada en el municipio de Santo Tomás Hueyotlipan (Puebla, México, analiza los factores que impulsan la participación en las cajas de ahorro informales y su interacción con otros intermediarios financieros informales. Los resultados del modelo probit indican que la participación responde a la posibilidad de poder ahorrar atrayendo a aquellos individuos que no utilizan tandas, prestamistas o deudas con familiares o amigos.

  14. Las obligaciones alimenticias internacionales en favor de los niños en el ordenamiento jurídico chileno

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Rizik Mulet

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available El tratamiento de las obligaciones alimenticias internacionales en la legislación chilena se limita a la incorporación del Convenio de Nueva York de 1956. En el caso de los niños, esta exigua regulación, unida a la falta de doctrina nacional en la materia, se traduce en dificultades para el acceso al cobro de deudas alimentarias desde y hacia el extranjero. Por ello, el presente artículo, mediante el análisis de la legislación vigente, revisa las soluciones que el ordenamiento ofrece para el cobro de las obligaciones alimenticias internacionales y propone nuevos mecanismos que facilitan su efectividad.

  15. Amélioration des activités insecticides des protéines Vip3 de Bacillus thuringiensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameh SELLAMI

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Vip3 proteins were considered as a second generation of biopesticides. They are synthesized and secreted by Bacillus thuringiensis during the vegetative growth phase. Vip3 proteins, which are discovered in 1990, are of great interest for the control of Lepidopteran insects pests such as Agrotis ipsilon, Spodoptera littoralis, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera frugiperda. Many researches were conducted on the Vip3 proteins in order to enlarge their spectrum, improve their insecticidal activities and resolve the problems of resistance that appeared recently after the massive use of δ-endotoxins, considered as first generation of biopesticides. In this review, we tried to summarize research studies interested in the improvement of the insecticidal activities of Vip3 proteins.

  16. Transmission of Different Nucleopolyhedroviruses by Two Ectoparasitoids – Bracon hebetor Say (Hymenoptera: Braconidae and Euplectrus plathypenae (Howard (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanouela E. Stoianova

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The transmission of nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs of Autographa gamma (AgNPV,Mamestra brassicae (MbNPV, Lacanobia oleraceae (LoNPV, Helicoverpa armigera (HaNPVand Xantia c-nigrum (XnNPV to their relevant larvae by the ectoparasitoid Bracon hebetorand the transmission of the multiple-enveloped NPVs of Spodoptera exigua (SeMNPV andSpodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV by the ectoparasitoid Euplectrus plathypenae was examined.Two methods of contamination of the both parasitoids (exposure to infected hostsand total body surface and two subsequent transmissions of the viruses by Bracon hebetorto healthy hosts were tested. The results showed that both parasitoids were capable tobe mechanical vectors of the tested NPVs. Every Bracon hebetor female was able to transmitsubsequently twice the virus in 27% to 52.2% of the five Noctuidae species by preliminaryexposing to infected larvae. The second method of contamination (applying virus suspensionto the total body surface of the parasitoid was also efficient causing virus infection inbetween 29.4% and 54.15% of the larvae.The parasitoid E. plathypenae transmited the virus from infected to noninfected larvaein 20% and 25.57% of the S. frugiperda and S. exigua larvae, and 6.43% and 11.10%, respectivelyof them died from the virus infection. The same observation was established by thesecond method of contamination – respectively 33.33% and 40% infection and between13.23% and 16.67% mortality. The mortality of all tested larvae exposed to virus contaminated parasitoids was higherwhen the parasitoid entire body surface had been artificially contaminated with the virusthan when the parasitoid itself was previously allowed to oviposit the larvae.

  17. Recombinant Promoter (MUASCsV8CP) Driven Totiviral Killer Protein 4 (KP4) Imparts Resistance Against Fungal Pathogens in Transgenic Tobacco

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deb, Debasish; Shrestha, Ankita; Maiti, Indu B.; Dey, Nrisingha

    2018-01-01

    Development of disease-resistant plant varieties achieved by engineering anti-microbial transgenes under the control of strong promoters can suffice the inhibition of pathogen growth and simultaneously ensure enhanced crop production. For evaluating the prospect of such strong promoters, we comprehensively characterized the full-length transcript promoter of Cassava Vein Mosaic Virus (CsVMV; -565 to +166) and identified CsVMV8 (-215 to +166) as the highest expressing fragment in both transient and transgenic assays. Further, we designed a new chimeric promoter ‘MUASCsV8CP’ through inter-molecular hybridization among the upstream activation sequence (UAS) of Mirabilis Mosaic Virus (MMV; -297 to -38) and CsVMV8, as the core promoter (CP). The MUASCsV8CP was found to be ∼2.2 and ∼2.4 times stronger than the CsVMV8 and CaMV35S promoters, respectively, while its activity was found to be equivalent to that of the CaMV35S2 promoter. Furthermore, we generated transgenic tobacco plants expressing the totiviral ‘Killer protein KP4’ (KP4) under the control of the MUASCsV8CP promoter. Recombinant KP4 was found to accumulate both in the cytoplasm and apoplast of plant cells. The agar-based killing zone assays revealed enhanced resistance of plant-derived KP4 against two deuteromycetous foliar pathogenic fungi viz. Alternaria alternata and Phoma exigua var. exigua. Also, transgenic plants expressing KP4 inhibited the growth progression of these fungi and conferred significant fungal resistance in detached-leaf and whole plant assays. Taken together, we establish the potential of engineering “in-built” fungal stress-tolerance in plants by expressing KP4 under a novel chimeric caulimoviral promoter in a transgenic approach. PMID:29556246

  18. Differential Change Patterns of Main Antimicrobial Peptide Genes During Infection of Entomopathogenic Nematodes and Their Symbiotic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darsouei, Reyhaneh; Karimi, Javad; Ghadamyari, Mohammad; Hosseini, Mojtaba

    2017-08-01

    The expression of antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as the main humoral defense reactions of insects during infection by entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) and their symbiont is addressed herein. Three AMPs, attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin, were evaluated in the fifth instar larvae of Spodoptera exigua Hübner (beet armyworm) when challenged with Steinernema carpocapsae or Heterorhabditis bacteriophora. The results indicated that attacin was expressed to a greater extent than either cecropin or spodoptericin. While spodoptericin was expressed to a much lesser extent, this AMP was induced against Gram-positive bacteria, and thus not expressed after penetration of Xenorhabdus nematophila and Photorhabdus luminescens. Attacin and cecropin in the larvae treated with S. carpocapsae at 8 hr post-injection (PI) attained the maximum expression levels and were 138.42-fold and 65.84-fold greater than those of larvae infected with H. bacteriophora, respectively. Generally, the ability of H. bacteriophora to suppress attacin, cecropin, and spodoptericin was greater than that of S. carpocapsae. According to the results, the expression of AMPs by Sp. exigua larvae against S. carpocapsae was determined in the 4 statuses of monoxenic nematode, axenic nematode, live symbiotic bacterium, and dead symbiotic bacterium. The expression of attacin in larvae treated with a monoxenic nematode and live bacterium at 8 and 2 hr PI, respectively, were increased to the maximum amount. Live X. nematophila was the strongest agent for the suppression of attacin. The expression of cecropin against monoxenic nematodes and live symbiotic bacteria at 8 and 4 hr PI, respectively, reached the maximum amount while the expression levels of attacin and cecropin for axenic nematodes were lesser and stable. The results highlighted that the ability of P. luminescens in AMPs suppression was much more than X. nematophila. The results also showed that the effect of symbiotic bacterium in suppressing attacin and

  19. Analysis of bacterial flora associated with peri-implantitis using obligate anaerobic culture technique and 16S rDNA gene sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Naoki; Ochi, Morio; Miyakawa, Hiroshi; Nakazawa, Futoshi

    2013-01-01

    To analyze and characterize the predominant bacterial flora associated with peri-implantitis by using culture techniques under obligate anaerobic conditions and 16S rDNA gene sequences. Subgingival bacterial specimens were taken from 30 patients: control (n = 15), consisting of patients with only healthy implants; and test (n = 15), consisting of patients with peri-implantitis. In both groups, subgingival bacterial specimens were taken from the deepest sites. An anaerobic glove box system was used to cultivate bacterial strains. The bacterial strains were identified by 16S rDNA genebased polymerase chain reaction and comparison of the gene sequences. Peri-implantitis sites had approximately 10-fold higher mean colony forming units (per milliliter) than healthy implant sites. A total of 69 different bacterial species were identified in the peri-implantitis sites and 53 in the healthy implant sites. The predominant bacterial species in the peri-implantitis sites were Eubacterium nodatum, E. brachy, E. saphenum, Filifactor alocis, Slackia exigua, Parascardovia denticolens, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Centipeda periodontii, and Parvimonas micra. The predominant bacteria in healthy implant sites apart from Streptococcus were Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Veillonella species, Actinomyces israelii, Actinomyces species, Propionibacterium acnes, and Parvimonas micra. These results suggest that the environment in the depths of the sulcus showing peri-implantitis is well suited for growth of obligate anaerobic bacteria. The present study demonstrated that the sulcus around oral implants with peri-implantitis harbors high levels of asaccharolytic anaerobic gram-positive rods (AAGPRs) such as E. nodatum, E. brachy, E. saphenum, Filifactor alocis, Slackia exigua, and gram-negative anaerobic rods, suggesting that conventional periodontopathic bacteria are not the only periodontal pathogens active in peri-implantitis, and that AAGPRs

  20. Latitudinal Gradients in Induced and Constitutive Resistance against Herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anstett, Daniel N; Chen, Wen; Johnson, Marc T J

    2016-08-01

    Plants are hypothesized to evolve increased defense against herbivores at lower latitudes, but an increasing number of studies report evidence that contradicts this hypothesis. Few studies have examined the evolution of constitutive and induced resistance along latitudinal gradients. When induction is not considered, underlying patterns of latitudinal clines in resistance can be obscured because plant resistance represents a combination of induced and constitutive resistance, which may show contrasting patterns with latitude. Here, we asked if there are latitudinal gradients in constitutive versus induced resistance by using genotypes of Oenothera biennis (Onagraceae) sampled along an 18° latitudinal gradient. We conducted two bioassay experiments to compare the resistance of plant genotypes against one generalist (Spodoptera exigua) and one specialist (Acanthoscelidius acephalus) herbivore. These insects were assayed on: i) undamaged control plants, ii) plants that had been induced with jasmonic acid, and iii) plants induced with herbivore damage. Additionally, we examined latitudinal gradients of constitutive and induced chemical resistance by measuring the concentrations of total phenolics, the concentration of oxidized phenolics, and the percentage of phenolics that were oxidized. Spodoptera exigua showed lower performance on plants from lower latitudes, whereas A. acephalus showed no latitudinal pattern. Constitutive total phenolics were greater in plants from lower latitudes, but induced plants showed higher total phenolics at higher latitudes. Oxidative activity was greatest at higher latitudes regardless of induction. Overall, both latitude and induction have an impact on different metrics of plant resistance to herbivory. Further studies should consider the effect of induction and herbivore specialization more explicitly, which may help to resolve the controversy in latitudinal gradients in herbivory and defense.

  1. Evaluation of use of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zafar, Saad, E-mail: saad.zafar@riphah.edu.pk [Riphah International University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Safdar, Saima, E-mail: saima.safdar@riphah.edu.pk [Riphah International University, Islamabad (Pakistan); Zafar, Aasma N., E-mail: aasmarad@gmail.com [Radiology Department, Senior Registrar Shifa College of Medicine and Assistant Consultant Shifa International Hospital, Islamabad (Pakistan)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We have systematically reviewed the literature on use of e-Learning in Radiology at the undergraduate level. • Kirkpatrick's Learning Model is used to evaluate the learning outcomes of the reported studies. • There is an increase in positive response for learning management systems used in blended learning environments. • There are wide range of technologies being used for e-Learning including use of audio response system and customized PAC solutions. • There is a clear trend toward highly interactive, self directed learning environment to support the concept of life long independent learners. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this review is to investigate the evaluative outcomes present in the literature according to Kirkpatrick's learning model and to examine the nature and characteristics of the e-Learning interventions in radiology education at undergraduate level. Materials and methods: Four databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Eric) are searched for publications related to the application of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education. The search strategy is a combination of e-Learning and Mesh and non Mesh radiology and undergraduate related terms. These search strategies are established in relation to experts of respective domains. The full text of thirty pertinent articles is reviewed. Author's country and study location data is extracted to identify the most active regions and year's are extracted to know the existing trend. Data regarding radiology subfields and undergraduate year of radiology education is extracted along with e-Learning technologies to identify the most prevalent or suitable technologies or tools with respect to radiology contents. Kirkpatricks learning evaluation model is used to categorize the evaluative outcomes reported in the identified studies. Results: The results of this analysis reveal emergence of highly interactive games, audience response systems and designing of wide range of

  2. Evaluation of use of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Saad; Safdar, Saima; Zafar, Aasma N.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We have systematically reviewed the literature on use of e-Learning in Radiology at the undergraduate level. • Kirkpatrick's Learning Model is used to evaluate the learning outcomes of the reported studies. • There is an increase in positive response for learning management systems used in blended learning environments. • There are wide range of technologies being used for e-Learning including use of audio response system and customized PAC solutions. • There is a clear trend toward highly interactive, self directed learning environment to support the concept of life long independent learners. - Abstract: Purpose: The aim of this review is to investigate the evaluative outcomes present in the literature according to Kirkpatrick's learning model and to examine the nature and characteristics of the e-Learning interventions in radiology education at undergraduate level. Materials and methods: Four databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Eric) are searched for publications related to the application of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education. The search strategy is a combination of e-Learning and Mesh and non Mesh radiology and undergraduate related terms. These search strategies are established in relation to experts of respective domains. The full text of thirty pertinent articles is reviewed. Author's country and study location data is extracted to identify the most active regions and year's are extracted to know the existing trend. Data regarding radiology subfields and undergraduate year of radiology education is extracted along with e-Learning technologies to identify the most prevalent or suitable technologies or tools with respect to radiology contents. Kirkpatricks learning evaluation model is used to categorize the evaluative outcomes reported in the identified studies. Results: The results of this analysis reveal emergence of highly interactive games, audience response systems and designing of wide range of

  3. Designing evaluation studies to optimally inform policy: what factors do policy-makers in China consider when making resource allocation decisions on healthcare worker training programmes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shishi; Legido-Quigley, Helena; Spencer, Julia; Coker, Richard James; Khan, Mishal Sameer

    2018-02-23

    In light of the gap in evidence to inform future resource allocation decisions about healthcare provider (HCP) training in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), and the considerable donor investments being made towards training interventions, evaluation studies that are optimally designed to inform local policy-makers are needed. The aim of our study is to understand what features of HCP training evaluation studies are important for decision-making by policy-makers in LMICs. We investigate the extent to which evaluations based on the widely used Kirkpatrick model - focusing on direct outcomes of training, namely reaction of trainees, learning, behaviour change and improvements in programmatic health indicators - align with policy-makers' evidence needs for resource allocation decisions. We use China as a case study where resource allocation decisions about potential scale-up (using domestic funding) are being made about an externally funded pilot HCP training programme. Qualitative data were collected from high-level officials involved in resource allocation at the national and provincial level in China through ten face-to-face, in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions consisting of ten participants each. Data were analysed manually using an interpretive thematic analysis approach. Our study indicates that Chinese officials not only consider information about the direct outcomes of a training programme, as captured in the Kirkpatrick model, but also need information on the resources required to implement the training, the wider or indirect impacts of training, and the sustainability and scalability to other settings within the country. In addition to considering findings presented in evaluation studies, we found that Chinese policy-makers pay close attention to whether the evaluations were robust and to the composition of the evaluation team. Our qualitative study indicates that training programme evaluations that focus narrowly on direct training

  4. Fully connected network of superconducting qubits in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsomokos, Dimitris I; Ashhab, Sahel; Nori, Franco

    2008-01-01

    A fully connected qubit network is considered, where every qubit interacts with every other one. When the interactions between the qubits are homogeneous, the system is a special case of the finite Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model. We propose a natural implementation of this model using superconducting qubits in state-of-the-art circuit QED. The ground state, the low-lying energy spectrum and the dynamical evolution are investigated. We find that, under realistic conditions, highly entangled states of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and W types can be generated. We also comment on the influence of disorder on the system and discuss the possibility of simulating complex quantum systems, such as Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) spin glasses, with superconducting qubit networks.

  5. Teaching Assistant Professional Development in Biology: Designed for and Driven by Multidimensional Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Tammy M.; Ebert-May, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Graduate teaching assistants (TAs) are increasingly responsible for instruction in undergraduate science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) courses. Various professional development (PD) programs have been developed and implemented to prepare TAs for this role, but data about effectiveness are lacking and are derived almost exclusively from self-reported surveys. In this study, we describe the design of a reformed PD (RPD) model and apply Kirkpatrick's Evaluation Framework to evaluate multiple outcomes of TA PD before, during, and after implementing RPD. This framework allows evaluation that includes both direct measures and self-reported data. In RPD, TAs created and aligned learning objectives and assessments and incorporated more learner-centered instructional practices in their teaching. However, these data are inconsistent with TAs’ self-reported perceptions about RPD and suggest that single measures are insufficient to evaluate TA PD programs. PMID:26086654

  6. I18--the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosselmans, J Frederick W; Quinn, Paul D; Dent, Andrew J; Cavill, Stuart A; Moreno, Sofia Diaz; Peach, Andrew; Leicester, Peter J; Keylock, Stephen J; Gregory, Simon R; Atkinson, Kirk D; Rosell, Josep Roque

    2009-11-01

    The design and performance of the microfocus spectroscopy beamline at the Diamond Light Source are described. The beamline is based on a 27 mm-period undulator to give an operable energy range between 2 and 20.7 keV, enabling it to cover the K-edges of the elements from P to Mo and the L(3)-edges from Sr to Pu. Micro-X-ray fluorescence, micro-EXAFS and micro-X-ray diffraction have all been achieved on the beamline with a spot size of approximately 3 microm. The principal optical elements of the beamline consist of a toroid mirror, a liquid-nitrogen-cooled double-crystal monochromator and a pair of bimorph Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The performance of the optics is compared with theoretical values and a few of the early experimental results are summarized.

  7. Pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region: a history of pedigrees and legacies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markowitz, Richard I.

    2009-01-01

    The specialty of pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region has grown and evolved over the past eight decades originating from early ''visiting'' radiologists to Drs. Hope and Kirkpatrick, the ''giants'' of the 1950s and 1960s, to over 40 actively practicing pediatric radiologists. Clinical excellence, commitment to teaching, and advancement of knowledge through research remain the goals and ideals, much as they were many years ago. Philadelphia has been a fertile home and environment for this development, mostly because of outstanding leaders and role models who have trained and influenced generations of pediatric radiologists. The purpose of this article is to tell the story of this growth and development and to explore the intellectual origins, professional ''genealogy,'' and legacies left by those who created this tradition. (orig.)

  8. Bottom Line: Defining Success in the Creation of a Business Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sean Mulcahy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes Bottom Line, a hybrid technology/classroom business simulation designed to help interns at an auditing/tax/consulting firm better understand the industry they are entering and the resource trade-offs that professional services firms make to stay competitive. This paper describes the sim on three different levels, the simulation level, the game level, and the instructional level, and the design choices made at each level, some of which were influenced by significant resource constraints. Bottom Line’s learning gains and ROI were not evaluated objectively—in fact, given objectives more focused on thought provocation than content teaching, it is unlikely it would score well on any level of the Kirkpatrick scale beyond the first. Despite that, and despite significant design and development weaknesses, it was seen as an unqualified success by the sponsoring organization. A discussion of what success means concludes this paper.

  9. Coupled Quantum Fluctuations and Quantum Annealing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hormozi, Layla; Kerman, Jamie

    We study the relative effectiveness of coupled quantum fluctuations, compared to single spin fluctuations, in the performance of quantum annealing. We focus on problem Hamiltonians resembling the the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model of Ising spin glass and compare the effectiveness of different types of fluctuations by numerically calculating the relative success probabilities and residual energies in fully-connected spin systems. We find that for a small class of instances coupled fluctuations can provide improvement over single spin fluctuations and analyze the properties of the corresponding class. Disclaimer: This research was funded by ODNI, IARPA via MIT Lincoln Laboratory under Air Force Contract No. FA8721-05-C-0002. The views and conclusions contained herein are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies or endorsements, either expressed or implied, of ODNI, IARPA, or the US Government.

  10. SEVAQ: a unique multi-functional tool for assessing and improving the quality of e-courses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schreurs

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available It is challenging to enhance quality of e-learning.We based the quality assessment on the EFQM and theKirkpatrick models. We built our own SEVAQ qualitymodel on which we based our multi-functional selfevaluationquestionnaire. We focused and limited ourselveson the valuable learners feedback. Our questionnaire isstructured around the 3 main criteria: the enablinglearning resources, learning processes and the learningresults. Questions are linked with their criteria andsubcriteria.The SEVAQ tool addresses the designer of the questionnaireas well as the learner, being the evaluator and so being theuser of the questionnaire. The designer selects on a flexibleway a set of relevant questions to be answered by thelearner. After finishing the questionnaire by the learner, thesystem analysis the results

  11. Grain orientation mapping of passivated aluminum interconnect wires with X-ray micro-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, A.A.; Padmore, H.A.; Thompson, A.C.; Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R.

    1998-06-01

    A micro x-ray diffraction facility is under development at the Advanced Light source. Spot sizes are typically about 1-microm size generated by means of grazing incidence Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors. Photon energy is either white of energy range 6--14 keV or monochromatic generated from a pair of channel cut crystals. A Laue diffraction pattern from a single grain in passivated 2-microm wide bamboo structured Aluminum interconnect line has been recorded. Acquisition times are of the order of a few seconds. The Laue pattern has allowed the determination of the crystallographic orientation of individual grains along the line length. The experimental and analysis procedures used are described, as is a grain orientation result. The future direction of this program is discussed in the context of strain measurements in the area of electromigration

  12. Pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region: a history of pedigrees and legacies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, Richard I. [University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Children' s Hospital of Philadelphia, Department of Radiology, Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2009-09-15

    The specialty of pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region has grown and evolved over the past eight decades originating from early ''visiting'' radiologists to Drs. Hope and Kirkpatrick, the ''giants'' of the 1950s and 1960s, to over 40 actively practicing pediatric radiologists. Clinical excellence, commitment to teaching, and advancement of knowledge through research remain the goals and ideals, much as they were many years ago. Philadelphia has been a fertile home and environment for this development, mostly because of outstanding leaders and role models who have trained and influenced generations of pediatric radiologists. The purpose of this article is to tell the story of this growth and development and to explore the intellectual origins, professional ''genealogy,'' and legacies left by those who created this tradition. (orig.)

  13. On the TAP Free Energy in the Mixed p-Spin Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Kuo; Panchenko, Dmitry

    2018-05-01

    Thouless et al. (Phys Mag 35(3):593-601, 1977), derived a representation for the free energy of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model, called the TAP free energy, written as the difference of the energy and entropy on the extended configuration space of local magnetizations with an Onsager correction term. In the setting of mixed p-spin models with Ising spins, we prove that the free energy can indeed be written as the supremum of the TAP free energy over the space of local magnetizations whose Edwards-Anderson order parameter (self-overlap) is to the right of the support of the Parisi measure. Furthermore, for generic mixed p-spin models, we prove that the free energy is equal to the TAP free energy evaluated on the local magnetization of any pure state.

  14. Time resolved X-ray micro-diffraction measurements of the dynamic local layer response to electric field in antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atuso E-mail: atsuo.iida@kek.jp; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Takezoe, Hideo

    2001-07-21

    The time-resolved synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction experiment has been carried out to reveal the local layer response to the electric field in the antiferroelectric liquid crystal. The X-ray microbeam of a few {mu}m spatial resolution was obtained with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. The time-resolved small angle diffraction experiment was performed with a time resolution ranging from 10 {mu}s to a few ms. The reversible local layer change between the horizontal chevron and the quasi-bookshelf structure was confirmed by the triangular wave form. The transient layer response for the step form electric field was observed. The layer response closely related with an electric field induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition.

  15. Time resolved X-ray micro-diffraction measurements of the dynamic local layer response to electric field in antiferroelectric liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Yumiko; Iida, Atuso; Takanishi, Yoichi; Ogasawara, Toyokazu; Takezoe, Hideo

    2001-01-01

    The time-resolved synchrotron X-ray microbeam diffraction experiment has been carried out to reveal the local layer response to the electric field in the antiferroelectric liquid crystal. The X-ray microbeam of a few μm spatial resolution was obtained with Kirkpatrick-Baez optics. The time-resolved small angle diffraction experiment was performed with a time resolution ranging from 10 μs to a few ms. The reversible local layer change between the horizontal chevron and the quasi-bookshelf structure was confirmed by the triangular wave form. The transient layer response for the step form electric field was observed. The layer response closely related with an electric field induced antiferroelectric to ferroelectric phase transition

  16. Recent results of PADReS, the Photon Analysis Delivery and REduction System, from the FERMI FEL commissioning and user operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Marco; Cocco, Daniele; Fava, Claudio; Gerusina, Simone; Gobessi, Riccardo; Mahne, Nicola; Mazzucco, Eric; Raimondi, Lorenzo; Rumiz, Luca; Svetina, Cristian

    2015-05-01

    The Photon Analysis Delivery and REduction System of FERMI (PADReS) has been routinely used during the machine commissioning and operations of FERMI since 2011. It has also served the needs of several user runs at the facility from late 2012. The system is endowed with online and shot-to-shot diagnostics giving information about intensity, spatial-angular distribution, spectral content, as well as other diagnostics to determine coherence, pulse length etc. Moreover, PADReS is capable of manipulating the beam in terms of intensity and optical parameters. Regarding the optics, besides a standard refocusing system based on an ellipsoidal mirror, the Kirkpatrick-Baez active optics systems are key elements and have been used intensively to meet users' requirements. A general description of the system is given, together with some selected results from the commissioning/operations/user beam time.

  17. Pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region: a history of pedigrees and legacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markowitz, Richard I

    2009-09-01

    The specialty of pediatric radiology in the Philadelphia region has grown and evolved over the past eight decades originating from early "visiting" radiologists to Drs. Hope and Kirkpatrick, the "giants" of the 1950s and 1960s, to over 40 actively practicing pediatric radiologists. Clinical excellence, commitment to teaching, and advancement of knowledge through research remain the goals and ideals, much as they were many years ago. Philadelphia has been a fertile home and environment for this development, mostly because of outstanding leaders and role models who have trained and influenced generations of pediatric radiologists. The purpose of this article is to tell the story of this growth and development and to explore the intellectual origins, professional "genealogy," and legacies left by those who created this tradition.

  18. On the value of executive management education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tryding, Per

    The thesis explores what values are perceived by participants in four long mid career management programs, whether attending contributes to value added for the participants and their organisations and explores how such value might materialise. Value is defined broadly ranging from direct intangible...... value for participants to indirect tangible value for organisations. The studied uses mixed method with interviews and statistical analysis of a survey. Kirkpatrick's taxonomy of outcomes is used and theoretically linked to value. Both interviews and survey are interpreted and find that two main types...... payback for participants is based on an estimated ability adjustment of 5-10% and assuming all cost is carried by the participants the average time to break even is below 15 years. Also organisational value added is associated with the two kinds of skills development. The pedagogy of the four programs...

  19. Using Technologies in Nursing Research Education: A Mixed Methods Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Shuhong; Yang, Harrison Hao

    2018-02-28

    To better prepare nurses for the new and expanding roles required in healthcare, faculty are expected to integrate emerging technology into educational processes. Using a mixed methods research design, this study aimed to examine nursing student reactions and learning based on their participation in an online research course through two technology-enhanced assignments: (1) annotation of the structure of a research article and (2) reflection on the content of a research article. Quantitative analysis examined students' questionnaire responses, and qualitative analysis explored students' reflective learning journals and the instructor's notes. These two separate strands of data were then integrated using a joint display. The discussion was guided by two components of the New World Kirkpatrick model, reaction and learning. Our findings suggest that the use of technology in the design of assignments is a way to engage students in learning and can be used to enhance nursing students' research learning online.

  20. Ecole d’été de Probabilités de Saint-Flour XXX

    CERN Document Server

    Schachermayer, Walter; Talagrand, Michel; Bernard, Pierre

    2003-01-01

    In World Mathematical Year 2000 the traditional St. Flour Summer School was hosted jointly with the European Mathematical Society. Sergio Albeverio reviews the theory of Dirichlet forms, and gives applications including partial differential equations, stochastic dynamics of quantum systems, quantum fields and the geometry of loop spaces. The second text, by Walter Schachermayer, is an introduction to the basic concepts of mathematical finance, including the Bachelier and Black-Scholes models. The fundamental theorem of asset pricing is discussed in detail. Finally Michel Talagrand, gives an overview of the mean field models for spin glasses. This text is a major contribution towards the proof of certain results from physics, and includes a discussion of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick and the p-spin interaction models.

  1. Effectiveness of Occupational Training Through Videoconferencing: Comparison with Classroom Training and Individual Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mar Iglesias

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo incluye una investigación en la que se compara la eficacia de la formación en el aula y de la formación mediante videoconferencia. La muestra fueron 561 adultos que participaron en cursos formativos para emprendedores en ambas modalidades formativas. Los resultados se analizaron de acuerdo a la efectividad según el primer nivel del modelo de Kirkpatrick. Los resultados indican que ambas modalidades formativas fueron muy bien evaluadas por los participantes, pero existen diferencias en la valoración del monitor, que resultó ligeramente más favorable en el caso de la formación en el aula. Finalmente se discuten los resultados y sus implicaciones para la formación y se sugieren nuevas investigaciones y posibles moderadores de la eficacia.

  2. Effective Dementia Education and Training for the Health and Social Care Workforce: A Systematic Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, Claire A; Gates, Cara; Irving, Donna; Oyebode, Jan; Smith, Sarah Jane; Parveen, Sahdia; Drury, Michelle; Dennison, Alison

    2017-10-01

    Ensuring an informed and effective dementia workforce is of international concern; however, there remains limited understanding of how this can be achieved. This review aimed to identify features of effective dementia educational programs. Critical interpretive synthesis underpinned by Kirkpatrick's return on investment model was applied. One hundred and fifty-two papers of variable quality were included. Common features of more efficacious educational programs included the need for educational programs to be relevant to participants' role and experience, involve active face-to-face participation, underpin practice-based learning with theory, be delivered by an experienced facilitator, have a total duration of at least 8 hours with individual sessions of 90 minutes or more, support application of learning in practice, and provide a structured tool or guideline to guide care practice. Further robust research is required to develop the evidence base; however, the findings of this review have relevance for all working in workforce education.

  3. On the formal equivalence of the TAP and thermodynamic methods in the SK model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cavagna, Andrea; Giardina, Irene; Parisi, Giorgio; Mezard, Marc

    2003-01-01

    We revisit two classic Thouless-Anderson-Palmer (TAP) studies of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model (Bray A J and Moore M A 1980 J. Phys. C: Solid State Phys. 13 L469; De Dominicis C and Young A P 1983 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 16 2063). By using the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) supersymmetry, we prove the general equivalence of TAP and replica partition functions, and show that the annealed calculation of the TAP complexity is formally identical to the quenched thermodynamic calculation of the free energy at one step level of replica symmetry breaking. The complexity we obtain by means of the BRST symmetry turns out to be considerably smaller than the previous non-symmetric value

  4. Computational and Experimental Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Gologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowers, Geoffrey [Alfred Univ., NY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    United States Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-10ER16128, “Computational and Spectroscopic Investigations of the Molecular Scale Structure and Dynamics of Geologically Important Fluids and Mineral-Fluid Interfaces” (Geoffrey M. Bowers, P.I.) focused on developing a molecular-scale understanding of processes that occur in fluids and at solid-fluid interfaces using the combination of spectroscopic, microscopic, and diffraction studies with molecular dynamics computer modeling. The work is intimately tied to the twin proposal at Michigan State University (DOE DE-FG02-08ER15929; same title: R. James Kirkpatrick, P.I. and A. Ozgur Yazaydin, co-P.I.).

  5. A Superbend X-Ray Microdiffraction Beamline at the Advanced Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, N.; Kunz, M.; Chen, K.; Celestre, R.S.; MacDowell, A.A.; Warwick, T.

    2009-03-10

    Beamline 12.3.2 at the Advanced Light Source is a newly commissioned beamline dedicated to x-ray microdiffraction. It operates in both monochromatic and polychromatic radiation mode. The facility uses a superconducting bending magnet source to deliver an X-ray spectrum ranging from 5 to 22 keV. The beam is focused down to {approx} 1 um size at the sample position using a pair of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors enclosed in a vacuum box. The sample placed on high precision stages can be raster-scanned under the microbeam while a diffraction pattern is taken at each step. The arrays of diffraction patterns are then analyzed to derive distribution maps of phases, strain/stress and/or plastic deformation inside the sample.

  6. X-ray topography of natural diamonds on the VEPP-3 SR beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuper, K.E.; Zedgenizov, D.A.; Ragozin, A.L.; Shatsky, V.S.

    2009-01-01

    X-ray topography (XRT) images were obtained using a double-crystal topographic method, with a magnification system in the Laue case. The experiment was performed at the beamline station 'Microscopy and tomography' of the VEPP-3 synchrotron radiation source. Two asymmetrically cut crystals in the Kirkpatrick-Baez scheme were used to increase the spatial resolution. The usage of an asymmetrically cut crystal with a magnification factor of 20 allows us to improve spatial resolution in registered images. A series of slabs of natural diamonds from kimberlite pipes and placers of the Siberian platform was examined. This study confirmed the high efficiency of the XRT method to recover information on the internal structure of natural diamonds. Together with other mineralogical data, the features of internal structure determined by this way are important to deduce the origin and history of growth of natural diamonds.

  7. Grain orientation mapping of passivated aluminum interconnect lines with X-ray micro-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C.H.; Patel, J.R.; MacDowell, A.A.; Padmore, H.A.; Thompson, A.C.

    1998-01-01

    A micro x-ray diffraction facility is under development at the Advanced Light Source. Spot sizes are typically about 1-microm size generated by means of grazing incidence Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors. Photon energy is either white of energy range 6--14 keV or monochromatic generated from a pair of channel cut crystals. Laue diffraction pattern from a single grain in a passivated 2-microm wide bamboo structured Aluminum interconnect line has been recorded. Acquisition times are of the order of seconds. The Laue pattern has allowed the determination of the crystallographic orientation of individual grains along the line length. The experimental and analysis procedure used is described, as is the latest grain orientation result. The impact of x-ray micro-diffraction and its possible future direction are discussed in the context of other developments in the area of electromigration, and other technological problems

  8. Grain orientation mapping of passivated aluminum interconnect lines by x-ray micro-diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, C. H.; Patel, J. R.; MacDowell, A. A.; Padmore, H. A.; Thompson, A. C.

    1998-01-01

    A micro x-ray diffraction facility is under development at the Advanced Light Source. Spot sizes are typically about 1-μm size generated by means of grazing incidence Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing mirrors. Photon energy is either white of energy range 6-14 keV or monochromatic generated from a pair of channel cut crystals. Laue diffraction pattern from a single grain in a passivated 2-μm wide bamboo structured Aluminum interconnect line has been recorded. Acquisition times are of the order of seconds. The Laue pattern has allowed the determination of the crystallographic orientation of individual grains along the line length. The experimental and analysis procedure used is described, as is the latest grain orientation result. The impact of x-ray micro-diffraction and its possible future direction are discussed in the context of other developments in the area of electromigration, and other technological problems

  9. Hard X-ray nano-focusing with Montel mirror optics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Wenjun, E-mail: wjliu@anl.gov [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Ice, Gene E. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Assoufid, Lahsen; Liu Chian; Shi Bing; Zschack, Paul [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Tischler, Jon [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Qian Jun; Khachartryan, Ruben; Shu Deming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors in the Montel (or nested) configuration were tested for hard X-ray nanoscale focusing at a third generation synchrotron beamline. In this scheme, two mirrors, mounted side-by-side and perpendicular to each other, provide for a more compact focusing system and a much higher demagnification and flux than the traditional sequential K-B mirror arrangement. They can accept up to a 120 {mu}mx120 {mu}m incident X-ray beam with a long working distance of 40 mm and broad-bandpass of energies up to {approx}30 keV. Initial test demonstrated a focal spot of about 150 nm in both horizontal and vertical directions with either polychromatic or monochromatic beam. Montel mirror optics is important and very appealing for achromatic X-ray nanoscale focusing in conventional non-extra-long synchrotron beamlines.

  10. Evaluation of a training program of hypertension for accredited social health activists (ASHA) in rural India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-All, Marwa; Thrift, Amanda Gay; Riddell, Michaela; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman Thankappan; Mini, Gomathyamma Krishnakurup; Chow, Clara K; Maulik, Pallab Kumar; Mahal, Ajay; Guggilla, Rama; Kalyanram, Kartik; Kartik, Kamakshi; Suresh, Oduru; Evans, Roger George; Oldenburg, Brian; Thomas, Nihal; Joshi, Rohina

    2018-05-02

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of premature death and disability in India. Since access to health services is poor in rural India and Accredited Social Health Activists (ASHAs) are available throughout India for maternal and child health, a potential solution for improving hypertension control is by utilising this available workforce. We aimed to develop and implement a training package for ASHAs to identify and control hypertension in the community, and evaluate the effectiveness of the training program using the Kirkpatrick Evaluation Model. The training program was part of a cluster randomised feasibility trial of a 3-month intervention to improve hypertension outcomes in South India. Training materials incorporated details on managing hypertension, goal setting, facilitating group meetings, and how to measure blood pressure and weight. The 15 ASHAs attended a five-day training workshop that was delivered using interactive instructional strategies. ASHAs then led community-based education support groups for 3 months. Training was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's evaluation model for measuring reactions, learning, behaviour and results using tests on knowledge at baseline, post-training and post-intervention, observation of performance during meetings and post-intervention interviews. The ASHAs' knowledge of hypertension improved from a mean score of 64% at baseline to 76% post-training and 84% after the 3-month intervention. Research officers, who observed the community meetings, reported that ASHAs delivered the self-management content effectively without additional assistance. The ASHAs reported that the training materials were easy to understand and useful in educating community members. ASHAs can be trained to lead community-based group educational discussions and support individuals for the management of high blood pressure. The feasibility trial is registered with the Clinical Trials Registry - India (CTRI

  11. Evaluation and impact of cardiotocography training programmes: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehrson, C; Sorensen, J L; Amer-Wåhlin, I

    2011-07-01

    The interpretation and management of cardiotocography (CTG) tracings are often criticised in obstetric malpractice cases. As a consequence, regular CTG training has been recommended, even though little is known about the effect of CTG training. To perform a systematic review of the existing literature on studies on CTG training in order to assess educational strategies, evaluation of training programmes, and impact of training programmes. The Medline database was searched to identify studies describing and/or evaluating CTG training programmes. The literature search resulted in 409 citations. Twenty studies describing and evaluating CTG training programmes were included. There was no restriction on study design. Data regarding study design, study quality, educational strategies used for training in CTG interpretation and decision making, target groups, number of participants, methods used for evaluation, quality of evaluation, level of evaluation and results of training was extracted from 20 articles, and analysed using Kirkpatrick's four-level model for the evaluation of education. Training was associated with improvements on all Kirkpatrick levels, resulting in increased CTG knowledge and interpretive skills, higher interobserver agreement, better management of intrapartum CTG, and improved quality of care. Computer-based training (CBT) might be less time-consuming than classroom teaching. Clinical skills seem to decrease faster than theoretical knowledge. Training can improve CTG competence and clinical practise. Further research on CBT, test-enhanced learning and long-term retention, evaluation of training and impact on clinical outcomes is recommended. © 2011 The Authors BJOG An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology © 2011 RCOG.

  12. Evaluation of the flipped classroom approach in a veterinary professional skills course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffett, Jenny; Mill, Aileen C

    2014-01-01

    The flipped classroom is an educational approach that has had much recent coverage in the literature. Relatively few studies, however, use objective assessment of student performance to measure the impact of the flipped classroom on learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a flipped classroom approach within a medical education setting to the first two levels of Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's effectiveness of training framework. This study examined the use of a flipped classroom approach within a professional skills course offered to postgraduate veterinary students. A questionnaire was administered to two cohorts of students: those who had completed a traditional, lecture-based version of the course (Introduction to Veterinary Medicine [IVM]) and those who had completed a flipped classroom version (Veterinary Professional Foundations I [VPF I]). The academic performance of students within both cohorts was assessed using a set of multiple-choice items (n=24) nested within a written examination. Data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using Cronbach's alpha, Kruskal-Wallis tests, and factor analysis. Data obtained from student performance in the written examination were analyzed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test. A total of 133 IVM students and 64 VPF I students (n=197) agreed to take part in the study. Overall, study participants favored the flipped classroom approach over the traditional classroom approach. With respect to student academic performance, the traditional classroom students outperformed the flipped classroom students on a series of multiple-choice items (IVM mean =21.4±1.48 standard deviation; VPF I mean =20.25±2.20 standard deviation; Wilcoxon test, w=7,578; Pflipped classroom approach. The flipped classroom was rated more positively than the traditional classroom on many different characteristics. This preference, however, did not translate into improved student performance, as assessed by a series of

  13. Evaluation of use of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Saad; Safdar, Saima; Zafar, Aasma N

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this review is to investigate the evaluative outcomes present in the literature according to Kirkpatrick's learning model and to examine the nature and characteristics of the e-Learning interventions in radiology education at undergraduate level. Four databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Eric) are searched for publications related to the application of e-Learning in undergraduate radiology education. The search strategy is a combination of e-Learning and Mesh and non Mesh radiology and undergraduate related terms. These search strategies are established in relation to experts of respective domains. The full text of thirty pertinent articles is reviewed. Author's country and study location data is extracted to identify the most active regions and year's are extracted to know the existing trend. Data regarding radiology subfields and undergraduate year of radiology education is extracted along with e-Learning technologies to identify the most prevalent or suitable technologies or tools with respect to radiology contents. Kirkpatricks learning evaluation model is used to categorize the evaluative outcomes reported in the identified studies. The results of this analysis reveal emergence of highly interactive games, audience response systems and designing of wide range of customized tools according to learner needs assessment in radiology education at undergraduate level. All these initiatives are leading toward highly interactive self directed learning environments to support the idea of life-long independent learners. Moreover, majority of the studies in literature regarding e-Learning in radiology at undergraduate level are based on participant satisfaction followed by participant results or outcomes either before or after an intervention or both. There was no research particularly demonstrating performance change in clinical practice or patient outcome as they may be difficult to measure in medical education. Thus clinical competences and performances are

  14. Inter- and Intraspecific Variations of Bacterial Communities Associated with Marine Sponges from San Juan Island, Washington

    KAUST Repository

    Lee, O. O.

    2009-04-10

    This study attempted to assess whether conspecific or congeneric sponges around San Juan Island, Washington, harbor specific bacterial communities. We used a combination of culture-independent DNA fingerprinting techniques (terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis [DGGE]) and culture-dependent approaches. The results indicated that the bacterial communities in the water column consisted of more diverse bacterial ribotypes than and were drastically different from those associated with the sponges. High levels of similarity in sponge-associated bacterial communities were found only in Myxilla incrustans and Haliclona rufescens, while the bacterial communities in Halichondria panicea varied substantially among sites. Certain terminal restriction fragments or DGGE bands were consistently obtained for different individuals of M. incrustans and H. rufescens collected from different sites, suggesting that there are stable or even specific associations of certain bacteria in these two sponges. However, no specific bacterial associations were found for H. panicea or for any one sponge genus. Sequencing of nine DGGE bands resulted in recovery of seven sequences that best matched the sequences of uncultured Proteobacteria. Three of these sequences fell into the sponge-specific sequence clusters previously suggested. An uncultured alphaproteobacterium and a culturable Bacillus sp. were found exclusively in all M. incrustans sponges, while an uncultured gammaproteobacterium was unique to H. rufescens. In contrast, the cultivation approach indicated that sponges contained a large proportion of Firmicutes, especially Bacillus, and revealed large variations in the culturable bacterial communities associated with congeneric and conspecific sponges. This study revealed sponge species-specific but not genus- or site-specific associations between sponges and bacterial communities and emphasized the importance of using a combination

  15. Sponge assemblages on the deep Mediterranean continental shelf and slope (Menorca Channel, Western Mediterranean Sea)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santín, Andreu; Grinyó, Jordi; Ambroso, Stefano; Uriz, Maria J.; Gori, Andrea; Dominguez-Carrió, Carlos; Gili, Josep-Maria

    2018-01-01

    Sponge assemblages on continental shelves and slopes around the world have been known about for centuries. However, due to limitations of the traditional sampling systems, data about individual sponge species rather than assemblages have been reported. This study characterizes sponge assemblages over a wide bathymetric range ( 50-350 m depth) and covering the entire continental shelf and the upper slope of the Menorca Channel, an area soon to be declared a Marine Protected Area (MPA) as part of the Natura 2000 Network. Quantitative analysis of 85 video-transects (a total linear distance of 75 km), together with representative collections to confirm species identifications, allowed us to discriminate six major assemblages. Differences in the assemblages mainly corresponded to differences in substrate type and depth. On the inner continental shelf, a semi-sciaphilous Axinellid assemblage dominated the rocky outcrops. Maërl beds on the inner continental shelf were dominated by Haliclona (Reniera) mediterranea, whereas the horny sponge Aplysina cavernicola and several other haliclonids mostly dominated maërl beds and rocky substrates of the outer shelf. Soft sediments on the shelf break hosted a monospecific Thenea muricata assemblage, whereas rocky substrates of the shelf break were characterized by a mixture of encrusting, columnar and fan-shaped sponges. Finally, the upper slope was dominated by Hamacantha (Vomerula) falcula and the hexactinellid Tretodictyum reiswigi. Overall, sponge diversity showed its highest values above the shelf break, plummeting severely on the upper slope. Despite this diversity decrease, we found very high densities (> 70 ind./m2) of sponges over vast areas of both the shelf break and the upper slope.

  16. Sponge cell reaggregation: Cellular structure and morphogenetic potencies of multicellular aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, Andrey I; Kosevich, Igor A

    2016-02-01

    Sponges (phylum Porifera) are one of the most ancient extant multicellular animals and can provide valuable insights into origin and early evolution of Metazoa. High plasticity of cell differentiations and anatomical structure is characteristic feature of sponges. Present study deals with sponge cell reaggregation after dissociation as the most outstanding case of sponge plasticity. Dynamic of cell reaggregation and structure of multicellular aggregates of three demosponge species (Halichondria panicea (Pallas, 1766), Haliclona aquaeductus (Sсhmidt, 1862), and Halisarca dujardinii Johnston, 1842) were studied. Sponge tissue dissociation was performed mechanically. Resulting cell suspensions were cultured at 8-10°C for at least 5 days. Structure of multicellular aggregates was studied by light, transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Studied species share common stages of cell reaggregation-primary multicellular aggregates, early-stage primmorphs and primmorphs, but the rate of reaggregation varies considerably among species. Only cells of H. dujardinii are able to reconstruct functional and viable sponge after primmorphs formation. Sponge reconstruction in this species occurs due to active cell locomotion. Development of H. aquaeductus and H. panicea cells ceases at the stages of early primmorphs and primmorphs, respectively. Development of aggregates of these species is most likely arrested due to immobility of the majority of cells inside them. However, the inability of certain sponge species to reconstruct functional and viable individuals during cell reaggregation may be not a permanent species-specific characteristic, but depends on various factors, including the stage of the life cycle and experimental conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Effects of Karenia brevis on clearance rates and bioaccumulation of brevetoxins in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Echevarria, Michael; Naar, Jerome P; Tomas, Carmelo; Pawlik, Joseph R

    2012-01-15

    Blooms of the toxic alga Karenia brevis occur along coastlines where sessile suspension feeding invertebrates are common components of benthic communities. We studied the effects of K. brevis on four benthic suspension feeding invertebrates common to the coast of the SE United States: the sponge Haliclona tubifera, the bryozoan Bugula neritina, the bivalve Mercenaria mercenaria, and the tunicate Styela plicata. In controlled laboratory experiments, we determined the rate at which K. brevis was cleared from the seawater by these invertebrates, the effect of K. brevis on clearance rates of a non-toxic phytoplankton species, Rhodomonas sp., and the extent to which brevetoxins bioaccumulated in tissues of invertebrates using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All four invertebrate species cleared significant quantities of K. brevis from seawater, with mean clearance rates ranging from 2.27 to 6.71 L g h⁻¹ for H. tubifera and S. plicata, respectively. In the presence of K. brevis, clearance rates of Rhodomonas sp. by B. neritina and S. plicata were depressed by 75% and 69%, respectively, while clearance rates by H. tubifera and M. mercenaria were unaffected. Negative effects of K. brevis were impermanent; after a recovery period of 13 h, B. neritina and S. plicata regained normal clearance rates. All four invertebrates accumulated high concentrations of brevetoxin after a 4h exposure to K. brevis, but when animals were transferred to filtered seawater for 15 h after exposure, brevetoxin concentrations in the tissues of H. tubifera and B. neritina decreased by ∼80%, while there was no change in toxin concentration in the tissues of S. plicata and M. mercenaria. High cell concentrations of K. brevis may cause a suppression of clearance rates in benthic suspension feeding invertebrates, resulting in a positive feedback for bloom formation. Also, high concentrations of toxin may accumulate in the tissues of benthic suspension feeding invertebrates that may

  18. Antifouling Activity of Synthetic Alkylpyridinium Polymers Using the Barnacle Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Veronica; Dragić, Ivanka; Sepčić, Kristina; Faimali, Marco; Garaventa, Francesca; Turk, Tom; Berne, Sabina

    2014-01-01

    Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS) isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera) sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite) as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae) in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC50) after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC50: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L) than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC50 of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L. PMID:24699112

  19. Antifouling Activity of Synthetic Alkylpyridinium Polymers Using the Barnacle Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Piazza

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric alkylpyridinium salts (poly-APS isolated from the Mediterranean marine sponge, Haliclona (Rhizoniera sarai, effectively inhibit barnacle larva settlement and natural marine biofilm formation through a non-toxic and reversible mechanism. Potential use of poly-APS-like compounds as antifouling agents led to the chemical synthesis of monomeric and oligomeric 3-alkylpyridinium analogues. However, these are less efficient in settlement assays and have greater toxicity than the natural polymers. Recently, a new chemical synthesis method enabled the production of poly-APS analogues with antibacterial, antifungal and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities. The present study examines the antifouling properties and toxicity of six of these synthetic poly-APS using the barnacle (Amphibalanus amphitrite as a model (cyprids and II stage nauplii larvae in settlement, acute and sub-acute toxicity assays. Two compounds, APS8 and APS12-3, show antifouling effects very similar to natural poly-APS, with an anti-settlement effective concentration that inhibits 50% of the cyprid population settlement (EC50 after 24 h of 0.32 mg/L and 0.89 mg/L, respectively. The toxicity of APS8 is negligible, while APS12-3 is three-fold more toxic (24-h LC50: nauplii, 11.60 mg/L; cyprids, 61.13 mg/L than natural poly-APS. This toxicity of APS12-3 towards nauplii is, however, 60-fold and 1200-fold lower than that of the common co-biocides, Zn- and Cu-pyrithione, respectively. Additionally, exposure to APS12-3 for 24 and 48 h inhibits the naupliar swimming ability with respective IC50 of 4.83 and 1.86 mg/L.

  20. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viegelmann, Christina; Margassery, Lekha Menon; Kennedy, Jonathan; Zhang, Tong; O’Brien, Ciarán; O’Gara, Fergal; Morrissey, John P.; Dobson, Alan D. W.; Edrada-Ebel, RuAngelie

    2014-01-01

    Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8) isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1), 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2), and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3) that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont. PMID:24893324

  1. Metabolomic Profiling and Genomic Study of a Marine Sponge-Associated Streptomyces sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina Viegelmann

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Metabolomics and genomics are two complementary platforms for analyzing an organism as they provide information on the phenotype and genotype, respectively. These two techniques were applied in the dereplication and identification of bioactive compounds from a Streptomyces sp. (SM8 isolated from the sponge Haliclona simulans from Irish waters. Streptomyces strain SM8 extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activity. NMR analysis of the active fractions proved that hydroxylated saturated fatty acids were the major components present in the antibacterial fractions. Antimycin compounds were initially putatively identified in the antifungal fractions using LC-Orbitrap. Their presence was later confirmed by comparison to a standard. Genomic analysis of Streptomyces sp. SM8 revealed the presence of multiple secondary metabolism gene clusters, including a gene cluster for the biosynthesis of the antifungal antimycin family of compounds. The antimycin gene cluster of Streptomyces sp. SM8 was inactivated by disruption of the antimycin biosynthesis gene antC. Extracts from this mutant strain showed loss of antimycin production and significantly less antifungal activity than the wild-type strain. Three butenolides, 4,10-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (1, 4,11-dihydroxy-10-methyl-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (2, and 4-hydroxy-10-methyl-11-oxo-dodec-2-en-1,4-olide (3 that had previously been reported from marine Streptomyces species were also isolated from SM8. Comparison of the extracts of Streptomyces strain SM8 and its host sponge, H. simulans, using LC-Orbitrap revealed the presence of metabolites common to both extracts, providing direct evidence linking sponge metabolites to a specific microbial symbiont.

  2. Phylogenetic diversity, host-specificity and community profiling of sponge-associated bacteria in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Patrick M; Olson, Julie B; Thacker, Robert W

    2011-01-01

    Marine sponges can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts. However, associated bacteria remain unexamined for the majority of host sponges and few studies use phylogenetic metrics to quantify symbiont community diversity. DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP), might provide rapid profiling of these communities, but have not been explicitly compared to traditional methods. We investigated the bacterial communities associated with the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona tubifera, a sympatric tunicate, Didemnum sp., and ambient seawater from the northern Gulf of Mexico by combining replicated clone libraries with T-RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities associated with the two sponges exhibited lower species richness and lower species diversity than seawater and tunicate assemblages, with differences in species composition among all four source groups. T-RFLP profiles clustered microbial communities by source; individual T-RFs were matched to the majority (80.6%) of clone library sequences, indicating that T-RFLP analysis can be used to rapidly profile these communities. Phylogenetic metrics of community diversity indicated that the two sponge-associated bacterial communities include dominant and host-specific bacterial lineages that are distinct from bacteria recovered from seawater, tunicates, and unrelated sponge hosts. In addition, a large proportion of the symbionts associated with H. heliophila were shared with distant, conspecific host populations in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil). The low diversity and species-specific nature of bacterial communities associated with H. heliophila and H. tubifera represent a distinctly different pattern from other, reportedly universal, sponge-associated bacterial communities. Our replicated sampling strategy, which included samples that reflect the ambient

  3. Phylogenetic diversity, host-specificity and community profiling of sponge-associated bacteria in the northern Gulf of Mexico.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Erwin

    Full Text Available Marine sponges can associate with abundant and diverse consortia of microbial symbionts. However, associated bacteria remain unexamined for the majority of host sponges and few studies use phylogenetic metrics to quantify symbiont community diversity. DNA fingerprinting techniques, such as terminal restriction fragment length polymorphisms (T-RFLP, might provide rapid profiling of these communities, but have not been explicitly compared to traditional methods.We investigated the bacterial communities associated with the marine sponges Hymeniacidon heliophila and Haliclona tubifera, a sympatric tunicate, Didemnum sp., and ambient seawater from the northern Gulf of Mexico by combining replicated clone libraries with T-RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA gene sequences. Clone libraries revealed that bacterial communities associated with the two sponges exhibited lower species richness and lower species diversity than seawater and tunicate assemblages, with differences in species composition among all four source groups. T-RFLP profiles clustered microbial communities by source; individual T-RFs were matched to the majority (80.6% of clone library sequences, indicating that T-RFLP analysis can be used to rapidly profile these communities. Phylogenetic metrics of community diversity indicated that the two sponge-associated bacterial communities include dominant and host-specific bacterial lineages that are distinct from bacteria recovered from seawater, tunicates, and unrelated sponge hosts. In addition, a large proportion of the symbionts associated with H. heliophila were shared with distant, conspecific host populations in the southwestern Atlantic (Brazil.The low diversity and species-specific nature of bacterial communities associated with H. heliophila and H. tubifera represent a distinctly different pattern from other, reportedly universal, sponge-associated bacterial communities. Our replicated sampling strategy, which included samples that reflect the

  4. Benthic foraminifera and bottom water evolution in the middle-southern Okinawa Trough during the last 18 ka

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Tiegang; XIANG Rong; SUN Rongtao; CAO Qiyuan

    2005-01-01

    A piston sediment core E017 from the middle-southern Okinawa Trough was investigated. A preliminary study of the deep-water evolution since 18 cal. ka BP was performed based on the quantitative census data of benthic foraminiferal fauna, together with planktonic foraminiferal oxygen and carbon isotope, AMS14C dating, and the previous results achieved in the southern Okinawa Trough. The result shows that the benthic fauna was dominated by Bulimina aculeata (d'Orbigny), Uvigerina peregrina (Cushman), Hispid Uvigerina and Uvigerina dirupta (Todd) during the glaciation-deglaciation before 9.2 cal. ka BP, while Epistominella exigua (Brady), Pullenia bulloides (d'Orbigny), Cibicidoides hyalina (Hofker), Sphaeroidina bulloides (d'Orbigny) and Globocassidulina subglobosa (Brady) predominated the fauna in the post-glacial period after 9.2 cal. ka BP. The benthic foraminifera accumulation rate (BFAR), paleoproductivity estimates and benthic foraminiferal assemblage conformably indicate that surface water paleoproductivity and organic matter flux during the glaciation-deglaciation were higher than those of the post-glacial period in the middle-southern Okinawa Trough, and gradually enhanced from the southern to the central Okinawa Trough during the glaciation-deglaciation, which could be caused by the discrepancy of the terrigenous nutrients supply. High abundances of E. exigua, an indicator of pulsed organic matter input, after 9.2 cal. ka BP may indicate that the intensity of seasonally riverine pulsed flux during the post-glacial period was stronger than that of the glaciation-deglaciation period, and the seasonal influx in the central trough might be stronger than in the south. The temporal distributions of the typical species indicating bottom water oxygen content and ventilation condition show that the ventilation of the bottom water during the post-glacial period is more active than the glaciation-deglaciation, which reflects that the evolution of the intermediate and

  5. Microfungi on compositae in the Ruhr Basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale-Agha, N; Feige, G B; Dachowski, M

    2002-01-01

    Forty-three microfungi have been observed on thirty species of the Compositae occurring in several locations in the Ruhr Basin in North Rhine-Westphalia. Many fungi belong to the Ascomycetes (Erysiphales, Diaporthales, Dothideales, Leotiales and Pleosporales) and to the Deuteromycetes (Melanconiales, Moniliales and Sphaeropsidales). Other fungi wich were found in our investigation belong to the Basidiomycetes (Uredinales) and to the Oomycetes (Peronosporales). Some recorded microfungi have been discovered on new hosts in North Rhine-Westphalia and also in Germany for the first time. New for North Rhine-Westphalia are Ascochyta spec. Libert on Matricaria recutita L., Phoma exigua var. linicola (Naumov & Vassilevski) Maas on Tripleurospermum maritimum (L.) W. D. J. Koch, Phomopsis achillea (Sacc.) Höhn. on Achillea ageratum L., Diaporthe aff. arctii (Lasch) Nitschke on Solidago canadensis L. and on Achillea ageratum L., Lophiostoma caulium (Fr.) Ces. & De Not. on Anthemis tinctoria L. and Ophiobolus fructicum (Rob. ex Desm.) on Serratula tinctoria L. New for Germany are Ophiobolus cirsii (P. Karst.) Sacc. on Cichorium intybus L., Phomopsis cirsii Grove on Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten., Pleospora kansensis J. P. Ellis & M. B. Ellis and Pleospora phaeocomoides cf. var. infectoria on Centaurea jacea L.

  6. Phytase-active yeasts from grain-based food and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuobariene, L; Hansen, A S; Jespersen, L; Arneborg, N

    2011-06-01

    To screen yeast strains isolated from grain-based food and beer for phytase activity to identify high phytase-active strains. The screening of phytase-positive strains was carried out at conditions optimal for leavening of bread dough (pH 5·5 and 30°C), in order to identify strains that could be used for the baking industry. Two growth-based tests were used for the initial testing of phytase-active strains. Tested strains belonged to six species: Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Saccharomyces pastorianus, Saccharomyces bayanus, Kazachstania exigua (former name Saccharomyces exiguus), Candida krusei (teleomorph Issachenkia orientalis) and Arxula adeninivorans. On the basis of initial testing results, 14 strains were selected for the further determination of extracellular and intracellular (cytoplasmic and/or cell-wall bound) phytase activities. The most prominent strains for extracellular phytase production were found to be S. pastorianus KVL008 (a lager beer strain), followed by S. cerevisiae KVL015 (an ale beer strain) and C. krusei P2 (isolated from sorghum beer). Intracellular phytase activities were relatively low in all tested strains. Herein, for the first time, beer-related strains of S. pastorianus and S. cerevisiae are reported as phytase-positive strains. The high level of extracellular phytase activity by the strains mentioned previously suggests them to be strains for the production of wholemeal bread with high content of bioavailable minerals. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Applied Microbiology © 2011 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  7. An experiment using neutron activation analysis and a rare earth element to mark cotton plants and two insects that feed on them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Showler, Allan T. [USDA-ARS IFNRRU, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, 2413 East Highway 83, Weslaco, TX 78596 (United States)]. E-mail: ashowler@weslaco.ars.usda.gov; James, William D. [Elemental Analysis Laboratory, 3144 Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843-3144 (United States); Armstrong, John S. [USDA-ARS BIRU, Kika de la Garza Subtropical Agricultural Research Center, 2413 East Highway 83, Weslaco, TX 78596 (United States); Westbrook, John K. [USDA-ARS APMRU, 2771 F and B Road, College Station, TX 77845-4966 (United States)

    2006-08-15

    Studies on insect dispersal and other behaviors can benefit from using markers that will not alter flight and fitness. Rare earth elements, such as samarium (Sm), have been used as ingested markers of some insects and detected using neutron activation analysis (NAA). In this study, samarium nitrate hexahydrate was mixed into artificial diet for boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), at different dosages and in water used to irrigate cotton, Gossypium hirsutum L. Samarium was detected in adult boll weevils fed on the samarium-labeled diet, but not after 5 or 10 days of being switched to non-labeled diet, even if the insects were given labeled diet for as long as 7 consecutive days. Introduced in irrigation water, 1% samarium (m/m) was detectable in cotton squares and leaf tissue. However, boll weevil adults fed samarium-labeled squares did not retain detectable levels of samarium, nor did boll weevil adults reared to adulthood from samarium-labeled squares. Fourth instar beet armyworms, Spodoptera exigua (Huebner) (Noctuidae: Lepidoptera), fed on samarium-labeled cotton leaves obtained enough samarium for NAA detection, but adult moths reared from them did not have detectable amounts of samarium. Although samarium can be useful as a marker when insects are presented with a continuous pulse of the label, elements that are assimilated by the insect would be more useful if a continuous infusion of the marker cannot be provided.

  8. Next-generation phylogeography: a targeted approach for multilocus sequencing of non-model organisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan B Puritz

    Full Text Available The field of phylogeography has long since realized the need and utility of incorporating nuclear DNA (nDNA sequences into analyses. However, the use of nDNA sequence data, at the population level, has been hindered by technical laboratory difficulty, sequencing costs, and problematic analytical methods dealing with genotypic sequence data, especially in non-model organisms. Here, we present a method utilizing the 454 GS-FLX Titanium pyrosequencing platform with the capacity to simultaneously sequence two species of sea star (Meridiastra calcar and Parvulastra exigua at five different nDNA loci across 16 different populations of 20 individuals each per species. We compare results from 3 populations with traditional Sanger sequencing based methods, and demonstrate that this next-generation sequencing platform is more time and cost effective and more sensitive to rare variants than Sanger based sequencing. A crucial advantage is that the high coverage of clonally amplified sequences simplifies haplotype determination, even in highly polymorphic species. This targeted next-generation approach can greatly increase the use of nDNA sequence loci in phylogeographic and population genetic studies by mitigating many of the time, cost, and analytical issues associated with highly polymorphic, diploid sequence markers.

  9. Identification of volatile sex pheromone components released by the southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teal, P E; Mitchell, E R; Tumlinson, J H; Heath, R R; Sugie, H

    1985-06-01

    Analysis of sex pheromone gland extracts and volatile pheromone components collected from the calling female southern armyworm,Spodoptera eridania (Cramer), by high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and mass spectroscopy indicated that a number of 14-carbon mono- and diunsaturated acetates and a monounsaturated 16-carbon acetate were produced. Gland extracts also indicated the presence of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol. However, this compound was not found in collections of volatiles. Field trapping studies indicated that the volatile blend composed of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol acetate (60%), (Z)-9-(E)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (17%), (Z)-9-(Z)-12-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (15%), (Z)-9-(E)-11-tetradecadien-1-ol acetate (5%), and (Z)-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate (3 %) was an effective trap bait for males of this species. The addition of (Z)-9-tetradecen-1-ol to the acetate blends tested resulted in the capture of beet armyworm,S. exigua (Hubner), males which provides further evidence that the alcohol is a pheromone component of this species.

  10. Environmental controls on the distribution of living (stained) benthic foraminifera on the continental slope in the Campos Basin area (SW Atlantic)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Cintia; Mello e Sousa, Silvia Helena de; Vicente, Thaisa Marques; Martins, Maria Virgínia; Nagai, Renata Hanae; Frontalini, Fabrizio; Godoi, Sueli Susana; Napolitano, Dante; Burone, Letícia; Carreira, Renato; Figueira, Rubens Cesar Lopes; Taniguchi, Nancy Kazumi; Rezende, Carlos Eduardo de; Koutsoukos, Eduardo Apostolos Machado

    2018-05-01

    Living (stained) benthic foraminifera from deep-sea stations in the Campos Basin, southeastern Brazilian continental margin, were investigated to understand their distribution patterns and ecology, as well as the oceanographic processes that control foraminiferal distribution. Sediments were collected from 1050 m to 1950 m of water depth during the austral winter of 2003, below the Intermediate Western Boundary Current (IWBC) and the Deep Water Boundary Current (DWBC). Based on statistical analysis, vertical flux of particulate organic matter and the grain size of sediment seem to be the main factors controlling the spatial distribution of benthic foraminifera. The middle slope (1050 m deep) is characterized by relatively high foraminiferal density and a predominance of phytodetritus-feeding foraminifera such as Epistominella exigua and Globocassidulina subglobosa. The occurrence of these species seems to reflect the Brazil Current System (BCS). The above-mentioned currents are associated with the relatively high vertical flux of particulate organic matter and the prevalence of sandy sediments, respectively. The lower slope (between 1350 and 1950 m of water depth) is marked by low foraminiferal density and assemblages composed of Bolivina spp. and Brizalina spp., with low particulate organic matter flux values, muddy sediments, and more refractory organic matter. The distribution of this group seems to be related to episodic fluxes of food particles to the seafloor, which are influenced by the BCS at the surface and are deposited under low deep current activity (DWBC).

  11. How do riparian woody seedlings survive seasonal drought?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stella, John C; Battles, John J

    2010-11-01

    In semi-arid regions, a major population limitation for riparian trees is seedling desiccation during the dry season that follows annual spring floods. We investigated the stress response of first-year pioneer riparian seedlings to experimental water table declines (0, 1 and 3 cm day(-1)), focusing on the three dominant cottonwood and willows (family Salicaceae) in California's San Joaquin Basin. We analyzed growth and belowground allocation response to water stress, and used logistic regression to determine if these traits had an influence on individual survival. The models indicate that high root growth (>3 mm day(-1)) and low shoot:root ratios (water-use efficiency for surviving water stress. Both S. gooddingii and sandbar willow (S. exigua) reduced leaf size from controls, whereas Fremont cottonwood (Populus fremontii) sustained a 29% reduction in specific leaf area (from 13.4 to 9.6 m(2) kg(-1)). The functional responses exhibited by Goodding's willow, the more drought-tolerant species, may play a role in its greater relative abundance in dry regions such as the San Joaquin Basin. This study highlights the potential for a shift in riparian forest composition. Under a future drier climate regime or under reduced regulated river flows, our results suggest that willow establishment will be favored over cottonwood.

  12. The Irrigation Effect: How River Regulation Can Promote Some Riparian Vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Karen M.; Goater, Lori A.; Braatne, Jeffrey H.; Rood, Stewart B.

    2018-04-01

    River regulation impacts riparian ecosystems by altering the hydrogeomorphic conditions that support streamside vegetation. Obligate riparian plants are often negatively impacted since they are ecological specialists with particular instream flow requirements. Conversely, facultative riparian plants are generalists and may be less vulnerable to river regulation, and could benefit from augmented flows that reduce drought stress during hot and dry periods. To consider this `irrigation effect' we studied the facultative shrub, netleaf hackberry ( Celtis reticulata), the predominant riparian plant along the Hells Canyon corridor of the Snake River, Idaho, USA, where dams produce hydropeaking, diurnal flow variation. Inventories of 235 cross-sectional transects revealed that hackberry was uncommon upstream from the reservoirs, sparse along the reservoir with seasonal draw-down and common along two reservoirs with stabilized water levels. Along the Snake River downstream, hackberry occurred in fairly continuous, dense bands along the high water line. In contrast, hackberry was sparsely scattered along the free-flowing Salmon River, where sandbar willow ( Salix exigua), an obligate riparian shrub, was abundant. Below the confluence of the Snake and Salmon rivers, the abundance and distribution of hackberry were intermediate between the two upstream reaches. Thus, river regulation apparently benefited hackberry along the Snake River through Hells Canyon, probably due to diurnal pulsing that wets the riparian margin. We predict similar benefits for some other facultative riparian plants along other regulated rivers with hydropeaking during warm and dry intervals. To analyze the ecological impacts of hydropeaking we recommend assessing daily maxima, as well as daily mean river flows.

  13. Dating floodplain sediments using tree-ring response to burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J.M.; Vincent, K.R.; Shafroth, P.B.

    2005-01-01

    Floodplain sediments can be dated precisely based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When a stem of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima) or sandbar willow (Salix exigua) is buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried section resemble the rings of roots: rings become narrower, vessels within the rings become larger, and transitions between rings become less distinct. We combined observations of these changes with tree-ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds exposed in a 150-m-long trench across the floodplain of the Rio Puerco, a rapidly filling arroyo in New Mexico. This method reliably dated most beds thicker than about 30 cm to within a year of deposition. Floodplain aggradation rates varied dramatically through time and space. Sediment deposition was mostly limited to brief overbank flows occurring every few years. The most rapid deposition occurred on channel-margin levees, which migrated laterally during channel narrowing. At the decadal timescale, the cross-section-average sediment deposition rate was steady, but there was a shift in the spatial pattern of deposition in the 1980s. From 1936 to 1986, sediment deposition occurred by channel narrowing, with little change in elevation of the thalweg. After 1986 sediment deposition occurred by vertical aggradation. From 1936 to 2000 about 27 per cent of the arroyo cross-section filled with sediment. The rate of filling from 1962 to 2000 was 0·8 vertical m/decade or 85 m2/decade.

  14. Immunological detection of Fusarium species in cornmeal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyer, M S; Cousin, M A

    2003-03-01

    An indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed to detect Fusarium species in foods. Antibodies to proteins extracted from the mycelia of Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium moniliforme (verticillioides) were produced in New Zealand white rabbits. These antibodies detected 13 Fusarium species in addition to the producer strains. Levels of Fusarium semitectum and Fusarium tricinctum strains were below the detection threshold. The specificity of the assay was tested against 70 molds and yeasts belonging to 23 genera. One strain of Monascus species and one strain of Phoma exigua were detected; however, these two molds are not common contaminants of cereal grains or foods and should not interfere with the assay. The indirect ELISA's detection limits for F. graminearum and F. moniliforme were 0.1 and 1 microg of mold mycelium per ml of a cornmeal mixture, respectively. When spores of each mold were added individually to cornmeal mixtures (at ca. 10 spores per g) and incubated at 25 degrees C, these spores were detected by the indirect ELISA when they reached levels of 10(2) to 10(3) CFU/ml after 24 to 36 h. The indirect ELISA developed here shows promise for the detection of Fusarium species in grains or foods.

  15. De novo biosynthesis of volatiles induced by insect herbivory in cotton plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pare, P.W.; Tumlinson, J.H.

    1997-01-01

    In response to insect feeding on the leaves, cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants release elevated levels of volatiles, which can serve as a chemical signal that attracts natural enemies of the herbivore to the damaged plant. Pulse-labeling experiments with [13C]CO2 demonstrated that many of the volatiles released, including the acyclic terpenes (E,E)-alpha-farnesene, (E)-beta-farnesene, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool,(E)-4,8-dimethyl-1,3,7-nonatriene, and (E,E)-4,8,12-trimethyl-1,3,7,11-tridecatetrane, as well as the shikimate pathway product indole, are biosynthesized de novo following insect damage. However, other volatile constituents, including several cyclic terpenes, butyrates, and green leaf volatiles of the lipoxygenase pathway are released from storage or synthesized from stored intermediates. Analysis of volatiles from artificially damaged plants, with and without beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua Hubner) oral secretions exogenously applied to the leaves, as well as volatiles from beet armyworm-damaged and -undamaged control plants, demonstrated that the application of caterpillar oral secretions increased both the production and release of several volatiles that are synthesized de novo in response to insect feeding. These results establish that the plant plays an active and dynamic role in mediating the interaction between herbivores and natural enemies of herbivores

  16. Characterization of water reservoirs affected by acid mine drainage: geochemical, mineralogical, and biological (diatoms) properties of the water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valente, T; Rivera, M J; Almeida, S F P; Delgado, C; Gomes, P; Grande, J A; de la Torre, M L; Santisteban, M

    2016-04-01

    This work presents a combination of geochemical, mineralogical, and biological data obtained in water reservoirs located in one of the most paradigmatic mining regions, suffering from acid mine drainage (AMD) problems: the Iberian Pyrite Belt (IPB). Four water reservoirs located in the Spanish sector of the IBP, storing water for different purposes, were selected to achieve an environmental classification based on the effects of AMD: two mining dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas), a reservoir for industrial use (Sancho), and one with water used for human supply (Andévalo). The results indicated that the four reservoirs are subject to the effect of metallic loads from polluted rivers, although with different levels: Águas Ácidas > Gossan > Sancho ≥ Andévalo. In accordance, epipsammic diatom communities have differences in the respective composition and dominant taxa. The dominant diatoms in each reservoir indicated acid water: Pinnularia acidophila and Pinnularia aljustrelica were found in the most acidic dams (Gossan and Águas Ácidas, with pH <3), Pinnularia subcapitata in Sancho (pH 2.48-5.82), and Eunotia exigua in Andévalo (pH 2.34-6.15).

  17. In-silico determination of insecticidal potential of Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein against Lepidopteran targets using molecular docking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab eAhmad

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Study and research of Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis transgenic plants have opened new ways to combat insect pests. Over the decades, however, insect pests, especially the Lepidopteran, have developed tolerance against Bt delta-endotoxins. Such issues can be addressed through the development of novel toxins with greater toxicity and affinity against a broad range of insect receptors. In this computational study, functional domains of Bacillus thuringiensis crystal delta-endotoxin (Cry1Ac insecticidal protein and vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip3Aa have been fused to develop a broad-range Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein. Cry1Ac and Vip3Aa are non-homologous insecticidal proteins possessing receptors against different targets within the midgut of insects. The insecticidal proteins were fused to broaden the insecticidal activity. Molecular docking analysis of the fusion protein against aminopeptidase-N (APN and cadherin receptors of five Lepidopteran insects (Agrotis ipsilon, Helicoverpa armigera, Pectinophora gossypiella, Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura revealed that the Ser290, Ser293, Leu337, Thr340 and Arg437 residues of the fusion protein are involved in the interaction with insect receptors. The Helicoverpa armigera cadherin receptor, however, showed no interaction, which might be due to either loss or burial of interactive residues inside the fusion protein. These findings revealed that the Vip3Aa-Cry1Ac fusion protein has a strong affinity against Lepidopteran insect receptors and hence has a potential to be an efficient broad-range insecticidal protein.

  18. Recent and subrecent diatom flora of the Sudeten mountains: The Jeseníky Mts and The Jizerské hory Mts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aloisie Poulíčková

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study focuses on the summary of recent and subrecent diatom flora within Sudeten mountain wetlands - the Jizerské Mts and the Jeseníky Mts Recent samples were taken during the years 2003 and 2006 - 2010. Herbarized bryophytes and fixed samples deposited in museums from the period 1898 - 1995 were used as a source of subrecent diatom flora. A total of 163 diatom species occurred at 70 microsites within 26 mires along the Czech-Polish-German border areas. Recent diatom flora of both areas seems to be comparable in terms of species richness and dominant species. Subrecent samples (herbarized bryophytes contain some less frequent species (representation < 1%, which do not belong to mire flora and can represent a contamination (e.g. planktic genera. Frustulia saxonica and Eunotia paludosa were the most frequent species. E. exigua related in Western Europe to acidification caused by acid rains, was less frequent in both historic and modern samples. Unfortunately, we have few historical herbarium specimens from the 70-ies and 80- ies to trace changes associated with air pollution.

  19. Diversity and abundance of lepidopteran populations from selected crops of district faisalabad, pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maalik, S.; Rana, S.A.; Khan, H.A.; Ashfaq, M.

    2012-01-01

    Lepidopterans are represented by one of the most diverse group of insects. They are phytophagous as well as pollinators at the same time. During present study four crops i.e Wheat, Fodder, Brassica and Vegetables were sampled to assess the diversity and abundance of Lepidopteran populations. A total of 2811 specimens belonging to 14 species and 6 families were recorded. Pieris brassicae (29.46%) was the dominant species followed by Trichoplusia ni (19.28%), Helicoverpa Zea (11.78%), Helicoverpa armigera (11.60%), Spodoptera exigua (6.65%), Psedoplusia includes (5.09%), Spodoptera litura (3.81%), Agrotis ipsilon (4.87%), Plutella xylostella (2.92%), Lymatria dispar (2.24%), Pieris rapae (0.92%), Galleria mellonella (0.71%), Evergestris rimosalis (0.53%) and Menduca sexta (0.14%). Significant differences were observed among different crops by applying Shannon Diversity Index and T- test. CA (Cluster analysis) represented the species association with different crops. Majority of the species showed association with Vegetables and Fodder and least association was observed with Wheat. Such types of studies are necessary to design integrated pest management programs to control these pests. (author)

  20. Transient expression of protein tyrosine phosphatases encoded in Cotesia plutellae bracovirus inhibits insect cellular immune responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. A.; Kim, Yonggyun

    2008-01-01

    Several immunosuppressive factors are associated with parasitism of an endoparasitoid wasp, Cotesia plutellae, on the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. C. plutellae bracovirus (CpBV) encodes a large number of putative protein tyrosine phosphatases (PTPs), which may play a role in inhibiting host cellular immunity. To address this inhibitory hypothesis of CpBV-PTPs, we performed transient expression of individual CpBV-PTPs in hemocytes of the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua, and analyzed their cellular immune responses. Two different forms of CpBV-PTPs were chosen and cloned into a eukaryotic expression vector under the control of the p10 promoter of baculovirus: one with the normal cysteine active site (CpBV-PTP1) and the other with a mutated active site (CpBV-PTP5). The hemocytes transfected with CpBV-PTP1 significantly increased in PTP activity compared to control hemocytes, but those with CpBV-PTP5 exhibited a significant decrease in the PTP activity. All transfected hemocytes exhibited a significant reduction in both cell spreading and encapsulation activities compared to control hemocytes. Co-transfection of CpBV-PTP1 together with its double-stranded RNA reduced the messenger RNA (mRNA) level of CpBV-PTP1 and resulted in recovery of both hemocyte behaviors. This is the first report demonstrating that the polydnaviral PTPs can manipulate PTP activity of the hemocytes to interrupt cellular immune responses.

  1. Prevalence and Toxin Characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis Isolated from Organic Vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jung-Beom; Choi, Ok-Kyung; Kwon, Sun-Mok; Cho, Seung-Hak; Park, Byung-Jae; Jin, Na Young; Yu, Yong Man; Oh, Deog-Hwan

    2017-08-28

    The prevalence and toxin characteristics of Bacillus thuringiensis isolated from 39 organic vegetables were investigated. B. thuringiensis was detected in 30 out of the 39 organic vegetables (76.9%) with a mean value of 2.60 log CFU/g. Twenty-five out of the 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (83.3%) showed insecticidal toxicity against Spodoptera exigua . The hblCDA, nheABC , and entFM genes were found to be the major toxin genes, but the ces gene was not detected in any of the tested B. thuringiensis isolates. The hemolysin BL enterotoxin was detected in all 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (100%). The non-hemolytic enterotoxin complex was found in 27 out of 30 B. thuringiensis isolates (90.0%). The B. thuringiensis tested in this study had similar toxin gene characteristics to B. cereus , which possessed more than one toxin gene. B. thuringiensis could have the potential risk of foodborne illness based on the toxin genes and toxin-producing ability.

  2. Erosional consequence of saltcedar control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, K.R.; Friedman, J.M.; Griffin, E.R.

    2009-01-01

    Removal of nonnative riparian trees is accelerating to conserve water and improve habitat for native species. Widespread control of dominant species, however, can lead to unintended erosion. Helicopter herbicide application in 2003 along a 12-km reach of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico, eliminated the target invasive species saltcedar (Tamarix spp.), which dominated the floodplain, as well as the native species sandbar willow (Salix exigua Nuttall), which occurred as a fringe along the channel. Herbicide application initiated a natural experiment testing the importance of riparian vegetation for bank stability along this data-rich river. A flood three years later eroded about 680,000 m3 of sediment, increasing mean channel width of the sprayed reach by 84%. Erosion upstream and downstream from the sprayed reach during this flood was inconsequential. Sand eroded from channel banks was transported an average of 5 km downstream and deposited on the floodplain and channel bed. Although vegetation was killed across the floodplain in the sprayed reach, erosion was almost entirely confined to the channel banks. The absence of dense, flexible woody stems on the banks reduced drag on the flow, leading to high shear stress at the toe of the banks, fluvial erosion, bank undercutting, and mass failure. The potential for increased erosion must be included in consideration of phreatophyte control projects. ?? 2009 U.S. Government.

  3. Augmenting Sulfur Metabolism and Herbivore Defense in Arabidopsis by Bacterial Volatile Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina eAziz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur is an element necessary for the life cycle of higher plants. Its assimilation and reduction into essential biomolecules are pivotal factors determining a plant’s growth and vigor as well as resistance to environmental stress. While certain soil microbes can enhance ion solubility via chelating agents or oxidation, microbial regulation of plant-sulfur assimilation has not been reported. With an increasing understanding that soil microbes can activate growth and stress tolerance in plants via chemical signaling, the question arises as to whether such beneficial bacteria also regulate sulfur assimilation. Here we report a previously unidentified mechanism by which the growth-promoting rhizobacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens (GB03 transcriptionally activates genes responsible for sulfur assimilation, increasing sulfur uptake and accumulation in Arabidopsis. Transcripts encoding for sulfur-rich aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates are also GB03 induced. As a result, GB03-exposed plants with elevated glucosinolates exhibit greater protection against the generalist herbivore, Spodoptera exigua (beet armyworm. In contrast, a previously-characterized glucosinolate mutant compromised in the production of both aliphatic and indolic glucosinolates is also compromised in terms of GB03-induced protection against insect herbivory. As with in vitro studies, soil-grown plants show enhanced glucosinolate accumulation and protection against beet armyworm feeding with GB03 exposure. These results demonstrate the potential of microbes to enhance plant sulfur assimilation and emphasize the sophisticated integration of microbial signaling in plant defense.

  4. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlicka, Julie A; Greenberg, Russell; Letourneau, Deborah K

    2011-01-01

    Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana) occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua) were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  5. Avian conservation practices strengthen ecosystem services in California vineyards.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julie A Jedlicka

    Full Text Available Insectivorous Western Bluebirds (Sialia mexicana occupy vineyard nest boxes established by California winegrape growers who want to encourage avian conservation. Experimentally, the provision of available nest sites serves as an alternative to exclosure methods for isolating the potential ecosystem services provided by foraging birds. We compared the abundance and species richness of avian foragers and removal rates of sentinel prey in treatments with songbird nest boxes and controls without nest boxes. The average species richness of avian insectivores increased by over 50 percent compared to controls. Insectivorous bird density nearly quadrupled, primarily due to a tenfold increase in Western Bluebird abundance. In contrast, there was no significant difference in the abundance of omnivorous or granivorous bird species some of which opportunistically forage on grapes. In a sentinel prey experiment, 2.4 times more live beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua were removed in the nest box treatment than in the control. As an estimate of the maximum foraging services provided by insectivorous birds, we found that larval removal rates measured immediately below occupied boxes averaged 3.5 times greater than in the control. Consequently the presence of Western Bluebirds in vineyard nest boxes strengthened ecosystem services to winegrape growers, illustrating a benefit of agroecological conservation practices. Predator addition and sentinel prey experiments lack some disadvantages of predator exclusion experiments and were robust methodologies for detecting ecosystem services.

  6. Occurrence and identification of yeast species in fermented liquid feed for piglets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gori, Klaus; Bjørklund, Marina Kryger; Canibe, Nuria

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of the present study was to investigate the occurrence and identity of yeast species in fermented liquid feed (FLF) used for feeding piglets. In total, 40 different Danish farms were included in the analysis. The preparation and composition of FLF was found to be very...... heterogeneous with high variations in both yeast counts and yeast species composition. The yeast population varied between 6.0 × 10(3) and 4.2 × 10(7) cfug(-1) with an average yeast count of 8.7 × 10(6) ± 1.1 × 10(7) cfug(-1). A total of 766 yeasts were isolated and identified by conventional and/or molecular...... typing techniques. The predominant yeast species in the FLF samples were found to be Candida milleri (58.4%), Kazachstania exigua (17.5%), Candida pararugosa (6.40%) and Kazachstania bulderi (5.09%). No clear separation between isolates of C. milleri and Candida humilis could be obtained based...

  7. La provisión de agua potable en la periferia del AMBA, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronica Caceres

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El artículo analiza la problemática de la provisión de agua potable domiciliaria en territorios con escasa cobertura de las redes, en el principal aglomerado urbano de la Argentina denominado Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires. Se recuperan los aportes de una investigación exploratoria que recurrió al estudio de caso y el análisis de fuentes primarias y secundarias. Principalmente centra la atención en la caracterización de los circuitos mercantiles que emergen ante la ausencia de las redes, comprendidos por la presencia de empresas formales e informales que realizan perforaciones e instalan equipos para la explotación individual de los acuíferos por parte de hogares que no acceden a las redes de agua. También se analiza la exigua regulación, control y fiscalización estatal.  

  8. Diatom diversity in chronically versus episodically acidified adirondack streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passy, S.I.; Ciugulea, I.; Lawrence, G.B.

    2006-01-01

    The relationship between algal species richness and diversity, and pH is controversial. Furthermore, it is still unknown how episodic stream acidification following atmospheric deposition affects species richness and diversity. Here we analyzed water chemistry and diatom epiphyton dynamics and showed their contrasting behavior in chronically vs. episodically acidic streams in the Adirondack region. Species richness and diversity were significantly higher in the chronically acidic brown water stream, where organic acidity was significantly higher and the ratio of inorganic to organic monomeric aluminum significantly lower. Conversely, in the episodically acidic clear water stream, the inorganic acidity and pH were significantly higher and the diatom communities were very species-poor. This suggests that episodic acidification in the Adirondacks may be more stressful for stream biota than chronic acidity. Strong negative linear relationships between species diversity, Eunotia exigua, and dissolved organic carbon against pH were revealed after the influence of non-linear temporal trends was partialled out using a novel way of temporal modeling. ?? 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.

  9. Microbial ecology of sourdough fermentations: diverse or uniform?

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vuyst, L; Van Kerrebroeck, S; Harth, H; Huys, G; Daniel, H-M; Weckx, S

    2014-02-01

    Sourdough is a specific and stressful ecosystem inhabited by yeasts and lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mainly heterofermentative lactobacilli. On the basis of their inocula, three types of sourdough fermentation processes can be distinguished, namely backslopped ones, those initiated with starter cultures, and those initiated with a starter culture followed by backslopping. Typical sourdough LAB species are Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus paralimentarius, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis. Typical sourdough yeast species are Candida humilis, Kazachstania exigua, and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Whereas region specificity is claimed in the case of artisan backslopped sourdoughs, no clear-cut relationship between a typical sourdough and its associated microbiota can be found, as this is dependent on the sampling, isolation, and identification procedures. Both simple and very complex consortia may occur. Moreover, a series of intrinsic and extrinsic factors may influence the composition of the sourdough microbiota. For instance, an influence of the flour (type, quality status, etc.) and the process parameters (temperature, pH, dough yield, backslopping practices, etc.) occurs. In this way, the presence of Lb. sanfranciscensis during sourdough fermentation depends on specific environmental and technological factors. Also, Triticum durum seems to select for obligately heterofermentative LAB species. Finally, there are indications that the sourdough LAB are of intestinal origin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Lactic acid bacterium and yeast microbiotas of 19 sourdoughs used for traditional/typical italian breads: interactions between ingredients and microbial species diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minervini, Fabio; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Lattanzi, Anna; De Angelis, Maria; Antonielli, Livio; Cardinali, Gianluigi; Cappelle, Stefan; Gobbetti, Marco

    2012-02-01

    The study of the microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs used for the manufacture of traditional/typical breads allowed the identification, through a culture-dependent approach, of 20 and 4 species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts, respectively. Numerically, the most frequent LAB isolates were Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis (ca. 28% of the total LAB isolates), Lactobacillus plantarum (ca. 16%), and Lactobacillus paralimentarius (ca. 14%). Saccharomyces cerevisiae was identified in 16 sourdoughs. Candida humilis, Kazachstania barnettii, and Kazachstania exigua were also identified. As shown by principal component analysis (PCA), a correlation was found between the ingredients, especially the type of flour, the microbial community, and the biochemical features of sourdoughs. Triticum durum flours were characterized by the high level of maltose, glucose, fructose, and free amino acids (FAA) correlated with the sole or main presence of obligately heterofermentative LAB, the lowest number of facultatively heterofermentative strains, and the low cell density of yeasts in the mature sourdoughs. This study highlighted, through a comprehensive and comparative approach, the dominant microbiotas of 19 Italian sourdoughs, which determined some of the peculiarities of the resulting traditional/typical Italian breads.

  11. Holocene Millennial-scale Surface and Bottom Water Variability, Feni Drift, NE Atlantic Ocean: Foraminiferal Assemblages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, S. J.; Richter, T. O.; de Stigter, H. C.; van Weering, T. C. E.; de Haas, H.

    A high-resolution sediment core from Feni Drift (ENAM9606, 56N 14W, 2543 m wa- ter depth) was investigated for planktonic and benthic foraminiferal assemblages dur- ing the last 12,000 years. During the Preboreal, peak abundances of T.quinqueloba indicate the passage of the Arctic front over the core site. Holocene planktonic foraminiferal assemblages indicate a gradual warming trend of surface water masses punctuated by a major cooling (8,200ky event s.l.), and possibly a slight cooling dur- ing the last 3,000 years. The interval from 10 to 5kyrs shows higher and fluctuating abundances of T.quinqueloba and G.bulloides, which suggest proximity of the subarc- tic front and enhanced spring blooms compared to the upper Holocene. Abundance peaks of N.pachyderma(s) and/or T.quinqueloba indicate a series of millennial-scale cooling events during the entire Holocene, which can be correlated to similar episodes previously described from other locations in the North Atlantic and Norwegian- Greenland Sea. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages indicate a gradual transition from seasonal, spring-bloom related food supply in the Lower Holocene (dominance of the phytodetritus species E.exigua) to possibly lower, but more sustained food supply in the Upper Holocene (dominance of C.obtusa and C.laevigata).

  12. Evaluation of Candidate Reference Genes for Quantitative Gene Expression Analysis in Spodoptera exigu a after Long-time Exposure to Cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Płachetka-Bożek, Anna; Augustyniak, Maria

    2017-08-21

    Studies on the transcriptional control of gene expression play an important role in many areas of biology. Reference genes, which are often referred to as housekeeping genes, such as GAPDH, G3PDH, EF2, RpL7A, RpL10, TUBα and Actin, have traditionally been assumed to be stably expressed in all conditions, and they are frequently used to normalize mRNA levels between different samples in qPCR analysis. However, it is known that the expression of these genes is influenced by numerous factors, such as experimental conditions. The difference in gene expression underlies a range of biological processes, including development, reproduction and behavior. The aim of this study was to show the problems associated with using reference genes in the qPCR technique, in a study on inbred strains of Spodoptera exigua selected toward cadmium resistance. We present and discuss our results and observations, and give some recommendations concerning the use and limitations of housekeeping genes as internal standards, especially in research on insects. Our results suggest that holometabolism and poikilothermia, as well as time since metamorphosis and the level of exposure to the selective factor (cadmium in this case), have a significant effect on the expression of reference genes.

  13. Candidatos no deliberantes: los postulantes al órgano legislativo de Rosario en Facebook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Raimondo Anselmino

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre los posteos publicados por los candidatos al Concejo Deliberante de la Ciudad de Rosario, Argentina, en los muros de sus páginas oficiales en Facebook, durante la campaña electoral local de 2015. Con un diseño exploratorio, se estudiaron las publicaciones de diez candidatos pertenecientes a las diferentes listas, durante 25 días. Para la recopilación del corpus se utilizaron herramientas digitales combinadas con una observación directa y herramientas estadísticas para el procesamiento de los datos. Entre los hallazgos se destacan: el escaso lugar que los políticos otorgan a la polémica con postulantes opositores, el hecho de que los usuarios interactúen con la página oficial de un solo candidato, la baja reiteración en la actividad de comentar de cada usuario y la exigua presencia de respuestas por parte de los candidatos.

  14. Optimización de recursos hídricos y armonización de sus usos: el Consorcio de Aguas de la Marina Baja

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Gil Olcina

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En la Marina Baja, comarca alicantina de la seca región climática del Sureste Ibérico, el difícil desafío de conjugar el extraordinario desarrollo turístico y urbano de su franja litoral, que polariza Benidorm, con disponibilidades hídricas exiguas e irregulares, ha requerido un conjunto de actuaciones del mayor interés, para la optimización de éstas y la armonización de sus usos, protagonizadas por el Consorcio de Aguas de la Marina Baja. Dichas iniciativas incluyen: mayor y mejor regulación de recursos epigeos, potenciación sostenible de los subterráneos, y reutilización de aguas depuradas, con superposición de dos sistemas independientes -aguas blancas y depuradas-, que funcionan al unísono; sin que falte, para conjurar el riesgo extremo de una sequía prolongada e intensa, la posibilidad de emplear caudales foráneos.

  15. Effects of selfsuperparasitism and host age on fitness-correlated traits in the solitary endoparasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Baoping; Meng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The domed fitness functions are suggested to describe developmental patterns of progeny parasitoids in relation to host age at oviposition in solitary koinobint parasitoids that are engaged in single parasitism, but few studies have investigated the applicability of the functions as related to superparasitism. The present study was designed to compare fitness functions between single parasitism and superparasitism by examining developmental patterns of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymneoptera: Braconidae) progeny in relation to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), either singly parasitized or self-superparasitized as second–fifth instar larvae. Selfsuperparasitism caused deleterious effects on the fitness-related traits of parasitoid progeny, as demonstrated by a prolonged egg-to-adult emergence time, a smaller body size, and shorter longevity of the emerging adults, and decreased survival to adult emergence. While the domed fitness function was detected for development time, survival, adult body size, and longevity in relation to host larvae that were singly parasitized, the function was observed only for progeny survival in relation to host larvae that were self-superparasitized. This study suggests that developmental fitness functions with selfsuperparasitism can deviate from those with single parasitism in solitary koinobiont parasitoids. PMID:25201512

  16. Effects of self-superparasitism and host age on fitness-correlated traits in the solitary endoparasitoid wasp Meteorus pulchricornis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Li, Baoping; Meng, Ling

    2014-01-01

    The domed fitness functions are suggested to describe developmental patterns of progeny parasitoids in relation to host age at oviposition in solitary koinobint parasitoids that are engaged in single parasitism, but few studies have investigated the applicability of the functions as related to superparasitism. The present study was designed to compare fitness functions between single parasitism and superparasitism by examining developmental patterns of Meteorus pulchricornis (Wesmael) (Hymneoptera: Braconidae) progeny in relation to the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), either singly parasitized or self-superparasitized as second-fifth instar larvae. Self-superparasitism caused deleterious effects on the fitness-related traits of parasitoid progeny, as demonstrated by a prolonged egg-to-adult emergence time, a smaller body size, and shorter longevity of the emerging adults, and decreased survival to adult emergence. While the domed fitness function was detected for development time, survival, adult body size, and longevity in relation to host larvae that were singly parasitized, the function was observed only for progeny survival in relation to host larvae that were self-superparasitized. This study suggests that developmental fitness functions with self-superparasitism can deviate from those with single parasitism in solitary koinobiont parasitoids.

  17. Modelación de la resistencia al movimiento de la banda de un transportador en los tramos curvos del perfil y la traza

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoni Sierra-González

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La resistencia al movimiento de la banda en los tramos curvos del perfil y la traza no se considera con precisión al diseñar transportadores de banda. En este trabajo se induce un modelo teórico fundamentado matemáticamente para el cálculo de la resistencia al movimiento en los tramos curvos en el plano vertical, que disminuye la fricción y la componente de la fuerza normal a la banda en los puntos de contactos con los rodillos de apoyo que componen los tramos curvos. Se utilizaron métodos matemáticos precisos de interpolación adaptados para trazar curvas con una exigua energía potencial, sin puntos angulosos y obtener de forma determinística valores mínimos de resistencia al movimiento. Se obtiene un modelo para la determinación de las tensiones radiales y el ángulo de inclinación transversal de los apoyos de rodillos en los tramos curvos en el plano horizontal, en función de la productividad y de las propiedades de la mena laterítica mullida y homogeneizada que se transporta.

  18. El autismo en la literatura científica pedagógica española, 1985-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María del Mar GALLEGO MATELLÁN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available El presente artículo ofrece una revisión del número de publicaciones de edición nacional que sobre el Trastorno del Espectro Autista se han editado entre los años 1985-2011 en revistas científicas en las áreas de Educación y de Psicología, así como las tesis publicadas en ambos campos sobre el tema mencionado. El objetivo que se persigue es comprobar si la incidencia en el número de casos registrados del TEA en el periodo investigado tiene una repercusión directa en el número de publicaciones y conocer, por otro lado, cuál es la característica de los artículos editados. La exigua presencia de escritos en las ediciones analizadas en este artículo pone de manifiesto la necesidad de replantear la presencia de publicaciones referentes a este colectivo.

  19. Discovery of the aryl heterocyclic amine insecticides: synthesis, insecticidal activity, field results, mode of action and bioavailability of a leading field candidate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dent, William H; Pobanz, Mark A; Geng, Chaoxian; Sparks, Thomas C; Watson, Gerald B; Letherer, Theodore J; Beavers, Kenneth W; Young, Cathy D; Adelfinskaya, Yelena A; Ross, Ronald R; Whiteker, Greg; Renga, James

    2017-04-01

    γ-Amino butyric acid (GABA) antagonists are proven targets for control of lepidopteran and other pests. New heterocyclic compounds with high insecticidal activity were discovered using a competitive-intelligence-inspired scaffold-hopping approach to generate analogs of fipronil, a known GABA antagonist. These novel aryl heterocyclic amines (AHAs) displayed broad-spectrum activity on a number of chewing insect pests. Through >370 modifications of the core AHA structure, a 7-pyrazolopyridine lead molecule was found to exhibit much improved activity on a number of insect pests. In field trial studies, its performance was 2-4 times lower than commercial standards and also appeared to be species dependent, with good activity seen for larvae of Spodoptera exigua, but inactivity on larvae of Trichoplusia ni. An extensive investigational biology effort demonstrated that these AHA analogs appear to have multiple modes of action, including GABA receptor antagonism and mitopotential or uncoupler activity. The limited capability in larvae of T. ni to convert the lead molecule to its associated open form correlates with the low toxicity of the lead molecule in this species. This work has provided information that could aid investigations of novel GABA antagonists. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Effect of Drought on Herbivore-Induced Plant Gene Expression: Population Comparison for Range Limit Inferences

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    Gunbharpur Singh Gill

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Low elevation “trailing edge” range margin populations typically face increases in both abiotic and biotic stressors that may contribute to range limit development. We hypothesize that selection may act on ABA and JA signaling pathways for more stable expression needed for range expansion, but that antagonistic crosstalk prevents their simultaneous co-option. To test this hypothesis, we compared high and low elevation populations of Boechera stricta that have diverged with respect to constitutive levels of glucosinolate defenses and root:shoot ratios; neither population has high levels of both traits. If constraints imposed by antagonistic signaling underlie this divergence, one would predict that high constitutive levels of traits would coincide with lower plasticity. To test this prediction, we compared the genetically diverged populations in a double challenge drought-herbivory growth chamber experiment. Although a glucosinolate defense response to the generalist insect herbivore Spodoptera exigua was attenuated under drought conditions, the plastic defense response did not differ significantly between populations. Similarly, although several potential drought tolerance traits were measured, only stomatal aperture behavior, as measured by carbon isotope ratios, was less plastic as predicted in the high elevation population. However, RNAseq results on a small subset of plants indicated differential expression of relevant genes between populations as predicted. We suggest that the ambiguity in our results stems from a weaker link between the pathways and the functional traits compared to transcripts.

  1. La Ratio Studiorum de la compañía de Jesús: Su aporte al desarrollo pedagógico y cultural del Chile colonial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Contreras Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available La educación colonial en Chile es un tema que ha sido escasamente abordado por los historiadores e intelectuales del país y, dentro de la exigua bibliografía que existe dedicada exclusivamente al tema, se puede observar una perspectiva común entre los histo-riadores que, o bien tratan el asunto de manera superficial o bien lo hacen con un evidente ánimo de reprobación hacia la cultura clerical que fomentaba este tipo de enseñanza. En el presente artículo revisaremos el plan de estudios de la Compañía de Jesús llamado Ratio Studiorum, para por medio de ella dar cuenta de los lineamientos y objetivos que se había trazado la enseñanza jesuita durante la colonia. Con esta presentación esperamos contribuir al conocimiento de una parte importante de nuestra historia de la enseñanza en Chile, así como también de nuestra historia cultural.

  2. Erosional Consequence of Saltcedar Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Kirk R.; Friedman, Jonathan M.; Griffin, Eleanor R.

    2009-08-01

    Removal of nonnative riparian trees is accelerating to conserve water and improve habitat for native species. Widespread control of dominant species, however, can lead to unintended erosion. Helicopter herbicide application in 2003 along a 12-km reach of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico, eliminated the target invasive species saltcedar ( Tamarix spp.), which dominated the floodplain, as well as the native species sandbar willow ( Salix exigua Nuttall), which occurred as a fringe along the channel. Herbicide application initiated a natural experiment testing the importance of riparian vegetation for bank stability along this data-rich river. A flood three years later eroded about 680,000 m3 of sediment, increasing mean channel width of the sprayed reach by 84%. Erosion upstream and downstream from the sprayed reach during this flood was inconsequential. Sand eroded from channel banks was transported an average of 5 km downstream and deposited on the floodplain and channel bed. Although vegetation was killed across the floodplain in the sprayed reach, erosion was almost entirely confined to the channel banks. The absence of dense, flexible woody stems on the banks reduced drag on the flow, leading to high shear stress at the toe of the banks, fluvial erosion, bank undercutting, and mass failure. The potential for increased erosion must be included in consideration of phreatophyte control projects.

  3. Response of deep-sea benthic foraminifera to Miocene paleoclimatic events, DSDP site 289

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodruff, F.; Douglas, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    Changes in the Miocene deep-sea benthic foraminifera at DSDP Site 289 closely correlate to the climatically induced variations in deep and bottom waters in the Pacific Ocean. In early Miocene time, oxygen and carbon isotopes indicate that bottom waters were relatively warm and poorly oxygenated. Benthic foraminiferal assemblages are characterized by various species inherited from the Oligocene. Expansion of the Antarctic icecap in the early middle Miocene, 14-16 m.y. ago, increased oxygen isotope values, produced cold, more oxygenated bottom waters and lead to a turnover in the benthic foraminifera. An Oligocene-early Miocene assemblage was replaced by a cibicidoid-dominated assemblage. Some species became extinct and benthic faunas became more bathymetrically restricted with the increased stratification of deep waters in the ocean. In mid-Miocene time, Epistominella exigua and E. umbonifera, indicative of young, oxygenated bottom waters, are relatively common at DSDP Site 289. Further glacial expansion 5-9 m.y. ago lowered sealevel, increased oceanic upwelling and associated biological productivity and intensified the oxygen minima. Abundant hispid and costate uvigerines become a dominant faunal element at shallow depths above 2500 m as E. umbonifera becomes common to abundant below 2500 m. By late Miocene time, benthic faunas similar in species composition and proportion to modern faunas on the Ontong-Java plateau, had become established. (Auth.)

  4. Adaptive scenarios: a training model for today's public health workforce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uden-Holman, Tanya; Bedet, Jennifer; Walkner, Laurie; Abd-Hamid, Nor Hashidah

    2014-01-01

    marketed to target audiences through partner organizations, various Web sites, electronic newsletters, and social media. Next steps include the implementation of a 6-month follow-up evaluation, using Kirkpatrick level III. Kirkpatrick level III evaluation measures whether there was actual transfer of learning to the work setting.

  5. Development of heterogeneities in the subcontinental Mantle: Evidence from the Ferrar Group, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyle, Philip R.

    1980-06-01

    Tholeiitic lava flows (Kirkpatrick Basalts) and dolerite sills and dikes (Ferrar Dolerites) of the Jurassic Ferrar Group from Antarctica and dolerite sills from Tasmania, Australia are characterised by initial strontium isotope ratios ranging from 0.7089 to 0.7153. The mean and standard deviation of 85 analyses is 0.7115±0.0012. Some of the scatter in the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios can be attributed to sample inhomogeneity, analytical uncertainties and sample alteration. The published major element data show well-defined trends that are consistent with an evolution by fractional crystallization. Recognition of a parental magma is difficult due to the fractionated nature of the rocks. Trace element analyses, particularly the rare earth elements (REE) support a differentiation model. Compared to mid-ocean ridge basalts, Ferrar Group rocks are enriched in light REE. Kirkpatrick Basalts from the central Transantarctic Mountains show significant correlations between initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios and major elements only for SiO2 and CaO. The general lack of strong correlation is the basis for rejecting the possibility of wholesale contamination by sialic material as a possible cause of the high 87Sr/86Sr ratios. Selective contamination of the basaltic magmas is a possibility and cannot be completely discounted. It would probably involve a fluid phase in order to transport and mix the light REE, Rb, 87Sr, and other elements. By analogy with selective contamination of ocean ridge basalts by sea water it is difficult to envisage a similar process acting on magma emplaced in a non-marine environment. Because of the elevated values of the initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios, their similar average value over 2,500 km and the large volume of magma involved (4× 105 km3) a mantle origin for the high Sr ratios is preferred. Models to account for the enrichment of Rb and light REE in the Antarctic mantle during or prior to the Jurassic include: 1. addition of continental material from a Palezoic

  6. IMPLEMENTASI MODUL MENUJU KEWIRAUSAHAAN DALAM PEMBANGUNAN KESEHATAN, PANDUAN STRATEGI PEMASARAN PELAYANAN KESEHATAN DI PUSKESMAS DAN RUMAH SAKIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evie Sopacua

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An assessment was done by Budijanto, etc (2002 about the leadership, entrepreneurship and managerial ability of district health human resources.  Result of this assessment was used to developed a draft module to increase the health human resources ability in entrepreneurship mainly. The module 'Health Development Through Entrepreneurship, a Guide for Marketing Strategy in Health Services in Hospital and Health Center". Implementation of the module was done in the District of Kutai Kartanegara, East Kalimantan Province, District of East Lombok, Nusa Tenggara Barat Province and District of Magetan, East Java Province. Respondent in this study were health human resources from General Hospital, Health Center and District Health Office who participated in the implementation process. Implementation was done in three days through learning the contents of the module, filling workpapers as a reflection of understanding the contents of the module and discussion. Evaluation of the implementation process was done using level I of Kirkpatrick's evaluation to get the reaction of the respondents about the conformity of the module's contents and the learning process. The indicators of advantages of implementation process is > 60% respondents will react that the module's contents is relevan with their everydays work and teaming process was also accomodate. Using  scores, indicates that < 2 means less, 2-3 means sufficient and > 3 means good in reacting that the module's contents is relevan with their everyday & work and learning process. The result showed that more than 60% respondents in the District of Kutai Karlanegara (n = 22. District of East Lombok (n = 25 and District of Magetan (n = 22 valueing that the contents of module is relevan with the institutional programs. More than 60% responden in those three district valued that the learning process was sufficient and good. Implementation the module through learning process can be done with using level I

  7. An evaluation of approaches used to teach quality improvement to pre-registration healthcare professionals: An integrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Lorraine; Shepherd, Ashley; Harris, Fiona

    2017-08-01

    Improving the quality of healthcare remains central to UK and international policy, practice and research. In 2003, The Institute of Medicine's 'Health Professions Education: A Bridge to Quality', advocated quality improvement as a core competency for all healthcare professionals. As a result, developing capacity and capability of those applying improvement methodologies in the pre-registration population has risen, yet, little is known about the teaching approaches employed for this purpose. To describe and analyse educational approaches used to teach quality improvement to pre-registration healthcare professionals and identify enabling and impeding factors. Integrative review. CINAHL, PsychINFO, MEDLINE, ERIC, ASSIA, SCOPUS and Google Scholar were accessed for papers published between 2000 and 2016. Publications where quality improvement education was delivered to pre-registration healthcare professionals were eligible. One author independently screened papers, extracted data using a modified version of the Reporting of Primary Studies in Education Guideline and evaluated methodological quality using the Weight of Evidence Framework. The Kirkpatrick Education Evaluation Model was used to explore the impact of teaching approaches. Enabling and impeding factors were thematically analysed. A narrative synthesis of findings is presented. Ten papers were included, representing nursing, pharmacy and medicine from UK, Norway and USA. Studies comprised four quantitative, four mixed method, one qualitative and one cluster randomised trial, all allocated medium Weight of Evidence. Teaching approaches included experiential learning cited in all studies, didactics in seven, group work in four, seminars in three, self-directed learning in three and simulation in one. Most studies measured Level 1 of the Kirkpatrick Model (reaction), all but one measured Level 2 (skills, knowledge or attitudes), none measured Level 3 (behaviour) and one measured Level 4 (patient outcomes

  8. Evaluation of the flipped classroom approach in a veterinary professional skills course

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moffett J

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Jenny Moffett,1 Aileen C Mill2 1Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, West Farm, St Kitts, West Indies; 2Modelling Suite, School of Biology, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Background: The flipped classroom is an educational approach that has had much recent coverage in the literature. Relatively few studies, however, use objective assessment of student performance to measure the impact of the flipped classroom on learning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a flipped classroom approach within a medical education setting to the first two levels of Kirkpatrick and Kirkpatrick's effectiveness of training framework. Methods: This study examined the use of a flipped classroom approach within a professional skills course offered to postgraduate veterinary students. A questionnaire was administered to two cohorts of students: those who had completed a traditional, lecture-based version of the course (Introduction to Veterinary Medicine [IVM] and those who had completed a flipped classroom version (Veterinary Professional Foundations I [VPF I]. The academic performance of students within both cohorts was assessed using a set of multiple-choice items (n=24 nested within a written examination. Data obtained from the questionnaire were analyzed using Cronbach's alpha, Kruskal–Wallis tests, and factor analysis. Data obtained from student performance in the written examination were analyzed using the nonparametric Wilcoxon rank sum test. Results: A total of 133 IVM students and 64 VPF I students (n=197 agreed to take part in the study. Overall, study participants favored the flipped classroom approach over the traditional classroom approach. With respect to student academic performance, the traditional classroom students outperformed the flipped classroom students on a series of multiple-choice items (IVM mean =21.4±1.48 standard deviation; VPF I mean =20.25±2.20 standard deviation; Wilcoxon test, w=7,578; P<0

  9. What works in delivering dementia education or training to hospital staff? A critical synthesis of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surr, Claire A; Gates, Cara

    2017-10-01

    The quality of care delivered to people with dementia in hospital settings is of international concern. People with dementia occupy up to one quarter of acute hospital beds, however, staff working in hospitals report lack of knowledge and skills in caring for this group. There is limited evidence about the most effective approaches to training hospital staff on dementia. The purpose of this literature review was to examine published evidence on the most effective approaches to dementia training and education for hospital staff. The review was conducted using critical synthesis and included qualitative, quantitative and mixed/multi- methods studies. Kirkpatrick's four level model for the evaluation of training interventions was adopted to structure the review. The following databases were searched: MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, AMED, British Education Index, Education Abstracts, ERIC (EbscoHost), The Cochrane Library-Cochrane reviews, Economic evaluations, CENTRAL (Wiley), HMIC (Ovid), ASSIA, IBSS (Proquest), Conference Proceedings Citation Indexes (Web of Science), using a combination of keyword for the following themes: Dementia/Alzheimer's, training/education, staff knowledge and patient outcomes. A total of 20 papers were included in the review, the majority of which were low or medium quality, impacting on generalisability. The 16 different training programmes evaluated in the studies varied in terms of duration and mode of delivery, although most employed face-to-face didactic techniques. Studies predominantly reported on reactions to training and knowledge, only one study evaluated outcomes across all of the levels of the Kirkpatrick model. Key features of training that appeared to be more acceptable and effective were identified related to training content, delivery methods, practicalities, duration and support for implementation. The review methodology enabled inclusion of a broad range of studies and permitted common features of successful programmes to be

  10. Evaluation of the Effects of Flipped Learning of a Nursing Informatics Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jina; Kim, Shin-Jeong; Kim, Sunghee; Vasuki, Rajaguru

    2017-08-01

    This study evaluated the effects of flipped learning in a nursing informatics course. Sixty-four undergraduate students attending a flipped learning nursing informatics course at a university in South Korea participated in this study in 2013. Of these, 43 students participated at University A, and 46 students participated at University B, as a comparison group. Three levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation model were used: level one (the students' satisfaction), level two (achievement on the course outcomes), and level three (self-perceived nursing informatics competencies). Students of the flipped learning course reported positive effects above the middle degree of satisfaction (level one) and achieved the course outcomes (level two). In addition, self-perceived nursing informatics competencies (level three) of the flipped learning group were higher than those of the comparison group. A flipped learning nursing informatics course is an effective teaching strategy for preparing new graduate nurses in the clinical setting. [J Nurs Educ. 2017;56(8):477-483.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. The educational effects of mobile learning on students of medical sciences: A systematic review in experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koohestani, Hamid Reza; Soltani Arabshahi, Seyed Kamran; Fata, Ladan; Ahmadi, Fazlollah

    2018-04-01

    The demand for mobile learning in the medical science educational program is increasing. The present review study gathers evidence highlighted by the experimental studies on the educational effects of mobile learning for medical science students. The study was carried out as a systematic literature search published from 2007 to July 2017 in the databases PubMed/Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Web of Knowledge (Thomson Reuters) , Educational Resources and Information Center (ERIC), EMBASE (Elsevier), Cochrane library, PsycINFO and Google Scholar. To examine quality of the articles, a tool validated by the BEME Review was employed. Totally, 21 papers entered the study. Three main themes emerged from the content of papers: (1) improvement in student clinical competency and confidence, (2) acquisition and enhancing of students' theoretical knowledge, and (3) students' positive attitudes to and perception of mobile learning. Level 2B of Kirkpatrick hierarchy had been examined by all the papers and seven of them had reported two or more outcome levels, but level 4 was not reported in the papers. Our review showed that the students of medical sciences had positive response and attitudes to mobile learning. Moreover, implementation of mobile learning in medical sciences program might lead to valuable educational benefits and improve clinical competence and confidence along with theoretical knowledge, attitudes, and perception of mobile learning. The results indicated that mobile learning strategy in medical education can positively affect learning in all three domains of Bloom's Taxonomy.

  12. Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes with home-lab source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yaran; Xie, Qing; Chen, Zhiqiang; Xin, Qiuqi; Wang, Xin; Mu, Baozhong; Wang, Zhanshan; Liu, Shenye; Ding, Yongkun

    2018-01-01

    Direct intensity calibration of X-ray grazing-incidence microscopes is urgently needed in quantitative studies of X-ray emission from laser plasma sources in inertial confinement fusion. The existing calibration methods for single reflecting mirrors, crystals, gratings, filters, and X-ray detectors are not applicable for such X-ray microscopes due to the specific optical structure and the restrictions of object-image relation. This article presents a reliable and efficient method that can be performed using a divergent X-ray source and an energy dispersive Si-PIN (silicon positive-intrinsic-negative) detector in an ordinary X-ray laboratory. The transmission theory of X-ray flux in imaging diagnostics is introduced, and the quantities to be measured are defined. The calibration method is verified by a W/Si multilayer-coated Kirkpatrick-Baez microscope with a field of view of ˜95 μm at 17.48 keV. The mirror reflectance curve in the 1D coordinate is drawn with a peak value of 20.9% and an uncertainty of ˜6.0%.

  13. Finite-time thermodynamics and simulated annealing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andresen, B.

    1989-01-01

    When the general, global optimization technique simulated annealing was introduced by Kirkpatrick et al. (1983), this mathematical algorithm was based on an analogy to the statistical mechanical behavior of real physical systems like spin glasses, hence the name. In the intervening span of years the method has proven exceptionally useful for a great variety of extremely complicated problems, notably NP-problems like the travelling salesman, DNA sequencing, and graph partitioning. Only a few highly optimized heuristic algorithms (e.g. Lin, Kernighan 1973) have outperformed simulated annealing on their respective problems (Johnson et al. 1989). Simulated annealing in its current form relies only on the static quantity 'energy' to describe the system, whereas questions of rate, as in the temperature path (annealing schedule, see below), are left to intuition. We extent the connection to physical systems and take over further components from thermodynamics like ensemble, heat capacity, and relaxation time. Finally we refer to finite-time thermodynamics (Andresen, Salomon, Berry 1984) for a dynamical estimate of the optimal temperature path. (orig.)

  14. Effective methods of teaching and learning in anatomy as a basic science: A BEME systematic review: BEME guide no. 44.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Losco, C Dominique; Grant, William D; Armson, Anthony; Meyer, Amanda J; Walker, Bruce F

    2017-03-01

    Anatomy is a subject essential to medical practice, yet time committed to teaching is on the decline, and resources required to teach anatomy is costly, particularly dissection. Advances in technology are a potential solution to the problem, while maintaining the quality of teaching required for eventual clinical application. To identify methods used to teach anatomy, including those demonstrated to enhance knowledge acquisition and retention. PubMed, CINAHL, ERIC, Academic OneFile, ProQuest, SAGE journals and Scopus were search from the earliest entry of each database to 31 August 2015. All included articles were assessed for methodological quality and low quality articles were excluded from the study. Studies were evaluated by assessment scores, qualitative outcomes where included as well as a modified Kirkpatrick model. A total of 17,820 articles were initially identified, with 29 included in the review. The review found a wide variety of teaching interventions represented in the range of studies, with CAI/CAL studies predominating in terms of teaching interventions, followed by simulation. In addition to this, CAI/CAL and simulation studies demonstrated better results overall compared to traditional teaching methods and there is evidence to support CAI/CAL as a partial replacement for dissection or a valuable tool in conjunction with dissection. This review provides evidence in support of the use of alternatives to traditional teaching methods in anatomy, in particular, the use of CAI/CAL with a number of high quality, low risk of bias studies supporting this.

  15. A study on the effectiveness of task manager board game as a training tool in managing project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yusof, Shahrul Azmi Mohd; Radzi, Shanizan Herman Md; Din, Sharifah Nadera Syed; Khalid, Nurhafizah

    2016-08-01

    Nowadays, games have become one of the useful tools in training. Many instructors choose to use games to enhance the way of delivering the subject. Failure to apply the suitable tool in training will lead to discouragement in learning and causing waste to the resources. An effective game will help the student understand the concept quickly. It can also help students to get involve in experiential learning where the student can manage and solve the problem as in the actual situation. This study will focus on the effectiveness of board game as a training tool for managing projects. This game has 4 tasks to be completed by students. They will be divided into a group of 4 or 5. Two methods are used in this study, pilot test, and post-test. These methods are chosen to analyze the effectiveness of using Task Manager Board Game as a teaching tool and the improvement of student's knowledge in project management. Three sub-components assessed were motivation, user experience and learning using case studies on Kirkpatrick's level one base on the perception of the students. The result indicated that the use of Task Manager board game as a training tool for managing project has a positive impact on students. It helps students to experience the situation of managing projects. It is one of the easiest ways for improving time management, human resources and communication skill.

  16. A 'Communication and Patient Safety' training programme for all healthcare staff: can it make a difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter; Allen, Kellie; Daly, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Communication breakdown is a factor contributing to most cases of patient harm, and this harm continues to occur at unacceptable levels. Responding to this evidence, the Metro South District of Queensland Health (Australia) has developed a communication skills training programme titled 'Communication and Patient Safety'. The three modules, each lasting 3½ h, cover both staff-to-patient and staff-to-staff communication issues, and an unusual feature is that clinical and non-clinical staff attend together. Following positive evaluation data from our initial pilot programme (involving 350 staff in a single hospital), the programme was expanded to all five hospitals in the district, and has now been completed by over 3000 staff. The results show that despite the significant time commitment, participants find the courses useful and relevant (Kirkpatrick level 1), they learn and retain new material (level 2), and they report changes in behaviour at individual, team and facility levels (level 3). Although it remains a challenge to obtain quantitative data showing that training such as this directly improves patient safety (level 4), our qualitative and informal feedback indicates that participants and their managers perceive clear improvements in the 'communication culture' after a workplace team has attended the courses. Improving 'communication for safety' in healthcare is a worldwide imperative, and other healthcare jurisdictions should be able to obtain similar results to ours if they develop and support interactive, non-didactic training in communication skills.

  17. Quantitative measurements with x-ray microscopes in laser-fusion experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Su, Q.

    1995-01-01

    X-ray imaging of laser-fusion target implosions has been performed on the University of Rochester's OMEGA laser system by means of grazing-incidence optical imaging with Kirkpatrick--Baez (KB) microscopes. High spatial resolution imaging (∼5 μm) of hard x-ray emission (up to ∼7 keV) has been achieved. New grazing-incidence optics are currently being fabricated for the OMEGA Upgrade experimental laser-fusion facility. Projected performance indicates that resolution may be increased to ∼2 μm at the center of the field of view and sensitivity extended to ∼8 keV. Uses of KB microscopes on the OMEGA Upgrade will include hard x-ray imaging, grating-dispersed imaged spectroscopy, and framed imaging. A novel technique for monochromatic imaging with KB microscopes has also been demonstrated enabling images of target emission in a narrow energy band (10 to 20 eV) to be obtained

  18. At-wavelength metrology of x-ray optics at Diamond Light Source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hongchang; Berujon, Sebastien; Sutter, John; Alcock, Simon G.; Sawhney, Kawal

    2014-09-01

    Modern, third-generation synchrotron radiation sources provide coherent and extremely bright beams of X-ray radiation. The successful exploitation of such beams depends to a significant extent on imperfections and misalignment of the optics employed on the beamlines. This issue becomes even more critical with the increasing use of active optics, and the desire to achieve diffraction-limited and coherence-preserving X-ray beams. In recent years, significant progress has been made to improve optic testing and optimization techniques, especially those using X-rays for so-called atwavelength metrology. These in-situ and at-wavelength metrology methods can be used not only to optimize the performance of X-ray optics, but also to correct and minimize the collective distortions of upstream beamline optics, including monochromators, and transmission windows. An overview of at-wavelength metrology techniques implemented at Diamond Light Source is presented, including grating interferometry and X-ray near-field speckle based techniques. Representative examples of the application of these techniques are also given, including in-situ and atwavelength calibration and optimization of: active, piezo bimorph mirrors; Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors; and refractive optics such as compound refractive lenses.

  19. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution; Developpement et applications de l'imagerie coherente aux rayons X a tres haute resolution spatiale et temporelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mokso, Rajmund

    2006-07-01

    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied.

  20. Determination of Satisfaction Index as a tool in evaluation of CME Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuldeep Singh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Continuing Medical Education is an indispensable part of physician's learning. Welldesigned program based on andragogy principles can enhance learning by motivatingthe learner and providing platform to encourage self directed learning. The presentstudy aimed to explore the impact of program “NAMS-AIIMS Regional Symposiumon Sleep Medicine” in changing the behavior and attitude of participants using“Satisfaction Index” and descriptive analysis of responses as evaluation tools forprogram effectiveness. This descriptive cross sectional study captured the response ofparticipants through a pre-tested and validated questionnaire administered at the end ofsymposium. The result showed almost equal sex distribution (M: F- 27: 34 withmajority being UG students (86%. Reliability of data showed Cronbach's Alpha of0.98 indicating high reliability. Satisfaction index (SI calculated as per WHOEducational Handbook for Health Personnel showed highest satisfaction for conduciveenvironment of symposium (87.87 % followed by provision for time to seekclarifications (87.21%, provision of appropriate Learning Resource material (85.90% and handling of critical comments by organizers (85.57%. Descriptive analysisshowed majority responses as highly positive to our questionnaire with suggestions formore such activity, inclusion of clinical cases and other aspects of practical relevance.Key words : evaluation, program, satisfaction index, Kirkpatrick Model, studentsatisfaction, adult learning, Knowles Theory.

  1. Becoming a Mentor: The Impact of Training and the Experience of Mentoring University Students on the Autism Spectrum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josette Hamilton

    Full Text Available While it is widely recognised that the number of young adults diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disoders (ASD is increasing, there is currently limited understanding of effective support for the transition to adulthood. One approach gaining increasing attention in the university sector is specialised peer mentoring. The aim of this inductive study was to understand the impact of peer mentor training on seven student mentors working with university students with an ASD. Kirkpatrick's model framed a mixed methods evaluation of the mentors' training and description of their experience. Overall, the training was well received by the mentors, who reported on average a 29% increase in their ASD knowledge following the training. Results from the semi-structured interviews conducted three months after the training, found that mentors felt that the general ASD knowledge they gained as part of their training had been essential to their role. The mentors described how their overall experience had been positive and reported that the training and support provided to them was pivotal to their ability to succeed in as peer mentors to students with ASD. This study provides feedback in support of specialist peer-mentoring programs for university students and can inform recommendations for future programs and research.

  2. Development of mean field theories in nuclear physics and in desordered media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orland, Henri.

    1981-04-01

    This work, in two parts, deals with the development of mean field theories in nuclear physics (nuclei in balance and collisions of heavy ions) as well as in disordered media. In the first part, two different ways of tackling the problem of developments around mean field theories are explained. Possessing an approach wave function for the system, the natural idea for including the correlations is to develop the exact wave function of the system around the mean field wave function. The first two chapters show two different ways of dealing with this problem: the perturbative approach - Hartree-Fock equations with two body collisions and functional methods. In the second part: mean field theory for spin glasses. The problem for spin glasses is to construct a physically acceptable mean field theory. The importance of this problem in statistical mechanics is linked to the fact that the mean field theory provides a qualitative description of the low temperature phase and is the starting point needed for using more sophisticated methods (renormalization group). Two approaches to this problem are presented, one based on the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model and the other based on a model of spins with purely local disorder and competitive interaction between the spins [fr

  3. Full immersion simulation: validation of a distributed simulation environment for technical and non-technical skills training in Urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewin, James; Tang, Jessica; Dasgupta, Prokar; Khan, Muhammad S; Ahmed, Kamran; Bello, Fernando; Kneebone, Roger; Jaye, Peter

    2015-07-01

    To evaluate the face, content and construct validity of the distributed simulation (DS) environment for technical and non-technical skills training in endourology. To evaluate the educational impact of DS for urology training. DS offers a portable, low-cost simulated operating room environment that can be set up in any open space. A prospective mixed methods design using established validation methodology was conducted in this simulated environment with 10 experienced and 10 trainee urologists. All participants performed a simulated prostate resection in the DS environment. Outcome measures included surveys to evaluate the DS, as well as comparative analyses of experienced and trainee urologist's performance using real-time and 'blinded' video analysis and validated performance metrics. Non-parametric statistical methods were used to compare differences between groups. The DS environment demonstrated face, content and construct validity for both non-technical and technical skills. Kirkpatrick level 1 evidence for the educational impact of the DS environment was shown. Further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of simulated operating room training on real operating room performance. This study has shown the validity of the DS environment for non-technical, as well as technical skills training. DS-based simulation appears to be a valuable addition to traditional classroom-based simulation training. © 2014 The Authors BJU International © 2014 BJU International Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. The use of information and communications technologies in the delivery of interprofessional education: A review of evaluation outcome levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Vernon; Reid, Adam; Reis, Pamela; Doucet, Shelley; Price, Sheri; Alcock, Lindsay; Fitzgerald, Shari

    2015-01-01

    Interprofessional education (IPE) in health and human services educational and clinical settings has proliferated internationally. The use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) in the facilitation of interprofessional learning is also growing, yet reviews of the effectiveness of ICTs in the delivery of pre- and/or post-licensure IPE have been limited. The current study's purpose was to review the evaluation outcomes of IPE initiatives delivered using ICTs. Relevant electronic databases and journals from 1996 to 2013 were searched. Studies which evaluated the effectiveness of an IPE intervention using ICTs were included and analyzed using the Barr et al. modified Kirkpatrick educational outcomes typology. Fifty-five studies were identified and a majority reported evaluation findings at the level 1 (reaction/satisfaction). Analysis revealed that learners react favorably to the use of ICTs in the delivery of IPE, and ICT-mediated IPE can lead to positive attitudinal and knowledge change. A majority of the studies reported positive evaluation outcomes at the learner satisfaction level, with the use of web-based learning modalities. The limited number of studies at other levels of the outcomes typology and deficiencies in study designs indicate the need for more rigorous evaluation of outcomes in ICT-mediated IPE.

  5. Statistical Mechanics of Disordered Systems - Series: Cambridge Series in Statistical and Probabilistic Mathematics (No. 18)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovier, Anton

    2006-06-01

    Our mathematical understanding of the statistical mechanics of disordered systems is going through a period of stunning progress. This self-contained book is a graduate-level introduction for mathematicians and for physicists interested in the mathematical foundations of the field, and can be used as a textbook for a two-semester course on mathematical statistical mechanics. It assumes only basic knowledge of classical physics and, on the mathematics side, a good working knowledge of graduate-level probability theory. The book starts with a concise introduction to statistical mechanics, proceeds to disordered lattice spin systems, and concludes with a presentation of the latest developments in the mathematical understanding of mean-field spin glass models. In particular, recent progress towards a rigorous understanding of the replica symmetry-breaking solutions of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick spin glass models, due to Guerra, Aizenman-Sims-Starr and Talagrand, is reviewed in some detail. Comprehensive introduction to an active and fascinating area of research Clear exposition that builds to the state of the art in the mathematics of spin glasses Written by a well-known and active researcher in the field

  6. An experimental apparatus for diffraction-limites soft x-ray nanofocusing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merthe, Daniel; Goldberg, Kenneth; Yashchuk, Valeriy; Yuan, Sheng; McKinney, Wayne; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; Macdougall, James; Morrison, Gregory; Rakawa, Senajith; Anderson, Erik; Smith, Brian; Domning, Edward; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard

    2011-10-21

    Realizing the experimental potential of high-brightness, next generation synchrotron and free-electron laser light sources requires the development of reflecting x-ray optics capable of wavefront preservation and high-resolution nano-focusing. At the Advanced Light Source (ALS) beamline 5.3.1, we are developing broadly applicable, high-accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad slope measurement accuracy for diffraction-limited Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors. The at-wavelength methodology we are developing relies on a series of wavefront-sensing tests with increasing accuracy and sensitivity, including scanning-slit Hartmann tests, grating-based lateral shearing interferometry, and quantitative knife-edge testing. We describe the original experimental techniques and alignment methodology that have enabled us to optimally set a bendable KB mirror to achieve a focused, FWHM spot size of 150 nm, with 1 nm (1.24 keV) photons at 3.7 mrad numerical aperture. The predictions of wavefront measurement are confirmed by the knife-edge testing.The side-profiled elliptically bent mirror used in these one-dimensional focusing experiments was originally designed for a much different glancing angle and conjugate distances. This work demonstrates that high-accuracy, at-wavelength wavefront-slope feedback can be used to optimize the pitch, roll, and mirror-bending forces in situ, using procedures that are deterministic and repeatable.

  7. Capacity building toward evidence-based medicine among healthcare professionals at the university of medicine and pharmacy, ho chi minh city, and its related institutes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nga, LE Thi Quynh; Goto, Aya; Trung, Tran The; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Khue, Nguyen Thy

    2014-02-01

    Research capacity development enhances a country's ownership of activities aimed at strengthening its health system. In Vietnam, continuing medical education (CME) is attracting increasing attention with the establishment of legal and policy frameworks. During 2010-2013, the Japan International Cooperation Agency funded a research capacity building project targeting physicians in Ho Chi Minh City. The project had been developed in four previous courses that were conducted in collaboration with Fukushima Medical University and Ho Chi Minh City University of Medicine and Pharmacy (UMP). The project succeeded in obtaining accreditation as the city's CME course. A total of 262 physicians attended three courses that have a divided set of research competencies. Following the Kirkpatrick Model for evaluating the effectiveness of training programs, we confirmed the participants' positive reaction to the courses (Level 1 evaluation), their perceived increase in knowledge and confidence in research skills (Level 2 evaluation), and application of learned knowledge in their practice (Level 3 evaluation). Presented here is a step-by-step scaling-up model of health research capacity building. Strategies for the further expansion include: further capacity building of instructors; responding to clinicians' specific needs; building a recruiting system with authorization; and improving the Level 3 training evaluation.

  8. Fit for purpose? Evaluation of an MSc. in Medical Physics.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    van der Putten, W J

    2014-05-01

    The National University of Ireland in Galway established a Master in Science (MSc.) program in medical physics in 2002. The course was designed to be 90 ECTS(1) credits and of one calendar year duration. From the outset the MSc. was designed to be part of an overall medical physics training program. MSc. programs are now widely used as part of the training and education of medical physicists. There is however paucity of data on the effectiveness of such courses and the purpose of the study reported here is to provide information on one particular MSc. course in medical physics. This is relevant to medical physicists who are involved in the development and running of medical physics training programs. The study used as methodology the Kirkpatrick levels of professional training. It was conducted through an online survey, both from students who graduated from the course and from students who were in the process of completing the course. The survey proved to be an effective way to determine attributes of modules such as learning outcomes, knowledge imparted, quality of teaching materials and others. The survey proved to be remarkably able to demonstrate interventions in the individual course modules. Although the course was shown to be effective in the imparting of the knowledge required to become a qualified medical physicist several areas for improvement were identified. These are mainly in the areas of increased practical experience and in course delivery.

  9. Development and applications of coherent imaging with improved temporal and spatial resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mokso, Rajmund

    2006-01-01

    This work has 2 purposes: the improvement of both temporal and spatial resolution of X-ray tomography. The first part is devoted to the technical aspects of the tomographic technique, particularly at the ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility) beamline ID19, and the application of the new acquisition scheme to the imaging of liquid foams. We have improved the temporal resolution and field of view of the setup, which allowed to obtain for the first time experimental data with good statistics on three dimensional liquid foams. In the second part of the thesis we have described the Kirkpatrick-Baez focusing system and its first applications. In terms of stability and image quality the developments presented in this part of the thesis provide valuable evidence for the feasibility of phase contrast tomography in magnifying geometry. Since the ultimate goal of this research is to improve the spatial resolution in tomography for applications, four different contributions are important for the characterization of the imaging system: 1) the thermal stability and mechanical imperfections, 2) effects of distortion induced by mirror imperfections, 3) effects of refraction on sample borders, and 4) phase propagation effects with the influence of the magnification. Each of these factors has been studied

  10. Gender, gender roles, and anxiety: perceived confirmability of self report, behavioral avoidance, and physiological reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyanova, Milena; Hope, Debra A

    2012-01-01

    Despite the well-documented gender effect in anxiety, less is known about contributing factors to women's greater risk for anxiety and fears. The present study examined the relationship between gender, gender role orientation (i.e., expressivity/instrumentality) and fear of harmless insects (tarantula), using a multimodal approach of self-report measures, a Behavioral Approach Test (BAT), and physiological reactivity. Participants (144 college students; 67 women, 77 men) completed a questionnaire packet and then were instructed to approach a tarantula. We were unable to replicate Pierce and Kirkpatrick's (1992) findings that men underreport anxiety. Consistent with the literature, women in the study experienced greater anxiety and avoidance compared to men. However, men and women did not differ on physiological reactivity during the first 2 min of the BAT. The concordance across avoidance, anxiety and heart rate reactivity differed by gender, suggesting that men and women have different experiences when faced with a fearful object. Furthermore, instrumentality (masculinity) was negatively related to anticipatory anxiety for women but not for men. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H 2 S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  12. Simulations and experiments on vibration damping for zoom-holography and nano-scanning at the GINIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Markus; Luley, Peter; Sprung, Michael; Salditt, Tim

    2017-09-01

    The Göttingen Instrument for Nano-Imaging with X-ray (GINIX) is a holography endstation located at the P10 coherence beamline at PETRA III, designed and operated by the University of Göttingen in close collaboration with DESY Photon science Hamburg [1-2]. GINIX is designed as a waveguide based holography experiment with a Kirkpatrick-Baez nanofocus. Its versatility has stimulated a great manifold of imaging modalities. Today, users choose the GINIX setup not only for its few nm coherent waveguide beams (e.g. for ptychography or holography), but also to carry out scanning SAXS measurements to probe local anisotropies with sub-micron real-space and even higher reciprocal space resolution. In addition, it is possible to combine different detectors for e.g. simultaneous SAXS/WAXS and fluorescence measurements [3]. We summarise our ongoing efforts to reduce vibrations in the setup, and present latest experimental results obtained with GINIX, focusing on the unique capabilities offered by its versatile and flexible design. The overview includes results from different imaging schemes such as waveguide based zoom-tomography and user examples in WAXS geometry. We show how to correlate complementary techniques like holography and scanning SAXS and present first results obtained using a new fast sample scanner for Multilayer Zone Plate imaging..

  13. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  14. Conducting evaluations to determine training effectiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, J. Doug; Yoder, John A. Yoder

    2003-01-01

    Training organizations must answer the question: Is the training program adding value in terms of workforce productivity and safety? To answer this question, one needs to know what circumstances led to the development of training to determine how to measure the result of Gaining. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (ENEEL), under contract with the United States Department Of Energy (U.S. DOE), has conducted extensive research hi the area of training effectiveness. A comprehensive Training Performance Indicator Model has been developed, which has become the basis for a DRAFT document entitled Guidance for Conducting Evaluations to Determine Training Effectiveness'. The indicator Model includes the performance indicators, strategies, and methods for measuring training effectiveness. A common nomenclature is used throughout the DRAFT document to aid in using and understanding training effectiveness evaluations. The model incorporates elements of Dr. Donald L. Kirkpatrick's evaluation model, other models from industry leaders, and the findings of a benchmarking study involving both nuclear and non-nuclear industry professionals. This presentation communicates recent Department of Energy efforts in evaluating effectiveness of training, including valuable lessons learned. (author)

  15. Developing a framework for evaluating the impact of Healthcare Improvement Science Education across Europe: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Lillo-Crespo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose Frontline healthcare professionals are well positioned to improve the systems in which they work. Educational curricula, however, have not always equipped healthcare professionals with the skills or knowledge to implement and evaluate improvements. It is important to have a robust and standardized framework in order to evaluate the impact of such education in terms of improvement, both within and across European countries. The results of such evaluations will enhance the further development and delivery of healthcare improvement science (HIS education. We aimed to describe the development and piloting of a framework for prospectively evaluating the impact of HIS education and learning. Methods The evaluation framework was designed collaboratively and piloted in 7 European countries following a qualitative methodology. The present study used mixed methods to gather data from students and educators. The framework took the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation as a theoretical reference. Results The framework was found to be feasible and acceptable for use across differing European higher education contexts according to the pilot study and the participants’ consensus. It can be used effectively to evaluate and develop HIS education across European higher education institutions. Conclusion We offer a new evaluation framework to capture the impact of HIS education. The implementation of this tool has the potential to facilitate the continuous development of HIS education.

  16. The structure of alkali silicate gel by total scattering methods

    KAUST Repository

    Benmore, C.J.; Monteiro, Paulo J.M.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of the alkali silicate gel (ASR) collected from the galleries of Furnas Dam in Brazil was determined by a pair distribution function (PDF) analysis of high energy X-ray diffraction data. Since this method is relatively new to concrete structure analysis a detailed introduction on the PDF method is given for glassy SiO2. The bulk amorphous structure of the dam material is confirmed as no Bragg peaks are observed in the scattered intensity. The real space results show that the local structure of the amorphous material is similar to kanemite (KHSi2O5:3H2O) however the long range layer structure of the crystal is broken up in the amorphous state, so that ordering only persists of the length scale of a few polyhedra. The silicate layer structure is a much more disordered than predicted by molecular dynamics models. The X-ray results are consistent with the molecular dynamics model of Kirkpatrick et al. (2005) [1] which predicts that most of the water resides in pores within the amorphous network rather than in layers. The total scattering data provide a rigorous basis against which other models may also be tested. © 2010.

  17. Learning achievements of farmers during the transition to market-oriented organic agriculture in rural Uganda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Owamani

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture requires farmers with the ability to develop profitable agro-enterprises on their own. By drawing on four years of experiences with the Enabling Rural Innovation approach in Uganda, we outline how smallholder farmers transition to organic agriculture and, at the same time, increase their entrepreneurial skills and competences through learning. In order to document this learning we operationalised the Kirkpatrick learning evaluation model, which subsequently informed the collection of qualitative data in two study sites. Our analysis suggests that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach helps farmers to develop essential capabilities for identifying organic markets and new organic commodities, for testing these organic commodities under varying organic farm management scenarios, and for negotiating contracts with organic traders. We also observed several obstacles that confront farmers’ transition to organic agriculture when using the Enabling Rural Innovation approach. These include the long duration of agronomic experimentation and seed multiplication, expensive organic certification procedures and the absence of adequate mechanism for farmers to access crop finance services. Despite prevailing obstacles we conclude that the Enabling Rural Innovation approach provides a starting point for farmers to develop entrepreneurial competences and profitable agro-enterprises on their own.

  18. A pilot program of knowledge translation and implementation for newborn resuscitation using US Peace Corps Volunteers in rural Madagascar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Close, Kristin; Karel, Michele; White, Michelle

    2016-11-16

    Prevention of adverse perinatal outcome using the Helping Babies Breathe (HBB) neonatal resuscitation algorithm can reduce perinatal mortality in low income settings. Mercy Ships is a non-governmental organisation providing free healthcare education in sub-Saharan Africa and in an attempt to reach more rural areas of Madagascar with our neonatal resuscitation training we designed a novel approach in collaboration with US Peace Corps Volunteers (PCV). PCVs work in rural areas and contribute to locally determined public health initiatives. We used a model of knowledge translation and implementation to train non-medical PCVs in HBB who would then train rural healthcare workers. Bulb suction and a self-inflating bag were donated to each health centre. We evaluated knowledge translation and behaviour change at 4 months using the Kirkpatrick model of evaluation. Ten PCVs received training and then trained 42 healthcare workers in 10 rural health centres serving a combined population of over 1 million. Both PCVs and rural healthcare workers showed significant increases in knowledge and skills (p patient outcome. Our novel method of training, including the provision of essential equipment, may be another tool in the armamentarium of those seeking to disseminate good practice to the most rural areas.

  19. Elliptically Bent X-ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng; Church, Matthew; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Celestre, Rich; McKinney, Wayne R.; Kirschman, Jonathan; Morrison, Greg; Noll, Tino; Warwick, Tony; Padmore, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the Advanced Light Source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the surface slope changes by approximately 1.5 ?mu rad rms (primarily defocus) under the same conditions.

  20. Evaluation of a cross-cultural training program for Pakistani educators: Lessons learned and implications for program planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Rebecca; Woodland, Rebecca H

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, we share the results of a summative evaluation of PEILI, a US-based adult professional development/training program for secondary school Pakistani teachers. The evaluation was guided by the theories of cultural competence (American Psychological Association, 2003; Bamberger, 1999; Wadsworth, 2001) and established frameworks for the evaluation of professional development/training and instructional design (Bennett, 1975; Guskey, 2002; King, 2014; Kirkpatrick, 1967). The explicit and implicit stakeholder assumptions about the connections between program resources, activities, outputs, and outcomes are described. Participant knowledge and skills were measured via scores on a pre/posttest of professional knowledge, and a standards-based performance assessment rubric. In addition to measuring short-term program outcomes, we also sought to incorporate theory-driven thinking into the evaluation design. Hence, we examined participant self-efficacy and access to social capital, two evidenced-based determinants or "levers" that theoretically explain the transformative space between an intervention and its outcomes (Chen, 2012). Data about program determinants were collected and analyzed through a pre/posttest of self-efficacy and social network analysis. Key evaluation findings include participant acquisition of new instructional skills, increased self-efficacy, and the formation of a nascent professional support network. Lessons learned and implications for the design and evaluation of cross-cultural teacher professional development programs are discussed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Implementation and assessment of a training course for residents in neonatology and pediatric emergency medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brossier, D; Bellot, A; Villedieu, F; Fazilleau, L; Brouard, J; Guillois, B

    2017-05-01

    Residents must balance patient care and the ongoing acquisition of medical knowledge. With increasing clinical responsibilities and patient overload, medical training is often left aside. In 2010, we designed and implemented a training course in neonatology and pediatric emergency medicine for residents in pediatrics, in order to improve their medical education. The course was made of didactic sessions and several simulation-based seminars for each year of residency. We conducted this study to assess the impact of our program on residents' satisfaction and self-assessed clinical skills. A survey was conducted at the end of each seminar. The students were asked to complete a form on a five-point rating scale to evaluate the courses and their impact on their satisfaction and self-assessed clinical skills, following the French National Health Institute's adapted Kirkpatrick model. Sixty-four (84%) of the 76 residents who attended the courses completed the form. The mean satisfaction score for the entire course was 4.78±0.42. Over 80% of the students felt that their clinical skills had improved. Medical education is an important part of residency training. Our training course responded to the perceived needs of the students with consistently satisfactory evaluations. Before the evaluation of the impact of the course on patient care, further studies are needed to assess the acquisition of knowledge and skills through objective evaluations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Two birds with one stone: experiences of combining clinical and research training in addiction medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimas, J; McNeil, R; Ahamad, K; Mead, A; Rieb, L; Cullen, W; Wood, E; Small, W

    2017-01-23

    Despite a large evidence-base upon which to base clinical practice, most health systems have not combined the training of healthcare providers in addiction medicine and research. As such, addiction care is often lacking, or not based on evidence or best practices. We undertook a qualitative study to assess the experiences of physicians who completed a clinician-scientist training programme in addiction medicine within a hospital setting. We interviewed physicians from the St. Paul's Hospital Goldcorp Addiction Medicine Fellowship and learners from the hospital's academic Addiction Medicine Consult Team in Vancouver, Canada (N = 26). They included psychiatrists, internal medicine and family medicine physicians, faculty, mentors, medical students and residents. All received both addiction medicine and research training. Drawing on Kirkpatrick's model of evaluating training programmes, we analysed the interviews thematically using qualitative data analysis software (Nvivo 10). We identified five themes relating to learning experience that were influential: (i) attitude, (ii) knowledge, (iii) skill, (iv) behaviour and (v) patient outcome. The presence of a supportive learning environment, flexibility in time lines, highly structured rotations, and clear guidance regarding development of research products facilitated clinician-scientist training. Competing priorities, including clinical and family responsibilities, hindered training. Combined training in addiction medicine and research is feasible and acceptable for current doctors and physicians in training. However, there are important barriers to overcome and improved understanding of the experience of addiction physicians in the clinician-scientist track is required to improve curricula and research productivity.

  3. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems; Schwefel-K-Kanten-Absorptionsspektroskopie an ausgewaehlten biologischen Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-15

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H{sub 2}S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  4. Aesthetic evolution by mate choice: Darwin's really dangerous idea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prum, Richard O

    2012-08-19

    Darwin proposed an explicitly aesthetic theory of sexual selection in which he described mate preferences as a 'taste for the beautiful', an 'aesthetic capacity', etc. These statements were not merely colourful Victorian mannerisms, but explicit expressions of Darwin's hypothesis that mate preferences can evolve for arbitrarily attractive traits that do not provide any additional benefits to mate choice. In his critique of Darwin, A. R. Wallace proposed an entirely modern mechanism of mate preference evolution through the correlation of display traits with male vigour or viability, but he called this mechanism natural selection. Wallace's honest advertisement proposal was stridently anti-Darwinian and anti-aesthetic. Most modern sexual selection research relies on essentially the same Neo-Wallacean theory renamed as sexual selection. I define the process of aesthetic evolution as the evolution of a communication signal through sensory/cognitive evaluation, which is most elaborated through coevolution of the signal and its evaluation. Sensory evaluation includes the possibility that display traits do not encode information that is being assessed, but are merely preferred. A genuinely Darwinian, aesthetic theory of sexual selection requires the incorporation of the Lande-Kirkpatrick null model into sexual selection research, but also encompasses the possibility of sensory bias, good genes and direct benefits mechanisms.

  5. Critical and Griffiths-McCoy singularities in quantum Ising spin glasses on d -dimensional hypercubic lattices: A series expansion study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R. R. P.; Young, A. P.

    2017-08-01

    We study the ±J transverse-field Ising spin-glass model at zero temperature on d -dimensional hypercubic lattices and in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model, by series expansions around the strong-field limit. In the SK model and in high dimensions our calculated critical properties are in excellent agreement with the exact mean-field results, surprisingly even down to dimension d =6 , which is below the upper critical dimension of d =8 . In contrast, at lower dimensions we find a rich singular behavior consisting of critical and Griffiths-McCoy singularities. The divergence of the equal-time structure factor allows us to locate the critical coupling where the correlation length diverges, implying the onset of a thermodynamic phase transition. We find that the spin-glass susceptibility as well as various power moments of the local susceptibility become singular in the paramagnetic phase before the critical point. Griffiths-McCoy singularities are very strong in two dimensions but decrease rapidly as the dimension increases. We present evidence that high enough powers of the local susceptibility may become singular at the pure-system critical point.

  6. Religion, evolution, and mental health: attachment theory and ETAS theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flannelly, Kevin J; Galek, Kathleen

    2010-09-01

    This article reviews the historical origins of Attachment Theory and Evolutionary Threat Assessment Systems Theory (ETAS Theory), their evolutionary basis and their application in research on religion and mental health. Attachment Theory has been most commonly applied to religion and mental health in research on God as an attachment figure, which has shown that secure attachment to God is positively associated with psychological well-being. Its broader application to religion and mental health is comprehensively discussed by Kirkpatrick (2005). ETAS Theory explains why certain religious beliefs--including beliefs about God and life-after-death--should have an adverse association, an advantageous association, or no association at all with mental health. Moreover, it makes specific predictions to this effect, which have been confirmed, in part. The authors advocate the application of ETAS Theory in research on religion and mental health because it explains how religious and other beliefs related to the dangerousness of the world can directly affect psychiatric symptoms through their affects on specific brain structures.

  7. The Relationship between Styles of Attachment to God and Forgiveness and Empathy among Female Students in the City of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Rashidi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forgiveness and empathy are factors which are influential in improving the relationships between people, themselves can be affected by various factors in turn. The purpose of this research was to investigate the relationship between the styles of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy among female students in the city of Qom. 250 students were selected from the city of Qom by cluster sampling. Three questionnaires were used: styles of attachment to God by Kirkpatrick and Rowatt, emotional empathy by Mehrabian and Epstein and forgiveness inventory by Enzeit. Pearson correlation and Regression analysis were used for data analysis. The style of secure attachment to God had a significantly positive relationship with forgiveness and empathy. Furthermore, the style of avoidant attachment to God and the style of bilateral attachment to God had a significantly negative relationship with forgiveness. In addition, the standard coefficients of all three predictive variables (Secure attachment, bilateral and avoidant to God were all significant at p=0.05. Assessment and recognition of the style of attachment to God, the students and its relation with forgiveness and empathy can have valuable implications in providing the mental health of the students. Conclusion: The findings of this research show a connection between the style of attachment to God and forgiveness and empathy, indicate the clarification of attachment to God in students' forgiveness and empathy. Based on the findings, it can be suggested that the theory of attachment to God can be used in psychotherapy.

  8. Developing effective educational approaches for Liaison Old Age Psychiatry teams: a literature review of the learning needs of hospital staff in relation to managing the confused older patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodorczuk, Andrew; Welfare, Mark; Corbett, Sally; Mukaetova-Ladinska, Elizabeta

    2010-09-01

    Deficiencies in the knowledge, skills and attitudes of all healthcare professionals working within the general hospital contribute towards the suboptimal care of older hospitalized patients with confusion. In the U.K., policy dictates that Liaison Old Age Psychiatry teams deliver effective education to general hospital clinical staff. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature concerning the learning needs of healthcare professionals in relation to managing confusion in the older patient in order to inform effective educational approaches for Liaison Old Age Psychiatry teams. A broad range of medical and educational databases were searched. Identified English language studies were selected for further analysis if they had a specific educational focus in the hospital setting and then further subdivided into intervention and naturalistic studies. The impact of intervention studies was evaluated by Kirkpatrick's system. Learning needs, as determined from the naturalistic studies, were mapped to identify themes. 13 intervention studies were identified. Despite a high level of effectiveness for educational interventions, it was unclear what the active components were. A further 23 naturalistic studies were identified; their findings focused on knowledge gaps, diagnostic behaviors and experiences, attitudes and training issues. Few studies specifically researched learning needs or the educational role of liaison teams. Conspicuous by its absence was reference to relevant educational theories. The findings of this review can be incorporated in the planning of local curricula by Liaison Teams in order to design educational strategies. There is a need for further research, especially studies exploring the learning needs of all healthcare professionals.

  9. Developing medical educators--a mixed method evaluation of a teaching education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Marco; Kadmon, Martina; Kirschfink, Michael; Koch, Eginhard; Jünger, Jana; Strittmatter-Haubold, Veronika; Steiner, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    It is well accepted that medical faculty teaching staff require an understanding of educational theory and pedagogical methods for effective medical teaching. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-day teaching education program. An open prospective interventional study using quantitative and qualitative instruments was performed, covering all four levels of the Kirkpatrick model: Evaluation of 1) 'Reaction' on a professional and emotional level using standardized questionnaires; 2) 'Learning' applying a multiple choice test; 3) 'Behavior' by self-, peer-, and expert assessment of teaching sessions with semistructured interviews; and 4) 'Results' from student evaluations. Our data indicate the success of the educational intervention at all observed levels. 1) Reaction: The participants showed a high acceptance of the instructional content. 2) Learning: There was a significant increase in knowledge (Pteaching performance. Semistructured interviews reflected a higher level of professionalism in medical teaching by the participants. 4) Results: Teaching performance ratings improved in students' evaluations. Our results demonstrate the success of a 5-day education program in embedding knowledge and skills to improve performance of medical educators. This multimethodological approach, using both qualitative and quantitative measures, may serve as a model to evaluate effectiveness of comparable interventions in other settings.

  10. Focusing X-rays to a 1-{mu}m spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 {mu}m. This has been improved to 1 {mu}m through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples.

  11. Focusing X-rays to a 1-μm spot using elastically bent, graded multilayer coated mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.H.; Thompson, A.C.; Kortright, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    In the x-ray fluorescent microprobe at beamline 10.3.1, the ALS bending magnet source is demagnified by a factor of several hundred using a pair of mirrors arranged in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. These are coated with multilayers to increase reflectivity and limit the pass band of the x-rays striking the sample. The x-rays excite characteristic fluorescent x-rays of elements in the sample, which are analyzed by an energy dispersive Si-Li detector, for a sensitive assay of the elemental content. By scanning the focal spot the spatial distribution of the elements is determined; the spatial resolution depends on the size of this spot. When spherical mirrors are used, the spatial resolution is limited by aberrations to 5 or 10 μm. This has been improved to 1 μm through the use of an elliptical mirror formed by elastically bending a plane mirror of uniform width and thickness with the optimum combination of end couples

  12. The impact of a faculty development programme for health professions educators in sub-Saharan Africa: an archival study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frantz, José M; Bezuidenhout, Juanita; Burch, Vanessa C; Mthembu, Sindi; Rowe, Michael; Tan, Christina; Van Wyk, Jacqueline; Van Heerden, Ben

    2015-03-03

    In 2008 the sub-Saharan FAIMER Regional Institute launched a faculty development programme aimed at enhancing the academic and research capacity of health professions educators working in sub-Saharan Africa. This two-year programme, a combination of residential and distance learning activities, focuses on developing the leadership, project management and programme evaluation skills of participants as well as teaching the key principles of health professions education-curriculum design, teaching and learning and assessment. Participants also gain first-hand research experience by designing and conducting an education innovation project in their home institutions. This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of participants regarding the personal and professional impact of the SAFRI programme. A retrospective document review, which included data about fellows who completed the programme between 2008 and 2011, was performed. Data included fellows' descriptions of their expectations, reflections on achievements and information shared on an online discussion forum. Data were analysed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework. Participants (n=61) came from 10 African countries and included a wide range of health professions educators. Five key themes about the impact of the SAFRI programme were identified: (1) belonging to a community of practice, (2) personal development, (3) professional development, (4) capacity development, and (5) tools/strategies for project management and/or advancement. The SAFRI programme has a positive developmental impact on both participants and their respective institutions.

  13. Audiovisual preconditioning enhances the efficacy of an anatomical dissection course: A randomised study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Anne M; Quinlan, Christine S; Dolan, Roisin T; O'Neill, Shane P; Tierney, Paul; Cronin, Kevin J; Ridgway, Paul F

    2015-07-01

    The benefits of incorporating audiovisual materials into learning are well recognised. The outcome of integrating such a modality in to anatomical education has not been reported previously. The aim of this randomised study was to determine whether audiovisual preconditioning is a useful adjunct to learning at an upper limb dissection course. Prior to instruction participants completed a standardised pre course multiple-choice questionnaire (MCQ). The intervention group was subsequently shown a video with a pre-recorded commentary. Following initial dissection, both groups completed a second MCQ. The final MCQ was completed at the conclusion of the course. Statistical analysis confirmed a significant improvement in the performance in both groups over the duration of the three MCQs. The intervention group significantly outperformed their control group counterparts immediately following audiovisual preconditioning and in the post course MCQ. Audiovisual preconditioning is a practical and effective tool that should be incorporated in to future course curricula to optimise learning. Level of evidence This study appraises an intervention in medical education. Kirkpatrick Level 2b (modification of knowledge). Copyright © 2015 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Developing medical educators - a mixed method evaluation of a teaching education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Marco; Kadmon, Martina; Kirschfink, Michael; Koch, Eginhard; Jünger, Jana; Strittmatter-Haubold, Veronika; Steiner, Thorsten

    2014-01-01

    Background It is well accepted that medical faculty teaching staff require an understanding of educational theory and pedagogical methods for effective medical teaching. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a 5-day teaching education program. Methods An open prospective interventional study using quantitative and qualitative instruments was performed, covering all four levels of the Kirkpatrick model: Evaluation of 1) 'Reaction' on a professional and emotional level using standardized questionnaires; 2) 'Learning' applying a multiple choice test; 3) 'Behavior' by self-, peer-, and expert assessment of teaching sessions with semistructured interviews; and 4) 'Results' from student evaluations. Results Our data indicate the success of the educational intervention at all observed levels. 1) Reaction: The participants showed a high acceptance of the instructional content. 2) Learning: There was a significant increase in knowledge (Pteaching performance. Semistructured interviews reflected a higher level of professionalism in medical teaching by the participants. 4) Results: Teaching performance ratings improved in students' evaluations. Conclusions Our results demonstrate the success of a 5-day education program in embedding knowledge and skills to improve performance of medical educators. This multimethodological approach, using both qualitative and quantitative measures, may serve as a model to evaluate effectiveness of comparable interventions in other settings.

  15. Assessment of first-year medical students' perceptions of teaching and learning through team-based learning sessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obad, Adam S; Peeran, Ahmed A; Shareef, Mohammad Abrar; Alsheikh, Wissal J; Kalagi, Dana A; AlAmodi, Abdulhadi A; Khan, Tehreem A; Shaikh, Abdul Ahad; Ganguly, Paul; Yaqinuddin, Ahmed

    2016-12-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) is an emerging teaching and learning strategy being employed in medical schools. The College of Medicine at Alfaisal University has adopted a TBL approach as an instructional method for first-year medical students. The aim of the present study was to describe the TBL method employed at Alfaisal University College of Medicine and to assess first-year medical students' perceptions of this learning modality for the anatomy- and physiology-based blocks/courses in organ systems form of curriculum. A five-point Likert scale questionnaire was structured based on Kirkpatrick's theory and assessed three major domains: reaction, learning, and behavior. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and Cronbach's α-coefficient tests were used to assess the validity and reliability of the construct, respectively. CFA showed an adequate validity of the survey and Cronbach's α revealed an acceptable internal uniformity (0.69). A total of 185 respondents rated reaction, learning, and behavior toward introduction of TBL as 3.53 ± 1.01, 3.59 ± 1.12, and 3.57 ± 1.12, respectively. Excellent students rated TBL highly in all major domains compared with borderline students (reaction, behavior, and learning domains with P values of teaching and learning strategy for functional anatomy, and prior involvement in teamwork and academic performance correlates with higher ratings of TBL. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  16. Deployment of an in-house designed training process in a quaternary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ajit; Bhatia, Saurabh; Chiang, I-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare providers, such as doctors and nurses, have been famous for high resistance to change. A careful change management plan, particularly training process, is utmost necessary. A quaternary care hospital in India changed its system, from manual to Electronic Medical Record/Health Information System (EMR/HIS). The hospital management wanted to train its 4000 diverse end-users on the EMR/HIS in two months' time. This paper describes an in-house designed training process and its deployment in the given healthcare organizational settings. We designed a training process named DRIPDA. The training process was deployed to train 4000 end-users of EMR/HIS, in the quaternary care hospital. Various factors, such as methods and tools of training, constraints of trainees, trainers, and organization were considered while deploying the training process. The effectiveness of the DRIPDA was assessed using the Kirkpatrick model. End-users received training on the new system only in 25% of estimated time and 28% of the projected expense, without having any distraction in their usual workflow, or any productivity loss. We found that the DRIPDA training process could train all employees effectively and efficiently. A decent training process can help in managing the change, thereby reduce the training time and cost.

  17. What Do Managers Really Want?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haberstok, J.K.

    1997-01-01

    Fluor Daniel Hanford, Inc. (FDH) is the Management Contractor for the Project Hanford Management Contract for the Department of Energy - Richland Operations Office. The Central Training Organization within FDH provides cross-cutting training services for its own personnel as well as for six subcontractors and six enterprise companies performing project work across the 560 square miles of the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. Manager Safety Training has been presented by the Environmental, Safety and Health Training (ES and HT) team to managers, supervisors, team leads, and other personnel across the Hanford Site for over four years. The training is intended to heighten the awareness of management toward both identified (via accident/injury reports) and potential safety issues and concerns. Managers need to be aware of their responsibilities and to know where to go/who to contact (for example, company manuals or facility safety representatives) for additional information. At the conclusion of each training session, students are asked to complete a Level I evaluation (Kirkpatrick Model, see sidebar) and this feedback is reviewed by the instructors Commonly, revisions to the course content and presentation format are made solely by the ES and HT instructors and their manager each year

  18. ASSESSING THE SO CALLED MARKED INFLECTIONAL FEATURES OF NIGERIAN ENGLISH: A SECOND LANGUAGE ACQUISITION THEORY ACCOUNT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boluwaji Oshodi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There are conflicting claims among scholars on whether the structural outputs of the types of English spoken in countries where English is used as a second language gives such speech forms the status of varieties of English. This study examined those morphological features considered to be marked features of the variety spoken in Nigeria according to Kirkpatrick (2011 and the variety spoken in Malaysia by considering the claims of the Missing Surface Inflection Hypothesis (MSIH a Second Language Acquisition theory which accounts for the cause of the variable use of such inflections among L2 learners. Results from oral and written composition tasks administered on selected undergraduate students of Nigerian and Malaysian universities revealed that what is regarded as morphological features are actually a deviation from the L2 target forms. According to the MSIH the variability in the use of such inflections is due to problems of lexical retrieval a psycholinguistic problem which manifests among L2 learners of English generally which results in wrong surface representations.

  19. Microtexture of Strain in electroplated copper interconnects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spolenak, R.; Barr, D.L.; Gross, M.E.; Evans-Lutterodt, K.; Brown, W.L.; Tamura, N.; MacDowell, A.A.; Celestre, R.S.; Padmore, H.A.; Valek, B.C.; Bravman, J.C.; Flinn, P.; Marieb, T.; Keller, R.R.; Batterman, B.W.; Patel, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The microstructure of narrow metal conductors in the electrical interconnections on IC chips has often been identified as of major importance in the reliability of these devices. The stresses and stress gradients that develop in the conductors as a result of thermal expansion differences in the materials and of electromigration at high current densities are believed to be strongly dependent on the details of the grain structure. The present work discusses new techniques based on microbeam x-ray diffraction (MBXRD) that have enabled measurement not only of the microstructure of totally encapsulated conductors but also of the local stresses in them on a micron and submicron scale. White x-rays from the Advanced Light Source were focused to a micron spot size by Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors. The sample was stepped under the micro-beam and Laue images obtained at each sample location using a CCD area detector. Microstructure and local strain were deduced from these images. Cu lines with widths ranging from 0.8 mm to 5 mm and thickness of 1 mm were investigated. Comparisons are made between the capabilities of MBXRD and the well established techniques of broad beam XRD, electron back scatter diffraction (EBSD) and focused ion beam imagining (FIB)

  20. High resolution microdiffraction studies using synchrotron radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spolenak, R.; Tamura, N.; Valek, B. C.; MacDowell, A. A.; Celestre, R. S.; Padmore, H. A.; Brown, W. L.; Marieb, T.; Batterman, B. W.; Patel, J. R.

    2002-04-01

    The advent of third generation synchrotron light sources in combination with x-ray focusing devices such as Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors make Laue diffraction on a submicron length scale possible. Analysis of Laue images enables us to determine the deviatoric part of the 3D strain tensor to an accuracy of 2×10-4 in strain with a spatial resolution comparable to the grain size in our thin films. In this paper the application of x-ray microdiffraction to the temperature dependence of the mechanical behavior of a sputtered blanket Cu film and of electroplated damascene Cu lines will be presented. Microdiffraction reveals very large variations in the strain of a film or line from grain to grain. When the strain is averaged over a macroscopic region the results are in good agreement with direct macroscopic stress measurements. However, the strain variations are so large that in some cases in which the average stress is tensile there are some grains actually under compression. The full implications of these observations are still being considered, but it is clear that the mechanical properties of thin film materials are now accessible with new visibility.

  1. High-energy x-ray microscopy with multilayer reflectors (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, J.H.

    1986-01-01

    A knowledge of the spatial distribution of the x rays emitted by the hot plasma region is a key element in the study of the physical processes occurring in laser-produced plasmas and complements other diagnostics such as spectroscopy and temporal studies. X-ray microscopy with reflection microscopes offers the most direct means of obtaining this information. Until recently, the two types of microscopes that had been developed for this purpose, the Kirkpatrick--Baez and the Wolter, operated at relatively low energies (about 4--5 keV) and had very little spectral selectivity, relying on filters for coarse spectral resolution. With the development of x-ray reflecting multilayer mirrors, the energy response of such microscopes can be extended to 10 keV or higher, with good spectral selectivity. In addition, it is possible to reduce some of the optical aberrations to obtain improved spatial resolution. This paper describes some of the recent progress in making and evaluating x-ray reflectors, and outlines the optical design considerations for multilayer-coated microscopes. Results from a prototype multilayer K--B microscope are presented

  2. Becoming a Mentor: The Impact of Training and the Experience of Mentoring University Students on the Autism Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Josette; Stevens, Gillian; Girdler, Sonya

    2016-01-01

    While it is widely recognised that the number of young adults diagnosed with Autism Spectrum Disoders (ASD) is increasing, there is currently limited understanding of effective support for the transition to adulthood. One approach gaining increasing attention in the university sector is specialised peer mentoring. The aim of this inductive study was to understand the impact of peer mentor training on seven student mentors working with university students with an ASD. Kirkpatrick's model framed a mixed methods evaluation of the mentors' training and description of their experience. Overall, the training was well received by the mentors, who reported on average a 29% increase in their ASD knowledge following the training. Results from the semi-structured interviews conducted three months after the training, found that mentors felt that the general ASD knowledge they gained as part of their training had been essential to their role. The mentors described how their overall experience had been positive and reported that the training and support provided to them was pivotal to their ability to succeed in as peer mentors to students with ASD. This study provides feedback in support of specialist peer-mentoring programs for university students and can inform recommendations for future programs and research.

  3. A systematic review of leadership training for medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Oscar; Su'a, Bruce; Locke, Michelle; Hill, Andrew

    2018-01-19

    Leadership is increasingly being recognised as an essential requirement for doctors. Many medical schools are in the process of developing formal leadership training programmes, but it remains to be elucidated what characteristics make such programmes effective, and to what extent current programmes are effective, beyond merely positive learner reactions. This review's objective was to investigate the effectiveness of undergraduate medical leadership curricula and to explore common features of effective curricula. A systematic literature search was conducted. Articles describing and evaluating undergraduate medical leadership curricula were included. Outcomes were stratified and analysed according to a modified Kirkpatrick's model for evaluating educational outcomes. Eleven studies met inclusion criteria. Leadership curricula evaluated were markedly heterogeneous in their duration and composition. The majority of studies utilised pre- and post- intervention questionnaires for evaluation. Two studies described randomised controlled trials with objective measures. Outcomes were broadly positive. Only one study reported neutral outcomes. A wide range of leadership curricula have shown subjective effectiveness, including short interventions. There is limited objective evidence however, and few studies have measured effectiveness at the system and patient levels. Further research is needed investigating objective and downstream outcomes, and use of standard frameworks for evaluation will facilitate effective comparison of initiatives.

  4. Measuring movement towards improved emergency obstetric care in rural Kenya with implementation of the PRONTO simulation and team training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dettinger, Julia C; Kamau, Stephen; Calkins, Kimberly; Cohen, Susanna R; Cranmer, John; Kibore, Minnie; Gachuno, Onesmus; Walker, Dilys

    2018-02-01

    As the proportion of facility-based births increases, so does the need to ensure that mothers and their newborns receive quality care. Developing facility-oriented obstetric and neonatal training programs grounded in principles of teamwork utilizing simulation-based training for emergency response is an important strategy for improving the quality care. This study uses 3 dimensions of the Kirkpatrick Model to measure the impact of PRONTO International (PRONTO) simulation-based training as part of the Linda Afya ya Mama na Mtoto (LAMMP, Protect the Health of mother and child) in Kenya. Changes in knowledge of obstetric and neonatal emergency response, self-efficacy, and teamwork were analyzed using longitudinal, fixed-effects, linear regression models. Participants from 26 facilities participated in the training between 2013 and 2014. The results demonstrate improvements in knowledge, self-efficacy, and teamwork self-assessment. When comparing pre-Module I scores with post-training scores, improvements range from 9 to 24 percentage points (p values strategic goals was high: 95.8% of the 192 strategic goals. Participants rated the PRONTO intervention as extremely useful, with an overall score of 1.4 out of 5 (1, extremely useful; 5, not at all useful). Evaluation of how these improvements affect maternal and perinatal clinical outcomes is forthcoming. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. X-ray optics for scanning fluorescence microscopy and other applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryon, R.W.; Warburton, W.K.

    1992-05-01

    Scanning x-ray fluorescence microscopy is analogous to scanning electron microscopy. Maps of chemical element distribution are produced by scanning with a very small x-ray beam. Goal is to perform such scanning microscopy with resolution in the range of <1 to 10 μm, using standard laboratory x-ray tubes. We are investigating mirror optics in the Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) configuration. K-B optics uses two curved mirrors mounted orthogonally along the optical axis. The first mirror provides vertical focus, the second mirror provides horizontal focus. We have used two types of mirrors: synthetic multilayers and crystals. Multilayer mirrors are used with lower energy radiation such as Cu Kα. At higher energies such as Ag Kα, silicon wafers are used in order to increase the incidence angles and thereby the photon collection efficiency. In order to increase the surface area of multilayers which reflects x-rays at the Bragg angle, we have designed mirrors with the spacing between layers graded along the optic axis in order to compensate for the changing angle of incidence. Likewise, to achieve a large reflecting surface with silicon, the wafers are placed on a specially designed lever arm which is bent into a log spiral by applying force at one end. In this way, the same diffracting angle is maintained over the entire surface of the wafer, providing a large solid angle for photon collection

  6. Determinación preliminar de normas e interacciones nutrimentales en chile ancho (Capsicum annuum L en la Comarca Lagunera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa I. Ramírez-Chávez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available El Algoritmo de Recocido Simulado, cristalización simulada o enfriamiento simulado, es un algoritmo de búsqueda metaheurística para problemas de optimización; el objetivo general de este tipo de algoritmos es encontrar una buena aproximación al valor óptimo de una función en un espacio de búsqueda grande. A este valor se lo denomina "óptimo local u óptimo global". El nombre e inspiración viene del proceso de recocido del acero y cerámicas, una técnica que consiste en calentar y luego enfriar lentamente el material para variar sus propiedades físicas. El calor causa que los átomos aumenten su energía y que puedan así desplazarse de sus posiciones iniciales (un mínimo local de energía; el enfriamiento lento les da mayores probabilidades de recristalizar en configuraciones con menor energía que la inicial (mínimo global. El método fue descrito independientemente por Scott Kirkpatrick, C. Daniel Gelatt y Mario P. Vecchi en 1983.

  7. A systematic review of serious games in asthma education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drummond, David; Monnier, Delphine; Tesnière, Antoine; Hadchouel, Alice

    2017-05-01

    Serious games may be useful tools for asthma education. The objectives of this systematic review were to identify the available articles on serious games designed to educate patients and the general public about asthma and to assess their impact on patient's knowledge, behavior, and clinical outcomes related to asthma. PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, PsychInfo, and Web of Science were systematically searched from January 1980 to December 2015 for studies investigating serious games in asthma education. Two investigators independently assessed studies against inclusion criteria and rated those included on indicators of quality. Investigators extracted data on serious games' content and learning objectives, and on outcomes following Kirkpatrick classification. A total of 12 articles were found to be relevant, describing a total of 10 serious games. All serious games were directed toward children, with eight games for children with asthma and two for school-based intervention. The average Medical Education Research Study Quality Instrument score was 13.9 of 18, which is high. Most of the serious games were associated with high rates of satisfaction and improvement in children's knowledge. Seven studies evaluated the impact of serious games on clinical outcomes and found no significant difference relative to control groups. Although serious games designed for asthma education have evolved with advances in technology, results of their evaluation remained similar across studies, with clear improvements in knowledge but little or no change in behaviors and clinical outcomes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Core Professionalism Education in Surgery: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akile Sarıoğlu Büke

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Professionalism education is one of the major elements of surgical residency education. Aims: To evaluate the studies on core professionalism education programs in surgical professionalism education. Study Design: Systematic review. Methods: This systematic literature review was performed to analyze core professionalism programs for surgical residency education published in English with at least three of the following features: program developmental model/instructional design method, aims and competencies, methods of teaching, methods of assessment, and program evaluation model or method. A total of 27083 articles were retrieved using EBSCOHOST, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and manual search. Results: Eight articles met the selection criteria. The instructional design method was presented in only one article, which described the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation model. Six articles were based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education criterion, although there was significant variability in content. The most common teaching method was role modeling with scenario- and case-based learning. A wide range of assessment methods for evaluating professionalism education were reported. The Kirkpatrick model was reported in one article as a method for program evaluation. Conclusion: It is suggested that for a core surgical professionalism education program, developmental/instructional design model, aims and competencies, content, teaching methods, assessment methods, and program evaluation methods/models should be well defined, and the content should be comparable.

  9. Core Professionalism Education in Surgery: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarıoğlu Büke, Akile; Karabilgin Öztürkçü, Özlem Sürel; Yılmaz, Yusuf; Sayek, İskender

    2018-03-15

    Professionalism education is one of the major elements of surgical residency education. To evaluate the studies on core professionalism education programs in surgical professionalism education. Systematic review. This systematic literature review was performed to analyze core professionalism programs for surgical residency education published in English with at least three of the following features: program developmental model/instructional design method, aims and competencies, methods of teaching, methods of assessment, and program evaluation model or method. A total of 27083 articles were retrieved using EBSCOHOST, PubMed, Science Direct, Web of Science, and manual search. Eight articles met the selection criteria. The instructional design method was presented in only one article, which described the Analysis, Design, Development, Implementation, and Evaluation model. Six articles were based on the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education criterion, although there was significant variability in content. The most common teaching method was role modeling with scenario- and case-based learning. A wide range of assessment methods for evaluating professionalism education were reported. The Kirkpatrick model was reported in one article as a method for program evaluation. It is suggested that for a core surgical professionalism education program, developmental/instructional design model, aims and competencies, content, teaching methods, assessment methods, and program evaluation methods/models should be well defined, and the content should be comparable.

  10. Spin Glasses : Statics and Dynamics : Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, Anton

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, spin glass theory has turned from a fascinating part of t- oretical physics to a ?ourishing and rapidly growing subject of probability theory as well. These developments have been triggered to a large part by the mathem- ical understanding gained on the fascinating and previously mysterious “Parisi solution” of the Sherrington–Kirkpatrick mean ?eld model of spin glasses, due to the work of Guerra, Talagrand, and others. At the same time, new aspects and applications of the methods developed there have come up. The presentvolumecollects a number of reviewsaswellas shorterarticlesby lecturers at a summer school on spin glasses that was held in July 2007 in Paris. These articles range from pedagogical introductions to state of the art papers, covering the latest developments. In their whole, they give a nice overview on the current state of the ?eld from the mathematical side. The review by Bovier and Kurkova gives a concise introduction to mean ?eld models, starting with the Curie–...

  11. At-wavelength Optical Metrology Development at the ALS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, Sheng Sam; Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Yashchuk, Valeriy V.; Celestre, Richard; Mochi, Iacopo; Macdougall, James; Morrison, Gregory Y.; Smith, Brian V.; Domning, Edward E.; McKinney, Wayne R.; Warwick, Tony

    2010-01-01

    Nano-focusing and brightness preservation for ever brighter synchrotron radiation and free electron laser beamlines require surface slope tolerances of x-ray optics on the order of 100 nrad. While the accuracy of fabrication and ex situ metrology of x-ray mirrors has improved over time, beamline in situ performance of the optics is often limited by application specific factors such as x-ray beam heat loading, temperature drift, alignment, vibration, etc. In the present work, we discuss the recent results from the Advanced Light Source developing high accuracy, in situ, at-wavelength wavefront measurement techniques to surpass 100-nrad accuracy surface slope measurements with reflecting x-ray optics. The techniques will ultimately allow closed-loop feedback systems to be implemented for x-ray nano-focusing. In addition, we present a dedicated metrology beamline endstation, applicable to a wide range of in situ metrology and test experiments. The design and performance of a bendable Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirror with active temperature stabilization will also be presented. The mirror is currently used to study, refine, and optimize in situ mirror alignment, bending and metrology methods essential for nano-focusing application.

  12. Incorporating technical analysis in undergraduate curricula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael R. Melton

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to introduce instruction of technical analysis on the undergraduate level that can coincide with traditional teachings of fundamental analysis. Design/methodology/approach – Through examples using the latest in security analysis technology, this paper illustrates the importance of technical security analysis. Findings – This research illustrates how technical analysis techniques may be used to make more significant investment decisions. Originality/value – Kirkpatrick and Dahlquist define technical analysis as a security analysis discipline for forecasting future direction of prices through the study of past market data primarily price and volume This form of analysis has stood in direct contrast to the fundamental analysis approach whereby actual facts of the company its industry and sector may be ignored. Understanding this contrast, much of academia has chosen to continue to focus its finance curricula on fundamental analysis techniques. As more universities implement trading rooms to reflect that of industry, they must recognize that any large brokerage trading group or financial institution will typically have both a technical analysis and fundamental analysis team. Thus, the need to incorporate technical analysis into undergraduate finance curricula.

  13. A high-energy x-ray microscope for inertial confinement fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F.J.; Bennett, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    We have developed a microscope capable of imaging x-ray emission from inertial confinement fusion targets in the range of 7 - 9 keV. Imaging is accomplished with a Kirkpatrick-Baez type, four-image microscope coated with a WB 4 C multilayer having a 2d period of 140 Angstrom. This microscope design (a standard used on the University of Rochester close-quote s OMEGA laser system) is capable of 5 μm resolution over a region large enough to image an imploded target (∼400 μm). This design is capable of being extended to ∼40 keV if state-of-the-art, short-spacing, multilayer coatings are used (∼25 Angstrom), and has been configured to obtain 3 μm resolution with the appropriate choice of mirror size. As such, this type of microscope could serve as a platform for multiframe, hard x-ray imaging on the National Ignition Facility. Characterization of the microscope and laboratory measurements of the energy response made with a cw x-ray source will be shown. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics

  14. Faculty professional development in emergent pedagogies for instructional innovation in dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, M; Bender, D; Nadershahi, N

    2017-05-01

    Innovative pedagogies have significantly impacted health professions' education, dental education included. In this context, faculty, defined in this study as instructor in higher education, has been increasingly required to hone their instructional skills. The purpose of this exploratory study was to share the design, implementation and preliminary outcomes of two programmes to enhance dental faculty's instructional skills, the Teaching and Learning Seminar Series and the Course Director Orientation. Data sources included faculty and student surveys developed and administered by the researchers; data extracted from the learning management system; reports from the learning analytics tool; and classroom observations. Participants' satisfaction, self-reported learning, instructional behavioural change, and impact on student learning behaviours and institutional practice were assessed borrowing from Kirkpatrick's 4-level model of evaluation of professional development effectiveness. Initial findings showed that faculty in both programmes reported positive learning experiences. Participants reported that the programmes motivated them to improve instructional practice and improved their knowledge of instructional innovation. Some faculty reported implementation of new instructional strategies and tools, which helped create an active and interactive learning environment that was welcomed by their students. The study contributes to literature and best practice in health sciences faculty development in pedagogy and may guide other dental schools in designing professional development programmes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. LUCIA - a new 1-7 keV μ-XAS Beamline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janousch, M.; Schmidt, Th.; Wetter, R.; Grolimund, G.; Scheidegger, A.M.; Flank, A.-M.; Lagarde, P.; Cauchon, G.; Bac, S.; Dubuisson, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    LURE-SOLEIL (France) and the Swiss Light Source (SLS) are building together a new micro focused beamline for micro x-ray absorption spectroscopy and micro imaging. This line is designed to deliver a photon flux of the order of 1012 ph/sec on a 1 x 1 μm spot within the energy domain of 0.8 to 7 keV. This beam line is being installed on the X07M straight section of SLS. The source is an APPLE II undulator with a period of 54 mm. The main advantage of this device lies in the delivery of any degree of polarization, linear or circular, over the whole energy range, without the need of a sample-position change. The monochromator will be a fixed exit double crystal equipped with 5 sets of crystals, thanks to the very narrow photon beam from the undulator ( Beryl, KTP, YB66, InSb(111), Si(111) ). The optics includes a first horizontal focusing mirror (spherical), which produces an intermediate source for the horizontal mirror of a Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) system. The vertical mirror of the KB directly images the source. Finally, a low-pass double mirror filter insures a proper harmonic rejection

  16. Design optimization of ultra-precise elliptical mirrors for hard x-ray nanofocusing at Nanoscopium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kewish, Cameron M.; Polack, François; Signorato, Riccardo; Somogyi, Andrea

    2013-09-01

    The design and implementation of a pair of 100 mm-long grazing-incidence total-reflection mirrors for the hard X-ray beamline Nanoscopium at Synchrotron Soleil is presented. A vertically and horizontally nanofocusing mirror pair, oriented in Kirkpatrick-Baez geometry, has been designed and fabricated with the aim of creating a diffraction-limited high-intensity 5 - 20 keV beam with a focal spot size as small as 50 nm. We describe the design considerations, including wave-optical calculations of figures-of-merit that are relevant for spectromicroscopy, such as the focal spot size, depth of field and integrated intensity. The mechanical positioning tolerance in the pitch angle that is required to avoid introducing high-intensity features in the neighborhood of the focal spot is demonstrated with simulations to be of the order of microradians, becoming tighter for shorter focal lengths and therefore directly affecting all nanoprobe mirror systems. Metrology results for the completed mirrors are presented, showing that better than 1.5 °A-rms figure error has been achieved over the full mirror lengths with respect to the designed elliptical surfaces, with less than 60 nrad-rms slope errors.

  17. The Scanning Nanoprobe Beamline Nanoscopium at Synchrotron Soleil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, A.; Kewish, C. M.; Polack, F.; Moreno, T.

    2011-09-01

    The Nanoscopium beamline at Synchrotron Soleil will offer advanced scanning-based hard x-ray imaging techniques in the 5- to 20-keV energy range, for user communities working in the earth, environmental, and life sciences. Two dedicated end stations will exploit x-ray coherence to produce images in which contrast is based on a range of physical processes. In the first experiment hutch, coherent scatter imaging techniques will produce images in which contrast arises from spatial variations in the complex refractive index, and orientation in the nanostructure of samples. In the second experiment hutch, elemental mapping will be carried out at the trace (ppm) level by scanning x-ray fluorescence, speciation mapping by XANES, and phase gradient mapping by scanning differential phase contrast imaging. The beamline aims to reach sub-micrometric, down to 30 nm, spatial resolution. This ˜155-meter-long beamline will share the straight section with a future tomography beamline by using canted undulators having 6.5-mrad separation angle. The optical design of Nanoscopium aims to reduce the effect of instabilities on the probing nanobeam by utilizing an all-horizontal geometry for the reflections of the primary beamline mirrors, which focus onto a slit, creating an over-filled secondary source. Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors and Fresnel zone plates will be used as focusing devices in the experiment hutches. Nanoscopium is expected to commence user operation in 2013.

  18. Elliptically Bent X-Ray Mirrors with Active Temperature Stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan, S.; Church, M.; Yashchuk, V.V.; Celestre, R.S.; McKinney, W.R.; Morrison, G.; Warwick, T.; Padmore, H.A.; Goldberg, K.A.; Kirschman, J.; Noll, T.

    2010-01-01

    We present details of design of elliptically bent Kirkpatrick-Baez mirrors developed and successfully used at the advanced light source for submicron focusing. A distinctive feature of the mirror design is an active temperature stabilization based on a Peltier element attached directly to the mirror body. The design and materials have been carefully optimized to provide high heat conductance between the mirror body and substrate. We describe the experimental procedures used when assembling and precisely shaping the mirrors, with special attention paid to laboratory testing of the mirror-temperature stabilization. For this purpose, the temperature dependence of the surface slope profile of a specially fabricated test mirror placed inside a temperature-controlled container was measured. We demonstrate that with active mirror-temperature stabilization, a change of the surrounding temperature by more than 3 K does not noticeably affect the mirror figure. Without temperature stabilization, the rms slope error is changed by approximately 1.5 μrad (primarily defocus) under the same conditions

  19. Configuring and Characterizing X-Rays for Laser-Driven Compression Experiments at the Dynamic Compression Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.; Capatina, D.; D'Amico, K.; Eng, P.; Hawreliak, J.; Graber, T.; Rickerson, D.; Klug, J.; Rigg, P. A.; Gupta, Y. M.

    2017-06-01

    Coupling laser-driven compression experiments to the x-ray beam at the Dynamic Compression Sector (DCS) at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) of Argonne National Laboratory requires state-of-the-art x-ray focusing, pulse isolation, and diagnostics capabilities. The 100J UV pulsed laser system can be fired once every 20 minutes so precise alignment and focusing of the x-rays on each new sample must be fast and reproducible. Multiple Kirkpatrick-Baez (KB) mirrors are used to achieve a focal spot size as small as 50 μm at the target, while the strategic placement of scintillating screens, cameras, and detectors allows for fast diagnosis of the beam shape, intensity, and alignment of the sample to the x-ray beam. In addition, a series of x-ray choppers and shutters are used to ensure that the sample is exposed to only a single x-ray pulse ( 80ps) during the dynamic compression event and require highly precise synchronization. Details of the technical requirements, layout, and performance of these instruments will be presented. Work supported by DOE/NNSA.

  20. Nanotomography endstation at the P05 beamline: Status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greving, I.; Ogurreck, M.; Marschall, F.; Last, A.; Wilde, F.; Dose, T.; Burmester, H.; Lottermoser, L.; Müller, M.; David, C.; Beckmann, F.

    2017-06-01

    The Imaging Beamline IBL/P05 at the DESY storage ring PETRA III, operated by the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, has two dedicated endstations optimized for micro- and nanotomography experiments [1-3]. Here we present the status of the nanotomography endstation, highlight the latest instrumentation upgrades and present first experimental results. In particular in materials science, where structures with ceramics or metallic materials are of interest, X-ray energies of 15 keV and above are required even for sample sizes of several 10 μm in diameter. The P05 imaging beamline is dedicated to materials science and is designed to allow for imaging applications with X-ray energies of 10 to 50 keV. In addition to the full field X-ray microscopy setup, the layout of the nanotomography endstation allows switching to cone-beam configuration. Kinematics for X-ray optics like compound refractive lenses (CRLs), Fresnel zone plates (FZP) or beam-shaping optics are implemented and the installation of a Kirkpatrick Baez-mirror (KB mirror) system is foreseen at a later stage of the beamline development. Altogether this leads to a high flexibility of the nanotomography setup such that the instrument can be tailored to the specific experimental requirements of a range of sample systems.

  1. A taxonomic monograph of the genus Dodomeira Bellò & Baviera,  a new genus of Peritelini from Sicily (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Entiminae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bello, Cesare; Osella, Giuseppe; Baviera, Cosimo

    2017-10-13

    The genus Dodomeira Bellò & Baviera gen. n. of the tribe Peritelini Lacordaire (1863) (Curculionidae: Entiminae) which includes 39 species is described. Seven species are transferred from Pseudomeira Stierlin, 1881: Dodomeira confusa (Pierotti, 2012) comb. n., Dodomeira exigua (Stierlin, 1861) comb. n., Dodomeira ficuzzensis (Bellò & Baviera, 2011) comb. n., Dodomeira himerensis (Bellò & Baviera, 2011) comb. n., Dodomeira petrensis (Bellò & Baviera, 2011) comb. n., Dodomeira pfisteri (Stierlin, 1864) comb. n., Dodomeira trinacriae (Bellò & Baviera, 2011) comb. n.. Thirty-two species are new for science and here described: Dodomeira adrianae Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira alta Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira angelae Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira asinelliensis Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira belicensis Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira bertoni Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira calatina Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira caoduroi Bellò & Baviera sp. n. n., Dodomeira elima Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira enzoi Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira fossor Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira forbicionii Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira genistae Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira giustoi Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira hiemalis Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira ibleiensis Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira illuminatae Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira juliae Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira laliaensis Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira magrinii Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira montivaga Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira margheritae Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira maritimaensis Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira nobilis Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira paladinii Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira sabellai Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira saccoi Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira sicana Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira sicelidis Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira siderea Bellò & Baviera sp. n., Dodomeira silvanae Bellò & Baviera

  2. Laboratory Assessment on Virulence of Nomuraea rileyi against Noctuid Larvae%莱氏野村菌对夜蛾科害虫防治潜力的室内评测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周立峰; 于士军; 刘元兵; 王滨

    2012-01-01

    本文用喷雾法测定了5株莱氏野村菌Nomuraea rileyi对棉铃虫Helicoverpa armigera、甜菜夜蛾Spodoptera exigua和斜纹夜蛾Spodoptera litura 3种夜蛾科害虫的致病力。配制孢子悬浮液对3种夜蛾科害虫进行雾化接种,孢子附着量为188.9~4048.3孢子.mm 2。接种后幼虫置于(24±1)℃和12L∶12D条件下人工饲料饲养,每天观察直至化蛹。时间-剂量-死亡率模型分析显示:5株莱氏野村菌菌株接种量为188.9~4048.3孢子.mm 2时,斜纹夜蛾第10 d的侵染率为60%~95%;菌株Nr15对斜纹夜蛾显示出极高的毒力水平(LC50=266.7孢子.mm 2,4048.3孢子.mm 2浓度下的LT50=5.81 d),第10 d的侵染率达95%。供试菌株对棉铃虫和甜菜夜蛾的致病力相对较弱,侵染率均不足50%。研究表明,莱氏野村菌菌株对夜蛾科害虫体现出明显的寄主专化性,且有明显的量效关系。%In the current study,a laboratory bioassay was developed to measure the pathogenicities of five Nomuraea rileyi strains against Helicoverpa armigera,Spodoptera exigua and Spodoptera litura of noctuid larvae.The larvae were inoculated with conidia suspensions of N.rileyi at concentrations of 188.9 4048.3 conidia.mm 2 by a Potter Spray Tower,with 0.05% Tween-80 as control.After inoculation,the larvae were individually fed on artificial diet in plastic boxes at(24±1) ℃ and 12L:12D until pupated.Time-dose-mortality model was used to analyze the effect and indicated that the 5 fungal strains could kill 60% 95% of S.litura larvae at concentrations of 188.9 4048.3 conidia.mm 2within 10 d after conidia inoculation.Strain Nr15 demonstrated high virulence to S.litura larvae with a LC50value of 266.7 conidia.mm 2and a LT50value of 5.81 d at the concentration of 4048.3 conidia.mm 2,whereas mortalities of H.armigera and S.exigua didn’t reached 50%.The difference of mortality and fungal infection indicated that there is a host-specificity of N.rileyi strains to noctuid

  3. Baculovirus potential for agricultural pests management in Cuba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Luis Ayala Sifontes

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Cuba has an international reputation for implementing widespread biological control of pests, and microbial biocontrol is an integral component of most pest management programs. One class of microbial pesticides however, has not been developed in Cuba, bio-insecticides based on the Baculoviridae. This class of safe and environmentally protective microbial pesticides is used ever more commonly worldwide as an alternative to chemical pesticides. The characteristics of the viruses of this family, particularly their high host specificity, safety to non-target organisms, capacity to persist in nature and create epizootics, and the economy with which they can be produced "in vivo", all make them attractive for incorporation into pest management programs along with other pesticides developed in Cuba. The mass production technology is well understood in Cuba and biofactories already exist for a number of microbial biocontrol products. In the province of Sancti Spíritus, the Plant Protection Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, with the cooperation of the Institute for Sustainable Horticulture, Kwantlen Polytechnic University, are resuming the work which began in the 90´s to develop baculovirus products in support of sustainable agriculture in Cuba. This work is being carried out with the participation of young Canadian and Cuban students and professionals. The program includes research with the multicapsid nuclear polyhedrosis viruses of Spodoptera frugiperda (SfMNPV and S. exigua (SeMNPV and the search for native isolates of Baculovirus in Plutella xylostella, three priority pests in Cuba. In other jurisdictions they are well controlled by baculoviruses, and the expectation is that this same result is possible in Cuba.

  4. Benthic foraminiferal distribution in surface sediments along continental slope of the southern Okinawa Trough:dependance on water masses and food supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向荣; 李铁刚; 杨作升; 阎军; 曹奇原

    2003-01-01

    Benthic foraminiferal analysis of 29 samples in surface sediments from the southern Oki-nawa Trough is carried out. The results indicate that benthic foraminiferal abundance decreases rapidlywith increasing water depth. Percentage frequencies of agglutinated foraminifera further confirm themodem shallow carbonate lysocline in the southern Okinawa Trough. From continental shelf edge to thebottom of Okinawa Trough, benthic foraminiferal fauna in the surface sediments can be divided into 5assemblages: (1) Continental shelf break assemblage, dominated by Cibicides pseudoungerianus, corre-sponds to subsurface water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (2) upper continental slope assemblage, domi-nated by Cassidulina carinata, Globocassidulina subglobosa, corresponds to intermediate water mass of the Kuroshio Current; (3) intermediate continental slope assemblage, dominated by Uvigerina hispi-da, corresponds to the Okinawa Trough deep water mass above the carbonate lysocline; (4) lower con-tinental slope- trough bottom assemblage, dominated by Pullenia bulloides, Epistominella exigua andCibicidoides hyalinus, corresponds to deep water mass of the Okinawa Trough; and (5) trough bottomagglutinated assemblage, dominated by Rhabdammina spp., Bathysiphon flavidus, corresponds tostrongly dissolved environment of the trough bottom. The benthic foraminiferal fauna in the southemOkinawa Trough are controlled jointly by water masses and food supply. Water temperature, oxygenconcentration and carbonate dissolution of the water masses are important controlling factors especiallyfor the continental shelf break and trough bottom assemblages. The food supply also plays an importantrole in these benthic foraminiferal assemblages along the westem slope of the Okinawa Trough. Both theabundance and the 5 assemblages of benthic foraminifera correspond well to the organic matter supplyalong the continental slope and a lateral transport of TSM (total suspended matter) and POC (particulateorganic

  5. P143 proteins from heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses induce apoptosis in BM-N cells derived from the silkworm Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamajima, Rina; Kobayashi, Michihiro; Ikeda, Motoko

    2017-04-02

    We previously demonstrated that ribosomal RNA (rRNA) of Bombyx mori BM-N cells is rapidly degraded upon infection with heterologous nucleopolyhedroviruses (NPVs), including Autographa californica multiple NPV (AcMNPV), Hyphantria cunea MNPV, Spodoptera exigua MNPV and S. litura MNPV, and that this response is triggered by viral P143 proteins. The transient expression of P143 proteins from heterologous NPVs was also shown to induce apoptosis and caspase-3-like protease activation in BM-N cells. In the present study, we conducted a transient expression assay using BM-N cells expressing mutant AcMNPV P143 (Ac-P143) proteins and demonstrated that five amino acid residues cooperatively participate in Ac-P143 protein-triggered apoptosis of BM-N cells. Notably, these five residues were previously shown to be required for triggering rRNA degradation in BM-N cells. As rRNA degradation in BM-N cells does not result from apoptosis, the present results suggest that Ac-P143-triggered rRNA degradation is the upstream signal for apoptosis induction in BM-N cells. We further showed that P143 protein-triggered apoptosis does not occur in S. frugiperda Sf9 or Lymantria dispar Ld652Y cells, indicating that apoptosis induction by heterologous P143 proteins is a BM-N cell-specific response. In addition, the observed induction of apoptosis in BM-N cells was found to be mediated by activation of the initiator caspase Bm-Dronc. Taken together, these results suggest that BM-N cells evolved a unique antiviral system that recognizes heterologous NPV P143 proteins to induce rRNA degradation and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Parasite Removal, but Not Herbivory, Deters Future Parasite Attachment on Tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tjiurutue, Muvari Connie; Palmer-Young, Evan C.; Adler, Lynn S.

    2016-01-01

    Plants face many antagonistic interactions that occur sequentially. Often, plants employ defense strategies in response to the initial damage that are highly specific and can affect interactions with subsequent antagonists. In addition to herbivores and pathogens, plants face attacks by parasitic plants, but we know little about how prior herbivory compared to prior parasite attachment affects subsequent host interactions. If host plants can respond adaptively to these different damage types, we predict that prior parasitism would have a greater deterrent effect on subsequent parasites than would prior herbivory. To test the effects of prior parasitism and prior herbivory on subsequent parasitic dodder (Cuscuta spp.) preference, we conducted two separate greenhouse studies with tomato hosts (Solanum lycopersicum). In the first experiment, we tested the effects of previous dodder attachment on subsequent dodder preference on tomato hosts using three treatments: control plants that had no previous dodder attachment; dodder-removed plants that had an initial dodder seedling attached, removed and left in the same pot to simulate parasite death; and dodder-continuous plants with an initial dodder seedling that remained attached. In the second experiment, we tested the effects of previous caterpillar damage (Spodoptera exigua) and mechanical damage on future dodder attachment on tomato hosts. Dodder attached most slowly to tomato hosts that had dodder plants previously attached and then removed, compared to control plants or plants with continuous dodder attachment. In contrast, herbivory did not affect subsequent dodder attachment rate. These results indicate that dodder preference depended on the identity and the outcome of the initial attack, suggesting that early-season interactions have the potential for profound impacts on subsequent community dynamics. PMID:27529694

  7. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona Attenuates Host Plant Defenses against Insect Herbivores1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Justin B.; Mescher, Mark C.; De Moraes, Consuelo M.

    2008-01-01

    Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores. PMID:18165323

  8. Parasitism by Cuscuta pentagona attenuates host plant defenses against insect herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runyon, Justin B; Mescher, Mark C; De Moraes, Consuelo M

    2008-03-01

    Considerable research has examined plant responses to concurrent attack by herbivores and pathogens, but the effects of attack by parasitic plants, another important class of plant-feeding organisms, on plant defenses against other enemies has not been explored. We investigated how attack by the parasitic plant Cuscuta pentagona impacted tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) defenses against the chewing insect beet armyworm (Spodoptera exigua; BAW). In response to insect feeding, C. pentagona-infested (parasitized) tomato plants produced only one-third of the antiherbivore phytohormone jasmonic acid (JA) produced by unparasitized plants. Similarly, parasitized tomato, in contrast to unparasitized plants, failed to emit herbivore-induced volatiles after 3 d of BAW feeding. Although parasitism impaired antiherbivore defenses, BAW growth was slower on parasitized tomato leaves. Vines of C. pentagona did not translocate JA from BAW-infested plants: amounts of JA in parasite vines grown on caterpillar-fed and control plants were similar. Parasitized plants generally contained more salicylic acid (SA), which can inhibit JA in some systems. Parasitized mutant (NahG) tomato plants deficient in SA produced more JA in response to insect feeding than parasitized wild-type plants, further suggesting cross talk between the SA and JA defense signaling pathways. However, JA induction by BAW was still reduced in parasitized compared to unparasitized NahG, implying that other factors must be involved. We found that parasitized plants were capable of producing induced volatiles when experimentally treated with JA, indicating that resource depletion by the parasite does not fully explain the observed attenuation of volatile response to herbivore feeding. Collectively, these findings show that parasitic plants can have important consequences for host plant defense against herbivores.

  9. Parasite Removal, but Not Herbivory, Deters Future Parasite Attachment on Tomato.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muvari Connie Tjiurutue

    Full Text Available Plants face many antagonistic interactions that occur sequentially. Often, plants employ defense strategies in response to the initial damage that are highly specific and can affect interactions with subsequent antagonists. In addition to herbivores and pathogens, plants face attacks by parasitic plants, but we know little about how prior herbivory compared to prior parasite attachment affects subsequent host interactions. If host plants can respond adaptively to these different damage types, we predict that prior parasitism would have a greater deterrent effect on subsequent parasites than would prior herbivory. To test the effects of prior parasitism and prior herbivory on subsequent parasitic dodder (Cuscuta spp. preference, we conducted two separate greenhouse studies with tomato hosts (Solanum lycopersicum. In the first experiment, we tested the effects of previous dodder attachment on subsequent dodder preference on tomato hosts using three treatments: control plants that had no previous dodder attachment; dodder-removed plants that had an initial dodder seedling attached, removed and left in the same pot to simulate parasite death; and dodder-continuous plants with an initial dodder seedling that remained attached. In the second experiment, we tested the effects of previous caterpillar damage (Spodoptera exigua and mechanical damage on future dodder attachment on tomato hosts. Dodder attached most slowly to tomato hosts that had dodder plants previously attached and then removed, compared to control plants or plants with continuous dodder attachment. In contrast, herbivory did not affect subsequent dodder attachment rate. These results indicate that dodder preference depended on the identity and the outcome of the initial attack, suggesting that early-season interactions have the potential for profound impacts on subsequent community dynamics.

  10. Phylogenetic Molecular Species Delimitations Unravel Potential New Species in the Pest Genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumas, Pascaline; Barbut, Jérôme; Le Ru, Bruno; Silvain, Jean-François; Clamens, Anne-Laure; d’Alençon, Emmanuelle; Kergoat, Gael J.

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence). As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae), a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster) species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens) ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808), S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797) and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833)) and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904) with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852). They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858) and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities. PMID:25853412

  11. Identification and Characterization of the Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 Histone H3K9 trimethyltransferase and Its Effect in AcMNPV Infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Li, Sisi; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Histone H3-lysine9 (H3K9) trimethyltransferase gene Su(var) 3-9 was cloned and identified in three Spodoptera insects, Spodoptera frugiperda ( S . frugiperda ), S . exigua and S . litura . Sequence analysis showed that Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 is highly conserved evolutionarily. Su(var) 3-9 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus in Sf9 cells, and interact with histone H3, and the heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) and HP1b. A dose-dependent enzymatic activity was found at both 27 °C and 37 °C in vitro, with higher activity at 27 °C. Addition of specific inhibitor chaetocin resulted in decreased histone methylation level and host chromatin relaxation. In contrast, overexpression of Su(var) 3-9 caused increased histone methylation level and cellular genome compaction. In AcMNV-infected Sf9 cells, the transcription of Su(var) 3-9 increased at late time of infection, although the mRNA levels of most cellular genes decreased. Pre-treatment of Sf9 cells with chaetocin speeded up viral DNA replication, and increased the transcription level of a variety of virus genes, whereas in Sf9 cells pre-transformed with Su(var) 3-9 expression vector, viral DNA replication slow down slightly. These findings suggest that Su(var) 3-9 might participate in the viral genes expression an genome replication repression during AcMNPV infection. It provided a new insight for the understanding virus–host interaction mechanism. PMID:23894480

  12. Comparison of field-collected ascovirus isolates by DNA hybridization, host range, and histopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, J J; Styer, E L; Federici, B A

    1998-09-01

    Six field-collected ascovirus isolates obtained from five noctuid species in the continental United States were compared with respect to the general relatedness of their DNA, host range, and histopathology. Two isolates were from Spodoptera frugiperda, and the other four were from Autographa precationis, Heliothis virescens, Helicoverpa zea, and Trichoplusia ni. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed that the six isolates belonged to three distinct viral species, with the isolates from S. frugiperda composing one species, those from A. precationis and H. virescens a second species, and those from H. zea and T. ni a third species. The host range and histopathology of each isolate was studied in eight noctuid species, S. frugiperda, Spodoptera ornithogalli, Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera eridania, H. virescens, H. zea, A. precationis, and Feltia subterranea. Though some variation existed between the different isolates of each viral species, distinct patterns were apparent for each. The viral species from S. frugiperda had a host range that was limited primarily to Spodoptera species and both isolates of this virus only replicated and caused significant pathology in the fat body, whereas the viral species from A. precationis and H. virescens had a much broader host range that included most of the species tested, but also had a tissue tropism primarily restricted to the fat body. The viral species from T. ni and H. zea readily infected all the hosts tested, where the principal site of replication and significant pathology was the epidermis. In many test hosts, however, this viral species also replicated and caused significant pathology in the tracheal epithelium and to a lesser extent in the fat body. Aside from contributing to knowledge of ascovirus biology, these studies indicate that DNA hybridization profiles combined with studies of host range and tissue tropism can be used as characters for defining ascovirus species. Copyright 1998 Academic Press.

  13. Biological and molecular characterization of a multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus from Thysanoplusia orichalcea (L.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Xiao-Wen; Carner, Gerald R; Lange, Martin; Jehle, Johannes A; Arif, Basil M

    2005-02-01

    A multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (ThorMNPV) that was co-isolated with a single nucleocapid ThorSNPV from mixed infected larvae of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptea: Noctuidae) is characterized. Scanning electron microscopy of ThorMNPV showed a dodecahedral-shaped occlusion body (OB). The occluded virions contained one to as many as eight nucleocapsids/virion. Virion band profiles in gradient centrifugation were consistent in at least 10 rounds of centrifugation from different virion sample preparations. The ThorMNPV had high virulence to third instar Trichoplusia ni and Pseudoplusia includens with LD50 values of 17 and 242OBs per larva, respectively. However, ThorMNPV did not cause mortality in Spodoptera exigua, Spodoptera frugiperda, Spodoptera eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, and Helicoverpa zea. ThorMNPV replicates in cells of various tissues such as the fat body and tracheal epithelium cells. T. ni High 5 cells were permissive to ThorMNPV in terms of infection and viral DNA transfection, but SF-21 was less permissive and the infection process was slower. Production of OBs by ThorMNPV in the nuclei of SF-21 was not well pronounced. The genome size of ThorMNPV was estimated to be 136 kb. The polyhedrin gene open reading frame (ORF) was cloned and completely sequenced. The promoter sequence is identical to that of Autographa californica MNPV. Phylogenetic analyses using partial sequences of the polh, lef-8, and lef-9 revealed that ThorMNPV is a member of the Group I NPVs and is related but distinct from the AcMNPV/Rachiplusia ou NPV/Bombyx mori NPV cluster.

  14. Sequential sampling and biorational chemistries for management of lepidopteran pests of vegetable amaranth in the Caribbean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke-Harris, Dionne; Fleischer, Shelby J

    2003-06-01

    Although vegetable amaranth, Amaranthus viridis L. and A. dubius Mart. ex Thell., production and economic importance is increasing in diversified peri-urban farms in Jamaica, lepidopteran herbivory is common even during weekly pyrethroid applications. We developed and validated a sampling plan, and investigated insecticides with new modes of action, for a complex of five species (Pyralidae: Spoladea recurvalis (F.), Herpetogramma bipunctalis (F.), Noctuidae: Spodoptera exigua (Hubner), S. frugiperda (J. E. Smith), and S. eridania Stoll). Significant within-plant variation occurred with H. bipunctalis, and a six-leaf sample unit including leaves from the inner and outer whorl was selected to sample all species. Larval counts best fit a negative binomial distribution. We developed a sequential sampling plan using a threshold of one larva per sample unit and the fitted distribution with a k(c) of 0.645. When compared with a fixed plan of 25 plants, sequential sampling recommended the same management decision on 87.5%, additional samples on 9.4%, and gave inaccurate recommendations on 3.1% of 32 farms, while reducing sample size by 46%. Insecticide frequency was reduced 33-60% when management decisions were based on sampled data compared with grower-standards, with no effect on crop damage. Damage remained high or variable (10-46%) with pyrethroid applications. Lepidopteran control was dramatically improved with ecdysone agonists (tebufenozide) or microbial metabolites (spinosyns and emamectin benzoate). This work facilitates resistance management efforts concurrent with the introduction of newer modes of action for lepidopteran control in leafy vegetable production in the Caribbean.

  15. Characterization of a single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus of Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X W; Carner, G R

    2000-05-01

    A single-nucleocapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus (NPV) isolated from Thysanoplusia orichalcea L. (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae) (ThorNPV) in Indonesia has tetrahedral occlusion bodies (OBs) with a width of 1. 22 microm (range = 0.803-1.931 microm). The length of the virion with an envelope averaged 0.29 and 0.23 microm without an envelope. ThorNPV was propagated in Pseudoplusia includens (Walker) and its authenticity was confirmed by sequence analysis of the polyhedrin gene of the ThorNPV produced in T. orichalcea and P. includens. Polyhedrin amino acid sequence analysis revealed that ThorNPV belongs to Group II of baculoviruses and is closely related to Trichoplusia ni single nucleocapsid NPV, sharing 97.6% sequence identity. Infectivity of ThorNPV against third instar P. includens was low, with a LD(50) value of 65,636 OBs/larva. Electron microscopy of infected tissues showed many polyhedra without virions embedded, which might explain the low virulence against P. includens. Differences in virion occlusion rates between individual cells in the same tissue suggested that the inoculum consisted of at least two variants that differed in the gene(s) controlling virion occlusion. In a host range test using the LD(50) value to P. includens against Spodoptera exigua, S. frugiperda, S. eridania, Anticarsia gemmatalis, Helicoverpa zea, Trichoplusia ni, and P. includens, P. includens was the only species infected. The virus infected primarily the fat body, tracheal epithelium, and hypodermis. The genomic size of the ThorNPV is 135 kb. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.

  16. Recovery of infectious pariacoto virus from cDNA clones and identification of susceptible cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K N; Ball, L A

    2001-12-01

    Pariacoto virus (PaV) is a nodavirus that was recently isolated in Peru from the Southern armyworm, Spodoptera eridania. Virus particles are non enveloped and about 30 nm in diameter and have T=3 icosahedral symmetry. The 3.0-A crystal structure shows that about 35% of the genomic RNA is icosahedrally ordered, with the RNA forming a dodecahedral cage of 25-nucleotide (nt) duplexes that underlie the inner surface of the capsid. The PaV genome comprises two single-stranded, positive-sense RNAs: RNA1 (3,011 nt), which encodes the 108-kDa catalytic subunit of the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, and RNA2 (1,311 nt), which encodes the 43-kDa capsid protein precursor alpha. In order to apply molecular genetics to the structure and assembly of PaV, we identified susceptible cell lines and developed a reverse genetic system for this virus. Cell lines that were susceptible to infection by PaV included those from Spodoptera exigua, Helicoverpa zea and Aedes albopictus, whereas cells from Drosophila melanogaster and Spodoptera frugiperda were refractory to infection. To recover virus from molecular clones, full-length cDNAs of PaV RNAs 1 and 2 were cotranscribed by T7 RNA polymerase in baby hamster kidney cells that expressed T7 RNA polymerase. Lysates of these cells were infectious both for cultured cells from Helicoverpa zea (corn earworm) and for larvae of Galleria mellonella (greater wax moth). The combination of infectious cDNA clones, cell culture infectivity, and the ability to produce milligram amounts of virus allows the application of DNA-based genetic methods to the study of PaV structure and assembly.

  17. Bt Jute Expressing Fused δ-Endotoxin Cry1Ab/Ac for Resistance to Lepidopteran Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuvobrata Majumder

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Jute (Corchorus sp. is naturally occurring, biodegradable, lignocellulosic-long, silky, golden shiny fiber producing plant that has great demands globally. Paper and textile industries are interested in jute because of the easy availability, non-toxicity and high yield of cellulosic biomass produced per acre in cultivation. Jute is the major and most industrially used bast fiber-producing crop in the world and it needs protection from insect pest infestation that decreases its yield and quality. Single locus integration of the synthetically fused cry1Ab/Ac gene of Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt in Corchorus capsularis (JRC 321 by Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated shoot tip transformation provided 5 potent Bt jute lines BT1, BT2, BT4, BT7 and BT8. These lines consistently expressed the Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin ranging from 0.16 to 0.35 ng/mg of leaf, in the following generations (analyzed upto T4. The effect of Cry1Ab/Ac endotoxin was studied against 3 major Lepidopteran pests of jute- semilooper (Anomis sabulifera Guenee, hairy caterpillar (Spilarctia obliqua Walker and indigo caterpillar (Spodoptera exigua Hubner by detached leaf and whole plant insect bioassay on greenhouse-grown transgenic plants. Results confirm that larvae feeding on transgenic plants had lower food consumption, body size, body weight and dry weight of excreta compared to non-transgenic controls. Insect mortality range among transgenic feeders was 66–100% for semilooper and hairy caterpillar and 87.50% for indigo caterpillar. Apart from insect resistance, the transgenic plants were at par with control plants in terms of agronomic parameters and fiber quality. Hence, these Bt jutes in the field would survive Lepidopteran pest infestation, minimize harmful pesticide usage and yield good quality fiber.

  18. Desarrollos innovativos en la asignatura Métodos y Técnicas de Investigación Social: el caso de los estudios de Sociología Aplicada en la Universidad Pública de Navarra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidal Díaz-de-Rada

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Los actuales planes de estudios de los grados de Sociología están aumentando el componente aplicado de la disciplina, orientándolo hacia el estudio científico de la realidad social. Esta situación genera “desajustes” al considerar el tipo de alumnado que se matricula en Sociología, estudiantes con escaso conocimiento estadístico/matemático, al provenir –en su mayor parte– del bachillerato en Humanidades y Ciencias Sociales. Esta exigua formación matemática y el deseo de estudiar carreras “de letras” precisa de una labor formativa que, en sus primeras etapas, debe estar enfocada a eliminar el hechizo mágico de los números para, en un segundo momento, tratar de transmitir la importancia que tienen los indicadores sociales (con información numérica para el conocimiento de la realidad social. En este texto se presentan las estrategias y los recursos pedagógicos utilizados en la Licenciatura en Sociología (Universidad Pública de Navarra, España en la asignatura Métodos y Técnicas de Investigación Social I. En este documento se muestra que el empleo de metodologías activas de enseñanza, concretamente el Aprendizaje Basado en Problemas, ABP, utilizando casos prácticos reales, ha incrementado el número de estudiantes que siguen la asignatura, aumentando también el número de aprobados y mejorando las calificaciones promedio.

  19. Distribution and Habitat Associations of California Black Rail (Laterallus jamaicensis cortuniculus in the Sacramento–San Joaquin Delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danika C. Tsao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.15447/sfews.2015v13iss4art4Past studies documenting the distribution and status of state “Threatened" California black rail (Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus; hereafter black rail have largely omitted the Sacramento—San Joaquin Delta (hereafter Delta. During March to May of 2009–2011, we conducted call–playback surveys to assess the status of the species within a wide range of wetland habitats of the central Delta region. We detected black rails at 21 of 107 discrete wetland sites, primarily on in-channel islands with dense cover. To better understand the habitat and land cover characteristics, we developed a model of habitat suitability from these occurrence data and a fine-scale vegetation and land use dataset using MaxEnt. We also evaluated differences in the size of wetlands at sites where black rails were detected versus where they were not. Through surveys and quantitative modeling, we found black rail presence differed from other regions within California and Arizona, in that it was positively associated with tall (1 to 5 m emergent vegetation interspersed with riparian shrubs. Specific plants correlated with black rail presence included emergent wetland (Bolboschoenus acutus, B. californicus, B. acutus, Typha angustifolia, T. latifolia, Phragmites australis and riparian (Salix exigua, S. lasiolepis, Rosa californica, Rubus discolor, Cornus sericea species. Median patch size was significantly larger and perimeter-to-area ratios were significantly lower at wetland sites where black rails were found. These results provide a preliminary characterization of black rail habitat in the Delta region and highlight the need for better understanding of this listed species’ population size and habitat use in the region, in light of anticipated climate change effects and proposed large-scale restoration in the Delta.

  20. Arabidopsis redox status in response to caterpillar herbivory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamuna ePaudel

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plant responses to insect herbivory are regulated through complex, hormone-mediated interactions. Some caterpillar species have evolved strategies to manipulate this system by inducing specific pathways that suppress plant defense responses. Effectors in the labial saliva (LS secretions of Spodoptera exigua caterpillars are believed to induce the salicylic acid (SA pathway to interfere with the jasmonic acid (JA defense pathway; however, the mechanism underlying this subversion is unknown. Since Noctuid caterpillar LS contains enzymes that may affect cellular redox balance, this study investigated rapid changes in cellular redox metabolites within 45 min after herbivory. Caterpillar LS is involved in suppressing the increase in oxidative stress that was observed in plants fed upon by caterpillars with impaired LS secretions. To further understand the link between cellular redox balance and plant defense responses, marker genes of SA, JA and ethylene (ET pathways were compared in wildtype, the glutathione-compromised pad2-1 mutant and the tga2/5/6 triple mutant plants. AtPR1 and AtPDF1.2 showed LS-dependent expression that was alleviated in the pad2-1 and tga2/5/6 triple mutants. In comparison, the ET-dependent genes ERF1 expression showed LS-associated changes in both wildtype and pad2-1 mutant plants and the ORA 59 marker AtHEL had increased expression in response to herbivory, but a LS-dependent difference was not noted. These data support the model that there are SA/NPR1-, glutathione-dependent and ET-, glutathione-independent mechanisms leading to LS-associated suppression of plant induced defences.

  1. Precise Dating of Flood-Plain Stratigraphy Using Changes in Tree-Ring Anatomy Following Burial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, J. M.; Shafroth, P. B.; Vincent, K. R.; Scott, M. L.; Auble, G. T.

    2001-12-01

    Determination of sediment deposition rates from stratigraphy is typically limited by a scarcity of chronological information. We present a method for precise dating of sedimentary beds based on the change in anatomy of tree rings upon burial. When stems of tamarisk (Tamarix ramosissima)and sandbar willow (Salix exigua) are buried, subsequent annual rings in the buried portions become narrower and vessels within the rings become larger. Observation of these changes can be combined with tree ring counts to determine the year of deposition of sedimentary beds that are at least 10 cm thick. Using a backhoe we dug trenches across the flood plain at three locations along the arroyo of the Rio Puerco, New Mexico. At each cross section we prepared a detailed stratigraphic description and excavated several tamarisks to depths as great as 5 meters. From each excavated tree we cut and sanded 10-50 slabs for tree-ring analysis. We cross-dated slabs within and between plants and used the burial signature in the tree rings to date all sedimentary beds in the stratigraphic profile near each plant. We then used the trench stratigraphy to convert depths of sediment deposition around individual trees to areas of deposition in the cross section. In the lower Rio Puerco introduction of tamarisk in 1926 occurred just prior to the beginning of channel narrowing and arroyo filling. Thus the tamarisks record a process of channel change to which they may have contributed. Aggradation has not been synchronous along the lower arroyo. For example, near Highway 6 and Belen, the flood plain has aggraded more than 2 m since 1970, while there has been little aggradation downstream at Bernardo. Much of the sediment deposition in levies at Highway 6 occurred during a flood in 1988. Future work will document longitudinal variation in the arroyo so that we can convert areas of sediment deposition in cross sections to volumes in the arroyo.

  2. Riparian Vegetation Mapping Along the Hanford Reach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FOGWELL, T.W.

    2003-01-01

    During the biological survey and inventory of the Hanford Site conducted in the mid-1990s (1995 and 1996), preliminary surveys of the riparian vegetation were conducted along the Hanford Reach. These preliminary data were reported to The Nature Conservancy (TNC), but were not included in any TNC reports to DOE or stakeholders. During the latter part of FY2001, PNNL contracted with SEE Botanical, the parties that performed the original surveys in the mid 1990s, to complete the data summaries and mapping associated with the earlier survey data. Those data sets were delivered to PNNL and the riparian mapping by vegetation type for the Hanford Reach is being digitized during the first quarter of FY2002. These mapping efforts provide the information necessary to create subsequent spatial data layers to describe the riparian zone according to plant functional types (trees, shrubs, grasses, sedges, forbs). Quantification of the riparian zone by vegetation types is important to a number of DOE'S priority issues including modeling contaminant transport and uptake in the near-riverine environment and the determination of ecological risk. This work included the identification of vegetative zones along the Reach by changes in dominant plant species covering the shoreline from just to the north of the 300 Area to China Bar near Vernita. Dominant and indicator species included Agropyron dasytachyudA. smithii, Apocynum cannabinum, Aristida longiseta, Artemisia campestris ssp. borealis var scouleriana, Artemisa dracunculus, Artemisia lindleyana, Artemisia tridentata, Bromus tectorum, Chrysothamnus nauseosus, Coreopsis atkinsoniana. Eleocharis palustris, Elymus cinereus, Equisetum hyemale, Eriogonum compositum, Juniperus trichocarpa, Phalaris arundinacea, Poa compressa. Salk exigua, Scirpus acutus, Solidago occidentalis, Sporobolus asper,and Sporobolus cryptandrus. This letter report documents the data received, the processing by PNNL staff, and additional data gathered in FY2002

  3. Pest protection conferred by a Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C Smigocki

    Full Text Available Proteinase inhibitors provide a means of engineering plant resistance to insect pests. A Beta vulgaris serine proteinase inhibitor gene (BvSTI was fused to the constitutive CaMV35S promoter for over-expression in Nicotiana benthamiana plants to study its effect on lepidopteran insect pests. Independently derived BvSTI transgenic tobacco T2 homozygous progeny were shown to have relatively high BvSTI gene transcript levels. BvSTI-specific polyclonal antibodies cross-reacted with the expected 30 kDA recombinant BvSTI protein on Western blots. In gel trypsin inhibitor activity assays revealed a major clear zone that corresponded to the BvSTI proteinase inhibitor that was not detected in the untransformed control plants. BvSTI-transgenic plants were bioassayed for resistance to five lepidopteran insect pests. Spodoptera frugiperda, S. exigua and Manduca sexta larvae fed BvSTI leaves had significant reductions in larval weights as compared to larvae fed on untransformed leaves. In contrast, larval weights increased relative to the controls when Heliothis virescens and Agrotis ipsilon larvae were fed on BvSTI leaves. As the larvae entered the pupal stage, pupal sizes reflected the overall larval weights. Some developmental abnormalities of the pupae and emerging moths were noted. These findings suggest that the sugar beet BvSTI gene may prove useful for effective control of several different lepidopteran insect pests in genetically modified tobacco and other plants. The sugar beet serine proteinase inhibitor may be more effective for insect control because sugar beet is cropped in restricted geographical areas thus limiting the exposure of the insects to sugar beet proteinase inhibitors and build up of non-sensitive midgut proteases.

  4. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies; Praktische Anwendung insektenparasitischer Nematoden und sterilisierter Fliegen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galle, F. [Bayerisches Staatsministerium fuer Ernaehrung, Landwirtschaft und Forsten, Muenchen (Germany); Loosjes, M. [De Groene Vlieg, Nieuwe Tonge (Netherlands)

    1987-07-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars.

  5. Aproximación a la filogenia de Spodoptera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae con el uso de un fragmento del gen de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Saldamando

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se secuenció un fragmento de 451pb del gen mitocondrial de la citocromo oxidasa I (COI en 62 secuencias del género Spodoptera y una secuencia de Bombix mori (grupo externo. Los resultados mostraron gran diferenciación genética (distancia K2 entre los haplotipos de Spodoptera frugiperda de Colombia y Estados Unidos, según los estimadores de diversidad haplotípica, diversidad y polimorfismo nucleotídicos calculados. Un árbol de ML agrupó las especies con valores de bootstrap entre 73-99% en las ramas internas. No obstante algunas ramas presentaron bajos valores de bootstrap. Este árbol formó un grupo constituido por las especies del hemisferio oriental (S. littoralis y S. litura y también agrupó las especies localizadas en el hemisferio occidental (S. androgea, S. dolichos, S. eridania, S. exigua, S. frugiperda, S. latifascia, S. ornithogalli y S. pulchella. Esto demuestra que el árbol agrupó las especies con base en su origen geográfico. Contrariamente, el árbol no agrupó a S. frugiperda con S. ornithogalli, demostrando que a pesar de que ambas coexisten en el cultivo de algodón, no comparten un ancestro común reciente. En Colombia, estas especies forman parte del “complejo Spodoptera” del algodón, y nuestros resultados demuestran que la secuenciación de este gen permite diferenciarlas sin necesidad del uso de claves taxonómicas de sus estadios larvales. Este trabajo es una aproximación a la filogenia de este género, por lo cual la inclusión de más genes (mitocondriales y nucleares son necesarios para futuros trabajos.

  6. Phylogenetic molecular species delimitations unravel potential new species in the pest genus Spodoptera Guenée, 1852 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae.

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    Pascaline Dumas

    Full Text Available Nowadays molecular species delimitation methods promote the identification of species boundaries within complex taxonomic groups by adopting innovative species concepts and theories (e.g. branching patterns, coalescence. As some of them can efficiently deal with large single-locus datasets, they could speed up the process of species discovery compared to more time consuming molecular methods, and benefit from the existence of large public datasets; these methods can also particularly favour scientific research and actions dealing with threatened or economically important taxa. In this study we aim to investigate and clarify the status of economically important moths species belonging to the genus Spodoptera (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, a complex group in which previous phylogenetic analyses and integrative approaches already suggested the possible occurrence of cryptic species and taxonomic ambiguities. In this work, the effectiveness of innovative (and faster species delimitation approaches to infer putative species boundaries has been successfully tested in Spodoptera, by processing the most comprehensive dataset (in terms of number of species and specimens ever achieved; results are congruent and reliable, irrespective of the set of parameters and phylogenetic models applied. Our analyses confirm the existence of three potential new species clusters (for S. exigua (Hübner, 1808, S. frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797 and S. mauritia (Boisduval, 1833 and support the synonymy of S. marima (Schaus, 1904 with S. ornithogalli (Guenée, 1852. They also highlight the ambiguity of the status of S. cosmiodes (Walker, 1858 and S. descoinsi Lalanne-Cassou & Silvain, 1994. This case study highlights the interest of molecular species delimitation methods as valuable tools for species discovery and to emphasize taxonomic ambiguities.

  7. Corn defense responses to nitrogen availability and subsequent performance and feeding preferences of beet armyworm (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Li-Li; Hardy, Giles; Liu, Zhu-Dong; Wei, Wei; Dai, Hua-Guo

    2013-06-01

    Many studies have reported the effect of nitrogen (N) fertilization on plant constitutive defense responses; however, little is known about their effects on plant induced defense patterns and its consequence for insect herbivores. In our experiments, the effects of N availability on growth, nutritional quality (N content, protein/carbohydrate [P:C] ratio, modified gross energy [MGE]), and constitutive phenolics of corn, Zea mays L. were quantified. Moreover, the indirect effects of N fertilization on the beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua Hübner through larval performance and feeding preference were examined. N fertilization increased plant growth, and depressed defense traits by increasing N content and the P:C ratio, as well as decreasing the constitutive concentration of phenolics. Subsequently, beet armyworm showed higher performance and preferentially fed on high-N corn because of its low defense traits. After beet armyworm feeding, high-N corn significantly deterred larval feeding, and had negative effects on the performance of beet armyworm through decreasing P:C ratio and increasing induced phenolics. On the contrary, there were no significant changes in P:C ratio and phenolics in low-N corn after feeding damage. Larval performance and preference were also not affected by induced compounds in low-N corn, which suggested that the expression of induced defense was dependent on N availability. The result indicates that N availability can exert a variety of bottom-up effect on plant defense patterns to influence insect population dynamics, and thereby may represent a source of variation in plant-insect interactions.

  8. Los sitios Web de centros de investigación biosanitaria de Castilla y León. Un análisis cibermétrico

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    JL Alonso-Berrocal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Introducción. Los sitios web institucionales son fuentes de contenidos donde entidad y usuario cruzan intereses en busca de objetivos comunes. Desde la presente investigación se aborda el análisis de este tipo de recursos digitales con una visión estructural de los mismos, más allá de su diseño o de la calidad de los contenidos que alojan. Metodología. Para ello se realiza un estudio desde el análisis de redes sociales, apoyado en la cibermetría, para conocer la composición de los sitios web de cada centro de investigación biosanitaria de Castilla y León. Se presentan diferentes propiedades de las estructuras de red, así como medidas topológicas con las que conocer las páginas más importantes de cada sitio web en función de los flujos de información, lo cual repercutirá en la visibilidad de los contenidos que se pretendan difundir. Resultados. Los resultados obtenidos indican que existen ciertos puntos de mejora en la estructura de los sitios web analizados, al detectarse exiguas tramas de relaciones informativas o páginas de inicio con poca relevancia sobre el conjunto. Conclusiones. Finalmente, tras la evaluación de resultados, se ha concluido que existen carencias en los sitios web analizados. Ello supone deficiencias que afectarán a los objetivos en base a los cuales se conciben este tipo de sitios web, dificultando, desde la propia estructura, la difusión de contenidos y la visibilidad de los mismos.

  9. Combined moist airtight storage and feed fermentation of barley by the yeast Wickerhamomyces anomalus and a lactic acid bacteria consortium

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    Jenny eBorling Welin

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study combined moist airtight storage of moist grain with pig feed fermentation. Starter cultures with the potential to facilitate both technologies were added to airtight stored moist crimped cereal grain, and the impact on storage microflora and the quality of feed fermentations generated from the grain was investigated. Four treatments were compared: three based on moist barley, either un inoculated (M, inoculated with Wickerhamomyces anomalus (W, or inoculated with W. anomalus and LAB starter culture, containing Pediococcus acidilactici DSM 16243, Pediococcus pentosaceus DSM 12834 and Lactobacillus plantarum DSM 12837 (WLAB; and one treatment based on dried barley (D. After 6 weeks of storage, four feed fermentations FM, FW, FWLAB, and FD, were initiated from M, W, WLAB and D, respectively, by mixing the grain with water to a dry matter content of 30%. Each treatment was fermented in batch initially for 7 days and then kept in a continuous mode by adding new feed daily with 50% back-slop. During the 6 week storage period, the average water activity decreased in M, W and WLAB from 0.96 to 0.85, and cereal pH decreased from approximately 6.0 at harvest to 4.5. Feed fermentation conferred a further pH decrease to 3.8 – 4.1. In M, W and WLAB, moulds and Enterobacteriaceae were mostly below detection limit, whereas both organism groups were detected in D. In fermented feed, Enterobacteriaceae were below detection limit in almost all conditions. Moulds were detected in FD, for most of the fermentation time in FM and at some sampling points in FW and FWLAB. Starter organisms, especially W. anomalus and L. plantarum comprised a considerable proportion of the yeast and LAB populations, respectively, in both stored grain and fermented feed. However, autochthonous Pichia kudriavzevii and Kazachstania exigua partially dominated the yeast populations in stored grain and fermented feed, respectively.

  10. El cultivo Del Olivo En Colombia

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    Poponoe Wilson

    1941-10-01

    Full Text Available Las regiones de mayor importancia olivera en el mundo tales como el Mediodía de España, Italia, Alejandría, Túnez, Siria, Grecia y California, están caracterizadas por relativos fríos invernales y los períodos cálidos y secos del verano. No es posible hallar reunidas estas condiciones en la zona ecuatorial pues en ellas, al nivel del mar, no ocurren los fríos de invierno (si por tales entendemos aquellos inviernos con temperaturas que descienden unos cuantos grados centígrados bajo cero, mientras que en las zonas altas, donde sí se encuentran bajas temperaturas, no es posible hallar en el verano el calor característico de las regiones mediterráneas y de California. El olivo se cultiva en distintos tipos de suelos, pero en varios países se considera que las tierras gredosas, areno-gredosas y .areno-arcillosas son preferibles. En California prospera muy felizmente en arcillas pesadas y compactas. Cuando las lluvias son exiguas o inciertas, los riegos son de evidente ventaja aun cuando, como bien se sabe, el árbol de olivo es altamente resistente a la sequía. La experiencia en el Valle de Leiva indica que el olivo puede crecer sin riegos, pero aquellas personas que tienen gran práctica, opinan que pueden obtenerse mejores resultados cuando se riega el árbol regularmente, siquiera en determinadas épocas del año.

  11. Practical application of insect-parasitic nematodes and sterile flies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galle, F.; Loosjes, M.

    1987-01-01

    The company 'de Groene Vlieg' started with commercial control of the onion fly by means of the sterile insect technique. At the moment 10 per cent of the Dutch spring sown onions are treated with this method. The mass-rearing, the estimations of populations and the repeated releases of sterilized flies make it a rather complicated method. It can be applied economically per field, but only in areas with a concentration of onion growing. For export we see no possibilities yet. In principle the sterile insect technique can be applied also to other flies (carrot rust fly, cabbage root fly), but a suitable artificial diet is still lacking. Since some years we also rear the insect parasitic nematodes Heterorhabditis sp. and Neoaplectana bibionis. The later is experimentally used with success against Agrotis segetum caterpillars in lettuce. Research will yield more applications of nematodes against different pests. We use Heterorhabditis sp. in practice against the black vine weevil (Otiorhynchus sulcatus), a serious pest in glass houses, tree nurseries and gardens. Good control is achieved with a dose of one half to one million nematodes per square meter in moist soil and with temperatures above 12 degrees C. The application is similar to that of a chemical insecticide. The pest is killed by symbiontic bacteria, released by the nematodes after penetrating into the body cavity of the larvae. The nematodes are delivered by mail. If cooled they can be kept alive for over four weeks in the package. We export already to Switzerland and plan to export also to Western Germany. At this moment a possible admittance is under investigation in the Netherlands for application of a nuclear polyhedrosis virus against Spodoptera exigua caterpillars

  12. La política editorial antifraude de las revistas científicas españolas e iberoamericanas del JCR en Ciencias Sociales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available El proceso de publicación de un artículo debe basarse en la credibilidad, la verdad y la autenticidad. La inclusión de normas éticas en la política editorial científica se concibe como una medida preventiva y disuasoria de conductas inapropiadas. Dada la escasez de estudios sobre ética y publicación científica en Ciencias Sociales y, en particular, en España e Iberoamérica, esta investigación analiza la política editorial antifraude de las revistas españolas y latinoamericanas indexadas en el JCR en Ciencias Sociales (2014. Para cumplir nuestro objetivo, se utilizaron como muestra objeto de estudio 104 revistas y en las instrucciones a autores se examinaron una serie de principios de actuación ética: 1 Derechos de las personas que participan en la investigación; 2 Protección del bienestar de los animales objeto de experimentación; 3 Conflicto de interés; 4 Envío y publicación de manuscritos. Nuestros resultados apuntan que el carácter inédito de la investigación, así como la prohibición del envío simultáneo de los trabajos a otras revistas son los temas que aparecen con más frecuencia. Pese al intento de sociedades de edición científica como ICMJE y COPE por estandarizar los asuntos que afectan al fraude en la ciencia, su incidencia es exigua en las publicaciones objeto de estudio. Dada la dispersión normativa analizada, se retoma la necesidad detectada por otros autores de desarrollar un código ético uniforme para las disciplinas de Ciencias Sociales.

  13. A High-Throughput Molecular Pipeline Reveals the Diversity in Prevalence and Abundance of Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne Species in Coffee Plantations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Christopher A; Atkinson, Howard J; Andrade, Alan C; Nguyen, Hoa X; Swibawa, I Gede; Lilley, Catherine J; McCarthy, James; Urwin, P E

    2018-05-01

    Coffee yields are adversely affected by plant-parasitic nematodes and the pathogens are largely underreported because a simple and reliable identification method is not available. We describe a polymerase chain reaction-based approach to rapidly detect and quantify the major Pratylenchus and Meloidogyne nematode species that are capable of parasitizing coffee. The procedure was applied to soil samples obtained from a number of coffee farms in Brazil, Vietnam, and Indonesia to assess the prevalence of these species associated both with coffee (Coffea arabica and C. canephora) and its intercropped species Musa acuminata (banana) and Piper nigrum (black pepper). Pratylenchus coffeae and P. brachyurus were associated with coffee in all three countries but there were distinct profiles of Meloidogyne spp. Meloidogyne incognita, M. exigua, and M. paranaensis were identified in samples from Brazil and M. incognita and M. hapla were detected around the roots of coffee in Vietnam. No Meloidogyne spp. were detected in samples from Indonesia. There was a high abundance of Meloidogyne spp. in soil samples in which Pratylenchus spp. were low or not detected, suggesting that the success of one genus may deter another. Meloidogyne spp. in Vietnam and Pratylenchus spp. in Indonesia were more numerous around intercropped plants than in association with coffee. The data suggest a widespread but differential nematode problem associated with coffee production across the regions studied. The issue is compounded by the current choice of intercrops that support large nematode populations. Wider application of the approach would elucidate the true global scale of the nematode problem and the cost to coffee production. [Formula: see text] Copyright © 2018 The Author(s). This is an open access article distributed under the CC BY 4.0 International license .

  14. CARACTERIZACIÓN MOLECULAR Y GERMINACIÓN DE SEMILLAS DE MAÍCES CRIOLLOS AZULES CON ENVEJECIMIENTO ACELERADO

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    Dagoberto Dur\\u00E1n-Hern\\u00E1ndez

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo del presente estudio fue determinar el efecto del envejecimie nto acelerado en semillas de varie dades criollas de maíz azul. En los laboratorios de la Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México y del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, semillas de cuatro varie dades criollas de maíz azul (Cuijingo, Cocotitlán, Puebla y Oaxaca, se sometie ron a dos tip os de envejecimie nto acelerado: calor húmedo (41°C, 72 horas y 100% h. r. y calor seco (60°C, 48 horas. Se evaluaron: protrusión radicular de 0 a 72 horas de imbibición y, a los sie te días de incubación a 25°C, plántulas normales, anormales y semillas muertas. Se obtuvo la caracterización molecular de los tratamie ntos mediante la RA PD y se construyeron los dendogramas respectivos. En plántulas normales provenie ntes de semillas sin envejecimie nto acelerado, las varie dades Oaxaca y Puebla fueron significativamente superiores. El peso seco en las plántulas disminuyó con el deterioro, sie ndo exigua con calor seco. La presencia de plántulas anormales se incrementó con ambos tip os de deterioro en el orden: Oaxaca, Puebla, Cocotitlán y Cuijingo. La diferenciación de los perfiles de bandeo entre semillas testigo y deterioradas ocurrió con la secuencia: Oaxaca (31,6%, Cocotitlán (25,8%, Puebla (19,6% y Cuijingo (18,6%. Estos valores de similitud, a los cuales se ramificaron los perfiles genómicos, se asociaron de manera inversa con el nivel de vigor de las semillas, y directamente con la presencia de anormalidades en las plántulas obtenidas.

  15. Rentabilidad de los fondos de inversión en España (1991-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Fernández

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available La exigua rentabilidad media de los fondos de inversión en España en los últimos 3, 5 y 10 años (0,51%; 2,23% y 0,85% fue inferior a la inversión en bonos del estado a cualquier plazo y a la inflación. A pesar de estos resultados, los 2.586 fondos existentes tenían un patrimonio de €163 millardos en diciembre de 2009. Sólo 14 de los 368 fondos con 15 años de historia y 16 de los 1.117 con 10 años tuvieron una rentabilidad superior a la de los bonos del estado a 10 años. Sólo 4 de de los 1.117 fondos con 10 años de historia proporcionaron a sus partícipes una rentabilidad superior al 10%: Bestinver bolsa (15,7%, Bestinfond (14,6%, Bestinver mixto (11,3% y Metavalor (10,0%. 263 fondos con 10 años de historia (7 eran garantizados proporcionaron a sus partícipes unarentabilidad ¡negativa! y su patrimonio en dici embre de 2009 fue 5.816 millones de euros. En el periodo 1991-2009 los fondos destruyeron €118 millardos de sus partícipes. El total de comisiones y gastos repercutidos en este periodo ascendió a €39 millardos.During the last 10 years (1999-2009, the average return of the mutual funds in Spain (0.85% was smaller than the average inflation. Nevertheless, on December 31, 2009, 5.6 million investors had 163 billion euros in the 2,586 existing mutual funds. Only 1 of the 368 mutual funds with 15-year history outperformed the Spanish Index (ITBM.

  16. Microbial community in persistent apical periodontitis: a 16S rRNA gene clone library analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, M N; Takeshita, T; Shibata, Y; Maeda, H; Wada, N; Akamine, A; Yamashita, Y

    2015-08-01

    To characterize the microbial composition of persistent periapical lesions of root filled teeth using a molecular genetics approach. Apical lesion samples were collected from 12 patients (23-80 years old) who visited the Kyushu University Hospital for apicectomy with persistent periapical lesions associated with root filled teeth. DNA was directly extracted from each sample and the microbial composition was comprehensively analysed using clone library analysis of the 16S rRNA gene. Enterococcus faecalis, Candida albicans and specific fimA genotypes of Porphyromonas gingivalis were confirmed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis with specific primers. Bacteria were detected in all samples, and the dominant findings were P. gingivalis (19.9%), Fusobacterium nucleatum (11.2%) and Propionibacterium acnes (9%). Bacterial diversity was greater in symptomatic lesions than in asymptomatic ones. In addition, the following bacteria or bacterial combinations were characteristic to symptomatic lesions: Prevotella spp., Treponema spp., Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113, Olsenella uli, Slackia exigua, Selemonas infelix, P. gingivalis with type IV fimA, and a combination of P. gingivalis, F. nucleatum, and Peptostreptococcaceae sp. HOT-113 and predominance of Streptococcus spp. On the other hand, neither Enterococcus faecalis nor C. albicans were detected in any of the samples. Whilst a diverse bacterial species were observed in the persistent apical lesions, some characteristic patterns of bacterial community were found in the symptomatic lesions. The diverse variation of community indicates that bacterial combinations as a community may cause persistent inflammation in periapical tissues rather than specific bacterial species. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Identification and characterization of the Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 histone H3K9 trimethyltransferase and its effect in AcMNPV infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Binbin; Li, Sisi; Yin, Juan; Zhong, Jiang

    2013-01-01

    Histone H3-lysine(9) (H3K9) trimethyltransferase gene Su(var) 3-9 was cloned and identified in three Spodoptera insects, Spodopterafrugiperda (S. frugiperda), S. exigua and S. litura. Sequence analysis showed that Spodoptera Su(var) 3-9 is highly conserved evolutionarily. Su(var) 3-9 protein was found to be localized in the nucleus in Sf9 cells, and interact with histone H3, and the heterochromatin protein 1a (HP1a) and HP1b. A dose-dependent enzymatic activity was found at both 27 °C and 37 °C in vitro, with higher activity at 27 °C. Addition of specific inhibitor chaetocin resulted in decreased histone methylation level and host chromatin relaxation. In contrast, overexpression of Su(var) 3-9 caused increased histone methylation level and cellular genome compaction. In AcMNV-infected Sf9 cells, the transcription of Su(var) 3-9 increased at late time of infection, although the mRNA levels of most cellular genes decreased. Pre-treatment of Sf9 cells with chaetocin speeded up viral DNA replication, and increased the transcription level of a variety of virus genes, whereas in Sf9 cells pre-transformed with Su(var) 3-9 expression vector, viral DNA replication slow down slightly. These findings suggest that Su(var) 3-9 might participate in the viral genes expression an genome replication repression during AcMNPV infection. It provided a new insight for the understanding virus-host interaction mechanism.

  18. Isolation and Characterization of Burkholderia rinojensis sp. nov., a Non-Burkholderia cepacia Complex Soil Bacterium with Insecticidal and Miticidal Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Lorena E.; Koivunen, Marja; Yang, April; Flor-Weiler, Lina; Marrone, Pamela G.

    2013-01-01

    Isolate A396, a bacterium isolated from a Japanese soil sample demonstrated strong insecticidal and miticidal activities in laboratory bioassays. The isolate was characterized through biochemical methods, fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) analysis, sequencing of 16S rRNA, multilocus sequence typing and analysis, and DNA-DNA hybridization. FAME analysis matched A396 to Burkholderia cenocepacia, but this result was not confirmed by 16S rRNA or DNA-DNA hybridization. 16S rRNA sequencing indicated closest matches with B. glumae and B. plantarii. DNA-DNA hybridization experiments with B. plantarii, B. glumae, B. multivorans, and B. cenocepacia confirmed the low genetic similarity (11.5 to 37.4%) with known members of the genus. PCR-based screening showed that A396 lacks markers associated with members of the B. cepacia complex. Bioassay results indicated two mechanisms of action: through ingestion and contact. The isolate effectively controlled beet armyworms (Spodoptera exigua; BAW) and two-spotted spider mites (Tetranychus urticae; TSSM). In diet overlay bioassays with BAW, 1% to 4% (vol/vol) dilution of the whole-cell broth caused 97% to 100% mortality 4 days postexposure, and leaf disc treatment bioassays attained 75% ± 22% mortality 3 days postexposure. Contact bioassays led to 50% larval mortality, as well as discoloration, stunting, and failure to molt. TSSM mortality reached 93% in treated leaf discs. Activity was maintained in cell-free supernatants and after heat treatment (60°C for 2 h), indicating that a secondary metabolite or excreted thermostable enzyme might be responsible for the activity. Based on these results, we describe the novel species Burkholderia rinojensis, a good candidate for the development of a biocontrol product against insect and mite pests. PMID:24096416

  19. Visitantes florais de Erythrina speciosa Andr. (Leguminosae Flowering visitors of Erythrina speciosa Andr., Leguminosae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria J. Vitali-Veiga

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Inspite of Etythrina species exhibit morphologic attributes for adaptation to pollination by nectarivorous birds mentioned in the literature, E. speciosa is pollinated by lots of bees (Apinae and Meliponinae which show a great urban occurrence. Systems of E. speciosa floral reproduction, fenology, diversity, frequency and constancy of insects visiting at different hours and flowering periods were studied. E. speciosa is Biocompatible, but xenogamy is the predominant system of reproduction. A large diversity of insects visiting the inflorescences was observed, with predominance of bees. The bee species showed a higher frequency: Apis mellifera Linnaeus, 1758 (45,0 %, Trigona spinipes (Fabricius, 1793 (28,6%, Trigona hyalinata (Lepeletier, 1836 (12,2 % and the ant Zacryptoceruspusillus Klug, 1824 (2,8 %. Constant but not frequent were the bees (Apidae Plebeia droryana (Friese, 1900, Friesella schrottkyi (Friese, 1900, Nannotrigona testaceicornis (Lepeletier, 1836, Tetragonisca angustula (Latreille, 1811, the wasps (Vespidae Polybia paulista Ihering, 1896, Protopolybia exigua (de Saussure, 1854, Agelaia pallipes (Olivier. 1791, the ant (Formicidae Pseudomyrmex sp. and the beetle (Chrysomelidae Diabrotica speciosa (Germar, 1824. E. speciosa flowers were visited by hummingbirds (Trochilidae: Eupetomena macroura (Gmelin, 1788, Clorostilbon aureoventris (d'Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838 and Amazilia sp. The birds Passer domeslicus (Linnaeus, 1758 (Ploceidae and Coereba flaveola (Linnaeus, 1758 (Emberizidac, also are present. The frequency and insect distribution were influenced by ambiental factors. Temperature, light, time, barometric pressure, relative humidity and wind velocity were significantly correlated with insect numbers. There is a visit sequence, by floral resource disponibility during the day, conditioned by transport ability, insect numbers and colony necessity, which begins by A. mellifera followed by meliponid bees. These bees make the

  20. New trends in space x-ray optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Maršíková, V.; Pína, L.; Inneman, A.; Skulinová, M.

    2017-11-01

    The X-ray optics is a key element of various X-ray telescopes, X-ray microscopes, as well as other X-ray imaging instruments. The grazing incidence X-ray lenses represent the important class of X-ray optics. Most of grazing incidence (reflective) X-ray imaging systems used in astronomy but also in other (laboratory) applications are based on the Wolter 1 (or modified) arrangement. But there are also other designs and configurations proposed, used and considered for future applications both in space and in laboratory. The Kirkpatrick-Baez (K-B) lenses as well as various types of Lobster-Eye optics and MCP/Micropore optics serve as an example. Analogously to Wolter lenses, the X-rays are mostly reflected twice in these systems to create focal images. Various future projects in X-ray astronomy and astrophysics will require large segments with multiple thin shells or foils. The large Kirkpatrick-Baez modules, as well as the large Lobster-Eye X-ray telescope modules in Schmidt arrangement may serve as examples. All these space projects will require high quality and light segmented shells (bent or flat foils) with high X-ray reflectivity and excellent mechanical stability. The Multi Foil Optics (MFO) approach represent a promising alternative for both LE and K-B X-ray optical modules. Several types of reflecting substrates may be considered for these applications, with emphasis on thin float glass sheets and, more recently, high quality silicon wafers. This confirms the importance of non- Wolter X-ray optics designs for the future. Future large space X-ray telescopes (such as IXO) require precise and light-weight X-ray optics based on numerous thin reflecting shells. Novel approaches and advanced technologies are to be exploited and developed. In this contribution, we refer on results of tested X-ray mirror shells produced by glass thermal forming (GTF) and by shaping Si wafers. Both glass foils and Si wafers are commercially available, have excellent surface

  1. An Innovative Streaming Video System With a Point-of-View Head Camera Transmission of Surgeries to Smartphones and Tablets: An Educational Utility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, Rafael Oliveira; de Oliveira, Pedro Armando Valente; Rocha, Luciano Chaves; David, Joacy Pedro Franco; Ferreira, Sanmari Costa; Santos, Alex de Assis Santos Dos; Melo, Rômulo Müller Dos Santos; Yasojima, Edson Yuzur; Brito, Marcus Vinicius Henriques

    2017-10-01

    In order to engage medical students and residents from public health centers to utilize the telemedicine features of surgery on their own smartphones and tablets as an educational tool, an innovative streaming system was developed with the purpose of streaming live footage from open surgeries to smartphones and tablets, allowing the visualization of the surgical field from the surgeon's perspective. The current study aims to describe the results of an evaluation on level 1 of Kirkpatrick's Model for Evaluation of the streaming system usage during gynecological surgeries, based on the perception of medical students and gynecology residents. Consisted of a live video streaming (from the surgeon's point of view) of gynecological surgeries for smartphones and tablets, one for each volunteer. The volunteers were able to connect to the local wireless network, created by the streaming system, through an access password and watch the video transmission on a web browser on their smartphones. Then, they answered a Likert-type questionnaire containing 14 items about the educational applicability of the streaming system, as well as comparing it to watching an in loco procedure. This study is formally approved by the local ethics commission (Certificate No. 53175915.7.0000.5171/2016). Twenty-one volunteers participated, totalizing 294 items answered, in which 94.2% were in agreement with the items affirmative, 4.1% were neutral, and only 1.7% answers corresponded to negative impressions. Cronbach's α was .82, which represents a good reliability level. Spearman's coefficients were highly significant in 4 comparisons and moderately significant in the other 20 comparisons. This study presents a local streaming video system of live surgeries to smartphones and tablets and shows its educational utility, low cost, and simple usage, which offers convenience and satisfactory image resolution, thus being potentially applicable in surgical teaching.

  2. The Systematic Approach to Training: Analysis and Evaluation in the Department of Safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ticevic, S.; Weichselbraun, A.; Pickett, S.; Crete, J.-M.

    2015-01-01

    In applying a systematic approach to training (SAT), identifying the learning needs is the first step - a learning needs analysis allows the organization to identify the competencies required to perform a particular job. A systematic approach can provide a clear structure for training and education programme development as well as the necessary evaluation and feedback so that the organization can adjust the development accordingly and deliver the optimal learning experience. In this presentation we will describes two key elements of a SAT used in the Safeguards Training Section in the Department of Safeguards: Analysis and Evaluation. Analysis is the first part of a SAT needed to define competencies for Safeguards staff in order to improve training development within the Department. We describe the training needs analysis used to capture and articulate the various competencies required for safeguards implementation based upon an analysis of tasks and activities carried out by staff members in the Department. Firstly, we highlight the different qualitative methods used to gather information from staff and the process of evaluating and organizing this information into a structured framework. Secondly, we describe how this framework provides the necessary reference to specify learning objectives, evaluate training effectiveness, review and revise training offerings, and select appropriate training paths based on identified needs. In addition, as part of the SAT, evaluation is performed to identify the usefulness of course outcomes and improvements for future offerings based on lessons learned, to ensure that appropriate knowledge and skills are being taught and to demonstrate the value of training by meeting the organization's needs. We present how the Kirkpatrick four-level evaluation model has been implemented by Safeguards Training Section in order to evaluate course effectiveness after the training has been completed, and discuss how the current evaluation

  3. Leadership training design, delivery, and implementation: A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerenza, Christina N; Reyes, Denise L; Marlow, Shannon L; Joseph, Dana L; Salas, Eduardo

    2017-12-01

    Recent estimates suggest that although a majority of funds in organizational training budgets tend to be allocated to leadership training (Ho, 2016; O'Leonard, 2014), only a small minority of organizations believe their leadership training programs are highly effective (Schwartz, Bersin, & Pelster, 2014), calling into question the effectiveness of current leadership development initiatives. To help address this issue, this meta-analysis estimates the extent to which leadership training is effective and identifies the conditions under which these programs are most effective. In doing so, we estimate the effectiveness of leadership training across four criteria (reactions, learning, transfer, and results; Kirkpatrick, 1959) using only employee data and we examine 15 moderators of training design and delivery to determine which elements are associated with the most effective leadership training interventions. Data from 335 independent samples suggest that leadership training is substantially more effective than previously thought, leading to improvements in reactions (δ = .63), learning (δ = .73), transfer (δ = .82), and results (δ = .72), the strength of these effects differs based on various design, delivery, and implementation characteristics. Moderator analyses support the use of needs analysis, feedback, multiple delivery methods (especially practice), spaced training sessions, a location that is on-site, and face-to-face delivery that is not self-administered. Results also suggest that the content of training, attendance policy, and duration influence the effectiveness of the training program. Practical implications for training development and theoretical implications for leadership and training literatures are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Tidal Marshes as Pulsing Systems: New Estimates of Marsh-Carbon Export and Fate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logozzo, L. A.; Neale, P.; Tzortziou, M.; Nelson, N.; Megonigal, P.

    2016-02-01

    We investigated wetland-estuarine exchanges of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), and chlorophyll a (chl a) in the Chesapeake Bay Kirkpatrick wetlands, an ecosystem that is representative of brackish marshes with organic-rich soils in North America. 1 L water samples were collected every hour over multiple semidiurnal tidal cycles (24 h deployments) and the flow was continuously measured every minute over the course of the study. DIC samples were collected and filtered on site. Fluxes were estimated using the measured flow and concentrations of biogeochemical variables (DOC, DIC, and chl a as a measure of algal biomass). aCDOM(300) was used as a proxy for CDOM amount to observe variations over two semidiurnal tidal cycles. Relative to high tide water, low tide water was consistently enriched in DOC, DIC, and CDOM, whereas it was consistently depleted in chl a. Initial estimates of fluxes over the tidal cycle showed net export of DIC and DOC from the marsh, and net import of chl a into the marsh. These results are consistent with DOC flux estimates from previous studies, but our method utilizes high temporal resolution flow measurements, improving flux estimate accuracy. Transect sampling from the marsh into the sub-estuary during ebbing tide indicated a strong negative gradient in a­CDOM­(300) and non-conservative mixing with salinity. The observed gradients in CDOM absorption spectral shape (slope and slope ratios) and the relative changes in the major fluorescence components identified in 3D fluorescence excitation-emission-matrices, indicated strong photochemical degradation in the estuary and a shift from higher to lower molecular-weight organic compounds. The weaker gradients observed for DOC and DIC compared to aCDOM(300) indicate that while microbial degradation does occur, photobleaching is the dominant degradation mechanism for CDOM in the estuary.

  5. Meeting the Cool Neighbors. XII. An Optically Anchored Analysis of the Near-infrared Spectra of L Dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Kelle L.; Núñez, Alejandro; Burgasser, Adam J.; Abrahams, Ellianna; Rice, Emily L.; Reid, I. Neill; Looper, Dagny

    2018-01-01

    Discrepancies between competing optical and near-infrared (NIR) spectral typing systems for L dwarfs have motivated us to search for a classification scheme that ties the optical and NIR schemes together, and addresses complexities in the spectral morphology. We use new and extant optical and NIR spectra to compile a sample of 171 L dwarfs, including 27 low-gravity β and γ objects, with spectral coverage from 0.6–2.4 μm. We present 155 new low-resolution NIR spectra and 19 new optical spectra. We utilize a method for analyzing NIR spectra that partially removes the broad-band spectral slope and reveals similarities in the absorption features between objects of the same optical spectral type. Using the optical spectra as an anchor, we generate near-infrared spectral average templates for L0–L8, L0–L4γ, and L0–L1β type dwarfs. These templates reveal that NIR spectral morphologies are correlated with the optical types. They also show the range of spectral morphologies spanned by each spectral type. We compare low-gravity and field-gravity templates to provide recommendations on the minimum required observations for credibly classifying low-gravity spectra using low-resolution NIR data. We use the templates to evaluate the existing NIR spectral standards and propose new ones where appropriate. Finally, we build on the work of Kirkpatrick et al. to provide a spectral typing method that is tied to the optical and can be used when only H or K band data are available. The methods we present here provide resolutions to several long-standing issues with classifying L dwarf spectra and could also be the foundation for a spectral classification scheme for cloudy exoplanets.

  6. Needs assessment and evaluation of a short course to improve faculties teaching skills at a former World Health Organization regional teacher training center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAVAD KOJURI

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In the design of educational programs, much attention has been paid to teaching methods, needs assessment, an important part of the development of educational programs, generally is neglected. Another important aspect in educational program design is assessing effectiveness. The aims of this study were to design a formal needs assessment program to define the core contents of a faculty development program, and to determine whether participation in the faculty development program reinforced new teaching skills. Methods: A teacher-training program was designed at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences to help medical instructors boost their teaching skills. Needs assessment was done with nominal group technique followed by a 5-point Likert scale questionnaire. The program, imparted in workshop format, covered effective teaching methods, feedback, assessing knowledge and time management. Instruction was in the form of lectures, group discussions, case simulations, video presentations and role-plays. The program was evaluated in several phases using data triangulation and multi-item assessments of overall program quality in three major dimensions: Kirkpatrick program evaluation model, evaluation of the educational environment and qualitative analysis with open-ended questions. All participants in the study belonged to the academic staff of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (n=396. Results: Seven main categories were derived from nominal group techniques and questionnaires. After the program, participants rated the quality of the program highly. They felt that the educational intervention was appropriate and had a positive impact on their knowledge of effective teaching methods, feedback, knowledge assessment and time management. Assessment of the effectiveness of the program showed that participants reported significant improvements in their teaching abilities. Conclusion: Our faculty development program have a significant positive

  7. EFEKTIVITAS PELAKSANAAN PROGRAM DINAMIKA KELOMPOK DENGAN METODE OUTBOUND PADA DIKLAT FUNGSIONAL AUDITOR DI PUSDIKLATWAS BPKP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuniar Palupi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to analyze the implementation effectiveness of the group dynamic program using outbound method.  The training is organized by Pusdklatwas BPKP and attended by all the government internal auditors in Indonesia.  The research uses Structural Equation Modeling (SEM with Partial Least Square approach.  The effectiveness of the program is scored using Kirkpatrick’s Four Level Training Evaluation model by measuring the participant’s perception on the implemented training, the learning process, and the benefit that can be obtained from the training.  The result shows that as an output, the training influences the participants learning process positively and significantly (trust, openness, responsibility, interdependency, self confidence, & stress management.  In addition, as a short term result the training also gives a positive and significant impact to the learning condition and for the medium term result is the adaptive performance of the participants.Keywords: audit, employee, performance, psychology, SEM AbstrakTujuan dari penelian ini adalah menganalisis efektivitas pelaksanaan program dinamika kelompok dengan metode outbound yang diselenggarakan oleh Pusdiklatwas BPKP untuk seluruh auditor internal pemerintah dari seluruh Indonesia.  Penelitian ini dianalisis menggunakan Structural Equation Modeling (SEM dengan pendekatan Partial Least Square (PLS. Efektivitas program dinilai dengan menggunakan teori evaluasi pelatihan empat level yang dikemukakan oleh Kirkpatrick, dengan mengukur persespi peserta program tentang pelaksanaan program, serta pembelajaran dan manfaat yang dirasakan oleh peserta program.  Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa program efektif pada setiap tahapan evaluasi.  Hasil menunjukkan bahwa program ini secara positif dan signifikan berpengaruh terhadap pembelajaran peserta (trust, openness, responsibility, interdependency, self confidence, & stress management sebagai output

  8. Efficacy of simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjeraa, K; Møller, T P; Østergaard, D

    2014-08-01

    Trauma resuscitation is a complex situation, and most organisations have multi-professional trauma teams. Non-technical skills are challenged during trauma resuscitation, and they play an important role in the prevention of critical incidents. Simulation-based training of these is recommended. Our research question was: Does simulation-based trauma team training of non-technical skills have effect on reaction, learning, behaviour or patient outcome? The authors searched PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library and found 13 studies eligible for analysis. We described and compared the educational interventions and the evaluations of effect according to the four Kirkpatrick levels: reaction, learning (knowledge, skills, attitudes), behaviour (in a clinical setting) and patient outcome. No studies were randomised, controlled and blinded, resulting in a moderate to high risk of bias. The multi-professional trauma teams had positive reactions to simulation-based training of non-technical skills. Knowledge and skills improved in all studies evaluating the effect on learning. Three studies found improvements in team performance (behaviour) in the clinical setting. One of these found difficulties in maintaining these skills. Two studies evaluated on patient outcome, of which none showed improvements in mortality, complication rate or duration of hospitalisation. A significant effect on learning was found after simulation-based training of the multi-professional trauma team in non-technical skills. Three studies demonstrated significantly increased clinical team performance. No effect on patient outcome was found. All studies had a moderate to high risk of bias. More comprehensive randomised studies are needed to evaluate the effect on patient outcome. © 2014 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Strengthening health district management competencies in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda: lessons from using action research to improve health workforce performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, Tim; Raven, Joanna; Aikins, Moses; Alonso-Garbayo, Alvaro; Baine, Sebastian; Huss, Reinhard; Maluka, Stephen; Wyss, Kaspar

    2018-01-01

    To achieve Universal Health Coverage (UHC), more health workers are needed; also critical is supporting optimal performance of existing staff. Integrated human resource management (HRM) strategies, complemented by other health systems strategies, are needed to improve health workforce performance, which is possible at district level in decentralised contexts. To strengthen the capacity of district management teams to develop and implement workplans containing integrated strategies for workforce performance improvement, we introduced an action-research-based management strengthening intervention (MSI). This consisted of two workshops, follow-up by facilitators and meetings between participating districts. Although often used in the health sector, there is little evaluation of this approach in middle-income and low-income country contexts. The MSI was tested in three districts in Ghana, Tanzania and Uganda. This paper reports on the appropriateness of the MSI to the contexts and its effects. Documentary evidence (workshop reports, workplans, diaries, follow-up visit reports) was collected throughout the implementation of the MSI in each district and interviews (50) and focus-group discussions (6) were conducted with managers at the end of the MSI. The findings were analysed using Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework to identify effects at different levels. The MSI was appropriate to the needs and work patterns of District Health Management Teams (DHMTs) in all contexts. DHMT members improved management competencies for problem analysis, prioritisation and integrated HRM and health systems strategy development. They learnt how to refine plans as more information became available and the importance of monitoring implementation. The MSI produced changes in team behaviours and confidence. There were positive results regarding workforce performance or service delivery; these would increase with repetition of the MSI. The MSI is appropriate to the contexts where tested and

  10. Partially coherent X-ray wavefront propagation simulations including grazing-incidence focusing optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canestrari, Niccolo; Chubar, Oleg; Reininger, Ruben

    2014-09-01

    X-ray beamlines in modern synchrotron radiation sources make extensive use of grazing-incidence reflective optics, in particular Kirkpatrick-Baez elliptical mirror systems. These systems can focus the incoming X-rays down to nanometer-scale spot sizes while maintaining relatively large acceptance apertures and high flux in the focused radiation spots. In low-emittance storage rings and in free-electron lasers such systems are used with partially or even nearly fully coherent X-ray beams and often target diffraction-limited resolution. Therefore, their accurate simulation and modeling has to be performed within the framework of wave optics. Here the implementation and benchmarking of a wave-optics method for the simulation of grazing-incidence mirrors based on the local stationary-phase approximation or, in other words, the local propagation of the radiation electric field along geometrical rays, is described. The proposed method is CPU-efficient and fully compatible with the numerical methods of Fourier optics. It has been implemented in the Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) computer code and extensively tested against the geometrical ray-tracing code SHADOW. The test simulations have been performed for cases without and with diffraction at mirror apertures, including cases where the grazing-incidence mirrors can be hardly approximated by ideal lenses. Good agreement between the SRW and SHADOW simulation results is observed in the cases without diffraction. The differences between the simulation results obtained by the two codes in diffraction-dominated cases for illumination with fully or partially coherent radiation are analyzed and interpreted. The application of the new method for the simulation of wavefront propagation through a high-resolution X-ray microspectroscopy beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (Brookhaven National Laboratory, USA) is demonstrated.

  11. Bioreactor systems for tissue engineering II. Strategies for the expansion and directed differentiation of stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasper, Cornelia [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Technische Chemie; Griensven, Martijn van [Ludwig Boltzmann Institut fuer Klinische und Experimentelle Traumatologie, Wien (Austria); Poertner, Ralf (eds.) [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg (Germany). Inst. Biotechnologie und Verfahrenstechnik

    2010-07-01

    Alternative Sources of Adult Stem Cells: Human Amniotic Membrane, by S. Wolbank, M. van Griensven, R. Grillari-Voglauer, and A. Peterbauer-Scherb; - Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Derived from Human Umbilical Cord Tissues: Primitive Cells with Potential for Clinical and Tissue Engineering Applications, by P. Moretti, T. Hatlapatka, D. Marten, A. Lavrentieva, I. Majore, R. Hass and C. Kasper; - Isolation, Characterization, Differentiation, and Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells, by J. W. Kuhbier, B. Weyand, C. Radtke, P. M. Vogt, C. Kasper and K. Reimers; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells: Characteristics and Perspectives, by T. Cantz and U. Martin; - Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell Technology in Regenerative Medicine and Biology, by D. Pei, J. Xu, Q. Zhuang, H.-F. Tse and M. A. Esteban; - Production Process for Stem Cell Based Therapeutic Implants: Expansion of the Production Cell Line and Cultivation of Encapsulated Cells, by C. Weber, S. Pohl, R. Poertner, P. Pino-Grace, D. Freimark, C. Wallrapp, P. Geigle and P. Czermak; - Cartilage Engineering from Mesenchymal Stem Cells, by C. Goepfert, A. Slobodianski, A.F. Schilling, P. Adamietz and R. Poertner; - Outgrowth Endothelial Cells: Sources, Characteristics and Potential Applications in Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine, by S. Fuchs, E. Dohle, M. Kolbe, C. J. Kirkpatrick; - Basic Science and Clinical Application of Stem Cells in Veterinary Medicine, by I. Ribitsch, J. Burk, U. Delling, C. Geissler, C. Gittel, H. Juelke, W. Brehm; - Bone Marrow Stem Cells in Clinical Application: Harnessing Paracrine Roles and Niche Mechanisms, by R. M. El Backly, R. Cancedda; - Clinical Application of Stem Cells in the Cardiovascular System, C. Stamm, K. Klose, Y.-H. Choi. (orig.)

  12. Rational drug therapy education in clinical phase carried out by task-based learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, S. Sırrı; Akyüz, Bahar; Ağrı, Arzu Erdal; Özlem, Mıdık

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Irrational drug use results in drug interactions, treatment noncompliance, and drug resistance. Rational pharmacotherapy education is being implemented in many faculties of medicine. Our aim is to introduce rational pharmacotherapy education by clinicians and to evaluate task-based rational drug therapy education in the clinical context. Methods: The Kirkpatrick's evaluation model was used for the evaluation of the program. The participants evaluated the program in terms of constituents of the program, utilization, and contribution to learning. Voluntary participants responded to the evaluation forms after the educational program. Data are evaluated using both quantitative and qualitative tools. SPSS (version 21) used for quantitative data for determining mean and standard deviation values. Descriptive qualitative analysis approach is used for the analysis of open-ended questions. Results: It was revealed that the program and its components have been favorable. A total 95.9% of the students consider the education to be beneficial. Simulated patients practice and personal drug choice/problem-based learning sessions were appreciated by the students in particular. 93.9% of the students stated that all students of medicine should undergo this educational program. Among the five presentations contained in the program, “The Principles of Prescribing” received the highest points (9 ± 1.00) from participating students in general evaluation of the educational program. Conclusion: This study was carried out to improve task-based rational drug therapy education. According to feedback from the students concerning content, method, resource, assessment, and program design; some important changes, especially in number of facilitators and indications, are made in rational pharmacotherapy education in clinical task-based learning program. PMID:28458432

  13. Crew resource management training in the intensive care unit. A multisite controlled before-after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Peter F; de Bruijne, Martine; van Dyck, Cathy; So, Ralph L; Tangkau, Peter; Wagner, Cordula

    2016-08-01

    There is a growing awareness today that adverse events in the intensive care unit (ICU) are more often caused by problems related to non-technical skills than by a lack of technical, or clinical, expertise. Team training, such as crew resource management (CRM), aims to improve these non-technical skills. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of CRM in the ICU. Six ICUs participated in a paired controlled trial, with one pretest and two post-test measurements (after 3 and 12 months). Three ICUs received CRM training and were compared with a matched control unit. The 2-day classroom-based training was delivered to multidisciplinary groups (ie, ICU physicians, nurses, managers). All levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework were assessed using a mixed method design, including questionnaires, observations and routinely administered patient outcome data. Level I-reaction: participants were very positive directly after the training. Level II-learning: attitudes towards behaviour aimed at optimising situational awareness were relatively high at baseline and remained stable. Level III-behaviour: self-reported behaviour aimed at optimising situational awareness improved in the intervention group. No changes were found in observed explicit professional oral communication. Level IV-organisation: patient outcomes were unaffected. Error management culture and job satisfaction improved in the intervention group. Patient safety culture improved in both control and intervention units. We can conclude that CRM, as delivered in the present study, does not change behaviour or patient outcomes by itself, yet changes how participants think about errors and risks. This indicates that CRM requires a combination with other initiatives in order to improve clinical outcomes. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  14. Investigation of Co nanoparticle formation using time-dependent and spatially-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinoveva, S.

    2008-04-15

    A crucial step towards controlled synthesis of nanoparticles is the detailed understanding of the various chemical processes that take place during the synthesis. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is especially suitable for elucidating the type and structure of the intermediate metal species. It is applicable to materials that have no long range order and provides information on both electronic and geometric structures. Here a comparative study is reported of the formation of cobalt nanoparticles via thermolysis of two organometallic precursors dicobalt octacarbonyl (DCO) and alkyne-bridged dicobalt hexacarbonyl (ADH) in the presence of aluminum organics. Using time-dependent XAS a reaction pathway different from both the atom based La Mer model and the Watzky and Finsky autocatalytic surface growth model is observed. Where prior to the nucleation several intermediates are formed and the initial nucleus is composed of Co atoms coordinated with ligands Co{sub n}(CO){sub m} with n=2-3, m=3-5. The formation of Co nanoparticles was also investigated using a reaction different from thermolysis of cobalt carbonyls, namely reduction of Co (II) acetate by sodium borohydrate. Here the combination of microreactor system and spatially resolved XAS allowed ''in situ'' monitoring of the wet chemical synthesis. Several steps of the reaction were spatially resolved in the microreactor. The vertical size of the X-ray beam (50 {mu}m) focused with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system, determines the time resolution (better than 2 ms). The results provide direct insight into rapid process of nanoparticles formation and demonstrate the potential of this new technique for the fundamental studies of such type of processes where miniaturization and timeresolution are important. Like in the carbonyls thermolysis no evidence for the reduction of the starting complex to isolated Co{sup 0} atoms followed by nucleation of Co{sup 0} atoms was observed. (orig.)

  15. Long-time predictability in disordered spin systems following a deep quench.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, J; Gheissari, R; Machta, J; Newman, C M; Stein, D L

    2017-04-01

    We study the problem of predictability, or "nature vs nurture," in several disordered Ising spin systems evolving at zero temperature from a random initial state: How much does the final state depend on the information contained in the initial state, and how much depends on the detailed history of the system? Our numerical studies of the "dynamical order parameter" in Edwards-Anderson Ising spin glasses and random ferromagnets indicate that the influence of the initial state decays as dimension increases. Similarly, this same order parameter for the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick infinite-range spin glass indicates that this information decays as the number of spins increases. Based on these results, we conjecture that the influence of the initial state on the final state decays to zero in finite-dimensional random-bond spin systems as dimension goes to infinity, regardless of the presence of frustration. We also study the rate at which spins "freeze out" to a final state as a function of dimensionality and number of spins; here the results indicate that the number of "active" spins at long times increases with dimension (for short-range systems) or number of spins (for infinite-range systems). We provide theoretical arguments to support these conjectures, and also study analytically several mean-field models: the random energy model, the uniform Curie-Weiss ferromagnet, and the disordered Curie-Weiss ferromagnet. We find that for these models, the information contained in the initial state does not decay in the thermodynamic limit-in fact, it fully determines the final state. Unlike in short-range models, the presence of frustration in mean-field models dramatically alters the dynamical behavior with respect to the issue of predictability.

  16. Evaluation of simulation-based training on the ability of birth attendants to correctly perform bimanual compression as obstetric first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreatta, Pamela; Gans-Larty, Florence; Debpuur, Domitilla; Ofosu, Anthony; Perosky, Joseph

    2011-10-01

    Maternal mortality from postpartum hemorrhage remains high globally, in large part because women give birth in rural communities where unskilled (traditional birth attendants) provide care for delivering mothers. Traditional attendants are neither trained nor equipped to recognize or manage postpartum hemorrhage as a life-threatening emergent condition. Recommended treatment includes using uterotonic agents and physical manipulation to aid uterine contraction. In resource-limited areas where Obstetric first aid may be the only care option, physical methods such as bimanual uterine compression are easily taught, highly practical and if performed correctly, highly effective. A simulator with objective performance feedback was designed to teach skilled and unskilled birth attendants to perform the technique. To evaluate the impact of simulation-based training on the ability of birth attendants to correctly perform bimanual compression in response to postpartum hemorrhage from uterine atony. Simulation-based training was conducted for skilled (N=111) and unskilled birth attendants (N=14) at two regional (Kumasi, Tamale) and two district (Savelugu, Sene) medical centers in Ghana. Training was evaluated using Kirkpatrick's 4-level model. All participants significantly increased their bimanual uterine compression skills after training (p=0.000). There were no significant differences between 2-week delayed post-test performances indicating retention (p=0.52). Applied behavioral and clinical outcomes were reported for 9 months from a subset of birth attendants in Sene District: 425 births, 13 postpartum hemorrhages were reported without concomitant maternal mortality. The results of this study suggest that simulation-based training for skilled and unskilled birth attendants to perform bi-manual uterine compression as postpartum hemorrhage Obstetric first aid leads to improved applied procedural skills. Results from a smaller subset of the sample suggest that these skills

  17. Effectiveness of classroom based crew resource management training in the intensive care unit: study design of a controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Crew resource management (CRM) has the potential to enhance patient safety in intensive care units (ICU) by improving the use of non-technical skills. However, CRM evaluation studies in health care are inconclusive with regard to the effect of this training on behaviour and organizational outcomes, due to weak study designs and the scarce use of direct observations. Therefore, the aim of this study is to determine the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of CRM training on attitude, behaviour and organization after one year, using a multi-method approach and matched control units. The purpose of the present article is to describe the study protocol and the underlying choices of this evaluation study of CRM in the ICU in detail. Methods/Design Six ICUs participated in a paired controlled trial, with one pre-test and two post test measurements (respectively three months and one year after the training). Three ICUs were trained and compared to matched control ICUs. The 2-day classroom-based training was delivered to multidisciplinary groups. Typical CRM topics on the individual, team and organizational level were discussed, such as situational awareness, leadership and communication. All levels of Kirkpatrick's evaluation framework (reaction, learning, behaviour and organisation) were assessed using questionnaires, direct observations, interviews and routine ICU administration data. Discussion It is expected that the CRM training acts as a generic intervention that stimulates specific interventions. Besides effectiveness and cost-effectiveness, the assessment of the barriers and facilitators will provide insight in the implementation process of CRM. Trial registration Netherlands Trial Register (NTR): NTR1976 PMID:22073981

  18. Main-, minor- and trace elements distribution in human brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zoeger, N.; Streli, C.; Wobrauschek, P.; Jokubonis, C.; Pepponi, G.; Roschger, P.; Bohic, S.; Osterode, W.

    2004-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is known to induce adverse health effects in humans. In fact, cognitive deficits are repeatedly described with Pb exposure, but little is known about the distribution of lead in brain. Measurements of the distribution of Pb in human brain and to study if Pb is associated with the distribution of other chemical elements such as zinc (Zn), iron (Fe) is of great interest and could reveal some hints about the metabolism of Pb in brain. To determine the local distribution of lead (Pb) and other trace elements x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF) measurements have been performed, using a microbeam setup and highest flux synchrotron radiation. Experiments have been carried out at ID-22, ESRF, Grenoble, France. The installed microprobe setup provides a monochromatic beam (17 keV) from an undulator station focused by Kirkpatrick-Baez x-ray optics to a spot size of 5 μm x 3μm. Brain slices (20 μm thickness, imbedded in paraffin and mounted on Kapton foils) from areas of the frontal cortex, thalamus and hippocampus have been investigated. Generally no significant increase in fluorescence intensities could be detected in one of the investigated brain compartments. However Pb and other (trace) elements (e.g. S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, Br) could be detected in all samples and showed strong inhomogeneities across the analyzed areas. While S, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn and Br could be clearly assigned to the investigated brain structures (vessels, etc.) Pb showed a very different behavior. In some cases (e.g. plexus choroidei) Pb was located at the walls of the vessel, whereas with other structures (e.g. blood vessel) this correlation was not found. Moreover, the detected Pb in different brain areas was individually correlated with various elements. The local distribution of the detected elements in various brain structures will be discussed in this work. (author)

  19. Investigation of Co nanoparticle formation using time-dependent and spatially-resolved X-ray absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinoveva, S

    2008-04-15

    A crucial step towards controlled synthesis of nanoparticles is the detailed understanding of the various chemical processes that take place during the synthesis. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) is especially suitable for elucidating the type and structure of the intermediate metal species. It is applicable to materials that have no long range order and provides information on both electronic and geometric structures. Here a comparative study is reported of the formation of cobalt nanoparticles via thermolysis of two organometallic precursors dicobalt octacarbonyl (DCO) and alkyne-bridged dicobalt hexacarbonyl (ADH) in the presence of aluminum organics. Using time-dependent XAS a reaction pathway different from both the atom based La Mer model and the Watzky and Finsky autocatalytic surface growth model is observed. Where prior to the nucleation several intermediates are formed and the initial nucleus is composed of Co atoms coordinated with ligands Co{sub n}(CO){sub m} with n=2-3, m=3-5. The formation of Co nanoparticles was also investigated using a reaction different from thermolysis of cobalt carbonyls, namely reduction of Co (II) acetate by sodium borohydrate. Here the combination of microreactor system and spatially resolved XAS allowed ''in situ'' monitoring of the wet chemical synthesis. Several steps of the reaction were spatially resolved in the microreactor. The vertical size of the X-ray beam (50 {mu}m) focused with Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror system, determines the time resolution (better than 2 ms). The results provide direct insight into rapid process of nanoparticles formation and demonstrate the potential of this new technique for the fundamental studies of such type of processes where miniaturization and timeresolution are important. Like in the carbonyls thermolysis no evidence for the reduction of the starting complex to isolated Co{sup 0} atoms followed by nucleation of Co{sup 0} atoms was observed. (orig.)

  20. [Innovation in healthcare processes and patient safety using clinical simulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, E; Maestre, J M; Díaz-Mendi, A R; Ansorena, L; Del Moral, I

    2016-01-01

    Many excellent ideas are never implemented or generalised by healthcare organisations. There are two related paradigms: thinking that individuals primarily change through accumulating knowledge, and believing that the dissemination of that knowledge within the organisation is the key element to facilitate change. As an alternative, a description and evaluation of a simulation-based inter-professional team training program conducted in a Regional Health Service to promote and facilitate change is presented. The Department of Continuing Education completed the needs assessment using the proposals presented by clinical units and management. Skills and behaviors that could be learned using simulation were selected, and all personnel from the units participating were included. Experiential learning principles based on clinical simulation and debriefing, were used for the instructional design. The Kirkpatrick model was used to evaluate the program. Objectives included: a) decision-making and teamwork skills training in high prevalence diseases with a high rate of preventable complications; b) care processes reorganisation to improve efficiency, while maintaining patient safety; and, c) implementation of new complex techniques with a long learning curve, and high preventable complications rate. Thirty clinical units organised 39 training programs in the 3 public hospitals, and primary care of the Regional Health Service during 2013-2014. Over 1,559 healthcare professionals participated, including nursing assistants, nurses and physicians. Simulation in healthcare to train inter-professional teams can promote and facilitate change in patient care, and organisational re-engineering. Copyright © 2016 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.