Sample records for halibut steaks

  1. IFQ Halibut/Sablefish and CDQ Halibut Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Under the IFQ Halibut/Sablefish Permit Program and CDQ Halibut Permit Program permits are issued for harvesting and receiving/processing halibut, and non-trawl...

  2. 75 FR 22070 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Guided Sport Charter Vessel Fishery for Halibut; Recordkeeping and...


    ... requirements for the Pacific halibut guided sport fishery in International Pacific Halibut Commission...; Guided Sport Charter Vessel Fishery for Halibut; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National Marine... would revise federal requirements regarding the location and time period for submission of Alaska...

  3. Charter Halibut Limited Access Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This limited access system limits the number of charter vessels that may participate in the guided sport fishery for halibut in area 2C and 3A. NMFS issues a charter...

  4. 78 FR 3399 - International Pacific Halibut Commission Appointments


    ... Development Quota (CDQ) and/or sport and charterboat halibut fishing operations; participation in halibut... current and former IPHC Commissioners are eligible for reappointment. R sum s, curriculum vitae,...

  5. 75 FR 5745 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan


    ... action will be announced by NMFS via an update to the recreational halibut hotline. If after the Labor... the Labor Day weekend, the IPHC, NMFS, and ODFW will consult to determine whether increasing the... to have an IPHC license to retain halibut. Specific data on the economics of halibut...

  6. Combining two proven mechanical tenderness measurements in one steak

    Callahan, Z D; Belk, K E; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Lorenzen, C L


    ...) and slice shear force (SSF) in the same steak. The objectives were to compare cooking methods commonly used in preparing steaks for WBSF and SSF procedures and compare them at different cooling times...

  7. 76 FR 14300 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan


    ...-mail at ; or, for waters off the U.S. West Coast, Sarah Williams, 206-526-4646, e-mail at . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The IPHC has promulgated... authority under the Halibut Act. The PFMC also exercises authority in a CSP allocating halibut among...

  8. 76 FR 6567 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Guided Sport Charter Vessel Fishery for Halibut; Recordkeeping and...


    ... the requirement, in Sec. 300.65(d)(2)(iv)(B)(1), to record the sport fishing operator business license...; Guided Sport Charter Vessel Fishery for Halibut; Recordkeeping and Reporting AGENCY: National Marine... rule. SUMMARY: NMFS issues regulations to amend the recordkeeping and reporting requirements for the...

  9. Combining two proven mechanical tenderness measurements in one steak.

    Callahan, Z D; Belk, K E; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Lorenzen, C L


    This research was performed to determine the true efficacy of measuring both Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) and slice shear force (SSF) in the same steak. The objectives were to compare cooking methods commonly used in preparing steaks for WBSF and SSF procedures and compare them at different cooling times. United States Department of Agriculture select strip loins (n = 240) were aged for either 7 or 14 d to increase the variation in tenderness. Each strip loin was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm steaks. Steaks were then cooked to an internal temperature of 71°C using a convection conveyor oven (conveyor), a convection oven, clamshell grill, or an open hearth grill. Steaks were allotted to 4 different cooling times to create the combinations of: WBSF 4 h/SSF 0 h, WBSF 4 h/SSF 4 h, WBSF 24 h/SSF 0 h, WBSF 24 h/SSF 24 h. Five 1.25-cm cores were used for WBSF and one 1- by 5-cm slice for SSF. The WBSF from steaks cooked with conveyor were tougher than convection oven cooked steaks [51.9 Newtons (N) vs. 46.1 N; P Correlations for WBSF and SSF performed in the same steak ranged from 0.51 to 0.88 (P correlation values but the magnitude of the relationship is dependent on the combination of cooking method and cooling time.

  10. Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut and sandeel larvae off West Greenland

    Stenberg, Claus; Munk, Peter; Folkvord, A.


    Feeding ecology of Greenland halibut (Gr. halibut) (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) and sandeel (Ammodytes sp.) larvae on the West Greenland shelf was studied during the main part of the productive season (May, June and July). Copepods were the main prey item for larval Gr. halibut and sandeel, con...

  11. 75 FR 38758 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska


    ... for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... guided sport fishery for Pacific halibut in the waters of International Pacific Halibut Commission... the halibut fishery management goals of the North Pacific Fishery Management Council. DATES:...

  12. 76 FR 19708 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska


    ... access program, all vessel operators in Area 2C and Area 3A with charter vessel anglers on board catching and retaining halibut must have a valid charter halibut permit that was issued by NMFS on board the vessel. This interpretation clarifies that a valid charter halibut permit must be on board a vessel...

  13. 76 FR 2871 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan


    ... catch in the salmon troll fishery that is allocated 15 percent of the commercial allocation. The... is authorized during salmon troll seasons in Area 2A in accordance with regulations promulgated by... sablefish fishery; incidental halibut caught in the salmon troll fishery (233 licenses in 2010); and...

  14. 78 FR 9660 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan


    ... incidental catch in the salmon troll fishery that is allocated 15 percent of the commercial allocation. The...), incidental halibut catch in the salmon troll fishery, adjust the months for the incidental take fishery from...), and paragraph (7) of section 11, an incidental catch fishery is authorized during salmon troll...

  15. 77 FR 16740 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan


    ... factors, including timing of halibut migration and spawning, marketing for seasonal holidays, and interest... Alaska. (7) Section 24 applies to Aboriginal groups fishing for food, social and ceremonial purposes in...; Federal, State, United States treaty Indian, and Provincial fishery officials; and the media. 6...

  16. Impact of price and thickness on consumer selection of ribeye, sirloin, and top loin steaks.

    Leick, C M; Behrends, J M; Schmidt, T B; Schilling, M W


    Consumers (n=316) were recruited from college football picnickers to select ribeye, sirloin, and top loin steaks from 3 price groups based on thickness (n=10 steaks per price/type combination). Constant weight steaks were assigned to these groups: P1, thinnest, $19.80/kg ribeye and top loin, $10.99/kg sirloin; P2, average thickness, $22.00/kg ribeye and top loin, $13.19/kg sirloin; P3, thickest, $24.21/kg ribeye and top loin, $15.40/kg sirloin. Consumers selected 3 steaks per type and ranked selection criteria (price, color, marbling, thickness, texture). Percentage of steaks chosen from each price group did not differ (P>0.05), but consumers tended to select thinner ribeye steaks (P1 and P2) and thicker sirloin steaks (P2 and P3). Across all steak types, a greater number of consumers reported that marbling, color, and thickness were more important than price and visual texture. Data indicate that consumers may select steaks that display their preferred attributes, even if the steaks cost more. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. 78 FR 39121 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska


    ... retain halibut for personal use or customary trade. The IPHC annually determines the amount of halibut...) in Area 3A (Table 2). Each year from 2007 to 2009, the Alaska Department of Fish and Game...

  18. 50 CFR Table 38 to Part 679 - GOA Amendment 80 Sideboard Limit for Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector


    ... Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector 38 Table 38 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sideboard Limit for Halibut PSC for the Amendment 80 Sector In the ... The maximum percentage of the total GOA halibut PSC limit that may be used by all Amendment 80 qualified vessels subject to the...

  19. Troponin T isoform expression is modulated during Atlantic Halibut metamorphosis

    Llewellyn Lynda


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flatfish metamorphosis is a thyroid hormone (TH driven process which leads to a dramatic change from a symmetrical larva to an asymmetrical juvenile. The effect of THs on muscle and in particular muscle sarcomer protein genes is largely unexplored in fish. The change in Troponin T (TnT, a pivotal protein in the assembly of skeletal muscles sarcomeres and a modulator of calcium driven muscle contraction, during flatfish metamophosis is studied. Results In the present study five cDNAs for halibut TnT genes were cloned; three were splice variants arising from a single fast TnT (fTnT gene; a fourth encoded a novel teleost specific fTnT-like cDNA (AfTnT expressed exclusively in slow muscle and the fifth encoded the teleost specific sTnT2. THs modified the expression of halibut fTnT isoforms which changed from predominantly basic to acidic isoforms during natural and T4 induced metamorphosis. In contrast, expression of red muscle specific genes, AfTnT and sTnT2, did not change during natural metamorphosis or after T4 treatment. Prior to and after metamorphosis no change in the dorso-ventral symmetry or temporal-spatial expression pattern of TnT genes and muscle fibre organization occurred in halibut musculature. Conclusion Muscle organisation in halibut remains symmetrical even after metamorphosis suggesting TH driven changes are associated with molecular adaptations. We hypothesize that species specific differences in TnT gene expression in teleosts underlies different larval muscle developmental programs which better adapts them to the specific ecological constraints.

  20. 76 FR 34890 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska


    ... rule implementing the program on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 554). Under the program, NMFS initially issued... rule to implement the charter halibut limited access program, published on April 21, 2009 (74 FR 18178... halibut limited access program (75 FR 554, January 5, 2010), NMFS implemented the Council's...

  1. Partial sodium replacement in tilapia steak without loss of acceptability.

    Monteiro, Maria Lúcia G; Mársico, Eliane T; Canto, Anna Carolina V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Lázaro, César A; Cruz, Adriano G; Conte-Júnior, Carlos A


    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical and sensory characteristics of low-sodium tilapia steaks restructured with microbial transglutaminase. Polyphosphate (0.4%), condiment mixes-onion powder and garlic powder (2.5%), water (10.0%), transglutaminase (1.0%), and different types of salts (1.5%) were mixed with non-commercial sized fillets. Substitution of NaCl by KCl or MgCl2 (at 50% each) affected quality attributes and decreased (P purchase intention. We conclude that potassium and magnesium chlorides are possible replacers of salt (NaCl) in restructured tilapia steaks and potentially decrease the risk factor for heart failure associated with high sodium consumption.

  2. Efficacy of performing Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force on the same beef steak following rapid cooking.

    Lorenzen, C L; Calkins, C R; Green, M D; Miller, R K; Morgan, J B; Wasser, B E


    The ability to perform Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force on the same beef top loin steak was investigated. Three, 2.54-cm steaks from top loins (n=99) were allotted to either Warner-Bratzler only (WBS), slice shear force only (SSF), or Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force (WBS/SSF). Steaks were thawed at 2 degrees C for 48h prior to cooking. Steaks were cooked to 71 degrees C using a conveyor convection oven and allowed to cool at room temperature for a minimum of 4h. Steaks allotted to WBS used six 1.27-cm cores and steaks allotted for WBS/SSF used four cores. Steaks allotted to SSF and WBS/SSF used one, 1 cm x 5 cm slice. Correlations among WBS and SSF for all steaks ranged from 0.49 to 0.69 (Pcorrelations were generated for steak location within the top loin, the relationships among WBS and SSF performed in the same steak ranged from 0.53 to 0.70 (P<0.05). These results indicate that it may be feasible to conduct WBS and SSF on the same top loin steak, and that the steak taken 2.54 cm from the 13th rib is the optimal location for this combination of procedures.

  3. Compte rendu critique du livre Voir son steak comme un animal mort, de Martin Gibert

    Drolet, Marie-Josée


    Full Text Available This critical review provides, first, a step-by-step synthesis of the arguments presented in each chapter of Martin Gibert’s bookVoir son steak comme un animal mort (Seeing your steak as a dead animal. Second, a critical perspective of the book and a personal reflection are presented.

  4. Eating quality prediction of beef from Italian Simmental cattle based on experts' steak assessment.

    Borgogno, Monica; Saccà, Elena; Corazzin, Mirco; Favotto, Saida; Bovolenta, Stefano; Piasentier, Edi


    The experiment aimed at defining a grading scheme for Italian Simmental (IS) beef linked to objective measure of eating quality. Four experts developed a meat quality grid based on the assessment of the steak between the 8th and 9th ribs (reference steak). The grid was tested on the reference steak of 29 IS young-bulls. Rib-eye dimension, meat colour, marbling, meat firmness and fat cover highly contributed to overall quality. Two classes of IS beef quality were identified: standard and high. The results were associated with the sensory profile of Longissimus thoracis muscle from the reference steaks performed by a trained panel. The differences in quality highlighted by experts in raw steak accounted for most of the relevant information regarding the sensory properties of cooked beef. The accuracy of predictive model was 96.6%. The developed scheme is a helpful tool for valuing the eating quality of beef. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top sirloin steak.

    Savell, J W; Lorenzen, C L; Neely, T R; Miller, R K; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Taylor, J F; Buyck, M J; Reagan, J O


    The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top sirloin steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top sirloin steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Top sirloin steaks, regardless of city, were consistently cooked to well done or higher degrees of doneness. Dry-heat methods such as outdoor grilling, broiling, and indoor grilling were the most frequent cooking methods used. Four significant interactions existed for OLIKE: USDA quality grade x cooking method (P = .02), city x cooking method (P = .0001), city x degree of doneness (P = .01), and cooking method x degree of doneness (P = .009). Greater differences were found between cooking methods within USDA quality grade than between USDA quality grades within cooking method. Consumers in Houston rated steaks cooked by outdoor grilling higher than those from the other cities, and steaks cooked by indoor grilling were rated the highest among all cooking methods by consumers in Chicago. In Chicago, steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness tended to receive higher ratings, but few differences between degrees of doneness in the other three cities were detected. For outdoor grilling, broiling, and pan-frying, the trend was for OLIKE ratings to decline as degree of doneness increased. The lowest customer satisfaction ratings tended to be given to top sirloin steaks cooked to more advanced degrees of doneness, and consumers most frequently cooked steaks to at least the well done stage. Consumer information programs or the development of postmortem techniques that would ensure acceptable palatability of top sirloin steaks may need to be developed.

  6. Fine-scale population genetic structure in Alaskan Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis)


    Pacific halibut collected in the Aleutian Islands, Bering Sea and Gulf of Alaska were used to test the hypothesis of genetic panmixia for this species in Alaskan marine waters. Nine microsatellite loci and sequence data from the mitochondrial (mtDNA) control region were analyzed. Eighteen unique mtDNA haplotypes were found with no evidence of geographic population structure. Using nine microsatellite loci, significant heterogeneity was detected between Aleutian Island Pacific halibut and fish from the other two regions (FST range = 0.007–0.008). Significant FST values represent the first genetic evidence of divergent groups of halibut in the central and western Aleutian Archipelago. No significant genetic differences were found between Pacific halibut in the Gulf of Alaska and the Bering Sea leading to questions about factors contributing to separation of Aleutian halibut. Previous studies have reported Aleutian oceanographic conditions at deep inter-island passes leading to ecological discontinuity and unique community structure east and west of Aleutian passes. Aleutian Pacific halibut genetic structure may result from oceanographic transport mechanisms acting as partial barriers to gene flow with fish from other Alaskan waters.

  7. An audit of retail beef loin steak tenderness conducted in eight U.S. cities

    George, M. H; Tatum, J. D; Belk, K. E; Smith, G. C


    .... An audit of supermarkets in eight U.S. cities was conducted to characterize retail beef loin steaks with respect to grade, postfabrication aging, and tenderness and to provide an interim measure of progress in industry efforts to improve...

  8. An audit of retail beef loin steak tenderness conducted in tight U.S. cities

    M H George; J D Tatum; K E Belk; G C Smith


      An audit of supermarkets in eight U.S. cities was conducted to characterize retail beef loin steaks with respect to grade, postfabrication aging, and tenderness and to provide an interim measure of progress in industry efforts to improve...

  9. Cross-Cultural Consumer Acceptability and Purchase Intent of Forage-Finished Rib-Eye Steaks.

    Torrico, Damir Dennis; Wardy, Wisdom; Pujols, Kairy Dharali; Carabante, Kennet Mariano; Jirangrat, Wannita; Scaglia, Guillermo; Janes, Marlene E; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon


    Rib-eye steaks, from 3 forage-finished systems (S1, S2, and S3) and 1 commercial steak (C), either cooked by 1-sided-grilling or 2-sided-grilling, were evaluated for sensory acceptability [overall appearance (ORA) and overall appearance of fat (OAF) for raw steaks; overall appearance (OCA), overall beef aroma (OBA), overall beef flavor (OBF), juiciness, tenderness and overall liking (OL) for cooked steaks] and purchase intent by Hispanic, Asian and U.S. consumers. They also indicated preferred degree of doneness and cooking methods. Cross-cultural differences in preferences and consumer acceptability of rib-eye steaks were observed. Grilling was the most preferred cooking method. Hispanics and Asians preferred medium and/or medium well, while U.S. consumers preferred medium and/or medium rare. For cooked steaks, the population effect was significant for all sensory attributes; Asians generally scored lower than did Hispanics and U.S. consumers. C and S3 generally had higher scores for all sensory attributes across 3 populations. Purchase intent for all forage-finished steaks was higher for Hispanics and U.S. consumers compared to Asians (50.0% to 77.8% compared with 43.2% to 65.9%). Attributes influencing purchase intent of forage-finished steaks differed among populations: tenderness (odds ratio = 1.4) for Hispanics, OCA (odds ratio = 1.5) for Asians, and OBF (odds ratio = 1.3) for U.S. consumers. Overall, this study demonstrated that the type of forage-finished system and ethnic differences influenced sensory acceptability and purchase intent of forage-finished rib-eye steaks. Demand for forage-finished beef has increased worldwide due to its potential health benefits. Little is known regarding the cross-cultural effects on the consumer acceptance of forage-finished beef. We evaluated sensory acceptance and purchase intent of raw and cooked forage-finished rib-eye steaks using Hispanic, Asian, and U.S. (White and African American) populations. This study

  10. Feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to calf-fed Holsteins has minimal effects on semimembranosus steak color.

    Gunderson, J A; Hunt, M C; Houser, T A; Boyle, E A E; Dikeman, M E; Johnson, D E; VanOverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Brooks, C; Killefer, J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A


    To determine the effects of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) for 0, 20, 30, or 40 d (ZH0, ZH20, ZH30, ZH40) on semimembranosus (SM) steak color and color stability in 3 packaging systems, SM subprimals were removed from 60 calf-fed Holstein steers 24 h postmortem. A 7.62-cm-thick portion was removed from each subprimal and stored (2 degrees C) for 21 d; then two 2.54-cm-thick steaks were cut, overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film, and assigned to 0 or 3 d of display. Remaining portions of the subprimals were vacuum packaged for 10 d and then enhanced (10% with a solution containing 0.3% sodium chloride, 0.35% phosphate, and 0.05% rosemary extract), cut into steaks, packaged in high-oxygen (HO-MAP) or carbon monoxide (CO-MAP) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), and assigned to 0, 3, or 5 d (HO-MAP) or 0 or 9 d (CO-MAP) of display. Panelists evaluated the deep and superficial portions of SM steaks for initial color, display color, discoloration, pH, L*, a*, b*, hue angle, and saturation indices. Feeding duration did not affect (P > 0.05) initial color scores of steaks in PVC. Steaks displayed in PVC from ZH20 or ZH30 diets were slightly brighter and less discolored than the ZH40 treatment. For enhanced steaks in HO-MAP, ZH20 steaks were darker on d 5 (P 0.05) to have improved display color compared with other dietary regimens; however, steaks in CO-MAP from all feeding durations had less than 20% metmyoglobin through d 9 of display. Overall, feeding ZH20 might result in steaks with slightly less color stability when packaged in HO-MAP; however, feeding ZH20 or ZH30 to calf-fed Holstein steers will yield steaks that have equal to or more desirable color traits when packaged in PVC or CO-MAP. Regardless of ZH feeding regimen, HO-MAP and CO-MAP extended the color life of the SM. The CO-MAP system minimized color differences between the superficial and deep portions of the SM muscle and extended total case life compared with traditional and HO

  11. 50 CFR Table 35 to Part 679 - Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access...


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC... 35 to Part 679—Apportionment of Crab PSC and Halibut PSC Between the Amendment 80 and BSAI Trawl Limited Access Sectors Fishery Year Halibut PSC limit in the BSAI Zone 1 Red king crab PSC limit . . ....

  12. 50 CFR Table 40 to Part 679 - BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA Catcher/Processors and AFA Catcher Vessels


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false BSAI Halibut PSC Sideboard Limits for AFA...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 40 Table 40 to Part 679—BSAI Halibut PSC... categories as defined in § 679.21(e)(3)(iv) . . . The AFA catcher/processor halibut PSC sideboard limit...

  13. 50 CFR Table 36 to Part 679 - Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Percentage of Crab and Halibut PSC Limit... Crab and Halibut PSC Limit Assigned to Each Amendment 80 Species For the following PSCspecies . . . The percentage of the Amendment 80 sector PSC limit assigned to each Amendment 80 species is . . . Atka...

  14. 78 FR 69591 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Halibut and Crab Prohibited...


    ... BSAI (78 FR 13813, March 1, 2013) are revised as follows in Tables 10, 12, and 14: Table 10--Final 2013... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Reallocation of Halibut and Crab Prohibited Species Catch Allowances in the.... SUMMARY: NMFS is reallocating the projected unused amounts of the 2013 halibut and crab prohibited...

  15. 78 FR 75843 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska


    ... by charter vessel anglers on board the vessel on which the operator's GAF permit and the assigned... assigned charter halibut permit on board the vessel on which charter vessel anglers retain GAF, and to..., the GHL did not allow the charter halibut fishery to fully benefit from this increase. Section...

  16. Isozyme Analysis of Spotted Halibut Verasper variegatus Temminck et Schlegel

    LIU Manhong; GAO Tianxiang; ZHANG Xiumei; CHEN Siqing


    To investigate the tissue-specificities of isozymes and the genetic structure of wild spotted halibut ( Verasper vari gatus) population, horizontal starch gel electrophoresis was performed on 45 individuals collected in part of the Yellow Sea.The performances of 17 isozymes in 8 kinds of tissues or organs were screened preliminarily in a TC-7.0 buffer system. The results showed that the screened isozymes displayed remarkable tissue-specificities. Finally, 14 enzymes (AAT, ADH, EST,GPI, G3PDH, IDHP, LAP, LDH, MDH, MPI, PGDH, PGM, SDH and SOD) and 4 kinds of tissues (eye, skeleton mus cle, liver and heart) were selected for genetic analysis. Fourteen isozymes are encoded by 20 loci, and 9 of them are poly morphic. The polymorph ic loci are AAT-1*, GPI-2*, G3PDH*, IDHP-1*, LDH*, MPI*, PGM-1*, PGM-2* and SDH* , and the proportion of polymorphic loci is 0.4500 (P0.99). The mean values of observed and expected heterozygosities are 0.027 8 and 0.026 5, respectively and the average effective number of alleles is 1.067 5.

  17. A low-cholesterol menu in a steak restaurant.

    Scott, L W; Foreyt, J P; Manis, E; O'Malley, M P; Gotto, A M


    A twelve-month pilot project was conducted to test public reaction to a special restaurant menu identifying food choices low in cholesterol and saturated fat. The Houston steak house in which the "Help Your Heart" menu was tested prepared foods according to guidelines from dietitians of the Diet Modification Clinic, Baylor College of Medicine. Two newspaper articles, a brief magazine feature, and regularly scheduled radio advertising spots publicized the special menu. At the end of each month of the test period, the number of orders from the special menu was tallied for fourteen randomly selected days. Monthly sales from the special menu ranged from 2.5 to 5.1 per cent, with an overall average of 3.4 per cent. There was no statistically significant change from the mean of the percentage of total sales from the special menu over the months. Despite the relatively low percentage of total sales, restaurant executives were pleased with the results of the study and planned to offer the low-cholesterol menu indefinitely, eventually in an expanded form.

  18. Beef customer satisfaction: cooking method and degree of doneness effects on the top round steak.

    Neely, T R; Lorenzen, C L; Miller, R K; Tatum, J D; Wise, J W; Taylor, J F; Buyck, M J; Reagan, J O; Savell, J W


    The objective of this research was to evaluate the consumer-controlled factors of cooking method and degree of doneness on Top Choice, Low Choice, High Select, and Low Select top round steaks. The in-home product test was conducted in Chicago, Houston, Philadelphia, and San Francisco. Consumers (n = 2,212) evaluated each top round steak for overall like (OLIKE), tenderness (TEND), juiciness (JUIC), flavor desirability (DFLAV), and flavor intensity (IFLAV) using 23-point hedonic scales. Stir-frying, braising, and simmering and stewing consistently produced higher consumer attribute ratings. There were clear OLIKE rating differences (P = .0001) for top round steaks among the four cities. The highest ratings were given by consumers in Houston, and the lowest ratings were given by consumers in Philadelphia (P quality grade x degree of doneness (P = .002) and degree of doneness x cooking method (P = .02). Higher ratings generally were given to steaks cooked to medium rare or less or to very well degrees of doneness. Stir-frying, braising, and simmering and stewing were preferred at lower degrees of doneness. Customer satisfaction with the top round steak is very dependent on how it is cooked and by whom it is consumed.

  19. 75 FR 79341 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Harvest of Pacific Halibut by Guided Sport...


    ... of Pacific Halibut by Guided Sport Charter Vessel Anglers off Alaska AGENCY: National Oceanic and..., including the guided sport charter sector of the fishery. In order to minimize the recordkeeping and... (ADF&G) Division of Sport Fish initiated a mandatory logbook program for charter vessels in...

  20. 78 FR 73842 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut...


    ... ] landing individual fishing quota (IFQ) or community development quota (CDQ) halibut or IFQ sablefish... accounting system computer programs to determine if all of the groundfish in the landings are subject to the..., which are based on the Commercial Operator Annual Report (COAR) and Alaska Department of Fish and Game...

  1. Sexual maturity cycle and spawning of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait

    Gundersen, A. C.; Stenberg, Claus; Fossen, I.


    Female sexual maturation cycle and the main spawning time of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Davis Strait were studied through regularly collected samples during 1 year starting in spring 2003. Samples were collected from the southern slope of the Davis Strait Ridge between ...

  2. Intermingling and seasonal migrations of Greenland halibut ( Reinhardtius hippoglossoides ) populations determined from tagging studies

    Boje, Jesper


    to be resident in behavior and do not intermingle with offshore or more southerly inshore populations. A seasonal pattern in the recovery of these fish indicates that Greenland halibut aggregate in the inner part of cords during the second half of the year (when inshore waters are not covered with ice)...

  3. 75 FR 56903 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska


    ... charter vessels in IPHC Areas 2C and 3A. The intent of the program was to curtail growth of fishing... to NMFS for improving the process of developing fisheries management regulations. These comments did... number of angler endorsements assigned to a charter halibut permit reduces the potential for profit from...

  4. 75 FR 554 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Limited Access for Guided Sport Charter Vessels in Alaska


    ... A comprehensive history of management of the guided sport fishery for halibut was presented in the... IPHC regulations at section 25 of the annual management measures specify the legal gear for sport... IPHC regulations at section 28 of the annual management measures establish sport fishing rules...

  5. 76 FR 54739 - Pacific Halibut Fishery; Guideline Harvest Levels for the Guided Sport Fishery for Pacific...


    ... NMFS' authority to take action at any time to limit the guided sport angler catch to the GHL (74 FR... the guided sport halibut fishery in Areas 2C and 3A on January 5, 2010 (75 FR 554). As of February 1... guided sport and commercial fisheries in Areas 2C and 3A (76 FR 44156). If approved by the Secretary...

  6. Greenland Halibut in Upernavik: a preliminary study of the importance of the stock for the fishing populace

    Delaney, Alyne E.; Becker Jakobsen, Rikke; Hendriksen, Kåre

    such as through kødgaver (gifting of meat), a practice which remains both culturally and economically important in the smaller settlements. Currently, the government of Greenland is proposing changes to the management of Greenland halibut for the coastal fishers, including the closing the fishery to new entrants......This report presents research undertaken with the belief that a need exists for better understanding of the social and cultural importance of the Greenland Halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) fishery to Greenlanders. It was decided the research would focus on one of three coastal Greenland...... Halibut fishery districts: Upernavik. Upernavik was chosen mgiven the critical importance of Greenland halibut for local fishers and area residents. The best method for presenting a combination of social and fishery data takes the form of a fishery profile. Additionally, given that the government...

  7. Identifikasi Cysticercus bovis pada Steak Daging Sapi di Rumah Makan Jalan Dr. Mansyur Medan Tahun 2013

    Humaidi, Nur Qistina


    Cysticercus bovis merupakan larva cacing pita Taenia saginata. Larva ini dapat menyebabkan taeniasis saginata. Taeniasis terjadi apabila manusia mengkonsumsi daging mentah atau dimasak kurang matang yang telah terkontaminasi Cysticercus bovis. Penilitian ini bertujuan untuk mengidentifikasi Cysticercus bovis pada steak daging sapi di rumah makan Jalan Dr. Mansyur, Medan. Jenis penelitian deskriptif dengan desain cross sectional. Penelitian ini menggunakan metode total sam...

  8. PENGARUH KEPUASAN KONSUMEN TERHADAP KESETIAN MEREK (Studi Kasus Restoran The Prime Steak & Ribs Surabaya

    Foedjiawati Foedjiawati


    Full Text Available This is a research which observes the relationship between customer satisfaction and their loyalty to The Prime Steak & Ribs Restaurant. The customer satisfaction is measured through some attributes such as, attributes related to the product, attributes related to the service, and attributes related to the purchase. Meanwhile, the loyalty of its brand is measured through habitual behaviour, switching cost, satisfaction, liking of the brand and commitment. The result of the research reveals that customer satisfaction levels to The Prime Steak & Ribs Restaurant tends to be good. Some attributes still have a variety of high grade, and there is a positive causal influence that is significant between the customer satisfaction and the loyalty of the brand. Thus, the result of the research is relevant and at the same time supports the theory of brand loyalty. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian Pengaruh Kepuasan Konsumen terhadap Kesetiaan Merek pada Restoran the Prime Steak & Ribs, kepuasan konsumen diukur melalui Attributes related to the product, Attributes related to the service, Attributes related to the purchase, kesetiaan merek diukur melalui habitual behaviour, switching cost, satisfaction, liking of the brand, dan commitment. Hasil penelitian mengungkapakan bahwa kepuasan konsumen di The Prime Steak & Ribs mendapat penilaian yang cenderung baik, beberapa atribut masih mempunyai variasi penilaian yang tinggi, dan terdapat hubungan pengaruh positip yang signifikan antara kepuasan konsumen dengan kesetiaan merek, dengan demikian hasil penelitian mendukung konsep teori tentang kesetiaan merek. Kata kunci: kepuasan, kesetiaan merek.

  9. Development of Pangasius steaks by improved sous-vide technology and its process optimization.

    Kumari, Namita; Singh, Chongtham Baru; Kumar, Raushan; Martin Xavier, K A; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Venkateshwarlu, Gudipati; Balange, Amjad K


    The present study embarked on the objective of optimizing improved sous-vide processing condition for development of ready-to-cook Pangasius steaks with extended shelf-life using response surface methodology. For the development of improved sous-vide cooked product, Pangasius steaks were treated with additional hurdles in various combinations for optimization. Based on the study, suitable combination of chitosan and spices was selected which enhanced antimicrobial and oxidative stability of the product. The Box-Behnken experimental design with 15 trials per model was adopted for designing the experiment to know the effect of independent variables, namely chitosan concentration (X1), cooking time (X2) and cooking temperature (X3) on dependent variable i.e. TBARS value (Y1). From RSM generated model, the optimum condition for sous-vide processing of Pangasius steaks were 1.08% chitosan concentration, 70.93 °C of cooking temperature and 16.48 min for cooking time and predicted minimum value of multiple response optimal condition was Y = 0.855 mg MDA/Kg of fish. The high correlation coefficient (R(2) = 0.975) between the model and the experimental data showed that the model was able to efficiently predict processing condition for development of sous-vide processed Pangasius steaks. This research may help the processing industries and Pangasius fish farmer as it provides an alternative low cost technology for the proper utilization of Pangasius.

  10. Consumer Valuations of Beef Steak Food Safety Enhancement in Canada, Japan, Mexico, and the United States

    Tonsor, G.T.; Schroeder, T.C.; Pennings, J.M.E.; Mintert, J.


    Food safety concerns have had dramatic impacts on food and livestock markets in recent years. We examine consumer preferences for beef steak food safety assurances. We evaluate the extent to which preferences are heterogeneous within and across country-of-residence defined groups and examine the dis

  11. Availability, usage and expected contribution of potential nursery habitats for the California halibut

    Fodrie, F. Joel; Mendoza, Guillermo


    Coastal ecosystems have been identified as important nursery habitats for many of the world's fishery species. Beyond this, there remain many questions about what exactly constitutes high-value, even critical, habitat for juvenile fish. A first step in investigating nursery habitat value should be to catalogue the spatial coverage (availability) of all potential nursery habitats as well as the distribution (usage) of juvenile fish within those habitats. We conducted two years of fall surveys in the nearshore areas of San Diego County, CA, examining the spatial distribution of 0-group California halibut, Paralichthys californicus. The database generated by 527 otter trawls and block-net seine collections was used to produce a series of models employing regression trees to study the abiotic factors (water column and bottom features) that affect juvenile distributions. Along the exposed coast, highest 0-group densities (0.002-0.008 individuals/m 2 (indiv/m 2)) occurred where temperatures exceeded 21.5 °C (2003), and at depths between 3.3 and 5.2 m (2004). Within protected embayments, densities were higher at depths less than 1.5 m (0.054-0.430 indiv/m 2) and, in 2004, inside channeled marsh estuaries (0.156 indiv/m 2). The spatial coverage of potential nursery habitats was calculated using a Geographic Information System (GIS) database, and the total number of resident 0-group halibut within each site was estimated (habitat area × juvenile halibut density) as a proxy for expected contribution of halibut advancing to the adult stock from each nursery. Although 85% of the potential nursery habitat area occurred along the exposed coastline, 69% (2003) to 58% (2004) of 0-group halibut resided in protected embayments. Embayment contribution is much greater in the southern half of the study region, largely due to Mission and San Diego bays. We conclude that all nursery habitat types demonstrate the potential to contribute significantly to stock fitness, and that in

  12. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration on beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steak color.

    Rogers, H R; Brooks, J C; Hunt, M C; Hilton, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Killefer, J; Lawrence, T E; Delmore, R J; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Martin, J N; Miller, M F


    Two studies using beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle were conducted to determine the effect of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) supplementation on the color of strip loin steaks packaged in traditional and modified-atmosphere packaging. Select (USDA) strip loins were obtained from the carcasses of beef (n = 118) or calf-fed Holstein (n = 132) cattle fed ZH (6.8 g/ton on a 90% DM basis) for the last 0, 20, 30, or 40 d of feeding. One portion of the strip loin was moisture enhanced, cut into steaks, and packaged in an atmosphere containing 80% oxygen and 20% carbon dioxide. The remaining portion of the strip loin was vacuum-packaged until further processing. At 14 d postmortem, the vacuum-packaged loins were portioned and packaged in traditional retail packaging. Traditionally packaged and modified-atmosphere-packaged steaks were then placed in retail cases at -1 to 3 degrees C for 5 d and evaluated by both trained and consumer panelists. Instrumental color values and purge loss were also recorded. Zilpaterol hydrochloride duration had no effect on the color and purchase intention scores of consumer panelists for beef and calf-fed Holstein strip loin steaks. Zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration had no effect on the color or discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced, modified-atmosphere-packaged beef strip steaks. Traditionally packaged beef steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d had more desirable (P < 0.05) lean color scores than steaks from cattle not treated with ZH on d 2, 3, and 4 of display and had similar discoloration scores on d 1, 2, and 3 of display. The color scores of trained panelists for enhanced calf-fed Holstein steaks were more desirable (P < 0.05) for steaks from cattle not treated with ZH than for steaks from cattle treated with ZH for 20 d on d 1, 2, 3, and 4 of display. However, the discoloration scores of trained panelists for enhanced and modified-atmosphere-packaged calf-fed Holstein steaks were similar for steaks from

  13. Exophiala angulospora Causes Systemic Mycosis in Atlantic Halibut: a Case Report.

    Overy, David P; Groman, David; Giles, Jan; Duffy, Stephanie; Rommens, Mellisa; Johnson, Gerald


    Filamentous black yeasts from the genus Exophiala are ubiquitous, opportunistic pathogens causing both superficial and systemic mycoses in warm- and cold-blooded animals. Infections by black yeasts have been reported relatively frequently in a variety of captive and farmed freshwater and marine fishes. In November 2012, moribund and recently dead, farm-raised Atlantic Halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus were necropsied to determine the cause of death. Histopathology revealed that three of seven fish were affected by a combination of an ascending trans-ductual granulomatous mycotic nephritis, necrotizing histiocytic encephalitis, and in one fish the addition of a fibrogranulomatous submucosal branchitis. Microbial cultures of kidney using selective mycotic media revealed pure growth of a black-pigmenting septated agent. Application of molecular and phenotypic taxonomy methodologies determined that all three isolates were genetically consistent with Exophiala angulospora. This is the first report of E. angulospora as the causal agent of systemic mycosis in Atlantic Halibut.

  14. Comparing survey and assessment data: Consequences for stock evaluation of Northeast Arctic Greenland halibut

    Ole Thomas Albert


    Full Text Available Based on VPA-estimates of abundance, survey data and commercial catch statistics of Northeast Arctic Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides Walbaum, the paper describes trends by year-class and age in the distribution of Greenland halibut between surveyed and not-surveyed areas. Changes in the distribution of I-group around 1990 to areas beyond the Svalbard surveys has previously been described and related to temperature changes in the Spitsbergen Current. This paper shows that this displaced distribution of the 1989-94 year-classes persisted up to age 7. The results indicate that the displacement was an extraordinary situation and other similar distribution shifts have not occurred during the last 30 years or more. Further, the shift co-occurred with extreme levels of the 137 year long time series of the index of the North-Atlantic Oscillation (NAO. The results are discussed in relation to stock management and climate change.

  15. Growth analysis and age validation of a deepwater Arctic fish, the Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides)

    Treble, M.A.; Campana, S.E.; Wastle, R.E.


    The accuracy of age interpretations on a deep-sea, Arctic fish species, the Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) was tested using several age validation methods. Consistent annual growth increments were either not formed or not visible in either whole or sectioned otoliths from three...... GROTAG were consistent with growth rates based on the radiocarbon assays and were less than half that of previously reported growth rates. The failure of otolith sections to provide an accurate age is unusual, but may be symptomatic of very slow-growing species with unusually shaped otoliths. Greenland...... halibut living in the deep-sea, Arctic environment are slower growing and longer lived than previously suspected, suggesting that the age-structured basis for current fisheries management warrants careful examination. Our results highlight the importance of using rigorous tests of ageing accuracy...

  16. Uptake of Iodide From Water in Atlantic Halibut Larvae (Hippoglossus Hippoglossus L.)

    Moren, Mari; Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Hamre, Kristin


    is whether Atlantic halibut larvae are capable of absorbing iodide from the water and if so, can the seawater sustain the iodine requirement during larval development and metamorphosis. Levels of iodide and iodate in seawater samples from four different rearing facilities were analysed. All samples contained...... relative low levels of iodide (0-22 nM) and except for samples from one site; the levels of iodide and iodate were in agreement with previously published data. The uptake of iodide from seawater was measured by incubating Atlantic halibut larvae in water with a constant level of radioactive iodide (I-125......(-)) and increasing levels of cold iodide (I-127(-)). To evaluate whether the uptake of iodide would change during metamorphosis, three different developmental stages (pre metamorphic, metamorphic and post metamorphic) were examined. The uptake was similar for all three stages, increasing with increasing...

  17. Differential expression patterns of conserved miRNAs and isomiRs during Atlantic halibut development

    Bizuayehu Teshome T


    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs play a major role in animal ontogenesis. Size variants of miRNAs, isomiRs, are observed along with the main miRNA types, but their origin and possible biological role are uncovered yet. Developmental profiles of miRNAs have been reported in few fish species only and, to our knowledge, differential expressions of isomiRs have not yet been shown during fish development. Atlantic halibut, Hippoglossus hippoglossus L., undergoes dramatic metamorphosis during early development from symmetrical pelagic larval stage to unsymmetrical flatfish. No data exist on role of miRNAs in halibut metamorphosis. Results miRNA profiling using SOLiD deep sequencing technology revealed a total of 199 conserved, one novel antisense, and one miRNA* mature form. Digital expression profiles of selected miRNAs were validated using reverse transcription quantitative PCR. We found developmental transition-specific miRNA expression. Expression of some miRNA* exceeded the guide strand miRNA. We revealed that nucleotide truncations and/or additions at the 3' end of mature miRNAs resulted in size variants showing differential expression patterns during the development in a number of miRNA families. We confirmed the presence of isomiRs by cloning and Sanger sequencing. Also, we found inverse relationship between expression levels of sense/antisense miRNAs during halibut development. Conclusion Developmental transitions during early development of Atlantic halibut are associated with expression of certain miRNA types. IsomiRs are abundant and often show differential expression during the development.

  18. SmartShape™ technology. Modifying the shape of the beef cuberoll and the consumer response to shaped scotch fillet steaks.

    Taylor, Johanne; van de Ven, Remy; Hopkins, David L


    SmartShape™ is a novel meat processing technology that uses air pressure to compress and elongate whole cold-boned primals and packages them to retain form. A two stage study was conducted. The first stage established the ability of the SmartShape™ treated beef cube roll (m. longissimus lumborum) to retain shape in a commercial setting. Twelve hours chilling time following treatment was found to be adequate for steaks to retain their shape for up to 24h after slicing. Steak shape and size did not change substantially until after cooking, when the steaks looked less formed. In the second stage a survey was conducted of 421 consumers to clarify the response to the shaping of a subset of raw and cooked scotch fillet steaks. There was no difference in preference for shaped or control steaks. A secondary survey found that informed consumers were more amenable to the SmartShape™ scotch fillet steaks presented here, but would not pay a premium for them.

  19. Spatial Variation in the Mercury Concentration of Muscle Myomeres in Steaks of Farmed Southern Bluefin Tuna

    Kirstin Ross


    Full Text Available Mercury concentration in the muscular tissue of farmed southern bluefin tuna, Thunnus maccoyii (SBT is known to vary. Data suggests that mercury concentration is negatively correlated with the lipid concentration of tissues. Those areas that accumulate higher levels of lipid are noted to have a lower mercury concentration than lean tissues. Here we further delineate variation in mercury concentration within SBT muscular tissues by determining the concentration of mercury in the muscle myomeres (those sections within whole muscles of transverse sectional steaks of farmed SBT. Mercury concentration in myomeres is observed to significantly decrease with dorsal and ventral distance from the spine or lateral line of fish. By extension, evidence is provided for the variation of mercury concentration within tissue cuts present in SBT steaks. This paper provides the first documentation of variation in mercury concentration within muscular tissue of fish.

  20. The effect of branding on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks.

    Wilfong, A K; McKillip, K V; Gonzalez, J M; Houser, T A; Unruh, J A; Boyle, E A E; O'Quinn, T G


    The objective of this study was to determine the influence of knowing the brand or USDA grade on consumer palatability ratings of beef strip loin steaks. Strip loins were selected to represent 5 USDA grades and brands, USDA Select, Choice, Prime, Certified Angus Beef (CAB; upper 2/3 Choice), and Select, from carcasses of cattle classified as Angus on the basis of phenotype. After 21 d of aging, 2.5-cm-thick steaks were cut, consecutively cut steaks were paired for consumer evaluation. Consumer panelists ( = 112) evaluated samples for tenderness, juiciness, flavor liking, and overall liking. Additionally, consumers rated each palatability trait as either acceptable or unacceptable. Samples were fed in 2 rounds on the same day: blind and informed testing. In the first round, blind testing, consumers were served 1 sample from each treatment, with no product information provided. In the second round, consumers were informed of the brand or quality grade prior to sampling. During blind testing, CAB rated similar ( > 0.05) to Choice for all palatability traits; however, CAB rated greater ( 0.05) for all traits when tested blind, but Angus Select was rated greater ( brand was declared. When comparing blind and informed ratings, Angus Select and CAB had greater ( brand disclosure. However, ratings for Choice and Select samples were unaffected ( > 0.05) when brand was disclosed. Brand knowledge increased ( 0.05) in the percentage of Choice and Select samples rated as acceptable for all palatability traits. These data indicate that Prime, CAB, and Angus Select steaks receive an increase in consumer palatability perception, or "brand lift," which does not occur for Choice and Select beef.

  1. Antimicrobial Effect of Malpighia Punicifolia and Extension of Water Buffalo Steak Shelf-Life.

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Succi, Mariantonietta; Tipaldi, Luca; Pannella, Gianfranco; Ibañez, Eléna; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Coppola, Raffaele


    In the present study, a multiple approach was used to characterize Malpighia punicifolia extract and to evaluate its inhibitory activity against several meat spoilage bacteria. First, volatile fraction, vitamins and phenolic compounds of the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were determined by GC-MS and HPLC. Then, the antimicrobial action of the extract was in vitro evaluated against Pseudomonas putida DSMZ 291(T), Pseudomonas fluorescens DSMZ 50009(T), Pseudomonas fragi DSMZ 3456(T), and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSMZ 20171(T) by the agar well diffusion assay and by the agar dilution test. Based on the results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the assayed bacteria, 4 different concentrations of the extract were used in a challenge test on water buffalo steaks stored for 21 d at 4 °C. Results of chemical analyses showed that M. punicifolia extract is characterized by the presence of several compounds, already described for their antimicrobial (phenolic acids, flavonones, and furanes) and antioxidant (ascorbic acid) properties. The in vitro detection of antimicrobial activities highlighted that the extract, used at 8% concentration, was able to inhibit all the target bacteria. Moreover, very low MIC values (up to 0.025%) were detected. In situ tests, performed on water buffalo steaks treated with the extract in the concentration range 0.025% to 0.05%, showed a strong inhibition of both intentionally inoculated bacteria and naturally occurring microorganisms. Positive results, in terms of color and odor, were also observed during the entire storage of steaks preserved with the extract.

  2. Impact of deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) on non-commercial fish species off West Greenland

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Bastardie, Francois; Eigaard, Ole Ritzau


    . During the period 1988–2011, population abundance and size composition changed as catch and effort in the Greenland halibut fishery increased. Two species showed a significant decrease in abundance, and four populations showed a significant reduction in mean weight of individuals (p , 0.05). Correlation......Since the late 1980s, a deep-sea fishery for Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) has been developing gradually in West Greenland. Deep-sea fish species are generally long-lived and characterized by late age of maturity, low fecundity, and slow growth, features that probably cause low...... resilience following overexploitation. In order to evaluate whether populations of nine potential bycatch species are negatively affected by the commercial fishery for Greenland halibut, scientific data from bottom-trawl surveys conducted in the same area and period as the commercial fishery were analysed...

  3. Lipid and Fatty Acid Compositions of Cod(Gadus morhua),Haddock(Melanogrammus aeglefinus)and Halibut(Hippogiossus hippoglossus)

    ZENG Duan; MAI Kangsen; AI Qinghui; Joyce E.Milley; Santosh P.Lall


    This study was conducted to compare lipid and fatty acid composition of cod,haddock and halibut.Three groups of cod(276 g±61 g),haddock(538 g±83 g)and halibut(3704 g±221 g)were maintained with commercial feeds mainly based on fish meal and marine fish oil for 12 weeks prior to sampling.The fatty acid compositions of muscle and liver were determined by GC/FID after derivatization of extracted lipids into fatty acid methyl esters(FAME).Lipids were also fractionated into neutral and polar lipids using Waters silica Sep-Pak(R).The phospholipid fraction was further separated by high-performance thin-layer chromatography(HPTLC)and the FAME profile was obtained.Results of the present study showed that cod and haddock were lean fish and their total muscle lipid contents were 0.8% and 0.7%,respectively,with phospholipid constituting 83.6% and 87.5% of the total muscle lipid,respectively.Halibut was a medium-fat fish and its muscle lipid content was 8%,with 84% of the total muscle lipid being neutral lipid.Total liver lipid contents of cod,haddock and halibut were 36.9%,67.2% and 30.7%,respectively,of which the neutral lipids accounted for the major fraction(88.1%-97.1%).Polyunsaturated fatty acids were the most abundant in cod and haddock muscle neutral lipid.Monounsaturated fatty acid level was the highest in halibut muscle neutral lipid.Fatty acid compositions of phospholipid were relatively constant.In summary,the liver of cod and haddock as lean fish was the main lipid reserve organ,and structural phospholipid is the major lipid form in flesh.However,as a medium-fat fish,halibut stored lipid in both their liver and muscle.

  4. Estimates of reproductive potential of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in East Greenland based on an update of maturity status

    Kennedy, James; Hedeholm, Rasmus B.; Gundersen, Agnes C.


    ), respectively. Combining the maturity data with abundance data of Greenland halibut in East Greenland, spawning stock biomass (SSB) and total egg production (TEP) was estimated in four quadrants between 1998 and 2012 using both the previous and current interpretation of the maturity scale. Using the new...... interpretation of the scale led to a decrease in SSB estimates of 28–92% in specific areas and years, with an average of 56%. Estimates of TEP were directly proportional to SSB so this approach did not offer any advantages over SSB as a measure of reproductive potential. Length composition of Greenland halibut...

  5. Fecundity of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides Walbaum) in East Greenland waters

    Gundersen, Agnes Christine; Rønneberg, Jan Erich; Boje, Jesper


    Fecundity is described for Greenland halibut, based on ovaries collected in July 1997 in ICES Division XIVb in East Greenland waters. The mean potential fecundity was estimated to be 113700 (range 32500–277100). Fecundity was significantly determined by total length. Fecundity–length and fecundity......–weight (round and gutted) relationships were estimated. Vitellogenic oocytes appearing dark in the microscope with a diameter ranging from 900 to 1650μm were counted and used in the fecundity estimates. This stage was easily distinguished from an early vitellogenic stage, with a diameter ranging from 490...

  6. Effect of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steak quality during storage

    Dino Miraglia


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of a phenolic extract from olive vegetation water on fresh salmon steaks stored at 4°C under modified atmosphere. Twenty-four salmon steaks were respectively immersed in solutions of the diluted phenolic extract at 1.5 g/L (A, 3 g/L (B, and water only as a control (CTR, packaged within a protective atmosphere (70% carbon dioxide, 25% nitrogen and 5% oxygen and then stored at 4°C. After 2 h, and 3 and 6 days of storage, the fish samples were analysed for the total viable count, Enterobacteriaceae count, pH, colour (CIE L*a*b* colour system, phenolic composition, α- tocopherol content, antioxidant activity by 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH˙ assay, and thiobarbituric reactive substances (TBARS. A 3 g/L phenolic extract contributed positively to the hygienic quality of the salmon by reducing the microbial growth during storage. The treated samples were slightly yellower than the CTR but only at the beginning of storage. The flesh contained 6.2% of the total polyphenols present in the initial solutions, with various percentages of the single fractions. After 6 days storage, the α- tocopherol content in the CTR and A samples was statistically lower than the B group that also showed the lowest DPPH˙ and TBARS values. In conclusion, the phenolic extract increased the microbiological quality and antioxidant concentration and decreased the lipid oxidation of salmon steaks during storage at 4°C under modified atmosphere.

  7. Antimicrobial Effect of Malpighia Punicifolia and Extension of Water Buffalo Steak Shelf‐Life

    Tremonte, Patrizio; Sorrentino, Elena; Tipaldi, Luca; Pannella, Gianfranco; Ibañez, Eléna; Mendiola, Jose Antonio; Di Renzo, Tiziana; Reale, Anna; Coppola, Raffaele


    Abstract In the present study, a multiple approach was used to characterize Malpighia punicifolia extract and to evaluate its inhibitory activity against several meat spoilage bacteria. First, volatile fraction, vitamins and phenolic compounds of the extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction were determined by GC‐MS and HPLC. Then, the antimicrobial action of the extract was in vitro evaluated against Pseudomonas putida DSMZ 291T, Pseudomonas fluorescens DSMZ 50009T, Pseudomonas fragi DSMZ 3456T, and Brochothrix thermosphacta DSMZ 20171T by the agar well diffusion assay and by the agar dilution test. Based on the results of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against the assayed bacteria, 4 different concentrations of the extract were used in a challenge test on water buffalo steaks stored for 21 d at 4 °C. Results of chemical analyses showed that M. punicifolia extract is characterized by the presence of several compounds, already described for their antimicrobial (phenolic acids, flavonones, and furanes) and antioxidant (ascorbic acid) properties. The in vitro detection of antimicrobial activities highlighted that the extract, used at 8% concentration, was able to inhibit all the target bacteria. Moreover, very low MIC values (up to 0.025%) were detected. In situ tests, performed on water buffalo steaks treated with the extract in the concentration range 0.025% to 0.05%, showed a strong inhibition of both intentionally inoculated bacteria and naturally occurring microorganisms. Positive results, in terms of color and odor, were also observed during the entire storage of steaks preserved with the extract. PMID:26556435

  8. 76 FR 44155 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan for Guided Sport and Commercial Fisheries in Alaska


    ... defined as the weight of halibut from which the gills, entrails, head, and ice and slime have been removed...) net weight, and in Area 3A the maximum GHL was set at 3,650,000 lbs (1,655.6 mt) net weight. The... the effects of replacing the GHL stair-step benchmark in pounds with a CSP allocation percentage that...

  9. 50 CFR Table 3 to Part 679 - Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Product Recovery Rates for Groundfish Species and Conversion Rates for Pacific Halibut 3 Table 3 to Part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY...) FISHERIES OF THE EXCLUSIVE ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 3 Table 3 to Part 679—Product...

  10. Assessment of the Greenland Halibut Stock Component in NAFO Subarea 0 + Division 1A offshore + Division 1D-1F

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Treble, M.A.


    The paper presents the background and the input parameters from research surveys and the commercial fishery to the assessment of the Greenland halibut stock component in NAFO Subarea 0 + Div. 1A offshore + Div. 1B-1F. During 2006-2009 catches have been around 24,000 tons. Catches increased to 26 ...

  11. Seasonal migration, vertical activity and winter temperature experience of Greenland halibut Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Walbaum) in West Greenland waters

    Boje, Jesper; Neuenfeldt, Stefan; Sparrevohn, Claus Reedtz


    little is known about its behavior and habitat characteristics. We tagged adult Greenland halibut in the waters off Ilulissat with electronic data storage tags that collected information on depth, temperature, and time. Although clear differences between individuals in migration and vertical behavior...

  12. Combination of glazing, nisin treatment and radiation processing for shelf-life extension of seer fish (Scomberomorous guttatus) steaks

    Kakatkar, Aarti S.; Gautam, Raj Kamal; Shashidhar, Ravindranath


    Fish and fishery products are most perishable. Combination of chilling with gamma irradiation, edible coatings, addition of antimicrobials etc has been applied to extend the shelf life. In the present study, a process to enhance the shelf life of seer fish (Scomberomorus guttatus) steaks using combination of coating prepared from gel dispersion of same fish; incorporated with nisin and gamma irradiation is described. A combination of glazing incorporated with nisin and irradiation at 2 kGy and 5 kGy increased the shelf life of the steaks from 7 days up to 34 and 42 days respectively on chilled storage.

  13. Technical note: feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to calf-fed Holstein steers improves muscle conformation of top loin steaks.

    Lawrence, T E; Allen, D M; Delmore, R J; Beckett, J L; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Hutcheson, J P


    The objective of this research was to evaluate changes in the muscle conformation of subprimal top-loins (M. longissimus lumborum) from calf-fed Holstein steers fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH). Top-loins (n = 100) were transversely cut into 2.54 cm-thick steaks, weighed, and objectively evaluated via image analysis software for muscle area, width, and length traits. Top-loin steaks from steers fed ZH were heavier (Pcalf-fed Holstein steers fed ZH may improve the center-of-the-plate salability of a cut that has traditionally suffered from poor muscling.

  14. TORO Steak House&Gastro Bar:拉丁美飨



    Toro Steak House&Gastr oBar为饕客带来全新的拉丁美飨体验。餐厅的室内设计融合了拉丁美洲的餐饮元素以及纽约时尚的风格,餐厅深棕色的色调配合锻铁的装饰以及豪华皮革软座,构成既温暖柔和,又富格调的用餐气氛。

  15. The impact of beef steak thermal processing on lipid oxidation and postprandial inflammation related responses.

    Nuora, Anu; Chiang, Vic Shao-Chih; Milan, Amber M; Tarvainen, Marko; Pundir, Shikha; Quek, Siew-Young; Smith, Greg C; Markworth, James F; Ahotupa, Markku; Cameron-Smith, David; Linderborg, Kaisa M


    Oxidised lipid species, their bioavailability and impact on inflammatory responses from cooked beef steak are poorly characterised. Oxidised lipid species from pan-fried (PF) and sous-vide (SV) thermally processed beef were determined with UHPLC-ESI/MS. Twenty-three lipid oxidation products increased with thermal processing and differences between the PF and SV steaks were measured. Fifteen oxidised lipids were measured in post-meal plasma after a cross-over randomised clinical study. Postprandial plasma inflammatory markers tended to remain lower following the SV meal than the PF meal. High levels of conjugated dienes were measured in the HDL fraction, suggesting that the protective effect of HDL may extend to the reverse-transport of oxidised lipid species. Oxidised lipids in a single meal may influence postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation. Further studies are required to examine the lipid oxidative responses to increased dietary oxidative lipid load, including the reverse transport activity of HDL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Risk assessment of Shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli O157 in steak tartare in the Netherlands

    Nauta MJ; Evers EG; Takumi K; Havelaar AH; MGB


    The methodology of quantitative microbiological risk assessment (QMRA), a tool to evaluate food related health risks, is rapidly developing. As a contribution to this development, a QMRA of Shiga-toxin producing E. coli (STEC) O157 in steak tartare in the Netherlands is conducted, using the Modular

  17. Consumer sensory acceptance and value of wet-aged and dry-aged beef steaks.

    Sitz, B M; Calkins, C R; Feuz, D M; Umberger, W J; Eskridge, K M


    To determine sensory preference and value of fresh beef steak differing in aging technique, strip steaks were evaluated by consumers in Denver (n = 132 consumers) and Chicago (n = 141 consumers). Wet-aged Choice strip loins were matched with dry-aged Choice strip loins, whereas wet-aged Prime strip loins were matched with dry-aged Prime strip loins. Dry-aged strip loins were commercially aged in air in a controlled environment for 30 d and vacuum-aged for 7 d during shipping and storage. Wet-aged strip loins were vacuum-packaged and aged for 37 d in a 1 degrees C cooler. Pairs of strip loins were matched to similar Warner-Bratzler shear force values and marbling scores. Twelve sensory evaluation panels (of 12 scheduled panelists each) were conducted over a 3-d period in each city. Individual samples from a pair of steaks were evaluated by the panelists for sensory traits. Bids were placed on the samples after sensory traits were obtained utilizing a variation of the Vickery auction with silent, sealed bids. No significant differences for sensory traits of flavor, juiciness, tenderness, or overall acceptability were detected between wet-aged Choice samples and dry-aged Choice samples. Although wet-aged Choice samples were numerically superior for all sensory traits, consumers placed similar bid values (P = 0.12) on wet- and dry-aged Choice samples ($3.82 per 0.45 kg and $3.57 per 0.45 kg, respectively). Wet-aged Prime samples were rated more desirable (P dry-aged Prime samples. Wet-aged Prime samples were valued at $4.02 per 0.45 kg, whereas dry-aged Prime samples brought $3.58 per 0.45 kg (P = 0.008). Consumers (29.3%) who preferred the dry-aged Choice samples over the wet-aged Choice samples were willing to pay $1.99/0.45 kg more (P dry-aged samples. The consumers who preferred the wet-aged Choice over the dry-aged Choice samples (39.2%) were willing to pay $1.77/0.45 kg more (P aged Prime over dry-aged Prime samples (45.8%) paid $1.92/0.45 kg more (P dry

  18. Killer whale depredation and associated costs to Alaskan sablefish, Pacific halibut and Greenland turbot longliners.

    Peterson, Megan J; Mueter, Franz; Criddle, Keith; Haynie, Alan C


    Killer whale (Orcinus orca) depredation (whales stealing or damaging fish caught on fishing gear) adversely impacts demersal longline fisheries for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria), Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) in the Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands and Western Gulf of Alaska. These interactions increase direct costs and opportunity costs associated with catching fish and reduce the profitability of longline fishing in western Alaska. This study synthesizes National Marine Fisheries Service observer data, National Marine Fisheries Service sablefish longline survey and fishermen-collected depredation data to: 1) estimate the frequency of killer whale depredation on longline fisheries in Alaska; 2) estimate depredation-related catch per unit effort reductions; and 3) assess direct costs and opportunity costs incurred by longliners in western Alaska as a result of killer whale interactions. The percentage of commercial fishery sets affected by killer whales was highest in the Bering Sea fisheries for: sablefish (21.4%), Greenland turbot (9.9%), and Pacific halibut (6.9%). Average catch per unit effort reductions on depredated sets ranged from 35.1-69.3% for the observed longline fleet in all three management areas from 1998-2012 (pdepredation, fishermen set additional gear to catch the same amount of fish, and this increased fuel costs by an additional 82% per depredated set (average $433 additional fuel per depredated set). In a separate analysis with six longline vessels in 2011 and 2012, killer whale depredation avoidance measures resulted in an average additional cost of $494 per depredated vessel-day for fuel and crew food. Opportunity costs of time lost by fishermen averaged $522 per additional vessel-day on the grounds. This assessment of killer whale depredation costs represents the most extensive economic evaluation of this issue in Alaska to date and will help longline fishermen and managers

  19. Killer whale depredation and associated costs to Alaskan sablefish, Pacific halibut and Greenland turbot longliners.

    Megan J Peterson

    Full Text Available Killer whale (Orcinus orca depredation (whales stealing or damaging fish caught on fishing gear adversely impacts demersal longline fisheries for sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria, Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis and Greenland turbot (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides in the Bering Sea, Aleutian Islands and Western Gulf of Alaska. These interactions increase direct costs and opportunity costs associated with catching fish and reduce the profitability of longline fishing in western Alaska. This study synthesizes National Marine Fisheries Service observer data, National Marine Fisheries Service sablefish longline survey and fishermen-collected depredation data to: 1 estimate the frequency of killer whale depredation on longline fisheries in Alaska; 2 estimate depredation-related catch per unit effort reductions; and 3 assess direct costs and opportunity costs incurred by longliners in western Alaska as a result of killer whale interactions. The percentage of commercial fishery sets affected by killer whales was highest in the Bering Sea fisheries for: sablefish (21.4%, Greenland turbot (9.9%, and Pacific halibut (6.9%. Average catch per unit effort reductions on depredated sets ranged from 35.1-69.3% for the observed longline fleet in all three management areas from 1998-2012 (p<0.001. To compensate for depredation, fishermen set additional gear to catch the same amount of fish, and this increased fuel costs by an additional 82% per depredated set (average $433 additional fuel per depredated set. In a separate analysis with six longline vessels in 2011 and 2012, killer whale depredation avoidance measures resulted in an average additional cost of $494 per depredated vessel-day for fuel and crew food. Opportunity costs of time lost by fishermen averaged $522 per additional vessel-day on the grounds. This assessment of killer whale depredation costs represents the most extensive economic evaluation of this issue in Alaska to date and will help

  20. [Structure analysis of mtDNA control region of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and its related species].

    He, Chong-Bo; Cao, Jie; Liu, Wei-Dong; Zhou, Zun-Chun; Ge, Long-Li; Gao, Xiang-Gang; Wang, Xiao-Min


    Spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) is the only species of Genus Verasper in China. The fish was naturally distributed in Yellow Sea and Bohai Sea in northern China and Kyushu in Japan and in Korean sea area. Using PCR product direct sequencing, mitochondrial control region sequences of 24 individuals of spotted halibut was confirmed and analyzed. 4 control region haplotypes, resulting from length heteroplamy of the tandem repeat region, was obtained from these 24 fish. Sequence analysis demonstrated that there were four similar structures in the control region, i.e., extended terminal associated sequences (ETAS), central conserved sequence block (CSB), conserved sequence block (CSB), and repeat region, in V. moseri, Limanda ferruginea, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Heppoglossoides platessoides, Paralichthys olivaceous, Solea solea, S. senegalensis, and S. lascari. By comparing with other vertebrates, we found that there were similar repeated sequences immediately after the CSB-3 in all of the anuran species.

  1. A novel function for the pineal organ in the control of swim depth in the Atlantic halibut larva

    Novales Flamarique, Iñigo


    The pineal organ of vertebrates is a photo-sensitive structure that conveys photoperiod information to the brain. This information influences circadian rhythm and related metabolic processes such as thermoregulation, hatching time, body growth, and the timing of reproduction. This study demonstrates extra-ocular light responses that control swim depth in the larva of the Atlantic halibut, Hyppoglosus hyppoglosus. Young larvae without a functional eye (=29 days), which possess a functional eye, swim immediately downwards (microsecond delay) following the onset of the light stimulus, but proceed to swim upwards several seconds later. These two response patterns are thus opposite in polarity and have different time kinetics. Because the pineal organ of the Atlantic halibut develops during the embryonic stage, and because it is the only centre in the brain that expresses functional visual pigments (opsins) at early larval stages, it is the only photosensory organ capable of generating the extra-ocular responses observed.

  2. Effects of Inulin and Sodium Carbonate in Phosphate-Free Restructured Poultry Steaks

    Öztürk, B.; Serdaroğlu, M.


    Recently inorganic phosphates used in meat product formulations have caused negative impact on consumers due to their potential health risks. Therefore, utilization of natural ingredients as phosphate replacers has come into prominence as a novel research topic to meet consumer demands for clean-label trends. In this study, we objected to investigate the effects of inulin utilization either in the powder or gelled form, alone or in combination with sodium carbonate on quality of phosphate-free restructured chicken steaks. Total moisture, protein, lipid and ash values of the trial groups were in the range of 71.54-75.46%, 22.60-24.31%, 0.94-1.70% and 1.45-2.13%, respectively. pH of the samples was between 6.18-6.39, significant increments were recorded in samples containing inulin with sodium carbonate. L*, a* and b* values were recorded as 78.92-81.05, 1.76-3.05 and 10.80-11.94, respectively, where use of gelled inulin resulted in changes of L* and a* values. Utilization of inulin in combination with sodium carbonate decreased cook loss and enhanced product yield. Sensory scores in control group with phosphate showed a similar pattern to sensory scores in groups with inulin and sodium carbonate. During storage, purge loss and lipid oxidation rate were similar in control and inulin + sodium carbonate samples. The results showed that use of inulin in combination with sodium carbonate provided equivalent physical, chemical and sensory quality to phosphates in restructured chicken steaks.

  3. A new species of Entobdella Blainville in Lamarck, 1818 (Monogenea: Capsalidae: Entobdellinae) from the Greenland halibut, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides.

    Kearn, Graham; Karlsbakk, Egil; Evans-Gowing, Richard; Gerasev, Pavel


    A previously undescribed species of Entobdella is reported from the skin of the Greenland halibut, Reinhardtius hippoglossoides (Pleuronectiformes, Pleuronectidae). Entobdella whittingtoni sp. nov. differs from other species of Entobdella, including skin parasites of the related pleuronectids Hippoglossus hippoglossus (Atlantic halibut) and H. stenolepis (Pacific halibut), in lacking papillae on the ventral surface of the haptor. Other characteristics of E. whittingtoni are as follows: the absence of vitelline follicles lateral to the pharynx thereby exposing gut caeca in this region of whole mounts; the presence of a circular feature of unknown function, resembling a rosette in sections, attached to the wall of the internal male accessory reservoir; the lack of eyes. Papillae are also absent from the ventral surface of the haptor of the gill-parasitic entobdelline Branchobdella pugetensis, a gill parasite of the pleuronectid Atheresthes stomias. This raises the question as to whether this gill parasite has evolved from a skin-parasitic ancestor similar to E. whittingtoni. An answer to this question requires a more detailed study of the male reproductive apparatus of B. pugetensis and the use of molecular techniques to explore the relationship between B. pugetensis and E. whittingtoni.

  4. Sequence and organization of the complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri).

    He, Chongbo; Han, Jiabo; Ge, Longli; Zhou, Zunchun; Gao, Xianggang; Mu, Yunlei; Liu, Weidong; Cao, Jie; Liu, Zhanjiang


    In this work, the mitochondrial genomes for spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) and barfin flounder (Verasper moseri) were completely sequenced. The entire mitochondrial genome sequences of the spotted halibut and barfin flounder were 17,273 and 17,588 bp in length, respectively. The organization of the two mitochondrial genomes was similar to those reported from other fish mitochondrial genomes containing 37 genes (2 rRNAs, 22 tRNAs and 13 protein-coding genes) and two non-coding regions (control region (CR) and WANCY region). In the CR, the termination associated sequence (ETAS), six central conserved block (CSB-A,B,C,D,E,F), three conserved sequence blocks (CSB1-3) and a region of 61-bp tandem repeat cluster at the end of CSB-3 were identified by similarity comparison with fishes and other vertebrates. The tandem repeat sequences show polymorphism among the different individuals of the two species. The complete mitochondrial genomes of spotted halibut and barfin flounder should be useful for evolutionary studies of flatfishes and other vertebrate species.

  5. Seasonal migration and environmental conditions of Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, elucidated from pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags

    Loher, T.; Seitz, A.


    Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags were used to study the fall migration of halibut in the Gulf of Alaska (GOA). We tagged 6 Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis on summer feeding grounds in the eastern GOA and another 6 in the western GOA from June 13 to August 6, 2002. The tags were programed to be released from the fish on January 15, 2003, at the height of the winter spawning season: 10 tags successfully detached, transmitted archived environmental data (depth and temperature), and generated accurate latitude-longitude coordinates shortly after pop-up; 2 tags deployed off SE Alaska were lost. The tags revealed that 6 fish had moved a considerable distance (>200 km) between tagging and pop-up, and all of these had moved northward to some extent. The longest of the observed migrations was from the southern Alaska Peninsula to Yakutat Bay, a linear displacement of 1153 km; 4 fish showed little evidence of geographic displacement, exhibiting migrations that ranged only from 30 to 69 km. Although 2 fish had moved inshore by the end of the tagging period, all other fish had moved offshore regardless of their overall migration distance. The precise timing of offshore movements varied, beginning as early as August and as late as January. These observations generally corroborate conventional tagging, indicating migration of halibut toward winter spawning grounds in the northern GOA, and movement of fish to deep water in fall. However, no single stereotypic migration behavior was apparent, and a variety of vertical movement patterns and temperature profiles were observed. Halibut spent most time in waters of 5 to 7??C, but experienced temperatures ranging from 2.6 to 11.6??C. Depth observations ranged from 0 to 736 m, with summertime activity concentrated in depths from 0 to 400 m, and halibut that exhibited offshore movement were typically observed at 300 to 700 m by mid-winter. Vertical movement (short-period changes in depth) varied among fish and over time

  6. The influence of taste in willingness-to-pay valuations of sirloin steaks from postextraction algal residue-fed cattle.

    Johnson, M D; Miller, R K; Morrill, J C; Anderson, D P; Wickersham, T A; Sawyer, J E; Richardson, J W; Palma, M A


    Consumer preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for beef sirloin steaks with differing production, physical, and credence attributes related to the use of postextraction algal residue (PEAR), a novel feed ingredient, were estimated. Ninety-six consumers participated in a sensory tasting panel before completing a choice set survey; 127 consumers completed only the choice set survey without sampling products. Steaks from grain- and PEAR-fed steers had similar Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) scores (1.89 kg and 2.01 kg, respectively; = 0.77) and had lower WBSF scores than steaks from grass-fed steers (3.37 kg; 0.26). Panelists rated the juiciness like/dislike of steaks from PEAR-fed cattle the highest ( < 0.01) among the 3 samples. Sensory tasting of the products was observed to alter the preferences of consumers. Consumers who completed only the survey negatively perceived beef from PEAR-fed cattle compared with beef from grain-fed cattle, with a WTP discount of -US$1.17/kg. However, with sensory tasting, the WTP for beef from PEAR-fed cattle was not discounted relative to beef from grain-fed cattle ( = 0.21). The nontasting consumers had much higher stated WTP values for credence attributes. Factors that influence the eating experience (tenderness and quality grade) dominated as the most important attributes on WTP among the tasting group. The use of no hormones and no antibiotics in production had a premium of $2.34/kg among the nontasting group, but with tasting, the premium was $1.19/kg. If PEAR-fed beef came to market, there would be no need to differentiate it from grain-fed beef unless retailers wanted to market it as a differentiated product. If it were marketed as a differentiated product, retailers would need to hold promotional tastings to change consumer's preconceived notions about the product.

  7. Calcium-activated tenderization of strip loin, top sirloin, and top round steaks in diverse genotypes of cattle.

    Pringle, T D; Harrelson, J M; West, R L; Williams, S E; Johnson, D D


    Steers of known percentage Brahman (B) and Angus (A) breeding (100% A, n = 6; F1 B x A, n = 6; and 100% B, n = 6) were used to determine the effect of calcium chloride injection on the calpain proteinase system and meat tenderness. The steers were slaughtered in six replications (at either 9 or 14 mm of backfat, determined ultrasonically), with each breed type represented. Calpains and calpastatin activities were measured on fresh, prerigor longissimus muscle samples. Carcass data were collected after a 24-h chill, and the short loin (IMPS #180), top sirloin (IMPS #184), and top round (IMPS #168) were removed from both sides of each carcass. The cuts from the right side were then injected at 5% (wt/wt) with CaCl2 solution (2.2%). Longissimus muscle calpain and calpastatin activities were also measured at 48 h postmortem from the injected and control sides of each carcass. Warner-Bratzler shear force was measured on steaks from the three subprimals aged 1, 2, 5, 15, or 31 d. Marbling scores and USDA quality grades were higher (P.05) across breed type. Calcium injection improved strip loin and top sirloin steak tenderness, but it did not affect top round steak tenderness. Collectively, these data show that CaC12 injection can be used to improve meat tenderness, with similar responses shown in cattle containing 0, 50, and 100% B inheritance. However, even with CaCl2 injection, B steaks are less tender than their A and F1 B x A counterparts.

  8. Are Consumers Willing to Pay More for Sustainable Products? A Study of Eco-Labeled Tuna Steak

    Guzhen Zhou


    Full Text Available A high demand for seafood leads to overfishing, harms the long-term health of seafood stocks, and threatens environmental sustainability in oceans. Sustainability certification is one of the major sustainability movements and is known as eco-labeling. For instance, in the tuna industry, leading tuna brands have committed to protecting sea turtles by allowing the tracing of the source of their tuna “from catch to can.” This paper relies on an Internet survey on consumers from Kentucky conducted in July 2010. The survey investigates household-level tuna steak (sashimi grade consumption and examines consumer preferences for eco-labeling (“Certified Turtle Safe” (CTS in this study while mimicking individuals’ seafood procurement processes. A random parameter logit model is utilized, and willingness-to-pay measures are calculated based on model estimation results. It was found that respondents on average preferred turtle-safe-labeled tuna steak and were likely to pay more for it; however, they were less likely to purchase wild-caught species, and insignificant results were found for pre-frozen. Moreover, significant heterogeneities were found across individuals regarding tuna steak purchases. The findings indicate evidence of public support for environmental friendliness, particularly with regard to eco-labeling.

  9. Physico-chemical and sensory attributes of low-sodium restructured caiman steaks containing microbial transglutaminase and salt replacers.

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Lima, Bruno R C Costa; Suman, Surendranath P; Lazaro, Cesar A; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Conte-Junior, Carlos A; Freitas, Monica Q; Cruz, Adriano G; Santos, Erica B; Silva, Teofilo J P


    Our objective was to examine the physico-chemical and sensory attributes of low-sodium restructured caiman steaks containing microbial transglutaminase (MTG) and salt replacers (KCl and MgCl2). Trimmings from caiman carcasses were processed into restructured steaks with or without MTG and salt replacers; the five treatments were CON (1.5% NaCl), T-1 (1.5% NaCl+1% MTG), T-2 (0.75% NaCl+1% MTG+0.75% KCl), T-3 (0.75% NaCl+1% MTG+0.75% MgCl2), and T-4 (0.75% NaCl+1% MTG+0.375% KCl+0.375% MgCl2). T-4 demonstrated the greatest (Ppurchase intention was for T-3. Furthermore, T-3 and T-4 were similar (P>0.05) to controls in salty flavor. Our findings suggest that the combination of MTG, KCl, and MgCl2 can be employed as a suitable salt reduction strategy in restructured caiman steaks without compromising sensory attributes and consumer acceptance.

  10. Effect of active packaging on low-sodium restructured chicken steaks.

    Cestari, L A; Gaiotto, R C; Antigo, J L; Scapim, M R S; Madrona, G S; Yamashita, F; Pozza, M S S; Prado, I N


    Contributing for a healthier lifestyle, the technology of active and biodegradable packaging with antimicrobial and/or antioxidants compounds and reduced sodium intake have been increasingly applied in meat and meat products. Thus, the objective of this research was to assess the effectiveness of oregano essential oil (OEO) and potassium sorbate incorporated in packaging applied to the restructured chicken steaks with 40 % reduction in sodium chloride in frozen storage for 150 days. The composition of packaging did not influence moisture, crude protein, total lipids, ash, sodium and potassium content as well as pH evaluated on days 0 and 150. Salty taste was the only significant indication in the sensory analysis (p < 0.05). The use of 1 % and 0.5 % OEO incorporated in packaging reduced rancidity through lipid oxidation and can be regarded as an active antioxidant; the use of oregano or potassium sorbate in active films caused the development delay effect E. coli. Thus, the use of active packaging may maintain the product quality.

  11. Exploring the Bacterial Diversity of Belgian Steak Tartare Using Metagenetics and Quantitative Real-Time PCR Analysis.

    Delhalle, L; Korsak, N; Taminiau, B; Nezer, C; Burteau, S; Delcenserie, V; Poullet, J B; Daube, G


    Steak tartare is a popular meat dish in Belgium. It is prepared with raw minced beef and is eaten with sauce, vegetables, and spices. Because it contains raw meat, steak tartare is highly prone to bacterial spoilage. The objective of this study was to explore the diversity of bacterial flora in steak tartare in Belgium according to the source and to determine which bacteria are able to grow during shelf life. A total of 58 samples from butchers' shops, restaurants, sandwich shops, and supermarkets were collected. These samples were analyzed using 16S rDNA metagenetics, a classical microbiological technique, and quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) targeting the Lactobacillus genus. Samples were analyzed at the beginning and at the end of their shelf life, except for those from restaurants and sandwich shops, which were analyzed only on the purchase date. Metagenetic analysis identified up to 180 bacterial species and 90 genera in some samples. But only seven bacterial species were predominant in the samples, depending on the source: Brochothrix thermosphacta, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactococcus piscium, Leuconostoc gelidum, Photobacterium kishitani, Pseudomonas spp., and Xanthomonas oryzae. With this work, an alternative method is proposed to evaluate the total flora in food samples based on the number of reads from metagenetic analysis and the results of qPCR. The degree of underestimation of aerobic plate counts at 30°C estimated with the classical microbiology method was demonstrated in comparison with the proposed culture-independent method. Compared with culture-based methods, metagenetic analysis combined with qPCR targeting Lactobacillus provides valuable information for characterizing the bacterial flora of raw meat.

  12. Cooking and palatability traits of beef longissimus steaks cooked with a belt grill or an open hearth electric broiler.

    Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M


    The objective of this experiment was to compare the effects of belt grill and Open Hearth electric broiler cookery on palatability and cooking traits of longissimus steaks. The longissimus thoracis from carcasses of grain-fed steers or heifers was used. Duplicate measurements were made for Warner-Bratzler shear force at 3 and at 14 d after slaughter (n = 180) and trained sensory evaluation at 14 d after slaughter (n = 91) using both cooking methods. Belt grill-cooked samples had lower (P<.01) percentage of cooking losses (21.5 vs 25.8%) and higher (P<.01) shear force values (4.6 vs 4.3 kg) than electric broiler-cooked samples. Repeatability of duplicate measurements was higher for cooking losses (.58 vs .23) and shear force values (.85 vs .64) for belt grill than for electric broiler cooked samples. Belt grilled steaks had lower (P<.01) cooking losses (20.2 vs 29.8%); higher (P<.01) tenderness (7.0 vs 6.7) and juiciness (6.0 vs 5.1); and lower (P<.02) connective tissue amount (7.7 vs 7.8), beef flavor intensity (5.0 vs 5.1), and off-flavor (3.2 vs 3.3) ratings than steaks cooked with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the repeatability of duplicate sensory measurements for tenderness (.87 vs .71), connective tissue amount (.66 vs .30), and juiciness (.51 vs .08) ratings, and cooking losses (.63 vs .18) compared with cooking with the electric broiler. Belt grill cooking increased the precision for measurements of cooking, Warner-Bratzler shear force, and palatability traits of beef longissimus thoracis.

  13. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer palatability evaluations of steaks from US Choice and US Select short loins.

    Smith, R D; Nicholson, K L; Nicholson, J D W; Harris, K B; Miller, R K; Griffin, D B; Savell, J W


    Paired beef short loins from US Choice (n=48) and US Select (n=48) carcasses were assigned to be dry or wet aged for 14, 21, 28 or 35d. After aging, short loins were processed to determine retail yields and processing times. Upon completion of cutting tests, steaks were served to consumers to assess palatability characteristics. Retail cutting tests showed that dry-aged short loins had reduced yields and increased cutting times when compared to wet-aged short loins. Consumers were unable to determine differences between dry- and wet-aged steaks and for aging periods; however, USDA quality grade had a significant impact on consumer perception of palatability attributes.

  14. Effect of packaging and storage time on survival of Listeria monocytogenes on kippered beef steak and turkey tenders.

    Uppal, Kamaldeep K; Getty, Kelly J K; Boyle, Elizabeth A E; Harper, Nigel M; Lobaton-Sulabo, April Shayne S; Barry, Bruce


    The objective of our study was to determine effect of packaging method and storage time on reducing Listeria monocytogenes in shelf-stable meat snacks. Commercially available kippered beef steak strips and turkey tenders were dipped into a 5-strain L. monocytogenes cocktail, and dried at 23 °C until a water activity of 0.80 was achieved. Inoculated samples were packaged with 4 treatments: (1) vacuum, (2) nitrogen flushed with oxygen scavenger, (3) heat sealed with oxygen scavenger, and (4) heat sealed without oxygen scavenger. Samples were stored at 23 °C and evaluated for L. monocytogenes levels at 0, 24, 48, and 72 h. Initial levels (time 0) of L. monocytogenes were approximately 5.7 log CFU/cm² for steak and tenders. After 24 h of storage time, a 1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes was observed for turkey tenders for all packaging treatments. After 48 h, turkey tenders showed >1 log CFU/cm² reduction of L. monocytogenes for all packaging treatments except for vacuum, where only 0.9 log CFU/cm² reduction was observed. After 72 h, reductions for all packaging treatments for turkey tenders ranged from 1.5 to 2.4 log CFU/cm². For kippered beef steak, there was no interaction between the packaging treatments and all storage times (P > 0.05) whereas, time was different (P packaging treatments and a 2.1 log CFU/ cm² L. monocytogenes reduction at 72 h of storage time. Processors of kippered beef steak and turkey tenders could use a combination of vacuum or nitrogen-flushing or heat sealed with an oxygen scavenger packaging methods and a holding time of 24 h prior to shipping to reduce potential L. monocytogenes numbers by ≥1 log. However, processors should be encouraged to hold packaged product a minimum of 72 h to enhance the margin of safety for L. monocytogenes control. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. The effect of carbon monoxide pretreatment exposure time on the colour stability and quality attributes of vacuum packaged beef steaks.

    Van Rooyen, Lauren Anne; Allen, Paul; Crawley, Sarah M; O'Connor, David I


    The effect of 5% CO pretreatments prior to vacuum packaging of beef striploin steaks (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum, LTL) on quality attributes, primarily colour stability was investigated. The aim was to determine the optimum pretreatment that would induce the desirable red colour, while allowing discoloration to occur by the end of a 28-day display period (2°C), so as to not mask spoilage. A range of pretreatment exposure times (1, 3, 5, 7, 9, 15 and 24h) were applied to steaks using a gas mixture of 5% CO, 60% CO2 and 35% N2. The 5h CO pretreatment exposure time achieved the desirable colour and discoloration reached unacceptable levels (a*=12, C*=16) by the use-by date (28days), thus ensuring consumers' of a reliable visual indication of freshness and addressing concerns about safety. The 5% CO pretreatment had no negative effect on microbiological safety, lipid oxidation, cooking loss and WBSF measurements at the end of storage (P>0.05).

  16. Influence of oxygen exclusion and temperature on pathogenic bacteria levels and sensory characteristics of packed ostrich steaks throughout refrigerated storage.

    González-Montalvo, Beatriz; Capita, Rosa; Guevara-Franco, José Alfredo; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos


    Ostrich steaks (290) were obtained from Iliofibularis muscles. For microbiological and pH determinations, samples were inoculated with Listeria monocytogenes NCTC 11994 (80 steaks) or Escherichia coli ATCC 12806 (80), then air- or vacuum-packed and stored at either 4±1°C or 10±1°C. Analyses were carried out on days 0, 3, 6 and 9 of storage. For sensory evaluation, samples (130) were air- or vacuum-packed and stored at 4±1°C or at 10±1°C. Sensory attributes (odour, colour, drip loss, texture and general acceptability) were scored by six untrained judges using an unstructured nine-point hedonic scale on eleven sampling days (0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, 21, 24, 27 and 30). Increases in microbial counts (log(10)cfu/g) were observed throughout storage in all groups of samples for both L. monocytogenes (from 6.39±0.43-6.62±0.32 at day 0 to 8.87±0.19-9.64±0.43 at day 9) and E. coli (from 5.57±0.15-5.68-0.40 to 7.79±0.96-9.64±0.17). Gas atmosphere influenced microbial counts from day 3 of storage with lower (Pair-packed samples at 10°C (L. monocytogenes) or at 4 and 10°C (E. coli). Storage temperature significantly influenced bacterial counts throughout storage, especially in air-packed samples. Lower pH values in vacuum- than in air-packed samples were observed from day 6. Both effects (gas atmosphere and temperature) influenced the hedonic scores, with higher values assigned to vacuum-packed samples for most attributes (with the exception of drip loss) and sampling days. A marked influence of storage temperature on sensorial scores was obtained in air-packaged ostrich steaks. The shelf-life (time until the average general acceptability score fell below 5) was 6 (air-packed samples), 9 (vacuum-packed, 10°C), or 12 days (vacuum-packed, 4°C). The results being reported here suggest the importance of both oxygen exclusion and storage at low temperatures to reduce microbiological risks and improve the acceptability of ostrich meat. However, the short shelf

  17. Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags: A method to investigate the migration and behavior of Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) in the Gulf of Alaska

    Seitz, Andrew C.; Wilson, Derek; Norcross, Brenda L.; Nielsen, Jennifer L.


    Pop-up archival transmitting (PAT) tags provide a fisheries-independent method of collecting environmental preference data (depth and ambient water temperature) and migration distance. In this study, we evaluate the use of pop-up archival transmitting tags as a method to investigate demersal fish. We report the results from eight pop-up archival transmitting tagged Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis (from 107 to 165 cm FL) that were released in and around Resurrection Bay, Alaska. Commercial fishermen recovered three tags, while five tags transmitted data to Argos satellites. Horizontal migration was not consistent among fish as four Pacific halibut remained in the vicinity of release while the other four traveled up to 358 km from the release site. Vertical movement was not consistent among fish or over time; however, they spent most of their time at depths of 150 to 350 m. The minimum and maximum depths reached by any of the Pacific halibut were 2 m and 502 m, respectively. The fish preferred water temperatures of approximately 6°C, but experienced temperatures between 4.3 and 12.2°C. Light attenuation with depth prevented geolocation software and light sensing hardware from accurately estimating geoposition for the majority of days. The methods, adapted from investigations on large pelagic fish, proved to be effective for studying Pacific halibut in the northern Gulf of Alaska. PAT tags allowed us to obtain high accuracy locations of the fish at the end of the tag deployments as well as preliminary data to identify approximate seasonal locations and to characterize their depth and temperature characteristics. By using PAT tags, we will be able to ensure tag returns during the winter season (which is closed to fishing) and gain valuable biological information even if fish migrate large distances or to unexpected locations.

  18. Dry versus wet aging of beef: Retail cutting yields and consumer sensory attribute evaluations of steaks from ribeyes, strip loins, and top sirloins from two quality grade groups.

    Laster, M A; Smith, R D; Nicholson, K L; Nicholson, J D W; Miller, R K; Griffin, D B; Harris, K B; Savell, J W


    Top Choice (n=48) and Select (n=48) paired bone-in ribeye rolls, bone-in strip loins, and boneless top sirloin butts were assigned randomly to one of two aging treatments, dry or wet, and were aged for 14, 21, 28 or 35d. Cutting tests, performed to determine retail yields and processing times, showed dry-aged subprimals had lower total saleable yield percentages and increased processing times compared to wet-aged subprimals. Sensory and Warner-Bratzler shear evaluation was conducted to determine palatability characteristics. For the most part, aging treatment and aging period did not affect consumer sensory attributes. However, ribeye and top loin steaks from the Top Choice quality grade group received higher sensory ratings than their Select counterparts. For top sirloin steaks, no consumer sensory attributes were affected by aging treatment, aging period, or quality grade group.

  19. Analysis of symbolism in Jack London’s A Piece of Steak--A brief analy-sis on contradictory beliefs of Jack London



    A Piece of Steak is one of Jack London’s short stories in which lots of symbolism usage could be found. Jack London is an American realistic writer who did not receive much formal education. However, he loved reading and was greatly influenced by Spenser, Darwin, Nietzsche, Karl Marx and etc. The influences made Jack London form contradictory beliefs which were shown in this short story.

  20. Effect of chitosan treatments on quality parameters of fresh refrigerated swordfish (Xiphias gladius) steaks stored in air and under vacuum conditions.

    Tsiligianni, Maria; Papavergou, Eikaterini; Soultos, Nikolaos; Magra, Taxiarhoula; Savvaidis, Ioannis N


    The present study examined the effect of chitosan (1.0% w/v) in combination with packaging on the shelf-life of fresh swordfish steaks. Treatments included the following: A (untreated, control samples stored in air), A-CH (treated with chitosan 1.0% w/v, stored in air), VP (untreated, stored under vacuum packaging) and VP-CH (treated with chitosan, stored under vacuum packaging). VP-CH significantly affected Total Viable Counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., H(2)S-producing bacteria (including Shewanella putrefaciens), lactic acid bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae. Production of TMA-N and TVB-N for A-CH, VP and VP-CH swordfish samples was significantly lower than for control (A) samples at day 8 of storage. Histamine formation for all treatments was low. A-CH and VP-CH resulted in significantly lower levels of putrescine, cadaverine and tyramine (day 8) as compared to A and VP swordfish samples. Results of this study indicate that the shelf-life of swordfish steaks can be extended using, either aerobic or vacuum packaging and in combination with chitosan, by approximately 4 (A-CH), 8 (VP) and 12 (VP-CH) days. Swordfish steaks treated with chitosan and stored under VP were sensorially acceptable up to 17days. The presence of chitosan (A-CH and VP-CH) did not negatively influence the taste of cooked swordfish.

  1. Spoilage of value-added, high-oxygen modified-atmosphere packaged raw beef steaks by Leuconostoc gasicomitatum and Leuconostoc gelidum.

    Vihavainen, Elina J; Björkroth, K Johanna


    Moisture-enhancing and marinating of meats are commonly used by the meat industry to add value to raw, retail products. Recently in Finland, certain value-added beef steak products have proven to be unusually susceptible to microbial spoilage leading to untoward quality deteriorations during producer-defined shelf-life. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the premature spoilage of value-added beef packaged under high-oxygen modified atmospheres. Spoilage was characterised by green discolouration and a buttery off-odour. The predominant LAB in eight packages of spoiled, marinated or moisture-enhanced beef steaks were identified by reference to a 16 and 23S rRNA gene restriction fragment length polymorphism pattern (ribotype) database. Leuconostoc gasicomitatum, Leuconostoc gelidum, Lactobacillus algidus, Lactobacillus sakei and Carnobacterium divergens were found to predominate in the LAB populations at numbers above 10(8) CFU/g. Inoculation of moisture-enhanced steaks with LAB strains and strain mixtures originating from the spoiled products demonstrated the spoilage potential of L. gasicomitatum and L. gelidum isolates. These two species produced green surface discolouration and buttery off-odours similar to these found in the spoiled, commercial products.

  2. Inhibition of Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on ham steak by tea bioactive compounds incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic films

    Vodnar Dan C


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The consumer demands for better quality and safety of food products have given rise to the development and implementation of edible films. The use of antimicrobial films can be a promising tool for controlling L. monocytogenes on ready to eat products. The aim of this study was to develop effective antimicrobial films incorporating bioactive compounds from green and black teas into chitosan, for controlling L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115 on vacuum-packaged ham steak. The effectiveness of these antimicrobial films was evaluated at room temperature (20°C for 10 days and at refrigerated temperature (4°C for 8 weeks. Results The HPLC results clearly show that relative concentrations of catechins and caffeine in green tea ranked EGCG>EGC>CAF>ECG>EC>C while in black tea extracts ranked CAF>EGCG>ECG>EGC>EC>C. The chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating green tea and black tea extracts shows specific markers identified by FTIR. Incorporating natural extracts into chitosan showed that the growth of L monocytogenes ATCC 19115 was inhibited. The efficacy of antimicrobial effect of tea extracts incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film was dose dependent. However, chitosan-coated films without addition of tea extracts did not inhibit the growth of L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. Chitosan-coated plastic films incorporating 4% Green tea extract was the most effective antimicrobial, reducing the initial counts from 3.2 to 2.65 log CFU/cm2 during room temperature storage and from 3.2 to 1–1.5 log CFU/cm2 during refrigerated storage. Conclusions Incorporation of tea extracts into the chitosan-coated films considerably enhanced their effectiveness against L. monocytogenes ATCC 19115. 4% Green tea incorporated into chitosan-coated plastic film had a better antilisterial effect than 2% green tea or 2% and 4% black tea. Data from this study would provide new formulation options for developing antimicrobial packaging films using tea

  3. Characterization of culturable bacterial flora in yolk-sac larvae of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. with "gaping jaws" syndrome

    Rocío Urtubia


    Full Text Available One of the main problems facing Atlantic halibut hatcheries is the high mortality in the early stages of larval development. Several factors could be involved, for example: water quality, diseases or abnormalities, such as deformities occurring in the yolk sac larvae prior to exogenous feeding. The aim of this study was to identify differences in bacterial flora associated with yolk sac larvae with oral deformity. We also aimed to establish whether there is any relationship between bacterial strains and the "gaping jaws" syndrome. During our study, 74 bacterial isolates were obtained using three different nutrient media: Marine Agar, R2A and TCBS. Some of these bacteria were characterized using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP and 16S rRNA sequencing. The immune response in larvae exhibiting the "gaping jaws" condition was measured by real time PCR. Our results showed significant differences in bacterial flora between normal and gaping larvae. The gaping yolk sac larvae were predominantly colonized by members of the families Vibrionaceae and Flavobacteriaceae. Bacteria belonging to the Bacillus and Pseudoalteromonas genera were also present but less frequent. It was not possible to associate a type or group of bacteria directly related to "gaping". Strikingly, larvae with gaping jaws had an increase in the expression of two immune related genes, like hepcidin and chemokine (MIP-1B. These results indicate activation of the immune response in larvae with "gaping jaws" syndrome and this response could be related to bacteria isolated from gaping condition.

  4. The effects of temperature and substrate on ontogenetic behavior of bastard halibut, Paralichthys olivaceus (T. et S.)

    LIU Dong; XIAN Weiwei; ZHU Xinhua


    The effects of temperature and substrate on ontogenetic patterns and settlement behavior of bastard halibut, Paralichthys olivaceus (T. et S.) were studied in a series of laboratory experiments. Analysis on stage-based data revealed that except for settlement, and compared to the substrate, the ambient temperature dominantly controlled the hatch success and subsequent development of the species. The oosperm optimum survival rate of 60% during hatching occurred at 20℃, and survival rate of 29%, at 18℃ for larval rearing. The survival rate of larvae reared under variable temperature of 3.5-4.5℃ was higher than that of those reared under stable temperature. The maximum survival rate of 29%, corresponded to variation at temperature of 4℃. With increase in age newly settled juveniles preferred to lie on the fine substrate and gradually moved on the coarse substrate. GLM (general linear model) analysis showed that the combination of temperature and substrate had no significant impact on the survival of settling larvae, but definitely affected the duration of settlement.

  5. Influence of extended aging on beef quality characteristics and sensory perception of steaks from the biceps femoris and semimembranosus.

    Colle, M J; Richard, R P; Killinger, K M; Bohlscheid, J C; Gray, A R; Loucks, W I; Day, R N; Cochran, A S; Nasados, J A; Doumit, M E


    The objective was to determine the influence of post-fabrication aging (2, 14, 21, 42, and 63days) on beef quality characteristics and consumer sensory perception of biceps femoris (BF) and semimembranosus (SM) steaks. Lipid oxidation and aerobic plate counts increased (P<0.05) with longer aging periods and retail display times. An aging period by day of retail display interaction (P<0.05) was observed for a* and b* values of the BF and SM. Warner-Bratzler shear force values decreased (P<0.05) with longer aging for the SM, while no difference was observed for the BF. Consumer panel results revealed that longer aging periods increased (P<0.05) acceptability of the SM, tenderness of both muscles, and tended to increase (P=0.07) juiciness of the SM. Our results show that extended aging reduces retail color stability yet has positive effects on consumer perception of tenderness of both muscles and overall acceptability of the SM.

  6. Effect of vacuum ageing on quality changes of lamb steaks from early fattening lambs during aerobic display.

    Callejas-Cárdenas, Aída R; Caro, Irma; Blanco, Carolina; Villalobos-Delgado, Luz H; Prieto, Nuria; Bodas, Raúl; Giráldez, Francisco J; Mateo, Javier


    The effects of vacuum ageing on the quality changes of lamb steaks during retail display were assessed. Biceps femoris and Quadriceps femoris muscles from thirty early fattening lambs fed barley straw and concentrate or alfalfa and concentrate were used. Half of the muscles were vacuum aged for three weeks (VA), and the other half were not aged (control). Control and VA muscles were sliced and aerobically displayed. Weight loss, pH, aldehyde contents, instrumental color characteristics and color acceptance were measured at display days 1, 3, 7 and 14. At day 1 redness was higher in VA lamb. However, redness of VA lamb decreases more rapidly during further storage. Redness and color acceptance decreased in VA lamb from day 3, whereas in not-aged lamb the decrease was observed from day 7 onwards. From days 7 to 14 a drop of color acceptance accompanied by an increase in pH and a decrease in lightness was observed in control and VA lamb.

  7. Effects of dry, vacuum, and special bag aging; USDA quality grade; and end-point temperature on yields and eating quality of beef Longissimus lumborum steaks.

    Dikeman, Michael E; Obuz, Ersel; Gök, Veli; Akkaya, Levent; Stroda, Sally


    This study evaluated the effects of three aging methods: (dry (D), wet (W), and special bag (SB)); two quality grades [USDA Choice((≥Small(50) marbling) and Select); and two cooked end-point temperatures (62.8 °C and 71.1 °C) on physico-chemical traits of instrumental tenderness, color, and sensory properties of Longissimus lumborum beef muscle. Dry-aged loins had higher (Paged loins. However, D and SB aged loins had similar (P>0.05) combined losses. W aged loins had higher (Paged loins. Warner-Bratzler shear force of steaks was not affected (P>0.05) by aging method or quality grade but increased (P0.05) of aging method or quality grade on myofibrillar tenderness, juiciness, connective tissue amount, overall tenderness or off flavor intensity. Steaks cooked to 62.8 °C were juicier (P<0.05) than those cooked to 71.1 °C. Neither D nor SB aging had advantages over W aging.

  8. Study on Puffed Food Seasoning with Black Pepper Steak Flavor%黑椒牛排风味膨化食品调味料的研究

    李昌文; 荆晓艳; 纵伟


    黑椒牛排风味调味料是近年来产生的一种新型的膨化食品外撒调味料,产品风味独特,口味浓厚。研究了黑胡椒粉、牛肉精粉、食盐、I+G的添加量对膨化食品风味的影响,并利用正交实验对黑椒牛排风味膨化食品调味料的配方进行优化,确定了最佳配比为黑胡椒粉0.3%,食盐1.2%,牛肉精粉0.3%, I+G 0.15%,白砂糖粉1.0%,辣椒粉0.2%。%Black pepper steak flavor seasoning is a new puffed food seasoning with unique flavor and strong taste.Mainly study the effects of addition amount of black pepper powder,beef extract pow-der,salt and I+G on the flavor of puffed food,and optimize the formula of puffed food seasoning with black pepper steak flavor by orthogonal experiment.The results show that the best ratio is black pepper powder 0.3%,salt 1.2%,beef extract powder 0.3%,I+G 0.15%,sugar 1.0%,chili pow-der 0 .2%.

  9. The study on spotted halibut (Verasper variegatus) reared in cages%圆斑星鲽网箱养殖研究

    秦搏; 陈四清; 曹栋正; 刘长琳; 燕敬平; 胡建成; 王志军


    In order to evaluate the growth performance, food conversion ratio and the changes in body color, spotted halibut (Verasper Variegatus) with body weight of 792.27±48.89 (large size), 513.49±39.19 (mid⁃size) and 185.59±25.51 g (small size) and stocking densities of 5.5 kg/m2 and 7.5 kg/m2 were respectively reared into 18 net cages at water temperature from 15 ℃ to 25 ℃for 60 days. The cage size was uniformly 5 m×5 m×3 m, and the fish were fed with frozen trash fish. The results showed that the daily body weight gain ranged from 1.77 g/d to 4.24 g/d during the rearing period, in which the maximum was that of the large size group (3.49 g/d) and it reached to 4.24 g/d at temperature of 15⁃20 ℃. The average food conversion ratio was 4.87, in which the minimum was that of large size group (4.16), and at water temperature of 15⁃20℃, it was 3.55. There was no significant effect of the stocking density on the growth and food conversion ratio for the spotted halibut reared in cages.There were better growth performance and lower food conversion ratio at water temperature of 15⁃20 ℃ compared with that at water temperature of 20⁃25 ℃. The body color of the spotted halibut reared in the cages was gradually turned to that of wild spotted halibut, and the color of blind side faded from black to white gradually. It considered that Verasper variegatus is a potential and suitable species for the cage aquaculture.%在水温15~25℃下,将平均体质量分别为792�27±48�89 g(大)、513�49±39�19 g(中)和185�59±25�51 g (小)的圆斑星鲽(Verasper variegatus),按5�5 kg/m2和7�5 kg/m2的密度,饲养在5 m×5 m×3 m网箱中,投喂冰冻玉筋鱼60 d,以研究不同规格和密度的圆斑星鲽在网箱中的生长、饲料系数和体色变化情况。整个饲养期间,圆斑星鲽日增重变化在1�77~4�24 g/d,其中大规格鱼的日增重最高(3�49 g/d),当水温为15~20

  10. Influence of short-term pre-aging in vacuum on physicochemical characteristics and consumer acceptability of modified atmosphere packed beef steaks

    Łopacka Joanna


    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the physiochemical changes and consumer acceptability of meat packed in high oxygen modified atmosphere during 12 days of storage with and without pre-aging in vacuum for 7 days. Steak samples from forequarter muscles Infraspinatus and Supraspinatus were stored at 2°C and tested for colour, Warner–Bratzler shear force (WBSF, storage/cooking loss, and consumer acceptability. Overall consumer acceptability at the beginning of modified atmosphere display was higher for aged Infraspinatus samples, however at the end of display samples from both treatments were equally rated by consumers. No impact of aging was observed in terms of storage loss, while cooking loss was slightly affected by aging, resulting in higher losses in aged samples at the end of modified atmosphere storage. Inclusion of an aging process prior to modified atmosphere display improved the tenderness of Infraspinatus muscle at the 8th day of display and led to a considerable increase in redness of both muscles.

  11. Influence of Angus and Belgian Blue bulls mated to Hereford x Brahman cows on growth, carcass traits, and longissimus steak shear force.

    Bidner, T D; Humes, P E; Wyatt, W E; Franke, D E; Persica, M A; Gentry, G T; Blouin, D C


    Steers and heifers were generated from Angus (A) and Belgian Blue (BB) sires mated to Brahman x Hereford (B x H) F(1) cows to characterize their growth, carcass traits, and LM shear force. A total of 120 B x H cows purchased from 2 herds and 35 bulls (14 A and 21 BB) produced calves during the 5-yr project. After the stocker phase, a representative sample of A- and BB-sired heifers and steers were transported to the Iberia Research Station to be fed a high-concentrate diet. The remaining cattle were transported to a commercial feedlot facility. Each pen of cattle from the commercial feedlot was slaughtered when it was estimated that heifers and steers had 10 mm of fat or greater. The BB-sired calves were heavier at birth (P carcass weights than the A-sired calves. This was due to a combination of a heavier final BW and greater dressing percent. Because of their greater muscling and reduced (P carcass weight. In conclusion, the BB-sired calves had heavier carcass weights and greater cutability, whereas the A-sired calves had a greater degree of marbling and greater quality grade, and steaks from carcasses of A-sired calves were more tender as measured by shear force at 14 d.

  12. Temperature effects on sex determination and ontogenetic gene expression of the aromatases cyp19a and cyp19b, and the estrogen receptors esr1 and esr2 in atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus).

    van Nes, Solveig; Andersen, Øivind


    The aromatase (CYP19) and estrogen receptor (ESR) play important roles in the molecular mechanism of sex determination and differentiation of lower vertebrates. Several studies have proven these mechanisms to be temperature sensitive, which can influence the direction of phenotypic gender development. A temperature study was conducted to examine the effect of temperature on the sex differentiation in farmed Atlantic halibut. Sexually undifferentiated larvae were exposed to 7 degrees C, 10 degrees C, or 13 degrees C during gonadal differentiation. Temperature effects on the transcription rate of the aromatase genes cyp19a (ovary type) and cyp19b (brain type) and the ESR genes esr1 and esr2 were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. With increasing temperatures, both cyp19a mRNA levels and the female incidence showed a decreasing trend, thus strongly indicating a relation between the expression of cyp19a and morphological ovary differentiation. In contrast to cyp19a, the levels of cyp19b, esr1, and esr2 mRNA strongly increased in all temperature groups throughout the study period, and did not show obvious temperature-related expression patterns. The present data provide evidence that posthatching temperature exposure significantly affects the expression of cyp19a mRNA during the developmental period and that high temperature possibly influences genetic sex determination in Atlantic halibut. Though, the female incidence never exceeded 50%, suggesting that only the homogametic (XX) female is thermolabile. So whereas temperature treatment is not likely suitable for direct feminization in halibut, the possibility for high-temperature production of XX neomales for broodstock to obtain all-female offspring by crossing with XX females is suggested.

  13. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granutum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts on shelf-life for chilled Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) fillets in modified atmosphere packaging at 2 ºC

    Ünalan, U.; Dalgaard, Paw; Korel, F.


    The present study evaluated the effect of pomegranate extract (1% v/w) and rosemary extract (1% v/w) as natural preservatives as well as their combination (1% v/w) on shelf life extension of previously frozen and chilled Greenland halibut fillets in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP, 40%CO2/60%N2....... Among the chemical indices examined, TBA values of control samples exceeded the limit of 2 mg malondialdehyde (MDA)/kg (2.78 and 4.08 mg MDA/kg) on days 18 and 23 of storage, respectively, while TBA values for samples treated with extracts remained below the limit throughout the storage period. Final...

  14. Effects of Spice Extracts on Preservation of Prepared Steak under An Abusive Cold Chain%香辛料提取物对温度波动下调理牛排的保鲜研究

    李平; 高胜杰; 黄敏; 苟娜; 王艳; 仪江天; 王景; 李沛军


    冷冻调理肉制品在快递运输过程中易因温度波动导致品质劣变。选择调理牛排为研究对象,通过测定硫代巴比妥酸(TBARS)值、羰基含量及微生物计数分析,探讨不同香辛料提取物对牛排在温度波动下的保鲜作用。结果表明,迷迭香提取物可以显著降低牛排的TBARS值(P<0.05),丁香提取物对样品脂肪和蛋白质氧化均具有显著的抑制效果(P<0.05)。两种香辛料提取物对牛排中乳酸菌等腐败微生物有很好的抑制作用,可显著降低产品的细菌总数(P<0.05),使调理牛排的运输期延长为48 h。丁香和迷迭香提取物在温度波动下对调理牛排保鲜具有积极作用。%The quality of frozen prepared meat products are prone to deteriorate when temperature abuses dur-ing the express delivery. By determination of the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, car-bonyl and content and microbial counts, effects of spice extracts on preservation of prepared steak under an abusive cold chain were studied. Results showed that the rosemary extract significantly reduced the TBARS val-ue(P<0.05), while clove extract could both delay the oxidation of the fat and protein in the prepared steak(P<0.05). The two spice extracts showed good inhibitive effects on the growth of lactic acid bacteria in the steak and therefore the total bacterial counts decreased(P<0.05), with an extending transportation period of 48 h. There-fore, clove and rosemary extracts can play a positive role in the preservation of the prepared steak when temper-ature abuses.

  15. The effects of cooking on wire and stone barbecue at different cooking levels on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in beef steak.

    Oz, Fatih; Yuzer, M Onur


    The effects of type of barbecue (wire and stone) and cooking levels (rare, medium, well-done and very well-done) on the formation of heterocyclic aromatic amines (HCAs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in beef steak were investigated. Varying levels of IQx (up to 0.29 ng/g), IQ (up to 0.93 ng/g), MeIQx (up to 0.08 ng/g), MeIQ (up to 0.75 ng/g), 7,8-DiMeIQx (up to 0.08 ng/g), 4,8-DiMeIQx (up to 4.95 ng/g), PhIP (up to 6.24 ng/g) and AαC (up to 0.20 ng/g) were determined, while MeAαC was not detected. The total HCA amounts in wire barbecued samples were higher than stone barbecued samples. Total HCA contents of the samples ranged between nd and 13.52 ng/g. In terms of PAHs, varying levels of BaA (up to 0.34 ng/g), Chry (up to 0.28 ng/g), BbF (up to 0.39 ng/g), BkF (up to 0.90 ng/g), BaP (up to 0.29 ng/g) and Bghip (up to 0.43 ng/g) were determined, while DahA and IncdP were not detected. The total PAH amounts in stone barbecued samples were higher than those of wire barbecued samples. Total PAH amounts of the samples ranged between nd and 2.63 ng/g.

  16. Feeding microalgae meal (All-G Rich; CCAP 4087/2) to beef heifers. I: Effects on longissimus lumborum steak color and palatibility.

    Phelps, K J; Drouillard, J S; O'Quinn, T G; Burnett, D D; Blackmon, T L; Axman, J E; Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Gonzalez, J M


    The objective of this study was to examine effects of 4 levels of microalgae meal (All-G Rich, CCAP 4087/2; Alltech Inc., Nicholasville, KY) supplementation to the diet of finishing heifers on longissimus lumborum (LL) steak PUFA content, beef palatability, and color stability. Crossbred heifers ( = 288; 452 ± 23 kg initial BW) were allocated to pens (36 pens and 8 heifers/pen), stratified by initial pen BW (3,612 ± 177 kg), and randomly assigned within strata to 1 of 4 treatments: 0, 50, 100, and 150 g·heifer·d of microalgae meal. After 89 d of feeding, cattle were harvested and LL were collected for determination of fatty acid composition and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), trained sensory panel evaluation, and 7-d retail color stability and lipid oxidation analyses. Feeding microalgae meal to heifers increased (quadratic, microalgae meal did not impact total SFA or MUFA ( > 0.25) but tended ( = 0.10) to increase total PUFA in a quadratic manner ( = 0.03). Total omega-6 PUFA decreased (linear, = 0.01) and total omega-3 PUFA increased (quadratic, microalgae meal level increased in the diet, which caused a decrease (quadratic, microalgae meal did not affect WBSF values or sensory panel evaluation of tenderness, juiciness, or beef flavor scores ( > 0.16); however, off-flavor intensity increased with increasing concentration of microalgae meal in the diet (quadratic, microalgae meal had a reduced a* value and oxymyoglobin surface percentage, with simultaneous increased surface metmyoglobin formation (quadratic, microalgae meal increased in the diet, the level of oxidation increased (quadratic, microalgae meal in diets ( > 0.19); therefore, the negative effects of microalgae on color stability were not due to fiber metabolism differences. Feeding microalgae meal to finishing heifers improves PUFA content of beef within the LL, but there are adverse effects on flavor and color stability.

  17. Comparative sequence analysis of the complete set of 40S ribosomal proteins in the Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis Kaup and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus L. (Teleostei: Pleuronectiformes: phylogeny and tissue- and development-specific expression

    Cañavate Jose


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ribosomal proteins (RPs are key components of ribosomes, the cellular organelle responsible for protein biosynthesis in cells. Their levels can vary as a function of organism growth and development; however, some RPs have been associated with other cellular processes or extraribosomal functions. Their high representation in cDNA libraries has resulted in the increase of RP sequences available from different organisms and their proposal as appropriate molecular markers for phylogenetic analysis. Results The development of large-scale genomics of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus, two commercially important flatfish species, has made possible the identification and systematic analysis of the complete set of RP sequences for the small (40S ribosome subunit. Amino acid sequence comparisons showed a high similarity both between these two flatfish species and with respect to other fish and human. EST analysis revealed the existence of two and four RPS27 genes in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis clustered RPS27 in two separate clades with their fish and mammalian counterparts. Steady-state transcript levels for eight RPs (RPS2, RPS3a, RPS15, RPS27-1, RPS27-2, RPS27a, RPS28, and RPS29 in sole were quantitated during larval development and in tissues, using a real-time PCR approach. All eight RPs exhibited different expression patterns in tissues with the lowest levels in brain. On the contrary, RP transcripts increased co-ordinately after first larval feeding reducing progressively during the metamorphic process. Conclusion The genomic resources and knowledge developed in this survey will provide new insights into the evolution of Pleuronectiformes. Expression data will contribute to a better understanding of RP functions in fish, especially the mechanisms that govern growth and development in larvae, with implications in aquaculture.

  18. Identification of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in halibut, cod and prawns by on-line coupled LC-GC/MS technique; Identifizierung strahleninduzierter Kohlenwasserstoffe in Heilbutt, Kabeljau und Riesengarnele mit on-line gekoppelter LC-GC/MS-Technik

    Spiegelberg, A.; Schulzki, G.; Boegl, K.W.; Schreiber, G.A. [Bundesinstitut fuer Gesundheitlichen Verbraucherschutz und Veterinaermedizin, Berlin (Germany). Fachbereich Chemie und Technologie der Lebensmittel und Bedarfsgegenstaende


    Radiation-induced hydrocarbons were analysed in a fatty (halibut) and a lean fish (cod) as well as in a prawn species by on-line coupled liquid chromatography (LC) - gas chromatography (GC) combined with mass spectrometrical detection. In irradiated halibut which contains mainly saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids all expected radiolytic alkanes, alkenes and alkadienes could be detected. The yields of the C{sub n-1} and C{sub n-2:1} hydrocarbons were comparable with those found in irradiated lipids of land animals and plants. However, in cod and the prawn species which contain high levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), the C{sub n-1} hydrocarbons were found in concentrations up to tenfold higher whereas the C{sub n-2:1} products were again comparable to those of land animals and plants. The identification of radiation-induced hydrocarbons in fish lipids was achieved by transfer of the hydrocarbons from the LC column to the gas chromatographic column in fractions differing in the degree of unsaturation. For the first time radiation induced hydrocarbons with more than four double bonds generated from polyunsaturated fatty acids (20:4{omega}6 and 20:5{omega}3) could be identified. (orig.) [Deutsch] Radiolytische Kohlenwasserstoffe in Heilbutt, Kabeljau und Riesengarnelen wurden mit on-line gekoppelter Fluessigchromatographie-Gaschromatographie (LC-GC) in Kombination mit Massenspektrometrie nachgewiesen. In bestrahltem Heilbutt, der als Vertreter der fettreichen Fischarten hauptsaechlich gesaettigte und einfach ungesaettigte Fettsaeuren enthaelt, konnten alle erwarteten radiolytschen Alkane, Alkene und Alkadiene detektiert werden. Die Ausbeuten an C{sub n-1} und C{sub n-2:1} Kohlenwasserstoffen waren vergleichbar mit denen in bestrahlten Landtier- und Pflanzenfetten. In bestrahltem Kabeljau dagegen sowie in den bestrahlten Riesengarnelen, die beide zur fettarmen Kategorie gehoeren und hohe Konzentrationen an polyungesaettigten Fettsaeuren (PUFA) aufweisen

  19. Brazilian consumers' perception of tenderness of beef steaks classified by shear force and taste Percepção pelos consumidores brasileiros da maciez da carne classificada pela força de cisalhamento e sabor

    Eduardo Francisquine Delgado


    Full Text Available The knowledge of consumer perception of meat tenderness and taste is essential to forecast a Brazilian quality value-based beef market. This study aimed to verify perception of tender (WBSF 4.8 kg strip loin steak or uncharacteristic (calcium-treated/Ca-IM and normal (non-calcium/NO-Ca meat taste by consumers according to gender, age, education and income levels. Steaks were previously classified by shear force measurements as tender or tough. Each consumer was served a paired sample of one tender and of one tough steak, which were either Ca-IM or NO-Ca treated before tenderness classification. Three hundred and eight consumers answered a nine-point intensity (tenderness and hedonic (taste scales evaluation questionnaire. Among consumers, 82.2% indicated beef as first choice meat products, 75.3% had beef at least four times a week; 39.3% considered taste as the most important meat attribute and 30.2% considered tenderness; 75.8% were males; 73.6% were 21 to 55 years old; 56.7% had college education; 76.6% had monthly income higher than US $ 435,00. Tender steaks were scored highest (P O conhecimento da percepção de maciez e sabor da carne bovina pelo consumidor é essencial para vislumbrar um mercado brasileiro que pague por qualidade. Este estudo avaliou a percepção diferenciada de contra-filé macio (WBSF 4.8 kg, ou ainda com sabor não característico (imersão em Ca/ Ca-IM ou normal (sem cálcio/ NO-Ca de acordo com sexo, faixa etária, e nível de escolaridade formal e renda dos consumidores. Os bifes foram pareados em amostras macia/dura e Ca-IM/NO-Ca, e servidos a 308 consumidores que responderam a um questionário apresentando escalas de intensidade (maciez e hedônica (sabor de nove pontos. O perfil dos consumidores mostrava que: 82,2% indicaram carne bovina como sua primeira escolha entre as carnes; 75,3% consumiam carne bovina pelo menos quatro vezes por semana; 39,3% consideravam sabor como o atributo mais importante durante o

  20. Radiação gama na redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango Gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination of chicken steaks

    Marta Helena Filet SPOTO


    Full Text Available Neste trabalho estudou-se o efeito da radiação gama na destruição dos microrganismos presentes em filés de frango armazenados sob refrigeração. Um dos possíveis fatores de deterioração da carne de frango é a atividade microbiana. A irradiação é um processo de conservação de alimentos através da eliminação de microrganismos. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com 5 fatores (períodos de armazenamento e 5 níveis (doses de radiação, com 3 repetições por tratamento. As amostras de filé de frango foram irradiadas com doses de 0,0; 2,0; 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy e em seguida armazenadas sob refrigeração (± 5ºC por 1, 7, 14, 21 e 28 dias. A contagem total dos microrganismos foi realizada por plaqueamento em profundidade em meio de cultivo PCA. As amostras não irradiadas permitiram um acréscimo de dois ciclos logarítmicos na contagem microbiana ao longo dos vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10(5 para 10(7UFC/g. As amostras irradiadas com dose de 2,0kGy permitiram acréscimo de um ciclo logarítmico durante os vinte e oito dias de armazenamento (de 10³ para 10(4UFC/g. As doses de radiação de 4,0; 6,0 e 8,0kGy reduziram a população microbiana a níveis de 10²UFC/g no vigésimo primeiro dia e 10¹UFC/g no vigésimo oitavo dia de armazenamento. A irradiação pode ser um processo eficiente para a redução da carga microbiana de filés de frango porque a dose de radiação de 4,0kGy foi suficiente para manter os filés de frango refrigerados com uma população microbiana de 10¹UFC/g até vinte e oito dias de armazenamento.This work evaluate the effect of gamma radiation on reduction of the microbial contamination in chicken steaks stored under refrigeration. Microbial activity causes deterioration in poultry. Irradiation is a process of food preservation by reduction of the number of the microorganisms. The experimental design was in random blocks with 5 factors (storage periods and 5 levels

  1. Enzymolysis technology optimization on the extraction of collagen from Greenland halibut skin%细菌海洋酶提取胶原蛋白的工艺优化

    王彩理; 刘丛力; 郭晓华; 苑德顺; 滕瑜


    胶原蛋白是一种营养丰富应用广泛的功能蛋白。以单因素试验为基础,以鱼皮胶原蛋白提取率为指标,采用正交试验对酶用量、酶解温度、酶解pH、酶解时间进行优化,探讨了酶法提取黑鲽鱼皮胶原蛋白的新工艺。结果表明:细菌海洋酶的提取率优于其他蛋白酶;当酶剂量为1.0%、酶解时间120min、酶解温度55℃、pH9.0时,鱼皮的胶原蛋白提取率最佳,为26.1%。%Collagen was a kind of structural proteins with abundant nutrition and biological function used in food and medicine. Based on orthogonal experiment and single factor experiment, using collagen extraction rate from Greenland halibut skin as index, enzyme amount, enzymolysis temperature, enzymolysis pH and enzymolysis time were optimized. The results indicated that the extraction rate by marine protease was superior to other protease extracted from animal organs, and the extraction rate 26.1% is the highest under the condition of enzyme amount 1.0%, enzymolysis duration 120 min, temperature 55 ℃, pH9.0.

  2. Study on preparation of beef-like flavor by Maillard reaction of pollock steak hydrolysate%狭鳕鱼排酶解物美拉德反应制备牛肉香型风味物

    许瑞红; 闫虹; 杨立; 范选娇; 林琳; 姜绍通; 陆剑锋


    以狭鳕鱼排酶解液为原料,研究美拉德反应制备牛肉香型风味物的工艺,在单因素的基础上通过正交试验优化,得到工艺参数为:葡萄糖3.0g/100 mL,木糖1.0g/100 mL,VB11.25g/100 mL,L-半胱氨酸盐酸盐1�5g/100 mL,牛肉酶解液30mL/100 mL,pH值5.0,温度120℃,时间120min,在此条件下风味物具有纯正、浓郁的牛肉香气。美拉德反应后,游离氨基酸中损失率最大的为苏氨酸(高达63.02%),表明此氨基酸是参与美拉德反应的主要氨基酸。此外,从美拉德反应产物中共检测到76种挥发性化合物,包括含硫类3种、醛类22种、酮类7种、酯类4种、醚类1种、烷烃类24种、羧酸类3种,其中甲硫醇、2-甲基-3-呋喃硫醇、3-甲硫基丙醛、正己醛、辛醛、苯乙醛、(E,E)-2,4-壬二烯醛和反式-2,4-癸二烯醛等被鉴定为重要的具有牛肉特征风味物质。%Pollock steak hydrolysate was taken as material to study preparation of beef-like flavor by Maillard reaction. Based on single factor experiments, through the orthogonal experiment the optimal technology parameters were obtained. The results showed that beef-like flavor with pure and strong beef fragrance was obtained under the conditions of 3. 0 g/100 mL glucose, 1. 0 g/100 mL xylose, 1. 25 g/100 mL thiamine, 1. 5 g/100 mL L-cysteine hydrochloride, 30 mL/100 mL beef hydrolysate, pH 5. 0, temperature 120 ℃ and reacting time 120 min. After Maillard reaction the loss ratio of threonine was biggest (up to 63. 02%) among free amino acid. It indicated that threonine was the key amino acid in⁃volved in the Maillard reaction. Furthermore, totally 76 kinds of volatile compounds were identified from the Maillard reaction products, including 3 kinds of sulphur compounds, 22 kinds of aldehydes, 7 kinds of ketones, 4 kinds of esters , 1 kind of ethers, 24 kinds of hydrocarbons and 3 kinds of

  3. An Analysis of the Naval Postgraduate School’s Commissioned Officers’ and Faculty Club Accounting System


    cheese, vinaigarette) VEGETABLES Buttered Carrots Peas w/Mushrooms Green Beans Almondine Mixed Vegetables Corn w/Pimentos *Broccoli w/ Hollandaise Sauce ...PRAWNS W/COCKTAIL SAUCE $14.75 GRILLED HALIBUT STEAK 11.25 (lemon hollandaise sauce ) HERB BAKED ICELANDIC COD 8.90 (bechemel sauce ) SHRIMP CURRY ON A BED...specified on the original Purchase Order. After a proper review of the Purchase Order is completed, the payment to the vendor is processed. Next the

  4. 饲粮蛋白脂肪比对圆斑星鲽(Verasper variegates)生长、消化酶及血清生化指标的影响%The Effects of the Ratio of Dietary Protein to Lipid on the Growth, Digestive Enzyme Activities and Blood Biochemical Parameters in Spotted Halibut,Verasper variegates

    吕云云; 陈四清; 于朝磊; 常青; 秦搏; 王志军


    Spotted halibut,Verasper variegates has been a target model in the studies of reproductive biology and molecular biology. However, litter is known about the dietary requirements of this species. In this study, we determined the optimal ratio of protein to lipid for this fish and analyzed the combined effects on the growth,digestive enzyme activities and blood biochemical parameters inspotted halibut. Fish meal and casein were used as protein sources, and soybean oil and fish oil served as lipid sources. Nine experimental diets were formulated as combinations of three levels of crude proteins (40%, 45%, and 50%) and three levels of crude lipid (8%, 12%, and 16%), namely P40L8, P40L12, P40L16, P45L8, P45L12, P45L16, P50L8, P50L12 and P50L16. They were randomly distributed into 27 cement ponds (2 m×1 m×1 m) with 20 fish/pond for 83 d in an in-door flow-through aquarium system. The results showed that the survival rate of fish was not significantly affected by the levels of protein and lipid (P>0.05). The weight gain, specific growth rate and feed intake were significantly reduced along with the increase in the dietary lipid (P<0.05). Compared to P40L16, the weight gain in P50L8 was 33.63% higher and the specific growth rate was 31% higher. The feed efficiency was significantly boosted along with the increase in the dietary protein (P<0.05). The feed efficiency in P50L8 was 24.09% higher than P40L8, and the weight gain, specific growth rate, feed intake and feed efficiency in P50L8 were significantly higher than those in other groups. The activity of stomach protease was first increased and then decreased along with the increase in dietary protein. The protease activity in the hepatopancreas in P50L8 group was significantly higher than that in P50L12 group (P<0.05), but showed no significant differences with other groups (P>0.05). The activity of the stomach lipase was first decreased and then increased along with the increase in the dietary protein. The

  5. Effect of lactic acid bacteria on extention of shelf life and growth of Listeria monocytogenes in beef steaks stored in CO2- rich atmosphere Efeito de bactérias láticas na extensâo da vida de parateleira e multiplicação de Listeria monocytogenes em fatias de carne bovina armazenadas em atmosfera rica em CO2

    Djamel Djenane


    Full Text Available Beef steaks were inoculated with one or other of two protective strains of lactic acid bacteria (bacteriocinogenic Lactobacillus sakei CTC 372 or the uncharacterized Lactobacillus CTC 711, and stored under modified atmospheres (20-40% CO2. Inoculation of meat with LAB inhibited growth of the spoilage bacteria. Neither CO2 in the pack atmosphere or inoculation with protective strains, nor a combination of both, affected formation of metmyoglobin or the development of off-odours. The formation of metmyoglobin in meat pigments and the sensory odour scores were compatible to those of fresh meat which had not undergone either oxidative deterioration or microbial spoilage. Listeria monocytogenes was inhibited in broth by meat surface microbiota containing the protective strains. With initial numbers of 5.6 log cfu mL-1, after 7 days incubation at 3ºC, L. monocytogenes were recovered at log mean numbers of 2.8 log cfu mL-1 when no protective strain was present. At 8ºC, the numbers of L. monocytogenes were reduced by about 2.5 or 1.5 log mL-1 in the presence of Lb. sakei CTC 372 or Lb. CTC 711, respectively. At 25ºC, the numbers of L. monocytogenes recovered from broth containing either protective strain were about 5 log lower than the numbers recovered from broth containing L. monocytogenes only.Fatias de carne bovina foram inoculadas com uma de duas bactérias láticas protetoras (Lactobacillus sakei CTC 372 bacteriocinogênica e Lactobacillus CTC 711 não caracterizado e armazenadas em atmosfera modificada (20-40% CO2. A inoculação da carne com bactérias láticas protetoras inibiu a multiplicação de bactérias deteriorantes. O CO2 da atmosfera e/ou a presença de bactérias láticas não causou a formação de metmioglobina ou de odores indesejáveis. A formação de metmioglobina e as características sensoriais foram equivalentes às apresentadas por carne fresca não deteriorada e não submetida a tratamento. A multiplicação de Listeria

  6. 78 FR 16423 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan


    .... Regulations at Sec. 300.65(c)(1) specify the GHLs based on the total constant exploitation yield (CEY... Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW) and Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife ] (ODFW... Fisheries and Oceans (DFO), Alaska Wildlife Troopers (AWT), United States Coast Guard (USCG),...

  7. 77 FR 5473 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan


    ... incidental catch in the salmon troll fishery that is allocated 15 percent of the commercial allocation. The... troll seasons in Area 2A in accordance with regulations promulgated by NMFS. This fishery will occur... the salmon troll fishery (316 licenses in 2011); and the charterboat fleet (141 licenses in 2011)....

  8. 75 FR 13024 - Pacific Halibut Fisheries; Catch Sharing Plan


    ... fishery during the salmon troll fishery specified in paragraph (3) of section 8. (5) A license issued in... incidental commercial fishery during the salmon troll season in Area 2A must have its ``Application for... salmon troll seasons in Area 2A in accordance with regulations promulgated by NMFS. (4) The...

  9. 50 CFR 300.67 - Charter halibut limited access program.


    ... duty military service as a member of a branch of the U.S. military, National Guard, or military reserve... issued pursuant to military service under paragraph (g)(3) of this section. (f) For purposes of this... applicant did not participate during the other year of the qualifying period. (3) Military service....

  10. 50 CFR 679.40 - Sablefish and halibut QS.


    ... the annual management measures published in the Federal Register pursuant to § 300.62 of chapter III... who leased the vessel for the duration of the lease. (C) Who is a citizen of the United States at the... incorporation) or notarized statements signed by each former partner, shareholder or director, and specifying...

  11. 77 FR 9210 - International Pacific Halibut Commission Appointments


    ... activities as: Participation in commercial, tribal, Community Development Quota (CDQ) and/or sport and... eligible for reappointment. R sum s, curriculum vitae, and/or letters of recommendation are useful but...

  12. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study on the quality perception of beef

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    and colour. Fat is generally negat and this applies to all aspects of fat. The positive effects of fat on taste and tenderness are not perceived. German consumers prefer dark meat, whereas Spanish consumers tend to prefer light meat. Information about country of origin and breeding feeding has no effect...

  13. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study of the quality perception of beef

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    a unimportant. German consumers prefer dark meat, whereas Spanish consumers tend to prefer light meat. 7. Information about country of origin and breeding and feeding has no effect on quality perception. 8. The results suggest that producers of superior beef have a problem in communicating this quality...

  14. What's in a steak? A cross-cultural study on the quality perception of beef

    Grunert, Klaus G.

    four countries. The most important quality aspects of beef are that it tastes good, is tender, juicy, fresh, lean, healthy and nutritious. Purchasing motives as well as quality aspects are uni-dimensional in Germany, Spain, and the UK, while they are multi-dimensional in France. Place of purchase...... and colour. Fat is generally negat and this applies to all aspects of fat. The positive effects of fat on taste and tenderness are not perceived. German consumers prefer dark meat, whereas Spanish consumers tend to prefer light meat. Information about country of origin and breeding feeding has no effect...

  15. Low-protein diets for hepatic encephalopathy debunked: let them eat steak.

    Cabral, Chad Michael; Burns, David L


    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is an incompletely understood phenomenon and serves as a poor prognosis in patients with cirrhosis. Confusion from HE can affect the ability to eat adequately. Despite the prevalence of malnutrition in cirrhotic patients in the 1950s, it was reported that bouts of overt HE were controlled with low protein intake. This largely uncontrolled observation led to restriction of protein intake in cirrhotic patients with or without HE and was an accepted standard of care for many decades to follow. Published in 2004, the pivotal article "Normal Protein Diet for Episodic Hepatic Encephalopathy: Results of a Randomized Study" by Cordoba and colleagues was the first controlled study randomizing cirrhotic patients with HE to receive different amounts of dietary protein. At the completion of the study, the authors concluded that a normal-protein diet was safe and did not exacerbate HE. The Cordoba study suggests that low-protein diets should be abandoned. In light of this evidence, nutrition guidelines have proposed that protein restriction should be avoided in patients with HE as protein requirements are increased in cirrhosis. Despite the advice of experts in the field, it has been shown in recent years that some physicians still believe that protein restriction is needed in patients with HE. This belief has not been substantiated in controlled studies, and societal recommendations have changed. There is no real evidence documenting the advantages of protein restriction in HE. On the contrary, Cordoba and colleagues' article has shown that there are disadvantages to restricting protein in HE.

  16. Effect of ractopamine on the chemical and physical characteristics of pacu(Piaractus mesopotamicus steaks

    L.M.F.S. Oliveira


    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the use of ractopamine (RAC in the diet for pacu (Piaractus mesopotaminus in the finishing phase on some quality parameters of the fillets. Thirty-five animals weighing 0.868±0.168kg were distributed in a completely randomised design with five treatments (0.0 - control; 11.25, 22.50, 33.75 and 45 ppm of RAC and seven replicates with two fillets obtained from the same animal. The diets were isocaloric and isoprotein and experimental time was 90 days. RAC did not affect (P>0.05 the initial pH or ph after 24 hours of the fillets. Compared to the control, RAC increased (P<0.05 the moisture content of the fillets in natura and lipid oxidation of samples stored for 12 days in the refrigerator or freezer for 60 days. The RAC in 11.25 ppm reduced (P<0.05 the lipid content, while 45 ppm reduced (P<0.05 the crude protein in the fillets. Considering only RAC, there was a linear increase (P<0.05 in the lipid content (P<0.05 and a linear reduction in crude protein and weight loss after cooking the fillets. There was a quadratic effect (P<0.05 on the ash content, weight loss and lipid oxidation in fillets stored in the refrigerator or freezer. A RAC dose of 33.75 ppm resulted in a lower lipid oxidation index. In conclusion, ractopamine at 11.25 ppm is effective for reducing the fat content in fillets of pacu, although it increases the formation of peroxides in samples kept in the freezer for longer than 60 days. At 33.75 ppm, ractopamine is effective in reducing the effect of oxidation during storage in the refrigerator or freezer.

  17. Estimated genetic parameters for palatability traits of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Hammond, A C; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Coleman, S W


    Heritabilities and genetic and phenotypic correlations were estimated from carcass and beef palatability data collected from Brahman calves (n = 504) born in central Florida from 1996 to 2000. Traits evaluated included Warner-Bratzler shear force (after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging), panel tenderness score, connective tissue amount, juiciness, flavor intensity, and off flavor (after 14 d of aging), percentages of raw and cooked lipids, and milligrams per gram of muscle calpastatin activity. Parameters were estimated using an animal model and derivative-free restricted maximum likelihood procedures. Estimated heritabilities for d 7, 14, and 21 shear force were 0.14,0.14, and 0.06, respectively, indicating that improvement in these traits by selection would be slow. Estimated heritabilities of sensory panel attributes were 0.11, 0.12, 0.05, 0.04, and 0.01 for tenderness, connective tissue amount, juiciness, flavor intensity, and off flavor, respectively. The estimated heritabilities for percentages of raw and cooked lipids, and calpastatin activity were 0.34, 0.17, and 0.07, respectively. Most of the estimated genetic correlations among palatability traits and for palatability traits with fat thickness, marbling score, and loin muscle area were consistent with other estimates from the literature. Results indicated that improvement in tenderness based on selection for favorable shear force, sensory panel tenderness, or calpastatin activity would be slow; therefore, postslaughter intervention programs should also be considered.

  18. 77 FR 70061 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...


    ... companies, and a tour operator. In addition, during the public comment periods on the notice of availability..., and processing plant operators enter into direct contracts with observer providers to meet coverage... plant operators required to have 30-percent coverage determine when to carry ] observers,...

  19. California halibut habitat suitability model for Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary Biogeographic Assessment

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS) is updates and revises the management plans for each of its 13 sanctuaries. This process, which is open to the...

  20. 75 FR 51741 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...


    ... CFR Part 679 Docket No. 0906041011-91012-01 RIN 0648-AX91 Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off... efficient use of these species as supported by National Standard 5. The intended effect is to promote the... March 15, 1995. The IFQ Program is designed to maintain the social character and economic benefits...

  1. Mapping the sex determination locus in the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) using RAD sequencing

    Palaiokostas, Christos; Bekaert, Michaël; Davie, Andrew; Cowan, Mairi E; Oral, Münevver; Taggart, John B; Gharbi, Karim; McAndrew, Brendan J; Penman, David J; Migaud, Hervé


    .... Understanding the sex determination mechanism and developing sex-associated markers will shorten the time for the development of monosex female production, thus decreasing the costs of farming...

  2. 78 FR 72869 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; North Pacific Halibut and Sablefish...


    ... March 20, 2000, NMFS published regulations implementing the IFQ cost recovery program (65 FR 14919... the annual IFQ fee percentage (3 percent or less) by the ex-vessel value of all IFQ landings made on a... includes any retro-payments (e.g., bonuses, delayed partial payments, post-season payments) made to the...

  3. 77 FR 71783 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; North Pacific Halibut and Sablefish...


    ... March 20, 2000, NMFS published regulations implementing the IFQ cost recovery program (65 FR 14919... the annual IFQ fee percentage (3 percent or less) by the ex-vessel value of all IFQ landings made on a... includes any retro-payments (e.g., bonuses, delayed partial payments, post-season payments) made to the...

  4. 77 FR 23325 - Groundfish Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone off Alaska and Pacific Halibut Fisheries...


    ... interactions with protected resources. Scientists use observer-collected data for stock assessments and marine... Program. Under the proposed rule, NMFS would base observer coverage requirements on data needs for.... This action is necessary to resolve data quality and cost equity concerns with the Observer...

  5. 78 FR 18323 - Pacific Halibut Fishery; Guideline Harvest Levels for the Guided Sport Fishery for Pacific...


    ... time to limit the guided sport angler catch to the GHL (74 FR 21194, May 6, 2009). Regulations at Sec... published in the 2013 IPHC annual management measures (78 FR 16423, March 15, 2013). DATES: The GHLs are.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background In 2003, NMFS implemented a final rule (68 FR 47256, August 8, 2003)...

  6. 77 FR 29556 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut and Sablefish Individual...


    ... persons who activate their QS by request, lease, or by documenting a landing by the deadline in this... from the proposed rule, published August 23, 2010 (75 FR 51741). Classification The Administrator... August 23, 2010 (75 FR 51741). An RIR/IRFA was prepared and described in the ``Classification''...

  7. AFSC/FMA/North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observer Program, Post 2008 Fishery Statistics.

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data collected by the ATLAS Client and transmitted electronically or by fax to the AFSC are loaded into production transaction tables which are the source data for...

  8. AKRO: Guided Angler Fish Landings

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Beginning in 2014, the the halibut Catch Sharing Plan (CSP) authorizes annual transfers of commercial halibut IFQ as guided angler fish (GAF) to charter halibut...

  9. Effect of feeding period for dry cull cows on carcass quality, meat quality, and consumer reactions to loin steaks

    Madsen, Niels T.; Vestergaard, Mogens; Bredahl, Lone

    A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having a considera......A major part of the beef marketed for Danish retail consumers originates from dairy cows slaughtered when the are culled from milk production. As these cows are often slaughtered at varios stages of lactation and with variable degrees of fatness the meat is often criticised for having...... thoroughly. The present study comprise two trials. The results of both the first and second trail, including 62 cows in 2002, are reported here....

  10. Estimation of by catch in the commercial fishery for Greenland halibut at West Greenland based on survey data

    Jørgensen, Ole A.

    while the minimum mesh size in the cod end in the commercial trawls is 140 mm and the survey catches are converted to potential commercial by catches. The conversion is based on a number of assumptions and the results should be considered as indicative. The total by-catch in weight is estimated to be 13...

  11. 76 FR 40628 - Groundfish Fisheries of the EEZ Off Alaska; Pacific Halibut Fisheries; CDQ Program; Bering Sea...


    ... fish destined for fish meal (includes offsite 42 production) DO NOT RECORD ON PTR Bones (if meal.... Meat and skin with ribs 21 removed, from sides of body behind head and in front of tail Fish meal. Meal from whole fish or fish parts; includes 32 bone meal Fish oil. Rendered oil from whole fish or...

  12. Effect of quality and tenderization of black pepper steak%黑胡椒牛排品质与嫩化效果的研究

    卢一; 肖岚; 何江红; 张振宇; 潘涛; 贾洪锋


    实验研究了几种因素对黑胡椒牛排品质、嫩度的影响,采用感官标度评价法评定盐水配比、盐水注射量、滚揉条件对牛肉品质及嫩度的影响.结果表明,盐水注射量在15%时总体感官评价得分最高;滚揉机工作条件为工作20min,暂停10min,低速滚揉6 h,此时对肉块嫩度、品质的改善最佳;同时利用L9(34)正交实验设计得出品质改良剂的最佳配比(以9.9233 kg盐水计算)为百灵615添加量0.15 kg、注射卡拉胶添加量0.16 kg、大豆分离蛋白添加量0.35 kg、亚硝酸盐添加量0.003 kg.



    weapons effects testing and seismic detection research responsi- bilities (VELA UNIFORM) for the Director, DASA. This organiza- tion maintained...1972), on aspects of containment, seismic shock, possible radiation releases, weather, and area control plans pertinent to that particular test...Associates and Hanford Cutie Pie Survey Meter (beta and gamma) - Technical Associates Juno Survey Meter (alpha, beta, and gamma) - Precision

  14. Is RoAsT tougher than StEAk?: The effect of case mixing on perception of multi-letter graphemes

    Jelena Havelka


    Full Text Available Case mixing is a technique that is used to investigate the perceptual processes involved in visual word recognition. Two experiments examined the effect of case mixing on lexical decision latencies. The aim of these experiments was to establish whether different case mixing patterns would interact with the process of appropriate visual segmentation and phonological assembly in word reading. In the first experiment, case mixing had a greater effect on response times to words when it led to visual disruption of the multi-letter graphemes (MLGs as well as the overall word shape (e.g. pLeAd, compared to when it disrupted overall word shape only (e.g. plEAd. A second experiment replicated this finding with words in which MLGs represent either the vowel (e.g. bOaST vs. bOAst or the consonant sound (e.g. sNaCK vs. sNAcK. These results confirm that case mixing can have different effect depending on the type of orthographic unit that is broken up by the manipulation. They demonstrate that graphemes are units that play an important role in visual word recognition, and that manipulation of their presentation by case mixing will have a significant effect on response latencies to words in a lexical decision task. As such these findings need to be taken into account by the models of visual word recognition.

  15. Effect of sire on mu- and m-calpain activity and rate of tenderization as indicated by myofibril fragmentation indices of steaks from Brahman cattle.

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Pringle, T D; West, R L; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A; Hammond, A C; Coleman, S W


    The objectives of this study were to assess the influence of sire on mu- and m-calpain activities, to evaluate the relationships of activities of these enzymes to other traits related to beef palatability, and to assess the influence of sire on the rate of tenderization (as measured by myofibril fragmentation index [MFI]) in Brahman longissimus muscle. Brahman calves (n = 87), sired by nine bulls, were born, weaned, fed, and slaughtered in central Florida. Traits evaluated were mu- and m-calpain activities and MFI after 1, 7, 14, and 21 d of aging. Other traits were analyzed to determine their associations with mu- and m-calpain activity and MFI, including calpastatin activity, percentage of raw and cooked lipids, Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values after 7, 14, and 21 d of aging, and sensory panel rating of tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue amount after 14 d of aging. Data were analyzed using a model with sire, sex, year, and slaughter group (calves of the same sex slaughtered on the same date) as fixed effects, and adjusted to a constant adjusted 12th-rib fat thickness. Sire affected mu-calpain activity (P carcass sorting program represents an alternative consideration for tenderization improvement programs.

  16. Development of a Rapid Real-Time PCR Method as a Tool To Quantify Viable Photobacterium phosphoreum Bacteria in Salmon (Salmo salar) Steaks

    Macé, Sabrina; Mamlouk, Kelthoum; Chipchakova, Stoyka;


    A specific real-time PCR quantification method combined with a propidium monoazide sample treatment step was developed to determine quantitatively the viable population of the Photobacterium phosphoreum species group in raw modified-atmosphere-packed salmon. Primers were designed to amplify a 350...... quality in fish processing plants, and studies on the ecology of this important specific spoilage microorganism....

  17. Water column (CTD) profiles taken off the Oregon coast during the 2007 International Pacific Halibut Commission (IPHC) setline survey (NODC Accession 0042046)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. West Coast has experienced a hypoxic event every year since 2002. This low dissolved oxygen condition clearly impacts the organisms living there, but it is...

  18. 76 FR 71321 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings


    ... Operations and Procedures (SOPPs) review/approval and update on workshop with International Pacific Halibut... Service Report; Protected Species Report (including Steller Sea Lion (SSL) Center of Independent...

  19. 76 FR 2084 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings


    ... discussion paper and TRAWLEX report). Alaska Department of Fish & Game Report. International Pacific Halibut... Species Report (including update on Steller Sea Lion (SSL); Endangered Species Act (ESA) listed...

  20. Effect of pomegranate (Punica granutum) and rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extracts on shelf-life for chilled Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) fillets in modified atmosphere packaging at 2 ºC

    Ünalan, U.; Dalgaard, Paw; Korel, F.


    ) at 2 °C. Parameters that were monitored were: microbiological (aerobic plate counts (APC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Lactobacillus spp., and Photobacterium phosphoreum), biochemical (pH, thio-barbituric acid (TBA), trimethylamine (TMA) and total-volatile-nitrogen (TVN)), and sensory (color, flavor...... and texture) attributes. For microbiological results, irrespective of treatments, APC reached levels ≥107 CFU/g during storage. The spoilage microflora of fillets in MAP was dominated by LAB, but the concentration of Lactobacillus was very low. During storage, P.phosphoreum was not detected in any sample...

  1. Carcass and meat quality characteristics of Brahman cross bulls and steers finished on tropical pastures in Costa Rica.

    Rodriguez, Julio; Unruh, John; Villarreal, Milton; Murillo, Olger; Rojas, Sailim; Camacho, Jorge; Jaeger, John; Reinhardt, Chris


    Forty-eight male calves (3/4 Brahman×1/4 Charolais) were used to determine carcass cutability and meat tenderness of Longissimus lumborum (LL), Gluteus medius (GM), Semitendinosus (ST) and Psoas major (PM) steaks from lighter weight carcasses of bulls and steers castrated at 3, 7, or 12 mo of age grown under tropical pasture conditions. Steaks from steers had lower (more tender) LL Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) values than those from bulls. Steaks from steers castrated at 3 mo had lower GM WBSF than those from bulls. For PM steaks, those aged 28 d had lower WBSF than those aged 2d. Steaks aged 28 d had the lowest LL and GM WBSF and steaks aged 2d had the highest LL, GM, and ST WBSF. Castration at younger ages is recommended because it provides improvement in LL and GM tenderness over bulls with no differences in carcass traits or subprimal yields.

  2. Modeling and predicting the growth boundary of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved seafood

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw


    The antimicrobial effect of diacetate and lactate against Listeria monocytogenes was evaluated in challenge tests with vacuum-packaged or modified atmosphere packaged (MAP) cold-smoked salmon, marinated salmon, cold-smoked Greenland halibut, marinated Greenland halibut, and gravad salmon. MAP cold...

  3. 78 FR 53419 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...


    ... comments. SUMMARY: NMFS announces that the North Pacific Fishery Management Council has submitted Amendment 95 to the Fishery Management Plan for Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska (FMP) for review by the... measures associated with halibut PSC accounting for Amendment 80 vessels subject to halibut PSC sideboards...

  4. 50 CFR 660.55 - Allocations.


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Allocations. 660.55 Section 660.55 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY CONSERVATION AND MANAGEMENT, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION... sublegal halibut at 15 percent of the Area 2A constant exploitation yield (CEY) for legal size halibut,...

  5. 75 FR 20526 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Individual Fishing Quota Program; Correction


    ... the error by restoring the removed paragraph, thereby eliminating the public's possible confusion.... This action is intended to promote the goals and objectives of the Northern Pacific Halibut Act of 1982 (Halibut Act), the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act (Magnuson-Stevens Act),...

  6. 50 CFR 300.62 - Annual management measures.


    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual management measures. 300.62 Section... REGULATIONS Pacific Halibut Fisheries § 300.62 Annual management measures. Annual management measures may be... of unloading and weighing, and sport fishing for halibut. The Assistant Administrator will...

  7. 77 FR 56611 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings


    ...). 2. Halibut Fisheries Issues: ADF&G report on final 2011 sport halibut removals; Final action on... Right of First Refusal (ROFR); Initial Review of BSAI Crab active participation requirements; Discussion...) Use and Requirements; Review the Bering Sea Habitat Conservation Area Boundary; Discussion paper on...

  8. Deep-ocean predation by a high Arctic cetacean

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Jørgensen, Ole A


    A bioenergetic model for two narwhal (Monodon monoceros) sub-populations was developed to quantify daily gross energy requirements and estimate the biomass of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides) needed to sustain the sub-populations for their 5-month stay on wintering grounds in Baffin...... Bay. Whales in two separate wintering grounds were estimated to require 700 tonnes (s.e. 300) and 90 tonnes (s.e. 40) of Greenland halibut per day, assuming a diet of 50% Greenland halibut. Mean densities and length distributions of Greenland halibut inside and outside of the narwhal wintering grounds...... were correlated with predicted whale predation levels based on diving behavior. The difference in Greenland halibut biomass between an area with high predation and a comparable area without whales, approximately 19000 tonnes, corresponded well with the predicted biomass removed by the narwhal sub...

  9. Utilization of sparker induced pressure waves to tenderize meat

    This study investigated the feasibility of tenderizing meat using high pressure waves generated from a sparker source. Beef strip loins were cut into steaks from the anterior end and one to two steaks from each strip loin were randomly selected to serve as non-treated controls and the remaining ste...

  10. Effect of oxygen level on the oxidative stability of two different retail pork products stored using modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Ann Tørngren, Mari; Christensen, Mette;


    The characteristics and the oxidative stability of pork steaks and of pork mince were investigated during 2, 5 and 7 days of refrigerated storage using oxygen (O2) levels of 0%, 20%, 50% and 80% in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). Steaks stored during 7 days were not affected by an increase...

  11. Effect of ageing under tropical conditions on the eating qualities of ...

    Effect of ageing under tropical conditions on the eating qualities of beef. ... After each period of ageing, the samples were immediately frozen to halt further ageing ... Ageing for 10 to 15 days produced very tender steaks whilst the control steaks ...

  12. Effect of anaerobiosis on indigenous microorganisms in blackwater with fish offal as co-substrate

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Heiske, Stefan; Jensen, Pernille Erland;


    of the microorganisms. In both anaerobic and aerobic samples, survival of Escherichia coli was better in the presence of Greenlandic Halibut offal when compared to samples containing blackwater only and blackwater and shrimp offal, possibly due to more available carbon in the samples containing Greenlandic Halibut....... Addition of fish offal had no effect on survival of coliphages. The results of the recovery study indicated that a fraction of the E. coli in the aerobic blackwater sample and of the faecal streptococci in both the anaerobic and aerobic samples containing blackwater and Greenlandic Halibut were injured...

  13. Evaluation of carbon monoxide treatment in modified atmosphere packaging or vacuum packaging to increase color stability of fresh beef.

    Jayasingh, P; Cornforth, D P; Carpenter, C E; Whittier, D


    Our goal was to obtain > 21 days red color stability for carbon monoxide (CO)-treated beef steaks in vacuum packaging (VP). In preliminary tests, pretreatment for 24 h in a 5% CO modified atmosphere package (MAP) was needed to maintain redness after re-packaging in VP. Pressure pretreatment with 5% CO for 2 h developed redness, but was impractical for large-scale application. Color stability and microbial load were then compared after treatment of steaks in 5% CO-MAP for 24 h, then VP; 100% CO-MAP for 1 h, then VP; steaks and ground beef in 0.5% CO-MAP; and steaks and ground beef in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrap. Steaks remained red for 5, 6, 8 and 10(6)cfu/cm(2)) at 5, 6, 7 and <2-weeks, respectively. Thus, extended color stability in VP was achieved by pretreatment with 5% CO for 24 h or 100% CO for 1 h.

  14. Effect of vitamin D, zilpaterol hydrochloride supplementation, and postmortem aging on shear force measurements of three muscles in finishing beef steers.

    Knobel-Graves, S M; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Starkey, J D; Beckett, J L; Hodgen, J M; Hutcheson, J P; Streeter, M N; Thomas, C L; Rathmann, R J; Garmyn, A J; Miller, M F


    Vitamin D (D3) supplementation may be used to increase tenderness in beef from cattle fed zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH). The study was arranged as a 2 × 2 factorial with fixed effects of ZH (no ZH or ZH fed at 8.3 mg/kg DM for 20 d with a 3-d withdrawal) and D3 (no D3 or 500,000 IU D3·steer·d for 10 d prior to harvest). Cattle ( = 466) were harvested in 2 blocks on the basis of BW with subsequent collection of carcass data. Full loins and inside rounds ( = 144 of each subprimal) were collected for fabrication of 5 steaks from the longissimus lumborum (LL), gluteus medius (GM), and semimembranosus (SM), which were aged for 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 d. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was used to evaluate mechanical tenderness of LL, GM, and SM steaks at all aging periods. Slice shear force (SSF) analysis was conducted on only 14- and 21-d LL steaks. No interactions ( > 0.05) between ZH and D3 occurred throughout the entire study. Supplementing ZH resulted in increased HCW ( Feeding ZH increased ( ≤ 0.05) WBSF of LL steaks at each postmortem age interval, whereas D3 had no effect ( > 0.05) on WBSF or SSF of LL steaks. Like for WBSF, ZH supplementation increased SSF values at 14 and 21 d postmortem ( 0.05) on WBSF values of GM steaks. Feeding ZH did not alter WBSF of SM steaks, but at 28 d D3 increased ( = 0.04) WBSF values. Shear force in ZH steaks was not effectively reduced by feeding D3 for 10 d to steers prior to harvest. Aging, however, was an effective method of reducing initially greater shear force values in LL steaks and, to a lesser degree, GM steaks from ZH-fed cattle.

  15. Lean color characteristics of bullock and steer beef.

    Shackelford, S D; Purser, D E; Smith, G C; Griffin, C L; Stiffler, D M; Savell, J W


    Twelve young bulls and 12 steers were slaughtered and the carcasses were fabricated at 48 h postmortem. Top rounds, bottom rounds, and rib eyes were vacuum-packaged and stored at 0 degrees C until 21 d postmortem. After subprimal storage, steaks were removed from each cut and displayed under simulated retail conditions for 3 d. Consumer panelists (n = 110) showed little difference in buying preference for top round, bottom round, and rib eye steaks from steers vs bullocks. Also, consumer panelists could not detect color differences between steaks from steers and bullocks. Experienced panelists (n = 6) detected brighter (P less than .05) muscle color for top round and rib eye steaks from steers but detected no difference in muscle color of bottom round steaks from bullocks and steers. Generally, overall desirability scores favored steaks from steer carcasses. This was particularly true of rib eye steaks. Sex-class of carcass did not affect aerobic plate counts of top round, bottom round, or rib eye steaks either before or after 3 d of retail display. Muscle pH was lower for top round and rib eye steaks from steer carcasses; however, the magnitude of this difference was not large enough to affect retail display stability. Muscle pH of bottom round steaks was not affected by sex-class. Although experienced panelists could detect differences in visual appearance of beef retail cuts from steers and bullocks, consumer panelists did not show a clear purchase preference for steer vs bullock beef. These data suggest that beef retail cuts from bullocks are acceptable in visual appearance.

  16. AKRO: Standard Prices

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard prices are generated for cost recovery programs in the Individual Fishing Quota (IFQ) halibut and sablefish, BSAI Rationalized crab, and Central Gulf of...

  17. AFSC/FMA/CAMS Data Objects

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CAMS system consists of a set of tables and packages that provide authentication services to all other North Pacific Groundfish and Halibut Observing Program...

  18. Subsistence Registration Permit Program

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Management of the Alaska halibut fishery is based on an international agreement between Canada and the United States and is given effect by the Northern Pacific...

  19. Diabetes Diet: Create Your Healthy-Eating Plan

    ... cod, tuna and halibut have less total fat, saturated fat and cholesterol than do meat and poultry. Fish ... against your goal of a heart-healthy diet. Saturated fats. High-fat dairy products and animal proteins such ...

  20. 77 FR 67633 - North Pacific Fishery Management Council; Public Meetings


    ... (including Aleutian Island Risk Assessment) United State Fish & Wildlife (USFWL) Report International Pacific... restrictions; discussion paper on retention of 4A halibut in sablefish pots. 5. Steller Sea Lion...

  1. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno


    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask Electromagnetic Fields.

  2. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates

    Schultz, Irvin R.; Woodruff, Dana L.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Pratt, William J.; Roesijadi, Guritno


    In this progress report, we describe the preliminary experiments conducted with three fish and one invertebrate species to determine the effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. During fiscal year 2010, experiments were conducted with coho salmon (Onchrohychus kisutch), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), and Dungeness crab (Cancer magister). The work described supports Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask Electromagnetic Fields.

  3. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride feeding duration and postmortem aging on Warner-Bratzler shear force of three muscles from beef steers and heifers.

    Brooks, J C; Claus, H C; Dikeman, M E; Shook, J; Hilton, G G; Lawrence, T E; Mehaffey, J M; Johnson, B J; Allen, D M; Streeter, M N; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Yates, D A; Miller, M F


    To determine the effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH; 6.8 g/t on 90% DM basis) feeding duration (0, 20, 30, and 40 d) on Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) of longissimus lumborum (LL), triceps brachii (TB), and gluteus medius (GM) muscles, beef from feeding trials was collected and shipped to participating universities. Animals were slaughtered at commercial processing facilities across the United States. Strip loin, shoulder clod, and top sirloin butt subprimals (IMPS 180, 114, and 184, respectively) were obtained from a portion of USDA Choice and Select grade carcasses for WBSF using standardized procedures and equipment. Feeding ZH increased (P feeding durations. Increased postmortem aging decreased LL WBSF of control and treated steaks. Postmortem aging from 7 to 21 d decreased LL WBSF values by 17.6 and 16.4% for USDA Choice and Select steaks, respectively. The percentage of LL steaks from ZH-supplemented cattle with a WBSF value feeding durations. Feeding ZH for 20, 30, or 40 d increased (P Feeding ZH for 0, 20, and 40 d had a similar effect on WBSF of USDA Select GM steaks, and produced lesser values than steaks from cattle fed ZH for 30 d. Feeding ZH for 20, 30, and 40 d had no effect on WBSF values of USDA Select TB steaks. However, the 20-, 30-, and 40-d duration produced WBSF values greater (P feeding ZH increased (P feeding also decreased (P < 0.01) the percentage of steaks with WBSF <4.5 kg regardless of US quality grade, whereas postmortem aging increased (P < 0.01) the percentage of US Choice and Select steaks with WBSF <4.5 kg. Finally, postmortem aging reduced (P < 0.05) WBSF of steaks from ZH-supplemented beef cattle.

  4. Evaluating the point of separation, during carcass fabrication, between the beef wholesale rib and the beef wholesale chuck.

    Reuter, B J; Wulf, D M; Shanks, B C; Maddock, R J


    This study determined whether there is a logical point of value change, related to either tenderness or consumer acceptance, at which to separate the beef carcass within the rib/chuck region. Rib/chuck rolls (RCR); (n = 30) consisting of the ribeye roll and chuck eye roll subprimals (2nd through 12th rib locations) were cut into 22 steaks each (two steaks per rib location), and Warner-Bratzler shear force and consumer purchase preference were evaluated for steaks at each rib location. Steaks from different locations of the RCR were composed of differing proportions of several muscles: longissimus muscle (LM), spinalis dorsi and multifidus dorsi (SM), and complexus (CO). The LM (4th to 12th rib) contained three tenderness regions: 7th through 12th rib, 5th and 6th ribs, and 4th rib regions (lowest, intermediate, and highest shear force values, respectively; P consumers. Steaks (n = 330) were offered for sale at a retail supermarket and case time was monitored on each steak to determine consumer purchase preference. Steaks from the 2nd through 4th rib locations required more time to sell (P < 0.01) than steaks from the 5th through 12th rib locations. Two alternative locations for the rib/chuck separation point could be between the 6th and 7th ribs, yielding a ribeye subprimal useful in marketing a "premium quality" product, or between the 4th and 5th ribs, which would yield four more 2.5-cm ribeye steaks per carcass.

  5. How do US and Canadian consumers value credence attributes associated with beef labels after the North American BSE crisis of 2003?

    Steiner, Bodo; Yang, Jun


    A consumer survey conducted in 2006 (n = 419), and therefore after the first confirmed bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) cases in North America in 2003, employs attribute-based choice experiments for a cross-country comparison of consumers' valuation of credence attributes associated with beef...... steak labels; specifically a guarantee that beef was tested for BSE, a guarantee that the steaks were produced without genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and a guarantee that beef steaks were produced without growth hormones and antibiotics. Considering consumers' socio-economic characteristics...

  6. Intramuscular variation in mitochondrial functionality of beef ...

    Suman, Surendranath P


    Aug 16, 2017 ... revenue loss to the United States beef industry due to discoloration is estimated to be more than 1 billion USD ... to estimate the surface color stability of steaks; greater ratio indicates ..... Elsevier, Oxford, United Kingdom.

  7. The influence of forage diets and aging on beef palatability.

    Jiang, T; Busboom, J R; Nelson, M L; O'Fallon, J; Ringkob, T P; Rogers-Klette, K R; Joos, D; Piper, K


    To investigate the influence of diet and aging on beef palatability, lipid oxidative stability, and fatty acid composition, crossbred steers were assigned to Feedlot S (alfalfa and grain), Forage TR (triticale and annual ryegrass), Forage TK (triticale and kale), or Forage+Feedlot (grazing ryegrass, fescue and orchardgrass, finished on alfalfa and grain) dietary treatments. Heifers were finished on Feedlot H (alfalfa and grain). Longissimus and tricep muscles were sampled from these animals for steaks and ground beef, respectively. Steaks were either dry- or wet-aged for 14 d. Ground beef was dry-aged, wet-aged for 14 d, or not aged. Trained sensory panelists evaluated palatability attributes of steaks and ground beef. Diet did not influence sensory attributes of steaks or ground beef. Aging impacted (Pbeef. Diet and aging had no impact on lipid oxidative stability but affected fatty acid composition of raw ground beef.

  8. Improvement of the Microbiological Safety of Two Chilled Semi-Prepared Meals by Gamma Irradiation

    Éva Andrássy; Katalin Polyák-Fehér; József Farkas


    Experimental batches of a stuffed pasta product, tortellini, and slightly pre-fried breaded reconstituted turkey steaks with cheese and ham filling, Cordon Bleu, were prepared according to commercial...

  9. Genetic variation of calsarcin-1 gene and association with carcass ...



    Jun 17, 2009 ... 2National Beef Cattle Improvement Center, Yangling, Shaanxi 712100, P. R. China. ... thickness and tenderness of the animals, with the AC and AA ..... muscles from ovine leg steaks as related t°Chemical and histological.

  10. Calpastatin (CAST) gene polymorphism in Kajli, Lohi and Thalli ...



    Jun 12, 2012 ... the beef industry and meat tenderness is a primary characteristic for consumers' ... inheritance of meat tenderness traits, such as calpastatin activity, have been ..... traits of steaks from Brahman cattle. J. Anim. Sci., 81: 54-60.

  11. Effects of packaging atmospheres on beef instrumental tenderness, fresh color stability, and internal cooked color.

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A


    Fresh meat color is a major factor influencing the purchase of meat products by consumers, whereas tenderness is the primary trait determining overall eating satisfaction of consumers. The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere on fresh beef color stability, cooked color, and tenderness. Longissimus lumborum muscles (n = 14 pairs) from USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses were assigned to either 14-d tenderness measurement or to display and then to 18-d [80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP)] or 28-d [vacuum package (VP) and ultra low (ULO(2)) plus CO MAP blends] tenderness measurement. Loins were then fabricated on d 7 postmortem into 2.54-cm-thick steaks. Steaks 8 to 10 caudal to the first 7 steaks were bisected, assigned to a packaging treatment, and used for internal cooked color. One full steak was used for initial tenderness. Packaging treatments were as follows: vacuum-packaging (VP); 80% O(2), 20% CO(2) (HiO(2)); 0.4% CO, 35% CO(2), 64.6%N(2) (ULO(2)CO); 0.4% CO, 99.6% CO(2) (ULO(2)COCO(2)); 0.4% CO, 99.6% N(2) (ULO(2)CON(2)); or 0.4% CO, 99.6% Ar (ULO(2)COAr). Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d, and all other steaks were in dark storage for 14 d. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx; 3,000 K) for 7 d, with instrumental color measured on d 0 and 7 of display. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned color scores. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooked color were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks packaged in the 4 ULO(2) MAP blends with CO had no change (P > 0.05) or increased (P HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P 0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force on d 14 postmortem. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were less tender (P HiO(2) had the lowest (P HiO(2) MAP and equal or better tenderness. Packaging atmospheres altered the internal cooked color, with steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP exhibiting premature browning.

  12. Relation of dynamic changes in CO2 of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of fresh grass carp steaks to muscle surface pH%草鱼段气调包装袋内CO2动态变化与鱼体肌肉表面pH值关系

    周冬香; 周培根; 陈椒


    @@ 分别测定草鱼段气调包装袋内CO2气体动态变化与鱼体的肌肉表面pH值,得出了气体的动态变化与pH值关系.在草鱼的气调包装中,采用CO2、O2和N2作为混合气体,其中CO2是一种抑菌气体.由于CO2溶解度较大,因此,CO2在鱼体中的溶解是产生抑菌效果的重要因素,也是引起气体组分变化的重要原因,影响鱼的贮藏效果.CO2被鱼体表面吸收后,水解生成碳酸,引起鱼体表面pH值下降,反映了CO2被鱼体吸收的量.

  13. A Survey of Civilian Food Service Management Training Programs


    International House of Pancakes Kentucky Fried Chicken Magic Pans Marriott Corp. - Human Resources Division Marriott Corp. - Staff Services Division Marriott...Burger Chef Burger Queen Casa Gallardo Chart House Church’s Fried Chicken Cork ’N’ Cleaver Country Kitchen International Dankos Enterprises...Pawnshop Restaurants Perkins Cake & Steak Pizza Hut Ponderosa Steak House Popeyes Fried Chicken Red Lobster Roy Rogers Restaurants Saga Corp

  14. Effects of different packaging atmospheres and injection-enhancement on beef tenderness, sensory attributes, desmin degradation, and display color.

    Grobbel, J P; Dikeman, M E; Hunt, M C; Milliken, G A


    The objectives were to determine the effects of packaging atmosphere and injection-enhancement on tenderness, sensory traits, desmin degradation, and display color of different beef muscles. Longissimus lumborum (LL; n = 12 pairs), semitendinosus (ST; n = 12 pairs), and triceps brachii (TB; n = 24 pairs; 12 from the same carcasses as the LL and ST and 12 additional pairs) were obtained from the same USDA Select, A-maturity carcasses. On d 7 postmortem, each muscle from one side of the carcass was injection-enhanced, and each muscle from the other side was nonenhanced. Steaks 2.54-cm thick were cut from the muscles and packaged in vacuum packaging (VP), ultra-low oxygen with CO (ULO(2)CO; 0.4% CO/35% CO(2)/69.6% N(2)) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP), or high-oxygen MAP (HiO(2); 80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) and assigned to 14-d tenderness or display followed by 18- or 28-d tenderness measurement. Steaks packaged in HiO(2) MAP were in dark storage (2 degrees C) for 4 d and all other steaks for 14 d. Steaks for Warner-Bratzler shear force, sensory panel (n = 8 trained panelists), and desmin degradation were cooked to 70 degrees C. Steaks were displayed under fluorescent lighting (2,153 lx, 3,000 K) for 7 d. Trained color panelists (n = 10) assigned display color scores. Enhanced steaks had lower (P HiO(2) MAP. The LL and TB were more tender (P HiO(2) MAP were oxidative or rancid. Enhanced steaks had more (P 0.05) by packaging or enhancement. Enhanced steaks were darker (P HiO(2) MAP discolored faster (P HiO(2) MAP.

  15. Intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles of the beef chuck.

    Searls, G A; Maddock, R J; Wulf, D M


    The i.m. tenderness variation was examined within four beef chuck muscles, the infraspinatus (IF), supraspinatus (SS), triceps brachii (TB), and serratus ventralis (SV). The IF, SS, TB, and SV muscles were cut into 2.5 cm thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. An identification tag was placed on each steak, consisting of a muscle identification number, steak number, and orientation of the steak. Steaks were vacuum-packaged and stored at -22 degrees C until subsequent analysis. Steaks were thawed at 1 degrees C and cooked on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. One core was removed from each 2.5-cm x 2.5-cm section parallel to the muscle fiber and sheared once to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF). The SS had an overall WBSF mean of 5.43 kg (SD = 2.20 kg) with no tenderness difference (P = 0.43) among steak locations. The IF had an overall WBSF mean of 3.16 kg (SD = 1.01 kg) with no tenderness difference (P = 0.51) among steak locations. The SV had a mean WBSF value of 4.37 kg (SD = 1.27 kg) with tenderness variation (P variations were not dispersed in a discernible pattern. The TB had a mean WBSF value of 4.12 kg (SD = 1.26 kg) with lower (P muscles, and this information could be used to add value to the beef chuck by cutting and marketing consistently tender regions.

  16. Relationship between productivity, quality and musculoskeletal disorder risk among deboning workers in a Chilean salmon industry.

    Ilardi, Juan S


    The purpose of this ergonomic investigation is to establish a relationship between quality, productivity and risk of musculoskeletal disorder (MSD) in manual bone-removal process in the salmon fish industry. The method consists in a follow up study of 14 workers in a lane that processes salmon steak. Time between each steak (work cycle), quality of the steak's meat through inspection of deepness and length of the gapping generated by the manual bone-removal process and risk for musculoskeletal disorders through OCRA method were considered for this study. IMC and musculoskeletal Nordic Questionnaire of Kourinka were applied to the workers evaluated. Fourteen women worker's completed the evaluation, age 37.67 ± 8.1, with 65.27 ± 34.41 months of experience, with an IMC of 27.18 ± 3.87 (1.52 ± 0.057 meters of height) at the time of the evaluation. Time for deboning per steak averaged 38 ± 14 seconds with 68.33 ± 14.79 steaks per hour per worker. In quality terms, 74% of the steaks were qualified as "premium steaks" and 26% as "grade or industrial" (lower category and cheapest price). OCRA index for the right hand average 13.79 ± 4.59 and 3.59 ± 0.41 for the left hand. From Nordic questionnaire 80% of the workers manifested musculoskeletal symptoms in the right hand/wrist, followed up by shoulder with 60% of the workers and arm/elbow with over 50%. There was no statistically significant relationship between productivity and quality of the steak after manual bone removal process and between quality and MSD risk. However, there was a statistically significant relationship between productivity and MSD risk (pimportance for this region.

  17. Effect of feeding zilpaterol hydrochloride to beef and calf-fed Holstein cattle on consumer palatability ratings.

    Mehaffey, J M; Brooks, J C; Rathmann, R J; Alsup, E M; Hutcheson, J P; Nichols, W T; Streeter, M N; Yates, D A; Johnson, B J; Miller, M F


    The need to provide consumer data for beef steak tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability ratings from zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) beef to the processor, retailers, restaurants, and consumers is paramount. Consumer palatability responses were studied for 14- and 21-d aged USDA Choice and USDA Select quality grade beef and USDA Choice calf-fed Holstein New York Strip steaks from cattle that had been fed ZH for 0, 20, and 30 d before slaughter. Strip loins were cut into 2.54-cm-thick New York strip steaks and assigned to a 14- or 21-d aging treatment. The first and fourth steaks were assigned for 14- or 21-d WBSF analysis, and the second, third, fifth, and sixth steaks were reserved for consumer sensory panel evaluation. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) analysis was conducted at Texas Tech University (TTU, Lubbock), Kansas State University (Manhattan), Oklahoma State University (Stillwater), and West Texas A&M University (Canyon) with values used to sort steaks for consumer evaluation. Slice shear force analysis was performed at TTU on available paired consumer steaks. Consumers (n = 3,007) in 4 metropolitan areas (Baltimore, MD/Washington, DC; Chicago, IL; Los Angeles, CA; and Lubbock, TX) were asked to rate tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall acceptability. Consumers were selected to represent a wide range of income, education, and ethnicity at each city. Steaks were cooked to a medium degree of doneness (71 degrees C), cut into 1 cm(3) pieces, and served warm to consumers. Consumers tasted samples from each of 3 separate steaks from each ZH treatment (0, 20, and 30 d) and within each USDA quality grade and within the 14- and 21-d aging treatments. Steaks were selected to represent the distribution of tenderness for the first, second, and third SD either side of the mean for each treatment. A second calf-fed Holstein consumer study (n = 240) was conducted with consumers eating USDA Choice 14- and 21-d aged steaks from Holstein cattle fed

  18. Beef assessments using functional magnetic resonance imaging and sensory evaluation.

    Tapp, W N; Davis, T H; Paniukov, D; Brooks, J C; Brashears, M M; Miller, M F


    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) has been used to unveil how some foods and basic rewards are processed in the human brain. This study evaluated how resting state functional connectivity in regions of the human brain changed after differing qualities of beef steaks were consumed. Functional images of participants (n=8) were collected after eating high or low quality beef steaks on separate days, after consumption a sensory ballot was administered to evaluate consumers' perceptions of tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall liking. Imaging data showed that high quality steak samples resulted in greater functional connectivity to the striatum, medial orbitofrontal cortex, and insular cortex at various stages after consumption (P≤0.05). Furthermore, high quality steaks elicited higher sensory ballot scores for each palatability trait (P≤0.01). Together, these results suggest that resting state fMRI may be a useful tool for evaluating the neural process that follows positive sensory experiences such as the enjoyment of high quality beef steaks. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 outbreak, The Netherlands, September-October 2005.

    Doorduyn, Y; de Jager, C M; van der Zwaluw, W K; Friesema, I H M; Heuvelink, A E; de Boer, E; Wannet, W J B; van Duynhoven, Y T H P


    In September 2005, the first national food-related outbreak of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 was investigated in the Netherlands. A total of 21 laboratory-confirmed cases (including one secondary case), and another 11 probable cases (two primary and nine secondary cases) were reported in patients who became ill between 11 September and 10 October 2005. Preliminary investigation suggested consumption of a raw beef product, steak tartare (in the Netherlands also known as "filet americain"), and contact with other symptomatic persons as possible risk factors. A subsequent case-control study supported the hypothesis that steak tartare was the source of the outbreak (matched odds ratio (OR) 272, 95% confidence interval (CI) 3-23,211). Consumption of ready-to-eat vegetables was also associated with STEC O157 infection (matched OR 24, 95% CI 1.1-528), but was considered a less likely source, as only 40% of the cases were exposed. Samples of steak tartare collected from one chain of supermarkets where it is likely that most patients (67%) bought steak tartare, all tested negative for STEC O157. However, sampling was done three days after the date of symptom onset of the last reported case. Since 88% of the cases became ill within a two week period, point source contamination may explain these negative results. It is concluded that steak tartare was the most likely cause of the first national food-related outbreak of STEC O157 in the Netherlands.

  20. Physical, chemical, histological and palatability characteristics of muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L


    Forty-five steers (9-12 months of age) of Angus (n =15), Brahman (n = 15) and Brahman × Angus (n = 15) breed-types were fed a high-energy diet and then slaughtered after 0, 112 or 224 days of feeding. At 7 days post mortem, the M. longissimus and M. biceps femoris were removed from the left side of each carcass and steaks were obtained for determination of sensory panel ratings, Warner-Bratzler shear force, sarcomere length, collagen content and collagen solubility. Tenderness ratings of steaks from the M. longissimus and M. biceps femoris from Angus were generally higher than ratings for steaks from Brahman or Brahman × Angus steers. Steaks from Brahman × Angus received higher tenderness ratings than steaks from Brahman steers in only a few comparisons. The three breed-types of cattle responded to time-on-feed differently; Brahman cattle needed to have been fed longer than Angus cattle to produce equally tender beef. With increased time-on-feed, M. longissimus tenderness increased for all breed-types, but M. biceps femoris tenderness was not related to time-on-feed. Few significant differences were observed among breed-types and among time-on-feed periods for collagen content or collagen solubility. Tenderness differences were closely correlated with the contractile state of the muscle which, in turn, was associated with weight, subcutaneous fat thickness and temperature decline of the carcass.

  1. Tenderness of major muscles from three breed-types of cattle at different times-on-feed.

    McKeith, F K; Savell, J W; Smith, G C; Dutson, T R; Carpenter, Z L


    Seventy-five steers (9 to 12 months of age) of Angus (n = 25), Brahman (n = 25) and Brahman × Angus (n = 25) breed-types of known history were fed a high-energy diet and five steers from each breed-type were slaughtered after 0, 56, 112, 168 and 224 days on test. At seven days post mortem, the left side of each carcass was fabricated and eight major primals or subprimals were obtained. Steaks were removed from the shoulder clod, strip loin, tenderloin, top sirloin, knuckle, top round, bottom round and eye of round for Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) determinations and from the strip loin and bottom round for sensory panel evaluations. Steaks from Angus and Brahman × Angus steers were generally more tender than steaks from Brahman steers. Tenderness of steaks from steers of the three breed-types responded to time-on-feed differently: (a) steaks from Brahman steers improved (P 0·05) as time-on-feed increased and (c) for the Brahman × Angus steers, five of the ten muscles studied improved (P Brahman, from 0 to 56 days for Angus and from 56 to 168 days for Brahman × Angus.

  2. Color attributes and oxidative stability of longissimus lumborum and psoas major muscles from Nellore bulls.

    Canto, Anna C V C S; Costa-Lima, Bruno R C; Suman, Surendranath P; Monteiro, Maria Lucia G; Viana, Fernanda M; Salim, Ana Paula A A; Nair, Mahesh N; Silva, Teofilo J P; Conte-Junior, Carlos A


    The influence of muscle source on color stability of fresh beef from purebred Bos indicus cattle was investigated. Longissimus lumborum (LL) and psoas major (PM) muscles obtained from twelve (n=12) Nellore bull carcasses (24h post-mortem) were fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks, aerobically packaged, and stored at 4°C for nine days. Steaks were analyzed on day 0 for proximate composition and myoglobin concentration, whereas pH, instrumental color, metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation were evaluated on days 0, 3, 6, and 9. LL steaks exhibited greater (P<0.05) redness, color stability, and MRA than PM counterparts. On the other hand, PM steaks demonstrated greater (P<0.05) myoglobin content, lipid oxidation, and protein oxidation than LL steaks. These results indicated the critical influence of muscle source on discoloration of fresh beef from Bos indicus animals and suggested the necessity to engineer muscle-specific strategies to improve color stability and marketability of beef from Bos indicus cattle.

  3. Alberta Consumers' Valuation of Extrinsic and Intrinsic Red Meat Attributes

    Steiner, Bodo; Gao, Fei; Unterschultz, Jim


    This paper analyzes Alberta consumers’ perceptions toward extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of bison and beef steaks. In contrast to published Canadian consumer studies on bison meat that were undertaken prior to May 2003, before the first BSE case of Canadian origin was identified in beef cattle......, this study provides a “post-BSE” assessment of consumer perceptions toward selected bison meat attributes. The results from an attribute-based choice experiment provide little support that simple traceability assurance schemes have value to consumers of bison and beef steaks, thus confirming similar findings...... of earlier beef studies that have employed different methodological approaches. The results also suggest that consumers are willing to pay significant premiums for bison steaks that are certified as being produced without genetically modified organisms, an attribute that has so far been unexplored...

  4. 78 FR 57106 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Groundfish of the Gulf of Alaska; Amendment...


    ...; and adjust the accounting methods for halibut PSC sideboard limits for Amendment 80 vessels, as well... Regulatory Impact Review (RIR), and the Initial Regulatory Flexibility Analysis (IRFA) (collectively... North Pacific Fishery Management Council (Council) prepared this FMP under the authority of the Magnuson...

  5. 75 FR 78973 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request; Special Subsistence Permits and Harvest Logs...


    ... Subsistence Permits and Harvest Logs for Pacific Halibut in Waters Off Alaska AGENCY: National Oceanic and... Response: Permit applications, 10 minutes; Community harvest log, 30 minutes; Ceremonial or educational harvest log, 30 minutes; Appeal for permit denial, 4 hours. Estimated Total Annual Burden Hours:...

  6. Diet and Nutrition

    ... eating broiled or steamed fish (e.g. herring, salmon, halibut, flounder, swordfish or pollack), using canola and olive oils, small & frequent meals, nutritional supplements if there is weight loss and if your doctor approves vitamins and mineral supplements. Avoid: Caffeine in coffee, tea ...

  7. 78 FR 37186 - Plan for Periodic Review of Regulations


    ... Community Development Quota (CDQ) Program to allow quota share holders in International Pacific Halibut... fisheries, consistent with the regulations and resource management objectives of the International Pacific... ] changes to the arbitration system in the Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab Rationalization Program by...

  8. 76 FR 40336 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program


    ... Alaska; Prohibited Species Donation Program AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National... species donation (PSD) program. Salmon and halibut are caught incidentally during directed fishing for... a salmon donation program and were approved by NMFS on July 10, 1996; a final rule implementing...

  9. 78 FR 29248 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Revise Maximum Retainable Amounts of...


    ... lists the product recovery rates (PRR) for groundfish species and conversion rates for Pacific halibut... as having a PRR for surimi. This rule establishes one surimi PRR for all the species within the... produce a similar proportion of utilized surimi product. This rule uses the surimi PRR currently...

  10. Management of living resources as a key factor in the settlement patterns

    Hendriksen, Kåre

    small settlements scattered across the 400 km of coastline. The district was considered as poor and without development potentials, but because of the halibut fishery that developed in the 1990s, the district has gained a crucial role in Greenland's export income. However this has had little impact...

  11. 50 CFR 300.66 - Prohibitions.


    ... accordance with the annual management measures published pursuant to 50 CFR 300.62. (b) Fish for halibut except in accordance with the catch sharing plans and domestic management measures implemented under 50... while commercial fishing or from sport fishing, as defined at § 300.61, except that persons...

  12. 75 FR 21749


    ... Halibut and Sablefish Fixed Gear Individual Fishing Quota Program 65 2010 Summer Flounder, Scup, and Black... Trade and Development Act of 2000 (the Act). Title I of the Act (the African Growth and Opportunity Act... ensure that whiting landings are of market quality, while abiding by Federal groundfish regulations...

  13. The Tlingit Indians of Southeastern Alaska: Social Studies Unit for Elementary Grades. Teacher's Manual [And] Kiksadi Dog Salmon Legend [And] Halibut Fishing [And] How Raven Stole the Light: A Radio Play [And] Raven, The Old Woman of the Tides, and the Sea Urchins: A Puppet Play [And] Raven and the Fog Woman [And] The Legendary Adventures of Raven [And] A Tlingit Uncle and His Nephews [And] Three Brothers [And] Lingit Aanee....

    Partnow, Patricia H.; And Others

    Part of a series designed to introduce the culture of the Alaskan Indians to elementary school students, the unit contains materials related to seasonal Tlingit activities and a guide for elementary classroom teachers to implement the student materials. The guide describes the format of the unit, suggests activities, lists resource materials, and…

  14. Evaluation of three vacuum packaging methods for retail beef loin cuts.

    Strydom, Phillip E; Hope-Jones, Michelle


    Meat from beef T-bone cuts was packaged as follows: (1) Sub-primal cuts vacuum packaged (VP) in shrink bags, aged for 14 days, portioned, VP again and aged for a further 7 days (VPR), (2) individual T-bone steaks VP in shrink bags aged for 21 days (VPP), and (3) individual T-bone steaks aged in vacuum-skin packaging (VSP) for 21 days. VSP recorded less purge and showed higher oxymyoglobin values after 2 days and higher chroma after 3 days of aerobic display (P < 0.001) than VPR and VPP. Similar differences in colour stability were recorded for VPP compared to VPR.

  15. Eating in America



    Americans are too busy to cook at home.They often eat outside.Eating culture is one of the important parts in America.There are many kinds of restaurants.Some are open for breakfast. Others are open twenty-four hours a day. A number of restaurants call themselves"family restaurants".They serve no alcohol~* and have fairly restricted~* menus.They serve steaks,hamburgers and sandwiches.Besides these,there are some special restaurants.They serve only or mainly steaks,seafood,etc.

  16. Effects of carbon monoxide treatment before vacuum packaging on the physical parameters and consumer evaluations of raw beef



    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the color changes of packaged beef due to the effects of carbon monoxide exposure before vacuum packing and storage time, as well as consumers’ evaluations of that beef. In the experiment, 400 striploin steaks (M. longissimus dorsi were vacuum packed or after 48 hours of exposure to different concentrations of CO (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% vacuum packed. The color measurements and consumer evaluations were conducted after 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days of storage in the dark at 2 ± 1 °C. Consumers evaluated the color, surface discoloration, attractiveness, and their willingness to buy the meat. The results showed that regardless of storage time, the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C* were significantly higher for the steaks vacuum packed after exposure to carbon monoxide in comparison to those packaged in a vacuum without the use of CO. Based on the consumer evaluations, the most attractive steaks were those that had been exposed to 0.3% and 0.5% CO, which were characterized by bright red or cherry-red colors. Consumers did not accept the appearance of steaks packaged without the carbon monoxide pretreatment. Exposing meat to CO before packaging allows to obtain the attractive color of vacuum packed beef.

  17. Consumers' perceptions of stakeholder credibility: who has it and who perceives it

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.


    Based on the case of US consumer choice of beef steak brands, this study investigates how individual perceptions of information source credibility influence food brand choices. In particular, it tackles the questions: which stakeholders inside or outside the food chain are perceived as credible info

  18. Pragmatic inferences modulate N400 during sentence comprehension: evidence from picture-sentence verification.

    Hunt, Lamar; Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Gibson, Linzi; Minai, Utako; Fiorentino, Robert


    The present study examines the online realization of pragmatic meaning using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants read sentences including the English quantifier some, which has both a semantic meaning (at least one) and a pragmatic meaning (not all). Unlike previous ERP studies of this phenomenon, sentences in the current study were evaluated not in terms of their truth with respect to the real world, but in terms of their consistency with a picture presented before the sentence. Sentences (such as "The boy cut some of the steaks in this story") were constructed such that either (1) both the semantic and pragmatic interpretations were true with respect to the preceding picture (when the boy in fact cut some but not all of the steaks); (2) neither interpretation was true (when the boy in fact cut none of the steaks); or (3) the semantic interpretation was true but the pragmatic interpretation false (when the boy in fact cut all of the steaks). ERPs at the object word, which determined whether the sentence was consistent with the story, showed the largest N400 effect for objects that made the sentence false, whereas they showed an intermediate effect for objects that made the sentence false under the pragmatic interpretation but true under the semantic interpretation. The results suggest that this pragmatic aspect of meaning is computed online and integrated into the sentence model rapidly enough to influence comprehension of later words.


    Eastwood, David B.; Gray, Morgan D.; Brooker, John R.


    In-store demonstrations are becoming a popular way of promoting foods at the retail level. However, little information is available to guide store managers and marketers in the design and implementation of these promotions. A test demonstration for shoulder and top blade steaks is used to estimate the effects of discretionary components of this promotional strategy. Marketing implications are drawn.

  20. 76 FR 15941 - Certain Frozen Fish Fillets From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Final Results of the Sixth...


    .... Frozen whole dressed fish are deheaded, skinned, and eviscerated. Steaks are bone-in, cross- section cuts... final weighted-average margins are listed below in the ``Final Results of the Reviews'' section of this... Joint Stock Company (``CL-Fish''). \\12\\ See Memorandum to the file, from Alex Villanueva,...


    Loïc Wacquant


    Full Text Available De los relatos que Jack London ha consagrado al boxeo, A Piece of Steak es sin dudas aquel que merece hoy nuestra mayor atención, e incluso un lugar en el panteón de los textos literarios sobre el Noble Arte, y junto a él otros tres títulos...

  2. Novel applications for microbial transglutaminase beyond food processing

    Yang Zhu, Yang; Tramper, J.


    Transglutaminase (EC initially attracted interest because of its ability to reconstitute small pieces of meat into a `steak¿. The extremely high cost of transglutaminase of animal origin has hampered its wider application and has initiated efforts to find an enzyme of microbial origin.

  3. Disentangling Directand Indirect Effects of Credence Labels

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.


    The purpose of this paper is to disentangle the direct and indirect effects of three credence labels (Australian, animal welfare and grass-fed) on US consumer attitudes toward buying beef steaks. Furthermore, it explores the impact of consumer attribute knowledge, usage frequency, education and opin

  4. Consumers' perceptions of stakeholder credibility: who has it and who perceives it

    Dentoni, D.; Tonsor, G.; Calantone, R.; Peterson, C.


    Based on the case of US consumer choice of beef steak brands, this study investigates how individual perceptions of information source credibility influence food brand choices. In particular, it tackles the questions: which stakeholders inside or outside the food chain are perceived as credible

  5. Effects of slaughter weight and carcass electrical stimulation on the quality and palatability of beef from young purebred bulls.

    Solomon, M B; West, R L; Hentges, J F


    Seventy-eight purebred Angus and Brahman bulls (10 to 18 mo at slaughter) were used to determine the effects of slaughter weight (60, 80, 90 or 100% of the average mature-cow weight for the respective breed) and carcass electrical stimulation (500 V, 20 2-s impulses on the right side) on carcass and meat characteristics. Angus bulls grazed summer forage (millet) after weaning, while Brahman bulls were fed to stimulate gains achieved on forage by Angus bulls. Bulls were then placed in the feedlot for finishing to their designated slaughter weight (293, 381, 412 and 463 kg for Angus and 316, 420, 463 and 516 kg for Brahman). Coarse dark band formation and lean color problems normally associated with bullock carcasses were either eliminated or reduced by stimulation. Increasing slaughter weight from 60 to 90% was associated with an increase in panel tenderness scores for loin steaks. However, increasing slaughter weight from 90 to 100% little change was detected. On the other hand, shear values for loin steaks decreased with increasing slaughter weight. Stimulation increased the tenderness of loin steaks as determined by both panel scores and shear values, and of bottom round steaks (shear-force values). The data from this study suggest that meat from the bulls slaughtered at lighter weights was generally tough, but was improved when bulls were fed to heavier, yet acceptable weights. This research encourages implementation of electrical stimulation on carcasses from young bulls to improve quality-indicating factors.

  6. Effect of phenotypic expression of Brahman breeding on marbling and tenderness traits.

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C


    Steers with known proportions of Brahman and Hereford breeding (80 quarter-bloods, 25% Brahman x 75% Hereford and 79 half-bloods, 50% Brahman x 50% Hereford) were used to determine the effect of phenotype on marbling and beef tenderness characteristics. Three experienced evaluators independently classified each live steer according to estimated proportion of Brahman breeding based on phenotypic evidence of Brahman breed characteristics. The steers were slaughtered, their carcasses were graded, and a carcass. Samples of longissimus muscle were obtained for measurement of 24-h calpastatin activity, sensory panel evaluation, and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force measurements. Paired steaks were aged (6 and 18 d postmortem) and palatability determinations were completed. Estimates of live animal phenotype ranged from 0/16 to 9/16 for quarter-blood Brahman steers and from 1/14 to 13/16 for half-blood Brahman steers. Neither live animal phenotype nor carcass hump height was correlated with marbling score. Live animal phenotype was correlated (P carcass hump height exhibited low, negative correlations (P Brahman were tougher (P Brahman. Steaks from carcasses with hump height measurements of 7.60 cm or greater had lower panel tenderness ratings and higher WBS values (P Brahman steers that were similar in phenotype produced steaks that were similar in tenderness. Results of this study suggest that as phenotypic evidence of Brahman breeding increases the tenderness of cooked steaks from Brahman crossbred steers decreases.

  7. Production and processing studies on calpain-system gene markers for beef tenderness: consumer assessments of eating quality.

    Robinson, D L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Barendse, W; Pethick, D W; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Greenwood, P L


    We investigated the effects of calpain-system genetic markers on consumer beef quality ratings, including interactions of marker effects with hormonal growth promotant (HGP) use and tenderstretch hanging. Brahman cattle in New South Wales (NSW; n = 164) and Western Australia (WA; n = 141) were selected at weaning from commercial and research herds to achieve balance and divergence in calpastatin (CAST) and calpain 3 (CAPN3) gene marker status. Genotypes for μ-calpain (CAPN1-4751 and CAPN1-316) were also determined. Angus cattle (49 in NSW, 17 in WA) with favorable CAST and CAPN3 alleles, balanced for CAPN1-316 status, were also studied. Half the cattle at each site had HGP (Revalor-H, containing 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 20 mg 17β-estradiol) implants during grain finishing. One side of each carcass was suspended from the Achilles tendon (AT) and the other from the pelvis [tenderstretch (TS)]. Meat Standards Australia consumer panels scored 7-d aged striploin steaks from both AT and TS sides, and 7-d aged rump and oyster blade steaks from the AT side of each carcass. Two favorable CAST alleles increased tenderness ratings of AT-striploin, TS-striploin, rump, and oyster blade steaks by, respectively, 6.1, 4.2, 4.2, and 3.1 units, and overall liking by 4.7, 2.8, 2.9, 3.7 (all P Brahman steaks from the same location with the same marker alleles had similar scores. In contrast, NSW Angus striploin steaks scored about 15 units greater for tenderness and overall liking (P < 0.001) than cattle with the same marker alleles at the other 3 location × breed combinations, which had generally similar scores. Therefore, calpain-system gene markers have beneficial effects on eating quality, consistent with our previous findings for objective meat quality.

  8. Small-scale fisheries in Greenlandic planning

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker


    This article analyses an ongoing planning process in Greenlandic fisheries governance aiming to reform the coastal Greenland halibut fishery. It examines the way certain truths about this fishery and the need for reform are produced up to and in the final policy document ‘regulation concerning...... governmentality: The process whereby a selected fishery becomes subjected to planned out-phasing through a combined construction of fleet and human identity....... the coastal fishery for Greenland halibut’. Findings highlight the way the small-scale Greenland halibut fishery system becomes a particular governance problem with respect to particular contextual meanings of sustainability and long-term planning. The article then examines whether this governance problem...

  9. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional seafood items from western Greenland.

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland


    In this study, contamination levels were determined for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and perfluorinated alkylated substances (PFASs) in traditional Greenland seafood items, such as raw and smoked fish fillet (salmon and halibut), whale and seal meat and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber). The daily intake of PCBs, PBDEs and PFASs through traditional seafood items in Greenland was assessed. Based on the presented levels of contaminants, in combination with earlier food intake studies, suggests that the daily exposure was below the tolerable daily intake threshold for all compounds. BDE-47 was the only PBDE-congener detected in all food items, except in smoked halibut. The levels of BDE-47 varied from food items such as intestines and blubber have a strong positive effect for the reduction of POPs levels in food, without a reducing the health benefits of traditional food intake considerably.

  10. Small-scale fisheries in Greenlandic planning

    Jacobsen, Rikke Becker


    This article analyses an ongoing planning process in Greenlandic fisheries governance aiming to reform the coastal Greenland halibut fishery. It examines the way certain truths about this fishery and the need for reform are produced up to and in the final policy document ‘regulation concerning...... the coastal fishery for Greenland halibut’. Findings highlight the way the small-scale Greenland halibut fishery system becomes a particular governance problem with respect to particular contextual meanings of sustainability and long-term planning. The article then examines whether this governance problem...... could also be understood as primarily a problem to a certain ‘governmentality’ mode of governance. Whereas some fishery studies document how governmentality modes of governance in fisheries succeeds in transforming subjectivities, this study offers a view into the process that might go before successful...

  11. Effects of industrial processing on essential elements and regulated and emerging contaminant levels in seafood

    Rasmussen, Rie Romme; Bøge Søndergaard, Annette; Bøknæs, Niels


    Mitigation of contaminants in industrial processing was studied for prawns (cooked and peeled), Greenland halibut (cold smoked) and Atlantic salmon (cold smoked and trimmed). Raw prawns had significantly higher cadmium, chromium, iron, selenium and zinc content in autumn than in spring, while...... summer levels typically were intermediate. Peeling raw prawns increased mercury concentration but reduced the concentration of all other elements including inorganic arsenic, total arsenic, chromium, zinc, selenium but especially cadmium, copper and iron (p ... and processing was observed. Non-toxic organic arsenic in raw Greenland halibut (N = 10) and salmon (N = 4) did not transform to carcinogenic inorganic arsenic during industrial cold smoking. Hence inorganic arsenic was low (arsenic (up to 9...

  12. Progress in live food production and use in fish and shellfish hatcheries

    Sorgeloos, P


    Different species of microalgae, the rotifer, Brachionus spp., and the brine shrimp, Artemia spp., are essential live food in the farming of several species of molluscs (e.g. oyster, clam, scallop), crustaceans (e.g. marine shrimp, freshwater prawn, crabs) and fish (e.g. bass, bream, grouper, turbot, flounder, halibut, ayu). A brief overview is given of the latest developments in their production and use in industrial hatcheries.

  13. Musculoskeletal Health and Injury Prevention


    and vegetables: 4 - 5 of each/day; • Eat cold water fish ( salmon , halibut, scallops,tuna, mackerel,cod, shrimp, snapper, and sardines) ≥ 2x...Oats • Soy • Brown rice • Wheat • Cold-water fish Dietary Supplements • Glucosamine/Chondroitin sulfate • Vitamins C and E • Selenium...Omega-3 Fatty Acids • Calcium and Vitamin D • Coenzyme Q10 • Capsaicin Cream (chili peppers) Summary Musculoskeletal health requires: • A



    Electron microscope investigation on the red sea bream (Pagrosomus major), bastard halibut (Paralichthys olivaceus) and stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus) in North China revealed virus infection in the bodies of the dead and diseased fish. These viruses included the lymphocystis disease virus (LDV), parvovirus, globular virus, and a kind of baculavirus which was not discovered and reported before and is now tentatively named baculavirus of stone flounder (Kareius bicoloratus).

  15. Horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus between turbot Scophthalmus maximus and Atlantic cod Gadus morhua using cohabitation challenge.

    Korsnes, Kjetil; Karlsbakk, Egil; Nylund, Are; Nerland, Audun Helge


    Experimental horizontal transmission of nervous necrosis virus (NNV) originating from halibut Hippoglossus hippoglossus was studied through cohabitation of intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected fish with uninfected fish for 125 d. The experimental groups consisted of i.p. injected turbot Scophthalmus maximus or i.p. injected Atlantic salmon Salmo salar with turbot, salmon or Atlantic cod Gadus morhua cohabitants. The initial weights were cod 10 g, salmon 40 g and turbot 3 g. NNV was detected in brain, eye and spleen by real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) in cod cohabitated with i.p. injected turbot after 90 and 125 d, suggesting NNV infection was transmitted horizontally from the turbot to cod. NNV was not detected in salmon that were cohabitated with i.p. challenged turbot or salmon. This study shows that NNV strains belonging to the Barfin Flounder Nervous Necrosis Virus (BFNNV) clade may be transmitted from halibut to cod via water. Hence there is a potential risk of horizontal transmission of the virus from farmed halibut to farmed and wild cod. The lack of detection of NNV in cohabitant salmon suggests that this fish species is less susceptible than cod, or not susceptible, to horizontal NNV transmission. This result might be influenced by the size of salmon, viral load in i.p. injected cohabitants or insufficient duration of the experiment.

  16. Effect of carcass fat and conformation class on consumer perception of various grilled beef muscles.

    Guzek, Dominika; Głąbska, Dominika; Gutkowska, Krystyna; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka


    The aim of the study was to analyse the attributes influencing consumer perception of grilled beef steaks. The objects were 30 carcasses out of which eight cuts were obtained (2100 single samples were prepared). A total of 350 consumers were asked to rate the meat samples (6 samples for each consumer) by assessing: tenderness, juiciness, flavour, overall acceptability and satisfaction. The MQ4, which is a combination of consumer rates for tenderness, juiciness, flavour and overall acceptability that is transformed into a single parameter with greater discriminatory ability, was calculated using linear discriminate analysis. The tenderloin was the cut that had the highest ratings for all attributes, however, tenderness, juiciness, MQ4 and consumer satisfaction evaluated for oyster blade were not significantly different from tenderloin. The results of this study indicated that consumer preferences regarding grilled steak were not influenced by fat class, conformation rib fat thickness and ossification score of the carcasses but only by the type of meat cuts.

  17. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    Bredahl, Lone


    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  18. Meat quality responses to feeding distiller's grains to finishing Holstein steers.

    Roeber, D L; Gill, R K; DiCostanzo, A


    Strip loins from two experiments were used to evaluate effects of feeding dry (DDG) or wet (WDG) distiller's grains on beef color, tenderness, and sensory traits of Holstein steers. In Exp. 1, conducted at the University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana, dietary treatments consisted of a control whole corn-corn silage diet with soybean meal (SBM) or diets formulated with 12.5% DDG plus urea, 25% DDG, 25% WDG, 50% DDG, or 50% WDG (DM basis). In Exp. 2, conducted at Iowa State University, dietary treatments consisted of cracked corn-corn silage-hay diets with either SBM or urea (Urea) as the control diets, or diets formulated with 10, 20, or 40% DDG or WDG (DM basis). Within each study, strip loins from each of four steers (representing 45.7 and 66.6% of steers in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively) in four replicate pens per treatment were aged for 13 d at 4 degrees C for subsequent color, tenderness, and palatability evaluation. Color of steaks was measured objectively using a HunterLab Miniscan XE spectrophotometer and was subjectively evaluated by a trained panel. Tenderness was measured using the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) instrument on steaks cooked to 70 degrees C. For sensory evaluation, 95 consumers were recruited to evaluate tenderness, juiciness, and flavor of cooked steaks. In Exp. 1, steaks from steers fed 25% WDG had higher (P beef flavor (6.0 +/- 0.23 and 6.2 +/- 0.22, respectively), and juiciness (5.6 +/- 0.31 and 5.8 +/- 0.23). Feeding distiller's grains at up to 50% of the dietary DM did not affect tenderness or sensory traits, and seems to be a viable feed alternative without negatively impacting sensory attributes.

  19. Microbiological Evaluation of Production Procedures for Frozen Foil Pack Meals at the Central Preparation Facility of the Francis E. Warren Air Force Base


    routines whereby time and temperature during processing is c efully controlled and product quality optimized prevented a HACCP analysis by NDC personne KA...consistent processing routines whereby time and temperature during processing is carefully controlled and product quality optimized prevented a HACCP analysis... meat loaf 17 3 The effect of processing on the microflora of salisbury steak 18 4 The effect of processing on the microflora of BBQ chicken 19 5 The

  20. JPRS Report, Near East & South Asia.


    them to buy steaks with the money." About the work itself, the company commander says that in comparison to it, any work in which the NAHAL...students are missing from their desks in classrooms. A significant portion of these students have been victims of the dried brains and obstinacy of the...number of the country’s committed, experienced teachers have been dismissed as a result of the reactionary " purging " and "cultural revolution

  1. Dietary and Behavioral Prediction of Obesity in the Navy


    related eating disorders (e.g. food bingeing, purging , and/or "bulimia") have been associated with certain dysfunctional behaviors. Among these intake among males are reported in Table 4. Eating high fat food such as steak , beef, and dairy products (self-report data) was significantly and...part correlation) indicates the variable’s unique contribution to total R2 . The largest portion of explained variance was from the Age X Food

  2. Air Power Versus a Fielded Force: The Misty Facs Of Vietnam and the A-10 Facs of Kosovo a Comparative Analysis


    then grab a quick steak before heading to the Misty bar. Here they reenact the day’s events for other Misty FACs over a mug or two of liquid...the punishment portion of NATO’s coercive carrot and stick strategy. The initial over 500. 48 R. Jeffrey Smith and William Drozdiak, Anatomy of a Purge , Washington Post, April 11, 1999, A1. 74 assets during pre-mission

  3. Southeast Asia Report


    8217 demands no less than a purge of politicalized military men who are unable or unwilling to breakaway from their political patrons. It is specially...national budget and allot a bigger, if not the biggest, portion for agrarian reform. Gerry Bulatao, DAR planning chief, says that if done this way...vain. When he was invited as guest of the Thai Government, he exploited the occasion, eating sirloin steak , drinking wine, and bringing along a

  4. West Europe Report


    rule of thumb siays at least 25,000 signatures, because there is always a portion of invalid signatures, among other things, because the signers have...Rodrigues and other PC(R) leaders and members. In recent years, the party has undergone various disputes, desertions and purges ,. [Text] [Lisbon 0...instance steak but not sausages 79 (aside from the raw materials in the sausages). The value-added tax on basic foodstuffs under the earlier narrower

  5. Cue utilisation and quality perception with regard to branded beef

    Bredahl, Lone


    Consumers' quality perception is based on individual evaluative judgments. Meat is a food category where consumers' quality perception is particularly difficult, among other things because meat is mostly sold unbranded. Through interviews with buyers of branded beef steaks, the study investigates...... the presence of a brand, the correspondence between expected and experienced quality remains moderate. Product familiarity seems to influence the quality perception process as well, with low familiarity consumers relying significantly more on the brand as a quality cue....

  6. Beef quality perception at the point of purchase

    Banovic, Marija; Grunert, Klaus G.; Barreira, Maria Madalena


    the perception of intrinsic quality cues. Furthermore, the study attempts to investigate how quality expectations are related to quality experience and future purchase intention after blind-tasting of beef steaks. Results show that extrinsic quality cues influence perception of intrinsic quality cues. Brand...... was found to be the predominant extrinsic quality cue. Consumers used brand both for perception of intrinsic quality cues and for inference of quality expectations. Future purchase intention is mainly influenced by experienced eating quality....



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  8. Shelf life of fresh foal meat under MAP, overwrap and vacuum packaging conditions.

    Lorenzo, José M; Gómez, María


    The objective of this study was to investigate the physico-chemical properties, the microbial counts and the sensory properties' changes of foal steaks packed under various conditions. The experimental packaging systems were: (i) vacuum packaging (VP), (ii) overwrap packaging and (iii) two modified atmosphere packaging methods (MAP): high O₂ MAP (80% O₂+20% CO₂) and low O₂ MAP (30% O₂+70% CO₂). The meat was stored at 2 °C during 14 days and tested for pH, colour, lipid and protein oxidation, microbial counts and sensory assessment of odour, colour and appearance. Of the two MAP, overwrap and VP, both MAP were the most effective treatments for the inhibition of the total viable counts (TVC), Pseudomonas spp., psychrotrophic aerobic bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae as well as moulds and yeast. According to the sensory evaluation, foal steaks packed under overwrap and MAP treatments resulted unacceptable after 7 days of storage, whereas the vacuum-packed meat was still acceptable. Moreover, the redness value decreased significantly (P<0.001) with all treatments during the storage time, except for the vacuum packs, which increased significantly (P<0.001). Finally, foal steaks from overwrap packaging and MAP conditions had a greater increase of TBAR'S values and carbonyl content during the storage time. High O₂ levels affected foal meat quality negatively, while anaerobic conditions extended the meat's shelf life up to 14 days.

  9. Effect of Brahman genetic influence on collagen enzymatic crosslinking gene expression and meat tenderness.

    Gonzalez, J M; Johnson, D D; Elzo, M A; White, M C; Stelzleni, A M; Johnson, S E


    The objective of the study was to examine the effect of Brahman genetics on collagen enzymatic crosslinking gene expression and meat tenderness. Steers were randomly selected to represent a high percentage Brahman genetics (n = 13), Half-Blood genetics (n = 13), Brangus genetics (n = 13), and a high percentage Angus genetics (n = 13). Muscle samples from the Longissimus lumborum muscle were collected at weaning and harvest and reverse transcription quantitative PCR (qPCR) analysis was conducted to measure the mRNA expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX), bone morphogenetic protein 1 (BMP1), and cystatin C (CYS). Steaks from subject animals were collected at harvest, aged for 14 d and subjected to collagen analysis, Warner-Bratzler Shear Force (WBS) and trained sensory panel analysis (tenderness, juiciness, and connective tissue). Data indicated that Half-Blood and Brahman steers had greater (PBrahman and Half-Blood steaks when compared to Angus and Brangus steaks (P 0.10). At harvest, Brangus and Angus steers had greater LOX mRNA expression than Brahman cattle (P Brahman genetic influence.

  10. Dietary carob pods on growth performance and meat quality of fattening pigs.

    Kotrotsios, Nikolaos; Christaki, Efterpi; Bonos, Eleftherios; Florou-Paneri, Panagiota


    In this experiment the effect of dietary carob pods in the growth performance of fattening pigs and their meat quality, including steak chemical composition and fatty acid profile, were examined. A total of 160 weaning piglets, 30 days old, were allocated into four equal groups with 4 subgroups of 5 female and 5 males each. The animals were fed with isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets, containing either 0 or 75 or 100 or 125 g of carob pods per kg of feed. At the end of the experiment, on the 180 day of age, carcass subcutaneous fat thickness, steak chemical composition and steak fatty acid profile were determined. The results of the experiment showed that the dietary addition of 75 or 100 g/kg carob pods increased body weight at slaughter and carcass weight. No significant effect was noticed on the other examined carcass parameters. Consequently, carob pods could be suggested as a potential feed for fattening pigs without any adverse effect on their meat quality.

  11. Effects of supplemental vitamin D3 on feed intake, carcass characteristics, tenderness, and muscle properties of beef steers.

    Karges, K; Brooks, J C; Gill, D R; Breazile, J E; Owens, F N; Morgan, J B


    Research was conducted to determine the effects of supplemental dietary vitamin D3 on DMI, carcass traits, Warner Bratzler shear (WBS) force, calpastatin activity, plasma minerals, pH (0, 3, 12, and 24 h after slaughter), water-holding capacity (WHC), and sensory characteristics of three muscles. Pre-slaughter vitamin D3 treatments included no supplemental vitamin D3, 6 x 106 IU (MIU) of vitamin D3 for 4 d, or 6 MIU of vitamin D3 for 6 d. Cattle were slaughtered and carcasses were chilled for 48 h before removal of steaks from the longissimus, gluteus medius, and biceps femoris muscles. Steaks were aged at 2 degrees C for 7, 14, or 21 d before cooking to a final internal temperature of 70 degrees C for WBS and sensory panel analysis. Dry matter intake was lower for steers supplemented with vitamin D3 for 4 or 6 d. Live and carcass weights were lower (P or = 3.86 kg for all steaks. Feeding vitamin D3 had no effect on palatability traits evaluated by trained panelists. Blood Ca concentrations were greater (P 0.02) after 0 h, 24 h, and 21 d postmortem when vitamin D3 was fed and was greater at 0 and 24 h if vitamin D3 was fed for 6 d rather than 4 d. These data suggest that supplementing 6 MIU of vitamin D3 will decrease DMI and improve beef tenderness through increased blood plasma Ca concentrations and WHC.

  12. A preliminary assessment of using a white light confocal imaging profiler for cut mark analysis.

    Schmidt, Christopher W; Moore, Christopher R; Leifheit, Randell


    White light confocal microscopy creates detailed 3D representations of microsurfaces that can be qualitatively and quantitatively analyzed. The study describes its application to the analysis of cut marks on bone, particularly when discerning cuts made by steel tools from those made by stone. The process described comes from a study where cuts were manually made on a cow rib with seven cutting tools, four stone (an unmodified chert flake, a chert biface, a bifacially ground slate fragment, and an unsharpened piece of slate), and three steel (a Swiss Army Knife, a serrate steak knife, and a serrate saw). Kerfs were magnified ×20 and 3D data clouds were generated using a Sensofar(®) White Light Confocal Profiler (WLCP). Kerf profiles and surface areas, volumes, mean depths, and maximum depths were calculated with proprietary software (SensoScan(®) and SolarMap(®)). For the most part, the stone tools make shallower and wider cuts. Kerf floors can be studied at higher magnifications; they were viewed at ×100. When comparing the kerf floors of the unsharpened slate and the serrate steak knife it was found that the slate floor was more uneven, but the serrate steak knife generated more overall relief. Although preliminary, the approach described here successfully distinguishes stone and steel tools; the authors conclude that the WLCP is a promising technology for cut mark analysis because of the very detailed 3D representations it creates and the numerous avenues of analysis it provides.

  13. U. S. consumer perceptions of U. S. and Canadian beef quality grades.

    Tedford, J L; Rodas-González, A; Garmyn, A J; Brooks, J C; Johnson, B J; Starkey, J D; Clark, G O; Derington, A J; Collins, J A; Miller, M F


    A U.S. consumer (n = 642) study (Baltimore, MD; Phoenix, AZ; and Lubbock, TX) was conducted to compare consumer sensory scores of U.S. beef (83 USDA Choice [Choice] and 96 USDA Select [Select]) and Canadian beef (77 AAA and 82 AA) strip loins. Strip loins (n = 338) were obtained from beef processors in Canada and the United States and were wet aged until 21 d postmortem at 2°C. Marbling scores were assigned at 21 d and loins were paired according to quality grades and marbling score. Strip loins were fabricated into 2.54-cm thick steaks; steaks were vacuum packaged and frozen until further evaluations. Proximate analysis was performed to compare fat, moisture, and protein. Choice and Canadian AAA had similar marbling scores and intramuscular fat. Both Choice and Canadian AAA had greater (P grades (P > 0.05). Consumers' opinions did not differ when comparing equivalent grades (Choice with Canadian AAA and Select with Canadian AA), but they rated Choice and Canadian AAA more palatable than Select and Canadian AA for all sensory attributes (P grade carcasses (Choice and Canadian AAA) than lower quality grade carcasses (Select and Canada AA). Additionally, consumers gave their opinion of Canadian beef, where its quality and safety were rated as "good" to "excellent" for both attributes (76.72% and 88.36%, respectively; P grades; however, strip loin steaks from higher quality grades were more palatable than lower quality grades according to consumer scores for eating quality traits.

  14. Meat quality and intramuscular fatty acid composition of Catria Horse.

    Trombetta, Maria Federica; Nocelli, Francesco; Pasquini, Marina


    In order to extend scientific knowledge on autochthonous Italian equine meat, the physical-chemical parameters of Catria Horse Longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle and its nutritional characteristics have been investigated. Ten steaks of Catria foal raised at pasture and fattened indoors for 2 months were dissected, and LT muscle was analyzed for chemical composition, total iron, drip loss, colorimetric characteristics, intramuscular fat, fatty acid profile and nutritional indexes. Steak dissection showed that LT muscle accounted for 36.78% and fat accounted for 9.19% of weight of steak. Regarding chemical composition, protein and fat content was 20.31% and 2.83%, respectively. Total iron content (1.95 mg/100 g) was lower than data reported in the literature. Color parameters showed a luminous and intense red hue muscle. The sum of unsaturated fatty acid composition (50.3%) was higher than the sum of saturated fatty acids (46.64 %). The fatty acid profile and nutritional values of Catria Horse meat could be modified adopting extensive rearing systems and grazing. The data suggests that further investigation on the composition of Catria Horse meat should be carried out to valorize this autochthonous breed, reared in sustainable livestock systems, and its meat in local short-chain systems. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Influence of brahman-derivative breeds and Angus on carcass traits, physical composition, and palatability.

    Bidner, T D; Wyattt, W E; Humes, P E; Franke, D E; Blouin, D C


    Steers were generated from Angus (A), Beefmaster (BM), Brangus (BA), Gelbray (GB), and Simbrah (SB) sires mated to cows of their breed and to Brahman x Hereford F1 cows (except A) to characterize their carcass traits, composition, and palatability. The 290 steers (48 A, 48 BM, 36 BA, 31 GB, and 46 SB) were slaughtered at an equal fatness end point as determined by real-time ultrasound and visual evaluation. Angus steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.01) carcasses with a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade, more (P < 0.01) fat thickness, and a larger (P < 0.01) longissimus area/100 kg than BM-, BA-, GB-, and SB-sired steers. Angus steers also had a lower (P < 0.01) specific gravity, a higher (P < 0.01) percentage fat and less (P < 0.05) lean in the 9th to 11th rib, and steaks aged for 10 d were more tender (P < 0.01) than steaks from Brahman-derivative sired steers. The BM- and BA-sired steers had lighter (P < 0.01), more youthful (P < 0.05) carcasses, and smaller (P < 0.01) longissimus area than GB- and SB-sired steers. The 9th to 11th rib section from the BM- and BA-sired steers had less lean and more bone (P < 0.01) than GB- and SB-sired steers. The BA-sired steers had more (P < 0.01) marbling and a higher (P < 0.05) quality grade than BM-sired steers. The SB-sired steers had heavier (P < 0.01) carcasses than the GB-sired steers. There were no differences in shear force for steaks aged for 3 d for any of the breed types, but with 10 d of aging, steaks from Angus steers were more tender, possibly indicating that steaks of Brahman-derivative breeds aged at a slower rate than those from Angus.

  16. Effect of packaging during storage time on retail display microbial population of beef strip loins from two different production systems.

    Luzardo, S; Woerner, D R; Geornaras, I; Hess, A M; Belk, K E


    Two studies were conducted to evaluate the influence of packaging during storage of strip loins (to simulate export shipment) from steers fattened on intensive grazing systems (Uruguay; UR) or on a high-concentrate diet (United States; US) on retail display life microbial growth. Four or 3 different packaging treatments were applied to UR and US strip loin roasts or steaks during 35 d of storage; treatments were applied 7 d following slaughter. After 35 d of storage, the samples were evaluated during simulated retail display for up to 6 d. In Exp. 1, the treatments were vacuum packaging (VP), low-oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) with N and CO (MAP/CO), low-oxygen MAP with N plus CO and CO, and VP plus an application of peroxyacetic acid (VP/PAA). In Exp. 2, block 1, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, and VP with ethyl--lauroyl--arginate HCl incorporated into the film as an antimicrobial agent (VP/AM). In Exp. 2, block 2, the treatments were VP, MAP/CO, MAP/CO, and VP/AM. For retail display, VP treatments were sliced and repackaged in PVC overwrap, and MAP treatments were actually PVC overwrap trays that were removed from a master bag with the prescribed gas treatment. Regardless of production system and packaging treatment, mesophilic and psychrotrophic counts of 6.9 to 7.8 and 6.7 to 7.7 log10 CFU/cm, respectively, were obtained at the end of retail display, except for US samples in Exp. 2 (5.5 to 6.3 log CFU/cm). No differences ( > 0.05) were detected for spp. counts among packaging treatments in US steaks at the end of the display time in Exp.1, whereas, for UR steaks, both MAP treatments had lower ( retail display for Exp. 2. At the end of display time and for Exp. 1, US steaks under MAP/CO had greater ( 0.05) among packaging were detected for UR steaks. Both MAP and VP/AM treatments in the US samples for Exp. 2 had lower ( 0.05) were found among packaging treatments for the UR samples. To maximize shelf life (storage and display life) of exported fresh

  17. Tasco-Forage: IV. Influence of a seaweed extract applied to tall fescue pastures on sensory characteristics, shelf-life, and vitamin E status in feedlot-finished steers.

    Montgomery, J L; Allen, V G; Pond, K R; Miller, M F; Wester, D B; Brown, C P; Evans, R; Bagley, C P; Ivy, R L; Fontenot, J P


    Tasco-Forage is an Ascophyllum nodosum seaweed-based product that has increased antioxidant activity in both plants and animals. Endophyte (Neotyphodium coenophialum ([Morgan-Jones and Gams] Glenn, Bacon, and Hanlin)-infected and uninfected tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) pastures in Virginia and Mississippi during 1997 were treated or not with 3.4 kg Tasco/ha in April and July. There were two replications of each treatment at each location. Forty-eight steers (6/replication) grazed pastures at each location (n = 96) from April to October prior to transportation to Texas Tech, Lubbock, for finishing during a 160-d period in the feedlot. Blood (antemortem) and liver (postmortem) samples were collected. After slaughter and chilling, the left strip loins (IMPS #180) were collected from three randomly selected steers from within each pasture replication (n = 48). Strip loins were vacuum-packaged and stored at 2 degrees C. At postmortem d 7, 14, 21, and 28, strip loins were removed from packaging and fabricated into 2.54-cm steaks. Following each fabrication day postmortem, the strip loins were repackaged and stored at 2 degrees C until the following postmortem time. After the prescribed fabrication, steaks were overwrapped with polyvinyl chloride film, subjected to simulated retail display at 2 degrees C for up to 3 d, and subjective and objective color were evaluated daily by a trained panel. Steaks from Mississippi steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue retained higher (P < 0.05) CIE a* color scores throughout retail display. Steaks were more uniform and had less discoloration and less browning (P < 0.05) if they were from steers that had grazed Tasco-treated fescue, and the effect was greatest for steers from Mississippi (location x Tasco interaction; P < 0.05). The endophyte in tall fescue may decrease uniformity and increase lean discoloration and two-toning of beef steaks when removed from vacuum packaging on or beyond d 21 postmortem (endophyte x

  18. Selection of housekeeping genes for gene expression studies in larvae from flatfish using real-time PCR

    Reith Michael


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flatfish metamorphosis involves major physiological and morphological changes. Due to its importance in aquaculture and as a model for developmental studies, some gene expression studies have focused on the understanding of this process using quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR technique. Therefore, adequate reference genes for accurate normalization are required. Results The stability of 12 potential reference genes was examined during larval development in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis and Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus to determine the most suitable genes for qRT-PCR analysis. Transcription levels of genes encoding β-Actin (ACTB, glyceraldehyde-3P-dehydrogenase (GAPDH, annexin A2 (ANXA2, glutathione S-transferase (GST, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC, hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT1, ubiquitin (UBQ, elongation factor 1 alpha (eEF1A1, 18S ribosomal RNA, and the ribosomal proteins S4 (RPS4 and L13a (RPL13a were quantitated. Two paralogous genes for ACTB were analyzed in each of both flatfish species. In addition, two paralogous genes for GAPDH were studied in Senegalese sole. RPL13a represented non-orthologous genes between both flatfish species. GeNorm and NormFinder analyses for expression stability revealed RPS4, UBQ and eEF1A1 as the most stable genes in Senegalese sole, Atlantic halibut and in a combined analysis. In all cases, paralogous genes exhibited differences in expression stability. Conclusion This work suggests RPS4, UBQ, and eEF1A1 genes as useful reference genes for accurate normalization in qRT-PCR studies in Senegalese sole and Atlantic halibut larvae. The congruent results between both species in spite of the drastic differences in larval development suggest that selected housekeeping genes (HKGs could be useful in other flatfish species. However, the finding of paralogous gene copies differentially expressed during development in some HKGs underscores the necessity to

  19. Effects of seasonal and interannual variability in along-shelf and cross-shelf transport on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea

    Vestfals, Cathleen D.; Ciannelli, Lorenzo; Duffy-Anderson, Janet T.; Ladd, Carol


    The Bering Sea responds rapidly to atmospheric perturbations and over the past several decades has experienced extreme variability in both its physical and biological characteristics. These changes can impact organisms that inhabit the region, particularly marine fishes, as normal current patterns to which reproductive habits are tuned can be disrupted, which, in turn, may influence recruitment and population dynamics. To understand the influence of ocean circulation on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea, we examined transport along and across the Bering Slope derived from 23 years (1982-2004) of simulations from a Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) ocean circulation model. We expected that changes in the strength and position of the Bering Slope Current (BSC) would affect recruitment in selected species (Pacific cod, walleye pollock, Greenland halibut, Pacific halibut, and arrowtooth flounder), and that circulation features along and across the shelf edge would be strongly influenced by atmospheric forcing. Variability in along-shelf transport at three transects along the path of the BSC, cross-shelf transport across the 100 and 200 m isobaths, and transport through Unimak Pass were examined. Strong seasonal and interannual variations in flow were observed, with transport typically highest during fall and winter months, coinciding with timing of spawning activity in the five species. Significant correlations were found between transport, BSC position, and groundfish recruitment. Pacific cod, in particular, benefitted from decreased along-shelf and on-shelf flow, while Pacific halibut recruitment increased in relation to increased on-shelf transport through southern canyons. The results of this study improve our understanding of variability in circulation and associated effects on groundfish recruitment in the eastern Bering Sea.

  20. Moritella viscosa, a pathogenic bacterium affecting the fillet quality in fish

    Ingerslev, Hans-Christian; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht


    Moritella viscosa is a bacterium belonging to the family Moritellaceae and was formerly known as Vibrio viscosus. The name ‘viscosa’ originates from the slimy nature of the bacterium. M. viscosa is considered to be the main causative agent of the phenomenon ‘winter ulcer’ or ‘cold-water ulcer’ wh...... market price because of a quality downgrade caused by textural changes in the fillet....... cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and turbot (Scophthalmus maximus). In Norway, the disease is considered a major problem and is currently the main bacterial infection in Norwegian aquaculture (Bornø et al. 2010). Fish previously infected with M. viscosa obtain a lower...

  1. Small Sample Studies of Food Habits: I. The Relationship between Food Preference and Food Choice in Naval Enlisted Personnel at the Naval Construction Battalion Center, Davisville, Rhode Island


    116. Spice cake w/iemon bu 1er icing 732 117. Baked halibut w/lemon butter 7-36 118. Water 7-40 119. Glazed carrots 7-44 120. Milk 7-48 121. Bread...pats Spice Cake w/ Lemon Butter Icing..... Water Milk Chocolate Milk Tea Iced Tea Hot Chocolate.. Coffee Coke Root Beer...not thought up. If you can think of any, list them at the end. 1. QUALITY 2. FLAVOR 3. AROMA 41 COMMENTS (Cont’d) 4. TASTE 5. COLOR 6

  2. MSY from catch and resilience

    Jørgensen, Ole A; Chrysafi, Anna

    A simple Schaefer model was tested on the Greenland halibut stock offshore in NAFO SA 0 and 1. The minimum data required for this model is a catch time series and a measure of the resilience of the species. Other input parameters that had to be guessed were the carrying capacity, the biomass...... as a fraction of the carrying capacity at both the beginning and end of the time series, and the growth rate. MSY was estimated to be between 19 000 and 23 000 t. Sensitivity tests showed that the estimation of MSY was heavily dependent on the guess of especially the biomass at the end of the time series...

  3. Modeling and predicting the growth boundary of Listeria monocytogenes in lightly preserved seafood

    Mejlholm, Ole; Dalgaard, Paw


    in lightly preserved seafood. The developed growth boundary model accurately predicted growth and no-growth responses in 68 of 71 examined experiments from the present study as well as from literature data. Growth was predicted for three batches of naturally contaminated cold-smoked salmon when a no...... of products was explained by a higher content of naturally occurring lactate in cold-smoked salmon (0.77 to 0.98%, wt/ wt) than in cold-smoked Greenland halibut (0.10 to 0.15%, wt/wt). In fact, the addition of 0.15% (wt/wt) diacetate and 0.75% (wt/wt) lactate to MAP cold-smoked Greenland halibut prevented......-growth response was actually observed, indicating that the model is fail-safe. The developed model predicts both the growth boundary and growth rate of L. monocytogenes and seems useful for the risk management of lightly preserved seafood. Particularly, the model facilitates the identification of product...

  4. Single-laboratory validation study of rapid analysis method for multi-class veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish by LC-MS/MS.

    Nakajima, Takayuki; Nagano, Chieko; Kanda, Maki; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Tsuneo; Kanai, Setsuko; Matsushima, Yoko; Tateishi, Yukinari; Sasamoto, Takeo; Takano, Ichiro


    A method of rapid analysis of multi-class residual veterinary drugs in milk, fish and shellfish was validated in accordance with Japanese guidelines for the validation of analytical methods for residual agricultural chemicals in food. Using LC-MS/MS, 43 multi-class veterinary drugs, including sulfonamides, quinolones, coccidiostats and antiparasites, could be analyzed in one injection. Analytes were extracted from samples with two kinds of solvent, acetonitrile containing 1 vol% formic acid and anhydrous acetonitrile, and salted out with 4.0 g of magnesium sulfate, 1.5 g of trisodium citrate and 2.0 g of sodium chloride. This method was assessed by performing recovery tests in retail milk and 4 kinds of fresh cultured fish and shellfish (salmon, tiger shrimp, red sea bream and bastard halibut) spiked with the 43 target analytes at the levels of 10 and 100 μg/kg. Using this method, 40 out of 43 drugs satisfied the guideline criteria in milk, 37 drugs in salmon, 42 drugs in tiger shrimp, 41 drugs in red sea bream and 39 drugs in bastard halibut.

  5. Juvenile groundfish habitat in Kachemak Bay, Alaska, during late summer

    Abookire, Alisa A.; Piatt, J.F.; Norcross, Brenda L.


    We investigated the habitat of juvenile groundfishes in relation to depth, water temperature, and salinity in Kachemak Bay, Alaska. Stations ranging in depth from 10 to 70 m and with sand or mud-sand substrates were sampled with a small-meshed beam trawl in August-September of 1994 to 1999. A total of 8,201 fishes were captured, comprising at least 52 species. Most fishes (91%) had a total length 5% of the total catch) were flathead sole Hippoglossoides elassodon, slim sculpin Radulinus asprellus, Pacific halibut Hippoglossus stenolepis, and arrowtooth flounder Atheresthes stomias. Depth accounted for most of the spatial variability in juvenile groundfish abundance, and neither temperature nor salinity was correlated with fish abundance. Juvenile groundfishes concentrated in either shallow (less than or equal to 20 m) or deep (50-70 m) water, with co-occurrence of some species between 30-40 m. Shallow fishes were the rock soles, Pacific halibut, and great sculpin Myoxocephalus polyacanthocephalus. Deep species were flathead sole, slim sculpin, spinycheek starsnout Bathyagonus infraspinatus, rex sole Glyptocephalus zachirus, tadpole sculpin Psychrolutes paradoxus, and whitebarred prickleback Poroclinus rothrocki. This 6-year study provides baseline data on relative abundance and distribution of juvenile groundfishes in Kachemak Bay and may provide a useful tool for predicting the presence of species in similar habitats in other areas of Alaska.

  6. IgE Sensitization Patterns to Commonly Consumed Foods Determined by Skin Prick Test in Korean Adults


    Offending food allergens can vary with regional preferences in food consumption. In this study, we analysed sensitization rates to commonly consumed foods in Korean adults suspected of having food allergy. One hundred and thirty four subjects underwent a skin prick test (SPT) with 55 food allergens, of which 13 were made by our laboratory and the rest were commercially purchased. Of the 134 patients, 73 (54.5%) were sensitized to one or more food allergens. Sensitization to chrysalis was detected most frequently, at a rate of 25.4%. Sensitization rates to other food allergens were as follows: maize grain (13.4%), shrimp (11.9%), almond (11.1%), wheat flour (8.2%), lobster (8.2%), buckwheat (8.2%), mackerel (5.2%), pollack (5.2%), halibut (4.5%), peanut (4.5%), anchovy (4.4%), squid (3.7%), saury (3.0%), common eel (3.0%), yellow corvina (3.0%), hairtail (2.2%), octopus (2.2%), and others. In addition to well-known food allergens, sensitivity to mackerel, chrysalis, pollack, and halibut, which are popular foods in Korea, was observed at high rates in Korean adults. We suggest that the SPT panel for food allergy in Korea should include these allergens. PMID:27478328

  7. Mapping of intramuscular tenderness and muscle fiber orientation of muscles in the beef round.

    Senaratne, L S; Calkins, C R; de Mello, A S; Pokharel, S; Hinkle, J B


    Intramuscular tenderness variation and muscle fiber orientation of beef M. adductor femoris (AF), M. biceps femoris (BF), M. gracilis (GL), M. pectineus (PT), M. sartorius (SR), M. semimembranosus (SM), M. semitendinosus (SO), M. vastus intermedius (VI), M. vastus medialis (VM), and M. vastus lateralis (VL) were investigated. The USDA Choice boxed beef subprimals were purchased and aged for 14 d from boxed date. The AF, BF, GL, PT, SR, SM, SO, VI, VM, and VL (n = 10 each) were fabricated from subprimals. Crust-frozen AF, BF, SO, SM, and VL were cut into 2.54-cm steaks perpendicular to the long axis and grilled (71 degrees C). The PT, SR, VI, and VM were grilled (71 degrees C) as whole muscles, whereas the GL was grilled after cutting into anterior and posterior regions. Grilled muscles were cut into equal size sections perpendicular to long axis of muscles. Location-specific cores were prepared from each steak/section, and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) was measured. The muscle fiber orientations of BF, PT, and VI were bipennate, SR and SO were fusiform, and AD, SM, VL, GL, and VM were unipennate. The overall mean WBSF values for BF, SO, AF, SM, PT, SR, GL, VI, VM, and VL were 5.62, 4.86, 4.18, 4.90, 3.76, 4.44, 4.75, 4.78, 4.24, and 6.53 kg, respectively. Based on WBSF values, PT was tender, BF and VL were tough, and VM, VI, SM, GL SR, AF, and SO were intermediate. The first 2 proximal steaks of long head BF were more tender than the rest (P Dry or moist heat oven roasting, as compared with grilling, significantly tenderized SO (P = 0.002) and VL (P beef round.

  8. Detection Tuna and Processed Products Based Protein and DNA Barcoding

    Nuring Wulansari


    Full Text Available Tuna is the second largest fishery commodity in Indonesia after the shrimp. Since the high demand and the limited stock of tuna resulted in fraudulent chance. Authentication is required to meassure consumers regarding the accuracy of its labeling and food safety. In this study, the authentication was based on protein and DNA barcoding using cytochrome-b gene (cyt-b of the mitochondrial DNA as the target of gene. Primer of cyt b gene was designed based on the tuna species. This study aimed to identify the authenticity of tuna fresh and its processed products through protein using SDS-PAGE and DNA barcoding techniques. The phases of this research were protein electrophoresis by SDS-PAGE, DNA extraction, PCR amplification, electrophoresis and sequencing. Samples of fresh fish (Tu1, Tu2, Tu3, Tu4, and Tu5 and processed tuna (canned and steak were successfully extracted. Result showed that SDS-PAGE proved the damage of proteins in the processed tuna, so this method was not appropriate if it is used to identify the authenticity of tuna. PCR electrophoresis results showed that the samples of tuna, tuna steak, sushi, meat ball, abon, and caned tuna were successfully amplified in the range of 500-750 bp except Ka3, which was in line with the target of DNA (620 bp. Resulted sequences of Tu2, Tu3, Tu4 and Tu5 were identified according the results of morphometric namely T. albacares, while Tu1 was identified as T. obesus with homology level of 99%. Processed tunas (steak and canned tuna were identified as T. albacares, as stated on the labels.

  9. Effects of aging on the fundamental color chemistry of dark-cutting beef.

    English, A R; Wills, K M; Harsh, B N; Mafi, G G; VanOverbeke, D L; Ramanathan, R


    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effects of aging on myoglobin chemistry of dark-cutting beef. Ten USDA Choice (mean pH = 5.6; normal pH beef) and 10 no-roll dark cutter (mean pH = 6.4) strip loins were obtained from a commercial packing plant within 3 d of harvest. Loins were cut into 4 sections, vacuum packaged, randomly assigned to 0-, 21-, 42-, and 62-d aging at 2°C in the dark. Following aging, loin sections were cut into 2.5-cm-thick steaks and were used to determine bloom development, oxygen consumption (OC), metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA), and lipid oxidation. Surface color readings were measured using a HunterLab Miniscan XE Plus spectrophotometer. A significant muscle type × aging time interaction resulted for OC ( cutting beef. On d 0, dark-cutting beef had a greater OC ( cutting sections were aged for 62 d, both 0 and 60 min bloom development L* values were greater ( cutting sections aged for 21 or 42 d. At all aging periods, normal pH beef had greater OxyMb content and lower DeoxyMb ( cutting beef. An aging period × muscle type interaction was significant for % overall reflectance ( = 0.0017) and absorbance ( = 0.0038). Dark cutting and normal pH beef loin sections aged for 62 d had greater reflectance ( cutting beef had greater ( cutting and normal pH beef. Dark cutting steaks had lower thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values ( < 0.0001) than normal pH steaks. The results indicate that characterizing the myoglobin chemistry during aging will help to design strategies to improve appearance of high pH beef.

  10. Irradiation of bovine meat: effect of heme-iron concentration.; Irradiacao de carne bovina: efeito na concentracao de ferro heme

    Mistura, Liliana Perazzini Furtado


    The irradiation is often used, nowadays, for meat conservation and it is important to know how much this process interferes with the nutritional quality of the meat. In this study round cut meat, ground and steaks (from a local supermarket) was irradiated with doses of O; 1; 2; 3; 4; 5; 7,5 and 10 kGy (JS-7500 Nordium Inc -Canada) and the interference of irradiation and the process of food preparation on heme-iron (H Fe) content was determined. Half of the sample was kept raw and the other half was grilled in a pre-warmed oven at 250 deg C for 9 min and a controlled humidity of 70%. The chemical composition, the total iron (T Fe) (EM) and the heme iron concentration were determined (Hornsey,1956) and the sensorial quality evaluated. The average T Fe concentration of raw and ground , ground and grilled, raw steaks and grilled steak meat, on dry and degreased basis was 113 mug/g, 121 mug/g , 91 mug/g and 77 mug/g; and the H Fe concentration 105 mug/g (93% of T Fe) , 88 mug/g (73% of T Fe), 90 mug/g (99% of T Fe) and 52 mug/g (68% of T Fe) respectively. Data were evaluated by ANOVA with fixed effects and multiple comparisons. The irradiation neither altered the chemical composition nor the proportion of heme iron of meat. The preparation conditions (temperature, cooking time, environment humidity, meat presentation) of the sample interfered more with the heme iron content than the irradiation. With the sensorial analysis we verified that meats irradiated with doses of 3 kGy were better evaluated in softness and succulency attributes than the others. Meat submitted to irradiation doses up to 3 kGy were accepted by the specialists' panel. (author)

  11. Mapping intramuscular tenderness variation in four major muscles of the beef round.

    Reuter, B J; Wulf, D M; Maddock, R J


    The objective of this study was to quantify intramuscular tenderness variation within four muscles from the beef round: biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), semimembranosus (SM), and adductor (AD). At 48 h postmortem, the BF, ST, SM, and AD were dissected from either the left or right side of ten carcasses, vacuum packaged, and aged for an additional 8 d. Each muscle was then frozen and cut into 2.54-cm-thick steaks perpendicular to the long axis of the muscle. Steaks were broiled on electric broilers to an internal temperature of 71 degrees C. Location-specific cores were obtained from each cooked steak, and Warner-Bratzler shear force was evaluated. Definable intramuscular shear force variation (SD = 0.56 kg) was almost twice as large as between-animal shear force variation (SD = 0.29 kg) and 2.8 times as large as between-muscle variation (SD = 0.20 kg). The ranking of muscles from greatest to least definable intramuscular shear force variation was BF, SM, ST, and AD (SD = 1.09, 0.72, 0.29, and 0.15 kg, respectively). The BF had its lowest shear force values at the origin (sirloin end), intermediate shear force values at the insertion, and its highest shear force values in a middle region 7 to 10 cm posterior to the sirloin-round break point (P 0.05). These data indicate that definable intramuscular tenderness variation is substantial and could be used to develop alternative fabrication and(or) merchandising methods for beef round muscles.

  12. Feedlot performance, carcass traits, and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers.

    Sherbeck, J A; Tatum, J D; Field, T G; Morgan, J B; Smith, G C


    Short-yearling steer of known genotypes-straightbred Hereford (100H, n = 80) 75% Hereford x 25% Brahman (75H:25B, n = 80), and 50% Hereford x 50% Brahman (50H:50B, n = 80) were sampled serially at four time-on-feed endpoints (84, 98, 112, 126 d) to compare feedlot performance and carcass and palatability traits of Hereford and Hereford x Brahman steers. After slaughter, USDA yield grade and quality grade factors were recorded, and a portion of the longissimus muscle was removed from the left side of each carcass and fabricated into four 2.54-cm steaks for palatability analyses. Paired steaks from each carcass were aged (6 and 18 d after death), and sensory panel and shear force evaluations were performed. At a constant live weight, 100H steers had higher ADG and produced less mature carcasses with smaller longissimus muscle areas and higher marbling scores than did 75H:25B and 50H:50B steers. The 50H:50B steers had the highest (P Brahman breeding increased. EXtending the postmortem aging period from 6 to 18 d improved shear force values by 20% and panel tenderness ratings by approximately 14%. Beef from steers of the three breeds responded similarly to aging. When Certified Hereford Beef (CHB) specifications were applied, steaks from 100H steers and 75H:25B steers had similar shear force values, suggesting that beef from quarter-blood Brahman crossbred steers could be included in the CHB Program without detrimental effects on product tenderness.

  13. Foodservice yield and fabrication times for beef as influenced by purchasing options and merchandising styles.

    Weatherly, B H; Griffin, D B; Johnson, H K; Walter, J P; De La Zerda, M J; Tipton, N C; Savell, J W


    Selected beef subprimals were obtained from fabrication lines of three foodservice purveyors to assist in the development of a software support program for the beef foodservice industry. Subprimals were fabricated into bone-in or boneless foodservice ready-to-cook portion-sized cuts and associated components by professional meat cutters. Each subprimal was cut to generate mean foodservice cutting yields and labor requirements, which were calculated from observed weights (kilograms) and processing times (seconds). Once fabrication was completed, data were analyzed to determine means and standard errors of percentage yields and processing times for each subprimal. Subprimals cut to only one end point were evaluated for mean foodservice yields and processing times, but no comparisons were made within subprimal. However, those traditionally cut into various end points were additionally compared by cutting style. Subprimals cut by a single cutting style included rib, roast-ready; ribeye roll, lip-on, bone-in; brisket, deckle-off, boneless; top (inside) round; and bottom sirloin butt, flap, boneless. Subprimals cut into multiple end points or styles included ribeye, lip-on; top sirloin, cap; tenderloin butt, defatted; shortloin, short-cut; strip loin, boneless; top sirloin butt, boneless; and tenderloin, full, side muscle on, defatted. Mean yields of portion cuts, and mean fabrication times required to manufacture these cuts differed (P < 0.05) by cutting specification of the final product. In general, as the target portion size of fabricated steaks decreased, the mean number of steaks derived from any given subprimal cut increased, causing total foodservice yield to decrease and total processing time to increase. Therefore, an inverse relationship tended to exist between processing times and foodservice yields. With a method of accurately evaluating various beef purchase options, such as traditional commodity subprimals, closely trimmed subprimals, and pre-cut portion

  14. Effect of chitosan based active packaging film on the keeping quality of chilled stored barracuda fish.

    Remya, S; Mohan, C O; Bindu, J; Sivaraman, G K; Venkateshwarlu, G; Ravishankar, C N


    In the present study, active antimicrobial (AM) packaging films were prepared from chitosan (CH) incorporated with ginger (Zingiber officinale) essential oil at different concentrations (0.1, 0.2 and 0.3 % v/v) and characterized. GC-MS analysis revealed zingiberene (22.54 ± 0.13), geranial (12.34 ± 0.33), β-sesquiphellandrene (8.14 ± 0.14), camphene (7.44 ± 0.54) and neral (5.45 ± 0.23) as the major components of essential oil extracted from ginger. Addition of ginger essential oil (GEO) improved the AM activity of the CH film against food borne pathogens, without significantly (p film. CH film with GEO was more effective against Gram-positive bacteria than Gram-negative bacteria and maximum antibacterial property against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was shown by 0.3 % GEO added CH film. In a further experiment, steaks of barracuda (Sphyraena jello) fish were wrapped with the CH-GEO (0.3 %) film and stored at 2 °C for 20 days. Throughout the storage period, the total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) value and total mesophilic count of fish steak wrapped with the CH-GEO film were significantly (p film of ethylene vinyl alcohol (EVOH) (nylon, EVOH and polyethylene). Sensorily, CH-GEO film wrapped sample was acceptable till the end of storage for 20 days compared to 12 days for unwrapped control and fish steak packed in EVOH film. The results indicate that the developed CH-GEO film is efficient in extending the storage life of fish.

  15. Molecular value predictions: associations with beef quality, carcass, production, behavior, and efficiency phenotypes in Brahman cattle.

    Greenwood, P L; Cafe, L M; McIntyre, B L; Geesink, G H; Thompson, J M; Polkinghorne, R; Pethick, D W; Robinson, D L


    Data from 2 previously published experiments, New South Wales (NSW; n = 161) and Western Australia (WA; n = 135), were used to test molecular value predictions (MVP), generated from commercially available gene markers, on economically important traits of Bos indicus (Brahman) cattle. Favorable tenderness MVP scores were associated with reduced shear force values of strip loin (LM) steaks aged 7 d from Achilles-hung carcasses (P ≤ 0.06), as well as steaks aged 1 (P ≤ 0.08) or 7 d (P ≤ 0.07) from carcasses hung from the pelvis (tenderstretch). Favorable tenderness MVP scores were also associated with improved consumer tenderness ratings for strip loin steaks aged 7 d and either Achilles hung (P ≤ 0.006) or tenderstretched (P ≤ 0.07). Similar results were observed in NSW for rump (top butt; gluteus medius) steaks, with favorable tenderness MVP scores associated with more tender (P = 0.006) and acceptable (P = 0.008) beef. Favorable marbling MVP scores were associated with improved (P ≤ 0.021) marbling scores and intramuscular fat (IMF) content in the NSW experiment, despite low variation in marbling in the Brahman cattle. For the WA experiment, however, there were no (P ≥ 0.71) relationships between marbling MVP and marbling scores or IMF content. Although residual (net) feed intake (RFI) was not associated (P = 0.63) with the RFI (feed efficiency) MVP, the RFI MVP was adversely associated with LM tenderness and acceptability of 7-d-aged Achilles-hung carcasses in NSW (P ≤ 0.031) and WA (P ≤ 0.037). Some other relationships and trends were noted between the MVP and the other traits, but few reached statistical significance, and none were evident in both experiments. Results from this study provide evidence to support the use of the tenderness MVP. The value of the marbling MVP, which was associated with marbling in only 1 herd, warrants further evaluation; however, there appears to be no evidence to support use of the RFI MVP in Brahman cattle.

  16. Explaining the use of attribute cut-off values in decision making by means of involvement

    Peschel, Anne Odile; Grebitus, Carola; Colson, Gregory;


    evidence on consumers’ heterogeneous use of attribute cut-offs with a unique focus on the relationship with consumer involvement, a key component in consumer choice theory. Behavioral data from an online choice experiment on beef steak employing shelf simulations are combined with questions defining...... a latent class model identifies several key consumer segments (e.g., a price sensitive group) based on their choice behavior and reveals that the relationship between involvement, cut-off use and cut-off violations is not uniform across consumer segments....

  17. Dietary Heterocyclic Amines and Polymorphic Variants in the Etiology of Prostate Cancer


    ounces 9 9 9 Beef (steaks, roasts, etc., including sandwiches) 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 4 ounces 9 9 9 Beef stew or pot pie with carrots or other vegetables...cup 9 9 9 Doughnuts, cookies, cake, pastry 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 piece or 3 cookies 9 9 9 Pumpkin pie , sweet potato pie 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 1 mediumslice...Year OR _____Age c. diabetes mellitus? �Yes �No _____Year OR _____Age d. a chronic liver disease, such as cirrhosis or

  18. Podnikatelský plán tematicky zaměřené restaurace

    Kűchler, Jiří


    The topic of the thesis is creating a business plan for a theme restaurant in the town of Zlín, the concept of the restaurant being a steak restaurant in North American style. The thesis consists of two parts - theoretical and practical. The theoretical part starts with addressing issues connected with the entrepreneur and entrepreneurship briefly and goes on to analyze the essence of the business plan and the principles which should be followed when drawing a plan up. Last but not least foll...

  19. Incidence and characterization of Listeria monocytogenes in foods available in Taiwan.

    Wong, H. C.; Chao, W L; Lee, S. J.


    A variety of foods were examined for the incidence of Listeria monocytogenes, and the bacterial isolates were further characterized. L. monocytogenes was selected on LiCl-phenylethanol-moxalactam agar after enrichments and identified by several biochemical, mobility, and CAMP tests. L. monocytogenes was isolated from 58.8% of pork samples, 50% of chicken carcasses, 38% of turkey parts, 34% of frozen semiready foods, 24% of beef steaks, 12.2% of vegetables, 10.5% of seafoods, and 4.4% of froze...

  20. Classification of Astaxanthin Colouration of Salmonid Fish using Spectral Imaging and Tricolour Measurement

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Dissing, Bjørn Skovlund; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht

    The goal of this study was to investigate if it is possible to differentiate between rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) having been fed with natural or synthetic astaxanthin. Three different techniques were used for visual inspection of the surface colour of the fish meat: multi-spectral image...... capturing, tricolour CIELAB measurement, and manual SalmoFan inspection. Furthermore it was tested whether the best predictions come from measurements of the steak or the fillet of the fish. Methods used for classication were linear discriminant analysis (LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA......), and sparse linear discriminant analysis (SLDA)....

  1. Relative contributions of animal and muscle effects to variation in beef lean color stability.

    King, D A; Shackelford, S D; Wheeler, T L


    Muscles from beef carcasses (n = 100) were selected from a commercial processor and aged for 14 d. Longissimus lumborum (LL), semimembranosus (SM), biceps femoris (BF), gluteus medius (GM), triceps brachii (TB), rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, adductor, semitendinosus, infraspinatus, teres major, biceps femoris ischiatic head, biceps femoris sirloin cap, and gracillus steaks were placed in display for 9 d. Instrumental color variables [lightness (L*), redness (a*), yellowness (b*), hue angle, chroma, and overall color change from d 0 (E)] were determined on d 0, 1, 3, 6, and 9 of display. Muscle pH and myoglobin content were determined for LL, SM, BF, GM, and TB. Muscles differed (P muscles. Relationships between color variables measured in LL steaks and those measured in steaks from other muscles differed across days of display with the strongest relationships being observed earlier in the display period for labile muscles and later in stable muscles. Lightness of LL steaks was correlated with lightness of all of other muscles evaluated, regardless of display day (r = 0.27 to 0.79). For a*, hue angle, chroma, and E values, the strongest relationships between LL values and those of other muscles were detected between d 9 LL values and those of other muscles on d 3, 6, or 9, depending on the relative stability of the muscle. Correlation coefficients between d 9 a*, hue angle, chroma, and E values in LL and those of other muscles were 0.50, 0.65, 0.28, and 0.43 (P muscles included in the study. Myoglobin content of SM, BF, GM, and TB was highly correlated with that of LL (r = 0.83, 0.82, 0.72, and 0.67, respectively; P Muscle pH of LL was correlated with pH of SM and GM (r = 0.44 and 0.53; P 0.05) pH of BF or TB. Muscle effects generally explained more variation in a*, b*, hue angle, chroma, and E than animal effects. However, the relative importance of animal effects increased as display continued. These data indicate that animal effects were consistent across

  2. Airpower versus a Fielded Force: Misty FACs of Vietnam and A-10 FACs of Kosovo - A Comparative Analysis


    targets struck. The two pilots spend the next few hours helping to prepare for the next day, then grab a quick steak before heading to the Misty bar. Here...foremost being the low risk of collateral damage.38 The strikes were intended as the punishment portion of NATO’s coercive carrot-and- stick strategy. The...more than 500. 46. R. Jeffrey Smith and William Drozdiak, “Anatomy of a Purge ,” Washington Post, 11 April 1999, A1. 54 47. Phil M. Haun, A-10

  3. Feeding Concept, Military Vs Civilian System


    Sour Pork e B Tacos e B Trout Almondine e B Tuna Melt e B Vegetarian Lasagna e B Bananas f B Canned Fruit f B Fresh Fruit f B Grapefruit Juice f...Fried Rice c Sirloin 7 oz c Steak c Sweet & Sour Pork c Tacos c Texas Grilled Cheese c Tuna Noodle Casserole c Tuna Salad (Sandwich) c Turkey...Parsley Buttered Potatoes St L Pinto Beans St L Pinto Beans w/Hocks St L Rice St L Sweet Dough St 14 L Tossed Green Rice St L Waffles St L Whipped

  4. Changing the S and MA [Safety and Mission Assurance] Paradigm

    Malone, Roy W., Jr.


    Objectives: 1) Optimize S&MA organization to best facilitate Shuttle transition in 2010, successfully support Ares developmental responsibilities, and minimize the impacts of the gap between last Shuttle flight and start of Ares V Project. 2) Improve leveraging of critical skills and experience between Shuttle and Ares. 3) Split technical and supervisory functions to facilitate technical penetration. 4) Create Chief Safety and Mission Assurance Officer (CSO) stand-alone position for successfully implementation of S&MA Technical Authority. 5) Minimize disruption to customers. 6) Provide early involvement of S&MA leadership team and frequent/open communications with S&MA team members and steak-holders.

  5. A comparative study of beef quality after ageing longissimus muscle using a dry ageing bag, traditional dry ageing or vacuum package ageing.

    Li, Xin; Babol, Jakub; Bredie, Wender L P; Nielsen, Belinda; Tománková, Jana; Lundström, Kerstin


    The objective of this study was to investigate beef quality of longissimus muscle after ageing in dry ageing bags, traditional dry ageing or vacuum for 8 or 19 days. Lower ageing weight loss, odour score and microbial growth were found in meat aged in dry ageing bags than after traditional dry ageing. The sensory panel detected no differences for most of the sensory attributes between samples using the two dry ageing methods, except for the odour of the cutting surface. The dry-aged steaks had more umami and butter fried meat taste compared with vacuum-aged steaks. Ageing time affected most of the sensory traits in this study, which improved as ageing time increased from 8 to 19 days. In a consumer test, meat aged for 21 days in dry ageing bags was preferred than the samples aged in vacuum. This may be due to the higher tenderness and juiciness obtained during storage in dry ageing bags than meat aged in vacuum.

  6. An end-to-end assessment of range uncertainty in proton therapy using animal tissues

    Zheng, Yuanshui; Kang, Yixiu; Zeidan, Omar; Schreuder, Niek


    Accurate assessment of range uncertainty is critical in proton therapy. However, there is a lack of data and consensus on how to evaluate the appropriate amount of uncertainty. The purpose of this study is to quantify the range uncertainty in various treatment conditions in proton therapy, using transmission measurements through various animal tissues. Animal tissues, including a pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg, were used in this study. For each tissue, an end-to-end test closely imitating patient treatments was performed. This included CT scan simulation, treatment planning, image-guided alignment, and beam delivery. Radio-chromic films were placed at various depths in the distal dose falloff region to measure depth dose. Comparisons between measured and calculated doses were used to evaluate range differences. The dose difference at the distal falloff between measurement and calculation depends on tissue type and treatment conditions. The estimated range difference was up to 5, 6 and 4 mm for the pig head, beef steak, and lamb leg irradiation, respectively. Our study shows that the TPS was able to calculate proton range within about 1.5% plus 1.5 mm. Accurate assessment of range uncertainty in treatment planning would allow better optimization of proton beam treatment, thus fully achieving proton beams’ superior dose advantage over conventional photon-based radiation therapy.

  7. Beef quality of calf-fed steers finished on varying levels of corn-based wet distillers grains plus solubles.

    Mello, A S; Calkins, C R; Jenschke, B E; Carr, T P; Dugan, M E R; Erickson, G E


    Calf-fed crossbred steers (n = 94) were randomly allocated to 3 dietary treatments (0%, 15%, or 30% wet distillers grains plus solubles, WDGS; DM basis) and fed for 167 d to determine the effects on quality attributes of beef. At 48 h postmortem, marbling score, marbling texture, and marbling distribution were assessed by a USDA grader. After grading, one rib eye slice (longissimus thoracis) »7 mm thick was excised from each carcass, trimmed of subcutaneous fat, and analyzed for fatty acid profile and lipid content. At 7 d postmortem, 48 top blades (infraspinatus), strip loins (longissimus lumborum), and tenderloins (psoas major) (16 per treatment) were removed from shoulder clods and short loins and 2 steaks were obtained to measure mineral content, fatty acid profile (except strip loins), trained sensory analysis, objective color, and lipid oxidation. Finishing diet did not influence the content of total lipid (P = 0.19) or marbling, marbling texture, or marbling distribution (P = 0.46, 0.84, 0.40, respectively). Feeding WDGS created a linear increase (P 0.50), except a minimal effect on strip loin juiciness (5.32, 4.86, and 5.52 for 0%, 15%, and 30% WDGS, respectively; P = 0.02). Top blade and tenderloin steaks from cattle fed 30% WDGS were significantly less red (lower a* values) on d 3 of simulated retail display (P Feeding WDGS to calf-fed steers altered fatty acid profile, increased oxidation, and decreased color stability during retail display.

  8. Effects of Modified Atmosphere Packaging, Food Life Extenders and Temperature on the Shelf Life of Ready-Made Dishes.

    Sato, Jun; Maenishi, Takuya; Saito, Yuki; Masuda, Toshiro; Kadotani, Naoki; Kozakai, Hiroshi; Ito, Masanori


    The combined effect of several microbial control factors including gas barrier of containers, modified atmosphere packaging, food life extenders and storage temperature was discussed in order to determine the possibility for improving the shelf life for hamburger steak and deepfried chicken, representative ready-made dishes sold at convenience stores in Japan. Multiple measures including cold storage were effective in improving the shelf life of ready-made dishes. It was also suggested that storage tests for ready-made dishes should be conducted at 10℃, a practical temperature, to confirm the storable period, as well as at 15℃, an adequate abuse temperature, to confirm the effects of various microbial control factors. In the present study, the test group 4 (nitrogen + barrier containers + pH modifier) performed most favorably at both temperatures, indicating the efficacy of multiple means including "cold storage" in improving the shelf life (extending the consume-by date) of ready-made dishes. All strains isolated from the tested hamburger steak and deep-fried chicken were common food contaminant bacterial species.

  9. Playing games against nature: optimal policies for renewable resource allocation

    Ermon, Stefano; Gomes, Carla P; Selman, Bart


    In this paper we introduce a class of Markov decision processes that arise as a natural model for many renewable resource allocation problems. Upon extending results from the inventory control literature, we prove that they admit a closed form solution and we show how to exploit this structure to speed up its computation. We consider the application of the proposed framework to several problems arising in very different domains, and as part of the ongoing effort in the emerging field of Computational Sustainability we discuss in detail its application to the Northern Pacific Halibut marine fishery. Our approach is applied to a model based on real world data, obtaining a policy with a guaranteed lower bound on the utility function that is structurally very different from the one currently employed.

  10. Development and validation of a stochastic model for potential growth of Listeria monocytogenes in naturally contaminated lightly preserved seafood

    Mejlholm, Ole; Bøknæs, Niels; Dalgaard, Paw


    added acetic and/or lactic acids. The stochastic model was developed from an existing deterministic model including the effect of 12 environmental parameters and microbial interaction (O. Mejlholm and P. Dalgaard, Food Microbiology, submitted for publication). Observed maximum population density (MPD......A new stochastic model for the simultaneous growth of Listeria monocytogenes and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) was developed and validated on data from naturally contaminated samples of cold-smoked Greenland halibut (CSGH) and cold-smoked salmon (CSS). During industrial processing these samples were......) values of L. monocytogenes in naturally contaminated samples of CSGH and CSS were accurately predicted by the stochastic model based on measured variability in product characteristics and storage conditions. Results comparable to those from the stochastic model were obtained, when product characteristics...

  11. Economic Analysis on Key Challenges for Sustainable Aquaculture Development

    Gedefaw Abate, Tenaw

    challenges that could obstruct its sustainable development, such as a lack of suitable feed, which includes fishmeal, fish oil and live feed, and negative environmental externalities. If the aquaculture industry is to reach its full potential, it must be both environmentally and economically sustainable...... environmental externalities. A sustainable supply of high-quality live feeds at reasonable prices is absolutely essential for aquaculture hatcheries because many commercially produced high-value marine fish larval species, such as flounder, grouper, halibut, tuna and turbot, require live feed for their early...... developmental stage. The key challenge in this regard is that the conventional used live feed items, Artemia and rotifers, are nutritionally deficient. Thus, the first main purpose of the thesis is carrying out an economic analysis of the feasibility of commercial production and the use of an alternative live...

  12. What is causing the phytoplankton increase in San Francisco Bay?

    Cloern, J.E.; Jassby, A.D.; Schraga, T.S.; Dallas, K.L.


    The largest living component of San Francisco Bay is the phytoplankton, a suspension of microscopic cells that convert sunlight energy into new living biomass through the same process of photosynthesis used by land plants. This primary production is the ultimate source of food for clams, zooplankton, crabs, sardines, halibut, sturgeon, diving ducks, pelicans, and harbor seals. From measurements made in 1980, we estimated that phytoplankton primary production in San Francisco Bay was about 200,000 tons of organic carbon per year (Jassby et al. 1993). This is equivalent to producing the biomass of 5500 adult humpback whales, or the calories to feed 1.8 million people. These numbers may seem large, but primary production in San Francisco Bay is low compared to many other nutrient-enriched estuaries.

  13. A DNA vaccine directed against a rainbow trout rhabdovirus induces early protection against a nodavirus challenge in turbot

    Sommerset, I.; Lorenzen, Ellen; Lorenzen, Niels;


    A DNA vaccine encoding the envelope glycoprotein from a fish rhabdovirus, viral hemorrhagic septicemia virus (VHSV), has previously been shown to induce both early and long time protection against the virus in rainbow trout. Challenge experiments have revealed that the immunity established shortly...... after vaccination is cross-protective against heterologous fish rhabdoviruses. In this study, we show that the DNA vaccine encoding the VHSV glycoprotein also induces early protection against a non-enveloped, positive-sense RNA vir-us belonging to the Nodavirus family, the Atlantic halibut nodavirus...... (AHNV). In a vaccine. efficacy test using juvenile turbot as model fish, the fish injected with the VHSV vaccine were completely protected against a nodavirus challenge performed 8 days post vaccination, while the cumulative mortality in the control group reached 54%. A DNA vaccine carrying the gene...

  14. Seasonal narwhal habitat associations in the high Arctic

    Laidre, K.L.; Heide-Jørgensen, M.P.; Logdson, M.L.


    grounds often coincided with areas of concurrent high density of Greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides, Walbaum) and predictable open water in winter pack ice in Baffin Bay. These quantitative habitat models made it possible to reconcile the behavioral traits of narwhals with dynamic...... and 2000 and fitted with satellite-linked time-depth recorders. Geographic positions of whales at 24-h time steps were linked to dive behavior variables compressed on a daily scale, including numbers of dives to different target depths or durations, time near the surface, daily dive rate, and travel speed....... Whale movements and behavior were linked to biophysical variables in a raster format using a GIS (bathymetry, bottom topography, bottom temperature, and distance from the coastline) and analyzed using linear and generalized linear mixed models, accounting for temporal autocorrelation and random...

  15. Isolation of Birnavirus serogroup B in wild and aquacultured fish species

    Skall, Helle Frank; Mellergaard, Stig; Olesen, Niels Jørgen


    and the Kattegat. Surveillance of aquacultured fish, mainly rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), for VHS, IHN and IPN, in Denmark during the previous 30 years, have resulted in Birnavirus serogroup B isolations twice. These isolations were from healthy rainbow trout. Samples sent to the Danish Veterinary......During cruises with Danish research vessels more than 17,000 wild marine fish belonging to 41 different species were sampled and examined virologically. Birnavirus serogroup B was isolated from 7 marine fish species: plaice (Pleuronectes platessa), dab (Limanda limanda), flounder (Platichthys...... Laboratory for virological examination and characterisation have revealed the presence of Birnavirus serogroup B in haddock (ML Melanogrammus aeglefinus), plaice and dab from wild marine fish caught by Irish fishermen and from Icelandic farmed halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus)....

  16. Contaminant levels in fish tissue from San Francisco Bay

    Fairey, R. [California Dept. of Fish and Game, Moss Landing, CA (United States). Moss Landing Marine Labs.; Taberski, K. [San Francisco Bay Regional Water Quality Control Board, Oakland, CA (United States)


    Edible fish species were collected from thirteen locations throughout San Francisco Bay, during the spring of 1994, for determination of contaminants levels in muscle tissue. Species collected included white croaker, surfperch, leopard and brown smoothhound sharks, striped bass, white sturgeon and halibut Sixty six composite tissue samples were analyzed for the presence of PAHs, PCBs, pesticides, trace elements and dioxin/furans. The US EPA approach to assessing chemical contaminant data for fish tissue consumption was used for identifying the primary chemicals of concern. Six chemicals or chemical groups were found to exceed screening levels established using the US EPA approach. PCBs (as total Aroclors) exceeded the screening level of 3 ppb in all sixty six tissue samples, with the highest concentrations (638 ppb) found near San Francisco`s industrial areas. Mercury was elevated (> 0.14 ppm) in forty of the sixty-six samples with the highest levels (1.26 ppm) occurring in shark muscle tissues. Concentrations of the organochlorine pesticides dieldrin, total chlordanes and total DDTs exceeded screening levels in a number of samples. Dioxin/furans (as TEQs) were elevated (above 0.15 ppt) in 16 of the 19 samples analyzed. Fish with high lipid content (croaker and surfperch) in their muscle tissue generally exhibited higher contaminant levels while fish with low lipid levels (halibut and shark) exhibited lower organic contaminant levels. Tissue samples taken from North Bay stations most often exhibited high levels of chemical contamination. The California Office of Health Hazard Assessment is currently evaluating the results of this study and has issued an interim Health Advisory concerning the human consumption of fish tissue from San Francisco Bay.

  17. Shallow-water habitat use by Bering Sea flatfishes along the central Alaska Peninsula

    Hurst, Thomas P.


    Flatfishes support a number of important fisheries in Alaskan waters and represent major pathways of energy flow through the ecosystem. Despite their economic and ecological importance, little is known about the use of habitat by juvenile flatfishes in the eastern Bering Sea. This study describes the habitat characteristics of juvenile flatfishes in coastal waters along the Alaska Peninsula and within the Port Moller-Herendeen Bay system, the largest marine embayment in the southern Bering Sea. The two most abundant species, northern rock sole and yellowfin sole, differed slightly in habitat use with the latter occupying slightly muddier substrates. Both were more common along the open coastline than they were within the bay, whereas juvenile Alaska plaice were more abundant within the bay than along the coast and used shallow waters with muddy, high organic content sediments. Juvenile Pacific halibut showed the greatest shift in distribution between age classes: age-0 fish were found in deeper waters (~ 30 m) along the coast, whereas older juveniles were found in the warmer, shallow waters within the bay, possibly due to increased thermal opportunities for growth in this temperature-sensitive species. Three other species, starry flounder, flathead sole, and arrowtooth flounder, were also present, but at much lower densities. In addition, the habitat use patterns of spring-spawning flatfishes (northern rock sole, Pacific halibut, and Alaska plaice) in this region appear to be strongly influenced by oceanographic processes that influence delivery of larvae to coastal habitats. Overall, use of the coastal embayment habitats appears to be less important to juvenile flatfishes in the Bering Sea than in the Gulf of Alaska.

  18. Marine Spatial Planning Makes Room for Offshore Aquaculture in a Crowded Coastal Zone

    Stevens, J.


    Offshore aquaculture is an emerging industry predicted to contribute significantly to global seafood production and food security. However, aquaculture farms can generate conflicts by displacing existing ocean user groups and impacting ecosystems. Further, there are multiple farm types with different seafood species, productivity levels and impacts. Thus, it is important to strategically and simultaneously plan farm type and location in relation to the seascape in order to most effectively maximize aquaculture value while also minimizing conflicts and environmental impacts. We address this problem and demonstrate the value of multi-objective planning with a case study that integrates bioeconomic modeling with ecosystem service tradeoff analysis to inform the marine spatial planning (MSP) of mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture farms in the already-crowded Southern California Bight (SCB) ecosystem. We considered four user groups predicted to conflict with or be impacted by the three types of aquaculture: wild-capture fisheries, ocean viewshed from coastal properties, marine benthic habitat protection, and risk of disease outbreak between farms. Results indicate that significant conflicts and impacts, expected under conventional planning, can be reduced by strategic planning. For example, 28% of potential mussel farm sites overlap with wild-capture halibut fishery grounds, yet MSP can enable mussel aquaculture to generate up to a third of its total potential industry value without impacting halibut fishery yield. Results also highlight hotspot areas in the SCB most appropriate for each type of aquaculture under MSP, as well as particular mussel, finfish and kelp aquaculture spatial plans that align with legislative regulations on allowable impacts from future aquaculture farms in California. This study comprehensively informs aquaculture farm design in the SCB, and demonstrates the value of multi-objective simultaneous planning as a key component in MSP.

  19. Phenotypic ranges and relationships among carcass and meat palatability traits for fourteen cattle breeds, and heritabilities and expected progeny differences for Warner-Bratzler shear force in three beef cattle breeds.

    Dikeman, M E; Pollak, E J; Zhang, Z; Moser, D W; Gill, C A; Dressler, E A


    Carcass and Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) data from strip loin steaks were obtained from 7,179 progeny of Angus, Brahman, Brangus, Charolais, Gelbvieh, Hereford, Limousin, Maine-Anjou, Red Angus, Salers, Shorthorn, Simbrah, Simmental, and South Devon sires. Trained sensory panel (TSP) evaluations were obtained on 2,320 steaks sampled from contemporary groups of progeny from one to five sires of each breed. Expected progeny differences for marbling and WBSF were developed for 103 Simmental sires from 1,295 progeny, 23 Shorthorn sires from 310 progeny, and 69 Hereford sires from 1,457 progeny. Pooled phenotypic residual correlations, including all progeny, showed that marbling was lowly correlated with WBSF (-0.21) and with TSP overall tenderness (0.18). The residual correlation between WBSF and TSP tenderness was -0.68, whereas residual correlations for progeny sired by the three Bos indicus breeds were only slightly different than for progeny sired by Bos taurus breeds. The phenotypic range of mean WBSF among sires across breeds was 6.27 kg, and the phenotypic range among breed means was 3.93 kg. Heritability estimates for fat thickness, marbling score, WBSF, and TSP tenderness, juiciness, and flavor were 0.19, 0.68, 0.40, 0.37, 0.46, and 0.07, respectively. Ranges in EPD for WBSF and marbling were -0.41 to +0.26 kg and +0.48 to -0.22, respectively, for Simmentals; -0.41 to +0.36 kg and 0.00 to -0.32, respectively, for Shorthorns; and -0.48 to +0.22 kg and +0.40 to -0.24, respectively, for Herefords. More than 20% of steaks were unacceptable in tenderness. Results of this study demonstrated that 1) selection for marbling would result in little improvement in meat tenderness; 2) heritability of marbling, tenderness, and juiciness are high; and 3) sufficient variation exists in WBSF EPD among widely used Simmental, Shorthorn, and Hereford sires to allow for genetic improvement in LM tenderness.

  20. Effects of post-mortem aging time and type of aging on palatability of low marbled beef loins.

    Lepper-Blilie, A N; Berg, E P; Buchanan, D S; Berg, P T


    The study objective was to evaluate the effect of post-mortem aging period (14 to 49days), dry vs. wet (D vs W) type of aging on the palatability of bone-in (BI) beef short loins (n=96) and boneless (BL) strip loins (n=96) possessing United States Department of Agriculture marbling scores between Slight and Small. Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) scores decreased linearly over time (P=0.0001). WBSF was not influenced by aging method or loin type. Aged flavor was higher for DBL than for DBI with WBL and WBI intermediate. Dry aging strip loins increase aged flavor yet did not improve beefy flavor compared to wet aging. Based on objective data and panelist's scores for tenderness, juiciness and aged flavor, a boneless, 28days wet aged strip steak, cooked to 71°C would provide the best combination of eating satisfaction and value.

  1. Effect of Edible and Active Coating (with Rosemary and Oregano Essential Oils) on Beef Characteristics and Consumer Acceptability

    Vital, Ana Carolina Pelaes; Guerrero, Ana; Monteschio, Jessica de Oliveira; Valero, Maribel Velandia; Carvalho, Camila Barbosa; de Abreu Filho, Benício Alves; Madrona, Grasiele Scaramal; do Prado, Ivanor Nunes


    The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry. PMID:27504957

  2. Effect of natural antioxidants on the stability of ostrich meat during storage

    Abou-Arab, E. A.; Abu-Salem, F. M.


    Meat from the ostrich is becoming increasingly popular throughout the world. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of different antioxidants such as ascorbic acid (AA), {alpha}-tocopherol (Toc) and rosemary herb (Ros) on the stability of ostrich meat during storage. The chemical composition of ostrich meat showed low fat content (1.5 %) combined with high protein content (22.4 %). The combination of AA Ros, Toc Ros and AA Toc was more effective in reducing the thiobarbituric acid (TBA) and peroxide values. The antioxidant showed insignificant effects on acidity as oleic acid. The addition of the efficient role of AA, Toc and Ros showed an improvement in the color stability of ostrich steaks and the combined treatment was more effective in color stability. In conclusion, the addition of AA, Toc and Ros had a positive effect on aroma quality, rancidity and discoloration of refrigerated ostrich meat. (Author) 41 refs.

  3. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... is focused on the product system which comprises all the processes which the product and its components meet throughout their lives- from the extraction of raw materials via manufacture, use and waste management to final disposal, or in short from the cradle to the grave (see Figure 1). The focus...

  4. The Power of the Speeches of Porto’s Employers in Anniversary Commemorative Sessions: Verbal Rituals, Argumentation and Enunciative Configuration

    Carla Aurélia Almeida


    Full Text Available Taking as a basis a corpus of news with the anniversary speeches of the Associação Industrial Portuense published in the news magazine A Indústria do Norte (1949-1970, we will analyse how, in those speeches, an image of the speaker is structured. For this purpose, we will consider the enunciative organisation of the commemorative speech for the anniversary; the speech acts sequence and the discursive strategies of intensification and mitigation at the service of persuasion. We will verify that the representatives of the employers put at steak a covening argumentative instrument of a doxa shared by a speech community. This strategy of argumentation is revealing and has to do with a specific position-taking of a representative speaker from Porto’s employers.

  5. Assessing environmental impacts in a life cycle perspective

    Hauschild, Michael Zwicky


    What are the environmental impacts from an armchairor a cellular phone or a steak, if you take into account all the activities needed to produce, maintain, use or consume and eventually dispose of it? Life cycle impact assessment is the part of life cycle assessment (LCA) where the inventory...... of material flows in the life cycle of a product are translated into environmental impacts and consumption of resources, and questions like these are given an answer. The environmental impacts may range from very local (e.g. land use) to global (like climate change). As an environmental analysis tool, LCA...... on the product system sets the frame for life cycle impact assessment (LCIA), and the bearings it has on current LCIA methodology are described in this paper together with the newest developments within this discipline....

  6. Feeding performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness attributes of steers sorted by the Igenity tenderness panel and fed zilpaterol hydrochloride.

    McEvers, T J; Nichols, W T; Hutcheson, J P; Edmonds, M D; Lawrence, T E


    Steers (n = 560; initial BW = 420 ± 26 kg) were selected from a pool of 1,040, using the IGENITY Profile DNA test for tenderness, sorted into 1 of 4 tenderness genotype (TG) groups [140 tough (TUF), 140 intermediate (INT), 140 tender (TEND), or 140 mixed (MXD)], and subsequently allocated into 56 pens at random, of which one-half (28 pens, 7 pens from each TG) were supplemented the β-adrenergic agonist zilpaterol hydrochloride (ZH) and the balance fed a control ration. No TG × ZH interaction (P ≥ 0.15) occurred for any measured trait. Cattle from INT TG had less (P 0.06) in YG distributions were detected among TG, yet TEND cattle were represented by a greater (P 3.0 kg (guaranteed tender) across all aging periods; however, no difference in the frequency of steaks with WBSF values marketing value for the beef system.

  7. Relationships between sensory evaluations of beef tenderness, shear force measurements and consumer characteristics.

    Van Wezemael, Lynn; De Smet, Stefaan; Ueland, Øydis; Verbeke, Wim


    The supply of tender beef is an important challenge for the beef industry. Knowledge about the profile of consumers who are more optimistic or more accurate in their tenderness evaluations is important for product development and beef marketing purposes. Central location tests of beef steaks were performed in Norway and Belgium (n=218). Instrumental and sensorial tenderness of three muscles from Belgian Blue and Norwegian Red cattle was reported. Consumers who are optimistically evaluating tenderness were found to be more often male, less food neophobic, more positive towards beef healthiness, and showed fewer concerns about beef safety. No clear profile emerged for consumers who assessed tenderness similar to shear force measurements, which suggests that tenderness is mainly evaluated subjectively. The results imply a window of opportunities in tenderness improvements, and allow targeting a market segment which is less critical towards beef tenderness.

  8. Influence of selected quality factors of beef on the profile and the quantity of heterocyclic aromatic amines during processing at high temperature.

    Szterk, Arkadiusz; Waszkiewicz-Robak, Bożena


    New factors were identified impacting significantly on the formation of HAA during grilling. The number and profile of HAA in grilled beef depend on the fattening system (intensive and semi-intensive), and the effect of the animal's sex. The fewest HAAs were formed in rib steak from heifers from a semi-intensive fattening system. A significant effect of storage of meat in refrigerated conditions (5 to 15 days) was also demonstrated on the formation of HAA during grilling. The longer the raw meat was stored, the more HAA was formed during grilling. The quantity of HAA was strongly correlated with the content of free amino acids and a very strong correlation was found with an increasing content of free purine and pyrimidine bases and their nucleosides. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. [Eating habits in the first year of life: social representations of young mothers].

    Lima, Ana Paula Esmeraldo; Javorski, Marly; Amorim, Rosemary de Jesus Machado; de Oliveira, Sheyla Costa; de Vasconcelos, Maria Gorete Lucena


    This is qualitative research that investigates the social representations of adolescent mothers on child eating habits in the first year of life. Its subjects were 10 adolescent mothers, whose children were aged seven to twelve months. Data were collected through semi-structured interview, besides the use of visual material. The analysis followed the technique of content analysis, relying on the framework of Social Representations Theory. That analysis revealed four themes: the conflict of breastfeeding versus consecration of porridge; establishing complementary feeding of the child; crystallized speech: "yogurt is better than a little steak"; the (un)definition of maternal eating habits: implications for infant feeding. The representations that drive maternal practices in selecting, preparing and offering food follow a particular logic, where adolescents reinterpret technical speeches in terms of their culture.

  10. RHEED streaks and instrument response

    Van Hove, J.M.; Pukite, P.; Cohen, P.I.; Lent, C.S.


    Reflection high-energy electron diffraction (RHEED) is so sensitive to surface morphology that it is difficult to separate the roles of instrument response and surface imperfection in the diffraction. To address this difficulty we have used MBE grown GaAs(001) as a test surface to study the angular dimensions of the diffracted beams. This is important if RHEED is to be useful as a quantitive probe of surface structure for in situ studies of crystal growth. The limitations placed by instrumental uncertainties on the maximum resolvable distance are estimated. Measurements of the angular length of the RHEED steaks versus angle of incidence are presented which show the changes expected from a combination of a uniformly broadened reciprocal lattice rod and an instrument limit due to angular uncertainties. Resolvable distances are obtained with RHEED that are much larger than those typically obtained with low-energy electron diffraction.

  11. Fresh meat color evaluation using a structured light imaging system

    Trinderup, Camilla Himmelstrup; Kim, Yuan H. Brad


    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a computer vision system (CVS) with structured light for meat color assessment. Three muscles (longissimus dorsi (LD), semimembranosus (SM), and psoas major (PM)) from eight beef carcasses were obtained at 1 day postmortem, vacuum...... packaged and assigned to three aging periods (9, 16, and 23 days). After aging, steaks were cut and displayed for 7 days at 3 °C under light. The surface colors were evaluated by using a Minolta, the CVS and trained color panel. In general, the CVS was highly correlated to the sensory scores, and showed...... an equivalent meat color assessment compared to the colorimeter. The CVS had a significantly higher correlation with the panel scores for the lighter and more color stable samples compared to the colorimeter. These results indicate that the CVS with structured light could be an appropriate alternative...

  12. The effect of heat shrink treatment and storage temperature on the time of onset of "blown pack" spoilage.

    Moschonas, Galatios; Bolton, Declan J; Sheridan, James J; McDowell, David A


    This study determined the effects of (a) the short "heat shrink" treatment frequently applied to vacuum packed meats within normal commercial production, and (b) chill holding storage temperature, on the subsequent time to onset (TTO) of "blown pack" spoilage (BPS). Beef or lamb steaks were inoculated with 10³ CFU/cm² of spore suspensions of five gas producing clostridia, vacuum packed (VP) and treated as follows: no heat, 50°C/15 s, 70°C/10 s or 90°C/3 s. Samples were stored at -1.5, 1 or 4°C and examined daily to determine TTO of BPS. For each strain, pack treatment and storage temperature had significant (Pshrinking, and by storing VP meats at lower temperatures (e.g. -1.5°C).

  13. Carcass characteristics, the calpain proteinase system, and aged tenderness of Angus and Brahman crossbred steers.

    Pringle, T D; Williams, S E; Lamb, B S; Johnson, D D; West, R L


    We used 69 steers of varying percentage Brahman (B) breeding (0% B, n = 11; 25% B, n = 13; 37% B, n = 10; 50% B, n = 12; 75% B, n = 12; 100% B, n = 11) to study the relationship between carcass traits, the calpain proteinase system, and aged meat tenderness in intermediate B crosses. Calpains and calpastatin activities were determined on fresh longissimus muscle samples using anion-exchange chromatography. The USDA yield and quality grade data (24 h) were collected for each carcass. Longissimus steaks were removed and aged for 5 or 14 d for determination of shear force and 5 d for sensory panel evaluation. Even though some yield grade factors were affected by the percentage of B breeding, USDA yield grades did not differ (P > .15) between breed types. Marbling score and USDA quality grade decreased linearly (P Brahman crosses.

  14. Procedure for Process Management in supply chain of fisheries products. Application in the "Empresa Pesquera Sancti Spíritus".

    Yenisel Machín León


    Full Text Available The general procedure for managing supply chains by processes of fishery products in steak chain of Claria, increases levels of reliability of its component processes and its effectiveness, and impacts on the level of customer service. With the diagnosis, is defined and identified logistics processes and maturity profiles of these, with the use of Quality Function Deployment, Analysis and Failure Mode Effects and principles of the SCOR model. Surveys were used, brainstorming and interviews to gather information. The research gives a priority for process management of supply chain and logistics management, according to the reliability and criticality of the processes associated with certain level of maturity, quality customer service and decision making, depending on the nature process of being analyzed. The paper shows the feasibility of implementing the first phase of the general procedure to manage supply chains by processes of flow production, and the gradual deterioration of technology. It is made an improvement proposal.

  15. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Ann Tørngren, Mari


    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were...... placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen....... The study demonstrates the applicability of visible spectroscopy as a tool to assess the storage conditions of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere....

  16. Role of lactate dehydrogenase in metmyoglobin reduction and color stability of different bovine muscles.

    Kim, Y H; Keeton, J T; Smith, S B; Berghman, L R; Savell, J W


    The role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in metmyoglobin reducing activity (MRA) and color stability of different bovine muscles was studied in two consecutive experiments. In experiment 1, three different bovine muscles -M. longissimus lumborum (LL), M. semimembranosus (SM), and M. psoas major (PM) - were obtained (n=7, respectively), cut into steaks, PVC packaged, and then displayed for 7days at 1°C. The LL was the most red over display time and had more (PLDH-B activity (catalyzing toward NADH generation), LDH1 isoform expression, NADH, and higher (PLDH-B activity, NADH, and a* values after 10days display at 1°C. These results suggest that variation in color stability of physiologically different muscles is regulated by different replenishment rates of NADH via different LDH isozymes.

  17. New own design an application of electric heating cable for the Orinoco oil belt wells in Venezuela

    Quezada, A; Jorge, L [PDVSA PETROLEOS S.A. (Venezuela)


    In the heavy oil industry, thermal recovery processes are common methods to reduce oil viscosity and the oil steaking factor. One of these methods consists of using a heating element to increase the well's temperature.. A new heating system, the down hole electric heating system (CEF), has been developed where the hold cable for the horizontal section is heated and used as a resistive heating element; the aim of this paper is to present this new technology system and its application. The system was installed one of PDVSA's wells in the Zuata Field in the Orinoco oil belt in Venezuela and has now been in use for 8 months. Results showed a production increase of 20% with the use of the down hole electric heating system. Through successful application in a well in Venezuela, this paper showed that the down hole electric heating system can be a good alternative to produce oil from heavy oil reservoirs.

  18. Exploring the sources of bacterial spoilers in beefsteaks by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing.

    Francesca De Filippis

    Full Text Available Microbial growth on meat to unacceptable levels contributes significantly to change meat structure, color and flavor and to cause meat spoilage. The types of microorganisms initially present in meat depend on several factors and multiple sources of contamination can be identified. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbial diversity in beefsteaks before and after aerobic storage at 4°C and to investigate the sources of microbial contamination by examining the microbiota of carcasses wherefrom the steaks originated and of the processing environment where the beef was handled. Carcass, environmental (processing plant and meat samples were analyzed by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The microbiota of carcass swabs was very complex, including more than 600 operational taxonomic units (OTUs belonging to 15 different phyla. A significant association was found between beef microbiota and specific beef cuts (P<0.01 indicating that different cuts of the same carcass can influence the microbial contamination of beef. Despite the initially high complexity of the carcass microbiota, the steaks after aerobic storage at 4°C showed a dramatic decrease in microbial complexity. Pseudomonas sp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta were the main contaminants, and Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Enterobacteriaceae were also found. Comparing the relative abundance of OTUs in the different samples it was shown that abundant OTUs in beefsteaks after storage occurred in the corresponding carcass. However, the abundance of these same OTUs clearly increased in environmental samples taken in the processing plant suggesting that spoilage-associated microbial species originate from carcasses, they are carried to the processing environment where the meat is handled and there they become a resident microbiota. Such microbiota is then further spread on meat when it is handled and it represents the starting microbial association

  19. Effect of Wagyu- versus Angus-sired calves on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and tenderness.

    Radunz, A E; Loerch, S C; Lowe, G D; Fluharty, F L; Zerby, H N


    Wagyu-sired (n = 20) and Angus-sired (n = 19) steers and heifers were used to compare the effects of sire breed on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, and meat tenderness. Calves were weaned at 138 +/- 5 d of age and individually fed a finishing diet consisting of 65% whole corn, 20% protein/vitamin/mineral supplement, and 15% corn silage on a DM basis. Heifers and steers were slaughtered at 535 and 560 kg of BW, respectively. Carcasses were ribbed between the 12th and 13th (USDA grading system) and the 6th and 7th ribs (Japanese grading system) to measure fat thickness, LM area (LMA), and intramuscular fat (IMF). Two steaks were removed from the 12th rib location and aged for 72 h and 14 d to determine Warner-Bratzler shear force and cooking loss. Sire breed x sex interactions were not significant (P > 0.05). Angus-sired calves had greater (P Angus. Sire breed did not affect (P > 0.20) HCW, 12th-rib fat, or USDA yield grade. Carcasses of Wagyu had greater (P = 0.0001) marbling scores at the 12th rib than those of Angus (770.9 vs. 597.3 +/- 41.01, respectively). Carcasses of Wagyu also had greater (P Angus, resulting in a greater proportion of carcasses grading Prime (65.0 vs. 21.1%; P = 0.006). Carcasses from Wagyu tended (P = 0.08) to have greater LMA at the 12th rib, whereas Angus carcasses had greater (P Angus and Wagyu had similar (P > 0.50) tenderness at aging times of 72 h and 14 d. Cooking loss was greater (P Angus than Wagyu steaks at 72 h and 14 d. Using Wagyu sires vs. Angus sires on British-based commercial cows combined with early weaning management strategies has the potential to produce a product with greater marbling, but is unlikely to significantly enhance tenderness.

  20. Current merchandising practices and characteristics of beef wholesale rib usage in three U.S. cities.

    Wulf, D M; Romans, J R; Costello, W J


    Packers/processors, supermarket meat managers, and restaurant meat purchasers were surveyed to determine industry utilization of the beef wholesale rib. Nine packer/processors representing > 52% of the U.S. steer-heifer slaughter reported that more than two-thirds (68.5%) of the ribs were wholesaled as ribeye, lip-on (IMPS 112A) subprimals and that its predominance in the market makes it the standard for pricing. For merchandising variations of this cut (e.g., ribeye, lip-off), packer prices are adjusted to lip-on bases according to the relative yield. Excess fat was the most common complaint about ribeye steaks, reported by 78% of the packer/processors. In particular, 71% of them reported the "kernel" fat near the center of a ribeye steak between the longissimus and spinalis dorsi muscles is quite difficult to trim out and represents the greatest problem in merchandising. Forty-two percent of supermarket meat managers and 58% of restaurant meat purchasers thought the fat content of beef ribeyes discouraged consumers from purchasing all beef. Kernel fat was specifically cited by 36% of the restaurateurs. Alternative merchandising strategies should be employed to minimize the negative value effects of kernel fat. Even with excess fat being a concern to approximately half of the beef rib buyers, most still bought lip-on ribeyes and trimmed excess fat away. Apparently, they made this choice of lower price per weight, even though price per trimmed serving might be similar to lip-off ribeyes. Excess fat is being transported from packer/processor to buyers in the form of lip-on ribeyes because of the price relationships.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Syn-Rift Stratigraphic Architecture Reveals the Growth History of a Sub-basinal Fault Population in the Outer Moray Firth, North Sea

    Kane, K.; Gupta, S.; Trudgill, B.; Johnson, H.


    Processes of normal fault propagation and linkage are recorded in the stratigraphic record by syn-rift sedimentary deposits that fill the generated accommodation volume. Using 3D seismic stratigraphic analysis, supported by well log and core interpretation, we investigate how the growth of an intrabasinal fault population led to the progressive development of an extensional sub-basin in the Moray Firth rift arm of the North Sea. The North Halibut Graben sub-basin has an E-W to WNW-ESE orientation and formed through the interaction of two main structural trends during late Jurassic rifting. E-W trending structural barriers bound the sub-basin to the north (Tartan and Petronella Ridges) and south (Halibut Horst Spur) whilst major NE-SW trending structures occur at the eastern margin. Spatial and temporal changes in syn-rift stratigraphic architecture reflect the history of faulting within the North Halibut Graben sub-basin. Fault parallel seismic profiles and intra-syn rift isochron maps demonstrate how faults initially developed as separate segments and subsequently linked to form longer strands through progressive growth and propagation. They also provide clear evidence that a major change in the structural framework occurred during rifting, supporting earlier studies advocating sequential rather than synchronous normal fault activity. The syn-rift sequence can be divided into at least two phases based on shifts in sedimentary packages and reorganistation of sequence thicknesses. Isochron maps illustrate that from late Oxfordian times (syn-rift phase I), early syn-rift sedimentation was controlled solely by NE-SW trending faults at the eastern margin of the basin. Strain was initially accommodated across several distributed, highly segmented faults but, with progressive linkage, stress became localised on one or two major through-going fault strands whilst shorter surrounding segments were switched off. From early-mid Volgian times we observe a progressive switch

  2. Comparison of low-salinity adaptability and morphological development during the early life history of five pleuronectid flatfishes, and implications for migration and recruitment to their nurseries

    Wada, Toshihiro; Aritaki, Masato; Yamashita, Yoh; Tanaka, Masaru


    The nursery habitats of flatfishes range from offshore areas to rivers, with salinity conditions varying significantly between the habitats selected by larvae and juveniles. Morphological characteristics of larvae also contribute to the successful recruitment to specific nursery areas. In the present study, ontogenetic developments of low-salinity tolerance and morphology of five pleuronectid flatfishes were examined, and compared with their previously described ontogenetic migrations. Species examined were starry flounder Platichthys stellatus, stone flounder Platichthys bicoloratus, spotted halibut Verasper variegatus, marbled flounder Pseudopleuronectes yokohamae and slime flounder Microstomus achne. The first three were categorised as 'cross-shelf species', marbled flounder as 'demersal-egg species' and slime flounder as 'offshore species'. Their typical nurseries were rivers, estuaries, tidal flats, coastal areas and offshore areas, respectively. Low-salinity tolerance from hatching to juvenile stage was examined by survival 48 h after transfer (A to I stage) and seven days after transfer (I stage) from seawater to various salinities (0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 16 and 32 ppt). High survival in 4 ppt was found in all yolk-sac larvae, but decreased in mid-larval development. During metamorphosis, starry flounder, stone flounder and spotted halibut developed strong low-salinity tolerance and juveniles were able to survive in 0, 1 and 2 ppt, respectively. In contrast, marbled flounder and slime flounder did not show these clear developments and juveniles could only survive in 4 and 8 ppt, respectively. In the morphological development, differences in standard length (SL) and relative body depth (BD) to SL (%BD/SL, an indicator of locomotive adaptation of flatfish larvae showing tilt swimming behaviour during the eye translocation) increased with larval development, and the greatest SL and %BD/SL were observed at the metamorphic climax H stage in the order of slime flounder

  3. Human exposure to contaminants in the traditional Greenland diet

    Johansen, Poul; Muir, Derek; Asmund, Gert; Riget, Frank


    The traditional diet is a significant source of contaminants to people in Greenland, although contaminant levels vary widely among species and tissue from very low in many to very high in a few. Our study has included cadmium, mercury, selenium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCB), dichlorophenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCH), chlorobenzenes, dieldrin and toxaphene in the major species and tissues consumed by Greenlanders. In general, the levels of these are very low in terrestrial species and in muscle of many marine species. High organochlorines concentrations are typically found in blubber of marine mammals and high metal levels in liver and kidney of seals and whales. In this study, the mean intakes of cadmium, chlordanes and toxaphene significantly exceed 'acceptable/tolerable intakes' (ADI/TDI) by a factor between 2.5 and 6. Mean intakes of mercury, PCB and dieldrin also exceed ADI/TDI by up to approximately 50%. However as these figures are mean intakes and as variation in both food intake and contaminant levels is large, the variation of contaminant intake among individuals is also large, and some individuals will be exposed to significantly higher intakes. The mean intakes of DDT, HCH and chlorobenzenes are well below the ADI/TDI values, and it seems unlikely that the TDI for these contaminants normally is exceeded in the Greenland population. The evaluation of contaminant intake in this study points to seal muscle, seal liver, seal kidney, seal blubber and whale blubber as the dominant contributors of contaminants in the traditional diet. Levels in liver from Greenland halibut, snow crab, king eider, kittiwake, beluga and narwhal and kidney of beluga and narwhal are also high but were, with the exception of toxaphene in Greenland halibut liver, not important sources in this study, because they were eaten in low quantities. A way to minimize contaminant intake would be to avoid or limit the consumption of diet items

  4. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates: Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms - Fiscal Year 2011 Progress Report - Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Schultz, Irvin R.; Marshall, Kathryn E.; Ward, Jeffrey A.; Cullinan, Valerie I.


    This fiscal year (FY) 2011 progress report (Task 2.1.3 Effects on Aquatic Organisms, Subtask Electromagnetic Fields) describes studies conducted by PNNL as part of the DOE Wind and Water Power Program to examine the potential effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF) from marine and hydrokinetic devices on aquatic organisms, including freshwater and marine fish and marine invertebrates. In this report, we provide a description of the methods and results of experiments conducted in FY 2010-FY 2011 to evaluate potential responses of selected aquatic organisms. Preliminary EMF laboratory experiments during FY 2010 and 2011 entailed exposures with representative fish and invertebrate species including juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), California halibut (Paralicthys californicus), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss), and Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister). These species were selected for their ecological, commercial, and/or recreational importance, as well as their potential to encounter an MHK device or transmission cable during part or all of their life cycle. Based on previous studies, acute effects such as mortality were not expected to occur from EMF exposures. Therefore, our measurement endpoints focused on behavioral responses (e.g., detection of EMF, interference with feeding behavior, avoidance or attraction to EMF), developmental changes (i.e., growth and survival from egg or larval stage to juvenile), and exposure markers indicative of physiological responses to stress. EMF intensities during the various tests ranged from 0.1 to 3 millitesla, representing a range of upper bounding conditions reported in the literature. Experiments to date have shown there is little evidence to indicate distinct or extreme behavioral responses in the presence of elevated EMF for the species tested. Several developmental and physiological responses were observed in the fish exposures, although most were not

  5. Elucidating dynamic responses of North Pacific fish populations to climatic forcing: Influence of life-history strategy

    Yatsu, A.; Aydin, K. Y.; King, J. R.; McFarlane, G. A.; Chiba, S.; Tadokoro, K.; Kaeriyama, M.; Watanabe, Y.


    In order to explore mechanistic linkages between low-frequency ocean/climate variability, and fish population responses, we undertook comparative studies of time-series of recruitment-related productivity and the biomass levels of fish stocks representing five life-history strategies in the northern North Pacific between the 1950s and the present. We selected seven species: Japanese sardine ( Sardinopus melanostictus) and California sardine ( Sardinopus sagax) (opportunistic strategists), walleye pollock ( Theragra chalcogramma, intermediate strategist), pink salmon ( Oncorhynchus gorbuscha, salmonic strategist), sablefish ( Anoplopoma fimbria) and Pacific halibut ( Hippoglossus stenolepis) (periodic strategists) and spiny dogfish ( Squalus acanthias, equilibrium strategist). The responses in terms of productivity of sardine, pink salmon, sablefish and halibut to climatic regime shifts were generally immediate, delayed, or no substantial responses depending on the particular regime shift year and fish stock (population). In walleye pollock, there were some periods of high productivity and low productivity, but not coincidental to climatic regime shifts, likely due to indirect climate forcing impacts on both bottom-up and top-down processes. Biomass of zooplankton and all fish stocks examined, except for spiny dogfish whose data were limited, indicated a decadal pattern with the most gradual changes in periodic strategists and most intensive and rapid changes in opportunistic strategists. Responses of sardine productivity to regime shifts were the most intense, probably due to the absence of density-dependent effects and the availability of refuges from predators when sardine biomass was extremely low. Spiny dogfish were least affected by environmental variability. Conversely, spiny dogfish are likely to withstand only modest harvest rates due to their very low intrinsic rate of increase. Thus, each life-history strategy type had a unique response to climatic

  6. Assessing incidental bycatch of seabirds in Norwegian coastal commercial fisheries: Empirical and methodological lessons

    Kirstin Fangel


    Full Text Available With diminishing seabird populations and little knowledge on incidental bycatch in fisheries in the Northeast Atlantic, this study aimed to screen seabird bycatch in Norwegian coastal fisheries in 2009. The purpose was to 1 quantify magnitude of seabird bycatch rates and estimate total bycatch from the entire fleet by different estimators 2 evaluate data from an access point survey against monitoring data from a reference fleet as methods for collecting data on bycatch mortality of seabirds and 3 give advice on further bycatch studies. The study focused on three small-vessel fisheries (11 000 birds estimated caught. The black guillemot Cepphus gryllealso stood out as a numerous victim, constituting almost two thirds of the >3000 birds estimated to have drowned in lumpfish gillnets. The two methods were both considered to hold merit and yielded approximately similar estimates of the bycatch in the coastal cod fisheries, however BPUE differs. Further studies are recommended especially on the lumpfish gillnet and Greenland halibut longline fisheries and on temporal and spatial variations in bycatch. More studies are also needed to model effects on seabirds at the population level.

  7. What are we protecting? Fisher behavior and the unintended consequences of spatial closures as a fishery management tool.

    Abbott, Joshua K; Haynie, Alan C


    Spatial closures like marine protected areas (MPAs) are prominent tools for ecosystem-based management in fisheries. However, the adaptive behavior of fishermen, the apex predator in the ecosystem, to MPAs may upset the balance of fishing impacts across species. While ecosystem-based management (EBM) emphasizes the protection of all species in the environment, the weakest stock often dominates management attention. We use data before and after the implementation of large spatial closures in a North Pacific trawl fishery to show how closures designed for red king crab protection spurred dramatic increases in Pacific halibut bycatch due to both direct displacement effects and indirect effects from adaptations in fishermen's targeting behavior. We identify aspects of the ecological and economic context of the fishery that contributed to these surprising behaviors, noting that many multispecies fisheries are likely to share these features. Our results highlight the need either to anticipate the behavioral adaptations of fishermen across multiple species in reserve design, a form of implementation error, or to design management systems that are robust to these adaptations. Failure to do so may yield patterns of fishing effort and mortality that undermine the broader objectives of multispecies management and potentially alter ecosystems in profound ways.

  8. Valorization of By-Products from Commercial Fish Species: Extraction and Chemical Properties of Skin Gelatins.

    Sousa, Sérgio C; Vázquez, José A; Pérez-Martín, Ricardo I; Carvalho, Ana P; Gomes, Ana M


    Fish skins constitute an important fraction of the enormous amount of wastes produced by the fish processing industry, part of which may be valorized through the extraction of gelatins. This research exploited the extraction and characterization of gelatins from the skin of three seawater fish species, namely yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares), blue shark (Prionace glauca), and greenland halibut (Reinhardtius hippoglossoides). Characterization included chemical composition, rheology, structure, texture, and molecular weight, whereas extraction studies intended to reduce costly steps during extraction process (reagents concentration, water consumption, and time of processing), while maintaining extraction efficiency. Chemical and physical characterization of the obtained gelatins revealed that the species from which the gelatin was extracted, as well as the heat treatment used, were key parameters in order to obtain a final product with specific properties. Therefore, the extraction conditions selected during gelatin production will drive its utilization into markets with well-defined specifications, where the necessity of unique products is being claimed. Such achievements are of utmost importance to the food industry, by paving the way to the introduction in the market of gelatins with distinct rheological and textural properties, which enables them to enlarge their range of applications.

  9. Effects of Electromagnetic Fields on Fish and Invertebrates Task 2.1.3: Effects on Aquatic Organisms Fiscal Year 2012 Progress Report Environmental Effects of Marine and Hydrokinetic Energy

    Woodruff, Dana L.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Copping, Andrea E.; Marshall, Kathryn E.


    Energy generated by the world’s oceans and rivers offers the potential to make substantial contributions to the domestic and global renewable energy supply. However, the marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) energy industry faces challenges related to siting, permitting, construction, and operation of pilotand commercial-scale facilities. One of the challenges is to understand the potential effects to marine organisms from electromagnetic fields, which are produced as a by-product of transmitting power from offshore to onshore locations through underwater transmission cables. This report documents the progress of the third year of research (fiscal year 2012) to investigate environmental issues associated with marine and hydrokinetic energy (MHK) generation. This work was conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) Wind and Water Technologies Office. The report addresses the effects of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) on selected marine species where significant knowledge gaps exist. The species studied this fiscal year included one fish and two crustacean species: the Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Dungeness crab (Metacarcinus magister), and American lobster (Homarus americanus).

  10. Integrating genomic resources of flatfish (Pleuronectiformes) to boost aquaculture production.

    Robledo, Diego; Hermida, Miguel; Rubiolo, Juan A; Fernández, Carlos; Blanco, Andrés; Bouza, Carmen; Martínez, Paulino


    Flatfish have a high market acceptance thus representing a profitable aquaculture production. The main farmed species is the turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) followed by Japanese flounder (Paralichthys olivaceous) and tongue sole (Cynoglossus semilaevis), but other species like Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus), Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) and common sole (Solea solea) also register an important production and are very promising for farming. Important genomic resources are available for most of these species including whole genome sequencing projects, genetic maps and transcriptomes. In this work, we integrate all available genomic information of these species within a common framework, taking as reference the whole assembled genomes of turbot and tongue sole (>210× coverage). New insights related to the genetic basis of productive traits and new data useful to understand the evolutionary origin and diversification of this group were obtained. Despite a general 1:1 chromosome syntenic relationship between species, the comparison of turbot and tongue sole genomes showed huge intrachromosomic reorganizations. The integration of available mapping information supported specific chromosome fusions along flatfish evolution and facilitated the comparison between species of previously reported genetic associations for productive traits. When comparing transcriptomic resources of the six species, a common set of ~2500 othologues and ~150 common miRNAs were identified, and specific sets of putative missing genes were detected in flatfish transcriptomes, likely reflecting their evolutionary diversification. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Interlaboratory bias in the determination of mercury concentrations in commercially available fish utilizing thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry.

    Butala, Steven J M; Scanlan, Larry P; Chaudhuri, Sanwat N; Perry, Deborah D; Taylor, Robert J


    Four commercially available fish fillets were freeze-dried, homogenized, and analyzed for mercury by the Texas A&M Trace Element Research Laboratory and the Utah Public Health Laboratory (UPHL) utilizing thermal decomposition/amalgamation atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Two-way analysis of variance detected bias in the data between the two laboratories. Some of the bias could be attributed to different calibration curve quantitation and near detection limit quantitation, albeit causal explanations could be confounded with other effects. Knowledge of analytical bias will aid interpretation of interlaboratory data. The swordfish mercury content, as determined by both laboratories, was about 1 ppm, while mercury content found in the Atlantic salmon was about 0.021 ppm. For the Alaskan halibut, the Texas A&M measured a mercury concentration of 0.155 ppm, while the UPHL measured a mercury concentration of 0.181 ppm for the same fish. The Texas A&M determined that the Canadian-raised salmon contained about 0.019 ppm of mercury, while the UPHL determined a mercury content of about 0.025 ppm for the same fish. The mercury found within the fish fillets did not exceed nationwide mercury mean values determined by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

  12. The improved PCR of the fstA (ferric siderophore receptor) gene differentiates the fish pathogen Aeromonas salmonicida from other Aeromonas species.

    Beaz-Hidalgo, Roxana; Latif-Eugenín, Fadua; Figueras, María José


    The members of the genus Aeromonas are autochthonous of aquatic ecosystems and several species have been associated to septicaemia, ulcerative and haemorrhagic diseases in fish, causing significant mortality in both wild and farmed, freshwater and marine fish species. The species Aeromonas salmonicida is generally recognized as the most important fish pathogen responsible for epidemic outbreaks of furunculosis in salmonids, also being able to produce infections in other cultured fish such as turbot, halibut, sea bream or goldfish. New species, i.e. Aeromonas aquariorum, Aeromonas tecta and Aeromonas piscicola, have recently been discovered and isolated from diseased fish. The species A. piscicola and Aeromonas bestiarum are practically impossible to differentiate phenotypically and genetically (when using the 16S rRNA gene) from each other and from A. salmonicida. In the present study, two previously described PCR protocols, based on the fstA and gyrB genes, for the specific detection of A. salmonicida were re-evaluated with the type strains of all Aeromonas species and with a set of A. piscicola and A. bestiarum strains. Contrary to what had been published previously it was demonstrated that the gyrB-PCR is not specific for A. salmonicida because of cross-reactions with other Aeromonas species. However, in agreement with previous results, A. salmonicida was detected on the basis of the fstA-PCR, for which an improved protocol was proposed.

  13. Comparative assessment of Vibrio virulence in marine fish larvae.

    Rønneseth, A; Castillo, D; D'Alvise, P; Tønnesen, Ø; Haugland, G; Grotkjaer, T; Engell-Sørensen, K; Nørremark, L; Bergh, Ø; Wergeland, H I; Gram, L


    Vibrionaceae infections are a major obstacle for marine larviculture; however, little is known about virulence differences of Vibrio strains. The virulence of Vibrio strains, mostly isolated from vibriosis outbreaks in farmed fish, was tested in larval challenge trials with cod (Gadus morhua), turbot (Scophthalmus maximus) and halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) using a multiwell dish assays with single-egg/larvae cultures. The strains differed significantly in virulence as some caused a high mortality of larva reaching 100% mortality after a few days, while others had no or only marginal effects on survival. Some Vibrio strains were pathogenic in all of the larva species, while some caused disease only in one of the species. Twenty-nine of the Vibrio anguillarum strains increased the mortality of larvae from at least one fish species; however, pathogenicity of the strains differed markedly. Other Vibrio species had no or less pronounced effects on larval mortalities. Iron uptake has been related to V. anguillarum virulence; however, the presence or absence of the plasmid pJM1 encoding anguibactin did not correlate with virulence. The genomes of V. anguillarum were compared (D. Castillo, P.W. D'Alvise, M. Middelboe & L. Gram, unpublished data) and most of the high-virulent strains had acquired virulence genes from other pathogenic Vibrio. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Using data on biomass and fishing mortality in stock production modelling of flatfish

    IK Zhang, Chang; Gunderson, Donald R.; Sullivan, Patrick J.

    Stock production modelling was used to estimate population parameters such as the carrying capacity (B ∞), as well as management parameters such as maximum sustainable yield (MSY), the instantaneous rate of fishing mortality at MSY (F MSY) and the sustainable biomass at MSY (B MSY). The input data were not catch and effort data, which usually require adjustments for changes in catchability, but biomass and catch (or fishing mortality), which are frequently available from cohort analysis or direct surveys. The model does not require the assumption of stock equilibrium for estimating parameters. The model was applied to data from the Alaska plaice, Pleuronectes quadrituberculatus, and yellowfin sole, Limanda aspera stocks in the eastern Bering Sea, and the Pacific halibut, Hippoglossus stenolepis, stock in the Gulf of Alaska and Bering Sea. All three stocks are characterized by separation of nursery area and exploitable population. There are at least five age groups present in nursery areas and ten or more in the exploitable stock so that recruitment levels and exploitable stock sizes are well-buffered. Predictions from the surplus production model provided reasonable fits to the biomass time series for all three stocks examined, given the sources of uncertainty in the biomass estimates available. It appears that the stock dynamics for the three species can be described by a relatively simple density-dependent model assuming instantaneous responses in stock biomass via recruitment and growth.

  15. Norwegian fisheries in the Svalbard zone since 1980. Regulations, profitability and warming waters affect landings

    Misund, Ole Arve; Heggland, Kristin; Skogseth, Ragnheid; Falck, Eva; Gjøsæter, Harald; Sundet, Jan; Watne, Jens; Lønne, Ole Jørgen


    The Svalbard archipelago in the High Arctic is influenced by cold Arctic water masses from the north-east and the warm West Spitsbergen Current flowing northwards along its western coast. The eastern waters and the fjords are normally frozen during the winter months, while the coastal waters west of the archipelago remain open. Norwegian fishers have been harvesting from Svalbard waters for decades and detailed records of catches exists from 1980 onwards. We analyze the catch records from the Svalbard zone (approximately ICES area IIb). The large fishery for capelin in summer yielding annual catches up to 737 000 tons was closed by a Norwegian fishery regulation in the mid nineteen nineties. Demersal fisheries have been continuous, and the results clearly indicate a northward trend in landings of Northeast Arctic cod, haddock, ling and Atlantic halibut. Fisheries of Northern shrimp have been more variable and shown no clear geographic trends. A "gold rush" fishery for scallops north of Svalbard lasted for about 10 years (1986-1995) only, and ended due to low profitably. These results are discussed in relation to the possibility of further northward extension of fisheries subjected to climate change.

  16. Using smooth sheets to describe groundfish habitat in Alaskan waters, with specific application to two flatfishes

    Zimmermann, Mark; Reid, Jane A.; Golden, Nadine


    In this analysis we demonstrate how preferred fish habitat can be predicted and mapped for juveniles of two Alaskan groundfish species - Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis) and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon) - at five sites (Kiliuda Bay, Izhut Bay, Port Dick, Aialik Bay, and the Barren Islands) in the central Gulf of Alaska. The method involves using geographic information system (GIS) software to extract appropriate information from National Ocean Service (NOS) smooth sheets that are available from NGDC (the National Geophysical Data Center). These smooth sheets are highly detailed charts that include more soundings, substrates, shoreline and feature information than the more commonly-known navigational charts. By bringing the information from smooth sheets into a GIS, a variety of surfaces, such as depth, slope, rugosity and mean grain size were interpolated into raster surfaces. Other measurements such as site openness, shoreline length, proportion of bay that is near shore, areas of rocky reefs and kelp beds, water volumes, surface areas and vertical cross-sections were also made in order to quantify differences between the study sites. Proper GIS processing also allows linking the smooth sheets to other data sets, such as orthographic satellite photographs, topographic maps and precipitation estimates from which watersheds and runoff can be derived. This same methodology can be applied to larger areas, taking advantage of these free data sets to describe predicted groundfish essential fish habitat (EFH) in Alaskan waters.

  17. Modeling (137)Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon-resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident.

    Alava, Juan José; Gobas, Frank A P C


    To track the long term bioaccumulation of (137)Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for (137)Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that (137)Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of (137)Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. (137)Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the (137)Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of (137)Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term (137)Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current (137)Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term (137)Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring (137)Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of (137)Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution.

  18. Marine-terminating glaciers sustain high productivity in Greenland fjords.

    Meire, Lorenz; Mortensen, John; Meire, Patrick; Juul-Pedersen, Thomas; Sejr, Mikael K; Rysgaard, Søren; Nygaard, Rasmus; Huybrechts, Philippe; Meysman, Filip J R


    Accelerated mass loss from the Greenland ice sheet leads to glacier retreat and an increasing input of glacial meltwater to the fjords and coastal waters around Greenland. These high latitude ecosystems are highly productive and sustain important fisheries, yet it remains uncertain how they will respond to future changes in the Arctic cryosphere. Here we show that marine-terminating glaciers play a crucial role in sustaining high productivity of the fjord ecosystems. Hydrographic and biogeochemical data from two fjord systems adjacent to the Greenland ice sheet, suggest that marine ecosystem productivity is very differently regulated in fjords influenced by either land-terminating or marine-terminating glaciers. Rising subsurface meltwater plumes originating from marine-terminating glaciers entrain large volumes of ambient deep water to the surface. The resulting upwelling of nutrient-rich deep water sustains a high phytoplankton productivity throughout summer in the fjord with marine-terminating glaciers. In contrast, the fjord with only land-terminating glaciers lack this upwelling mechanism, and is characterized by lower productivity. Data on commercial halibut landings support that coastal regions influenced by large marine-terminating glaciers have substantially higher marine productivity. These results suggest that a switch from marine-terminating to land-terminating glaciers can substantially alter the productivity in the coastal zone around Greenland with potentially large ecological and socio-economic implications. © 2017 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. A microbiota da carcaça e da carne ovina tratada com ácido acético, embalada a vácuo e maturada por 48 dias Microbial status of the lamb carcass and the meat treated with acetic acid, vacuum packaged and aging for 48 days

    Elayne C. de Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a carga de bactérias mesófilas e coliformes totais e fecais na superfície da carcaça ovina após 12 horas do abate. Posteriormente, a carne foi cortada em fatias de aproximadamente 3cm de espessura, imersas por um minuto em ácido acético 1% ou em água, embaladas individualmente a vácuo e armazenadas a 1°C. Nos dias 3,13, 23, 33 e 48 de maturação as carnes foram analisadas para bactérias mesófilas e psicrotróficas, mofos e leveduras, coliformes totais e fecais, salmonela e clostrídios sulfito-redutores. As contagens de bactérias mesófilas e psicrotróficas foram menores (pThe load of mesophylic, fecal and total coliform microorganisms on lamb carcass was assessed after 12 hours of slaughtering. Meat was then cut into 3 steaks about 3cm thick. Steaks were dipped for 1 min in either 1% acetic acid solution or plain water, packaged in nylon-polyethylene bags and vacuum-sealed before storing at 1°C. On days 3, 13, 23, 33 and 48 of aging meats were analyzed for mesophilic and psycrotrophic bacteria, moulds and yeasts, total and fecal coliform bacteria, Salmonella and sulfite-reducing Clostridia. Mesophilic and psycrophilic bacterial counts were lower (p<0.05 in meats treated with acetic acid than in the untreated meats on days 13 and 23 and on days 3 and 13, respectively. Mould and yeast counts were lower (p<0.05 in meats treated with acetic acid as compared with those untreated only on days 3 and 13 of aging. On day 3 of aging treated meats were lower (p<0.05 in both total and fecal coliform counts than untreated meats. Meat samples were found positive for Salmonella with 3, 13 and 23 days of aging and negative with 33 and 48 days of aging. Sulfite-reducing bacteria were absent in meat samples all through the experimental period. It can be concluded that dipping lamb meat pieces in 1% acetic acid and the aging conditions used in this study can keep low counts of mesophilic, psycrotrophic, and coliform bacteria, as well

  20. Influência do modo de preparo de alimentos na prevenção da aterosclerose The influence of food preparation methods on atherosclerosis prevention

    Carlos Scherr


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar a influência do modo de preparo na composição de ácidos graxos e colesterol em alimentos. MÉTODOS: Foi analisada a composição química do colesterol e ácidos graxos de oito tipos diferentes de carnes e da feijoada, em relação a diferentes métodos de preparo. RESULTADOS: A feijoada preparada com as carnes em separado tem menos colesterol (12,1 e 16,1 mg, respectivamente; p = 0,005 e gordura saturada (1,4 e 1,9 mg; p = 0,046 do que quando preparada junto. O frango grelhado sem pele apresenta menor quantidade de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frango frito sem pele (7645 e 1505 mg; p = 0,049. O camarão grelhado também apresenta menor conteúdo de gordura saturada quando comparado com o frito (532 e 1262 mg; p = 0,049. O contrafilé grelhado sem gordura apresenta menor conteúdo de colesterol quando comparado com o frito (102 e 114 mg; p = 0,049. CONCLUSÃO: As análises aqui realizadas indicam que a forma de preparo influencia no teor de gordura dos alimentos, com potencial impacto na prescrição de dietas com baixo teor de gordura e colesterol.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the influence of food preparation methods on the composition of fatty acids and cholesterol in foods. METHODS: The chemical composition of cholesterol and fatty acids was analyzed in eight different types of meat and feijoada in relation to different methods of preparation. RESULTS: Feijoada, when prepared with the beans and meats in separate pots, has less cholesterol (12.1 vs. 16.1 mg, respectively, p = 0.005 and saturated fat (1.4 vs. 1.9 mg, p = 0.046 than when it is prepared in a single pot. Broiled chicken without the skin has less saturated fat when compared with skinless fried chicken (1,505 vs. 7,645 mg, p = 0.049. Broiled shrimp also has a lower saturated fat content than fried shrimp (532 vs. 1,262 mg, p = 0.049. Broiled ribeye steak without fat has a lower cholesterol content when compared with the fried steak (102 vs. 114 mg, p = 0

  1. Eggs: good or bad?

    Griffin, Bruce A


    Eggs have one of the lowest energy to nutrient density ratios of any food, and contain a quality of protein that is superior to beef steak and similar to dairy. From a nutritional perspective, this must qualify eggs as 'good'. The greater burden of proof has been to establish that eggs are not 'bad', by increasing awareness of the difference between dietary and blood cholesterol, and accumulating sufficient evidence to exonerate eggs from their associations with CVD and diabetes. After 60 years of research, a general consensus has now been reached that dietary cholesterol, chiefly from eggs, exerts a relatively small effect on serum LDL-cholesterol and CVD risk, in comparison with other diet and lifestyle factors. While dietary guidelines have been revised worldwide to reflect this view, associations between egg intake and the incidence of diabetes, and increased CVD risk in diabetes, prevail. These associations may be explained, in part, by residual confounding produced by other dietary components. The strength of evidence that links egg intake to increased CVD risk in diabetes is also complicated by variation in the response of serum LDL-cholesterol to eggs and dietary cholesterol in types 1 and 2 diabetes. On balance, the answer to the question as to whether eggs are 'bad', is probably 'no', but we do need to gain a better understanding of the effects of dietary cholesterol and its association with CVD risk in diabetes.

  2. Display life of beef packaged with an antioxidant active film as a function of the concentration of oregano extract.

    Camo, Javier; Lorés, Alberto; Djenane, Djamel; Beltrán, José Antonio; Roncalés, Pedro


    Fresh beef steaks were packaged with a new antioxidant active system containing increasing concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 4%) of an oregano extract. Control samples were packaged without the active film. Additional samples were sprayed with the extract and packaged as the control samples. Packages were filled with a 80%O(2)/20%CO(2) atmosphere and displayed under illumination (14 h) at 1 ± 1 °C for 28 days. Metmyoglobin formation, lipid oxidation (TBARS), instrumental colour (CIE a*) and sensory colour, discoloration, off-odour and oregano smell were determined. Active packaging significantly (P oregano concentration of the active film. The display life of beef samples demonstrated that at least 1% oregano was needed for obtaining a significant increase of display life from 14 to 23 days. A concentration of 4% gave rise to unacceptable oregano smell. As a consequence, most suitable oregano extract concentrations for optimum active packaging in this system should be within the range 1-2%.

  3. Exposure to perfluorinated compounds in Catalonia, Spain, through consumption of various raw and cooked foodstuffs, including packaged food.

    Jogsten, Ingrid Ericson; Perelló, Gemma; Llebaria, Xavier; Bigas, Esther; Martí-Cid, Roser; Kärrman, Anna; Domingo, José L


    In this study, the role that some food processing and packaging might play as a source of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) through the diet was assessed. The levels of PFCs were determined in composite samples of veal steak (raw, grilled, and fried), pork loin (raw, grilled, and fried), chicken breast (raw, grilled, and fried), black pudding (uncooked), liver lamb (raw), marinated salmon (home-made and packaged), lettuce (fresh and packaged), pate of pork liver, foie gras of duck, frankfurt, sausages, chicken nuggets (fried), and common salt. Among the 11 PFCs analyzed, only PFHxS, PFOS, PFHxA, and PFOA were detected in at least one composite sample, while the levels of the remaining PFCs (PFBuS, PFHpA, PFNA, PFDA, PFUnDA, and PFDoDA) were under their respective detection limits. PFOS was the compound most frequently detected, being found in 8 of the 20 food items analyzed, while PFHxA was detected in samples of raw veal, chicken nuggets, frankfurt, sausages, and packaged lettuce. According to the results of the present study, it is not sufficiently clear if cooking with non-stick cookware, or packaging some foods, could contribute to a higher human exposure to PFCs.

  4. VIIRS day-night band (DNB) electronic hysteresis: characterization and correction

    Mills, Stephen


    The VIIRS Day-Night Band (DNB) offers measurements over a dynamic range from full daylight to the dimmest nighttime. This makes radiometric calibration difficult because effects that are otherwise negligible become significant for the DNB. One of these effects is electronic hysteresis and this paper evaluates this effect and its impact on calibration. It also considers possible correction algorithms. The cause of this hysteresis is uncertain, but since the DNB uses a charge-coupled device (CCD) detector array, it is likely the result of residual charge or charge depletion. The effects of hysteresis are evident in DNB imagery. Steaks are visible in the cross-track direction around very bright objects such as gas flares. Dark streaks are also visible after lightning flashes. Each VIIRS scan is a sequence of 4 sectors: space view (SV); Earth-view (EV); blackbody (BB) view; and solar diffuser (SD) view. There are differences among these sectors in offset that can only be explained as being the result of hysteresis from one sector to the next. The most dramatic hysteresis effect is when the sun illuminates the SD and hysteresis is then observed in the SV and EV. Previously this was hypothesized to be due to stray light leaking from the SD chamber, but more careful evaluation shows that this can only be the result of hysteresis. There is a stray light correction algorithm that treats this as stray light, but there are problems with this that could be remedied by instead using the characterization presented here.

  5. Relationships between carcass characteristics, meat quality, age and sex of free-ranging Alaskan reindeer: a pilot study

    Teresa A. Renecker


    Full Text Available Twenty-four reindeer (Rangifer tarandus carcasses from male and female animals that ranged in age from calves to adults were purchased from Bering Sea Reindeer Products (BSRP, Nunivak Island, Alaska, USA. Preslaughter and abattoir procedures were observed and evaluated. Carcasses were split in half, weighed, and broke into wholesale primal cuts of chuck, rib, loin, and hindquarter. Each primal cut was weighed, boxed, and frozen. Each half carcass of primal cuts was later dissected into lean tissue, bone, and the three compartments of fat: subcutaneous, intermuscular, and peritoneal. A portion of the loin was collected from each animal in order to obtain data on pH and shear force. Sensory panel analysis was performed on loin steaks. Due to management and environmental effects, pH values were high and the meat was dark in colour. Carcasses from adult male reindeer contained significantly lower levels of fat than carcasses of adult females. Data indicated that yearling reindeer are of greatest economic value for meat production.

  6. Sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs

    Gianluigi Destefanis


    Full Text Available Five m. longissimus thoracis steaks from different breeds, purchased at retail, were cut into samples and simultaneously photographed under standard shooting conditions. The first photo was taken on samples just arrived at the laboratory, the second one on a freshly cut surface after blooming. Two consumer panels evaluated beef colour using respectively photo 1 and photo 2. Each consumer was asked to rank samples in order of preference. Rank sums were evaluated with Fridman’s test. Immediately after taking the photos, colour was measured with a colorimeter. Regarding photo 1, consumers were able to discriminate one sample, the worst, from all the others. Concerning photo 2, consumers discriminated the worst sample, as in photo 1, but also the best one. Therefore a more accurate colour evaluation can be obtained if the assessment is carried out on a fresh cut surface after blooming. In general consumers preferred samples with high lightness and a relatively high yellowness. The sensory evaluation of meat colour using photographs is a promising tool to overcome the difficulties when the meat is directly evaluated. But it is very important to standardize the shooting conditions to obtain a true reproduction of the meat. For this purpose the use of a colour target is useful to check the validity of the adopted parameters.

  7. Antimicrobial susceptibility and internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in vacuum-tumbled marinated beef products.

    Pokharel, S; Brooks, J C; Martin, J N; Brashears, M M


    As the incidence of multidrug resistance (MDR) Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium is increasing, data regarding the antimicrobial interventions and pathogen internalization in marinated meat products are important. This study evaluated the antimicrobial intervention and internalization of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated beef sirloin steaks. Beef bottom sirloin flaps (IMPS #185A; USDA Select) inoculated (10(8)  log10  CFU ml(-1) ) with Salm. Typhimurium were sprayed (lactic acid (4%) and buffered vinegar (2%)) prior to vacuum-tumbled marination (0·35% sodium chloride and 0·45% sodium tripolyphosphate) for 30 min. Pathogen presence after antimicrobial spray, vacuum-tumbled marination, and translocation was determined by direct plating on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate (XLD) agar with tryptic soy agar (TSA) overlay. The data imply varied internalization and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Salm. Typhimurium in marinated meat. Lactic acid (4%) spray (P < 0·0001) and buffered vinegar (2%; P < 0·0001) reduced surface populations of Salm. Typhimurium on inoculated beef sirloin flaps prior to vacuum marination. However, lactic acid treated sirloin flaps had greater reductions (~2 log10  CFU cm(-2) ) than buffered vinegar when compared with control prior to vacuum marination. However, the translocation of Salm. Typhimurium following vacuum marination was not influenced (P < 0·333) by the application of a surface organic acid spray prior to marination.

  8. Quantitative detection of pork in commercial meat products by TaqMan® real-time PCR assay targeting the mitochondrial D-loop region.

    Kim, Miju; Yoo, Insuk; Lee, Shin-Young; Hong, Yeun; Kim, Hae-Yeong


    The TaqMan® real-time PCR assay using the mitochondrial D-loop region was developed for the quantitative detection of pork in processed meat products. The newly designed primers and probe specifically amplified pork without any cross-reactivity with non-target animal species. The limit of detection of the real-time PCR assay was 0.1pg of heat-treated pork meat and 0.1% (w/w) pork meat in beef and chicken meat mixtures. The quantitative real-time PCR assay was applied to analyze the pork meat content in 22 commercial processed meat products including jerkies, press hams, sausages, hamburger patties and steaks, grilled short rib patties, and nuggets. The developed real-time PCR method was able to detect pork meat in various types of processed meat products that declared the use of pork meat on their label. All processed meat products that declared no use of pork meat showed a negative result in the assay. The method developed in this study showed sensitivity and specificity in the quantification of pork meat in commercial processed meat products.

  9. Methods to increase tenderness of individual muscles from beef rounds when cooked with dry or moist heat.

    Kolle, B K; McKenna, D R; Savell, J W


    Muscles (n=9) from beef rounds (n=40) were subjected to one of the four tenderization strategies: control, blade tenderization, enzymatic tenderization or salt/phosphate injection. Treated muscles were aged, cut into steaks, cooked using one of the two cooking methods (dry-heat or moist-heat), and Warner-Bratzler shear (WBS) force values were determined. For dry-heat cookery, injection with a salt and phosphate solution resulted in the lowest WBS values, however, WBS values for blade tenderization and enzymatic tenderization were comparable in the M. adductor, M. vastus lateralis, M. rectus femoris, and M. semimembranosus (cranial and caudal aspects). The M. gluteobiceps (cranial and caudal aspects, and ischiatic head) and M. semitendinosus showed little improvement in WBS values with any of the tenderization treatments. For moist-heat cookery, only the M. rectus femoris and M. semimembranosus, caudal aspect, showed significant decreases in WBS values, and those improvements were only associated with salt and phosphate injection and enzymatic tenderization. Within each cooking method and tenderization treatment, the M. rectus femoris, M. semimembranosus, cranial aspect had the lowest WBS values, whereas the M. gluteobiceps, ischiatic head and M. semimembranosus typically had the highest WBS values. All tenderization strategies increased the frequency of muscles being rated as "very tender" (WBSdry- and moist-heat cookery.

  10. Numerical simulation on drag reduction of revolution body through bionic riblet surface


    Numerical simulations of flow fields on the bionic riblet and the smooth revolution bodies were performed based on the SST k-ω turbulence model in order to explain the mechanisms of the skin friction drag reduction, base drag reduction on the riblet surface, and flow control behaviors of riblet surface near the wall. The simulation results show that the riblet surface arranged on the rearward of the revolution body can reduce the skin friction drag by 8.27%, the base drag by 9.91% and the total drag by 8.59% at Ma number 0.8. The riblet surface reduces the skin friction drag by reducing the velocity gradient and turbulent intensity, and reduces the base drag by weakening the pumping action on the dead water region which behind the body of revolution caused by the external flow. The flow control behavior on boundary layer shows that the riblet surface can cut the low-speed flow near the wall effectively, and restrain the low-speed flow concentrating in span direction, thus weaken the instability of the low speed steaks produced by turbulent flow bursting.

  11. Impact of high oxygen and vacuum retail ready packaging formats on lamb loin and topside eating quality.

    Frank, Damian Conrad; Geesink, Geert; Alvarenga, Tharcilla I R C; Polkinghorne, Rod; Stark, Janet; Lee, Michael; Warner, Robyn


    Lamb steaks from semimembranosus (SM) and longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LTL) muscles were allocated to three different packaging treatments - Darfresh® vacuum skin packaging (VSP), Darfresh® Bloom packaging (80% O2:20% CO2; Hi-Ox-DB) or high oxygen modified atmosphere packaging (80% O2:20% CO2; Hi-Ox-MAP) - and stored in simulated retail display for 5 or 10days and then subjected to consumer sensory and chemical analyses. Hi-Ox-MAP and Hi-Ox-DB samples had lower tenderness, flavor, juiciness and overall liking scores and higher TBARS values, compared to VSP. Hi-Ox-MAP samples deteriorated in juiciness and flavor between 5 and 10days. Hi-Ox-MAP LTL samples had a lower myofibrillar fragmentation index, consistent with reduced proteolysis, although desmin proteolysis and desmin and troponin-T cross-linking were not influenced by packaging. The LTL exhibited greater desmin degradation and reduced desmin cross-linking relative to the SM, supporting the higher tenderness scores in this muscle. Direct packaging of lamb into retail ready VSP may provide the sheepmeat industry with greater flexibility while increasing consumer satisfaction.

  12. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick


    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an "Atrazine Benefits Team" (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of nonchemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers' revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies.

  13. Chicken thigh, chicken liver, and iron-fortified wheat flour increase iron uptake in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model.

    Pachón, Helena; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J; Glahn, Raymond P


    The objective of this study was to test meat and fortified-food combinations to identify those that optimize iron uptake in an in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model, a proxy for iron bioavailability. Four experiments tested combinations of meats such as chicken (blood, spleen, liver, thigh), beef (cube steak), and fish (whole-fish meal) with iron-fortified foods (rice cereal, maize-soy flour, wheat flour). Chicken liver, thigh, spleen, blood, or fish meal increased the Caco-2 cell iron uptake from these combined with rice cereal (Pflour (Pmeats did not increase the Caco-2 cell iron uptake (P >or= .05). Adding either meat to the 3 fortified foods increased the Caco-2 cell iron uptake of the fortified foods (Pflour were selected for an infant porridge because the combinations with the highest Caco-2 cell iron uptake were chicken thigh + wheat flour, chicken liver + wheat flour, and chicken liver + maize-soy flour, and wheat flour was the least expensive fortified food sold in the target population. Per unit of iron, the chicken thigh + wheat flour and chicken liver + wheat flour combinations resulted in the highest bioavailable iron. In the proportion of 3:1 fortified food:meat examined, meat increases the bioavailability of iron-fortified foods, but iron-fortified foods do not enhance total iron bioavailability when added to meat.

  14. Effect of a grazing period prior to finishing on a high concentrate diet on meat quality from bulls and steers.

    Moran, L; O'Sullivan, M G; Kerry, J P; Picard, B; McGee, M; O'Riordan, E G; Moloney, A P


    Bulls and steers (n=60) were assigned to a pre-finishing grazing period and subsequently finished on concentrates or offered concentrates without grazing until slaughter (19months). Colour and pH of longissimus thoracis were measured (48h post-slaughter), and samples collected for proximate composition, collagen, sarcomere length, muscle fibre and enzymatic profile analysis. Steaks for texture, cook loss and sensory were aged (14days). Castration increased intramuscular fat content, cook loss and myosin isoforms IIa and I proportions, and decreased IIx proportion (P<0.05). Steer meat was positively correlated to overall tenderness, texture and acceptability (P<0.05). The presence of a pre-finishing grazing period decreased intramuscular fat and increased the proportion of IIa compared with animals on concentrates, while no differences were found in sensory. Muscle colour, collagen, sarcomere length and instrumental texture were not modified by diet or castration. In conclusion, beef sensory characteristics were unaffected by diet, whereas castration resulted in a small improvement; however all the treatments produced an acceptable product.

  15. Visible spectroscopy as a tool for the assessment of storage conditions of fresh pork packaged in modified atmosphere.

    Spanos, Dimitrios; Christensen, Mette; Tørngren, Mari Ann; Baron, Caroline P


    The storage conditions of fresh meat are known to impact its colour and microbial shelf life. In the present study, visible spectroscopy was evaluated as a method to assess meat storage conditions and its optimisation. Fresh pork steaks (longissimus thoracis et lumborum and semimembranosus) were placed in modified atmosphere packaging using gas mixtures containing 0, 40, 50, and 80% oxygen, and stored with or without light for up to 9days. Principal component analysis of visible reflectance spectra (400-700nm) showed that the colour of the different meat cuts was affected by presence of oxygen, illumination, and storage time. Differences in the oxygen levels did not contribute to the observed variance. Predictive models based on partial least squares regression-discriminant analysis exhibited high potency in the classification of the storage parameters of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere. The study demonstrates the applicability of visible spectroscopy as a tool to assess the storage conditions of meat cuts packaged in modified atmosphere.

  16. The effect of the packaging system and storage time on myofibrillar protein degradation and oxidation process in relation to beef tenderness.

    Moczkowska, Małgorzata; Półtorak, Andrzej; Montowska, Magdalena; Pospiech, Edward; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka


    This study investigated the impact of packaging systems on the degradation and oxidation of beef proteins regarding beef tenderness of longissimus lumborum (LL) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles stored in vacuum skin packaging (VSP), a modified atmosphere with high oxygen concentration (MAP), and combined of these two methods (VSP+MAP). A significant decrease in the Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF) in VSP at D14 and D28 for LL was observed compared to BF. A significant effect of packaging system on troponin-T (Tn-T) and desmin degradation was shown (p≤0.001). A high concentration of oxygen in MAP and VSP+MAP affected protein oxidation, which was reflected in myosin oxidative cross-linking. An increase of WBSF values detected in steaks packed in VSP and VSP+MAP systems could be caused by the intensification of protein oxidation. Furthermore, BF was more susceptible to oxidation compared to LL. The VSP+MAP packaging system has resulted in the maintenance of a bright, red color, however has not improved the beef tenderness.

  17. Food consumption of adolescents. A simplified questionnaire for evaluating cardiovascular risk

    Chiara Vera Lucia


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a simplified questionnaire for self-evaluation by adolescents of foods associated with the risk of coronary diseases. METHODS: Frequency questionnaires about 80 foods were answered by representative samples of 256 adolescents aged 12 to 19 from Rio de Janeiro as part of the Nutrition and Health Research project. The dependent variable was the serum cholesterol predicting equation as influenced by diet, and the independent variables were the foods. The variables were normalized and, using Pearson's correlation coefficient, those with r>0.10 were selected for the regression model. The model was analyzed for sex, age, random sample, and total calories. Those food products that explained 85% of the cholesterol variation equation were present in the caloric model, and contained trans fatty acids were selected for the questionnaire. RESULTS: Sixty-five food products had a statistically significant correlation (P<0.001 with the dependent variable. The simplified questionnaire included 9 food products present in all tested models: steak or broiled meat, hamburger, full-fat cheese, French fries or potato chips, whole milk, pies or cakes, cookies, sausages, butter or margarine. The limit of the added food points for self-evaluation was 100, and over 120 points was considered excessive. CONCLUSION: The scores given to the food products and the criteria for the evaluation of the consumption limits enabled the adolescents to get to know and to balance their intake.

  18. Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis.

    Erwanto, Yuny; Abidin, Mohammad Zainal; Sugiyono, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim; Rohman, Abdul


    This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp). Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment.

  19. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma

    Basheer Tashtoush


    Full Text Available The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of steak from the airway, the patient remained hypotensive and required continued hemodynamic support. Repeated laboratory tests within 24 hrs of aspiration showed a significant decline in the hemoglobin level. A computed tomography (CT scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a lacerated liver with a large subcapsular hematoma draining into the pelvis. Conclusion. Hepatic rupture is a rare complication of Heimlich maneuver; this paper represents the second case report in the literature. It emphasizes the necessity of early identification and surveillance of fatal Heimlich maneuver complications in a high risk population.

  20. Food Particle Aspiration Associated with Hemorrhagic Shock: A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    Tashtoush, Basheer; Schroeder, Jonathan; Memarpour, Roya; Oliveira, Eduardo; Medina, Michael; Hadeh, Anas; Ramirez, Jose; Smolley, Laurence


    The hemodynamic compromise caused by a large aspirated food particle in the airway can become the focus of medical attention and a distraction from rare but fatal Heimlich maneuver related injuries after an incident of food aspiration. We herein present a case of an 84-year-old man who was brought to the emergency department after an episode of choking at a restaurant followed by several failed Heimlich maneuver attempts. Despite relieving the airway obstruction by extracting a large piece of steak from the airway, the patient remained hypotensive and required continued hemodynamic support. Repeated laboratory tests within 24 hrs of aspiration showed a significant decline in the hemoglobin level. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen and pelvis showed a lacerated liver with a large subcapsular hematoma draining into the pelvis. Conclusion. Hepatic rupture is a rare complication of Heimlich maneuver; this paper represents the second case report in the literature. It emphasizes the necessity of early identification and surveillance of fatal Heimlich maneuver complications in a high risk population.

  1. Identification of Pork Contamination in Meatballs of Indonesia Local Market Using Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) Analysis

    Erwanto, Yuny; Abidin, Mohammad Zainal; Sugiyono, Eko Yasin Prasetyo Muslim; Rohman, Abdul


    This research applied and evaluated a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using cytochrome b gene to detect pork contamination in meatballs from local markets in Surabaya and Yogyakarta regions, Indonesia. To confirm the effectiveness and specificity of this fragment, thirty nine DNA samples from different meatball shops were isolated and amplified, and then the PCR amplicon was digested by BseDI restriction enzyme to detect the presence of pork in meatballs. BseDI restriction enzyme was able to cleave porcine cytochrome b gene into two fragments (131 bp and 228 bp). Testing the meatballs from the local market showed that nine of twenty meatball shops in Yogyakarta region were detected to have pork contamination, but there was no pork contamination in meatball shops in Surabaya region. In conclusion, specific PCR amplification of cytochrome b gen and cleaved by BseDI restriction enzymes seems to be a powerful technique for the identification of pork presence in meatball because of its simplicity, specificity and sensitivity. Furthermore, pork contamination intended for commercial products of sausage, nugget, steak and meat burger can be checked. The procedure is also much cheaper than other methods based on PCR, immunodiffusion and other techniques that need expensive equipment. PMID:25178301

  2. European conformation and fat scores have no relationship with eating quality.

    Bonny, S P F; Pethick, D W; Legrand, I; Wierzbicki, J; Allen, P; Farmer, L J; Polkinghorne, R J; Hocquette, J-F; Gardner, G E


    European conformation and fat grades are a major factor determining carcass value throughout Europe. The relationships between these scores and sensory scores were investigated. A total of 3786 French, Polish and Irish consumers evaluated steaks, grilled to a medium doneness, according to protocols of the ���Meat Standards Australia��� system, from 18 muscles representing 455 local, commercial cattle from commercial abattoirs. A mixed linear effects model was used for the analysis. There was a negative relationship between juiciness and European conformation score. For the other sensory scores, a maximum of three muscles out of a possible 18 demonstrated negative effects of conformation score on sensory scores. There was a positive effect of European fat score on three individual muscles. However, this was accounted for by marbling score. Thus, while the European carcass classification system may indicate yield, it has no consistent relationship with sensory scores at a carcass level that is suitable for use in a commercial system. The industry should consider using an additional system related to eating quality to aid in the determination of the monetary value of carcasses, rewarding eating quality in addition to yield.

  3. Genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in longissimus muscle and their associations with palatability traits in Angus cattle.

    Mateescu, R G; Garmyn, A J; Tait, R G; Duan, Q; Liu, Q; Mayes, M S; Garrick, D J; Van Eenennaam, A L; Vanoverbeke, D L; Hilton, G G; Beitz, D C; Reecy, J M


    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for concentrations of minerals in LM and to evaluate their associations with beef palatability traits. Samples of LM from 2,285 Angus cattle were obtained and fabricated into steaks for analysis of mineral concentrations and for trained sensory panel assessments. Nine minerals, including calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, manganese, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, and zinc, were quantified. Restricted maximum likelihood procedures were used to obtain estimates of variance and covariance components under a multiple-trait animal model. Estimates of heritability for mineral concentrations in LM varied from 0.01 to 0.54. Iron and sodium were highly and moderately heritable, respectively, whereas the other minerals were lowly heritable except for calcium, copper, and manganese, which exhibited no genetic variation. Strong positive genetic correlations existed between iron and zinc (0.49, P minerals (P > 0.05). Beefy flavor was positively associated with calcium, iron, and zinc and negatively associated with sodium concentration, whereas a painty or fishy flavor was positively associated with sodium and negatively associated with calcium and potassium concentrations (P < 0.05). Beef is a major contributor of iron and zinc in the human diet, and these results demonstrate sufficient genetic variation for these traits to be improved through marker-assisted selection programs without compromising beef palatability.

  4. Influence of supplemental vitamin C on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of the longissimus thoracis of steers fed varying concentrations of dietary sulfur.

    Pogge, Danielle J; Lonergan, Steven M; Hansen, Stephanie L


    The objective was to examine the effects of supplemental vitamin C (VC) on postmortem protein degradation and fatty acid profiles of cattle receiving varying concentrations of dietary sulfur (S). A longissimus muscle was collected from 120 Angus-cross steers assigned to a 3 × 2 factorial, evaluating three concentrations of dietary S (0.22, 0.34, and 0.55%) and two concentrations of supplemental VC (0 or 10 g h(-1)d(-1)). Increasing dietary S and VC supplementation (Pacids of steaks. Addition of VC tended to increase (P = 0.09) both Fe and 2-thiobarbituric acid content of longissimus thoracis. Increasing S increased (P = 0.03) the proportion of 80-kDa subunit of μ-calpain. Addition of VC within the high S treatment increased (P = 0.05) the abundance of 76-kDa subunit of μ-calpain. Increasing S decreased troponin T degradation (P = 0.07) and protein carbonylation (P<0.01). Supplemental VC appears to alleviate negative effects of high S on autolysis of μ-calpain and protein degradation. © 2013.


    Edita Kastratović


    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship and entrepreneur became to day-such as in development countries and also in leading countries in transition process-symbol of economical, technologiacl, and social progres. The critical component and pillar of market oriented democratic society consists of micro, smal and midlle size enterprises and private entrepreneurship, who became main pillars in process of establishing of «entrepreneurship society»-evolution connection from managerial to entrepreneural society. Entrepreneurship and management, entrepreneural inovativity and flecsibility became a main remark of entrepreneurship management process, no matter is it big or small enterprises, producing and service organization, governmental or nongovernmental , profit and non profit organisation. The same principles are actual in sport and and sports industry. Without expasion of private initiatives of micro, small and medium sized enterprises, and addopting european and world market criteria and standards in national frame work-no matter of character and valuue of support of international and domestic steak holders we can not expect of dynamic development of sport and entrepreneurship in sport. It is obviesly, the point is about very big spectrum of potential development opportunities today very important , profitable and fleksible models of micro, small and medium sized enterprises, whose market position was establish in sport and sports activities.

  6. Would banning atrazine benefit farmers?

    Ackerman, Frank; Whited, Melissa; Knight, Patrick


    Atrazine, an herbicide used on most of the US corn (maize) crop, is the subject of ongoing controversy, with increasing documentation of its potentially harmful health and environmental impacts. Supporters of atrazine often claim that it is of great value to farmers; most recently, Syngenta, the producer of atrazine, sponsored an “Atrazine Benefits Team” (ABT) of researchers who released a set of five papers in 2011, reporting huge economic benefits from atrazine use in US agriculture. A critical review of the ABT papers shows that they have underestimated the growing problem of atrazine-resistant weeds, offered only a partial review of the effectiveness of alternative herbicides, and ignored the promising option of non-chemical weed management techniques. In addition, the most complete economic analysis in the ABT papers implies that withdrawal of atrazine would lead to a decrease in corn yields of 4.4% and an increase in corn prices of 8.0%. The result would be an increase in corn growers’ revenues, equal to US$1.7 billion annually under ABT assumptions. Price impacts on consumers would be minimal: at current levels of ethanol production and use, gasoline prices would rise by no more than US$0.03 per gallon; beef prices would rise by an estimated US$0.01 for a 4-ounce hamburger and US$0.05 for an 8-ounce steak. Thus withdrawal of atrazine would boost farm revenues, while only changing consumer prices by pennies. PMID:24804340


    Hermina Hermina


    Full Text Available Kemajuan di bidang ekonomi terutama di perkotaan menyebabkan perubahan pada gaya hidup, antara lain perubahan dalam pola makan. Perubahan dari pola makan tradisional ke pola makan barat, seperti fast food (makanan modern yang banyak mengandung kalori, lemak dan kolestrol. Ditambah kehidupan yang disertai stress dan berkurangnya aktifitas fisik, terutama di kota besar mulai menunjukkan dampaknya dengan meningkatnya masalah gizi lebih dan penyakit degeneratif. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk menggali data konsumsi makanan modern pada anak-anak usia pra sekolah (murid TK di TK favorit dan TK bukan favorit di wilayah Jakarta Selatan. Tujuan penelitian adalah untuk melihat bagaimana kecenderungan konsumsi makanan modern pada anak TK. Responden adalah ibu-ibu dari anak TK (59 orang dan guru TK (10 orang. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan adanya kecenderungan makanan modern banyak dikonsumsi oleh anak-anak pra sekolah. Sebagian besar anak (>60% di TK favorit sudah biasa mengkonsumsi fried chicken, burger, pizza, donat modern, roti bakery, ice cream, daging steak dan spaghetti dengan frekuensi konsumsi yang bervariasi. Sedangkan anak-anak di TK bukan favorit, sebagian besar mengkonsumsi makanan modern berupa chiki, agar-agar/jeli, es, permen dan makanan kemasan lain yang menggunakan zat pewarna/zat adiktif lain dengan harga relatif murah yang akan berdampak negatif terhadap kesehatan anak. Untuk itu pendekatan informasi tentang perilaku gizi yang baik dan benar perlu dipasarkan sedemikian rupa berdasarkan Pedoman Umum Gizi Seimbang (PUGS dengan menyandingkan makanan tradisional sebagaimana yang diharapkan dalam pemasyarakatan gerakan Aku Cinta Makanan Indonesia yang telah digalakkan sejak awal Repelita VI ini.

  8. Effects of Ocean Acidification on Temperate Coastal Marine Ecosystems and Fisheries in the Northeast Pacific

    Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A.; Neate, Holly E.; Edwards, Andrew M.


    As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2–3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty. PMID

  9. Effects of increased CO2 on fish gill and plasma proteome.

    Karine Bresolin de Souza

    Full Text Available Ocean acidification and warming are both primarily caused by increased levels of atmospheric CO2, and marine organisms are exposed to these two stressors simultaneously. Although the effects of temperature on fish have been investigated over the last century, the long-term effects of moderate CO2 exposure and the combination of both stressors are almost entirely unknown. A proteomics approach was used to assess the adverse physiological and biochemical changes that may occur from the exposure to these two environmental stressors. We analysed gills and blood plasma of Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus exposed to temperatures of 12 °C (control and 18 °C (impaired growth in combination with control (400 µatm or high-CO2 water (1000 µatm for 14 weeks. The proteomic analysis was performed using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE followed by Nanoflow LC-MS/MS using a LTQ-Orbitrap. The high-CO2 treatment induced the up-regulation of immune system-related proteins, as indicated by the up-regulation of the plasma proteins complement component C3 and fibrinogen β chain precursor in both temperature treatments. Changes in gill proteome in the high-CO2 (18 °C group were mostly related to increased energy metabolism proteins (ATP synthase, malate dehydrogenase, malate dehydrogenase thermostable, and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase, possibly coupled to a higher energy demand. Gills from fish exposed to high-CO2 at both temperature treatments showed changes in proteins associated with increased cellular turnover and apoptosis signalling (annexin 5, eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1γ, receptor for protein kinase C, and putative ribosomal protein S27. This study indicates that moderate CO2-driven acidification, alone and combined with high temperature, can elicit biochemical changes that may affect fish health.

  10. Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast Pacific.

    Haigh, Rowan; Ianson, Debby; Holt, Carrie A; Neate, Holly E; Edwards, Andrew M


    As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA). Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC), sport (recreational) fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry). Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed) and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH) waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated), little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty.

  11. Effects of ocean acidification on temperate coastal marine ecosystems and fisheries in the northeast Pacific.

    Rowan Haigh

    Full Text Available As the oceans absorb anthropogenic CO2 they become more acidic, a problem termed ocean acidification (OA. Since this increase in CO2 is occurring rapidly, OA may have profound implications for marine ecosystems. In the temperate northeast Pacific, fisheries play key economic and cultural roles and provide significant employment, especially in rural areas. In British Columbia (BC, sport (recreational fishing generates more income than commercial fishing (including the expanding aquaculture industry. Salmon (fished recreationally and farmed and Pacific Halibut are responsible for the majority of fishery-related income. This region naturally has relatively acidic (low pH waters due to ocean circulation, and so may be particularly vulnerable to OA. We have analyzed available data to provide a current description of the marine ecosystem, focusing on vertical distributions of commercially harvested groups in BC in the context of local carbon and pH conditions. We then evaluated the potential impact of OA on this temperate marine system using currently available studies. Our results highlight significant knowledge gaps. Above trophic levels 2-3 (where most local fishery-income is generated, little is known about the direct impact of OA, and more importantly about the combined impact of multi-stressors, like temperature, that are also changing as our climate changes. There is evidence that OA may have indirect negative impacts on finfish through changes at lower trophic levels and in habitats. In particular, OA may lead to increased fish-killing algal blooms that can affect the lucrative salmon aquaculture industry. On the other hand, some species of locally farmed shellfish have been well-studied and exhibit significant negative direct impacts associated with OA, especially at the larval stage. We summarize the direct and indirect impacts of OA on all groups of marine organisms in this region and provide conclusions, ordered by immediacy and certainty.

  12. Anisakiasis of the colon presenting as bowel obstruction.

    Schuster, Rob; Petrini, John L; Choi, Rosa


    Anisakiasis is a disease caused by human infection by the Anisakis larvae, a marine nematode found in raw or undercooked fish. With the increased popularity of eating sushi and raw fish (sashimi) in the United States infection with anisakis is expected to rise. We present the first reported case in the United States of intestinal anisakiasis presenting as a bowel obstruction. A 25-year-old healthy woman with no prior history of surgery presented to the emergency room with bowel obstruction by history and CT. CT also showed a mass in the right lower quadrant. She had eaten seviche, a raw fish appetizer, 2 days earlier and sashimi 3 weeks before admission. She was taken to the operating room for an exploratory laparotomy and was found to have an obstruction, the 2-cm mass in the mesentery, and diffuse mesenteric adenopathy. She had an ileocolectomy. Pathology showed a degenerating fish worm, anisakiasis. She also had a serologic test for immunoglobulin E specific to anisakiasis and it was highly positive. Human infections, as mentioned before, are principally the result of ingestion of the Anisakis larvae. These larvae are usually found in herring, mackerel, salmon, cod, halibut, rockfish, sardine, and squid. Most human infections have been reported from Japan and The Netherlands and involve the stomach. Invasion of the gastric or intestinal wall one to 5 days after eating raw fish may be characterized by the abrupt onset of abdominal pain, nausea and/or vomiting, diarrhea, or an ileus. For transient anisakiasis, supportive measures and reassurance are all that is needed. If the larvae have invaded the intestine or the stomach wall diagnosis and cure occur with endoscopic or surgical removal if evidence of obstruction or perforation is found. The incidence of anisakiasis in the United States is unknown but will likely continue to increase with the popularity of eating sashimi. This case is meant to demonstrate another possible cause for bowel obstruction in the

  13. Using DNA barcoding to track seafood mislabeling in Los Angeles restaurants.

    Willette, Demian A; Simmonds, Sara E; Cheng, Samantha H; Esteves, Sofia; Kane, Tonya L; Nuetzel, Hayley; Pilaud, Nicholas; Rachmawati, Rita; Barber, Paul H


    Seafood mislabeling is common in both domestic and international markets. Studies on seafood fraud often report high rates of mislabeling (e.g., >70%), but these studies have been limited to a single sampling year, which means it is difficult to assess the impact of stricter governmental truth-in-labeling regulations. We used DNA barcoding to assess seafood labeling in 26 sushi restaurants in Los Angeles over 4 years. Seafood from 3 high-end grocery stores were also sampled (n = 16) in 2014. We ordered 9 common sushi fish from menus, preserved tissue samples in 95% ethanol, extracted the genomic DNA, amplified and sequenced a portion of the mtDNA COI gene, and identified the resulting sequence to known fish sequences from the National Center for Biotechnology Information nucleotide database. We compared DNA results with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) list of acceptable market names and retail names. We considered sushi-sample labels that were inconsistent with FDA names mislabeled. Sushi restaurants had a consistently high percentage of mislabeling (47%; 151 of 323) from 2012 to 2015, yet mislabeling was not homogenous across species. Halibut, red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail had consistently high (15%). All sampled sushi restaurants had at least one case of mislabeling. Mislabeling of sushi-grade fish from high-end grocery stores was also identified in red snapper, yellowfin tuna, and yellowtail, but at a slightly lower frequency (42%) than sushi restaurants. Despite increased regulatory measures and media attention, we found seafood mislabeling continues to be prevalent. © 2017 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Enantiomer-selective and quantitative trace analysis of selected persistent organic pollutants (POP) in traditional food from western Greenland.

    Carlsson, Pernilla; Herzke, Dorte; Kallenborn, Roland


    Enantiomeric fractions (EF) are today considered a powerful tool to elucidate selective uptake processes of chiral contaminants in biota. In this study, concentration levels and EF were determined by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC/MS) for α-hexachlorocyclohexane (α-HCH) and trans-, cis-, and oxychlordane in selected Greenlandic traditional food items, collected at the local market in Nuuk in 2010. The food items selected were raw and smoked fish (salmon and halibut, n = 6), whale meat (n = 8), seal meat (n = 2) and narwhal mattak (skin and blubber, n = 6). The EF were nonracemic (≠0.5) for all samples except for α-HCH in narwhal, trans-chlordane in whale and smoked salmon, and cis- and oxychlordane in seal. The EF for α-HCH were significant for all fish samples, but not for mammalian samples. Data indicate that different uptake and/or transformation mechanisms may be responsible for nonracemic distributions of chiral pesticides in mammals and fish species analyzed. There were no general enantiomer-selective transformation/accumulation trends found for chlordanes. Data indicate that enantiomer-specific properties are an important prerequisite for interaction of chiral contaminant with internal metabolic processes. However, marked differences within these groups were identified. The EF in ringed seals were racemic for most of the analyzed pesticides (i.e., chlordanes). However, narwhal were characterized by nonracemic EF for all chiral pesticides analyzed. Median levels of α-HCH ranged from 2 to 24 ng/g lw and from 15.1 to 626.6 ng/g lw for trans-nonachlor, with lowest levels observed in smoked salmon and highest levels in narwhal mattak. This study confirmed that concentration levels of analyzed pesticides in the investigated food items were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) threshold.

  15. THE TOXICITY OF OZONATED SEA WATER TO THE Penaeus chinensis AND Paralichthys olivaceus%用臭氧处理海水对鱼虾的急性毒性效应研究

    姜国良; 刘云; 吕艳; 杨栋


    Ozone has been widely used in aquaculture applications as a water purification and sterilization method due to its rapid reaction rate intensively capable of killing microbes and few harmful reaction products. But the residual ozone would be harmful to fish and shrimp. Penaeus chinensis and Paralichthys olivaceus were tested separately in this experiment for their survival rate in various ranges of residual ozone levels. Results showed that the tolerance of shrimp for residual ozone levels was much higher than that of the fish, the shrimp would live 48 h in ozone water ≥ 1 mg/L, while fish could not live more than 3 h. Concentration lethal to 50% of sample fish of Bastard halibut for 48 h was 0.13 mg/L. Compared with other disinfecting method, if we proper control the ozone′ s concontration, ozonation should be an indispensable good treatment method for intensive aquaculture.%本实验检测了不同浓度臭氧残留对中国对虾(Penaeuschinensis)、牙鲆(Paralichthysoilvaceus)存活率的影响。结果表明,对虾的耐受力要比牙鲆鱼强,中国对虾在臭氧浓度≥1.0mg/L时,可存活至少48h,而牙鲆在此浓度下3h后,即出现鳃部充血肿胀、呼吸频率加快等不适应现象,48hLC50为0.13mg/L。如果能正确控制臭氧的残留量,利用臭氧净化养殖用水是一个不容质疑的水质净化的好方法。

  16. Interspecific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios in saltwater fish from the Aleutians: Potential protection on mercury toxicity by selenium

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Donio, Mark; Pittfield, Taryn


    A number of factors affect the consumption risk from mercury in fish, including mercury levels, seasonal patterns of mercury concentrations, human consumption patterns, and sensitive populations (e.g. pregnant women, fetuses, young children, and yet unknown genetic factors). Recently the protective effects of selenium on methylmercury toxicity have been publicized, particularly for saltwater fish. We examine levels of mercury and selenium in several species of fish and seabirds from the Aleutians (Alaska), determine selenium:mercury molar ratios, and examine species-specific and individual variation in the ratios as a means of exploring the use of the ratio in risk assessment and risk management. Variation among species was similar for mercury and selenium. There was significant inter-specific and intraspecific variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios for fish, and for birds. The mean selenium:mercury molar ratios for all fish and bird species were above 1, meaning there was an excess of selenium relative to mercury. It has been suggested that an excess of selenium confers some protective advantage for salt water fish, although the degree of excess necessary is unclear. The selenium:mercury molar ratio was significantly correlated negatively with total length for most fish species, but not for dolly varden. Some individuals of Pacific cod, yellow irish lord, rock greenling, Pacific halibut, dolly varden, and to a lesser extent, flathead sole, had selenium:mercury ratios below 1. No bird muscle had an excess of mercury (ratio below 1), and only glaucous-winged gull and pigeon guillemot had ratios between 1 and 5. There was a great deal of variation in selenium:mercury molar ratios within fish species, and within bird species, making it difficult and impractical to use these ratios in risk assessment or management, for fish advisories, or for consumers, particularly given the difficulty of interpreting the ratios. PMID:22664537

  17. Post-breeding season distribution of black-footed and Laysan albatrosses satellite-tagged in Alaska: Inter-specific differences in spatial overlap with North Pacific fisheries

    Fischer, K.N.; Suryan, R.M.; Roby, D.D.; Balogh, G.R.


    We integrated satellite-tracking data from black-footed albatrosses (Phoebastria nigripes; n = 7) and Laysan albatrosses captured in Alaska (Phoebastria immutabilis; n = 18) with data on fishing effort and distribution from commercial fisheries in the North Pacific in order to assess potential risk from bycatch. Albatrosses were satellite-tagged at-sea in the Central Aleutian Islands, Alaska, and tracked during the post-breeding season, July-October 2005 and 2006. In Alaskan waters, fishing effort occurred almost exclusively within continental shelf and slope waters. Potential fishery interaction for black-footed albatrosses, which most often frequented shelf-slope waters, was greatest with sablefish (Anoplopoma fimbria) longline and pot fisheries and with the Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepsis) longline fishery. In contrast, Laysan albatrosses spent as much time over oceanic waters beyond the continental shelf and slope, thereby overlapping less with fisheries in Alaska than black-footed albatrosses. Regionally, Laysan albatrosses had the greatest potential fishery interaction with the Atka mackerel (Pleurogrammus monopterygius) trawl fishery in the Western Aleutian Islands and the sablefish pot fishery in the Central Aleutian Islands. Black-footed albatrosses ranged further beyond Alaskan waters than Laysan albatrosses, overlapping west coast Canada fisheries and pelagic longline fisheries in the subarctic transition domain; Laysan albatrosses remained north of these pelagic fisheries. Due to inter-specific differences in oceanic distribution and habitat use, the overlap of fisheries with the post-breeding distribution of black-footed albatrosses is greater than that for Laysan albatrosses, highlighting inter-specific differences in potential vulnerability to bycatch and risk of population-level impacts from fisheries. ?? 2008 Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Assessment of resource selection models to predict occurrence of five juvenile flatfish species (Pleuronectidae) over the continental shelf in the western Gulf of Alaska

    Wilson, Matthew T.; Mier, Kathryn L.; Cooper, Dan W.


    According to the nursery size hypothesis, flatfish recruitment is constrained by nursery area. Thus, if resource selection models can be shown to accurately predict the location and geographic extent of flatfish nursery areas, they will become important tools in the management and study of flatfish population dynamics. We demonstrate that some resource selection models derived previously to predict the presence and absence of juvenile flatfishes near shore were applicable to the broader continental shelf. For other age-species groups, derivation of new models for the continental shelf was necessary. Our study was conducted in the western Gulf of Alaska (GoA) during October 2011 on four groups of age-0 juvenile flatfishes: Pacific halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis), arrowtooth flounder (Atheresthes stomias), northern rock sole (Lepidopsetta polyxystra), and flathead sole (Hippoglossoides elassodon); and three groups of age-1 juvenile flatfishes: northern rock sole, flathead sole, and yellowfin sole (Limanda aspera). Sampling occurred at 33 sites across the continental shelf. Fish were collected using a 3-m beam trawl, and a midwater trawl. Environmental data were collected on sediment composition and water temperature and depth. Many of the age-species groups co-occurred in the Shumagin and Barnabus sea valleys; however, age-0 arrowtooth flounder occurred at more locations than other juveniles, perhaps due to a relatively broad tolerance of environmental conditions and to the utilization of midwater habitat. Thus, the large nursery area of arrowtooth flounder may be one reason why they are currently the most abundant GoA flatfish. In fact, among all species, mean recruitment at age 3 increased with the percent occurrence of age-0 juveniles at the 33 sites, a proxy for relative nursery area, in accordance with the nursery size hypothesis, suggesting that mean recruitment among GoA flatfishes is structured by nursery size.

  19. Purine-induced expression of urate oxidase and enzyme activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Cloning of urate oxidase liver cDNA from three teleost species and the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    Andersen, Øivind; Aas, Turid S; Skugor, Stanko; Takle, Harald; van Nes, Solveig; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Helland, Ståle J; Terjesen, Bendik F


    The peroxisomal enzyme urate oxidase plays a pivotal role in the degradation of purines in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, knowledge about the purine-induced expression of the encoding gene is lacking in vertebrates. These are the first published sequences of fish urate oxidase, which were predicted from PCR amplified liver cDNAs of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and African lungfish (Protopterus annectens). Sequence alignment of different vertebrate urate oxidases revealed amino acid substitutions of putative functional importance in the enzyme of chicken and lungfish. In the adult salmon, expression of urate oxidase mRNA predominated in liver, but was also identified in several nonhepatic organs including brain, but not in skeletal muscle and kidney. Juvenile salmon fed diets containing bacterial protein meal (BPM) rich in nucleic acids showed a significant increase in liver urate oxidase enzyme activity, and urea concentrations in plasma, muscle and liver were elevated. Whereas salmon fed the 18% BPM diet showed a nonsignificant increase in liver mRNA levels of urate oxidase compared with the 0% BPM-fed fish, no further increase in mRNA levels was found in fish receiving 36% BPM. The discrepancy between urate oxidase mRNA and enzyme activity was explained by rapid mRNA degradation or alternatively, post-translational control of the activity. Although variable plasma and liver levels of urate were detected, the substrate increased only slightly in 36% BPM-fed fish, indicating that the uricolytic pathway of Atlantic salmon is intimately regulated to handle high dietary purine levels.

  20. Modeling {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation in the salmon–resident killer whale food web of the Northeastern Pacific following the Fukushima Nuclear Accident

    Alava, Juan José, E-mail:; Gobas, Frank A.P.C.


    To track the long term bioaccumulation of {sup 137}Cs in marine organisms off the Pacific Northwest coast of Canada, we developed a time dependent bioaccumulation model for {sup 137}Cs in a marine mammalian food web that included fish-eating resident killer whales. The model outcomes show that {sup 137}Cs can be expected to gradually bioaccumulate in the food web over time as demonstrated by the increase of the apparent trophic magnification factor of {sup 137}Cs, ranging from 0.76 after 1 month of exposure to 2.0 following 30 years of exposure. {sup 137}Cs bioaccumulation is driven by relatively rapid dietary uptake rates, moderate depuration rates in lower trophic level organisms and slow elimination rates in high trophic level organisms. Model estimates of the {sup 137}Cs activity in species of the food web, based on current measurements and forecasts of {sup 137}Cs activities in oceanic waters and sediments off the Canadian Pacific Northwest, indicate that the long term {sup 137}Cs activities in fish species including Pacific herring, wild Pacific salmon, sablefish and halibut will remain well below the current {sup 137}Cs-Canada Action Level for consumption (1000 Bq/kg) following a nuclear emergency. Killer whales and Pacific salmon are expected to exhibit the largest long term {sup 137}Cs activities and may be good sentinels for monitoring {sup 137}Cs in the region. Assessment of the long term consequences of {sup 137}Cs releases from the Fukushima aftermath should consider the extent of ecological magnification in addition to ocean dilution. - Highlights: • A food web bioaccumulation model to assess the biomagnification of {sup 137}Cs is developed. • Cesium 137 exhibits bioaccumulation over time as simulated by the model. • Predicted activities in marine biota are below {sup 137}Cs-food consumption benchmarks. • Long-term monitoring of {sup 137}Cs in the ocean will improve the model predictions.

  1. Prescription of antimicrobial drugs in Norwegian aquaculture with an emphasis on "new" fish species.

    Grave, Kari; Hansen, Magne Kjerulf; Kruse, Hilde; Bangen, Marit; Kristoffersen, Anja Bråthen


    The usage of antimicrobial (AM) drugs in farmed fish in Norwegian aquaculture for the period 2000-2005 was investigated by using prescription data. These data were validated against national sales data of AM drugs sold for use in farmed fish and were found to be highly valid. The defined course dose (DCD) was applied as the unit of measurement to correct for the variations in the dosages between different AM drugs. The DCD(kg) was the amount of an AM drug recommended for the treatment of a 1-kg fish. The calculated number of prescribed DCD(kg)s is an estimate of the biomass of farmed fish that can be treated with a certain amount AM drug. In the present study, the number of prescriptions issued (i.e., numbers of initiated treatments), weight of active substance prescribed and biomass treated were applied to describe the usage. An increase, although modest, in the AM drug usage in Norwegian aquaculture was observed from 2002 to 2005. This increase was accounted for by new-farmed fish species (other than Atlantic salmon and rainbow trout), especially Atlantic cod. The increased usage of AM drugs in cod in the study period was significantly positively correlated to the biomass produced; even so from 2001 to 2005 the number of prescriptions for cod relative to the produced biomass declined. The AM drug usage in Atlantic halibut as well as the production varied during the study period. For other species such as turbot, coalfish and wolffish the usage of AM drugs was found to be negligible. "Mono-therapy" with quinolones may present a selective pressure in regard to development of quinolone resistance.

  2. Dietary mutagen exposure and risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Li, Donghui; Day, Rena Sue; Bondy, Melissa L; Sinha, Rashmi; Nguyen, Nga T; Evans, Douglas B; Abbruzzese, James L; Hassan, Manal M


    To investigate the association between dietary exposure to food mutagens and risk of pancreatic cancer, we conducted a hospital-based case-control study at the University of Texas M. D. Anderson Cancer Center during June 2002 to May 2006. A total of 626 cases and 530 noncancer controls were frequency matched for race, sex and age (+/-5 years). Dietary exposure information was collected via personal interview using a meat preparation questionnaire. A significantly greater portion of the cases than controls showed a preference to well-done pork, bacon, grilled chicken, and pan-fried chicken, but not to hamburger and steak. Cases had a higher daily intake of food mutagens and mutagenicity activity (revertants per gram of daily meat intake) than controls did. The daily intakes of 2-amino-3,4,8-trimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (DiMeIQx) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP), as well as the mutagenic activity, were significant predictors for pancreatic cancer (P = 0.008, 0.031, and 0.029, respectively) with adjustment of other confounders. A significant trend of elevated cancer risk with increasing DiMeIQx intake was observed in quintile analysis (P(trend) = 0.024). A higher intake of dietary mutagens (those in the two top quintiles) was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of pancreatic cancer among those without a family history of cancer but not among those with a family history of cancer. A possible synergistic effect of dietary mutagen exposure and smoking was observed among individuals with the highest level of exposure (top 10%) to PhIP and BaP, P(interaction) = 0.09 and 0.099, respectively. These data support the hypothesis that dietary mutagen exposure alone and in interaction with other factors contribute to the development of pancreatic cancer.

  3. Validation of lactic acid bacteria, lactic acid, and acidified sodium chlorite as decontaminating interventions to control Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in mechanically tenderized and brine-enhanced (nonintact) beef at the purveyor.

    Echeverry, Alejandro; Brooks, J Chance; Miller, Markus F; Collins, Jesse A; Loneragan, Guy H; Brashears, Mindy M


    After three different outbreaks were linked to the consumption of nonintact meat products contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7, the U.S. Food Safety and Inspection Service published notice requiring establishments producing mechanically tenderized and moisture-enhanced beef products to reassess their respective hazard analysis and critical control point systems, due to potential risk to the consumers. The objective of this study was to validate the use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), acidified sodium chlorite (ASC), and lactic acid (LA) sprays when applied under a simulated purveyor setting as effective interventions to control and reduce E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 in inoculated U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Choice strip loins (longissimus lumborum muscles) pieces intended for either mechanical blade tenderization or injection enhancement with a brine solution after an aging period of 14 or 21 days at 4.4°C under vacuum. After the mechanical process, translocation of E. coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 from the surface into the internal muscles occurred at levels between 1.00 and 5.72 log CFU/g, compared with controls. LAB and LA reduced internal E. coli O157:H7 loads up to 3.0 log, while ASC reduced the pathogen 1.4 to 2.3 log more than the control (P < 0.05), respectively. Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 was also reduced internally 1.3 to 2.8, 1.0 to 2.3, and 1.4 to 1.8 log after application of LAB, LA, and ASC, respectively. The application of antimicrobials by purveyors prior to mechanical tenderization or enhancement of steaks should increase the safety of these types of products.

  4. Association of selected SNP with carcass and taste panel assessed meat quality traits in a commercial population of Aberdeen Angus-sired beef cattle

    Williams John L


    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP, previously associated with meat and milk quality traits in cattle, in a population of 443 commercial Aberdeen Angus-cross beef cattle. The eight SNP, which were located within five genes: μ-calpain (CAPN1, calpastatin (CAST, leptin (LEP, growth hormone receptor (GHR and acylCoA:diacylglycerol acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1, are included in various commercial tests for tenderness, fatness, carcass composition and milk yield/quality. Methods A total of 27 traits were examined, 19 relating to carcass quality, such as carcass weight and fatness, one mechanical measure of tenderness, and the remaining seven were sensory traits, such as flavour and tenderness, assessed by a taste panel. Results An SNP in the CAPN1 gene, CAPN316, was significantly associated with tenderness measured by both the tenderometer and the taste panel as well as the weight of the hindquarter, where animals inheriting the CC genotype had more tender meat and heavier hindquarters. An SNP in the leptin gene, UASMS2, significantly affected overall liking, where animals with the TT genotype were assigned higher scores by the panellists. The SNP in the GHR gene was significantly associated with odour, where animals inheriting the AA genotype produced steaks with an intense odour when compared with the other genotypes. Finally, the SNP in the DGAT1 gene was associated with sirloin weight after maturation and fat depth surrounding the sirloin, with animals inheriting the AA genotype having heavier sirloins and more fat. Conclusion The results of this study confirm some previously documented associations. Furthermore, novel associations have been identified which, following validation in other populations, could be incorporated into breeding programmes to improve meat quality.

  5. Effect of Different Oil Sources on Muscle Fatty Acid Composition and Serum Lipoproteins Levels in Sarabi Beef Steer

    Mohamad Golshan-Zoroofi


    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of different vegetable oil sources on the Fatty Acid (FA composition of muscle and performance of beef steer (Sarabi strain. Twenty one steers (384±17 kg BW were assigned in seven treatment that fed diets containing 0% oil (control, 2 and 4% of Canola Oil (CO, Sunflower Oil (SO and Restaurant Waste Oils (RWO. Ribeye steaks from steers fed CO, SO and RWO for 90 days of experiment were used after slaughtering to evaluate the effects of oil source on fatty acid composition. Amounts of muscle saturated FAs decreased and polyunsaturated FAs increased in both 2% CO and 2% SO groups. The highest contents of total n-3, n-6 and n-7 FAs were significantly (p<0.05 obtained with 2% CO, 2% SO and control groups, respectively. Animals fed 2% CO had the lowest content of total n-9 FAs in compared to other groups. Control and 2% SO dietary groups presented lowest total cholesterol and 4% CO group resulted in a lowest triglycerides (p<0.01. The high and low-density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL was highest in 2 and 4% RWO group, respectively and animals fed 4% SO and 4% CO had the lowest LDL and very low-DL (VLDL, respectively. Control animals and those fed 2% oils tended to have higher dry matter intake (DMI, <0.05. The best Daily Weight Gain (DWG was related to 2% RWO dietary group and followed by 2% SO dietary groups; however, differences were not significant.

  6. 金黄色葡萄球菌在不同食品中的检出率分析%Analysis of I solation Rate of Staphylococcus aureus in Differ ent Food



    Isolation rate of Staphylococcus aureus were mensurated after certain concentration Staphylococcus aureus were added into different given food.The given food include steak,fish balls,candied fruit,pickles,bread,alcohol,soy sauce and pork floss.Obtain the basic data,and provide reference for Staphylococcus aureus detection method. When the same concentration Staphylococcus aureus were added to the given eight kinds of food,the Isolation rate of Staphylococcus aureus is different. The highest was pork floss and the lowest is fish balls.When the different amount of Staphylococcus aureus were added into the same kind of food.The Isolation Rate of Staphylococcus aureus is also different.%本文以牛排、鱼丸、蜜饯、酱腌菜、面包、老酒、酱油和肉松为试验材料,将不同浓度的金黄色葡萄球菌加入不同种类的食品中,分析金黄色葡萄球菌加入不同食品后的检出率,获得基础数据,为金黄色葡萄球菌的检测方法提供参考。试验结果表明,同一浓度的金黄色葡萄球菌在不同食品中的检出率不同,其中肉松中的检出率最高,鱼丸中的检出率最低。而且不同浓度的金黄色葡萄球菌从同一样品中的检出率也不同。

  7. Beer and wine but not whisky and pure ethanol do stimulate release of gastrin in humans.

    Singer, M V; Eysselein, V; Goebell, H


    In humans, the action of ethanol on gastrin release is still unclear and that of alcoholic beverages greatly unknown. We studied the effect of a drink of various concentrations of pure ethanol and several commonly ingested alcoholic beverages on plasma levels of immunoreactive gastrin in 6 healthy human volunteers and compared the results to a protein-rich meal. A drink of distilled water (250 ml) and of pure ethanol (250 ml or 125 ml in the case of 40% v/v ethanol) in concentrations (4, 10, 20 and 40% v/v) normally present in beer, wine, liquor and whisky did not stimulate plasma gastrin levels above basal. Of the alcoholic beverages given only whisky (125 ml) did not stimulate gastrin release. Beer, red and white wine (250 ml each) caused a rapid increase in plasma gastrin concentrations with a peak at 15-20 min, basal levels being reached 60 min after starting the drink. The 60-min integrated plasma gastrin response to beer, red and white wine was about 50% of the gastrin response to the protein-rich (steak) meal (883 +/- 297 pmol X min X 1(-1); mean +/- SE). A drink of 250 ml of white wine together with the meal did not cause a significantly higher integrated gastrin response than the protein meal with 250 ml of distilled water. We conclude that commonly ingested alcoholic beverages such as beer, red and white wine, but not whisky, are potent stimulants of gastrin release in humans. The ethanol content of these beverages cannot be responsible for the increase in plasma gastrin levels, since oral ingestion of pure ethanol in equivalent concentrations and amounts did not elicit a rise in plasma gastrin levels. Some unknown ingredients present in beer and wine are most likely responsible for the gastrin release by both alcoholic beverages.

  8. The Effect of Energy Labelling on Menus and a Social Marketing Campaign on Food-Purchasing Behaviours of University Students.

    Roy, Rajshri; Beattie-Bowers, Jack; Ang, Siew Min; Colagiuri, Stephen; Allman-Farinelli, Margaret


    This study assessed the impact of kilojoule (kJ) labelling alone or accompanied by a social marketing campaign on food sales and selection of less energy-dense meals by young adults from a university food outlet. There were two kJ labelling intervention phases each of five weeks: (1) kJ labelling alone (2) kJ labels with marketing materials ("8700 kJ campaign"). Food sales of labelled items were tracked during each intervention and five weeks after. Food sales during interventions were also compared with historical sales of foods in the same 10-week period in the previous year. A sub sample of young adults (n = 713; aged 19-24) were surveyed during both the interventions to assess awareness, influence, sentiment and anticipated future impact of kJ labels and the social marketing campaign respectively. There were no differences in sales between the kJ labelling with social marketing and the 5-weeks of labelling before and after. The percentage sale of chicken Caesar burger (3580 kJ, P = 0.01), steak and chips (4000 kJ, P = 0.02) and the grill burger (5500 kJ, P = 0.00) were lower in the year with menu labelling and social marketing campaign. Only 30 % students were initially aware of the kJ labels on the menu but 75 % of students were accepting of kJ labelling, after they were made aware. Respondents viewing the marketing campaign elements and then using kJ values on the menu selected meals with a lower mean energy content; constituting a reduction of 978 kJ (p increase awareness and provide education about energy requirements to prevent weight gain will be needed.

  9. Quantitative Prediction of Beef Quality Using Visible and NIR Spectroscopy with Large Data Samples Under Industry Conditions

    Qiao, T.; Ren, J.; Craigie, C.; Zabalza, J.; Maltin, Ch.; Marshall, S.


    It is well known that the eating quality of beef has a significant influence on the repurchase behavior of consumers. There are several key factors that affect the perception of quality, including color, tenderness, juiciness, and flavor. To support consumer repurchase choices, there is a need for an objective measurement of quality that could be applied to meat prior to its sale. Objective approaches such as offered by spectral technologies may be useful, but the analytical algorithms used remain to be optimized. For visible and near infrared (VISNIR) spectroscopy, Partial Least Squares Regression (PLSR) is a widely used technique for meat related quality modeling and prediction. In this paper, a Support Vector Machine (SVM) based machine learning approach is presented to predict beef eating quality traits. Although SVM has been successfully used in various disciplines, it has not been applied extensively to the analysis of meat quality parameters. To this end, the performance of PLSR and SVM as tools for the analysis of meat tenderness is evaluated, using a large dataset acquired under industrial conditions. The spectral dataset was collected using VISNIR spectroscopy with the wavelength ranging from 350 to 1800 nm on 234 beef M. longissimus thoracis steaks from heifers, steers, and young bulls. As the dimensionality with the VISNIR data is very high (over 1600 spectral bands), the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) technique was applied for feature extraction and data reduction. The extracted principal components (less than 100) were then used for data modeling and prediction. The prediction results showed that SVM has a greater potential to predict beef eating quality than PLSR, especially for the prediction of tenderness. The infl uence of animal gender on beef quality prediction was also investigated, and it was found that beef quality traits were predicted most accurately in beef from young bulls.

  10. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate in selected total diet food composite samples.

    Cao, Xu-Liang; Zhao, Wendy; Churchill, Robin; Dabeka, Robert


    Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) food-wrapping films plasticized with di-(2-ethylhexyl) adipate (DEHA) are commonly used by grocery stores in Canada to rewrap meat, poultry, fish, cheese, and other foods. DEHA was assessed as part of the Government of Canada's Chemicals Management Plan. The main source of exposure for most age groups was expected to be food. Although the margin of exposure from food and beverages is considered to be adequately protective, the Government of Canada committed to performing targeted surveys of DEHA in foods and food packaging materials to better define Canadian exposure to DEHA through dietary intake. In order to determine whether more-comprehensive targeted surveys on DEHA in foods should be conducted, 26 food composite samples from the 2011 Canadian total diet study were selected and analyzed for DEHA using a method based on solvent and dispersive solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. These 26 food composites include cheese, meat, poultry, fish, and fast foods, and PVC films were likely used in packaging the individual foods used to make the composites. DEHA was detected in most of the meat, poultry, and fish composite samples, with the highest concentration found in ground beef (11 μg/g), followed by beef steak (9.9 μg/g), freshwater fish (7.8 μg/g), poultry liver pâté (7.4 μg/g), fresh pork (6.9 μg/g), cold cuts and luncheon meats (2.8 μg/g), veal cutlets (2.1 μg/g), roast beef (1.3 μg/g), lamb (1.2 μg/g), and organ meats (0.20 μg/g). Targeted surveys should be conducted to investigate the presence of DEHA in various foods packaged with PVC films in more detail and provide updated occurrence data for accurate human exposure assessment.

  11. Visualization of Dietary Patterns and Their Associations With Age-Related Macular Degeneration.

    Chiu, Chung-Jung; Chang, Min-Lee; Li, Tricia; Gensler, Gary; Taylor, Allen


    We aimed to visualize the relationship of predominant dietary patterns and their associations with AMD. A total of 8103 eyes from 4088 participants in the baseline Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS) were classified into three groups: control (n = 2739), early AMD (n = 4599), and advanced AMD (n = 765). Using principle component analysis, two major dietary patterns and eight minor dietary patterns were characterized. Applying logistic regression in our analysis, we related dietary patterns to the prevalence of AMD. Qualitative comparative analysis by operating Boolean algebra and drawing Venn diagrams was used to visualize our findings. In general, the eight minor patterns were subsets or extensions of either one of the two major dietary patterns (Oriental and Western patterns) and consisted of fewer characteristic foods than the two major dietary patterns. Unlike the two major patterns, which were more strongly associated with both early and advanced AMD, none of the eight minors were associated with early AMD and only four minor patterns, including the Steak pattern (odds ratio comparing the highest to lowest quintile of the pattern score = 1.73 [95% confidence interval: 1.24 to 2.41; Ptrend = 0.02]), the Breakfast pattern (0.60 [0.44 to 0.82]; Ptrend = 0.004]), the Caribbean pattern (0.64 [0.47 to 0.89; Ptrend = 0.009]), and the Peanut pattern (0.64 [0.46 to 0.89; Ptrend = 0.03]), were significantly associated with advanced AMD. Our data also suggested several potential beneficial (peanuts, pizza, coffee, and tea) and harmful (salad dressing) foods for AMD. Our data indicate that a diet of various healthy foods may be optimal for reducing AMD risk. The effects of some specific foods in the context of overall diet warrant further study.

  12. Variation in palatability and biochemical traits within and among eleven beef muscles.

    Rhee, M S; Wheeler, T L; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M


    The objective of this study was to determine the extent of variation in, and relationships among, biochemical and palatability traits within and among 11 major beef muscles. Longissimus thoracis et lumborum (LD), psoas major (PM), gluteus medius (GM), semimembranosus (SM), adductor (AD), biceps femoris (BF), semitendinosus (ST), rectus femoris (RF), triceps brachii (TB), infraspinatus (IS), and supraspinatus (SS) from one side of 31 Charolais x MARC III steer carcasses were vacuum-packaged, stored at 2 degrees C until 14 d postmortem, and then frozen at -30 degrees C. The 2.54-cm-thick steaks were obtained from two or three locations within muscles in order to assess biochemical traits and Warner-Bratzler shear force, and from near the center for sensory trait evaluation. The PM was most tender and was followed by IS in both shear force and tenderness rating (P muscles were not ranked the same by shear force and tenderness rating. The BF had the lowest (P muscle) than muscles from the chuck and round (5.9 to 9.0 mg/g), except for the AD (4.9 mg/g). Desmin proteolysis was highest (P 2.1 microm), whereas the GM had the shortest (P muscles, tenderness rating was highly correlated (r > 0.60) with shear force, connective tissue rating, sarcomere length, and collagen content. Within a muscle, correlations among all traits were generally highest in LD and lowest in AD. Within muscle, location effects were detected (P muscles except SS and AD). There is a large amount of variation within and among muscles for tenderness traits and tenderness-related biochemical traits. These results increase our understanding of the sources of variation in tenderness in different muscles and provide a basis for the development of muscle-specific strategies for improving the quality and value of muscles.

  13. Characterization of biological types of cattle (Cycle VIII): carcass, yield, and longissimus palatability traits.

    Wheeler, T L; Cundiff, L V; Shackelford, S D; Koohmaraie, M


    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate alternative sources of tropically adapted cattle germplasm and compare them with Angus- (AN) and Hereford- (HE) sired steers. Carcass, yield, and longissimus thoracis palatability traits from F(1) steers (n = 621) obtained from mating AN and MARC III cows to HE, AN, Brangus (BR), Beefmaster (BM), Bonsmara (BO), or Romosinuano (RO) sires were compared. Data were adjusted to constant age (426 d), carcass weight (340 kg), fat thickness (1.0 cm), fat trim percentage (25%), and marbling (Small(00)) endpoints. For Warner-Bratzler and slice shear force and trained and untrained sensory panel traits, data were obtained on LM from ribeye steaks stored at 2 degrees C for 14 or 15 d postmortem. The following comparisons were from the age-constant endpoint. Carcasses from BM-, AN-, and BR-sired steers (358, 355, and 351 kg, respectively) were heavier (P Carcass yield of boneless, totally trimmed retail product was least (P < 0.05) for AN-sired steers (60.1%) and greatest (P < 0.05) for RO- and BO-sired steers (64.4 to 63.5%). Considering all measurements, AN LM tended to be more tender and BM LM tended to be least tender. American composite breeds BM and BR were heavier, fatter, lesser yielding, with similar marbling scores but less tender LM than BO and RO. Angus carcasses were similar in size, fatter, lesser yielding, with more marbling and more tender LM compared with BM and BR. Bonsmara and RO provide tropically adapted germplasm and produce carcasses that are lighter, leaner, greater yielding, with similar marbling and LM that tend to be more tender than carcasses from BM and BR.

  14. Expression of curli by Escherichia coli O157:H7 strains isolated from patients during outbreaks is different from similar strains isolated from leafy green production environments

    Subbarao Venkata Ravva


    Full Text Available We previously reported that the strains of Escherichia coli O157:H7 (EcO157 that survived longer in austere soil environment lacked expression of curli, a fitness trait linked with intestinal colonization. In addition, the proportion of curli-positive variants of EcO157 decreased with repeated soil exposure. Here we evaluated 84 and 176 clinical strains from outbreaks and sporadic infections in the US, plus 211 animal fecal and environmental strains for curli expression. These shiga-toxigenic strains were from 328 different genotypes, as characterized by multi-locus variable-number tandem-repeat analysis (MLVA. More than half of the fecal strains (human and animal and a significant proportion of environmental isolates (82% were found to lack curli expression. EcO157 strains from several outbreaks linked with the consumption of contaminated apple juice, produce, hamburgers, steak and beef were also found to lack curli expression. Phylogenetic analysis of fecal strains indicates curli expression is distributed throughout the population. However, a significant proportion of animal fecal isolates (84% gave no curli expression compared to human fecal isolates (58%. In addition, analysis of environmental isolates indicated nearly exclusive clustering of curli expression to a single branch of the minimal spanning tree. This indicates that curli expression depends primarily upon the type of environmental exposure and the isolation source, although genotypic differences also contribute to clonal variation in curli. Furthermore, curli-deficient phenotype appears to be a selective trait for survival of EcO157 in agricultural environments.

  15. Development of Countermeasure and Application technologies to Space Radiation

    Lee, Ju Woon; Byun, Myung Woo; Kim, Jae Hun


    Basic studies to evaluate the microbial activity changes by irradiation, and identify the composting microorganisms using the hyperthermal composter were conducted. And establishment of research protocols on muscle atrophy mechanism using two-dimensional electrophoresis and various blotting analyses are conducted. And two bio-active molecules that potentially play an preventive role of muscle atrophy are uncovered. Integrative protocols linking between the effect of bio-active molecules and treadmill exercise for muscle atrophy inhibition are established. And, successful induction of hibernation-like animation (reduction in body temperature and heartbeat rate) were monitored after HIT injection to mice. The space Bibimbap was developed by a combination treatment of 0.4% baking powder, soaking for 45 min, cooking, freezing, and packaging. It could be consumed easily after rehydration for 10 with 70 .deg. C water, which can be supplied from the International Space Station. And Bulgogi steak developed by combination treatment of packaging, freezing, antioxidant, charcoal and irradiation is a ready-to-eat type and has long shelf-life at the room temperature. Four foods items (Kimchi, Ramen, Saengshik bar, Sujeonggwa) were certified for the use in space flight conditions of 30 days by IBMP to be supplied to the first Korean astronaut, So-Yeon Lee, who accomplished space missions (sensory comparison test) at the International Space Station in 2008. To participate in the nutritional and physiological evaluation of Korean space foods in the MARS-500 project and evaluation of growth change in radio-durable micro organisms and plant seeds by space flight using BION-M1 satellite, a series of meeting were held in Russia and Korea

  16. Genetic effects on carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits in straightbred and crossbred Romosinuano steers.

    Riley, D G; Chase, C C; Coleman, S W; Phillips, W A; Miller, M F; Brooks, J C; Johnson, D D; Olson, T A


    The objectives of this work were to estimate heterosis and breed genetic effects for carcass quantity, quality, and palatability traits of steers (Bos spp.) produced from matings of Romosinuano, Brahman, and Angus cattle. Steers (n = 464) were weaned at 7 mo of age and transported to the Southern Great Plains where they grazed winter wheat for 6 mo and were then fed a finishing diet until serial slaughter after different days on feed (average 130 d). Carcass quality and quantity traits were measured; steaks (aged 7 d) were obtained for palatability evaluation. Heterosis was detected for BW, HCW, dressing percentage, LM area, and yield grade for all pairs of breeds. Generally, Romosinuano-Angus heterosis estimates were smallest, Romosinuano-Brahman estimates were intermediate, and Brahman-Angus heterosis estimates were largest. The direct Romosinuano effect was to decrease (P Brahman direct effects were detected for BW (34 ± 17 kg), HCW (29 ± 10 kg), dressing percentage (1.6 ± 0.6 %), LM area per 100 kg HCW (-3.3 ± 0.4 cm(2)/100 kg), and yield grade (0.6 ± 0.1). Significant Angus direct effects were to increase 12th rib fat thickness (3.8 ± 1 mm). Among sire breed means, Romosinuano had reduced (P = 0.002) marbling score (393 ± 9) than Angus, but greater mean sensory tenderness scores (5.8 ± 0.1), and reduced percentage Standard carcasses (10 ± 2%) than Brahman (P Brahman sire breed means (360 ± 11, 5.4 ± 0.1, 31 ± 5%). From consideration only of characteristics of the end product of beef production, Romosinuano did not provide a clearly superior alternative to Brahman for U.S. producers, as they had some quality and palatability advantages relative to Brahman, but at lighter HCW.

  17. Growth traits and composition of two- and three-way-cross intact male progeny of Bos taurus and Bos indicus X Bos taurus dams.

    Van Ornum, K M; Bailey, C M; Ringkob, T P; Koh, Y O


    Feedlot traits, carcass traits and distribution of commercial cuts of crossbred intact male progeny (n = 556) from young and mature Hereford, Red Poll, Hereford X Red Poll, Red Poll X Hereford, Angus X Hereford, Angus X Charolais, Brahman X Hereford and Brahman X Angus dams were evaluated. First-calf heifers were bred to Red Angus bulls; Santa Gertrudis sires were used for each cow's second and third breeding seasons. Calves from these young dams were slaughtered at 13 mo. Calves of mature dams were all sired by Limousin bulls and slaughtered at 12 mo. Dam breed was a major source of variation in most bull traits. Progeny of Brahman-cross dams were inferior (P less than .01) in daily gain, final weight, carcass weight and in edible cuts/day of age compared with progeny from Bos taurus dams. Intact male progeny of Angus X Charolais dams ranked highest in longissimus area, cutability, and edible cuts/day of age. The range of dam breed means in percentage of steak, roast, bone-in cuts (chuck short ribs and back ribs), short plate and thin cuts, and lean trim was just over 1%. Greater variation among dam breeds existed in fat measurements. Analyses in which Hereford-Red Poll diallel data for young dams and mature dams were combined showed positive maternal heterosis for dressing percentage (P less than .05), carcass weight (P less than .05), carcass weight/day of age (P less than .05), estimated carcass fat (P less than .05), fat thickness (P less than .01) and marbling score (P less than .01). Reciprocal effects were inconsequential. Results illustrate the importance of dam breed-type effects in formulating breeding strategies for commercial beef herds.

  18. Technical updates to basic proteins focalization using IPG strips

    Dépagne Jordane


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gel-based proteomic is a popular and versatile method of global protein separation and quantification. However, separation of basic protein still represents technical challenges with recurrent problems of resolution and reproducibility. Results Three different protocols of protein loading were compared using MCF7 cells proteins. In-gel rehydration, cup-loading and paper-bridge loading were first compared using 6–11 IPG strips, as attempted, in-gel rehydration gave large horizontal steaking; paper-bridge loading displayed an interesting spot resolution, but with a predominant loss of material; cup-loading was selected as the most relevant method, but still needing improvement. Twelve cup-loading protocols were compared with various strip rehydration, and cathodic wick solutions. Destreak appeared as better than DTT for strip rehydration; the use of isopropanol gave no improvement. The best 2DE separation was observed with cathodic wicks filled with rehydration solution complemented with DTT. Paper-bridge loading was finally analyzed using non-limited samples, such as bovine milk. In this case, new spots of basic milk proteins were observed, with or without paper wicks. Conclusion According to this technical study of basic protein focalization with IPG strips, the cup-loading protocol clearly displayed the best resolution and reproducibility: strips were first rehydrated with standard solution, then proteins were cup-loaded with destreak reagent, and focalisation was performed with cathodic wicks filled with rehydration solution and DTT. Paper-bridge loading could be as well used, but preferentially with non-limited samples.

  19. Using the animal to the last bit: Consumer preferences for different beef cuts.

    Scozzafava, Gabriele; Corsi, Armando Maria; Casini, Leonardo; Contini, Caterina; Loose, Simone Mueller


    Meat is expensive to produce, making it is essential to understand the importance consumers pay to different meat cuts. Previous research on consumers' meat choices has mainly focused on meat species, while consumer preferences for meat cuts has so far only received limited interest. The aim of this study is to shed some light into this relatively unexplored area by answering four research questions. First, this study intends to show the relative importance meat cuts play in relation to other extrinsic product attributes. Secondly, this paper looks into differences in choice criteria between regular and special occasions. Third, consumer segments that differ in their preferences and beef purchase are identified, and, finally, the meat purchase portfolios of these segments are revealed. A stated preference methodology of a discrete choice experiment with cut-specific prices covering several meat cuts simultaneously is proposed to answer the research questions. The sample consists of 1500 respondents representative of the Italian population in terms of age, gender and geographic location The results shows that meat cut is the most important factor when choosing bovine meat followed by quality certification (origin), production technique, the type of breed and price. In terms of consumption occasions, we observe significantly lower price sensitivity for marbled steaks and cutlets for special occasions compared to normal occasions. Segmentation analysis shows that while the choices of two segments (comprising about 40% of the sample) are mostly driven by extrinsic product attributes, the remaining segments are mostly driven by meat cuts. These varying preferences are also reflected in the purchase portfolios of the different segments, while less variability is detected from a socio-demographic perspective.

  20. Evaluation method of beef tenderness based on texture properties and self-organizing neural network model%基于自组织神经网络模型与质构特性的牛肉嫩度评定方法

    王笑丹; 刘爱阳; 孙永海; 王莹; 韩云秀; 王洪美


    Tenderness is one of the important assessment indices of beef quality. Traditional assessment methods, such as the sensory evaluation method and the Warner-Bratzler shear force method, have artificial error at different degrees. One steak from the mid-region of each longissimus dorsi (LD) was collected from each of 60 cattle as the testing sample. The age of cattle (400-550 kg) was from 30 to 36 months, and the cattle were fattened for more than 6 months on the same farm. After starving for 24 h, the live cattle were weighed, showered, stunned, killed, and letting blood for 56 min. After electrical stimulation, the 4 limbs and head of each animal were cut off, and the body of cattle was split into halves, cooled at 4℃ for 24 h, and then the carcasses were divided. The LDs were weighed, placed into plastic bags individually, vacuum-sealed, packed on ice, and transported to the laboratory. Each steak was cut into 10 cm×10 cm×10 cm samples, but the intermuscular fat and connective tissues were deleted. The samples were rinsed in water to remove surface contamination, then placed into plastic bags individually in a 75-80℃ water bath, and cooked for 15 min after the internal temperature of meat reached 70℃. Then the samples were cooled to room temperature (20℃). The 20 evaluators were healthy and dentally tidy adults with the age from 20 to 25 years old, without thirst or hunger. Each evaluator chewed the samples from each steak. After cooking, the samples within an LD were divided into 3 groups so as to run the experiments in triplicate. The samples freshly chewed for 0-20 times were measured using a Brookfield CT3 texture analyzer (Brookfield Engineering Laboratories, INC. Middleboro, Massachusetts, USA). With a two-cycle texture profile analysis (TPA) model and a TA44 probe (cylinder diameter = 4 mm), the size of testing surface of each sample was 10 mm × 10 mm × 10 mm. A Hold Time-pressure and keeping model was used throughout. The instrument settings

  1. Effects of sodium citrate plus sodium diacetate and buffered vinegar on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and psychrotrophic bacteria in brine-injected beef.

    Ponrajan, Amudhan; Harrison, Mark A; Segers, Jacob R; Lowe, Bradley K; McKeith, Russell O; Pringle, T Dean; Martino, Karina G; Mulligan, Jake H; Stelzleni, Alexander M


    The objective of this research was to examine the effects of sodium citrate plus sodium diacetate or buffered vinegar on Escherichia coli O157:H7 and psychrotrophic bacteria when incorporated in brine solutions for injected beef. Two experiments were conducted in which 30 top rounds and 30 top sirloins were injected (110%) to contain (i) 0.5% sodium chloride and 0.4% sodium tripolyphosphate as the control (CNT); (ii) CNT with a 1% solution of 80% sodium citrate plus 20% sodium diacetate (SC + D); or (iii) CNT with 2% buffered vinegar (VIN) in the final product. For the E. coli challenge, muscles were surface inoculated to target 6 log CFU/cm(2). After injection and 10 days of storage in a vacuum package (4°C), one half of each muscle was sampled raw and the other half was cooked to an internal temperature of 60°C with a 12-min hold. For raw samples, a significant reduction of 0.6 and 1.0 log CFU/g of E. coli O157:H7 was observed in both SC + D- and VIN-injected top rounds and sirloins, respectively. All cooked samples were E. coli O157:H7 negative. For psychrotrophic analysis, subprimals were injected and vacuum packaged for 10 days at 0 ± 1°C. After 10 days of storage, steaks were fabricated and placed in aerobic display (4 ± 1°C) for 1, 7, 14, and 21 days. Psychrotrophic organism growth was restricted in SC + D and VIN samples when compared with CNT on all days except day 1. Sodium citrate plus sodium diacetate or buffered vinegar may improve the safety and shelf life of multineedle brine-injected beef.

  2. Predictions of Tropospheric Zenithal Delay for South America : Seasonal Variability and Quality Evaluation

    Luiz Augusto Toledo Machado


    Full Text Available The Zenithal Tropospheric Delay (Z TD is an important error source in the observable involved in the positioning methods using artificial satellite. Frequently, the Z TD influence in the positioning is minimized by applying empirical models. However, such models are not able to supply the precision required to some real time applications, such as navigation and steak out. In 2010 it will be implanted the new navigation and administration system of the air traffic, denominated CNS-ATM (Communication Navigation Surveillance - Air Traffic Management. In this new system the application of positioning techniques by satellites in the air traffic will be quite explored because they provide good precision in real time. The predictions of Z TD values from Numeric Weather Prediction (NWP, denominated dynamic modeling, is an alternative to model the atmospheric gases effects in the radio-frequency signals in real time. The Center for Weather Forecasting and Climate Studies (CPTEC has generated operationally prediction of Z TD values to South American Continent since March, 2004. The aims of the present paper are to investigate the Z TD seasonal variability and evaluate the quality of predicted Z TD values. One year of GPS data from Brazilian Continuous GPS Network (RBMC was used in this evaluation. The RMS values resulting from this evaluation were in the range of 4 to 11 cm. Considering the Z TDtemporal variability, the advantages provide by this modeling, the results obtained in this evaluation and the future improvements, this work shows that the dynamic modeling has great potential to become the most appropriate alternative to model Z TD in real time.

  3. Kuranakhite Discovered in China for the First Time


    Kuranakhite was firstly discovered in the oxidezed zone of the Kuranakh gold mine,southern Russia,and since thewn there has been no report on it .Kuranakhite in this paper was discovered in the Jialu gold mine,Luonan,County,Shaanxi Province,The mineral often occurs as irregular granular aggregates varying from 0.05 to 0.25 mm in size.The mineral is light brown to brown in color,translucent,brown in steak,and vitreous in luster,Hv is 231-439kg/mm2,HM=4-5 and measured density is 6.72(2)g/cm3,Its reflection color is bluish gray to light-blue and it shows middle anisotropism and weak bireflectance.Its polarization color is blue to grayish-brown and there is no internal reflection.The index of refraction is: Na=2.01,Nβ=1.98,Nγ=1.96,The average composition is PbO 45.40wt%,MnO2 16.41wt%,TeO3 38.10wt%,totalling 99.91wt%,the empirical formula is Pb0.99 Mn0.92Te1.06O6,which can be simplified as PbMnTeO6.Principal lines in the X-ray power pattern[d(I)(hkl)]are:0.341(100),(111);0.2556(60),(130),0.2043(50),(041);0.1666(20),(310);0.1598(40),(241),and 0.1472(15),(330),It was determined that kuranakhite is orthorhombic;its space group may be C;a=0.511(1)nm,b=0.891(2)nm,c=0.532(1)nm,a:b=0.57,c:b=0.60;V=0.242(3)nm3;z=2,and calculated density=6.66(1)g/cm3.

  4. Consumer acceptance of dishes in which beef has been partially substituted with mushrooms and sodium has been reduced.

    Guinard, Jean-Xavier; Myrdal Miller, Amy; Mills, Kelly; Wong, Thomas; Lee, Soh Min; Sirimuangmoon, Chirat; Schaefer, Sarah E; Drescher, Greg


    We tested the hypothesis that because of their flavor-enhancing properties, mushrooms could be used as a healthy substitute for meat and a mitigating agent for sodium (salt) reduction without reduction in sensory appeal among consumers. In a fully-randomized design for each product, 147 consumers evaluated blind two carne asada and six taco blend recipes in which beef had been partially substituted with mushrooms and/or salt had been reduced by 25%, for overall liking, liking of appearance, flavor, texture and mouth feel on the 9-point hedonic scale, and adequacy of level of saltiness, spiciness and moistness on 5-point just-about-right (JAR) scales. Overall consumer acceptance of the carne asada, and liking for its appearance, flavor and texture/mouth feel decreased significantly when half the steak was substituted with mushrooms. The taco blend recipes with full sodium were also liked more overall than those with 25% less sodium. But there was no significant difference in overall liking among the three full-salt recipes, nor among the three reduced-salt recipes, indicating that across the consumer population we tested, acceptance of the mushroom-containing recipes was on par with that of the 100% beef recipe. The preference mapping analysis of the overall liking ratings of the taco blends uncovered four preference segments, two of which, representing a majority of the consumers, gave higher acceptance scores to the mushroom-substituted recipes. Furthermore, the largest preference segment liked the full- and reduced-sodium recipes equally, and another liked the reduced-sodium recipes significantly more. This research demonstrates that through their flavor enhancing properties, mushrooms can be used successfully to substitute for beef and even possibly mitigate sodium reduction without significant change in acceptance for a majority of consumers.

  5. Physics and Probability

    Grandy, W. T., Jr.; Milonni, P. W.


    Preface; 1. Recollection of an independent thinker Joel A. Snow; 2. A look back: early applications of maximum entropy estimation to quantum statistical mechanics D. J. Scalapino; 3. The Jaynes-Cummings revival B. W. Shore and P. L. Knight; 4. The Jaynes-Cummings model and the one-atom-master H. Walther; 5. The Jaynes-Cummings model is alive and well P. Meystre; 6. Self-consistent radiation reaction in quantum optics - Jaynes' influence and a new example in cavity QED J. H. Eberly; 7. Enhancing the index of refraction in a nonabsorbing medium: phaseonium versus a mixture of two-level atoms M. O. Scully, T. W. Hänsch, M. Fleischhauer, C. H. Keitel and Shi-Yao Zhu; 8. Ed Jaynes' steak dinner problem II Michael D. Crisp; 9. Source theory of vacuum field effects Peter W. Milonni; 10. The natural line shape Edwin A. Power; 11. An operational approach to Schrödinger's cat L. Mandel; 12. The classical limit of an atom C. R. Stroud, Jr.; 13. Mutual radiation reaction in spontaneous emission Richard J. Cook; 14. A model of neutron star dynamics F. W. Cummings; 15. The kinematic origin of complex wave function David Hestenes; 16. On radar target identification C. Ray Smith; 17. On the difference in means G. Larry Bretthorst; 18. Bayesian analysis, model selection and prediction Arnold Zellner and Chung-ki Min; 19. Bayesian numerical analysis John Skilling; 20. Quantum statistical inference R. N. Silver; 21. Application of the maximum entropy principle to nonlinear systems far from equilibrium H. Haken; 22. Nonequilibrium statistical mechanics Baldwin Robertson; 23. A backward look to the future E. T. James; Appendix. Vita and bibliography of Edwin T. Jaynes; Index.

  6. Comparison of different criteria used to categorize technological quality of pork

    Henrique Pereira Cazedey

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Pork may be classified into quality categories according to its color, texture and exudation, though no international consensus criterion has been reached yet. Thus, the aim of the present paper was to examine the relation between important meat quality traits, evaluating pork quality classification of a same data by different criteria proposed in the literature. In 60 pork loins (Longissimus thoracis muscle, initial pH (pH45min and R-value were evaluated after 45min post mortem between the 9th and 10th ribs, and ultimate pH (pH24h, objective color and water-holding capacity were evaluated 24h post mortem in two 2.54cm thick steaks cut between the 9th and 11th ribs to be classified into PSE (pale, soft and exudative, RSE (reddish-pink, soft and exudative, RFN (reddish-pink, firm and non-exudative or DFD (dark, firm and dry quality. Frequency distributions of quality categories differed (P<0.001 among criteria, which resulted in large variations: 3 to 68% PSE; 0 to 73% RSE; 5 to 68% RFN; 0 to 22% DFD; and 0 to 33% unclassified samples. A same sample may be classified into different quality categories according to the criterion utilized, which results in large variations in frequency distributions and also in quality attributes. Therefore, the classification of pork quality depends on the adopted criterion, which indicated the need for international standardization, so that pork quality can be determined efficiently and effectively.

  7. Exploring the sources of bacterial spoilers in beefsteaks by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing.

    De Filippis, Francesca; La Storia, Antonietta; Villani, Francesco; Ercolini, Danilo


    Microbial growth on meat to unacceptable levels contributes significantly to change meat structure, color and flavor and to cause meat spoilage. The types of microorganisms initially present in meat depend on several factors and multiple sources of contamination can be identified. The aims of this study were to evaluate the microbial diversity in beefsteaks before and after aerobic storage at 4°C and to investigate the sources of microbial contamination by examining the microbiota of carcasses wherefrom the steaks originated and of the processing environment where the beef was handled. Carcass, environmental (processing plant) and meat samples were analyzed by culture-independent high-throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons. The microbiota of carcass swabs was very complex, including more than 600 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) belonging to 15 different phyla. A significant association was found between beef microbiota and specific beef cuts (PPseudomonas sp. and Brochothrix thermosphacta were the main contaminants, and Acinetobacter, Psychrobacter and Enterobacteriaceae were also found. Comparing the relative abundance of OTUs in the different samples it was shown that abundant OTUs in beefsteaks after storage occurred in the corresponding carcass. However, the abundance of these same OTUs clearly increased in environmental samples taken in the processing plant suggesting that spoilage-associated microbial species originate from carcasses, they are carried to the processing environment where the meat is handled and there they become a resident microbiota. Such microbiota is then further spread on meat when it is handled and it represents the starting microbial association wherefrom the most efficiently growing microbial species take over during storage and can cause spoilage.

  8. Shelf-life of Halal fresh and minced beef meat packaged under modified atmosphere

    Francesca Piras


    Full Text Available The shelf-life of Halal fresh cut and minced beef meat, packaged under modified atmosphere (MAP was evaluated. The microbial profile of the carcasses intended for cutting and mincing was investigated by detecting spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Samples of diced meat (DM, marrowbones (MB, steaks (S and minced meat (MM were packaged in MAP (66.0% O2, 25.0% CO2 and 9.0% N2 and stored at +2 and +8°C. At 0, 7 and 14 days, gas composition of headspace was measured. Moreover, in all the samples colony count at 30°C, Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria (LAB and Pseudomonas spp. were determined. The carcasses contamination was in compliance with the criteria fixed by EC Reg. 2073/2005. Gas composition of the headspace changed significantly during the storage, mainly at +8°C, where a significant decrease of O2 (until 0.1-0.6% and an increase of CO2 (until 81.0-89.0% were recorded. This could be related to the level of LAB and Pseudomonas spp. Less significant changes were observed at +2°C. At 7 days of storage colony count, mean values were higher than >107 CFU/g in the samples at +8°C, and also at 14 days at +2°C, presumably due to the high levels of Pseudomonas spp., that was dominant at the end of the test. Overall, the microbial mean counts were higher than those detected in similar products packaged under vacuum. In order to extend the shelf-life of the fresh meat and meat preparations, differentiated gas mixtures, and particularly a higher percentage of CO2, could be employed.

  9. Carnobacterium divergens and Carnobacterium maltaromaticum as spoilers or protective cultures in meat and seafood: phenotypic and genotypic characterization.

    Laursen, Birgit Groth; Bay, Lene; Cleenwerck, Ilse; Vancanneyt, Marc; Swings, Jean; Dalgaard, Paw; Leisner, Jørgen J


    Carnobacterium, a genus of lactic acid bacteria, frequently dominate the microflora of chilled vacuum- or modified atmosphere-packed meat and seafood. In this study Carnobacterium isolates were characterized by phenotypic and molecular methods in order to investigate the association of species and intra-species groups with distinct kinds of meat and seafood. Of 120 test strains, 50 originated from meat (beef and pork products, including 44 strains isolated during this study and 6 strains obtained from culture collections) and 52 from seafoods (cod, halibut, salmon, shrimps and roe products). In addition, 9 reference strains of Carnobacterium spp from other sources than meat and fish and 9 reference strains of lactic acid bacteria belonging to other genera than Carnobacterium were included. Numerical taxonomy relying on classical biochemical reactions, carbohydrate fermentation and inhibition tests (temperature, salt, pH, chemical preservatives, antibiotics, bacteriocins), SDS-PAGE electrophoresis of whole cell proteins, plasmid profiling, intergenic spacer region (ISR) analysis and examination of amplified-fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) were employed to characterize the strains. The numerical taxonomic approach divided the carnobacteria strains into 24 groups that shared less than 89% similarity. These groups were identified as Carnobacterium divergens with one major cluster (40 strains) and 7 branches of one to four strains, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum (previous C. piscicola) with one major cluster (37 strains) and 9 branches of one to four strains and Carnobacterium mobile (three branches consisting in total of 4 strains). Branches consisting of references strains of the remaining Carnobacterium spp. were separated from clusters and branches of C. divergens, C. maltaromaticum and C. mobile. Isolates from the main clusters of C. divergens and C. maltaromaticum were found both in fresh and lightly preserved meat and seafood products. High phenotypic intra

  10. The late 1980s regime shift in the ecosystem of Tsushima warm current in the Japan/East Sea: Evidence from historical data and possible mechanisms

    Tian, Yongjun; Kidokoro, Hideaki; Watanabe, Tatsuro; Iguchi, Naoki


    A climatic regime shift, an abrupt change from cooling to warming in the Japan/East Sea (JES), particularly in the Tsushima warm current (TWC) region, occurred in the late 1980s. The ecosystem of the JES responded strongly to the changing thermal regime. Many, but not all biological components of the ecosystem, spanning from plankton to predatory fishes, and including both warm-water pelagic and cold-water demersal species responded to this late 1980s climatic regime shift in the JES. Diatom abundance (cell number) in spring from a monitoring line located in the central part of JES showed decadal variations with a step change from positive to negative anomalies in 1991. Zooplankton biomass in spring and autumn was high in the 1970s, declined during the 1980s, and returned to higher, but quite variable levels during the 1990s. Japanese sardine catch increased after 1974 to its peak level in 1989 and then declined dramatically to 1974 levels by 1997 with step changes in 1979 and 1994. Conversely, catches of other small pelagic species such as Japanese anchovy and common squid, and several higher-trophic fishes, such as yellowtail and tunas increased markedly in the 1990s compared to the early-mid 1980s. Step changes were detected in these pelagic species during 1989-1992. Catch of demersal species (crab, pink shrimp, Pacific cod and walleye pollock) were high during most of the 1970-1980s, but declined at various times in the late 1980s to generally low catches in the 1990s. Detailed analysis of the demersal fish assemblage composition, abundance and distribution indicated a shift in the late 1980s with several years lag in the time of change. Cold-water species (e.g., walleye pollock, Pacific cod) decreased in abundance and the regions in which their abundances remained high became greatly reduced in extent. Conversely, warm-water species (e.g., pointhead flounder, shotted halibut) increased in abundance and/or extended their spatial range (as indicated by trawl

  11. Regional variability in food availability for Arctic marine mammals.

    Bluhm, Bodil A; Gradinger, Rolf


    This review provides an overview of prey preferences of seven core Arctic marine mammal species (AMM) and four non-core species on a pan-Arctic scale with regional examples. Arctic marine mammal species exploit prey resources close to the sea ice, in the water column, and at the sea floor, including lipid-rich pelagic and benthic crustaceans and pelagic and ice-associated schooling fishes such as capelin and Arctic cod. Prey preferred by individual species range from cephalopods and benthic bivalves to Greenland halibut. A few AMM are very prey-, habitat-, and/or depth-specific (e.g., walrus, polar bear), while others are rather opportunistic and, therefore, likely less vulnerable to change (e.g., beluga, bearded seal). In the second section, we review prey distribution patterns and current biomass hotspots in the three major physical realms (sea ice, water column, and seafloor), highlighting relations to environmental parameters such as advection patterns and the sea ice regime. The third part of the contribution presents examples of documented changes in AMM prey distribution and biomass and, subsequently, suggests three potential scenarios of large-scale biotic change, based on published observations and predictions of environmental change. These scenarios discuss (1) increased pelagic primary and, hence, secondary production, particularly in the central Arctic, during open-water conditions in the summer (based on surplus nutrients currently unutilized); (2) reduced benthic and pelagic biomass in coastal/shelf areas (due to increased river runoff and, hence, changed salinity and turbidity conditions); and (3) increased pelagic grazing and recycling in open-water conditions at the expense of the current tight benthic-pelagic coupling in part of the ice-covered shelf regions (due to increased pelagic consumption vs. vertical flux). Should those scenarios hold true, pelagic-feeding and generalist AMM might be advantaged, while the range for benthic shelf

  12. Bioaccessibility and bioavailability of methylmercury from seafood commonly consumed in North America: In vitro and epidemiological studies.

    Siedlikowski, Maia; Bradley, Mark; Kubow, Stan; Goodrich, Jaclyn M; Franzblau, Alfred; Basu, Niladri


    Methylmercury (MeHg) is a global contaminant of concern and human exposures are largely realized via seafood consumption. While it is assumed that 95-100% of the ingested MeHg from seafood reaches systemic circulation, recent in vitro studies have yielded results to suggest otherwise. Of the published studies to have characterized the bioaccessibility or bioavailability of MeHg from seafood, only a handful of seafood species have been characterized, there exists tremendous variability in data within and across species, few species of relevance to North America have been studied, and none of the in vitro studies have adapted results to an epidemiology study. The objective of the current study was two-fold: (a) to characterize in vitro MeHg bioaccessibility and bioavailability from ten commonly consumed types of seafood in North America; and (b) to apply the bioaccessibility and bioavailability data from the in vitro study to an existing human MeHg exposure assessment study. Raw seafood samples (cod, crab, halibut, salmon, scallop, shrimp, tilapia, and three tuna types: canned light, canned white, fresh) were purchased in Montreal and their MeHg concentrations generally overlapped with values reported elsewhere. The bioaccessibility of MeHg from these samples ranged from 50.1±19.2 (canned white tuna) to 100% (shrimp and scallop) of the amount measured in the raw undigested sample. The bioavailability of MeHg from these samples ranged from 29.3±10.4 (crab) to 67.4±9.7% (salmon) of the value measured in the raw undigested sample. There were significant correlations between the initial MeHg concentration in seafood with the percent of that Hg that was bioaccessible (r=-0.476) and bioavailable (r=-0.294). When the in vitro data were applied to an existing MeHg exposure assessment study, the estimated amount of MeHg absorbed into systemic circulation decreased by 25% and 42% when considering bioaccessibility and bioavailability, respectively. When the in vitro data

  13. Heavy metals in fish from the Aleutians: Interspecific and locational differences

    Burger, Joanna, E-mail: [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Gochfeld, Michael [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Environmental and Occupational Medicine, Rutgers-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States); Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute, Rutgers University, Piscataway, NJ (United States); Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN 37235 (United States); Donio, Mark [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, NJ (United States)


    The objectives of this study were to examine levels of arsenic, cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium in edible tissue of seven species of marine fish collected from several Aleutian islands (in 2004) to determine: (1) interspecific differences, (2) locational differences (among Aleutian Islands), (3) size-related differences in any metal levels within a species, and (4) potential risk to the fish or to predators on the fish, including humans. We also compared metals levels to those of three other fish species previously examined in detail, as well as examining metals in the edible tissue of octopus (Octopus dofleini). Octopus did not have the highest levels of any metal. There were significant interspecific differences in all metal levels among the fish species, although the differences were less than an order of magnitude, except for arsenic (mean of 19,500 ppb in Flathead sole, Hippoglossoides elassodon). Significant intraisland variation occurred among the four sites on Amchitka, but there was not a consistent pattern. There were significant interisland differences for some metals and species. Mercury levels increased significantly with size for several species; lead increased significantly for only one fish species; and cadmium and selenium decreased significantly with size for halibut (Hippoglossus stenolepis). The Alaskan Department of Health and Social Services supports unrestricted consumption of most Alaskan fish species for all people, including pregnant women. Most mean metal concentrations were well below the levels known to adversely affect the fish themselves, or predators that consume them (including humans), except for mercury in three fish species (mean levels just below 0.3 ppm), and arsenic in two fish species. However, even at low mercury levels, people who consume fish almost daily will exceed guideline values from the Centers for Disease Control and the Environmental Protection Agency. - Highlights: • Cadmium, lead, mercury and selenium

  14. Working With Greenlandic Fishermen: A New Approach to Citizen Science

    Turrin, M.; Porter, D. F.; Greve, S.


    'Leveraging Local Knowledge to Measure Greenland Fjords' is a science project designed with local knowledge sharing and data collection at its core. Citizen Science can take many different forms but in each instance it incorporates active participation of the general public in science research through integrating outreach, instruction, information gathering and data exchange. The strongest projects focus on two-way information exchange with both the citizen scientist and the professional scientist learning when they share their knowledge. Working in cooperation with both teachers and fishermen in a small local community in northwest Greenland, we collected novel oceanographic measurements from a small 5 m fishing boat in the local fjord. We established connections with the local school for developing education initiatives, sharing maps and other resources, and worked through the teachers to connect with the village residents. We hosted a community meeting to provide a forum for a two-way information exchange with the science team providing background on the research project and the local residents providing both narrative information on local environmental change over the last one to three decades, and more quantitative and immediately useful information on fjord depths, iceberg flow directions and timing of seasonal ice break up and move out. The local fishermen were intimately familiar with the local environment, having intrinsically collected data on fjord depth from their regular lowering of fishing line to catch Greenlandic halibut, a benthic fish. For our first trip they worked with us locating the deep and shallow parts of the fjord from many seasons of watching icebergs ground on the shallow shoals, and showed us how to navigate into the ice packed glacial front through the dense ice mélange. The local community interest in the project and in learning how to use the equipment we had brought encouraged us to discuss a long-term data gathering relationship

  15. Evaluation of Slaughtered lambs Results from Varamini Ewes Crossing with Shal, Afshar, Moghani and Varamini Rams

    reza seyedsharifi


    Full Text Available Introduction One of the animal breeding aims is increasing the economic efficiency. Therefore, mating among selected animals in order to enhance economic efficiency should also supply variation in population for next generations’ selection. This study was performed to estimate performance in cross breed lambs resulting from crosses of shal, moghani, afshari and varamini rams with varamini ewes, compained it to pure varamini lambs. Materials and Methods The objective of this study was the progeny evaluation from slaughter in one way crossing between Varamini ewes with Shal, Afshari, Moghani and Varamini rams and comparing their progeny efficiency. Thus, three 1.5 and 3 years rams were selected from each of Shal, Afshari, Moghani and Varamini breeds. A sample was separated from 10, 11 and 12 ribs was separated for examination of the fat, meat and bone percentage in different breed group lambs carcass. Data statistical analyze was done by GLM procedure of SAS 9.1 software. Results and Discussion Afshari crossbreed lambs had better carcass performance rather than the other breed groups although before slaughtering live weight of Shal and Moghani lambs were higher. Male lambs had better live weight and carcass quality before slaughtering than female lambs. The analyze of carcass parts percentage indicated that crossbreed lambs from Afshari rams with Varamini ewes had the highest efficiency and lowest rump percentage between genetic groups about valuable parts total percentage of thigh, roast, wristband and low price flank steak, brisket and neck. The analyze results of carcass tissue proportions combination showed Shal, Moghani and Afshar crossbreeds had more meat percentage and lower fat percentage on numbers 10, 11 and 12 of ribs than Varamini net breed. Conclusion According to our findings about cross surface and length from carcass the highest amount of them was belong to Shal and Afshari breeds, although difference amount between breeds was

  16. The effect of irradiation and thermal process on beef heme iron concentration and color properties Efeito da irradiação e processo térmico na concentração do ferro heme e nas propriedades de cor da carne

    Liliana Perazzini Furtado Mistura


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of irradiation and thermal process on the heme iron (heme-Fe concentration and color properties of Brazilian cattle beef. Beef samples (patties and steaks were irradiated at 0-10 kGy and cooked in a combination oven at 250 ºC for 9 minutes with 70% humidity. Total iron and heme iron (heme-Fe concentrations were determined. The data were compared by multiple comparisons and fixed- effects ANOVA. Irradiation at doses higher than 5 kGy significantly altered the heme-Fe concentration. However, the sample preparation conditions interfered more in the heme-Fe content than did the irradiation. Depending on the animal species, meat heme iron levels between 35 and 52% of the total iron are used for dietetic calculations. In this study the percentage of heme-iron was, on average, 70% of the total iron showing that humidity is an important factor for its preservation. The samples were analyzed instrumentally for CIE L*, a*, and b* values.O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a influência da irradiação e de processos térmicos na concentração do ferro heme (Fe heme e nas propriedades de cor da carne do gado brasileiro. As amostras da carne (hambúrgueres e bifes foram irradiadas com 0-10 kGy e foram cozidas em um forno combinado a 250 ºC por 9 minutes com umidade de 70%. As concentrações de ferro total e de ferro heme foram determinadas. Os dados foram comparados por comparações múltiplas e por efeitos fixos, ANOVA. Irradiação em doses mais altas do que 5 kGy alteraram significativamente a concentração de Fe heme. Entretanto, as condições de preparo da amostra, interferiram muito mais na quantidade de Fe heme do que a irradiação. Dependendo da espécie animal, os níveis do ferro heme da carne estão entre 35 e 52% do ferro total e são usados para cálculos dietéticos. Em nosso estudo, a porcentagem de ferro heme foi em média, 70% do ferro total, mostrando que a umidade é um fator

  17. Genetic variants in glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors are associated with concentrations of plasma cortisol, muscle glycogen content, and meat quality traits in male Nellore cattle.

    Poleti, M D; DeRijk, R H; Rosa, A F; Moncau, C T; Oliveira, P S; Coutinho, L L; Eler, J P; Balieiro, J C C


    The glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) are key components in the regulation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis and coordinate the physiological response to stress agents to reestablish homeostasis. Genetic variations of GR (NR3C1) and MR (NR3C2) genes could explain the alterations in animals to adapt to challenges, and therefore, their influence on production traits. The present study aimed to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the bovine NR3C1 and NR3C2 genes and explore their associations to relevant traits of beef cattle production. Genotypes and phenotypes were collected from 241 male Nellore cattle (119 noncastrated and 122 castrated surgically) with an average of 24 ± 1.2 mo of age and live weight of 508 ± 39 kg. The traits evaluated were concentrations of plasma adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol, muscle glycogen and lactate content, and pH, color, cooking loss, and shear force of longissimus thoracis measured on the 1st, 7th, and 14th days postmortem. Five SNPs were identified, 2 in the NR3C1 gene and 3 in the NR3C2 gene. There was an associative relationship between the SNP NR3C1_1 g.3293A>G and postmortem plasma concentration of cortisol (P = 0.0008). The SNPs NR3C2_1 g.115T>C and NR3C2_2 g.570T>C were associated with muscle glycogen content (P = 0.0306 and P = 0.0158), postmortem plasma concentration of ACTH (P = 0.0118 and P = 0.0095), and cooking loss of the steak aged 1 d (P = 0.0398 and P = 0.0423). Haplotype analysis showed associations of GR haplotypes with postmortem plasma concentrations of cortisol and MR haplotypes with meat color, cooking losses, muscle glycogen content, and plasma concentrations of ACTH. The associations observed in the present study show that SNPs in GR and MR genes are related with changes of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and metabolic profile in cattle, leading to individual variation in meat quality traits.

  18. THE USE OF NARRATIVES IN SCIENCE COMMUNICATION: An example of the use of comic strips (narratives) in communicating scientific information about sustainable development.

    Negrete, Aquiles


    It is quite reasonable to claim that narratives can include, explain and recreate science and that this means of science communication is generally popular. This idea seems to be supported by the fact that many contemporary authors who include science as a theme in their work receive a good reception among the public (at least in Britain). Novels like Fermat's Last Theorem by Simon Singh, Longitude by Dava Sobel and Neuromancer by William Gibson stayed on the best seller lists for weeks. Plays like Copenhagen by Michael Frayn, Arcadia by Tom Stoppard, Oxigen by Carl Djerassi and Ronald Hoffmann, Diary of a steak by Deborah Levy as well as Blue heart by Caryl Churchill enjoyed complete sell-outs in London and other cities in Britain. The explanation for this popularity seems to be that narratives are amusing, attractive, and interesting. Therefore, we can maintain that they are popular. But are they also a long-lasting way of transmitting knowledge? Do people remember scientific information conveyed by this means better than they remember the traditional formats like paradigmatic textbooks? These are questions that need to be addressed. To understand how narratives organize, represent and convey information, it is an important task to evaluate the advantages that this media offers for the communication of science. Narratives include several characteristics that make them memorable, understandable, enjoyable and a good way to present and communicate knowledge. Some of these attributes are achieved through narrative structures, including literary devices. In this research I discuss how the general public is familiar with the narrative structure of a story, how schemas for these narrative structures allow identification, induce emotions and promote understanding - important elements for the learning and memory process. I also look at how individually the narrative resources (or literary devices), in addition to their aesthetic value, can also work as mnemonic

  19. Effects of feeding extruded full-fat cottonseed pellets in place of tallow as a fat source for finishing heifers on feedlot performance, carcass characteristics, sensory traits, display color, and fatty acid profiles.

    Stelzleni, A M; Froetschel, M A; Pringle, T D


    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of supplemental feeding of full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets (FFECS) compared with tallow on carcass characteristics, sensory traits, retail display color, and fatty acid profiles, especially CLA isomers in finishing heifers. Twenty-one Angus heifers (450 ± 5 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 experimental diets: 1) 100% supplemental fat from tallow at 4.1% of ration DM (TAL), 2) a 50:50 ratio of supplemental fat from a combination of tallow at 2.1% and FFECS at 12.8% of ration DM (TAL/ECS), and 3) 100% supplemental fat from FFECS at 25.6% ration DM (ECS). All rations were formulated to contain 7.5% fat on a DM basis. Heifers were individually fed, ad libitum, for 82 d, and BW, G:F, DMI, ADG, and body composition via ultrasound were collected at 3 to 4 wk intervals. After 82 d on feed heifers were slaughtered under federal inspection, and carcass characteristics were measured (at 24 h). The LM was removed for retail display color (1, 3, 6, 10 d), Warner-Bratzler shear force (1, 3, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), sensory analysis (1, 7, 14, 21 d postmortem aging), and fatty acid profile analysis. Subcutaneous fat, including all layers, was removed from the LM for fatty acid profile analysis, and ground beef patties (80:20) were produced with lean from the brisket and fat from the plate for retail color analysis (1, 2, 4, 7 d). Supplemental fat source did not influence feedlot performance for any of the traits measured (P > 0.12) or any carcass traits related to yield, quality, or LM color at the 12th- to 13th-rib interface (P > 0.15). Supplemental fat source did not affect Warner-Bratzler shear force or any sensory traits (P > 0.20), but LM steaks became more tender as postmortem aging time increased up to 14 d (P tallow increased linoleic acid (C18:2(n-6)) in both intramuscular and subcutaneous fat (P 0.90). Full-fat extruded cottonseed pellets are interchangeable with tallow in heifer finishing diets

  20. The Development of Beef Pie Riching in Unsaturated Fatty Acids%牛肉饼中不同油脂复配比例的优化

    王浩田; 马俪珍; 柴丽园


    [Objective] The study aimed to search for the best combination of unsaturated fatty acid-rich vegetable oil (sunflower oil, olive oil and butter) to replace part of the butter to the steak. [ Method] Orthogonal test design of L9(34) was performed to optimize the addition a-mounts of sunflower oil, olive oil and butter to determine the content on the texture of beef patties and optimal ratio. Physical mouth feel, slice ability, flavor, color, and the texture of beef pie and fatty acid were determined. Sunflower oil, olive oil, butter add volume set to three levels:3% , 4% , 5% . Sensory score systems were used for the evaluation of the beef pie. [ Result] The results showed that the optimal combination was addition amounts of 5% sunflower oil, 4% olive oil and 3% butter. [Conclusion]The study gain optimum formula by orthogonal test. The ratio can be added to lean ground beef in processed into high quality beef patties.%[目的]将富含不饱和脂肪酸的植物油脂(葵花油、橄榄油和牛油)替代部分牛油添加到牛肉饼中,探寻最佳的比例组合.[方法]采用正交试验设计确定牛肉饼中葵花油、橄榄油和牛油的添加量对牛肉饼质构的影响以及最优比例的优化.应用感官评分法对牛肉饼的口感、组织状态、滋气味、色泽进行评分,并对牛肉饼的质构进行测定.[结果]感官评定与质构测定结果较一致,最佳组合均为5%葵花油、4%橄榄油和3%牛油.[结论]通过正交试验得出其最佳工艺配方,可按照此比例添加到瘦牛肉馅中加工成品质优良的牛肉饼.

  1. Vagotomy and antrectomy impairs canine fat absorption from solid but not liquid dietary sources.

    Doty, J E; Meyer, J H


    Mild steatorrhea is common after all ulcer operations except parietal cell vagotomy. As these operations impair the grinding and sieving of solid food, we sought to determine the effect of vagotomy and antrectomy on fat absorption from solid (e.g., liver) as compared with liquid (e.g., margarine) dietary sources in the proximal small intestine. Midgut fistulas were placed in 13 dogs; 7 were controls and 6 underwent concurrent vagotomy and antrectomy. To label solid fat, the livers of live chickens were labeled with intravenous [14C]triolein and [3H]glycerol triether, an absorbable and nonabsorbable fat label, respectively. For the liquid fat label, these markers were mixed with margarine. A standard meal of steak, liver, bread, margarine, and water, with either the liver or margarine fat labeled, was fed and the midgut effluent was sieved and centrifuged to obtain four phases: large particles (greater than 0.5 mm), small particles (less than 0.5 mm), aqueous, and oil, which were extracted and counted for 14C and 3H. The ratio of 14C to 3H in each fraction was used to determine how much fat was absorbed from each phase of chyme. With liver fat labeled, 48.3% +/- 8.1% of the [3H]glycerol triether remained in large particles after vagotomy and antrectomy compared with 3.1% +/- 1.0% in controls at midintestine (p less than 0.001). After vagotomy and antrectomy, more than half of the liver fat (solid fat) was malabsorbed (57.1% +/- 6.5% vs. 23.1% +/- 6.6% malabsorbed, p less than 0.01, vagotomy and antrectomy vs. controls), whereas fat absorption from margarine (liquid fat) was not reduced compared with controls (8.8% +/- 2.5% vs. 13.6% +/- 5.5% malabsorbed, p greater than 0.05, vagotomy and antrectomy vs. controls). These observations indicate that by reducing gastric trituration and releasing large particles of poorly digested food into the intestine, vagotomy and antrectomy impairs the absorption of fat selectively from solid, but not from liquid, dietary sources.

  2. Proximate and microbiological characterization of nuggets of mandi-pintado (Pimelodus britskiiCaracterização centesimal e microbiológica de nuggets de mandi-pintado (Pimelodus britskii

    Aldi Feiden


    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate centesimal and microbiological parameters of mandi-pintado nuggets. With the results from the biometry of the fish, it was possible to observe that the species shows high main trunk yield and low content of visceral fat. After the utilization of the body proportions, the steaks were grounded and breaded, and the samples (in natura and nuggets were separated to carry out centesimal and microbiological composition. The patties show 14,67% protein, 10,12% lipids, 16,43% carbohydrates, 2,70% mineral matter and 56,08% humidity, therefore fitting the patterns required by the Brazilian legislation. The microbiological results indicated that both the prime matter and the nuggets developed were ready for the processing and for the consumption. Therefore, mandi-pintado shows a high yeald of main trunk and a low content of visceral fat, besides from being an ideal raw for the development of nuggets that not only are a highly nutritious kind of food, but can also be easily prepared and have a high aggregated value.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar os parâmetros centesimais e microbiológicos de nuggets de mandi-pintado. Com os resultados da biometria dos peixes pode-se observar que a espécie trabalhada apresenta alto rendimento de tronco limpo e baixo teor de gordura visceral. Após a realização das proporções corporais, os filés foram moídos e empanados, e as amostras (in natura e de nuggets foram separadas para a realização da composição centesimal e microbiológica. Os empanados apresentaram 14,67% de proteína, 10,12% de lipídios, 16,43% de carboidratos, 2,70% de matéria mineral e 56,08% de umidade, ou seja, dentro dos padrões exigidos pela legislação brasileira. Os resultados microbiológicos indicaram que tanto a matéria prima quanto os nuggets desenvolvidos estavam aptos para o processamento e/ou consumo. Portanto, o mandi-pintado apresenta alto rendimento de tronco limpo e baixo teor de gordura

  3. Using measurements of muscle color, pH, and electrical impedance to augment the current USDA beef quality grading standards and improve the accuracy and precision of sorting carcasses into palatability groups.

    Wulf, D M; Page, J K


    This research was conducted to determine whether objective measures of muscle color, muscle pH, and(or) electrical impedance are useful in segregating palatable beef from unpalatable beef, and to determine whether the current USDA quality grading standards for beef carcasses could be revised to improve their effectiveness at distinguishing palatable from unpalatable beef. One hundred beef carcasses were selected from packing plants in Texas, Illinois, and Ohio to represent the full range of muscle color observed in the U.S. beef carcass population. Steaks from these 100 carcasses were used to determine shear force on eight cooked beef muscles and taste panel ratings on three cooked beef muscles. It was discovered that the darkest-colored 20 to 25% of the beef carcasses sampled were less palatable and considerably less consistent than the other 75 to 80% sampled. Marbling score, by itself, explained 12% of the variation in beef palatability; hump height, by itself, explained 8% of the variation in beef palatability; measures of muscle color or pH, by themselves, explained 15 to 23% of the variation in beef palatability. When combined together, marbling score, hump height, and some measure of muscle color or pH explained 36 to 46% of the variation in beef palatability. Alternative quality grading systems were proposed to improve the accuracy and precision of sorting carcasses into palatability groups. The two proposed grading systems decreased palatability variation by 29% and 39%, respectively, within the Choice grade and decreased palatability variation by 37% and 12%, respectively, within the Select grade, when compared with current USDA standards. The percentage of unpalatable Choice carcasses was reduced from 14% under the current USDA grading standards to 4% and 1%, respectively, for the two proposed systems. The percentage of unpalatable Select carcasses was reduced from 36% under the current USDA standards to 7% and 29%, respectively, for the proposed systems




    Full Text Available

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of spray-chilling in carcasses weight loss, purge loss, color and appearance of aged striploin (m. Longissi-mus lumborum steaks. Two lots of intact male, nearly 12 month old, grain finished cattle, were slaughtered, being 16 of the Montana composite breed, in the first slaughter, and 24 crossbreds (½ Nelore X ½ Simental in the second one. After bleeding, electrical stimulation, skinning and evisceration, the carcasses submitted to one of the two cooling systems: (1 Without spray-chilling (SA; (2 With spray-chilling (CA. Carcasses were weighted before and after cooling. In the boning room steaks of 2.5 cm thick from the striploin were taken, vacuum packaged, and aged for 7, 14, 30 and 60 days. Samples were then removed from the package, placed in an expanded polystyrene trays covered with a PVC film, and exposed in refrigerated displays for 48 hours. CIE Lab color was measured after 24 hours using a hand colorimeter. A visual analysis of the samples was also done for the attributes of color, overall acceptability, and buying option. The spray-chilling was efficient in reducing the weight loss (P<0.05. Effects (P<0.001 of the spray-chilling and aging time on purge loss were observed. The samples from the CA carcasses had higher (P<0.001 purge loss, which had an increase at 30 or more days of aging in this treatment but not in the SA. No effect (P>0.05 of the spray-chilling treatment and aging time was observed on the color visual analysis.

    Key-words:  Beef quality purge loss,  spray-chilling, striploin, vacuum package.

    O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da aspersão de água gelada, nas primeiras seis horas de resfriamento, nas perdas de peso por evaporação das carcaças e, também, do tempo de maturação em embalagem a vácuo, nas perdas por exsudação da carne, e na cor e aceita

  5. Is Lake Chabot Eutrophic?

    Pellegrini, K.; Logan, J.; Esterlis, P.; Lew, A.; Nguyen, M.


    veteran member of the East Bay Regional Park District, Hal MacLean, we realized that almost every lake goes through periods of slight eutrophication. Actually, this phenomenon of waxing and waning of nutrient levels is something many species have grown accustomed too. It's just the extreme cases where the water is actively being polluted by a nearby point source that cause so much damage. Overall, despite outward appearances, the lake is relatively healthy. It boasts high biodiversity in and around the lake, housing such species as dragonflies, eucalyptus, bald eagles, halibut, bass, and even tiny silver goldfish. It fluctuates in oxygen and nutrient content just like any other lake, but for now, it isn't cause for too much concern. It's a beloved element of the Castro Valley community and we hope it will remain so for many generations to come.

  6. Digital-image analysis to predict weight and yields of boneless subprimal beef cuts Análise de imagem digital para a previsão de pesos e rendimentos de cortes de carne bovina

    Gustavo Adolfo Teira


    Full Text Available For several decades, beef carcass evaluation for grading or research purposes has relied upon subjective visual scores, and manually taken measurements, but in recent times there has been a growing interest in new technologies capable of improving accuracy of estimates. Equations to predict weight and yield of beef pistol subprimal cuts were developed in this work using digital image analysis (VIA of the 12th rib steak. Equations to predict total pistol subprimal cuts weight (CUTS had coefficients of determination (CD of 0.84, or 0.87 to 0.88, when the independent variables were the VIA parameters and the half carcass weight (HC or the total pistol weight (TP, respectively. The predicted values for the total seven subprimal cuts, as a percentage of half carcass weight (CUTS%, presented CD values ranging from 0.37 to 0.47, or 0.21 to 0.31, using HC or TP as a principal independent variable. Likewise, the equation for weight of the individual subprimal cuts had CD values ranging from 0.40 to 0.72, or 0.43 to 0.74 using HC or TP, respectively. In this research, the developed VIA procedure has demonstrated good repeatability and accuracy to estimate the total pistol subprimal weights, and some individual subprimal weights.Por várias décadas, a avaliação de carcaça bovina em sistemas de tipificação ou em pesquisas tem dependido de escores subjetivos e medidas obtidas manualmente, mas ultimamente tem havido um crescente interesse por novas tecnologias capazes de aumentar a acurácia das estimativas. Este trabalho teve como objetivo desenvolver equações para a previsão de pesos e rendimentos de cortes bovinos, através da análise de imagem digital (VIA de uma seção do contrafilé da 12ª costela. As equações de previsão do peso dos cortes do traseiro especial (CUTS apresentaram coeficientes de determinação (CD de 0,84 e de 0,87 – 0,88, quando as variáveis independentes usadas eram os parâmetros VIA e o peso da meia carcaça (HC ou

  7. Mercury in fish available in supermarkets in Illinois: Are there regional differences

    Burger, Joanna [Division of Life Sciences, Rutgers University, 604 Allison Road, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854-8082 (United States) and Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP) and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States)]. E-mail:; Gochfeld, Michael [Consortium for Risk Evaluation with Stakeholder Participation (CRESP), and Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Piscataway, New Jersey (United States); Environmental and Community Medicine, UMDNJ-Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, Piscataway, New Jersey, 08854 (United States)


    tuna had the most. The mean concentrations reported in this study were generally similar to those reported by the FDA, but there were important differences: 1) although the mean mercury concentrations for orange roughy for the Chicago data was similar to the FDA data, the maximum concentration was higher; 2) the mean for the Chicago swordfish was higher than the FDA data (1.26 vs 0.97 ppm, methylmercury); 3) the maximum for tuna steaks was higher in the FDA data set; and, 4) mean values for grouper (Epinephelus spp.) were higher in the FDA data set than the Chicago data. Further, the FDA has virtually no data on walleye and none on 'gourmet tuna'. These conclusions suggest that there are enough variations between the local data (Chicago) and the FDA data to warrant periodic local monitoring of commercial fish to provide up-to-date information to consumers about mercury in the fish they eat.

  8. Análise térmica da carne de coelhos Thermal analysis of rabbit meat

    Verônica A. Furukawa


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de condimentos na carne de coelho, sobre a estabilidade térmica de suas proteínas miofibrilares. Retalhos de 24 músculos Longissimus dorsis foram moídos e misturados, para a obtenção de um lote homogêneo. Foram adicionados, em alíquotas dessa carne: 1,0; 2,0 ou 3,0% de sal; 2,5; 5,0 ou 7,5% de sacarose e 1,5; 3,0 ou 4,5% de ácido acético 3% em solução aquosa, e uma mistura perfazendo 3% de sal, 5% de sacarose e 3% da mesma solução de ácido acético. Após homogeneização manual, as amostras foram mantidas em repouso sob refrigeração, por 30 minutos. Alíquotas da ordem de 10mg foram usadas para análise térmica e o restante, para análises de pH, proteínas e umidade. As análises térmicas foram realizadas em um calorímetro diferencial de varredura DSC-TA2010, a 10ºC/min, entre 0 e 100ºC. As curvas de DSC da carne pura apresentaram endotermas nas temperaturas de (Td 58,4(0,7ºC (miosina e 78,2(0,2ºC (actina, envolvendo entalpia (DHd de 17,5J/g de proteínas. O sal e o ácido acético desestabilizaram as proteínas, provocando redução da Td da miosina e actina, contrariamente à sacarose, que apresentou efeito estabilizante. A adição da mistura dos condimentos desestabilizou as proteínas miofibrilares. Apenas o ácido, adicionado acima de 1,5%, provocou desnaturação das proteínas.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of some additives over the myofibrillar protein thermal stability of rabbit meat. Steaks of 24 Longissimus dorsis muscle were ground and mixed to obtain a homogeneous portion. Samples of this meat were added with: 1.0, 2.0, or 3.0% of salt; 2.5, 5.0, or 7.5% of saccharose and 1.5, 3.0 or 4.5% of acid acetic solution 3%, and a mixture with 3% salt, 5% saccharose and 3% of the same acid acetic solution. After manual homogenization, the samples were stored refrigerated for 30 minutes. The meat was analyzed for thermal behavior, p

  9. A novel solar hot plate for cooking

    Rincon Mejia, Eduardo A; Osorio Jaramillo, Fidel A [Facultad de Ingenieria, UAEMex, Toluca, Edo. (Mexico)


    In Mexico and other developing countries, the use of firewood as combustible for cooking has contributed to deforestation and desertification of large zones. This is due to the lack of alternative combustibles for the poor inhabitants of the countryside and remote areas. In this paper, a new solar hot plate, intended for contributing to solve this problem, is presented. It can be used for cooking not only a great variety of prehispanic and traditional meals, like tortillas, fried meat and vegetables, but also hot cakes, bacon, eggs, steaks and fries. The hot plate solar cooker, called Tolocatzin, consists of a horizontal metallic plate, which is heated from both of its top and bottom surfaces by concentrated sun light from multicompound concentrator based on nonimaging optics, and built with nine ordinary plane glass-silvered, and two curved aluminum mirrors, so it can be manufactured easily in a small factory or at home. For an acceptance angle of 15 Celsius degrees, which allows the concentration of sun light without sun-tracking for about one hour, it can reach temperatures up to 240 Celsius degrees in a few minutes. This temperature is high enough for cooking almost all fried or grilled meals. The design was optimized using ray-trace procedures. The operational experience with early prototypes has shown that the Tolocatzin solar hot plate does an excellent cooking job and could really be massively used in sunny countries. [Spanish] En Mexico y otros paises en desarrollo, el uso de la madera como combustible para cocinar ha contribuido a la deforestacion y desertificacion de grandes zonas. Esto es debido a la falta de combustibles alternativos por parte de los habitantes pobres del campo y de areas remotas. En este articulo se presenta una nueva placa solar que tiene el proposito de contribuir a resolver este problema. Puede ser usada para cocinar no solamente una gran variedad de comidas prehispanicas y tradicionales, como tortillas, carne frita y verduras sino

  10. Case study: A severe hailstorm and strong downbursts over northeastern Slovenia on June 16th 2009

    Korosec, M.


    Introduction A strong isolated storm complex with bow echo feature crossed northeastern Slovenia in the late afternoon hours and caused extensive damage due to severe wind gusts near 30m/s, excessive rainfalls and large hail. Synoptic situation On June 16th 2009, an upper-level ridge persists over southern Europe while a positively tilted short-wave trough, connected to a complex deep trough over northern Europe, crosses central Europe. Accompanied by this trough, a cold front is extending southwestwards towards the Alps. A relatively strong jet steak wraps around the trough axis and creates strong shear environment which overlaps with a narrow band of unstable airmass present ahead of the coming frontal boundary. Behind this trough/front over central Europe, a high pressure area is developing with stable conditions. Over Slovenia, strong surface heating was on going through the day but lack of near-surface convergence zones, limited moisture and strong capping inversion surpressed any storm initiation in the afternoon. Presentation of research This case study will go through a research of damaging bow echo which caused extensive damage due to severe winds, excessive rainfalls and large hail over much of northeastern Slovenia. Numerous trees were down or uprooted and numerous roofs were blown off or were seriously damaged due to severe wind gusts near or exceeding 30m/s. At first stages, when an isolated severe storm entered Slovenia, it had classic high precipitation supercell features while it transformed into a powerful bow echo later on. Very large hail up to 6cm in diameter was first observed in southeast Austria and near the border with Slovenia, while later on the main threat was very strong wind gusts and intense rainfalls. This research paper will show a detailed analysis of the synoptic situation including analysis of satellite, radar and surface observations. Radar imagery clearly showed isolated storm trailing along the near-surface frontal boundary as

  11. Improvement of the Microbiological Safety of Two Chilled Semi-Prepared Meals by Gamma Irradiation

    Éva Andrássy


    Full Text Available Experimental batches of a stuffed pasta product, tortellini, and slightly pre-fried breaded reconstituted turkey steaks with cheese and ham filling, Cordon Bleu, were prepared according to commercial recipes, then inoculated with 104 CFU/g of Staphylococcus aureus (in case of tortellini and with 106 CFU/g of Listeria monocytogenes (in case of Cordon Bleu prior to packing in plastic bags under a gas atmosphere of 20 % CO2 and 80 % N2. The inoculated packages were irradiated at 3 kGy (tortellini and 2 kGy (Cordon Bleu with a 60Co radiation source. The applied radiation doses were sensorially acceptable for these products. The experimental batches of tortellini were stored at 15 °C, while the Cordon Bleu samples were stored at 5 and 9 °C. Unirradiated samples were kept together with the respective irradiated ones. Storage was continued for 4 weeks and microbiological tests were performed before and after the irradiation, and subsequently after every seven days. Besides selective estimation of the counts of the test organisms, total aerobic counts were evaluated in all samples and in case of Cordon Bleu, colony counts of lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, sulphite reducing clostridia, yeasts and moulds were also selectively estimated. The 3-kGy dose reduced the S. aureus count in tortellini below the detection limit (logCFU=0.26, and it remained undetectably low in the irradiated samples during all 28 days of storage, while the S. aureus count in the unirradiated samples increased up to 108 CFU/g during 8 days. The Listeria count in Cordon Bleu was reduced by irradiation from the initial count of 6.1 to 3.5 logCFU/g. At 5 °C storage, this residual count remained stagnant up to 3–4 weeks, but started to increase at 9 °C after one week of storage. In the unirradiated samples, the Listeria count increased hundred-fold during 4 weeks at 5 °C, and during 2 weeks at 9 °C. Sulphite reducing clostridia were, and remained, undetectable (<0

  12. 鱼胶原蛋白肽与表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯相互作用的研究%Interaction of Fish Collagen Peptide with Epigallocatechin Gallate

    杨伟; 袁芳; 高彦祥


    运用荧光光谱、红外光谱、圆二色谱和拉曼光谱等四种光谱手段,研究了鱼胶原蛋白肽(FC P )与表没食子儿茶素没食子酸酯(EGCG)在水溶液中的相互作用。荧光结果表明:EGCG使 FCP中的酪氨酸荧光强度减小,促进了二酪氨酸的形成;FCP与EGCG能够形成 FCP-EGCG非共价复合物,同时,EGCG影响了FCP中酪氨酸的微环境。红外光谱分析表明:FCP具有胶原蛋白特征吸收带;EGCG 的加入使3281 cm -1处的吸收峰消失,3076 cm-1处的吸收峰红移,表明EGCG影响了酰胺A带和酰胺B带;1659和1689 cm -1处的吸收峰蓝移,1547 cm -1处的吸收峰红移以及1248 cm -1处吸收峰的消失,表明FC P中酰胺Ⅰ带、酰胺Ⅱ带和酰胺Ⅲ带均受到EGCG的影响。圆二色谱分析表明:添加 EGCG后,FCP 222 nm处的负峰消失,198 nm处的负峰依次红移至200和204 nm ,说明EGCG影响了FCP的二级结构。拉曼光谱分析结果表明:EGCG的加入影响了FCP中酰胺Ⅰ带、酰胺Ⅱ带和酰胺Ⅲ带的吸收;同时,EGCG的添加使863和932 cm -1处的峰红移,前者峰强度降低,后者峰强度大幅增加,表明羟脯氨酸和脯氨酸均参与了与 EGCG的结合,且EGCG浓度的增加使更多的脯氨酸暴漏。%Fish collagen is known to have good moisturising property and antioxidant ability ,which has been increasingly added into cosmetics ,foods and drinks as thicker agent and to increase dietary supply of collagen .Fish collagen peptide (FCP) is a white or pale yellow powder ,obtained by extracting collagen from sources including the scales and bones of fish such as bonito , halibut ,tuna ,and sea bream .It is identical to human collagen and 100% absorbable through the skin .(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) ,the major constituent of green tea ,has lots of beneficial biological and pharmacological effects ,including an-tioxidant ,antimutagenic ,antiviral and

  13. 青鱼、草鱼、鲢鱼和鳙鱼组蛋白 H2A N-端基因克隆及其衍生抗菌肽%Cloning and Derived Antibacterial Peptides of Histone H2A Gene in Black Carp Mylopharyngodon piceus,Grass Carp Ctenopharyngodon idellus,Silver Carp Hy pophthalmichthys molitrix and Bighead Carp Aristichthys nobilis

    武向敏; 赵燕静; 孔祥会; 江红霞; 李莉; 聂国兴; 李学军


    competent cells for cloning .The H2A gene sequences with the length of 364 bp in the four fish species were cloned , and the deduced proteins were found to be unstable ,with the PI value of 10 .48—11 .02 and the total average hydrophilicity of 0 .179—0 .264 by online analysis . Both sequence homology analysis and the constructed phylogenetic tree revealed that the deduced H2A proteins showed the high homology (over 85% ) in four fish species with those in Sinocyclocheilus angustiporus and zebrafish .Histone H2A‐derived antibacterial peptide located in N terminal region in the four fish species showed the high homology with Hipposin in Atlantic halibut H ip poglossus hip poglossus .In addition ,there were glutamic acid residues in all amino acid sequences . It was confirmed that the antibacterial peptides derived from H 2A include Hipposin ,Parasin Ⅰ ,and Buforin ,belonging to cationic peptides with αspiral structure .

  14. Clinical analysis of connective tissue diseases with interstitial lung disease%结缔组织病肺间质病变临床分析

    张佳林; 叶宝国; 陈宏浦


    common respiratory symptoms.The fall of activity tolerance and dyspnea were serious respiratory symptoms.64 patients had pulmonary function test and all of them showed a decreasing diffusing capacity.Among them,26 only showed diffusing capacity reduction,32 restrictive ventilation defect with diffusing capacity reduction,4 mixed ventilation defect with diffusing capacity reduction and 2 obstructive ventilation defect with diffusing capacity reduction.22 patients had pulmonary artery high pressure.In image,the features of interstitial lung diseases displayed as follows:nodus,steak,patchy sign,grid,ground-glass opacities and bullae of lung.The features of interstitial lung diseases displayed as grid and fibrosis in 15 of 32 restrictive ventilation defect with diffusing capacity reduction.Conclusions The respiratory symptoms of c onnective tissue diseases with interstitial lung disease are various.Pulmonary function of connective tissue diseases with interstitial lung disease primarily displays a restrictive ventilation defect with diffusing capacity reduction.Connective tissue diseases complicated with interstitial lung disease and of pulmonary arterial hypertension easily occur in mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD),overlap connective tissue disease,systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis(SSc).In image,the features of interstitial lung diseases is various.Among them,grid and fibrosis are related to pulmonary function of restrictive ventilation defect with diffusing capacity reduction.


    Maria Lourdes S. ABULARACH


    (right side, type B - B R A S I L `s grading system - from animals of 23 to 26 months were boned and separated into commercial cuts. Two steaks (2.5cm thick were removed from each boneless rib cut (m. L. dorsi, vacuum packaged and aged for 7 days (0-2°C. The pH varied from 5.44 to 5.83 and only two samples had pH ³ 5.70. The L* (brightness average value was 34.85. The water and fat content were 75.65% and 1.71%, respectively. The average WB shear force was 6.70kg, and it was not affected by age (690-734 days, but presented a trend (t test, p=0.22 for increasing values between 735 and 780 days. Animal age did not affect other quality traits (t test, p>0.20. It was concluded that the rib cut from Nelore young bulls may not have a good acceptability in exigent markets, and that carcasses graded B, presumed to be the best grade, do not necessarily present the best meat quality characteristics.

  16. VIth World Congress on Science and Football, Book of Abstracts, January 16-20, 2007, Antalya, Turkey


    Full Text Available Uniting Edson Arantes do Nascimento's (Pele's "the beautiful game" with David Beckham's "bending the ball" (talented players apply the laws of physics to the ball is the major motivation of the 6th.World Congress on Science and Football. From Chinese tsu chu to today's modern football games, science was and will be an important part of this excellent sport ( congress encourages all scientific aspects of football including soccer (1848 including Australian rules (1866, Rugby (1845, American football (1876, Gaelic football (1884 and Canadian football (1882. Issues such as Biomechanics, Nutrition, Psychology, Academies, Talent identification, Medical aspects, Injuries, Special Population, Coaching, Physiology, Testing, Referee, Fair play, Hooliganism, Management, Economics and Skill learning will be discussed during this congress.Research is as significant as the coach, team and player in competition. Any player can aspire to become a superstar. Encouraging all participants and steak holders will take them to new places where no one has ever dreamt of. Are we close to these dreams? The answer to this question depends on what and how much we sacrifice for science and education. From science and education information should flow into the field. The decisive elements of the game are the referees, trainers, players and supporters. Their approach creates the "climate". They can end or start a war. Football is the sport that leads. It's no miracle but it promotes passion and love. If you are committed, you may even change the world. Football encompasses millions of players, coaches, scientists, administrators, physical education teachers, politicians and inevitably parents of young players. This "simple" game that requires a ball and a goal is not only the game of heroes but also of those who bear a childish enthusiasm that makes dreams come true. Skills include heading, tapping, passing

  17. Efficiency of clinorotation usage on virus-infected seed potatoes for its improvement

    Mishchenko, Ivan; Nechitailo, Galina S.; Dunich, Alina; Mishchenko, Anatoliy; Boiko, Anatolii

    organization, and physiological balances. Using microgravity simulated in the clinostats, it is possible to investigate the effects of this factor on the relationships in the system “virus - host plant”. This problem remains important as its solution allows to discover a wider set of techniques allowing to obtain plants free from viral infections. The possibility of the WSMV (wheat steak mosaic virus) elimination in wheat plants under the influence of simulated microgravity has been demonstrated in our works. The study of this phenomenon allowed to admit that the freeing of plants from viral infection under the impact of simulated microgravity occurs in the process of induced resistance formation. In our further research activities, we used potato plants for which the elimination of viral infections is of exceptional importance. Viruses transmitted mechanically have to use a vascular system to move all over the plant and, finally, into the tubers. The factors limiting this movability will at certain moments of plant growth favor the elimination of virus in certain parts of the plant. Introduction of tissues from such parts into in vitro cultures allows to regenerate virus-free plants. Еру efficiency of tissue culture in combination with clonal micro multiplication in vitro allows to obtain up to 1 mln plants from a single one in half a year. Such a productivity of a new technology allowed to prognosticate the potato production in vitro in the world on the level of 212 mln plantlets per year. But today, according to some estimates the in vitro potato production may be achieved with lower expenditures on plant remediation and freeing of the cultivars from viral infection. Therefore the purpose of work was to probe possibilities of receiving virus free seminal material of potato at the terms of clinorotation and set of its economic efficiency. Researches of simulated microgravity influence conducted on the potato varieties Sineglazka, Crimean, Agave, Linda, Bellaroza