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Sample records for haemoglobin oxygen saturation

  1. Venous oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartog, Christiane; Bloos, Frank

    2014-12-01

    Early detection and rapid treatment of tissue hypoxia are important goals. Venous oxygen saturation is an indirect index of global oxygen supply-to-demand ratio. Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) measurement has become a surrogate for mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2). ScvO2 is measured by a catheter placed in the superior vena cava. After results from a single-center study suggested that maintaining ScvO2 values >70% might improve survival rates in septic patients, international practice guidelines included this target in a bundle strategy to treat early sepsis. However, a recent multicenter study with >1500 patients found that the use of central hemodynamic and ScvO2 monitoring did not improve long-term survival when compared to the clinical assessment of the adequacy of circulation. It seems that if sepsis is recognized early, a rapid initiation of antibiotics and adequate fluid resuscitation are more important than measuring venous oxygen saturation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. New porcine test-model reveals remarkable differences between algorithms for spectrophotometrical haemoglobin saturation measurements with VLS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, John; Greisen, Gorm

    2016-01-01

    The study created an 'ex vivo' model to test different algorithms for measurements of mucosal haemoglobin saturation with visible light spectrophotometry (VLS). The model allowed comparison between algorithms, but it also allowed comparison with co-oximetry using a 'gold standard' method. This has......  -32.8 to  +29.9 percentage points and from  -5.0 to  +9.2 percentage points, respectively. CONCLUSION: the algorithms showed remarkable in-between differences when tested on raw-spectra from an 'ex vivo' model. All algorithms had bias, more marked at high oxygenation than low oxygenation. Three...

  3. Cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and extraction in preterm infants before and after blood transfusion

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    van Hoften, Jacorina C. R.; Verhagen, Elise A.; Keating, Paul; ter Horst, Hendrik J.; Bos, Arend F.

    2010-01-01

    Objective Preterm infants often need red blood cell (RBC) transfusions. The aim of this study was to determine whether haemoglobin levels before transfusion were associated with regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (r(c)SO(2)) and fractional tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) and whether RBC tran

  4. Optimal oxygen saturation in premature infants

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    Meayoung Chang

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available There is a delicate balance between too little and too much supplemental oxygen exposure in premature infants. Since underuse and overuse of supplemental oxygen can harm premature infants, oxygen saturation levels must be monitored and kept at less than 95% to prevent reactive oxygen species-related diseases, such as retinopathy of prematurity and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. At the same time, desaturation below 80 to 85% must be avoided to prevent adverse consequences, such as cerebral palsy. It is still unclear what range of oxygen saturation is appropriate for premature infants; however, until the results of further studies are available, a reasonable target for pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 is 90 to 93% with an intermittent review of the correlation between SpO2 and the partial pressure of arterial oxygen tension (PaO2. Because optimal oxygenation depends on individuals at the bedside making ongoing adjustments, each unit must define an optimal target range and set alarm limits according to their own equipment or conditions. All staff must be aware of these values and adjust the concentration of supplemental oxygen frequently.

  5. Relating oxygen partial pressure, saturation and content: the haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve

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    Julie-Ann Collins

    2015-09-01

    The delivery of oxygen by arterial blood to the tissues of the body has a number of critical determinants including blood oxygen concentration (content, saturation (SO2 and partial pressure, haemoglobin concentration and cardiac output, including its distribution. The haemoglobin–oxygen dissociation curve, a graphical representation of the relationship between oxygen satur­ation and oxygen partial pressure helps us to understand some of the principles underpinning this process. Historically this curve was derived from very limited data based on blood samples from small numbers of healthy subjects which were manipulated in vitro and ultimately determined by equations such as those described by Severinghaus in 1979. In a study of 3524 clinical specimens, we found that this equation estimated the SO2 in blood from patients with normal pH and SO2 >70% with remarkable accuracy and, to our knowledge, this is the first large-scale validation of this equation using clinical samples. Oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 is nowadays the standard clinical method for assessing arterial oxygen saturation, providing a convenient, pain-free means of continuously assessing oxygenation, provided the interpreting clinician is aware of important limitations. The use of pulse oximetry reduces the need for arterial blood gas analysis (SaO2 as many patients who are not at risk of hypercapnic respiratory failure or metabolic acidosis and have acceptable SpO2 do not necessarily require blood gas analysis. While arterial sampling remains the gold-standard method of assessing ventilation and oxygenation, in those patients in whom blood gas analysis is indicated, arterialised capillary samples also have a valuable role in patient care. The clinical role of venous blood gases however remains less well defined.

  6. Root Effect Haemoglobins in Fish May Greatly Enhance General Oxygen Delivery Relative to Other Vertebrates.

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    Jodie L Rummer

    Full Text Available The teleost fishes represent over half of all extant vertebrates; they occupy nearly every body of water and in doing so, occupy a diverse array of environmental conditions. We propose that their success is related to a unique oxygen (O2 transport system involving their extremely pH-sensitive haemoglobin (Hb. A reduction in pH reduces both Hb-O2 affinity (Bohr effect and carrying capacity (Root effect. This, combined with a large arterial-venous pH change (ΔpHa-v relative to other vertebrates, may greatly enhance tissue oxygen delivery in teleosts (e.g., rainbow trout during stress, beyond that in mammals (e.g., human. We generated oxygen equilibrium curves (OECs at five different CO2 tensions for rainbow trout and determined that, when Hb-O2 saturation is 50% or greater, the change in oxygen partial pressure (ΔPO2 associated with ΔpHa-v can exceed that of the mammalian Bohr effect by at least 3-fold, but as much as 21-fold. Using known ΔpHa-v and assuming a constant arterial-venous PO2 difference (Pa-vO2, Root effect Hbs can enhance O2 release to the tissues by 73.5% in trout; whereas, the Bohr effect alone is responsible for enhancing O2 release by only 1.3% in humans. Disequilibrium states are likely operational in teleosts in vivo, and therefore the ΔpHa-v, and thus enhancement of O2 delivery, could be even larger. Modeling with known Pa-vO2 in fish during exercise and hypoxia indicates that O2 release from the Hb and therefore potentially tissue O2 delivery may double during exercise and triple during some levels of hypoxia. These characteristics may be central to performance of athletic fish species such as salmonids, but may indicate that general tissue oxygen delivery may have been the incipient function of Root effect Hbs in fish, a trait strongly associated with the adaptive radiation of teleosts.

  7. Femoral venous oxygen saturation is no surrogate for central venous oxygen saturation

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    van Beest, Paul A.; van der Schors, Alice; Liefers, Henriette; Coenen, Ludo G. J.; Braam, Richard L.; Habib, Najib; Braber, Annemarije; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Kuiper, Michael A.; Spronk, Peter E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective:  The purpose of our study was to determine if central venous oxygen saturation and femoral venous oxygen saturation can be used interchangeably during surgery and in critically ill patients. Design:  Prospective observational controlled study. Setting:  Nonacademic university-affiliated t

  8. Pilot study to visualise and measure skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content using index maps in healthy controls

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    Poxon, Ian; Wilkinson, Jack; Herrick, Ariane; Dickinson, Mark; Murray, Andrea

    2014-02-01

    We report on a method for analysing multispectral images of skin in vivo for the measurement and visualisation of skin characteristics. Four different indices were used to characterise skin tissue oxygenation, erythema, total haemoglobin and melanin content. Index values were calculated pixel-wise and combined to create index maps to visualise skin properties. Quantitative measurement of tissue oxygenation saturation was possible by calibrating the oxygenation index using a commercial, calibrated oximeter. Index maps were tested by arterial occlusion of the index finger with multispectral images taken before, during and after occlusion in a pilot study with 10 healthy controls.

  9. Nasal pulse oximetry overestimates oxygen saturation

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    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H

    1990-01-01

    Ten surgical patients were monitored with nasal and finger pulse oximetry (Nellcor N-200) for five study periods with alternating mouth and nasal breathing and switching of cables and sensors. Nasal pulse oximetry was found to overestimate arterial oxygen saturation by 4.7 (SD 1.4%) (bias...

  10. Comparison of pulseoximetry oxygen saturation and arterial oxygen saturation in open heart intensive care unit

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    Alireza Mahoori

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pulseoximetry is widely used in the critical care setting, currently used to guide therapeutic interventions. Few studies have evaluated the accuracy of SPO2 (puls-eoximetry oxygen saturation in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. Our objective was to compare pulseoximetry with arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 during clinical routine in such patients, and to examine the effect of mild acidosis on this relationship.Methods: In an observational prospective study 80 patients were evaluated in intensive care unit after cardiac surgery. SPO2 was recorded and compared with SaO2 obtained by blood gas analysis. One or serial arterial blood gas analyses (ABGs were performed via a radial artery line while a reliable pulseoximeter signal was present. One hundred thirty seven samples were collected and for each blood gas analyses, SaO2 and SPO2 we recorded.Results: O2 saturation as a marker of peripheral perfusion was measured by Pulseoxim-etry (SPO2. The mean difference between arterial oxygen saturation and pulseoximetry oxygen saturation was 0.12%±1.6%. A total of 137 paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.754; P<0.0001 between changes in SPO2 and those in SaO2 in samples with normal hemoglobin. Also in forty seven samples with mild acidosis, paired readings demonstrated good correlation (r=0.799; P<0.0001 and the mean difference between SaO2 and SPO2 was 0.05%±1.5%.Conclusion: Data showed that in patients with stable hemodynamic and good signal quality, changes in pulseoximetry oxygen saturation reliably predict equivalent changes in arterial oxygen saturation. Mild acidosis doesn’t alter the relation between SPO2 and SaO2 to any clinically important extent. In conclusion, the pulse oximeter is useful to monitor oxygen saturation in patients with stable hemodynamic.

  11. Correlation between capillary oxygen saturation and small intestinal wall thickness in the equine colic patient.

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    Mirle, Elisabeth; Wogatzki, Anna; Kunzmann, Robert; Schoenfelder, Axel M; Litzke, Lutz F

    2017-01-01

    The surgical evaluation of haemorrhagic infarcted intestine and the decision for or against bowel resection require a lot of experience and are subjective. The aim of this prospective, clinical study was to examine the correlation between oxygen saturation and small intestinal wall (IW) thickness, using two objective methods. In 22 colicky horses, the blood flow, oxygen saturation and relative amount of haemoglobin were measured intraoperatively via laser Doppler and white light spectroscopy (O2C, oxygen to see, LEA Medizintechnik) at six measuring points (MPs) in small and large intestines. Furthermore, the IW thickness was measured ultrasonographically. Nine of 22 horses had an increased small IW thickness greater than 4 mm (Freeman 2002, Scharner and others 2002, le Jeune and Whitcomb 2014) at measuring point 1 (MP1) (strangulated segment), four horses had a thickened bowel wall at measuring point 3 (MP3) (poststenotic) and one at measuring point 2 (MP2). The oxygen saturation was 0 at MP1 in six horses, at MP3 in two horses and at MP2 (prestenotic) in one. Oxygen saturation and small IW thickness were independent of each other at MP1 and MP2. At MP3, the two parameters were negatively correlated. In summary, it is not possible to draw conclusions about oxygen saturation based on IW thickness.

  12. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

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    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  13. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  14. Diagnostic dilemma: Low oxygen saturation during cardiac surgery

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    Suruchi Ladha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of rheumatic heart disease with severe mitral stenosis having cyanosis and low oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry. The findings of clinical examination and low values on pulse oximetry were inconsistent with the findings of normal partial pressure of oxygen and oxygen saturation on arterial blood gas analysis, leading to diagnostic dilemma. In such clinical scenario, the anesthesiologist should be aware and vigilant about the differential diagnosis of low oxygen saturation on pulse oximetry.

  15. Brain oxygen saturation assessment in neonates using T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy.

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    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon Jnl; Petersen, Esben T

    2017-03-01

    Although near-infrared spectroscopy is increasingly being used to monitor cerebral oxygenation in neonates, it has a limited penetration depth. The T2-prepared Blood Imaging of Oxygen Saturation (T2-BIOS) magnetic resonance sequence provides an oxygen saturation estimate on a voxel-by-voxel basis, without needing a respiratory calibration experiment. In 15 neonates, oxygen saturation measured by T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy were compared. In addition, these measures were compared to cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy ( R(2 )= 0.64, p infrared spectroscopy oxygen saturation, and magnetic resonance imaging measures of frontal cerebral blood flow, whole brain cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus ( R(2 )= 0.71, 0.50, 0.65; p infrared spectroscopy and T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation, confirming the validity of using of these techniques for determining cerebral oxygenation.

  16. Brain oxygen saturation assessment in neonates using T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma

    2017-01-01

    sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (R(2 )= 0.64, p ..., and magnetic resonance imaging measures of frontal cerebral blood flow, whole brain cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.71, 0.50, 0.65; p ... saturation in the sagittal sinus (R(2 )= 0.49, p = 0.023), but no significant correlations could be demonstrated with frontal and whole brain cerebral blood flow. These results suggest that measuring oxygen saturation by T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation is feasible, even in neonates. Strong...

  17. Retinal oxygen saturation in patients with systemic hypoxemia

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    Traustason, Sindri; Jensen, Annette Schophuus; Arvidsson, Henrik Sven

    2011-01-01

    To assess spectrophotometric oximetry across a broad range of arterial saturation levels and to study the effect of chronic systemic hypoxemia on retinal oxygen extraction.......To assess spectrophotometric oximetry across a broad range of arterial saturation levels and to study the effect of chronic systemic hypoxemia on retinal oxygen extraction....

  18. Renal vein oxygen saturation in renal artery stenosis

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    Nielsen, K; Rehling, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Renal vein oxygen-saturation was measured in 56 patients with arterial hypertension and unilateral stenosis or occlusion of the renal artery. Oxygen-saturation in blood from the ischaemic kidney (84.4%, range 73-93%) was significantly higher than that from the 'normal' contralateral kidney (81...

  19. Modifications of Oxygen Saturation During Transesophageal Echocardiography.

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    Macor, Franco; Zottarel, Gabriella; Antonini-Canterin, Francesco; Mimo, Renata; Pavan, Daniela; Cervesato, Eugenio; Nicolosi, Gianluigi; Zanuttini, Domenico

    1997-05-01

    The present study was designed: (1) to establish the effects of transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) on arterial oxygen saturation (SAO(2)%); (2) to verify the possible clinical consequences of this phenomenon; and (3) to study the possibility of predicting modifications of SAO(2)% by clinical or hemodynamic variables or by specific factors related to the TEE procedure. We prospectively studied 116 unselected patients, aged 61 +/- 12 years, who underwent diagnostic TEE for various clinical indications. Thirty-seven patients had mitral valve disease, 19 aortic valve disease, 14 combined mitroaortic disease, 8 congenital heart disease, and 38 other cardiovascular diseases. Eight patients were affected by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Ninety-seven patients were sedated by 4 +/- 2 mg of diazepam IV SAO(2)% (5-min average) (Ohmeda Biox 3700 pulse oxymeter finger probe), heart rate (HR), and blood pressure (BP) were considered during baseline transthoracic examination, after pharmacological sedation but before the introduction of the probe, and finally during TEE. Neither clinical complications nor major arrhythmias were observed. Baseline SAO(2)%, HR and BP were, respectively, 93.6 +/- 3.3%, 76 +/- 14 beats/min, and 129 +/- 20/75 +/- 10 mmHg. Pharmacological sedation did not modify SAO(2)%, HR, and BP (P > 0.1). During TEE a small but significant reduction in SAO(2)% by an average of 1.2 +/- 3.2% was observed (P 0.1 for both systolic and diastolic). The changes of SAO(2)% and HR were not interrelated and were not related to the duration of the procedure and to any of the clinical and hemodynamic variables taken into consideration. TEE can induce a small but significant drop in SAO(2)% and a small increase in HR even without any clinical relevance. No clinical or hemodynamic variable or specific factors related to the TEE procedure were related to these changes.

  20. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

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    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  1. Relationship between changes in haemoglobin mass and maximal oxygen uptake after hypoxic exposure.

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    Saunders, Philo U; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Schmidt, Walter F; Gore, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    Endurance athletes have been using altitude training for decades to improve near sea-level performance. The predominant mechanism is thought to be accelerated erythropoiesis increasing haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) resulting in a greater maximal oxygen uptake (VO₂(max)). Not all studies have shown a proportionate increase in VO₂(max) as a result of increased Hb(mass). The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the two parameters in a large group of endurance athletes after altitude training. 145 elite endurance athletes (94 male and 51 female) who participated in various altitude studies as altitude or control participants were used for the analysis. Participants performed Hb(mass) and VO₂(max) testing before and after intervention. For the pooled data, the correlation between per cent change in Hb(mass) and per cent change in VO₂(max) was significant (pmax) of more than half the magnitude of the increase in Hb(mass), which supports the use of altitude training by athletes. But race performance is not perfectly related to relative VO₂(max), and other non-haematological factors altered from altitude training, such as running economy and lactate threshold, may also be beneficial to performance.

  2. Retinal oxygen saturation evaluation by multi-spectral fundus imaging

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    Khoobehi, Bahram; Ning, Jinfeng; Puissegur, Elise; Bordeaux, Kimberly; Balasubramanian, Madhusudhanan; Beach, James

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To develop a multi-spectral method to measure oxygen saturation of the retina in the human eye. Methods: Five Cynomolgus monkeys with normal eyes were anesthetized with intramuscular ketamine/xylazine and intravenous pentobarbital. Multi-spectral fundus imaging was performed in five monkeys with a commercial fundus camera equipped with a liquid crystal tuned filter in the illumination light path and a 16-bit digital camera. Recording parameters were controlled with software written specifically for the application. Seven images at successively longer oxygen-sensing wavelengths were recorded within 4 seconds. Individual images for each wavelength were captured in less than 100 msec of flash illumination. Slightly misaligned images of separate wavelengths due to slight eye motion were registered and corrected by translational and rotational image registration prior to analysis. Numerical values of relative oxygen saturation of retinal arteries and veins and the underlying tissue in between the artery/vein pairs were evaluated by an algorithm previously described, but which is now corrected for blood volume from averaged pixels (n > 1000). Color saturation maps were constructed by applying the algorithm at each image pixel using a Matlab script. Results: Both the numerical values of relative oxygen saturation and the saturation maps correspond to the physiological condition, that is, in a normal retina, the artery is more saturated than the tissue and the tissue is more saturated than the vein. With the multi-spectral fundus camera and proper registration of the multi-wavelength images, we were able to determine oxygen saturation in the primate retinal structures on a tolerable time scale which is applicable to human subjects. Conclusions: Seven wavelength multi-spectral imagery can be used to measure oxygen saturation in retinal artery, vein, and tissue (microcirculation). This technique is safe and can be used to monitor oxygen uptake in humans. This work

  3. Effects of prolonged compression on the variations of haemoglobin oxygenation-assessment by spectral analysis of reflectance spectrophotometry signals

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    Li, Zengyong; Tam, Eric W C; Mak, Arthur F T; Lau, Roy Y C [Department of Health Technology and Informatics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-11-07

    The consequences of rhythmical flow motion for nutrition and the oxygen supply to tissue are largely unknown. In this study, the periodic variations of haemoglobin oxygenation in compressed and uncompressed skin were evaluated with a reflection spectrometer using an in vivo Sprague-Dawley rat model. Skin compression was induced over the trochanter area by a locally applied external pressure of 13.3 kPa (100 mmHg) via a specifically designed pneumatic indentor. A total of 19 rats were used in this study. The loading duration is 6 h per day for four consecutive days. Haemoglobin oxygenation variations were quantified using spectral analysis based on wavelets' transformation. The results found that in both compressed and uncompressed skin, periodic variations of the haemoglobin oxygenation were characterized by two frequencies in the range of 0.01-0.05 Hz and 0.15-0.4 Hz. These frequency ranges coincide with those of the frequency range of the endothelial-related metabolic and myogenic activities found in the flow motion respectively. Tissue compression following the above loading schedule induced a significant decrease in the spectral amplitudes of frequency interval 0.01-0.05 Hz during the pre-occlusion period on day 3 and day 4 as compared to that on day 1 (p < 0.05). In contrast, at a frequency range of 0.15-0.4 Hz, prolonged compression caused a significant increase in spectral amplitude during the pre-occlusion period in the compressed tissue on day 3 (p = 0.041) and day 4 (p = 0.024) compared to that in the uncompressed tissue on day 1. These suggested that the variations of the haemoglobin oxygenation were closely related to the endothelial-related metabolic and myogenic activities. Increased amplitude in the frequency interval 0.15-0.4 Hz indicated an increased workload of the vascular smooth muscle and could be attributed to the increase of O{sub 2} consumption rates of arteriolar walls. The modification of vessel wall oxygen consumption might

  4. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

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    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  5. Central venous oxygen saturation during hypovolaemic shock in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P; Iversen, H; Secher, N H

    1993-01-01

    We compared central venous oxygen saturation and central venous pressure (CVP) as indices of the effective blood volume during 50 degrees head-up tilt (anti-Trendelenburg's position) induced hypovolaemic shock in eight healthy subjects. Head-up tilt increased thoracic electrical impedance from 31...

  6. Cardiac arrhythmias during fiberoptic bronchoscopy and relation with oxygen saturation

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    Hassan G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the occurrence of electrocardiographic abnormalities during fiberoptic bronchoscopy, in relation to specific stages of the procedures, patients′ age, sex, smoking, pre-existing lung disease, premedication and oxygen saturation, a prospective study was conducted on 56 patients aged 35 to 75 (mean 62 years without pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Patients were connected to a 12-lead computerized electrocardiographic recorder and pulse oximeter. Fall of oxygen saturation from mean of 95.12% before the procedure to below 80% was observed in 12 (21.4% patients and below 75% in 5 (8.9% patients, at various stages. Statistically highly significant (p < 0.001 fall of oxygen saturation was observed during the procedures while bronchoscope was introduced into the airways and tracheobronchial tree examined. Major disturbances of cardiac rhythm (i.e. atrial, ventricular or both developed in 23 (41.07% patients. Out of these, sinus tachycardia was noted in 16 (69.5%, ventricular premature complexes in 5 (21.7% and paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in 2 (8.6% patients. Arrhythmias were most frequent in association with periods of maximum oxygen desaturation in 18 (78.2% of these 23 patients. Oxygen desaturation persisted for more than half an hour in 38 (67.8% of the 56 patients. However, no correlation was observed between the frequency of arrhythmias during bronchoscopy and patients′ age, sex pre-medication or pre-existing pulmonary disease.

  7. Oronasopharyngeal suction at birth: effects on arterial oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, M; Martell, M; Estol, P C

    1997-05-01

    The effect of oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) is described in a controlled study of 30 normal term newborn infants. In 15 of them, ONPS was performed immediately after birth. The SaO2 value was recorded through a pulse oximeter. The ONPS group had a significantly lower SaO2 between the first and the sixth minutes of life and took longer to reach 86% and 92% saturation. According to this study, ONPS should not be performed as a routine procedure in normal, term, vaginally born infants.

  8. The impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation in circulatory failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Kwok Ming; Harding, Richard; Chamberlain, Jenny

    2008-01-01

    Central and mixed venous oxygen saturations have been used to guide resuscitation in circulatory failure, but the impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation has not been thoroughly evaluated. This observational study investigated the impact of arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation in circulatory failure. Twenty critically ill patients with circulatory failure requiring mechanical ventilation and a pulmonary artery catheter in an intensive care unit in a tertiary hospital in Western Australia were recruited. Samples of arterial blood, central venous blood, and mixed venous blood were simultaneously and slowly drawn from the arterial, central venous, and pulmonary artery catheter, respectively, at baseline and after the patient was ventilated with 100% inspired oxygen for 5 min. The blood samples were redrawn after a significant change in cardiac index (>or =10%) from the baseline, occurring within 24 h of study enrollment while the patient was ventilated with the same baseline inspired oxygen concentration, was detected. An increase in inspired oxygen concentration significantly increased the arterial oxygen tension from 12.5 to 38.4 kPa (93.8-288 mmHg) (mean difference, 25.9 kPa; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.5-31.9 kPa; P arterial oxygen tension on venous oxygen saturation was more significant than the effect associated with changes in cardiac index (mean difference, 2.8%; 95% CI, -0.2% to 5.8%; P = 0.063). In conclusion, arterial oxygen tension has a significant effect on venous oxygen saturation, and this effect is more significant and consistent than the effect associated with changes in cardiac index.

  9. Retinal Vessel Oxygen Saturation during 100% Oxygen Breathing in Healthy Individuals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olof Birna Olafsdottir

    Full Text Available To detect how systemic hyperoxia affects oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and venules in healthy individuals.Retinal vessel oxygen saturation was measured in 30 healthy individuals with a spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap T1. Oximetry was performed during breathing of room air, 100% oxygen (10 minutes, 6L/min and then again room air (10 minutes recovery.Mean oxygen saturation rises modestly in retinal arterioles during 100% oxygen breathing (94.5%±3.8 vs. 92.0%±3.7% at baseline, p<0.0001 and dramatically in retinal venules (76.2%±8.0% vs. 51.3%±5.6%, p<0.0001. The arteriovenous difference decreased during 100% oxygen breathing (18.3%±9.0% vs. 40.7%±5.7%, p<0.0001. The mean diameter of arterioles decreased during 100% oxygen breathing compared to baseline (9.7±1.4 pixels vs. 10.3±1.3 pixels, p<0.0001 and the same applies to the mean venular diameter (11.4±1.2 pixels vs. 13.3±1.5 pixels, p<0.0001.Breathing 100% oxygen increases oxygen saturation in retinal arterioles and more so in venules and constricts them compared to baseline levels. The dramatic increase in oxygen saturation in venules reflects oxygen flow from the choroid and the unusual vascular anatomy and oxygen physiology of the eye.

  10. Monitorization of the effects of spinal anaesthesia on cerebral oxygen saturation in elder patients using near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusku, Aysegul; Demir, Guray; Cukurova, Zafer; Eren, Gulay; Hergunsel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Central blockage provided by spinal anaesthesia enables realization of many surgical procedures, whereas hemodynamic and respiratory changes influence systemic oxygen delivery leading to the potential development of series of problems such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. This study was intended to detect potentially adverse effects of hemodynamic and respiratory changes on systemic oxygen delivery using cerebral oxymetric methods in patients who underwent spinal anaesthesia. Twenty-five ASA I-II Group patients aged 65-80 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under spinal anaesthesia were included in the study. Following standard monitorization baseline cerebral oxygen levels were measured using cerebral oximetric methods. Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) was applied before and after the operation so as to determine the level of cognitive functioning of the cases. Using a standard technique and equal amounts of a local anaesthetic drug (15mg bupivacaine 5%) intratechal blockade was performed. Mean blood pressure (MBP), maximum heart rate (MHR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygen levels (rSO2) were preoperatively monitored for 60min. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels were measured. The variations in data obtained and their correlations with the cerebral oxygen levels were investigated. Significant changes in pre- and postoperative measurements of haemoglobin levels and SMMT scores and intraoperative SpO2 levels were not observed. However, significant variations were observed in intraoperative MBP, MHR and rSO2 levels. Besides, a correlation between variations in rSO2, MBP and MHR was determined. Evaluation of the data obtained in the study demonstrated that post-spinal decline in blood pressure and also heart rate decreases systemic oxygen delivery and adversely effects cerebral oxygen levels. However, this downward change did not result in deterioration of cognitive functioning

  11. [Monitorization of the effects of spinal anaesthesia on cerebral oxygen saturation in elder patients using near-infrared spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusku, Aysegul; Demir, Guray; Cukurova, Zafer; Eren, Gulay; Hergunsel, Oya

    2014-01-01

    Central blockage provided by spinal anaesthesia enables realization of many surgical procedures, whereas hemodynamic and respiratory changes influence systemic oxygen delivery leading to the potential development of series of problems such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. This study was intended to detect potentially adverse effects of hemodynamic and respiratory changes on systemic oxygen delivery using cerebral oxymetric methods in patients who underwent spinal anaesthesia. Twenty-five ASA I-II Group patients aged 65-80 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under spinal anaesthesia were included in the study. Following standard monitorization baseline cerebral oxygen levels were measured using cerebral oximetric methods. Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT) was applied before and after the operation so as to determine the level of cognitive functioning of the cases. Using a standard technique and equal amounts of a local anaesthetic drug (15mg bupivacaine 5%) intratechal blockade was performed. Mean blood pressure (MBP), maximum heart rate (MHR), peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) and cerebral oxygen levels (rSO2) were preoperatively monitored for 60min. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels were measured. The variations in data obtained and their correlations with the cerebral oxygen levels were investigated. Significant changes in pre- and postoperative measurements of haemoglobin levels and SMMT scores and intraoperative SpO2 levels were not observed. However, significant variations were observed in intraoperative MBP, MHR and rSO2 levels. Besides, a correlation between variations in rSO2, MBP and MHR was determined. Evaluation of the data obtained in the study demonstrated that post-spinal decline in blood pressure and also heart rate decreases systemic oxygen delivery and adversely effects cerebral oxygen levels. However, this downward change did not result in deterioration of cognitive functioning

  12. Monitorization of the effects of spinal anaesthesia on cerebral oxygen saturation in elder patients using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aysegul Kusku

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Central blockage provided by spinal anaesthesia enables realization of many surgical procedures, whereas hemodynamic and respiratory changes influence systemic oxygen delivery leading to the potential development of series of problems such as cerebral ischemia, myocardial infarction and acute renal failure. This study was intended to detect potentially adverse effects of hemodynamic and respiratory changes on systemic oxygen delivery using cerebral oxymetric methods in patients who underwent spinal anaesthesia. METHODS: Twenty-five ASA I-II Group patients aged 65-80 years scheduled for unilateral inguinal hernia repair under spinal anaesthesia were included in the study. Following standard monitorization baseline cerebral oxygen levels were measured using cerebral oximetric methods. Standardized Mini Mental Test (SMMT was applied before and after the operation so as to determine the level of cognitive functioning of the cases. Using a standard technique and equal amounts of a local anaesthetic drug (15 mg bupivacaine 5% intratechal blockade was performed. Mean blood pressure (MBP, maximum heart rate (MHR, peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2 and cerebral oxygen levels (rSO2 were preoperatively monitored for 60 min. Pre- and postoperative haemoglobin levels were measured. The variations in data obtained and their correlations with the cerebral oxygen levels were investigated. RESULTS: Significant changes in pre- and postoperative measurements of haemoglobin levels and SMMT scores and intraoperative SpO2 levels were not observed. However, significant variations were observed in intraoperative MBP, MHR and rSO2 levels. Besides, a correlation between variations in rSO2, MBP and MHR was determined. CONCLUSION: Evaluation of the data obtained in the study demonstrated that post-spinal decline in blood pressure and also heart rate decreases systemic oxygen delivery and adversely effects cerebral oxygen levels. However, this downward change did

  13. Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-04-01

    Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O(2) delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O(2) sensor, contributing to the control of O(2) delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O(2) from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise ( approximately 50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 +/- 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 +/- 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 +/- 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.8 +/- 0.7 l min(-1), respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial-venous (a-v) O(2) difference (r(2)= 0.89-0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O(2) gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O(2) delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules.

  14. Nocturnal haemoglobin oxygen desaturation in urban and rural East African paediatric cohorts with and without sickle cell anaemia: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Esperance, V S; Ekong, T; Cox, S E; Makani, J; Newton, C R; Soka, D; Komba, A; Kirkham, F J; Hill, C M

    2016-04-01

    Low haemoglobin oxygen saturation (SpO2) predicts complications in children with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) in the North but there are few data from Africa, where the majority of the patients reside. We measured daytime and overnight SpO2 in children with SCA in routine follow-up clinic, and controls without symptoms of SCA, comparing rural (Kilifi, Kenya) and urban (Dar-es-Salaam, Tanzania) cohorts. Daytime SpO2 was lower in 65 Tanzanian children with SCA (TS; median 97 (IQR 94-100)%); pasthma, alterations in the oxyhaemoglobin desaturation curve or cardiovascular compromise, for example, to shunting at atrial or pulmonary level secondary to increased pulmonary artery pressure. The fact that non-SCA siblings in the urban area are also affected suggests that environmental exposures, for example, air pollution, nutrition or physical exercise, may play a role. Further studies should determine aetiology and clinical relevance for the SCA phenotype in children resident in Africa. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  15. The Effect of the Antioxidant Drug “U-74389G” on Haemoglobin Levels Following a Hypoxemia/ Re-oxygenation Protocol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsompos Constantinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients usually present with circulatory hypoxemia and this is associated with a poorer prognosis. The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of U-74389G with specific regard to a hypoxemia/re-oxygenation protocol, on mean blood haemoglobin (Hgb levels in rats.

  16. Dissolved oxygen saturation controls PAH biodegradation in freshwater estuary sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, T J; Montgomery, M T; Steele, J K; Pohlman, J W; Reatherford, S R; Spargo, B J; Smith, D C

    2005-02-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common contaminants in terrestrial and aquatic environments and can represent a significant constituent of the carbon pool in coastal sediments. We report here the results of an 18-month seasonal study of PAH biodegradation and heterotrophic bacterial production and their controlling biogeochemical factors from 186 sediment samples taken in a tidally influenced freshwater estuary. For each sampling event, measurements were averaged from 25-45 stations covering approximately 250 km(2). There was a clear relationship between bacterial production and ambient temperature, but none between production and bottom water dissolved oxygen (DO) % saturation or PAH concentrations. In contrast with other studies, we found no effect of temperature on the biodegradation of naphthalene, phenanthrene, or fluoranthene. PAH mineralization correlated with bottom water DO saturation above 70% (r(2) > 0.99). These results suggest that the proportional utilization of PAH carbon to natural organic carbon is as much as three orders of magnitude higher during cooler months, when water temperatures are lower and DO % saturation is higher. Infusion of cooler, well-oxygenated water to the water column overlying contaminated sediments during the summer months may stimulate PAH metabolism preferentially over non-PAH organic matter.

  17. Effect of oxygen on tachycardia and arterial oxygen saturation during colonoscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, C; Christensen, M; Schulze, S

    1999-01-01

    through nasal prongs (2 L/min), and 20 patients breathed room air during colonoscopy. All patients were given conscious sedation and were monitored with a pulse oximeter during colonoscopy. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Tachycardia (pulse rate>100 min(-1)) and arterial oxygen desaturation (SpO2... colonoscopy. RESULTS: There were no differences in the incidence of tachycardia or mean heart rate during endoscopy between the two groups, and no patient developed symptomatic cardiac arrhythmias or hypotensive episodes. 10 patients in the room air compared with none in the oxygen treatment group (p = 0.......0004) had one or more episodes during which arterial oxygen saturation fell below 90% during colonoscopy, and mean oxygen saturation was higher in the oxygen treatment group than in the room air group (p tachycardia...

  18. How to use venous oxygen saturations and lactate in critically ill patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, P.A.; Scheeren, T.W.L.

    Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) contain much information of the (patho-) physiologic balance between a patient’s oxygen delivery and oxygen consumption. Also, they are influenced by many factors, which makes them as appealing as complex: in contrast

  19. Developmental Effects Determine Submaximal Arterial Oxygen Saturation in Peruvian Quechua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyamu, Melisa; León-Velarde, Fabiola; Rivera-Chira, María; Elías, Gianpietro; Brutsaert, Tom D

    2015-06-01

    Kiyamu, Melisa, Fabiola León-Velarde, María Rivera-Chira, Gianpietro Elías, and Tom D. Brutsaert. Developmental effects determine submaximal arterial oxygen saturation in Peruvian Quechua. High Alt Med Biol 16, 138-146, 2015.--Andean high altitude natives show higher arterial oxygen saturation (Sao(2)) during exercise in hypoxia, compared to acclimatized sojourners. In order to evaluate the effects of life-long exposure to high altitude on Sao(2), we studied two groups of well-matched, self-identified Peruvian Quechua natives who differed in their developmental exposure to hypoxia before and after a 2-month training period. Male and female volunteers (18-35 years) were recruited in Lima, Peru (150 m). The two groups were: a) Individuals who were born and raised at sea-level (BSL, n=34) and b) Individuals who were born and raised at high altitude (BHA, n=32), but who migrated to sea-level as adults (>16 years old). Exercise testing was conducted using a submaximal exercise protocol in normobaric hypoxia in Lima (BP=750 mmHg, Fio(2)=0.12), in order to measure Sao(2) (%), ventilation (VE L/min) and oxygen consumption (Vo(2), L/min). Repeated-measures ANOVA, controlling for VE/VO(2) (L/min) and sex during the submaximal protocol showed that BHA maintained higher Sao(2) (%) compared to BSL at all workloads before (p=0.005) and after training (p=0.017). As expected, both groups showed a decrease in Sao(2) (%) (p<0.001), as workload increased. Resting Sao(2) levels were not found to be different between groups. The results suggest that developmental exposure to altitude contributes to the maintenance of higher Sao(2) levels during submaximal exercise at hypoxia.

  20. Brain Oxygen Monitoring via Jugular Venous Oxygen Saturation in a Patient with Fulminant Hepatic Failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yerim Kim

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF is often accompanied by a myriad of neurologic complications, which are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Although appropriate neuromonitoring is recommended for early diagnosis and to minimize secondary brain injury, individuals with FHF usually have a high chance of coagulopathy, which limits the ability to use invasive neuromonitoring. Jugular bulb venous oxygen saturation (JvO2 monitoring is well known as a surrogate direct measures of global brain oxygen use. We report the case of a patient with increased intracranial pressure due to FHF, in which JvO2 was used for appropriate brain oxygen monitoring.

  1. [Tissue oxygen saturation in the critically ill patient].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruartmoner, G; Mesquida, J; Baigorri, F

    2014-05-01

    Hemodynamic resuscitation seeks to correct global macrocirculatory parameters of pressure and flow. However, current evidence has shown that despite the normalization of these global parameters, microcirculatory and regional perfusion alterations can persist, and these alterations have been independently associated with a poorer patient prognosis. This in turn has lead to growing interest in new technologies for exploring regional circulation and microcirculation. Near infra-red spectroscopy allows us to monitor tissue oxygen saturation, and has been proposed as a noninvasive, continuous and easy-to-obtain measure of regional circulation. The present review aims to summarize the existing evidence on near infra-red spectroscopy and its potential clinical role in the resuscitation of critically ill patients in shock. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  2. Clinical review : use of venous oxygen saturations as a goal - a yet unfinished puzzle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, Paul; Wietasch, Gotz; Scheeren, Thomas; Spronk, Peter; Kuiper, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Shock is defined as global tissue hypoxia secondary to an imbalance between systemic oxygen delivery and oxygen demand. Venous oxygen saturations represent this relationship between oxygen delivery and oxygen demand and can therefore be used as an additional parameter to detect an impaired

  3. Implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring arterial oxygen saturation and heartbeat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuwana, K; Dohi, T; Hashimoto, Y; Matsumoto, K; Shimoyama, I

    2008-01-01

    In this study, we have developed an implantable telemetry capsule for monitoring heartbeat. The capsule has three main functions, monitoring vital signs, transmitting the vital signs, and receiving energy for driving the capsule without wires. We used two wavelengths of LEDs and a photodiode sensitive to the two wavelengths for heartbeat sensor. The arterial oxygen saturation is calculated from the amplitude of the heartbeat signal. We fabricated an FM transmitter whose carrier frequency was 80 MHz. Though the GHz range frequency is generally used in transmission, the attenuation in the human body is large. The size of a common linear antenna is about a quarter of its operating wavelength. We employed a coil-based antenna which can reduce size below the quarter of the wavelength. We fabricated a miniaturized transmitter with the coil-based antenna at lower frequency. Our capsule was driven intermittently. We used a rechargeable battery. When the battery ran down, the battery was charged by wireless using the induced electromotive force. This means that the capsule is capable of monitoring vital signs over the long term. We measured the heartbeat from the middle finger of hand in a water tank as a model of a human body.

  4. Transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels and oxygen saturation following caesarean section performed under spinal anaesthesia with intrathecal opioids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalchow, S; Lubeigt, O; Peters, G; Harvey, A; Duggan, T; Binning, A

    2013-07-01

    Intrathecal opioids can be associated with respiratory depression which may have serious consequences. We describe the use of a non-invasive monitor (TOSCA) to measure transcutaneous carbon dioxide levels and percentage of haemoglobin oxygen saturation in post-caesarean section patients in two hospitals which used different intrathecal opioids. Eighty-nine women undergoing caesarean section were monitored postoperatively until 08.00h on the first postoperative day. In addition to hyperbaric bupivacaine, patients from Hospital 1 received intrathecal diamorphine 300μg: those from Hospital 2 received intrathecal fentanyl 15μg and postoperative intramuscular morphine 10mg and were given morphine patient-controlled analgesia. Data from TOSCA were analysed the following day. Respiratory depression was defined as oxygen saturations carbon dioxide levels >7kPa for >2min or the need for medical intervention for clinical respiratory depression. Sustained hypercapnia was recorded in 8/45 (17.8%) patients from Hospital 1 and 3/44 (6.8%) from Hospital 2. Sustained oxygen saturations <90% were recorded in one patient from Hospital 2 and none from Hospital 1. The overall incidence of respiratory depression was 17.8% in Hospital 1 and 9.1% in Hospital 2. The median duration of hypercapnia was 9min [IQR 5.8-12.4] in Hospital 1 and 11.5min [IQR 7-32.8] in Hospital 2. No patient required medical intervention. The incidence of opioid-induced respiratory depression detected by TOSCA is higher than previously reported by other monitoring methods. TOSCA may have a role in detecting subclinical respiratory depression in the obstetric population. Further studies with a control population are needed. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

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    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  6. [Regional cerebral oxygen saturation as a marker of hemodynamic state following cardiac surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Hernández, J A; Aldemira-Liz, A; Martínez-López, A I; Cayuela, A; Charlo-Molina, M T; Cano-Franco, J; Loscertales-Abril, M

    2013-10-01

    Regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO₂) is a measure of the general state of perfusion and oxygenation. We aim to analyze the relationship between this and various hemodynamic and respiratory parameters. Forty-three patients, operated on between October 2011 and July 2012, were included in this prospective observational descriptive study. The following parameters were measured: mean arterial pressure, both arterial and central venous oxygen saturation and partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and lactate levels. From these parameters, the oxygenation index and the oxygen extraction ratio were calculated. These measurements were studied to evaluate whether rSO₂ correlated significantly with the other parameters. The average age and weight of the patients were 27.3 months and 9.2 kg, respectively. The rSO₂ correlated positively with both central venous oxygen saturation (r=0.73, P 0.4) between the rSO₂ and central venous oxygen saturation, and between the rSO₂ and oxygen extraction ratio. Regional cerebral oxygen saturation correlates well with hemodynamic parameters - mean arterial pressure, venous saturation, and the tissue oxygen extraction. However, it does not correlate with respiratory parameters. Copyright © 2012 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  7. Monitor hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in living mouse tail using photoacoustic CT scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Kruger, Robert; Reinecke, Daniel; Stantz, Keith M.

    2010-02-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to use PCT spectroscopy scanner to monitor the hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation change of living mouse by imaging the artery and veins in a mouse tail. Materials and Methods: One mouse tail was scanned using the PCT small animal scanner at the isosbestic wavelength (796nm) to obtain its hemoglobin concentration. Immediately after the scan, the mouse was euthanized and its blood was extracted from the heart. The true hemoglobin concentration was measured using a co-oximeter. Reconstruction correction algorithm to compensate the acoustic signal loss due to the existence of bone structure in the mouse tail was developed. After the correction, the hemoglobin concentration was calculated from the PCT images and compared with co-oximeter result. Next, one mouse were immobilized in the PCT scanner. Gas with different concentrations of oxygen was given to mouse to change the oxygen saturation. PCT tail vessel spectroscopy scans were performed 15 minutes after the introduction of gas. The oxygen saturation values were then calculated to monitor the oxygen saturation change of mouse. Results: The systematic error for hemoglobin concentration measurement was less than 5% based on preliminary analysis. Same correction technique was used for oxygen saturation calculation. After correction, the oxygen saturation level change matches the oxygen volume ratio change of the introduced gas. Conclusion: This living mouse tail experiment has shown that NIR PCT-spectroscopy can be used to monitor the oxygen saturation status in living small animals.

  8. Complete healing of chronic wounds of a lower leg with haemoglobin spray and regeneration of an accompanying severe dermatoliposclerosis with intermittent normobaric oxygen inhalation (INBOI: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pötzschke, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A new healing procedure has been developed on the basis of the successful treatment of therapy-resistant hypoxic (and practically anoxic leg ulcerations located within a heavy dermatoliposclerosis. The procedure involves an initial intra-ulceral application of haemoglobin followed by the intermittent administration of normobaric oxygen via inhalation. Haemoglobin is capable of externally supplying the granulating wound bed with oxygen at low partial pressure in a physiological manner, like a micro lung, so that oxidative stress can be avoided. A long-term daily administration of oxygen from within – including the peri-ulceral skin – is achieved by intermittent normobaric oxygen inhalation (INBOI regularly throughout the day in the form of 1-hour sessions. Using this combined healing treatment during haemoglobin applications the ulcerations healed within about 1 month, and subsequently with INBOI therapy within further approx. 4 months the peri-ulceral skin regenerated as far as the oxygenation status was concerned: The peri-ulceral transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (tcPO2 of zero (measured during breathing of normal air rose to a satisfactory value of approx. 35 mmHg. After 28 months of treatment, the completely hypoxic and degenerated skin on the leg had practically returned to normal with a PO2 of 45 mmHg. Furthermore, the skin dermatoliposclerosis regressed. The skin regeneration was long-lasting, which was probably related to cellular tissue regeneration with an increase in the capillary density, whereby it had to be maintained by regular oxygen inhalation (INBOI maintaining treatment. By unintended intra-individual therapy variations it is evidenced that local hypoxia was the reason for skin degeneration: 3 x 1 h oxygen inhalation were sufficient for the healing treatment; 2 x 1 h sufficed for maintenance, whereas 2 x 0.5 h did not. The new procedure carries practically no risks, is simple, cheap and effective. Whereas the

  9. The effect of implementing an automated oxygen control on oxygen saturation in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zanten, H A; Kuypers, K L A M; Stenson, B J; Bachman, T E; Pauws, S C; Te Pas, A B

    2017-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of implementing automated oxygen control as routine care in maintaining oxygen saturation (SpO2) within target range in preterm infants. Infants 95% decreased (41.9 (30.6-49.4)% vs 19.3 (11.5-24.5)%; p<0.001). The time SpO2<90% increased (8.6 (7.2-11.7)% vs 15.1 (14.0-21.1)%; p<0.0001), while SpO2<80% was similar (1.1 (0.4-1.7)% vs 0.9 (0.5-2.1)%; ns). During oxygen therapy, preterm infants spent more time within the SpO2 target range after implementation of automated oxygen control, with a significant reduction in hyperoxaemia, but not hypoxaemia. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  10. Relationship between oxygen saturation, gestational age, and level of oral feeding skills in preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Raquel Coube de Carvalho; Prade, Leila Sauer; Bolzan, Geovana de Paula; Weinmann, Angela Regina Maciel; Keske-Soares, Márcia

    2017-03-09

    To correlate the peripheral oxygen saturation with gestational age and the level of oral feeding skills in the introduction of oral feeding in preterm infants. This is a cross-sectional, quantitative study whose sample was composed of 169 clinically stable preterm infants. Peripheral oxygen saturation was assessed before and after introduction of oral feeding. The preterm infants were stratified into three groups based on their gestational age at birth: 26-29, 30-33, and 34-36 weeks. The preterm infants were classified into four levels according to their oral feeding skill and resistance. No differences in oxygen saturation were observed between the strata of gestational age and between the levels of oral feeding skill. Differences were observed in the groups of preterm infants aged 30-33 weeks (p=0.04) and 34-36 weeks (p=0.02) and on the level I of oral feeding skills (p=0.04) when oxygen saturation was compared at pre- and post-first oral feeding. Significant correlations (poral feeding skills (r=0.38); in Group A, between gestational age and oxygen saturation before the first oral feeding (r=0.83); in Group B, between the level of oral feeding skill and oxygen saturation before the first oral feeding (r=0.26) and between level of oral feeding skill and gestational age (r=0.26). Correlation was found for peripheral oxygen saturation when compared with gestational age and with the level of oral feeding skills.

  11. Thenar oxygen saturation and invasive oxygen delivery measurements in critically ill patients in early septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquida, Jaume; Gruartmoner, Guillem; Martínez, Maria Luisa; Masip, Jordi; Sabatier, Caroline; Espinal, Cristina; Artigas, Antonio; Baigorri, Francisco

    2011-05-01

    This prospective study was aimed to test the hypothesis that tissue hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO₂) measured noninvasively using near-infrared spectroscopy is a reliable indicator of global oxygen delivery (DO₂) measured invasively using a pulmonary artery catheter (PAC) in patients with septic shock. The study setting was a 26-bed medical-surgical intensive care unit at a university hospital. Subjects were adult patients in septic shock who required PAC hemodynamic monitoring for resuscitation. Interventions included transient ischemic challenge on the forearm. After blood pressure normalization, hemodynamic and oximetric PAC variables and, simultaneously, steady-state StO₂ and its changes from ischemic challenge (deoxygenation and reoxygenation rates) were measured. Fifteen patients were studied. All the patients had a mean arterial pressure above 65 mmHg. The DO₂ index (iDO₂) range in the studied population was 215 to 674 mL O₂/min per m. The mean mixed venous oxygen saturation value was 61% ± 10%, mean cardiac index was 3.4 ± 0.9 L/min per m, and blood lactate level was 4.6 ± 2.7 mmol/L. Steady-state StO₂ significantly correlated with iDO₂, arterial and venous O₂ content, and O₂ extraction ratio. A StO₂ cutoff value of 75% predicted iDO₂ below 450, with a sensitivity of 0.9 and a specificity of 0.9. In patients in septic shock and normalized MAP, low StO₂ reflects extremely low iDO₂. Steady-state StO₂ does not correlate with moderately low iDO₂, indicating poor sensitivity of StO₂ to rule out hypoperfusion.

  12. Oxygen saturations of medical inpatients in a Malawian hospital: cross-sectional study of oxygen supply and demand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hywel-Gethin Tudur Evans

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-GB JA X-NONE Oxygen is a World Health Organisation listed essential drug yet provision of oxygen in developing countries often fails to meet demand.  The aim of this study was to evaluate the need for supplementary oxygen against oxygen delivery capacity at a large teaching hospital in Malawi.  A cross‐sectional study of all adult medical inpatients and assessment of oxygen provision over a 24‐hour period was conducted.    144 patients were included in the study, 14 of whom met local and international criteria for oxygen therapy (oxygen saturations of <90%.  Four were receiving oxygen.  Of the 8 oxygen concentrators available, only 4 were functional.  In conclusion, we identified a need for oxygen that was greater than the supply.

  13. Simulation of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin solution, RBC suspension and hemosome by a neural network system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, P; Chen, W K; Lee, C J

    1996-03-01

    Hemoglobin-based artificial blood substitutes as oxygen carrier is advantageous over current plasma expander. In this study, oxygen saturation of hemoglobin solution, red blood cell suspension and artificial blood substitute under various conditions were measured by yeast-consuming-oxygen experiments instead of spectrophotometer. The empirical results were assigned into training feedforward back-propagation neural network system in order to simulate the oxygen saturation model modulated by those factors such as pH, [Cl-], [2,3-DPG], pO2 and pCO2. Consequently, this neural network is able to simulate accurately the oxygen saturation of Hb solution. The prediction of hemosome is not agreed well possible because of the resistance of transport of oxygen. However, the results showed neural net can offer a simple and convenient way in comparison with the conventional methods, especially in dealing with complex and ambiguous problem.

  14. Coral calcification under daily oxygen saturation and pH dynamics reveals the important role of oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.; Silva, C.I.F.; Scherders, V.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Osinga, R.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are essential to many nations, and are currently in global decline. Although climate models predict decreases in seawater pH (~0.3 units) and oxygen saturation (~5 percentage points), these are exceeded by the current daily pH and oxygen fluctuations on many reefs (pH 7.8–8.7 and 27–241%

  15. Coral calcification under daily oxygen saturation and pH dynamics reveals the important role of oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Silva, C.I.F.; Scherders, V.; Bleijswijk, van J.; Osinga, R.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are essential to many nations, and are currently in global decline. Although climate models predict decreases in seawater pH (~0.3 units) and oxygen saturation (~5 percentage points), these are exceeded by the current daily pH and oxygen fluctuations on many reefs (pH 7.8-8.7 and 27-241%

  16. Coral calcification under daily oxygen saturation and pH dynamics reveals the important role of oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.; Silva, C.I.F.; Scherders, V.; van Bleijswijk, J.; Osinga, R.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are essential to many nations, and are currently in global decline. Although climate models predict decreases in seawater pH (~0.3 units) and oxygen saturation (~5 percentage points), these are exceeded by the current daily pH and oxygen fluctuations on many reefs (pH 7.8–8.7 and 27–241%

  17. Coral calcification under daily oxygen saturation and pH dynamics reveals the important role of oxygen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijgerde, T.H.M.; Silva, C.I.F.; Scherders, V.; Bleijswijk, van J.; Osinga, R.

    2014-01-01

    Coral reefs are essential to many nations, and are currently in global decline. Although climate models predict decreases in seawater pH (~0.3 units) and oxygen saturation (~5 percentage points), these are exceeded by the current daily pH and oxygen fluctuations on many reefs (pH 7.8-8.7 and 27-241%

  18. Preliminary Results of Oxygen Saturation with a Prototype of Continuous Wave Laser Oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, R.; Leo, M. G.; Cicco, G.; Cassano, T.; Nitti, L.; Lugarà, P. M.

    Near-infrared tissue spectroscopy is a non invasive, innocuous technique to measure oxygen saturation in tissues. NIR oximetry can be used in almost any area of the body, according to the type of analysis to be done.

  19. Exploring fractal behaviour of blood oxygen saturation in preterm babies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahari, Marina; Hui, Tan Xin; Zainuri, Nuryazmin Ahmat; Darlow, Brian A.

    2017-04-01

    Recent evidence has been emerging that oxygenation instability in preterm babies could lead to an increased risk of retinal injury such as retinopathy of prematurity. There is a potential that disease severity could be better understood using nonlinear methods for time series data such as fractal theories [1]. Theories on fractal behaviours have been employed by researchers in various disciplines who were motivated to look into the behaviour or structure of irregular fluctuations in temporal data. In this study, an investigation was carried out to examine whether fractal behaviour could be detected in blood oxygen time series. Detection for the presence of fractals in oxygen data of preterm infants was performed using the methods of power spectrum, empirical probability distribution function and autocorrelation function. The results from these fractal identification methods indicate the possibility that these data exhibit fractal nature. Subsequently, a fractal framework for future research was suggested for oxygen time series.

  20. Effect of an oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device on the oxygen saturation of patients during dermatological methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, E; Allen, J; Thorn, C; Shore, A; Curnow, A

    2013-05-01

    Methyl aminolevulinate photodynamic therapy (MAL-PDT) (a topical treatment used for a number of precancerous skin conditions) utilizes the combined interaction of a photosensitizer (protoporphyrin IX (PpIX)), light of the appropriate wavelength, and molecular oxygen to produce singlet oxygen and other reactive oxygen species which induce cell death. During treatment, localized oxygen depletion occurs and is thought to contribute to decreased efficacy. The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oxygen pressure injection (OPI) device had an effect on localized oxygen saturation levels and/or PpIX fluorescence of skin lesions during MAL-PDT. This study employed an OPI device to apply oxygen under pressure to the skin lesions of patients undergoing standard MAL-PDT. Optical reflectance spectrometry and fluorescence imaging were used to noninvasively monitor the localized oxygen saturation and PpIX fluorescence of the treatment area, respectively. No significant changes in oxygen saturation were observed when these data were combined for the group with OPI and compared to the group that received standard MAL-PDT without OPI. Additionally, no significant difference in PpIX photobleaching or clinical outcome at 3 months between the groups of patients was observed, although the group that received standard MAL-PDT demonstrated a significant increase (pMAL-PDT. Further investigation is therefore required to find a more effective method of MAL-PDT enhancement.

  1. End expiratory oxygen concentrations to predict central venous oxygen saturation: an observational pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steuerwald Michael

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A non-invasive surrogate measurement for central venous oxygen saturation (ScVO2 would be useful in the ED for assessing therapeutic interventions in critically ill patients. We hypothesized that either linear or nonlinear mathematical manipulation of the partial pressure of oxygen in breath at end expiration (EtO2 would accurately predict ScVO2. Methods Prospective observational study of a convenience sample of hemodialysis patients age > 17 years with existing upper extremity central venous catheters were enrolled. Using a portable respiratory device, we collected both tidal breathing and end expiratory oxygen and carbon dioxide concentrations, volume and flow on each patient. Simultaneous ScVO2 measurements were obtained via blood samples collected from the hemodialysis catheter. Two models were used to predict ScVO2: 1 Best-fit multivariate linear regression equation incorporating all respiratory variables; 2 MathCAD to model the decay curve of EtO2 versus expiratory volume using the least squares method to estimate the pO2 that would occur at Results From 21 patients, the correlation between EtO2 and measured ScVO2 yielded R2 = 0.11. The best fit multivariate equation included EtCO2 and EtO2 and when solved for ScVO2, the equation yielded a mean absolute difference from the measured ScVO2 of 8 ± 6% (range -18 to +17%. The predicted ScVO2 value was within 10% of the actual value for 57% of the patients. Modeling of the EtO2 curve did not accurately predict ScVO2 at any lung volume. Conclusion We found no significant correlation between EtO2 and ScVO2. A linear equation incorporating EtCO2 and EtO2 had at best modest predictive accuracy for ScVO2.

  2. Cerebral oxygen saturation: graded response to carbon dioxide with isoxia and graded response to oxygen with isocapnia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W Alan C Mutch

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Monitoring cerebral saturation is increasingly seen as an aid to management of patients in the operating room and in neurocritical care. How best to manipulate cerebral saturation is not fully known. We examined cerebral saturation with graded changes in carbon dioxide tension while isoxic and with graded changes in oxygen tension while isocapnic. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study was approved by the Research Ethics Board of the University Health Network at the University of Toronto. Thirteen studies were undertaken in healthy adults with cerebral oximetry by near infrared spectroscopy. End-tidal gas concentrations were manipulated using a model-based prospective end-tidal targeting device. End-tidal carbon dioxide was altered ±15 mmHg from baseline in 5 mmHg increments with isoxia (clamped at 110±4 mmHg. End-tidal oxygen was changed to 300, 400, 500, 80, 60 and 50 mmHg under isocapnia (37±2 mmHg. Twelve studies were completed. The end-tidal carbon dioxide versus cerebral saturation fit a linear relationship (R(2 = 0.92±0.06. The end-tidal oxygen versus cerebral saturation followed log-linear behaviour and best fit a hyperbolic relationship (R(2 = 0.85±0.10. Cerebral saturation was maximized in isoxia at end-tidal carbon dioxide of baseline +15 mmHg (77±3 percent. Cerebral saturation was minimal in isocapnia at an end-tidal oxygen tension of 50 mmHg (61±3 percent. The cerebral saturation during normoxic hypocapnia was equivalent to normocapnic hypoxia of 60 mmHg. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Hypocapnia reduces cerebral saturation to an extent equivalent to moderate hypoxia.

  3. Non-invasive haemoglobin monitoring by an LED based optical sensor system

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    peer-reviewed During the perioperative period, which includes the period before surgery (preoperative), during surgery (intraoperative) and after surgery (postoperative), it is essential to measure diagnostic parameters such as: blood oxygen saturation; haemoglobin (Hb) concentration; and pulse rate. The Hb concentration in human blood is an important parameter to evaluate the physiological condition of an individual, as Hb is the oxygen carrying component of red blood cells. By determinin...

  4. Measuring hemoglobin amount and oxygen saturation of skin with advancing age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Shumpei; Yamamoto, Satoshi; Yamauchi, Midori; Tsumura, Norimichi; Ogawa-Ochiai, Keiko; Akiba, Tetsuo

    2012-03-01

    We measured the oxygen saturation of skin at various ages using our previously proposed method that can rapidly simulate skin spectral reflectance with high accuracy. Oxygen saturation is commonly measured by a pulse oximeter to evaluate oxygen delivery for monitoring the functions of heart and lungs at a specific time. On the other hand, oxygen saturation of skin is expected to assess peripheral conditions. Our previously proposed method, the optical path-length matrix method (OPLM), is based on a Monte Carlo for multi-layered media (MCML), but can simulate skin spectral reflectance 27,000 times faster than MCML. In this study, we implemented an iterative simulation of OPLM with a nonlinear optimization technique such that this method can also be used for estimating hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation from the measured skin spectral reflectance. In the experiments, the skin reflectance spectra of 72 outpatients aged between 20 and 86 years were measured by a spectrophotometer. Three points were measured for each subject: the forearm, the thenar eminence, and the intermediate phalanx. The result showed that the oxygen saturation of skin remained constant at each point as the age varied.

  5. The Choroidal Eye Oximeter - An instrument for measuring oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, R. A.; Danisch, L. A.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Choroidal Eye Oximeter is an electro-optical instrument that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in the back of the human eye by a spectrophotometric method. Since choroidal blood is characteristic of blood which is supplied to the brain, the Choroidal Eye Oximeter can be used to monitor the amount of oxygen which is supplied to the brain under varying external conditions. The instrument consists of two basic systems: the optical system and the electronic system. The optical system produces a suitable bi-chromatic beam of light, reflects this beam from the fundus of the subject's eye, and onto a low-noise photodetector. The electronic system amplifies the weak composite signal from the photodetector, computes the average oxygen saturation from the area of the fundus that was sampled, and displays the value of the computed oxygen saturation on a panel meter.

  6. Prognostic value of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation during neonatal extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clair, Marie-Philippine; Rambaud, Jérôme; Flahault, Adrien; Guedj, Romain; Guilbert, Julia; Guellec, Isabelle; Durandy, Amélie; Demoulin, Maryne; Jean, Sandrine; Mitanchez, Delphine; Chalard, François; Sileo, Chiara; Carbajal, Ricardo; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support is indicated in severe and refractory respiratory or circulatory failures. Neurological complications are typically represented by acute ischemic or hemorrhagic lesions, which induce higher morbidity and mortality. The primary goal of this study was to assess the prognostic value of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (StcO2) on mortality in neonates and young infants treated with ECMO. A secondary objective was to evaluate the association between StcO2 and the occurrence of cerebral lesions. Study design This was a prospective study in infants < 3 months of age admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit and requiring ECMO support. Measurements The assessment of cerebral perfusion was made by continuous StcO2 monitoring using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensors placed on the two temporo-parietal regions. Neurological lesions were identified by MRI or transfontanellar echography. Results Thirty-four infants <3 months of age were included in the study over a period of 18 months. The ECMO duration was 10±7 days. The survival rate was 50% (17/34 patients), and the proportion of brain injuries was 20% (7/34 patients). The mean StcO2 during ECMO in the non-survivors was reduced in both hemispheres (p = 0.0008 right, p = 0.03 left) compared to the survivors. StcO2 was also reduced in deceased or brain-injured patients compared to the survivors without brain injury (p = 0.002). Conclusion StcO2 appears to be a strong prognostic factor of survival and of the presence of cerebral lesions in young infants during ECMO. PMID:28278259

  7. Physiological meaning of cerebral oxygen saturation for piglet with hypoxia-ischemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Haishu; Huang, Lan; Jen, Chungchien; Hwang, Betau; Lee, Zhiguang; Teng, Yichao; Zheng, Meizhi

    2005-01-01

    The physiological meaning of cerebral oxygen saturation absolute values and the oxygen metabolism of piglet with hypoxia-ischemia (HIE) were researched. The subjects were two piglets. During the total experiment of hypoxia then recovery, the regional cerebral tissue oxygen (rScO2), pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) were detected non-invasively and the jugular oxygen saturation (SjO2), arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) were given invasively. The results show that because SjO2 was equal to or larger than rScO2 and SaO2 > ScO2, rScO2 cannot be determined by the weighted sum of SjO2 and SaO2 which had been presented in some papers. According to above-mentioned analysis, the ecchymoma and pathological changes of the vessels due to HIE may be another contribution of rScO2. SjO2 was correlated with SaO2 (R=0.996 and 0.962 for two piglets) and the values of (SaO2-SjO2) are close to constants (29.3+/-8% and 30.3+/-8%).It means that because the subjects were under anesthesia, the oxygen consumption of cerebral tissue kept constants.

  8. Structure of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christian Brix Folsted; Torvund-Jensen, Morten; Nielsen, Marianne Jensby

    2012-01-01

    Red cell haemoglobin is the fundamental oxygen-transporting molecule in blood, but also a potentially tissue-damaging compound owing to its highly reactive haem groups. During intravascular haemolysis, such as in malaria and haemoglobinopathies, haemoglobin is released into the plasma, where...... it is captured by the protective acute-phase protein haptoglobin. This leads to formation of the haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex, which represents a virtually irreversible non-covalent protein-protein interaction. Here we present the crystal structure of the dimeric porcine haptoglobin-haemoglobin complex...... receptor CD163 (ref. 3) protrudes from the surface of the distal end of the complex, adjacent to the associated haemoglobin α-subunit. Small-angle X-ray scattering measurements of human haptoglobin-haemoglobin bound to the ligand-binding fragment of CD163 confirm receptor binding in this area, and show...

  9. Oxygen saturation in free-diving whales: optical sensor development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutierrez-Herrera, Enoch; Vacas-Jacques, Paulino; Anderson, Rox; Zapol, Warren; Franco, Walfre

    2013-02-01

    Mass stranding of live whales has been explained by proposing many natural or human-related causes. Recent necropsy reports suggest a link between the mass stranding of beaked whales and the use of naval mid-frequency sonar. Surprisingly, whales have experienced symptoms similar to those caused by inert gas bubbles in human divers. Our goal is to develop a compact optical sensor to monitor the consumption of the oxygen stores in the muscle of freely diving whales. To this end we have proposed the use of a near-infrared phase-modulated frequency-domain spectrophotometer, in reflectance mode, to probe tissue oxygenation. Our probe consists of three main components: radiofrequency (RF) modulated light sources, a high-bandwidth avalanche photodiode with transimpedance amplifier, and a RF gain and phase detector. In this work, we concentrate on the design and performance of the light sensor, and its corresponding amplifier unit. We compare three state-of-the-art avalanche photodiodes: one through-hole device and two surface-mount detectors. We demonstrate that the gain due to the avalanche effect differs between sensors. The avalanche gain near maximum bias of the through-hole device exceeds by a factor of 2.5 and 8.3 that of the surface-mount detectors. We present the behavior of our assembled through-hole detector plus high-bandwidth transimpedance amplifier, and compare its performance to that of a commercially available module. The assembled unit enables variable gain, its phase noise is qualitatively lower, and the form factor is significantly smaller. Having a detecting unit that is compact, flexible, and functional is a milestone in the development of our tissue oxygenation tag.

  10. Coral calcification under daily oxygen saturation and pH dynamics reveals the important role of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim Wijgerde

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are essential to many nations, and are currently in global decline. Although climate models predict decreases in seawater pH (∼0.3 units and oxygen saturation (∼5 percentage points, these are exceeded by the current daily pH and oxygen fluctuations on many reefs (pH 7.8–8.7 and 27–241% O2 saturation. We investigated the effect of oxygen and pH fluctuations on coral calcification in the laboratory using the model species Acropora millepora. Light calcification rates were greatly enhanced (+178% by increased seawater pH, but only at normoxia; hyperoxia completely negated this positive effect. Dark calcification rates were significantly inhibited (51–75% at hypoxia, whereas pH had no effect. Our preliminary results suggest that within the current oxygen and pH range, oxygen has substantial control over coral growth, whereas the role of pH is limited. This has implications for reef formation in this era of rapid climate change, which is accompanied by a decrease in seawater oxygen saturation owing to higher water temperatures and coastal eutrophication.

  11. Multivariate calibration modeling of liver oxygen saturation using near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cingo, Ndumiso A.; Soller, Babs R.; Puyana, Juan C.

    2000-05-01

    The liver has been identified as an ideal site to spectroscopically monitor for changes in oxygen saturation during liver transplantation and shock because it is susceptible to reduced blood flow and oxygen transport. Near-IR spectroscopy, combined with multivariate calibration techniques, has been shown to be a viable technique for monitoring oxygen saturation changes in various organs in a minimally invasive manner. The liver has a dual system circulation. Blood enters the liver through the portal vein and hepatic artery, and leaves through the hepatic vein. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to determine how the liver NIR spectroscopic information correlates with the different regions of the hepatic lobule as the dual circulation flows from the presinusoidal space into the post sinusoidal region of the central vein. For NIR spectroscopic information to reliably represent the status of liver oxygenation, the NIR oxygen saturation should best correlate with the post-sinusoidal region. In a series of six pigs undergoing induced hemorrhagic chock, NIR spectra collected from the liver were used together with oxygen saturation reference data from the hepatic and portal veins, and an average of the two to build partial least-squares regression models. Results obtained from these models show that the hepatic vein and an average of the hepatic and portal veins provide information that is best correlate with NIR spectral information, while the portal vein reference measurement provides poorer correlation and accuracy. These results indicate that NIR determination of oxygen saturation in the liver can provide an assessment of liver oxygen utilization.

  12. Determination of Oxygen Saturation and Photoplethysmogram from Near Infrared Scattering Images

    CERN Document Server

    Ri, Yong-U; Sin, Kye-Ryong

    2016-01-01

    The near infrared scattering images of human muscle include some information on bloodstream and hemoglobin concentration according to skin depth and time. This paper addressed a method of determining oxygen saturation and photoplethysmogram from the near infrared (NIR) scattering images of muscle. Depending on the modified Beer-Lambert Law and the diffuse scattering model of muscular tissue, we determined an extinction coefficient matrix of hemoglobin from the near infrared scattering images and analyzed distribution of oxygen saturation of muscle with a depth from the extinction coefficient matrix. And we determined a dynamic attenuation variation curve with respect to fragmentary image frames sensitive to bloodstream from scattering image frames of muscle with time and then obtained the photoplethysmogram and heart rate by Fourier transformation and inverse transformation. This method based on the NIR scattering images can be applied in measurement of an average oxygen saturation and photoplethysmogram even...

  13. Retinal oxygen saturation in relation to retinal thickness in diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob

    to retinal thickness in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: We included 18 patients with DME that all had central retinal thickness (CRT) >300 µm and were free of active proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Optical coherence tomography (Topcon 3D OCT-2000 spectral domain OCT) was used...... for paracentral edema, the oxygen saturation in the upper and lower temporal arcade branches were compared to the corresponding upper and lower subfield thickness. Spearman’s rank was used to calculate correlation coefficients between CRT and retinal oximetry. Results: Median age and duration of diabetes was 59....... 92.3%, p=0.52). We found no correlation between CRT and retinal oxygen saturation, even when accounting for paracentral edema (p>0.05). Furthermore, there was no difference in retinal oxygen saturation between the macular hemisphere that was more or less affected by DME (p>0.05). Conclusion: Patients...

  14. Influence of arterial dissolved oxygen level on venous oxygen saturation: don't forget the PaO2!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Matthieu; Vallée, Fabrice; Mateo, Joaquim; Payen, Didier

    2014-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen (i.e., unbound to hemoglobin) is often neglected as a determinant of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in review articles and textbooks. These statements may lead to potential misinterpretation of SCvO2 value across FiO2 changes. In this study, we aimed to explore the influence of PaO2 and FiO2 on ScvO2 in ventilated critically ill patients. This was a prospective observational study in two surgical intensive care units. Mechanically ventilated and sedated patients with cardiac output and ScvO2 monitoring and PaO2/FiO2 > 200 with inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 0.5 were enrolled (cohort [ScvO2]). A second cohort of brain-injured patients with jugular venous oxygen saturation monitoring was studied to assess the application of the results to regional circulation (cohort [SjvO2]). Central venous oxygen saturation was measured at baseline FiO2 and at FiO2 = 1. We finally estimated the participation of the dissolved oxygen (PadissolvO2) to the ScvO2 variations. Twenty patients formed the cohort ScvO2 and eight formed the cohort SjvO2. Central venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (69%-76%) to 84% (78%-88%) after increasing FiO2, whereas PaO2 rose from 100 (85-124) mmHg to 387 (360-449) mmHg. The rise of ScvO2 was mostly ascribable to the dissolved oxygen. The increase of ScvO2 was not explained by changes in cardiac output or hemoglobin levels. Jugular venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (58%-78%) to 83% (78%-89%) after increasing FiO2. Arterial dissolved oxygen level can significantly influence the ScvO2 value. Therefore, PaO2 should not be overlooked while considering the ScvO2 value as a therapeutic goal. Interpretation of ScvO2 variations in response to a therapeutic challenge (i.e., fluid challenge, inotropic drug initiation) should be performed at constant FiO2.

  15. Study of retinal vessel oxygen saturation in ischemic and non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lei-Lei; Dong, Yan-Min; Zong, Yao; Zheng, Qi-Shan; Fu, Yue; Yuan, Yong-Guang; Huang, Xia; Qian, Garrett; Gao, Qian-Ying

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore how oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels is altered in ischemic and non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO). METHODS Fifty BRVO eyes were divided into ischemic (n=26) and non-ischemic (n=24) groups, based on fundus fluorescein angiography. Healthy individuals (n=52 and n=48, respectively) were also recruited as controls for the two groups. The mean oxygen saturations of the occluded vessels and central vessels were measured by oximetry in the BRVO and control groups. RESULTS In the ischemic BRVO group, the occluded arterioles oxygen saturation (SaO2-A, 106.0%±14.3%), instead of the occluded venule oxygen saturation (SaO2-V, 60.8%±9.4%), showed increases when compared with those in the same quadrant vessels (SaO2-A, 86.1%±16.5%) in the contralateral eyes (Pcentral vessels showed similar trends with those of the occluded vessels. In the non-ischemic BRVO group, the occluded and central SaO2-V and SaO2-A showed no significant changes. In both the ischemic and non-ischemic BRVOs, the central SaO2-A was significantly increased when compared to healthy individuals. CONCLUSION Obvious changes in the occluded and central SaO2-A were found in the ischemic BRVO group, indicating that disorders of oxygen metabolism in the arterioles may participate in the pathogenesis of ischemic BRVO. PMID:26949618

  16. Comparative evaluation of oxygen saturation during periodontal surgery with or without oral conscious sedation in anxious patients

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Context: Stress and anxiety during dental procedure can alter respiratory rate and thereby alter oxygen saturation in the blood, leading to emergencies like syncope. It can be prevented by preoperative intravenous sedation. However, it can lead to respiratory depression. Hence, this study was carried out to analyze the effect of oral conscious sedation on oxygen saturation during periodontal surgery in anxious patients. Aim: The aim was to compare the oxygen saturation levels during periodont...

  17. Photolysis of oxygen saturated ethers in the presence of Sn (Ⅱ) or Cu (Ⅱ) salts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    施敏

    2000-01-01

    Photolysis of diethyl ether-oxygen charge transfer complex the presence of Sn(Ⅱ) or Cu(Ⅱ) salts gave higher yields of the oxiation products, ethyl acetate, acetaldehyde, ethanol,ethyl formate and methanol compared with those without the salts. In addition, the photolysis of an oxygen saturated tetrahydrofuran (THF) or dibutyl lether solution gave γ-butyro-Their yields were also affected by the addition of Cu(Ⅱ) or Sn(Ⅱ) salts.

  18. Arterial oxygen saturation in healthy newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales Gustavo F; Salirrosas Amelia

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background High altitude is associated with both low pulse oxygen saturation at birth and more pre-term deliveries. The present study was performed to determine pulse oxygen saturation in newborns at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m) and Lima (150 m) to test the hypothesis that low pulse oxygen saturation at birth at high altitudes was not observed at term deliveries. Methods The present study was designed to determine pulse oxygen saturation values through 1 minute to 24 hours and val...

  19. Study of retinal vessel oxygen saturation in ischemic and non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei-Lei Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To explore how oxygen saturation in retinal blood vessels is altered in ischemic and non-ischemic branch retinal vein occlusion (BRVO. METHODS: Fifty BRVO eyes were divided into ischemic (n=26 and non-ischemic (n=24 groups, based on fundus fluorescein angiography. Healthy individuals (n=52 and n=48, respectively were also recruited as controls for the two groups. The mean oxygen saturations of the occluded vessels and central vessels were measured by oximetry in the BRVO and control groups. RESULTS: In the ischemic BRVO group, the occluded arterioles oxygen saturation (SaO2-A, 106.0%±14.3%, instead of the occluded venule oxygen saturation (SaO2-V, 60.8%±9.4%, showed increases when compared with those in the same quadrant vessels (SaO2-A, 86.1%±16.5% in the contralateral eyes (P<0.05. The oxygen saturations of the central vessels showed similar trends with those of the occluded vessels. In the non-ischemic BRVO group, the occluded and central SaO2-V and SaO2-A showed no significant changes. In both the ischemic and non-ischemic BRVOs, the central SaO2-A was significantly increased when compared to healthy individuals. CONCLUSION: Obvious changes in the occluded and central SaO2-A were found in the ischemic BRVO group, indicating that disorders of oxygen metabolism in the arterioles may participate in the pathogenesis of ischemic BRVO.

  20. Inspired Carbon Dioxide During Hypoxia: Effects on Task Performance and Cerebral Oxygen Saturation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorp, E. van; Los, M.; Dirven, P.; Sarton, E.; Valk, P.; Teppema, L.; Stienstra, R.; Dahan, A.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Exposure to a hypoxic environment has a deleterious effect on physiological and mental functions. We studied the effect of added inspired CO2 during artificially induced hypoxic normobaric hypoxia (oxygen saturation ∼80%) on complex task performance. Methods: In random order, 22 health

  1. Changes in retinal oxygen saturation after intravitreal aflibercept in patients with diabetic macular edema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Peto, Tunde; Grauslund, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Design of study: Three months prospective interventional study. Purpose: To evaluate changes in retinal arterial and venous oxygen saturation after intravitreal aflibercept in patients with diabetic macular edema (DME). Methods: We included 17 patients with DME, central retinal thickness (CRT) >300...

  2. Effects of music therapy on oxygen saturation in premature infants receiving endotracheal suctioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Lih-Lih; Wang, Ru-Hwa; Chen, Shu-Jen; Pai, Lu

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate how premature infants' oxygen saturation changed in response to music therapy while they were receiving endotracheal suctioning. A convenience sample of 30 premature infants was selected from three neonatal intensive care units. A one-group repeated measures design was adopted for this study. The oxygen saturation of all subjects was first measured while they were receiving endotracheal suctioning during a four-hour control period with regular care. Then, four hours after the control period was completed, an experimental period began in which the music " Transitions " was played. One minute before suctioning, the level of oxygen saturation was measured to provide the baseline data. During a period of 30 minutes after suctioning, the oxygen saturation was recorded every minute to analyze the clinical effects of music therapy. The results showed that premature infants receiving music therapy with endotracheal suctioning had a significantly higher SPO(2); than that when not receiving music therapy (p music therapy (p music therapy as developmental care to premature infants when performing any nursing intervention may enhance not only the quality of nursing care but also quality of the infant's life.

  3. Proof of concept non-invasive estimation of peripheral venous oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Musabbir; Pretty, Chris G; Amies, Alexander C; Balmer, Joel; Banna, Houda E; Shaw, Geoffrey M; Geoffrey Chase, J

    2017-05-19

    Pulse oximeters continuously monitor arterial oxygen saturation. Continuous monitoring of venous oxygen saturation (SvO2) would enable real-time assessment of tissue oxygen extraction (O2E) and perfusion changes leading to improved diagnosis of clinical conditions, such as sepsis. This study presents the proof of concept of a novel pulse oximeter method that utilises the compliance difference between arteries and veins to induce artificial respiration-like modulations to the peripheral vasculature. These modulations make the venous blood pulsatile, which are then detected by a pulse oximeter sensor. The resulting photoplethysmograph (PPG) signals from the pulse oximeter are processed and analysed to develop a calibration model to estimate regional venous oxygen saturation (SpvO2), in parallel to arterial oxygen saturation estimation (SpaO2). A clinical study with healthy adult volunteers (n = 8) was conducted to assess peripheral SvO2 using this pulse oximeter method. A range of physiologically realistic SvO2 values were induced using arm lift and vascular occlusion tests. Gold standard, arterial and venous blood gas measurements were used as reference measurements. Modulation ratios related to arterial and venous systems were determined using a frequency domain analysis of the PPG signals. A strong, linear correlation (r (2)  = 0.95) was found between estimated venous modulation ratio (RVen) and measured SvO2, providing a calibration curve relating measured RVen to venous oxygen saturation. There is a significant difference in gradient between the SpvO2 estimation model (SpvO2 = 111 - 40.6*R) and the empirical SpaO2 estimation model (SpaO2 = 110 - 25*R), which yields the expected arterial-venous differences. Median venous and arterial oxygen saturation accuracies of paired measurements between pulse oximeter estimated and gold standard measurements were 0.29 and 0.65%, respectively, showing good accuracy of the pulse oximeter system. The main outcome

  4. Evaluation of oxygen saturation by pulse-oximetry in mouth breathing patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niaki, Esfandiar Akhavan; Chalipa, Javad; Taghipoor, Elahe

    2010-01-01

    Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman's correlation coefficient tests. 34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%). Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic. A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4%) and gingival hyperplasia (29.2%) were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  5. Evaluation of Oxygen Saturation by Pulse-Oximetry in Mouth Breathing Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esfandiar Akhavan Niaki

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Mouth breathing might not always result in hypoxia, but can contribute to it. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of mouth breathing on hypoxia. Based on a pilot study, 323 patients with mouth breathing were selected. Assessment of mouth breathing was based on clinical examination and questionnaires filled out by patients and their companions. The patients were also examined for further oral findings that could be attributable to mouth breathing. Oxygen saturation of each case was measured by means of a pulse oximetry device. The level of 95% saturation was set as the limit, under which the patient was considered hypoxemic. Acquired data was analyzed for descriptive data and frequency and also by means of the Chi-square and Spearman’s correlation coefficient tests.  34.6% of the cases had normal O2 saturation. 65.4% of cases were hypoxemic (saturation level was below 95% in 42.8% and 95% in 22.6%. Most of the mouth breathing patients were male who were also more hypoxemic.  A weak inverse relationship existed between the age of the patients and Oxygen saturation. Deep palatal vaults (29.4% and gingival hyperplasia (29.2% were the most frequent intraoral findings. Concerning the effects of hypoxia on body systems, the use of pulse oximetry in suspected mouth breathing patients could be recommended in routine oral and dental examinations.

  6. Oxygen Reserve Index (ORI): Validation of a new variable

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheeren, T.W.L.; Spanjersberg, R.; Struys, M.M.R.F.

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: In the flat part of the haemoglobin-oxygen binding curve, where oxygen saturation is >97%, a decrease in ORI indicates a falling PaO2 prior to oxygen desaturation. As such, the non-invasive and continuously available ORI may offer additional information at maximum SpO2 values and help gu

  7. The effect of rubber dam placement on the arterial oxygen saturation in dental patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodday, Reginald H B; Crocker, David A

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of rubber dam placement on arterial blood oxygen saturation in dental patients; it also determined whether the effects are technique sensitive. The study group consisted of 28 ASA Class I patients who were randomly allocated to one of two groups: Group A--rubber dam isolation of the maxilla (from tooth #14 to #6) and Group B-rubber dam isolation of the mandible (from tooth #19 to #27). A pulse oximeter was used to detect arterial blood oxygen saturation in both groups. Each patient's oxygen saturation (Sp02) was recorded every 30 seconds for two minutes to establish a baseline. Group A subjects received local infiltration in the vestibule above tooth #14, while Group B subjects received an inferior alveolar nerve block using 1.8 ml of 2% Lidocaine with 1:100,000 epiphrine, respectively. During the subsequent five minutes, the patient's Sp02 was recorded every 30 seconds. A rubber dam was then placed, which extended to the anterior septal angle (which completely covers the nose). This rubber dam remained in place for 20 minutes, with the patient's Sp02 being recorded every 30 seconds. The rubber dam was then altered (cut) to expose the nasal passages, creating what is known as proper rubber dam isolation, and the Sp02 was recorded every 30 seconds for 20 minutes. In both groups, there was no significant change in arterial oxygen saturation before or after rubber dam isolation was performed. Also, there was no significant difference in Sp02 when comparing the rubber dam isolation technique. Although rubber dam placement has no effect on blood oxygen levels in healthy patients, its effects on unhealthy patients are unknown.

  8. Correlation of mixed venous and central venous oxygen saturation and its relation to cardiac index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramakrishna M

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The clinical applicability of substitution of central venous oxygen saturation for mixed venous oxygen saturations in monitoring global tissue hypoxia is still a matter of controversy. Hence aim of the study is comparison of paired samples of mixed venous and central venous oxygen saturation and comparison in relation to cardiac index in varying hemodynamic conditions. Materials and Methods: Prospective clinical observation: Postoperative cardiac surgical ITU: 60 adult patients,> 18 years of age of either sex: A PAC was inserted through ® IJV, triple lumen catheter was inserted through ® IJV. Blood samples were taken from distal tip of PAC and central venous catheters. An arterial blood sample was drawn from either radial or femoral arterial line. Measurements: Continuous cardiac output monitoring. Analysis of blood samples for hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation. Mixed venous oxygen saturations and central venous oxygen saturations were compared. The study was carried over a period of 30h in the postoperative period and samples were taken at 6h intervals. Patients were classified into three groups as follows depending on the CI: Low (< 2.5 L/m 2, medium (2.5-4 L/m 2, high (> 4 L/m2 and correlated with Svo 2 and Scvo 2 . Results: 298 Comparative sets of samples were obtained. Svo2 was consistently lower than Scvo2 throughout the study period. The difference was statistically significant. By using Bland - Altman plot, the mean difference between Svo 2 and Scvo 2 (Svo 2 -Scvo 2 was - 2.9% ± 5.14 and confidence limits are + 7.17% and - 12.97%. The co-efficient r is > 0.7 throughout the study period for all paired samples. The correlation Svo 2 and Scvo 2 with cardiac index in all the three groups were> 0.7. Conclusion: Scvo 2 and Svo 2 are closely related and are interchangeable. Even though individual values differ trends in Scvo 2 may be substituted for trend in Svo 2

  9. Clinical value and influencing factors of intraoperative monitoring of jugular venous oxygen saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie SONG

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Intraoperative jugular venous oxygen saturation (SjvO2 monitoring has been widely used in clinic, which can monitor cerebral blood flow (CBF and oxygen metabolism. Reverse puncture and catheterization through jugular vein for monitoring SjvO2 is easy to operate and can collect blood samples repeatedly. It is an effective method for real-time dynamic evaluation of cerebral oxygen supply-demand and neurological function. This article reviews the clinical significance and influencing factors of SjvO2 monitoring during operation. It notes in particular that SjvO2 can not be used as the only way to monitor CBF and oxygen metabolism, and a comprehensive evaluation should be done combining with the change of other parameters. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.10.014

  10. A method for monitoring of oxygen saturation changes in brain tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejmstad, Peter; Johansson, Johannes D; Haj-Hosseini, Neda; Wårdell, Karin

    2017-03-01

    Continuous measurement of local brain oxygen saturation (SO2 ) can be used to monitor the status of brain trauma patients in the neurocritical care unit. Currently, micro-oxygen-electrodes are considered as the "gold standard" in measuring cerebral oxygen pressure (pO2 ), which is closely related to SO2 through the oxygen dissociation curve (ODC) of hemoglobin, but with the drawback of slow in response time. The present study suggests estimation of SO2 in brain tissue using diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) for finding an analytical relation between measured spectra and the SO2 for different blood concentrations. The P3 diffusion approximation is used to generate a set of spectra simulating brain tissue for various levels of blood concentrations in order to estimate SO2 . The algorithm is evaluated on optical phantoms mimicking white brain matter (blood volume of 0.5-2%) where pO2 and temperature is controlled and on clinical data collected during brain surgery. The suggested method is capable of estimating the blood fraction and oxygen saturation changes from the spectroscopic signal and the hemoglobin absorption profile.

  11. The Extended Oxygen Window Concept for Programming Saturation Decompressions Using Air and Nitrox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kot, Jacek; Sicko, Zdzislaw; Doboszynski, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    Saturation decompression is a physiological process of transition from one steady state, full saturation with inert gas at pressure, to another one: standard conditions at surface. It is defined by the borderline condition for time spent at a particular depth (pressure) and inert gas in the breathing mixture (nitrogen, helium). It is a delicate and long lasting process during which single milliliters of inert gas are eliminated every minute, and any disturbance can lead to the creation of gas bubbles leading to decompression sickness (DCS). Most operational procedures rely on experimentally found parameters describing a continuous slow decompression rate. In Poland, the system for programming of continuous decompression after saturation with compressed air and nitrox has been developed as based on the concept of the Extended Oxygen Window (EOW). EOW mainly depends on the physiology of the metabolic oxygen window--also called inherent unsaturation or partial pressure vacancy--but also on metabolism of carbon dioxide, the existence of water vapor, as well as tissue tension. Initially, ambient pressure can be reduced at a higher rate allowing the elimination of inert gas from faster compartments using the EOW concept, and maximum outflow of nitrogen. Then, keeping a driving force for long decompression not exceeding the EOW allows optimal elimination of nitrogen from the limiting compartment with half-time of 360 min. The model has been theoretically verified through its application for estimation of risk of decompression sickness in published systems of air and nitrox saturation decompressions, where DCS cases were observed. Clear dose-reaction relation exists, and this confirms that any supersaturation over the EOW creates a risk for DCS. Using the concept of the EOW, 76 man-decompressions were conducted after air and nitrox saturations in depth range between 18 and 45 meters with no single case of DCS. In summary, the EOW concept describes physiology of

  12. Local Measurement of Flap Oxygen Saturation: An Application of Visible Light Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasseri, Nassim; Kleiser, Stefan; Reidt, Sascha; Wolf, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The aim was to develop and test a new device (OxyVLS) to measure tissue oxygen saturation by visible light spectroscopy independently of the optical pathlength and scattering. Its local applicability provides the possibility of real time application in flap reconstruction surgery. We tested OxyVLS in a liquid phantom with optical properties similar to human tissue. Our results were in good agreement with a conventional near infrared spectroscopy device.

  13. New method of extracting information of arterial oxygen saturation based on ∑|𝚫 |

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenting, Dai; Ling, Lin; Gang, Li

    2017-04-01

    Noninvasive detection of oxygen saturation with near-infrared spectroscopy has been widely used in clinics. In order to further enhance its detection precision and reliability, this paper proposes a method of time domain absolute difference summation (∑|Δ|) based on a dynamic spectrum. In this method, the ratio of absolute differences between intervals of two differential sampling points at the same moment on logarithm photoplethysmography signals of red and infrared light was obtained in turn, and then they obtained a ratio sequence which was screened with a statistical method. Finally, use the summation of the screened ratio sequence as the oxygen saturation coefficient Q. We collected 120 reference samples of SpO2 and then compared the result of two methods, which are ∑|Δ| and peak-peak. Average root-mean-square errors of the two methods were 3.02% and 6.80%, respectively, in the 20 cases which were selected randomly. In addition, the average variance of Q of the 10 samples, which were obtained by the new method, reduced to 22.77% of that obtained by the peak-peak method. Comparing with the commercial product, the new method makes the results more accurate. Theoretical and experimental analysis indicates that the application of the ∑|Δ| method could enhance the precision and reliability of oxygen saturation detection in real time.

  14. Oxygen Saturation and RR Intervals Feature Selection for Sleep Apnea Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio G. Ravelo-García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A diagnostic system for sleep apnea based on oxygen saturation and RR intervals obtained from the EKG (electrocardiogram is proposed with the goal to detect and quantify minute long segments of sleep with breathing pauses. We measured the discriminative capacity of combinations of features obtained from RR series and oximetry to evaluate improvements of the performance compared to oximetry-based features alone. Time and frequency domain variables derived from oxygen saturation (SpO2 as well as linear and non-linear variables describing the RR series have been explored in recordings from 70 patients with suspected sleep apnea. We applied forward feature selection in order to select a minimal set of variables that are able to locate patterns indicating respiratory pauses. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA was used to classify the presence of apnea during specific segments. The system will finally provide a global score indicating the presence of clinically significant apnea integrating the segment based apnea detection. LDA results in an accuracy of 87%; sensitivity of 76% and specificity of 91% (AUC = 0.90 with a global classification of 97% when only oxygen saturation is used. In case of additionally including features from the RR series; the system performance improves to an accuracy of 87%; sensitivity of 73% and specificity of 92% (AUC = 0.92, with a global classification rate of 100%.

  15. Non-invasive measurement and validation of tissue oxygen saturation covered with overlying tissues

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yichao Teng; Haishu Ding; Lan Huang; Yue Li; Quanzhong Shan; Datian Ye; Haiyan Ding; Jenchung Chien; Betau Hwang

    2008-01-01

    In this paper,the biological tissue oxygen saturation(rS02)is obtained non-invasively and in real time based on near infrared spec-troscopy(NIRS)using two emitting wavelengths and two detectors,where the tissue is covered with overlying tissues.Our group devel-oped an NIRS oximeter based on the above principle independently,and validated it using liquid tissue model calibrations and animal experiments.The results indicate that(1)in the normal range of tissue oxygen saturation(40-70%),the rS02 measured by NIRS is accu-rate enough and little influenced by the background absorptions(such as the absorption of water)and overlying tissues(such as fat);(2)during cerebral hypoxia and recovery of three piglets,there is excellent correlation(p<0.001)between cerebral rS02 and jugular venous oxygen saturation(Sj02),meaning that the rS02 can be indicated by the Sj02 to a large extent;during the death of the three piglets induced by heart beat stopping,cerebral rS02 decreases continuously to significantly low levels(<25%)because cerebral blood supply does not exist any more.All the above results are of explicit physiological importance.

  16. Cerebral oxygen saturation and cardiac output during anaesthesia in sitting position for neurosurgical procedures: a prospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schramm, P; Tzanova, I; Hagen, F; Berres, M; Closhen, D; Pestel, G; Engelhard, K

    2016-10-01

    Neurosurgical operations in the dorsal cranium often require the patient to be positioned in a sitting position. This can be associated with decreased cardiac output and cerebral hypoperfusion, and possibly, inadequate cerebral oxygenation. In the present study, cerebral oxygen saturation was measured during neurosurgery in the sitting position and correlated with cardiac output. Perioperative cerebral oxygen saturation was measured continuously with two different monitors, INVOS(®) and FORE-SIGHT(®). Cardiac output was measured at eight predefined time points using transoesophageal echocardiography. Forty patients were enrolled, but only 35 (20 female) were eventually operated on in the sitting position. At the first time point, the regional cerebral oxygen saturation measured with INVOS(®) was 70 (sd 9)%; thereafter, it increased by 0.0187% min(-1) (P<0.01). The cerebral tissue oxygen saturation measured with FORE-SIGHT(®) started at 68 (sd 13)% and increased by 0.0142% min(-1) (P<0.01). The mean arterial blood pressure did not change. Cardiac output was between 6.3 (sd 1.3) and 7.2 (1.8) litre min(-1) at the predefined time points. Cardiac output, but not mean arterial blood pressure, showed a positive and significant correlation with cerebral oxygen saturation. During neurosurgery in the sitting position, the cerebral oxygen saturation slowly increases and, therefore, this position seems to be safe with regard to cerebral oxygen saturation. Cerebral oxygen saturation is stable because of constant CO and MAP, while the influence of CO on cerebral oxygen saturation seems to be more relevant. NCT01275898. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Correlation of a novel noninvasive tissue oxygen saturation monitor to serum central venous oxygen saturation in pediatric patients with postoperative congenital cyanotic heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadlapati, Ajay; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Kelly, Robert B

    2013-03-01

    Using a novel noninvasive, visible-light optical diffusion oximeter (T-Stat VLS Tissue Oximeter; Spectros Corporation, Portola Valley, CA) to measure the tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) of the buccal mucosa, the correlation between StOz and central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) was examined in children with congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure. Paired StO2 and serum ScvO2 measurements were obtained postoperatively and statistically analyzed for agreement and association. Thirteen children (nine male) participated in the study (age range, 4 days to 18 months). Surgeries included Glenn shunt procedures, Norwood procedures, unifocalization procedures with Blalock-Taussig shunt placement, a Kawashima/ Glenn shunt procedure, a Blalock-Taussig shunt placement, and a modified Norwood procedure. A total of 45 paired StO2-ScvO2 measurements was obtained. Linear regression demonstrated a Pearson's correlation of .58 (95% confidence interval [CI], .35-.75; p < .0001). The regression slope coefficient estimate was .95 (95% CI, .54-1.36) with an interclass correlation coefficient of .48 (95% CI, .22-.68). Below a clinically relevant average ScvO2 value, a receiver operator characteristic analysis yielded an area under the curve of .78. Statistical methods to control for repeatedly measuring the same subjects produced similar results. This study shows a moderate relationship and agreement between StO2 and ScvO2 measurements in pediatric patients with a history of congenital cyanotic heart disease undergoing a cardiac surgical procedure. This real-time monitoring device can act as a valuable adjunct to standard noninvasive monitoring in which serum SyvO2 sampling currently assists in the diagnosis of low cardiac output after pediatric cardiac surgery.

  18. Lung vital capacity and oxygen saturation in adults with cerebral palsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lampe R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Renée Lampe,1,2 Tobias Blumenstein,2 Varvara Turova,2 Ana Alves-Pinto2 1Markus Würth Stiftungsprofessur, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany; 2Research Unit for Cerebral Palsy and Children Neuroorthopaedics of the Buhl-Strohmaier Foundation, Orthopedic Department of the Clinic “rechts der Isar” of the Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Background: Individuals with infantile cerebral palsy have multiple disabilities. The most conspicuous syndrome being investigated from many aspects is motor movement disorder with a spastic gait pattern. The lung function of adults with spasticity attracts less attention in the literature. This is surprising because decreased thoracic mobility and longstanding scoliosis should have an impact on lung function. With increasing age and the level of disability, individuals become susceptible to lung infections and reflux illness, and these are accompanied by increased aspiration risk. This study examined, with different methods, to what extent adults with congenital cerebral palsy and acquired spastic paresis – following traumatic brain injury – showed restriction of lung function. It also assessed the contribution of disability level on this restriction.Methods: The oxygen saturation of 46 adults with a diagnosis of cerebral palsy was measured with an oximeter. Lung vital capacity was measured with a mobile spirometer and excursion of the thorax was clinically registered. The gross motor function levels and the presence or absence of scoliosis were determined.Results: A significantly positive correlation between lung vital capacity and chest expansion was established. Both the lung vital capacity and the thorax excursion decreased with increases in gross motor function level. Oxygen saturation remained within the normal range in all persons, in spite of reduced values of the measured lung parameters. No statistically significant dependency between lung vital capacity and oxygen

  19. The SafeBoosC Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial : A Treatment Guideline for Targeted Near-Infrared-Derived Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation versus Standard Treatment in Extremely Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Hagmann, Cornelia; Hellstroem-Westas, Lena; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Lemmers, Petra; Naulaers, Gunnar; Pichler, Gerhard; Roll, Claudia; van Bel, Frank; van Oeveren, Wim; Skoog, Maria; Wolf, Martin; Austin, Topun

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rSto(2)) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rSto(2) can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises that the bu

  20. The SafeBoosC Phase II Randomised Clinical Trial : A Treatment Guideline for Targeted Near-Infrared-Derived Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation versus Standard Treatment in Extremely Preterm Infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pellicer, Adelina; Greisen, Gorm; Benders, Manon; Claris, Olivier; Dempsey, Eugene; Fumagalli, Monica; Gluud, Christian; Hagmann, Cornelia; Hellstroem-Westas, Lena; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Lemmers, Petra; Naulaers, Gunnar; Pichler, Gerhard; Roll, Claudia; van Bel, Frank; van Oeveren, Wim; Skoog, Maria; Wolf, Martin; Austin, Topun

    2013-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy-derived regional tissue oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (rSto(2)) reflects venous oxygen saturation. If cerebral metabolism is stable, rSto(2) can be used as an estimate of cerebral oxygen delivery. The SafeBoosC phase II randomised clinical trial hypothesises that the bu

  1. Mental abilities and performance efficacy under a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gonglin ehou

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Stress in extreme environment severely disrupts human physiology and mental abilities. The present study investigated the cognition and performance efficacy of four divers during a simulated 480 meters helium-oxygen saturation diving. We analyzed the spatial memory, 2D/3D mental rotation functioning, grip strength, and hand-eye coordination ability in four divers during the 0 – 480 meters compression and decompression processes of the simulated diving. The results showed that except for its mild decrease on grip strength, the high atmosphere pressure condition significantly impaired the hand-eye coordination (especially at 300 meters, the reaction time and correct rate of mental rotation, as well as the spatial memory (especially as 410 meters, showing high individual variability. We conclude that the human cognition and performance efficacy are significantly affected during deep water saturation diving.

  2. [Design of Oxygen Saturation, Heart Rate, Respiration Rate Detection System Based on Smartphone of Android Operating System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Mingshan; Zeng, Bixin

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we designed an oxygen saturation, heart rate, respiration rate monitoring system based on smartphone of android operating system, physiological signal acquired by MSP430 microcontroller and transmitted by Bluetooth module.

  3. Oxygen isotopes as a tool to quantify reservoir-scale CO2 pore-space saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serno, Sascha; Flude, Stephanie; Johnson, Gareth; Mayer, Bernard; Boyce, Adrian; Karolyte, Ruta; Haszeldine, Stuart; Gilfillan, Stuart

    2017-04-01

    Structural and residual trapping of carbon dioxide (CO2) are two key mechanisms of secure CO2 storage, an essential component of Carbon Capture and Storage technology [1]. Estimating the amount of CO2 that is trapped by these two mechanisms is a vital requirement for accurately assessing the secure CO2 storage capacity of a formation, but remains a key challenge. Recent field [2,3] and laboratory experiment studies [4] have shown that simple and relatively inexpensive measurements of oxygen isotope ratios in both the injected CO2 and produced water can provide an assessment of the amount of CO2 that is stored by these processes. These oxygen isotope assessments on samples obtained from observation wells provide results which are comparable to other geophysical techniques. In this presentation, based on the first comprehensive review of oxygen isotope ratios measured in reservoir waters and CO2 from global CO2 injection projects, we will outline the advantages and potential limitations of using oxygen isotopes to quantify CO2 pore-space saturation. We will further summarise the currently available information on the oxygen isotope composition of captured CO2. Finally, we identify the potential issues in the use of the oxygen isotope shifts in the reservoir water from baseline conditions to estimate accurate saturations of the pore space with CO2, and suggest how these issues can be reduced or avoided to provide reliable CO2 pore-space saturations on a reservoir scale in future field experiments. References [1] Scott et al., (2013) Nature Climate Change, Vol. 3, 105-111 doi:10.1038/nclimate1695 [2] Johnson et al., (2011) Chemical Geology, Vol. 283, 185-193 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.06.019 [3] Serno et al., (2016) IJGGC, Vol. 52, 73-83 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijggc.2016.06.019 [4] Johnson et al., (2011) Applied Geochemistry, Vol. 26 (7) 1184-1191 http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.apgeochem.2011.04.007

  4. Arterial oxygen saturation in healthy newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m and Lima (150 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzales Gustavo F

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High altitude is associated with both low pulse oxygen saturation at birth and more pre-term deliveries. The present study was performed to determine pulse oxygen saturation in newborns at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m and Lima (150 m to test the hypothesis that low pulse oxygen saturation at birth at high altitudes was not observed at term deliveries. Methods The present study was designed to determine pulse oxygen saturation values through 1 minute to 24 hours and values of Apgar score at 1 and 5 minutes in newborns delivered at term in Cerro de Pasco (4340 m and Lima (150 m. Pulse oxygen saturation was recorded in 39 newborns from Cerro de Pasco (4340 m and 131 from Lima (150 m at 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 10, 15, 30 minutes and 1, 2, 8 and 24 hours after delivery. Apgar score was assessed at 1 and 5 minutes after birth. Neurological score was assessed at 24 h of birth by Dubowitz exam. Results Pulse oxygen saturation increased significantly from 1 to 15 min after birth at sea level and from 1 to 30 minutes at Cerro de Pasco. Thereafter, it increased slightly such that at 30 min at sea level and at 60 minutes in Cerro de Pasco it reached a plateau up to 24 hours after birth. At all times, pulse oxygen saturation was significantly higher at sea level than at high altitude (P Conclusion From these analyses may be concluded that pulse oxygen saturation at 4340 m was significantly low despite the fact that births occurred at term. Apgar scores at first minute and neurological scores were also lower at high altitudes.

  5. Transient hyperoxia does not affect regional cerebral tissue oxygen saturation in moderately preterm or term newborns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thing, Mira; Sørensen, Line Carøe; Pryds, Ole

    2015-01-01

    oxygen saturation (rStO2 ) and to evaluate whether any observed prolonged cerebral vasoconstriction was related to maturity. METHODS: The study included 30 infants with a postmenstrual age of more than 32 weeks, who were treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure and a fraction of inspired......, with a mean difference of 1.37% (95% CI 0.15, 2.6). After the second oxygen exposure, rStO2 remained unchanged with a mean difference of -0.4% (95% CI -1.6, 0.78). Differences in rStO2 were not related to gestational age in either of the two hyperoxic episodes. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence to support...... the theory that transient hyperoxia induces prolonged cerebral vasoconstriction in infants with a postmenstrual age above 32 weeks....

  6. Neuroprotection of hyperbaric oxygen therapy in sub-acute traumatic brain injury:not by immediately improving cerebral oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-chun Zhou; Li-jun Liu; Bing Liu

    2016-01-01

    Although hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy can promote the recovery of neural function in patients who have suffered traumatic brain injury (TBI), the underlying mechanism is unclear. We hypothesized that hyperbaric oxygen treatment plays a neuroprotective role in TBI by increasing regional transcranial oxygen saturation (rSO2) and oxygen partial pressure (PaO2). To test this idea, we compared two groups:a control group with 20 healthy people and a treatment group with 40 TBI patients. The 40 patients were given 100% oxygen of HBO for 90 minutes. Changes in rSO2 were measured. The controls were also examined for rSO2 and PaO2, but received no treatment. rSO2 levels in the patients did not differ signiifcantly after treatment, but levels before and after treatment were signiifcantly lower than those in the control group. PaO2 levels were signiifcantly decreased after the 30-minute HBO treatment. Our ifndings suggest that there is a disorder of oxygen metabolism in patients with sub-acute TBI. HBO does not immediately affect cerebral oxygen metabolism, and the underlying mechanism still needs to be studied in depth.

  7. Retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation of the optic nerve head in open-angle glaucoma subjects by multispectral imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gai-Yun; Al-Wesabi, Samer Abdo; Zhang, Hong

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether differences exist in oxygen supply to the optic nerve head (ONH) from the retinal and choroidal vascular layers in patients with primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) using multispectral imaging (MSI).This ia an observational, cross-sectional study.Multispectral images were acquired from 38 eyes of 19 patients with POAG, and 42 healthy eyes from 21 matched volunteers with Annidis' RHA multispectral digital ophthalmoscopy. Superficial and deeper oxygen saturation of the optic disc was represented by the mean gray scale values on the retinal and choroidal oxy-deoxy maps, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed to detect differences in ONH oxygen saturation between the 2 groups. Oxygen saturation levels in the eyes of POAG patients with severe glaucoma were compared to those of fellow eyes from the same subjects. Linear correlation analysis was performed to assess the association between ONH oxygen saturation and systemic and ocular parameters.No statistical difference was found in retinal and choroidal oxygen saturation between the POAG and control groups. In the glaucoma patients, retinal oxygen saturation was lower for eyes with worse visual fields than in those with good visual fields (t = 4.009, P = 0.001). In POAG patients, retinal oxygen saturation was dependent on mean defect of visual field and retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFLT) (r = 0.511, 0.504, P = 0.001, 0.001, respectively), whereas the choroid vasculature oxygen saturation was inversely related to RNFLT (r = -0.391, P = 0.015). An age-dependent increase in retinal oxygen saturation was found for both the POAG and control groups (r = 0.473, 0.410, P = 0.007, 0.003, respectively).MSI revealed a significant correlation between functional and structural impairments in glaucoma and retinal oxygen saturation. MSI could provide objective assessments of perfusion impairments of the glaucomatous ONH. This is a

  8. Non-invasive and quantitative near-infrared haemoglobin spectrometry in the piglet brain during hypoxic stress, using a frequency-domain multidistance instrument†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hueber, D. M.; Franceschini, M. A.; Ma, H. Y.; Zhang, Q.; Ballesteros, J. R.; Fantini, S.; Wallace, D.; Ntziachristos, V.; Chance, B.

    2001-01-01

    The frequency-domain multiple-distance (FDMD) method is capable of measuring the absolute absorption and reduced scattering coefficients of optically turbid media. Absolute measurement of absorption at two near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths makes possible the quantitation of tissue haemoglobin concentration and tissue haemoglobin oxygen-saturation (StO2). However, errors are introduced by the uncertainties of background absorption and the dissimilarities between real tissues and the simplified mathematical model on which these measurements are based. An FDMD-based tissue instrument has been used for the monitoring of tissue haemoglobin concentration and oxygenation in the brain of newborn piglets during periods of hypoxia and hyperoxia. These tissue haemoglobin saturation values were compared with arterial saturation (SaO2) and venous saturation (SvO2) measured by blood gas analyses. A linear correlation was observed between StO2 and the average of SaO2 and SvO2. However, StO2 is not equal to any fixed weighted average of SaO2 and SvO2 unless we introduce an effective background tissue absorption. The magnitude of the background absorption was about 0.08 cm-1 at 758 nm and 0.06 cm-1 at 830 nm, and it was nearly consistent between piglets. The origin of this `effective' background absorption may be real, an artefact caused by the application of a simplified model to a complex sample, or a combination of factors.

  9. Oximeter for reliable clinical determination of blood oxygen saturation in a fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Ward, Kenneth J. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    With the crude instrumentation now in use to continuously monitor the status of the fetus at delivery, the obstetrician and labor room staff not only over-recognize the possibility of fetal distress with the resultant rise in operative deliveries, but at times do not identify fetal distress which may result in preventable fetal neurological harm. The invention, which addresses these two basic problems, comprises a method and apparatus for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation in the fetus. The apparatus includes a multiple frequency light source which is coupled to an optical fiber. The output of the fiber is used to illuminate blood containing tissue of the fetus. In the preferred embodiment, the reflected light is transmitted back to the apparatus where the light intensities are simultaneously detected at multiple frequencies. The resulting spectrum is then analyzed for determination of oxygen saturation. The analysis method uses multivariate calibration techniques that compensate for nonlinear spectral response, model interfering spectral responses and detect outlier data with high sensitivity.

  10. Nasal irrigation with saline solution significantly improves oxygen saturation in infants with bronchiolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreiber, Silvana; Ronfani, Luca; Ghirardo, Sergio; Minen, Federico; Taddio, Andrea; Jaber, Mohamad; Rizzello, Elisa; Barbi, Egidio

    2016-03-01

    Published guidelines do not recommend nasal irrigation in bronchiolitis, but it is common practice in Italy, despite a lack of data on its benefits or adverse effects. This single-blind, multicentre, randomised controlled trial compared nasal irrigation using either isotonic 0.9% sodium chloride or hypertonic 3% sodium chloride with simple supportive care in infants with bronchiolitis. We randomly assigned 133 infants up one year of age, who were admitted to the emergency department with bronchiolitis and an oxygen saturation (SpO2) of between 88 and 94%, to the isotonic (n = 47), hypertonic (n = 44) or standard care (n = 42) groups. Variations in SpO2 and the wheeze, air exchange, respiratory rate, muscle use (WARM) respiratory distress score were recorded at zero, five, 15, 20 and 50 minutes. Five minutes after the intervention, the median SpO2 value (95%) in the isotonic group was higher than both the hypertonic (94%) and the standard care (93%) groups. The differences between the isotonic and standard treatment groups were statistically significant at each time point, while the hypertonic group only reached significantly higher values after 50 minutes. However, the WARM score did not improve. A single nasal irrigation with saline solution significantly improved oxygen saturation in infants with bronchiolitis. ©2015 Foundation Acta Paediatrica. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Central venous oxygen saturation in septic shock - a marker of cardiac output, microvascular shunting and/or dysoxia?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haase, Nicolai; Perner, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Shock therapy aims at increasing central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), which is a marker of inadequate oxygen delivery. In this issue of Critical Care, Textoris and colleagues challenge this notion by reporting that high levels of ScvO2 are associated with mortality in patients with septic...

  12. Retinopathy of prematurity outcome in infants with Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity and oxygen saturation > 94% in room air : The High Oxygen Percentage in Retinopathy of Prematurity study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McGregor, ML; Bremer, DL; Cole, C; McClead, RE; Phelps, DL; Fellows, RR; Oden, N

    2002-01-01

    Objectives. To determine the rate of progression from prethreshold to threshold retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) in infants excluded from Supplemental Therapeutic Oxygen for Prethreshold Retinopathy of Prematurity (STOP-ROP) because their median arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (Spo(2))

  13. Assessment of Arterial Oxygen Saturation by Pulse Oximetry Before, During and After Electroconvulsive Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Tarig

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT is used widely in psychiatric practice. The goal of anesthesia for ECT is the prevention of complications such as discomfort, fractures, aspiration of gastric contents and hypoxia. However, general anesthesia can cause some adverse effects as hypoxia. Prevention and treatment of hypoxia is important due to its undesirable effects on seizure duration and cardiovascular system. This study was designed to detect the incidence and probable times of desaturation in patients receiving ECT. Materials & Methods: This prospective randomized clinical trial was carried out on 100 patients (18-50 y/o with ASA I or II who were scheduled for ECT. After pre-oxygenation and similar anesthesia induction the patients received ECT. The patients were ventilated by oxygen and face masked until the return of their spontaneous respiration with adequate tidal volume and respiratory rate. Then they were transferred to recovery room where there was no oxygen supplementation. Oxygen saturation was measured by a Nell core pulse oximeter and was recorded at six stages: before and after anesthesia induction, during ECT, after ECT, 5 minutes after entering recovery room and before leaving there. The data were analyzed by standard statistical tests using SPSS software Results: Data analysis revealed that desaturation was not noticed at any stage except for the 5th stage (5 minutes after entering recovery room, when 13% of patients developed Sao2% less than 90%. Also there was a significant difference between Sao2% of patients between this stage (5th and other stages (p<0.001. Conclusion: According to our findings, appropriate oxygen supplementation and pulse oximetry monitoring during recovery period after ECT can be recommend

  14. Effects of Breast Milk and Vanilla Odors on Premature Neonate's Heart Rate and Blood Oxygen Saturation During and After Venipuncture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neshat, Hanieh; Jebreili, Mahnaz; Seyyedrasouli, Aleheh; Ghojazade, Morteza; Hosseini, Mohammad Bagher; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-06-01

    Different studies have shown that the use of olfactory stimuli during painful medical procedures reduces infants' response to pain. The main purpose of the current study was to investigate the effect of breast milk odor and vanilla odor on premature infants' vital signs including heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture. A total of 135 preterm infants were randomly selected and divided into three groups of control, vanilla odor, and breast milk odor. Infants in the breast milk group and the vanilla group were exposed to breast milk odor and vanilla odor from 5 minutes prior to sampling until 30 seconds after sampling. The results showed that breast milk odor has a significant effect on the changes of neonatal heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture and decreased the variability of premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. Vanilla odor has no significant effect on premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation. Breast milk odor can decrease the variability of premature infants' heart rate and blood oxygen saturation during and after venipuncture. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Synthesis of Human Haemoglobin by Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyesom, I.

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobin, Hb is the red, protein pigment in blood that transports oxygen round the body. Decreased quantity could lead to anaemia, and when the anaemic condition turns severe, blood transfusion becomes inevitable. However, the safety of human source has become questionable in recent times, and this has aroused the interest of scientists to…

  16. Synthesis of Human Haemoglobin by Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onyesom, I.

    2006-01-01

    Haemoglobin, Hb is the red, protein pigment in blood that transports oxygen round the body. Decreased quantity could lead to anaemia, and when the anaemic condition turns severe, blood transfusion becomes inevitable. However, the safety of human source has become questionable in recent times, and this has aroused the interest of scientists to…

  17. T2 and T2* measurements of fetal brain oxygenation during hypoxia with MRI at 3T: correlation with fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike; Adam, Gerhard [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Andreas, Thomas; Beindorff, Nicola; Hecher, Kurt [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the oxygen saturation of blood in the fetal brain based on T2 and T2* measurements in a fetal sheep model. Five sheep fetuses were investigated during normoxia and hypoxia by 3T MRI. Multi-echo gradient-echo and turbo-spin-echo sequences were performed on the fetal brain. MR-determined oxygen saturation (MR-sO{sub 2}) of blood in the fetal brain was calculated based on T2 and T2* values. Fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation (blood-sO{sub 2}) was measured during the two experimental phases. The slope of MR-sO{sub 2} as a function of blood-sO{sub 2} was estimated and tested for compatibility using the one-sample t-test. During normoxia, mean values for carotid blood oxygen saturation were 67%, 83 ms for T2*, 202 ms for T2 and 96% for MR-sO{sub 2}. During hypoxia, arterial blood oxygen saturation, T2* and calculated MR-sO{sub 2} decreased to 22%, 64 ms, and 68% respectively. The one-sample t-test revealed the slope to be significantly different from 0(T=5.023, df=4, P=0.007). It is feasible to perform quantitative T2 and T2* measurements in the fetal brain. MR-sO{sub 2} and fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation correlated significantly. However, based on these data a reliable quantification of fetal brain tissue oxygenation is not possible. (orig.)

  18. Investigation of spatial resolution dependent variability in transcutaneous oxygen saturation using point spectroscopy system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philimon, Sheena P.; Huong, Audrey K. C.; Ngu, Xavier T. I.

    2017-08-01

    This paper aims to investigate the variation in one’s percent mean transcutaneous oxygen saturation (StO2) with differences in spatial resolution of data. This work required the knowledge of extinction coefficient of hemoglobin derivatives in the wavelength range of 520 - 600 nm to solve for the StO2 value via an iterative fitting procedure. A pilot study was conducted on three healthy subjects with spectroscopic data collected from their right index finger at different arbitrarily selected distances. The StO2 value estimated by Extended Modified Lambert Beer (EMLB) model revealed a higher mean StO2 of 91.1 ± 1.3% at a proximity distance of 30 mm compared to 60.83 ± 2.8% at 200 mm. The results showed a high correlation between data spatial resolution and StO2 value, and revealed a decrease in StO2 value as the sampling distance increased. The preliminary findings from this study contribute to the knowledge of the appropriate distance range for consistent and high repeatability measurement of skin oxygenation.

  19. Optical imaging of hemoglobin oxygen saturation using a small number of spectral images for endoscopic application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Takaaki; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi

    2015-12-01

    Tissue hypoxia is associated with tumor and inflammatory diseases, and detection of hypoxia is potentially useful for their detailed diagnosis. An endoscope system that can optically observe hemoglobin oxygen saturation (StO2) would enable minimally invasive, real-time detection of lesion hypoxia in vivo. Currently, point measurement of tissue StO2 via endoscopy is possible using the commercial fiber-optic oximeter T-Stat, which is based on visible light spectroscopy at many wavelengths. For clinical use, however, imaging of StO2 is desirable to assess the distribution of tissue oxygenation around a lesion. Here, we describe our StO2 imaging technique based on a small number of wavelength ranges in the visible range. By assuming a homogeneous tissue, we demonstrated that tissue StO2 can be obtained independently from the scattering property and blood concentration of tissue using four spectral bands. We developed a prototype endoscope system and used it to observe tissue-simulating phantoms. The StO2 (%) values obtained using our technique agreed with those from the T-Stat within 10%. We also showed that tissue StO2 can be derived using three spectral band if the scattering property is fixed at preliminarily measured values.

  20. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakhshandeh Bavarsad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the problems of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the weakness of the respiratory muscles that causes oxygen desaturation at rest and activity and decreases exercise tolerance. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2. Patients and Methods Forty patients with mild to very severe COPD were recruited for this study, which is a randomized control trail. The patients were randomized to IMT (inspiratory muscle training and control group. Training was performed with Respivol (a kind of inspiratory muscle trainer for 8 weeks (15 min/d for 6 d/week. SPSS software version 16 was used to analyze the data by performing independent t test, paired t test, and Fisher exact test. Results Results showed that, after 8 weeks of inspiratory muscle training, there was a little increase (but not statistically significant improvement in SPO2 (from 92.6 ± 8.71 % to 95.13 ± 7.08 %, with P = 0.06, whereas it remained unchanged in the control group (from 96.0 ± 3.46 % to 96.4 ± 3.35 % with P = 0.51. No statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions Although inspiratory muscles training can prevent desaturation, which is caused by activity, it fails to improve it.

  1. Automated frequency domain analysis of oxygen saturation as a screening tool for SAHS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillo, Daniel Sánchez; Gross, Nicole; León, Antonio; Crespo, Luis F

    2012-09-01

    Sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (SAHS) is significantly underdiagnosed and new screening systems are needed. The analysis of oxygen desaturation has been proposed as a screening method. However, when oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) is used as a standalone single channel device, algorithms working in time domain achieve either a high sensitivity or a high specificity, but not usually both. This limitation arises from the dependence of time-domain analysis on absolute SpO(2) values and the lack of standardized thresholds defined as pathological. The aim of this study is to assess the degree of concordance between SAHS screening using offline frequency domain processing of SpO(2) signals and the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), and the diagnostic performance of such a new method. SpO(2) signals from 115 subjects were analyzed. Data were divided in a training data set (37) and a test set (78). Power spectral density was calculated and related to the desaturation index scored by physicians. A frequency desaturation index (FDI) was then estimated and its accuracy compared to the classical desaturation index and to the apnea-hypopnea index. The findings point to a high diagnostic agreement: the best sensitivity and specificity values obtained were 83.33% and 80.44%, respectively. Moreover, the proposed method does not rely on absolute SpO(2) values and is highly robust to artifacts.

  2. A pilot study of a new spectrophotometry device to measure tissue oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Gemma; Allen, John; Drinnan, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) measurements have the potential for far wider use than at present but are limited by device availability and portability for many potential applications. A device based on a small, low-cost general-purpose spectrophotometer (the Harrison device) might facilitate wider use. The aim of this study was to compare the Harrison device with a commercial instrument, the LEA O2C.Measurements were carried out on the forearm and finger of 20 healthy volunteers, using a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm to induce different levels of oxygenation. Repeatability of both devices was assessed, and the Bland-Altman method was used to assess agreement between them.The devices showed agreement in overall tracking of changes in SO2. Test-retest agreement for the Harrison device was worse than for O2C, with SD repeatability of 10.6% (forearm) or 18.6% (finger). There was no overall bias between devices, but mean (SD) difference of 1.2 (11.8%) (forearm) or 4.4 (11.5%) (finger) were outside of a clinically acceptable range.Disagreements were attributed to the stability of the Harrison probe and the natural SO2 variations across the skin surface increasing the random error. Therefore, though not equivalent to the LEA O2C, a probe redesign and averaged measurements may help establish the Harrison device as a low cost alternative.

  3. Nanoparticle-enhanced spectral photoacoustic tomography: effect of oxygen saturation and tissue heterogeneity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, William C.; Jia, Congxian; Wear, Keith A.; Garra, Brian S.; Pfefer, T. Joshua

    2016-03-01

    Molecular imaging for breast cancer detection, infectious disease diagnostics and preclinical animal research may be achievable through combined use of targeted exogenous agents - such as nanoparticles - and spectral Photoacoustic Tomography (PAT). However, tissue heterogeneity can alter fluence distributions and acoustic propagation, corrupting measured PAT absorption spectra and complicating in vivo nanoparticle detection and quantitation. Highly absorptive vascular structures represent a common confounding factor, and variations in vessel hemoglobin saturation (SO2) may alter spectral content of signals from adjacent/deeper regions. To evaluate the impact of this effect on PAT nanoparticle detectability, we constructed heterogeneous phantoms with well-characterized channel-inclusion geometries and biologically relevant optical and acoustic properties. Phantoms contained an array of tubes at several depths filled with hemoglobin solutions doped with varying concentrations of gold nanorods with an absorption peak at 780 nm. Both overlying and target network SO2 was tuned using sodium dithionite. Phantoms were imaged from 700 to 900 nm using a custom PAT system comprised of a tunable pulsed laser and a research-grade ultrasound system. Recovered nanoparticle spectra were analyzed and compared with results from both spectrophotometry and PAT data from waterimmersed tubes containing blood and nanoparticle solutions. Results suggested that nanoparticle selection for a given PAT application should take into account expected oxygenation states of both target blood vessel and background tissue oxygenation to achieve optimal performance.

  4. A new fibre optic pulse oximeter probe for monitoring splanchnic organ arterial blood oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M; Samuels, N; Randive, N; Langford, R; Kyriacou, P A

    2012-12-01

    A new, continuous method of monitoring splanchnic organ oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) would make the early detection of inadequate tissue oxygenation feasible, reducing the risk of hypoperfusion, severe ischaemia, and, ultimately, death. In an attempt to provide such a device, a new fibre optic based reflectance pulse oximeter probe and processing system were developed followed by an in vivo evaluation of the technology on seventeen patients undergoing elective laparotomy. Photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals of good quality and high signal-to-noise ratio were obtained from the small bowel, large bowel, liver and stomach. Simultaneous peripheral PPG signals from the finger were also obtained for comparison purposes. Analysis of the amplitudes of all acquired PPG signals indicated much larger amplitudes for those signals obtained from splanchnic organs than those obtained from the finger. Estimated SpO(2) values for splanchnic organs showed good agreement with those obtained from the finger fibre optic probe and those obtained from a commercial device. These preliminary results suggest that a miniaturized 'indwelling' fibre optic sensor may be a suitable method for pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of splanchnic organ SpO(2) and their health.

  5. In-vivo continuous monitoring of mixed venous oxygen saturation by photoacoustic transesophageal echocardiography (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Subramaniam, Balachundhar; Aguirre, Aaron D.; Andrawes, Michael N.; Tearney, Guillermo J.

    2016-02-01

    Mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO2), measured from pulmonary arteries, is a gold-standard measure of the dynamic balance between the oxygen supply and demand in the body. In critical care, continuous monitoring of SvO2 plays a vital role in early detection of circulatory shock and guiding goal-oriented resuscitation. In current clinical practice, SvO2 is measured by invasive pulmonary artery catheters (PAC), which are associated with a 10% risk of severe complications. To address the unmet clinical need for a non-invasive SvO2 monitor, we are developing a new technology termed photoacoustic transesophageal echocardiography (PA-TEE). PA-TEE integrates transesophageal echocardiography with photoacoustic oximetry, and enables continuous assessment of SvO2 through an esophageal probe that can be inserted into the body in a minimally invasive manner. We have constructed a clinically translatable PA-TEE prototype, which features a mobile OPO laser, a modified ultrasonography console and a dual-modality esophageal probe. Comprised of a rotatable acoustic array detector, a flexible optical fiber bundle and a light-integrating acoustic lens, the oximetric probe has an outer diameter smaller than 15 mm and will be tolerable for most patients. Through custom-made C++/Qt software, our device acquires and displays ultrasonic and photoacoustic images in real time to guide the deployment of the probe. SvO2 is calculated on-line and updated every second. PA-TEE has now been used to evaluate SvO2 in living swine. Our findings show that changing the fraction of oxygen in the inspired gas modulates SvO2 measured by PA-TEE. Statistic comparison between SvO2 measurements from PA-TEE in vivo the gold-standard laboratorial analysis on blood samples drawn from PACs will be presented.

  6. Non-invasive measurement of oxygen saturation in the spinal vein using SWI: quantitative evaluation under conditions of physiological and caffeine load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujima, Noriyuki; Kudo, Kohsuke; Terae, Satoshi; Ishizaka, Kinya; Yazu, Rie; Zaitsu, Yuri; Tha, Khin Khin; Yoshida, Daisuke; Tsukahara, Akiko; Haacke, Mark E; Sasaki, Makoto; Shirato, Hiroki

    2011-01-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) has been used for quantitative and non-invasive measurement of blood oxygen saturation in the brain. In this study, we used SWI for quantitative measurement of oxygen saturation in the spinal vein to look for physiological- or caffeine-induced changes in venous oxygenation. SWI measurements were obtained for 5 healthy volunteers using 1.5-T MR units, under 1) 3 kinds of physiological load (breath holding, Bh; hyperventilation, Hv; and inspiration of highly concentrated oxygen, Ox) and 2) caffeine load. Oxygen saturation in the anterior spinal vein (ASV) was calculated. We evaluated changes in oxygen saturation induced by physiological load. We also evaluated the time-course of oxygen saturation after caffeine intake. For the physiological load measurements, the average oxygen saturation for the 5 subjects was significantly lower in Hv (0.75) and significantly higher in Bh (0.84) when compared with control (0.80). There was no significant difference between Ox (0.81) and control. Oxygen saturation gradually decreased after caffeine intake. The average values of oxygen saturation were 0.79 (0 min), 0.76 (20 min), 0.74 (40 min), and 0.73 (60 min), respectively. We demonstrated a significant difference in oxygen saturation at 40 and 60 min after caffeine intake when compared with 0 min. In conclusion, we demonstrated the feasibility of using SWI for non-invasive measurement of oxygen saturation in the spinal vein. We showed changes in oxygen saturation under physiological as well as caffeine load and suggest that this method is a useful tool for the clinical evaluation of spinal cord oxygenation.

  7. Correlation of brain tissue oxygen tension with cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy and mixed venous oxygen saturation during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Kreangkai; Tyree, Melissa; DiGeronimo, Robert

    2009-09-01

    The aim of this prospective, animal study was to compare brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO(2)) with cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and mixed venous oxygen saturation (SVO(2)) during venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (VA ECMO) in a porcine model. This was accomplished using twelve immature piglets with surgically implanted catheters placed in the superficial cerebral cortex to measure brain PbtO(2) and microdialysis metabolites. The NIRS sensor was placed overlying the forehead to measure cerebral regional saturation index (rSO(2)i) while SVO(2) was measured directly from the ECMO circuit. Animals were placed on VA ECMO followed by an initial period of stabilization, after which they were subjected to graded hypoxia and recovery. Our results revealed that rSO(2)i and SVO(2) correlated only marginally with PbtO(2) (R(2)=0.32 and R(2)=0.26, respectively) while the correlation between rSO(2)i and SVO( 2) was significantly stronger (R(2)=0.59). Cerebral metabolites and rSO(2)i were significantly altered during attenuation of PbtO( 2), p<0.05). A subset of animals, following exposure to hypoxia, experienced markedly delayed recovery of both rSO(2)i and PbtO( 2) despite rapid normalization of SVO(2). Upon further analysis, these animals had significantly lower blood pressure (p=0.001), lower serum pH (p=0.01), and higher serum lactate (p=0.02). Additionally, in this subgroup, rSO(2)i correlated better with PbtO(2) (R(2)=0.76). These findings suggest that, in our ECMO model, rSO(2)i and SVO( 2) correlate reasonably well with each other, but not necessarily with brain PbtO(2) and that NIRS-derived rSO(2)i may more accurately reflect cerebral tissue hypoxia in sicker animals.

  8. Nitric oxide formation from the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit hemoglobin at intermediate oxygen saturations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2008-01-01

    The nitrite reductase activity of deoxyhemoglobin has received much recent interest because the nitric oxide produced in this reaction may participate in blood flow regulation during hypoxia. The present study used spectral deconvolution to characterize the reaction of nitrite with carp and rabbit...... hemoglobin at different constant oxygen tensions that generate the full range of physiological relevant oxygen saturations. Carp is a hypoxia-tolerant species with very high hemoglobin oxygen affinity, and the high R-state character and low redox potential of the hemoglobin is hypothesized to promote...... NO generation from nitrite. The reaction of nitrite with deoxyhemoglobin leads to a 1 : 1 formation of nitrosylhemoglobin and methemoglobin in both species. At intermediate oxygen saturations, the reaction with deoxyhemoglobin is clearly favored over that with oxyhemoglobin, and the oxyhemoglobin reaction...

  9. [Comparison of 2 systems for continuous intraoperative monitoring of oxygen saturation in the jugular bulb].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García del Valle, S; Bartolomé, A; Menéndez, B; Azofra, J; Requejo, M D

    1996-02-01

    To compare accuracy, precision and stability of two jugular venous blood catheters for continuous monitoring of oxygen saturation during surgery, in a nonrandom, prospective sample. We studied 47 patients requiring continuous monitoring of SjvO2 during a variety of neurosurgical procedures. Swan-Ganz pediatric 5.5F catheters (Opticath P575-EH) were used in 27 patients; neonatal umbilical artery 4F catheters (Opticath U425C) were used in 20. Both catheters were equipped with a fiberoptic system for continuous monitoring of hemoglobin oxygen saturation. After checking correct placement, readings transmitted were compared with co-oximetry readings for a sample taken from the distal end of the catheter. We also compared time spent placing the catheters and stability of SjvO2 reading during surgery. Insertion time (+/- SD) was 10.3 +/- 2.5 minutes for the 4F catheter and 15.9 +/- 5.5 minutes for the 5.5F model (p < 0.01). Although both systems tended to overestimate, the 5.5F catheters were more accurate: the mean differences were -6.8% for the 4F catheter and -1.2% for the 5.5F. These results made it necessary to calibrate the 4F catheters after placement and before use, a procedure not needed if the 5.5F catheters are used. Stability of SjvO2 readings during surgery was significantly greater (p < 0.01) for the 5.5F catheters, such that only 25.9% were considered clinically useful based on this parameter. However, 70% of the 5.5F catheters provided acceptable SjvO2 readings. Intracranial pressure during insertion and removal of the SjvO2 catheters was measured in only 5 patients; there were no changes greater than 1 mmHg. Although the 5.5F pediatric catheters take longer to put into position, their greater accuracy, precision and stability makes them preferable to the 4F catheters for continuous monitoring of SjvO2. Long-term vascular effects must be studied further.

  10. An in vivo evaluation of the change in the pulpal oxygen saturation after administration of preoperative anxiolytics and local anesthesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. Shetty, Krishna; V. Satish, Sarvepalli; Kilaru, Krishnarao; Chakravarthi Ponangi, Kalyana; M. Luke, Alexander; Neshangi, Srisha

    2016-01-01

    Background. Given the influence of systemic blood pressure on pulpal blood flow, anxiolytics prescribed may alter the pulpal blood flow along with the local anesthetic solution containing a vasoconstrictor. This study evaluated the impact of preoperative anxiolytics and vasoconstrictors in local anesthetic agents on pulpal oxygen saturation. Methods. Thirty anxious young healthy individuals with a mean age of 24 years were randomly selected using the Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS). After checking the vital signs the initial pulpal oxygen saturation (initial SpO2) was measured using a pulse oximeter. Oral midzolam was administered at a dose of 7.5 mg. After 30 min, the vital signs were monitored and the pulpal oxygen saturation (anxiolytic SpO2) was measured. A total of 1.5 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:200000 epinephrine was administered as buccal infiltration anesthesia and 10 min the final pulpal oxygen saturation (L.A SpO2) was measured. Results. The mean initial (SpO2) was 96.37% which significantly decreased to 90.76% (SpO2) after the administration of the anxiolytic agent. This drop was later accentuated to 85.17% (SpO2) after administration of local anesthetic solution. Statistical significance was set at Pcavity preparation. Therefore, maintaining optimal blood flow during restorative procedures may prevent pulpal injury. PMID:27092212

  11. Changes in human muscle oxygen saturation and mean fiber conduction velocity during intense dynamic exercise - effect of muscular training status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilen, Anders; Gizzi, Leonardo; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: In this study we investigated whether an association exists between muscle fiber conduction velocity (MFCV) and local muscle oxygen saturation (StO(2) ) in the superficial part of the latissimus dorsi muscle of runners and swimmers during exhaustive dynamic exercise. Methods: Partic...

  12. Higher cerebral oxygen saturation may provide higher urinary output during continuous regional cerebral perfusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomoyasu Takahiro

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective We examined the hypothesis that higher cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2 during RCP is correlated with urinary output. Methods Between December 2002 and August 2006, 12 patients aged 3 to 61 days and weighing 2.6 to 3.4 kg underwent aortic arch repair with RCP. Urinary output and rSO2 were analyzed retrospectively. Data were assigned to either of 2 groups according to their corresponding rSO2: Group A (rSO2 ≦ 75% and Group B (rSO2 Results Seven and 5 patients were assigned to Group A and Group B, respectively. Group A was characterized by mean radial arterial pressure (37.9 ± 9.6 vs 45.8 ± 7.8 mmHg; P = 0.14 and femoral arterial pressure (6.7 ± 6.1 vs 20.8 ± 14.6 mmHg; P = 0.09 compared to Group B. However, higher urinary output during CPB (1.03 ± 1.18 vs 0.10 ± 0.15 ml·kg-1·h-1; P = 0.03. Furthermore our results indicate that a higher dose of Chlorpromazine was used in Group A (2.9 ± 1.4 vs 1.7 ± 1.0 mg/kg; P = 0.03. Conclusion Higher cerebral oxygenation may provide higher urinary output due to higher renal blood flow through collateral circulation.

  13. Influence of dissolved oxygen on silver nanoparticle mobility and dissolution in water-saturated quartz sand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mittelman, Anjuliee M.; Taghavy, Amir; Wang, Yonggang; Abriola, Linda M.; Pennell, Kurt D., E-mail: kurt.pennell@tufts.edu [Tufts University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering (United States)

    2013-07-15

    The influence of dissolved oxygen (DO) on the transport behavior and dissolution kinetics of silver nanoparticles (nAg) was explored through a combination of experimental and mathematical modeling studies. One-dimensional column experiments were conducted with water-saturated 40-50 mesh Ottawa sand, operated at pH 4 or 7 under three DO conditions (8.9, 2, or <0.2 mg/L). The experimental protocol consisted of a nAg deposition phase, designed to assess nanoparticle mobility as a function of DO level, followed by a dissolution phase, to evaluate the release of Ag{sup +} from retained nanoparticles. Experimental observations revealed that the mobility of nAg increased by 15 % when the DO level was reduced from 8.9 to <0.2 mg/L at pH 4, and that, once retained by the quartz sand, the fraction of nAg mass eluted as Ag{sup +} decreased from 21.6 to 13.5 to 11.3 % with decreasing oxygen level (8.9, 2, and <0.2 mg/L, respectively). In both batch and column studies, rates of nAg dissolution decreased over time, behavior attributed to aging of the nanoparticle surface due to oxidation. A hybrid Eulerian-Lagrangian nanoparticle transport model was developed and implemented to simulate the mobility of nAg, subject to DO-dependent dissolution kinetics and particle aging. Model simulations accurately captured nAg transport and dissolution as a function of pH and DO level, and demonstrate the importance of considering nanoparticle surface aging to accurately predict Ag{sup +} release over time.

  14. NIRS-Derived Tissue Oxygen Saturation and Hydrogen Ion Concentration Following Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S. M. C.; Everett, M. E.; Crowell, J. B.; Westby, C. M.; Soller, B. R.

    2010-01-01

    Long-term bed rest (BR), a model of spaceflight, results in a decrease in aerobic capacity and altered submaximal exercise responses. The strongest BR-induced effects on exercise appear to be centrally-mediated, but longer BR durations may result in peripheral adaptations (e.g., decreased mitochondrial and capillary density) which are likely to influence exercise responses. PURPOSE: To measure tissue oxygen saturation (SO2) and hydrogen ion concentration ([H+]) in the vastus lateralis (VL) using near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) during cycle ergometry before and after . 30 d of BR. METHODS: Eight subjects performed a graded exercise test on a cycle ergometer to volitional fatigue 7 d before (pre-BR) and at the end or 1 day after BR (post-BR). NIRS spectra were collected from a sensor adhered to the skin overlying the VL. Oxygen consumption (VO2) was measured by open circuit spirometry. Blood volume (BV) was measured before and after BR using the carbon monoxide rebreathing technique. Changes in pre- and post-BR SO2 and [H+] data were compared using mixed model analyses. BV and peak exercise data were compared using paired t-tests. RESULTS: BV (pre-BR: 4.3+/-0.3, post-BR: 3.7+/-0.2 L, mean+/-SE, p=.01) and peak VO2 (pre-BR: 1.98+/-0.24, post-BR: 1.48 +/-0.21 L/min, padaptations which contribute to cardiovascular and muscular deconditioning as measured by NIRS-derived SO2 and [H+] in the VL and may contribute to lower post-BR exercise tolerance. Supported by the National Space Biomedical Research Institute through NASA NCC 9-58

  15. Reduced incidence of atrial fibrillation after cardiac surgery by continuous wireless monitoring of oxygen saturation on the normal ward and resultant oxygen therapy for hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisner, Dilek; Wilhelm, Markus J; Messerli, Michael S; Zünd, Gregor; Genoni, Michele

    2009-01-01

    Monitoring of cardiac surgical patients after transfer from the intensive care unit to the normal ward is incomplete. Undetected hypoxia, however, is known to be a risk factor for occurrence of atrial fibrillation. We have utilized Auricall for continuous wireless monitoring of oxygen saturation and heart rate until discharge. The object of the study was to analyze if oxygen therapy as a result of Auricall alerts of hypoxia can decrease the incidence of postoperative atrial fibrillation. Auricall is a wireless portable pulse oximeter. An alert is generated depending on preset threshold values (heart rate, oxygen saturation). Over a period of 6 months, 119 patients were monitored with the Auricall following coronary artery bypass graft and/or valve surgery. Oxygen therapy was started subsequent to an oxygen saturation below 90%. These patients were compared with a cohort of 238 patients from the time period before availability of Auricall. The patient characteristics were comparable in both groups. In a retrospective study, the incidence of atrial fibrillation was measured in both groups. The postoperative AF was observed in 22/119 patients (18%) in group I and in 66/238 patients (28%) in group II. This difference between the two groups approached significance (p=0.056). In the subgroup of patients with coronary artery bypass graft with our without simultaneous valve surgery (n=312), Auricall monitoring resulted in a significantly reduced incidence of atrial fibrillation (14% vs 26%, p=0.016). Continuous monitoring of oxygen saturation on the normal ward and subsequent oxygen therapy for hypoxia can reduce the incidence of atrial fibrillation in a subgroup of patients after cardiac surgery. Prospective randomized trials are warranted to confirm these data.

  16. Cup or bottle for preterm infants: effects on oxygen saturation, weight gain, and breastfeeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Neide M N; Martinez, Francisco E; Jorge, Salim M

    2002-05-01

    The impact of cup-feeding or bottle-feeding on weight gain, oxygen saturation, and breastfeeding rates of preterm infants was studied in 34 bottle-fed and 44 cup-fed preterm infants. At initiation of oral feeding, postconceptional age and weight were 37.2 +/- 2.2 weeks and 1676 +/- 83 g for the bottle-fed group (BF) and 37.0 +/- 1.6 weeks and 1637 +/- 40 g for the cup-fed (CF) group, respectively. No significant differences between groups were found with regard to time spent feeding, feeding problems, weight gain, or breastfeeding prevalence at discharge or at 3-month follow-up. Possible beneficial effects of cup-feeding were lower incidence of desaturation episodes (13.6% vs 35.3%, CF vs BF, P = .024) and a higher prevalence of breastfeeding at 3 months among those still breastfeeding at the first follow-up visit (68.4% vs 33.3%, CF vs BF, P = .04).

  17. Monitoring cerebral tissue oxygen saturation at frontal and parietal regions during carotid artery stenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Hall, Melanie; Settecase, Fabio; Higashida, Randall T; Gelb, Adrian W

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral oximetry is normally placed on the upper forehead to monitor the frontal lobe cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2). We present a case in which the SctO2 was simultaneously monitored at both frontal and parietal regions during internal carotid artery (ICA) stenting. Our case involves a 79-year-old man who presented after a sudden fall and was later diagnosed with a watershed ischemic stroke in the distal fields perfused by the left middle cerebral artery. He had diffuse atherosclerotic occlusive lesions in the carotid and cerebral arterial systems including an 85 % stenotic lesion in the left distal cervical ICA. The brain territory perfused by the left ICA was devoid of collateral flow from anterior and posterior communicating arteries due to an abnormal circle of Willis. During stenting, the SctO2 monitored at both frontal and parietal regions tracked the procedure-induced acute flow change. However, the baseline SctO2 values of frontal and parietal regions differed. The SctO2-MAP correlation was more consistent on the stroked hemisphere than the non-stroked hemisphere. This case showed that SctO2 can be reliably monitored at the parietal region, which is primarily perfused by the ICA. SctO2 of the stroked brain is more pressure dependent than the non-stroked brain.

  18. Central venous oxygen saturation and thoracic admittance during dialysis: new approaches to hemodynamic monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cordtz, J.; Olde, B.; Solem, K.

    2008-01-01

    in ScO(2) and TA correlated much closer than did changes in ScO(2) and DeltaBV (r=0.43 and 0.18, respectively). Our results suggest that an intradialytic decrease in cardiac output, as reflected by a fall in ScO(2), is a common feature to HD patients prone to IDH. In patients using a central vascular......Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is one of the most important short-term complications to hemodialysis (HD). Inadequate cardiac filling due to a reduction in the central blood volume is believed to be a major etiological factor. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether these pathophysiologic...... events are reflected in the central venous oxygen saturation (ScO(2)) and thoracic admittance (TA) during dialysis. Twenty ambulatory HD patients, 11 hypotension prone (HP) and 9 hypotension resistant, with central vascular access, were monitored during 3 HD sessions each. ScO(2), TA, finger blood...

  19. A novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Pan, Boan; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces a novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood (SjvO2) by using Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The different positions of patients can affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular vein (IJV), in other words, it causes the sectional change of the IJV blood volume. When lying position of patients, the CSA is larger than that keeping upper body 80 degree, and the CSA can compute quantitatively by the use of ultrasound and digital image processing methods. The entire method consist of constructing different position of patient (upper body rotation 0 and 80 degree), comparing the light absorption changes. SjvO2 has been determined from light absorption measurements in two wavelength, before and after the position changes. The method has been applied to the vertical area over the IJV of 11 patients who were placed a central venous catheter into a large vein in the neck for medical uses, using wavelength of 735 and 850 nm. At last, comparing the SjvO2NIRS which measured by NIRS noninvasively with SjvO2IJVBG which was quantified using a whole blood gas analyzer, we found there were some certain relativity. The results were influenced by vascular depth greatly.

  20. Oxygen saturation/minute heart rate index: Simple lung function test for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdemir, Ali; Dogruel, Dilek; Yilmaz, Ozlem

    2017-02-01

    The severity of airway obstruction can be accurately determined on spirometry in children with asthma. Other assessments may include peak expiratory flow and pulse oximetry. In the present study, we evaluated the validity and reliability of oxygen saturation/minute heart rate (SpO2 /MHR) index in the prediction of degree of severe airway obstruction in children with asthma. This was a retrospective study of children aged 7-17 followed for asthma at Mersin Women and Children's Hospital. The study compared SpO2 /MHR ratio with forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 ) measured on spirometry, an important indicator of small airway obstruction. A total of 296 patients were included in the study, and classified either as having normal FEV1 (FEV1 > 80% of predicted, n = 178) or severely reduced FEV1 (FEV1 MHR index in predicting low FEV1 were calculated on receiver operating characteristics analysis. An SpO2 /MHR ratio cut-off MHR ratio appears to be a highly useful index to assess airway obstruction in older children with asthma. Thus, it can be used as a marker of airway obstruction severity when spirometry is not available. © 2016 Japan Pediatric Society.

  1. Effect of head rotation during surgery in the prone position on regional cerebral oxygen saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Johnny Dohn Holmgren; Baake, Gerben; Wiis, Julie Therese;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to study regional cerebral blood oxygen saturation (rScO2) in patients in the prone position. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to test the hypothesis that head rotation more than 45° would affect the rScO2. DESIGN: A prospective, controlled, single......-state anaesthesia with the head in the neutral position, rotated left, rotated right and returned to the neutral position. Each series consisted of three measurements: resting on the head support, during head lift (to relieve pressure on the tissue at the sensors) and returned to rest on the head support. MAIN...... OUTCOME MEASURES: The differences in rScO2 between the neutral and the turned head positions. RESULTS: For both left and right sensors, the median differences in rScO2 between neutral and left or right positions were between 0 and -1 with the head up (P = 0.14 to 0.84). The median differences...

  2. Dual-wavelength retinal images denoising algorithm for improving the accuracy of oxygen saturation calculation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yong-Li; Dai, Yun; Gao, Chun-Ming; Du, Rui

    2017-01-01

    Noninvasive measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) in retinal vessels is based on spectrophotometry and spectral absorption characteristics of tissue. Retinal images at 570 and 600 nm are simultaneously captured by dual-wavelength retinal oximetry based on fundus camera. SO2 is finally measured after vessel segmentation, image registration, and calculation of optical density ratio of two images. However, image noise can dramatically affect subsequent image processing and SO2 calculation accuracy. The aforementioned problem remains to be addressed. The purpose of this study was to improve image quality and SO2 calculation accuracy by noise analysis and denoising algorithm for dual-wavelength images. First, noise parameters were estimated by mixed Poisson-Gaussian (MPG) noise model. Second, an MPG denoising algorithm which we called variance stabilizing transform (VST) + dual-domain image denoising (DDID) was proposed based on VST and improved dual-domain filter. The results show that VST + DDID is able to effectively remove MPG noise and preserve image edge details. VST + DDID is better than VST + block-matching and three-dimensional filtering, especially in preserving low-contrast details. The following simulation and analysis indicate that MPG noise in the retinal images can lead to erroneously low measurement for SO2, and the denoised images can provide more accurate grayscale values for retinal oximetry.

  3. Arterial oxygen saturation and hemoglobin mass in postmenopausal untrained and trained altitude residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristancho, Edgar; Reyes, Orlando; Serrato, Mauricio; Mora, María Mercedes; Rojas, Joel Alberto; Robinson, Yohan; Böning, Dieter

    2007-01-01

    Because of lacking ventilatory stimulation by sex hormones in postmenopausal women (PW), one might expect a lowered arterial oxygen saturation (S(O(2))) in hypoxia and therefore a stronger erythropoietic reaction than in young women (YW). Nine untrained (UTRPW) and 11 trained (TRPW) postmenopausal altitude residents (2600 m) were compared to 16 untrained (UTRYW) and 16 trained young women (TRYW) to check this hypothesis and to study the combined response to hypoxia and training. S(O(2)) was decreased in PW (89.2% +/- 2.2 vs. 93.6 +/- 0.7% in YW, p < 0.01). Hb mass, however, was similar in UT (UTRYW: 9.2 +/- 0.9 g/kg(1), UTRPW: 8.7 +/- 1.0 g/kg). But if body fat rise with age was excluded by relation to fat-free mass, Hb mass was increased in UTRPW (+1.2 g/kg, p < 0.05) compared to UTRYW. Training caused a similar rise of Hb mass in PW and YW (0.3 g/kg per mL/kg x min(1) rise in V(O(2peak))). There was no difference in erythropoietin among the groups. Ferritin was higher in PW than YW. The results show that female hormones and fitness level have to be considered in studies on erythropoiesis at altitude. The role of erythropoietin during chronic hypoxia still has to be clarified.

  4. Normative Values of Retinal Oxygen Saturation in Rhesus Monkeys: The Beijing Intracranial and Intraocular Pressure (iCOP Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    Full Text Available To study the normal values of the retinal oxygen saturation in Rhesus monkeys and to evaluated repeatability and reproducibility of retinal oxygen saturation measurements.Eighteen adult Rhesus macaque monkeys were included in this experimental study. An Oxymap T1 retinal oximeter (Oxymap, Reykjavik, Iceland was used to perform oximetry on all subjects. Global arterial (SaO2 and venous oxygen saturation (SvO2, arteriovenous difference in SO2 were measured. In the first examination, each eye was imaged three times. At the following two examinations, each eye was imaged once. All examinations were finished in one month. P values were calculated to evaluate the difference between the measurements during three visits by performing an ANOVA. Intra-visit and inter-visit intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC was determined.At baseline, the average SaO2 and SvO2 were 89.48 ± 2.64% and 54.85 ± 2.18%, respectively. The global A-V difference was 34.63 ± 1.91%. The difference between the three visits was not significant (p>0.05. The highest A-V difference in SO2 and lowest saturations were found in the inferotemporal quadrant. Intra-session and inter-visit repeatability were both high. For all oxygen saturation parameters, the ICC values of the intra-session repeatability ranged between 0.92 and 0.96. As found previously, a relatively high ICC value for inter-visit repeatability also was found for all oxygen saturation measurements, ranging between 0.86 and 0.94, with the lowest values in the infero-nasal quadrant.Our study is the first to describe retinal SO2 in healthy Rhesus monkeys. In normal monkey eyes, the reproducibility and repeatability of retinal oximetry oxygen saturation measurements were high in the retinal arterioles and venules. Our results support that Oxymap T1 retinal oximetry is a suitable and reliable technique in monkey studies.

  5. Impact of cell cluster size on apparent half-saturation coefficients for oxygen in nitrifying sludge and biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picioreanu, Cristian; Pérez, Julio; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2016-12-01

    A three-dimensional (3-D) diffusion-reaction model was used to assess the effects of nitrifiers growing in cell clusters on the apparent oxygen half-saturation coefficients in activated sludge flocs. The model allows conciliation of seemingly contradictory reports by several research groups. Although intrinsic half-saturation coefficients (i.e., not affected by diffusion) show a better affinity for oxygen for ammonia oxidizing (AOB) than for nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) (KO,AOB  KO,NOB,app), which can now be explained by the 3-D model with AOB and NOB microcolonies. This effect cannot be described with a conventional 1-D homogeneous model because the reversion of the AOB/NOB apparent KO is caused by the high biomass density and resulting concentration gradients inside the microcolonies. Two main factors explain the reversion of the half-saturation coefficients: the difference in oxygen yields (for NOB lower than for AOB) and the difference in colony size (NOB colonies are smaller than those of AOB). The strongest increase in the apparent half-saturation coefficients is linked to the colony size, rather than to the floc size. For high-density microbial aggregates (i.e., granular sludge), the need for a stratified population (AOB outer shell, NOB inner layers) was revealed in order to outcompete NOB. This study stresses the need for a more detailed description of the biomass distribution in activated sludge, granular sludge and biofilm reactors when elucidating the mechanisms for NOB repression.

  6. Cerebral regional oxygen saturation monitoring in pediatric malfunctioning shunt patients☆,☆☆,★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abramo, Thomas J.; Zhou, Chuan; Estrada, Cristina; Drayna, Patrick C.; Locklair, Matthew R.; Miller, Renee; Pearson, Matthew; Tulipan, Noel; Arnold, Donald H.

    2014-01-01

    Background Shunt malfunction produces increased intracranial pressure causing decreased cerebral regional perfusion and tissue O2sat. Cerebral regional oxygen saturation (rSO2) by near-infrared spectroscopy represents tissue perfusion and oxygen saturation. Cerebral rSO2 is used to detect cerebral ischemia in pediatric clinical settings. Objective The objective of the study was to determine the reliability of cerebral rSO2 in pediatric malfunctioning shunt. Methods A prospective observational study of pediatric patients presented to the pediatric emergency department was conducted. Confirmed malfunctioning shunt subjects had cerebral rSO2 monitoring. Results A total of 131 malfunctioning shunt subjects had cerebral rSO2 monitoring. Patient's central trend and intrasubject variability of cerebral rSO2 readings for left and right probe and malfunction sites (n = 131) are as follows: VariableOverall, mean SO2Distal, mean SO2Proximal, mean rSO2PLeft cerebral rSO2 trend69.1 (10.7)67.7 (9.81)70.0 (11.17).23Right cerebral rSO2 trend71.3 (9.6)70.5 (8.13)71.8 (10.40).42Left cerebral rSO2 variability3.57 (2.04)4.72 (2.55)2.88 (1.24)<.001Right cerebral rSO2 variability3.46 (1.95)3.77 (2.20)3.28 (1.77).19 Intrasubject left and right rSO2 Pearson correlation was −0.46 to 0.98 (mean ± SD, 0.35 ± 0.34; median, 0.34; interquartile range, 0.06–0.61). The correlation coefficients of 99 subjects between left and right rSO2 was significantly different (P < .001), suggesting that intrasubjects' left and right rSO2 are highly correlated. Sample mean difference between left and right rSO2 were −1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], −1.8 to −1.6; P < .001) supporting overall left lower than right. Intraclass correlation for left rSO2 was 87.4% (95% CI, 87.2%−87.6%), and that for right rSO2 was 83.8% (95% CI, 83.8%−84%), showing intersubject differences accounting for the variation, and relative to intersubject variation, intrasubjects readings are consistent. Intrasubjects

  7. Arterial oxygen saturation in preterm infants at discharge from the hospital and six weeks later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poets, C F; Stebbens, V A; Alexander, J R; Arrowsmith, W A; Salfield, S A; Southall, D P

    1992-03-01

    To obtain normal data on arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) in preterm infants and to study early developmental changes in SaO2, we obtained overnight tape recordings of SaO2 and breathing movements in 160 preterm infants at their discharge from three special care baby units (mean gestational age at birth 33 weeks; at time of study, 37 weeks). One hundred ten infants (69%) underwent a second recording 6 weeks later. Median baseline SaO2 during regular breathing was 99.5% (range 88.7% to 100%) at discharge, and 100% (range 95.3% to 100%) at follow-up (p less than 0.001). The number of episodes of desaturation, defined as a fall in SaO2 to less than or equal to 80% for at least 4 seconds, corrected to the mean duration of recording (12.2 hours), decreased from a median of 3 (0 to 355) to 0 (0 to 17) (p less than 0.001). The median duration of each episode of desaturation remained unchanged (5.2 (4.0 to 22.7) vs 5.5 (4.2 to 24.0) seconds). At discharge, a small minority of infants had a clinically unrecognized low baseline SaO2 (lowest, 88.7%; 5th percentile, 95.7%) or a high number of desaturation episodes (the highest was six times the 95th percentile value). At follow-up, all outlying values had normalized. Follow-up recordings made between 42 and 47 weeks of gestational age (n = 53) were compared with similar recordings from 67 term infants at the same gestational age. The preterm infants had a significantly higher baseline SaO2 and no more desaturation than the infants born at term. Knowledge of normal ranges of oxygenation and their changes with age may be of value in identifying clinically undetected hypoxemia in preterm infants at discharge from the hospital. The potential influence of such hypoxemia on clinical outcome remains to be determined.

  8. Effects of salmeterol on sleeping oxygen saturation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ryan, Silke

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Sleep is associated with important adverse effects in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), such as disturbed sleep quality and gas exchange, including hypoxemia and hypercapnia. The effects of inhaled long-acting beta(2)-agonist therapy (LABA) on these disturbances are unclear. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of inhaled salmeterol on nocturnal sleeping arterial oxygen saturation (SaO(2)) and sleep quality. METHODS: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study of moderate\\/severe stable COPD patients, we compared the effects of 4 weeks of treatment with salmeterol 50 microg b.d. and matching placebo on sleeping SaO(2) and sleep quality. Overnight polysomnography (PSG) was performed at baseline, and after 4 and 8 weeks in addition to detailed pulmonary function testing. Of 15 patients included, 12 completed the trial (median age 69 years, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV(1): 39%). RESULTS: Both mean SaO(2) [salmeterol vs. placebo: 92.9% (91.2, 94.7) vs. 91.0% (88.9, 94.8); p = 0.016] and the percentage of sleep spent below 90% of SaO(2) [1.8% (0.0, 10.8) vs. 25.6% (0.5, 53.5); p = 0.005] improved significantly with salmeterol. Sleep quality was similar with both salmeterol and placebo on PSG. Static lung volumes, particularly trapped gas volume, tended to improve with salmeterol. CONCLUSION: We conclude that inhaled LABA therapy improves sleeping SaO(2) without significant change in sleep quality.

  9. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) thrives in the Antarctic underwater environment, diving to depths greater than 500 m and for durations longer than 23 min. To examine mechanisms underlying the exceptional diving ability of this species and further describe blood oxygen (O2) transport and depletion while diving, we characterized the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of the emperor penguin in whole blood. This allowed us to (1) investigate the biochemical adaptation of Hb in this species, and (2) address blood O2 depletion during diving, by applying the dissociation curve to previously collected partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles to estimate in vivo Hb saturation (SO2) changes during dives. This investigation revealed enhanced Hb-O2 affinity (P50=28 mmHg, pH 7.5) in the emperor penguin, similar to high-altitude birds and other penguin species. This allows for increased O2 at low blood PO2 levels during diving and more complete depletion of the respiratory O2 store. SO2 profiles during diving demonstrated that arterial SO2 levels are maintained near 100% throughout much of the dive, not decreasing significantly until the final ascent phase. End-of-dive venous SO2 values were widely distributed and optimization of the venous blood O2 store resulted from arterialization and near complete depletion of venous blood O2 during longer dives. The estimated contribution of the blood O2 store to diving metabolic rate was low and highly variable. This pattern is due, in part, to the influx of O2 from the lungs into the blood during diving, and variable rates of tissue O2 uptake.

  10. Correlation of BMI and oxygen saturation in stable COPD in Northern India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv Sagar Gupta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is associated with clinically relevant extra pulmonary manifestations; one of them is weight loss. However, there are very few studies from North India available in relation to body mass index (BMI and Oxygen saturation (SpO 2 with COPD. Aims: To study the prevalence of undernutrition among stable COPD patients and correlation of COPD severity with SpO 2 and BMI. Settings and Design: A prospective study was carried out at a tertiary care hospital. Subjects and Methods: COPD patients were diagnosed and staged as per global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease (GOLD guidelines. SpO 2 was measured using pulse oxymeter and BMI categorization was done as per new classification for Asian Indians (2009. Statistical analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 15.0. Results: Out of 147 COPD patients, 85 (57.8% were undernourished. The prevalence of undernourished BMI was 25%, 50.8%, 61.7%, and 80% in stage I, II, III and IV respectively; statistically significant (P < 0.050. The mean SpO 2 was 95.50 ± 1.41, 95.05 ± 2.42, 94.37 ± 2.28 and 93.05 ± 1.39 in stage I, II, III and IV respectively; statistically significant (F = 4.723; P = 0.004. Conclusions: The overall prevalence of under nutrition among COPD patients was 57.8%. With increasing COPD stage the BMI and median SpO 2 value decreased in progressive manner. Association of SpO 2 and COPD stages could be explored further in order to suggest an additional marker of disease severity that would add a new dimension in the management of COPD.

  11. The haemoglobin system of the mudfish, Labeo capensis: adaptations to temperature and hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frey, B.J.; Weber, Roy E.; Aardt, W.J. Van

    1998-01-01

    was smaller in the latter. The results indicate that oxygen transport in mudfish blood is supported by variations in the red cell organic phosphate\\haemoglobin ratio and the functional differentiation between anodic and cathodic haemoglobins. (C) 1998 Elsevier Science Inc. All rights reserved Udgivelsesdato....../Hb ratio. Temperature acclimation did not effect the oxygenation characteristics of the haemolysate or haemoglobin multiplicity, as evident from isoelectric focussing experiments that showed one cathodic (Hb I) and three anodic haemoglobins (Hb II, III and IV). Oxygen equilibria of the isolated components...

  12. Investigating Functional Extension of Optical Coherence Tomography for Spectroscopic Analysis of Blood Oxygen Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Siyu

    Over the past two decades, optical coherence tomography (OCT) has been successfully applied to various fields of biomedical researching and clinical studies, including cardiology, urology, dermatology, dentistry, oncology, and most successfully, ophthalmology. This dissertation seeks to extend the current OCT practice, which is still largely morphology-based, into a new dimension, functional analysis of metabolic activities in vivo. More specifically, the investigation is focused on retrieving blood oxygen saturation (sO2) using intrinsic hemoglobin optical absorption contrast. Most mammalian cells rely on aerobic respiration to support cellular function, which means they consume oxygen to create adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Metabolic rate of oxygen (MRO2), a key hemodynamic parameter, characterizes how much oxygen is consumed during a given period of time, reflecting the metabolic activity of the target tissue. For example, retinal neurons are highly active and almost entirely rely on the moment-to-moment oxygen supply from retinal circulations. Thus, variation in MRO2 reveals the instantaneous activity of these neurons, shedding light on the physiological and pathophysiological change of cellular functions. Eventually, measuring MRO2 can potentially provide a biomarker for early-stage disease diagnosis, and serve as one benchmark for evaluating effectiveness of medical intervention during disease management. Essential in calculating MRO2, blood sO2 measurements using spectroscopic OCT analysis has been attempted as early as 2003. OCT is intrinsically sensitive to the blood optical absorption spectrum due to its wide-band illumination and detection scheme relying on back-scattered photon. However, accurate retrieval of blood sO2 using conventional near infrared (NIR) OCT systems in vivo has remained challenging. It was not until the development of OCT systems using visible light illumination (vis-OCT) when accurate measurement of blood sO2 was reported in live

  13. Peripheral oxygen saturation, heart rate, and blood pressure during dental treatment of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Rosane Menezes Faria; Neves, Itamara Lucia Itagiba; Neves, Ricardo Simões; Atik, Edmar; Santos, Ubiratan de Paula

    2014-01-01

    In this observational study, we evaluated the peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2), heart rate, and blood pressure of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease who were undergoing dental extraction. Forty-four patients between the ages of 6 and 12 years who underwent upper primary tooth extraction were included in the study. Of these, 20 patients were in the cyanotic congenital heart disease group and 24 were in the control group. Peripheral oxygen saturation, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in the cyanotic congenital heart disease group varied quite significantly during the treatment protocol (pheart disease using a standardized protocol in decentralized offices without the support of a surgical center is safe.

  14. Oxygen Saturation Determined from Deep Muscle, Not Thenar Tissue, Is an Early Indicator of Central Hypovolemia in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    21). Removal of spectral interference from skin pigmentation and fat is critical to deter- mining absolute chemical concentrations from muscle...from skin pigment and fat is removed, the spectra describe capillary absorbance from the muscle alone. A Taylor series expansion attenuation method (22...oxygen saturation (Smo2) is defined by Equation 1: SmO2 C HbO2 MbO2 C HbO2 MbO2 C Hb Mb [1] where CHbO2 MbO2 is the oxygenated heme concentration

  15. The impact of the detection angle on the quantitative measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation in optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ning; Li, Changhui

    2016-10-01

    Optical-resolution photoacoustic microscopy (OR-PAM) plays an important role in the quantitative measurement of hemoglobin oxygen saturation (SO2) at a single vessel level. In this study, we reported that the relative angle between light illumination and ultrasonic detection could have a significant impact on the SO2 measurement. Both simulation and phantom studies were provided, and this result will help the system design and result interpretation of the functional OR-PAM.

  16. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran, V.; Dr. Bhimasen .S; E. Mastanaiah; A. Thiruppathi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done ...

  17. Iron- and indium-catalyzed reactions toward nitrogen- and oxygen-containing saturated heterocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornil, Johan; Gonnard, Laurine; Bensoussan, Charlélie; Serra-Muns, Anna; Gnamm, Christian; Commandeur, Claude; Commandeur, Malgorzata; Reymond, Sébastien; Guérinot, Amandine; Cossy, Janine

    2015-03-17

    A myriad of natural and/or biologically active products include nitrogen- and oxygen-containing saturated heterocycles, which are thus considered as attractive scaffolds in the drug discovery process. As a consequence, a wide range of reactions has been developed for the construction of these frameworks, much effort being specially devoted to the formation of substituted tetrahydropyrans and piperidines. Among the existing methods to form these heterocycles, the metal-catalyzed heterocyclization of amino- or hydroxy-allylic alcohol derivatives has emerged as a powerful and stereoselective strategy that is particularly interesting in terms of both atom-economy and ecocompatibility. For a long time, palladium catalysts have widely dominated this area either in Tsuji-Trost reactions [Pd(0)] or in an electrophilic activation process [Pd(II)]. More recently, gold-catalyzed formation of saturated N- and O-heterocycles has received growing attention because it generally exhibits high efficiency and diastereoselectivity. Despite their demonstrated utility, Pd- and Au-complexes suffer from high costs, toxicity, and limited natural abundance, which can be barriers to their widespread use in industrial processes. Thus, the replacement of precious metals with less expensive and more environmentally benign catalysts has become a challenging issue for organic chemists. In 2010, our group took advantage of the ability of the low-toxicity and inexpensive FeCl3 in activating allylic or benzylic alcohols to develop iron-catalyzed N- and O-heterocylizations. We first focused on N-heterocycles, and a variety of 2,6-disubstituted piperidines as well as pyrrolidines were synthesized in a highly diastereoselective fashion in favor of the cis-compounds. The reaction was further extended to the construction of substituted tetrahydropyrans. Besides triggering the formation of heterocycles, the iron salts were shown to induce a thermodynamic epimerization, which is the key to reach the high

  18. Oxygen Saturation Reference Value by Percutaneous Pulse Oximetry in Asymptomatic Newborn Babies in Nigeria: A Cross-Sectional Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obumneme Ezeanosike

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available About 1/4 of all neonatal deaths in Nigeria are caused by birth asphyxia. Normal values of oxygen saturation vary according to regional altitudes. They are important for the screening of cyanotic congenital heart diseases and during newborn resuscitation. There is a dearth of such information in Nigeria. We determined reference values for oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2 in asymptomatic newborns aged ≤7 days in Enugu at an altitude of 180 m. The study was cross-sectional. Neonates weighing ≥1500 g at birth were enrolled consecutively. Pre-and post-ductal oxygen saturation was measured using a Datex-Ohmeda Tuffsat® pulse oximeter with neonatal probes. Five hundred and fourteen babies comprising of 24 (4.4% preterm and 490 (95.3% term neonates were studied. The mean pre-ductal SpO2 of all babies was 96.1% ± 1.4% and higher than mean post-ductal SpO2 of 95.9% ± 1.4% (p = 0.022. The mean pre-ductal SpO2 were 96.1% ± 1.5% and 96.1% ± 1.3%, (p = 1.000 for males and females, respectively. The mean pre-ductal SpO2 values were higher than the mean post-ductal SpO2 for the corresponding post-natal ages.

  19. Prognostic value of brachioradialis muscle oxygen saturation index and vascular occlusion test in septic shock patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Corral, J; Claverias, L; Bodí, M; Pascual, S; Dubin, A; Gea, J; Rodriguez, A

    2016-05-01

    To compare rSO2 (muscle oxygen saturation index) static and dynamic variables obtained by NIRS (Near Infrared Spectroscopy) in brachioradialis muscle of septic shock patients and its prognostic implications. Prospective and observational study. Intensive care unit. Septic shock patients and healthy volunteers. The probe of a NIRS device (INVOS 5100) was placed on the brachioradialis muscle during a vascular occlusion test (VOT). Baseline, minimum and maximum rSO2 values, deoxygenation rate (DeOx), reoxygenation slope (ReOx) and delta value. Septic shock patients (n=35) had lower baseline rSO2 (63.8±12.2 vs. 69.3±3.3%, p<0.05), slower DeOx (-0.54±0.31 vs. -0.91±0.35%/s, p=0.001), slower ReOx (2.67±2.17 vs. 9.46±3.5%/s, p<0.001) and lower delta (3.25±5.71 vs. 15.1±3.9%, p<0.001) when compared to healthy subjects (n=20). Among septic shock patients, non-survivors showed lower baseline rSO2 (57.0±9.6 vs. 69.8±11.3%, p=0.001), lower minimum rSO2 (36.0±12.8 vs. 51.3±14.8%, p<0.01) and lower maximum rSO2 values (60.6±10.6 vs. 73.3±11.2%, p<0.01). Baseline rSO2 was a good mortality predictor (AUC 0.79; 95%CI: 0.63-0.94, p<0.01). Dynamic parameters obtained with VOT did not improve the results. Septic shock patients present an important alteration of microcirculation that can be evaluated by NIRS with prognostic implications. Monitoring microvascular reactivity in the brachioradialis muscle using VOT with our device does not seem to improve the prognostic value of baseline rSO2. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  20. Coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and oxygen saturation during early infant breast-feeding and bottle-feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfield, Eugene C; Richardson, Michael J; Lee, Kimberly G; Margetts, Stacey

    2006-10-01

    This prospective study compared the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and its relationship to oxygen saturation in infants during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding. After 4 to 6 wk of exclusive breast-feeding, infants began bottle-feedings of expressed human milk using one of two systems: a soft-walled bottle and nipple (system 1, Playtex) or a hard-walled bottle and nipple (system 2, Avent). Infants' sucking, swallowing, breathing, and oxygenation were measured during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding, and coordination of these activities during breast-feeding and bottle-feeding were compared. During breast-feeding, swallowing occurred nonrandomly between breaths and did not interfere with breathing. The same distribution of swallowing occurred in infants fed with system 1, while swallowing occurred randomly in infants fed with system 2. Swallowing significantly increased during bottle-feeding among infants using system 2, but decreased among infants using system 1. Infants using system 2 also had a greater instability in the coordination of sucking, swallowing, and breathing and more perturbation of breathing. Oxygen saturation was significantly higher in infants fed with system 1 compared with system 2. These results suggest that the overall feeding pattern and oxygenation of system 1 are closer to the physiologic norm than system 2.

  1. A cross-reactive monoclonal antibody to nematode haemoglobin enhances protective immune responses to Nippostrongylus brasiliensis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie E Nieuwenhuizen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nematode secreted haemoglobins have unusually high affinity for oxygen and possess nitric oxide deoxygenase, and catalase activity thought to be important in protection against host immune responses to infection. In this study, we generated a monoclonal antibody (48Eg against haemoglobin of the nematode Anisakis pegreffii, and aimed to characterize cross-reactivity of 4E8g against haemoglobins of different nematodes and its potential to mediate protective immunity against a murine hookworm infection. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Immunoprecipitation was used to isolate the 4E8g-binding antigen in Anisakis and Ascaris extracts, which were identified as haemoglobins by peptide mass fingerprinting and MS/MS. Immunological cross-reactivity was also demonstrated with haemoglobin of the rodent hookworm N. brasiliensis. Immunogenicity of nematode haemoglobin in mice and humans was tested by immunoblotting. Anisakis haemoglobin was recognized by IgG and IgE antibodies of Anisakis-infected mice, while Ascaris haemoglobin was recognized by IgG but not IgE antibodies in mouse and human sera. Sequencing of Anisakis haemoglobin revealed high similarity to haemoglobin of a related marine nematode, Psuedoterranova decipiens, which lacks the four -HKEE repeats of Ascaris haemoglobin important in octamer assembly. The localization of haemoglobin in the different parasites was examined by immunohistochemistry and associated with the excretory-secretary ducts in Anisakis, Ascaris and N. brasiliensis. Anisakis haemoglobin was strongly expressed in the L3 stage, unlike Ascaris haemoglobin, which is reportedly mainly expressed in adult worms. Passive immunization of mice with 4E8g prior to infection with N. brasiliensis enhanced protective Th2 immunity and led to a significant decrease in worm burdens. CONCLUSION: The monoclonal antibody 4E8g targets haemoglobin in broadly equivalent anatomical locations in parasitic nematodes and enhances host immunity

  2. Oxygen saturation, red blood cell tissue fraction and speed resolved perfusion - A new optical method for microcirculatory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Hanna; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a new fiber-optic system that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) for a multi-modal assessment of the microcirculation. Quantitative data is achieved with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm based on an individually adaptive skin model. The output parameters are calculated from the model and given in absolute units: hemoglobin oxygen saturation (%), red blood cell (RBC) tissue fraction (%), and the speed resolved RBC perfusion separated into three speed regions; 0-1mm/s, 1-10mm/s and above 10mm/s (% mm/s). The aim was to explore microcirculatory parameters using the new optical method, integrating DRS and LDF in a joint skin model, during local heating of the dorsal foot and venous and arterial occlusion of the forearm in 23 healthy subjects (age 20-28years). There were differences in the three speed regions in regard to blood flow changes due to local heating, where perfusion for high speeds increased the most. There was also a high correlation between changes in oxygenation and changes in perfusion for higher speeds. Oxygen saturation at baseline was 44% on foot, increasing to 83% at plateau after heating. The larger increase in perfusion for higher speeds than for lower speeds together with the oxygenation increase during thermal provocation, shows a local thermoregulatory blood flow in presumably arteriolar dermal vessels. In conclusion, there are improved possibilities to assess microcirculation using integrated DRS and LDF in a joint skin model by enabling both oxygenation and speed resolved blood flow assessment simultaneously and in the same skin site. Output parameters in absolute units may also yield new insights about the microcirculatory system.

  3. EFFECTIVENESS OF AUTOGENIC DRAINAGE VERSUS POSTURAL DRAINAGE ON OXYGEN SATURATION IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC BRONCHITIS WITH 15 MINUTES POST THERAPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kiran

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Patients with COPD will have more amount of secretions. To clear the secretions by using of different bronchial hygiene techniques like postural drainage and autogenic drainage technique, manual hyperventilation technique ,active cycle breathing technique .Hence in this study to compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD and autogenic drainage (AD on level of oxygen saturation in blood, and amount of sputum recovery. Methodology: The study was done on 60 patients with COPD. Dividing Patients into two group and patients were treated with PD or AD in separate Groups. The effectiveness of the treatment was measured up to 6 days. Pulse oximetry was monitored and sputum was collected immediately after treatment and 15 minutes following each treatment. Results: The results of the study shown that there was significant difference in the amount of sputum recovered with AD (14.0±3.5 g vs PD (24.4±3.0 g and significant differences in Oxygen saturation; during PD fell from 93.3±0.7% to 91.2±0.8% (p<0.01 and required 15 min following treatment to return to baseline. Oxygen saturation did not fall during AD and increased to gradually following complete treatment days (baseline, 93.3±0.8%; p<0.01. Conclusion: Hence this study concludes that Autogenic drainage is more effective in improving spo2 in COPD & does not cause a sudden fall in spo2 as occurs in Postural drainage immediately after therapy. And it can be better tolerated by patients with COPD while producing fewer benefits in sputum clearance. In concern to mean amount of secretion removal Postural is found to be more effective

  4. Do dental procedures affect lung function and arterial oxygen saturation in asthmatic patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdy Mahmoud Emara

    2013-04-01

    Conclusion: Asthmatic patients may be at a higher risk of developing oxygen desaturation after dental procedures regardless of their type with and without local anesthesia and a decrease in PEF after dental procedures with local anesthesia.

  5. Cutaneous vasoconstriction affects near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral oxygen saturation during administration of norepinephrine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels Henrik Breiner; Secher, Niels H; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Perioperative optimization of spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy determined cerebral frontal lobe oxygenation (scO2) may reduce postoperative morbidity. Norepinephrine is routinely administered to maintain cerebral perfusion pressure and, thereby, cerebral blood flow, but norepinephrine...

  6. Improving the detectability of oxygen saturation level targets for preterm neonates: A laboratory test of tremolo and beacon sonifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deschamps, Marie-Lys; Sanderson, Penelope; Hinckfuss, Kelly; Browning, Caitlin; Loeb, Robert G; Liley, Helen; Liu, David

    2016-09-01

    Recent guidelines recommend oxygen saturation (SpO2) levels of 90%-95% for preterm neonates on supplemental oxygen but it is difficult to discern such levels with current pulse oximetry sonifications. We tested (1) whether adding levels of tremolo to a conventional log-linear pulse oximetry sonification would improve identification of SpO2 ranges, and (2) whether adding a beacon reference tone to conventional pulse oximetry confuses listeners about the direction of change. Participants using the Tremolo (94%) or Beacon (81%) sonifications identified SpO2 range significantly more accurately than participants using the LogLinear sonification (52%). The Beacon sonification did not confuse participants about direction of change. The Tremolo sonification may have advantages over the Beacon sonification for monitoring SpO2 of preterm neonates, but both must be further tested with clinicians in clinically representative scenarios, and with different levels of ambient noise and distractions.

  7. Accuracy of two pulse oximeters at low arterial hemoglobin-oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, B G; Carlin, J B; Tibballs, J; Mead, H; Hochmann, M; Osborne, A

    1998-06-01

    To evaluate the performance of two pulse oximeters in the measurement of arterial hemoglobin saturation in hypoxemic children. Prospective, repeated-measures observational study. A 16-bed pediatric intensive care unit in a children's tertiary hospital. Sixty-six patients with arterial saturation of Hewlett-Packard pulse oximeter yielding 155 data points (60 with saturations 75% and -0.8% and 8.0% Hewlett-Packard pulse oximeter were -0.5% and 5.1% >75% and 0.4% and 4.6% Hewlett-Packard. Regression coefficients for predicting change in cooximeter value given a change in the Ohmeda pulse oximeter were 0.59 and 0.71 75%, respectively. Similar coefficients for the Hewlett-Packard pulse oximeter were 0.50 and 0.70, respectively. The performance of the Ohmeda pulse oximeter deteriorated below an SpO2 of 75%. The Hewlett-Packard pulse oximeter performed consistently above and below an SpO2 of 75%. The ability of both pulse oximeters to reliably predict change in SaO2 based on change in pulse oximetry was limited. We recommend measurement of PaO2 or SaO2 for important clinical decisions.

  8. Monitoring cerebral oxygen saturation during cardiopulmonary bypass using near-infrared spectroscopy: the relationships with body temperature and perfusion rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teng, Yichao; Ding, HaiShu; Gong, Qingcheng; Jia, Zaishen; Huang, Lan

    2006-03-01

    During cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) because of weak arterial pulsation, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) is almost the only available method to monitor cerebral oxygenation noninvasively. Our group develops a NIRS oximeter to monitor regional cerebral oxygenation especially its oxygen saturation (rScO2). To achieve optimal coupling between the sensor and human brain, the distances between the light source and the detectors on it are properly chosen. The oximeter is calibrated by blood gas analysis, and the results indicate that its algorithm is little influenced by either background absorption or overlying tissue. We used it to measure the rScO2 of 15 patients during CPB. It is shown that rScO2 is negatively correlated with body temperature and positively with perfusion rate. There are two critical stages during CPB when rScO2 might be relatively low: one is the low-perfusion-rate stage, the other is the early rewarming stage. During cooling, the changes of total hemoglobin concentration (CtHb) compared with its original value is also monitored. It is shown that CtHb decreases to a small extent, which may mainly reflect cerebral vasoconstriction induced by cooling. All these results indicate that NIRS can be used to monitor cerebral oxygenation to protect cerebral tissue during CPB.

  9. Peripheral oxygen saturation, heart rate, and blood pressure during dental treatment of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosane Menezes Faria Dutra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: In this observational study, we evaluated the peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2, heart rate, and blood pressure of children with cyanotic congenital heart disease who were undergoing dental extraction. METHODS: Forty-four patients between the ages of 6 and 12 years who underwent upper primary tooth extraction were included in the study. Of these, 20 patients were in the cyanotic congenital heart disease group and 24 were in the control group. RESULTS: Peripheral oxygen saturation, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure in the cyanotic congenital heart disease group varied quite significantly during the treatment protocol (p<0.05, with values of 80.5% (±7.6 to 82.8% (±7.8, 95.3 beats per minute (bpm (±11.3 to 101.3 bpm (±9.8, and 93.6 mm Hg (±13,3 to 103.8 mm Hg (±12.7, respectively. The variations in the control group during the procedure were also significant. CONCLUSIONS: The changes observed during the study protocol, although statistically significant, were mild and lacked clinical relevance. The results indicate that dental treatment of children with cyanotic heart disease using a standardized protocol in decentralized offices without the support of a surgical center is safe.

  10. Optical noninvasive calculation of hemoglobin components concentrations and fractional oxygen saturation using a ring-scattering pulse oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, Omar; Stork, Wilhelm; Muller-Glaser, Klaus

    2004-06-01

    The deficiencies of the currently used pulse oximeter are discussed in diverse literature. A hazardous pitfalls of this method is that the pulse oximeter will not detect carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and methemoglobin (metHb) concentrations. This leads to incorrect measurement of oxygen saturation by carbon monoxide poisoning and methemoglobinemia. Also the total hemoglobin concentration will not be considered and can only be measured in-vitro up to now. A second pitfall of the standard pulse oximetry is that it will not be able to show a result by low perfusion of tissues. This case is available inter alia when the patient is under shock or has a low blood pressure. The new non-invasive system we designed measures the actual (fractional) oxygen saturation and hemoglobin concentration. It will enable us also to measure COHb and metHb. The measurement can be applied at better perfused body central parts. Four or more light emitting diodes (LEDs) or laser diodes (LDs) and five photodiodes (PDs) are used. The reflected light signal detected by photodiodes is processed using a modified Lambert-Beer law (I=I0×e-α.d ). According to this law, when a non scattering probe is irradiated with light having the incident intensity I0, the intensity of transmitted light I decays exponentially with the absorption coefficient a of that probe and its thickness d. Modifications of this law have been performed following the theoretical developed models in literature, Monte Carlo simulation and experimental measurement.

  11. Associations of autophagy with lung diffusion capacity and oxygen saturation in severe COPD: effects of particulate air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kang-Yun; Chiang, Ling-Ling; Ho, Shu-Chuan; Liu, Wen-Te; Chen, Tzu-Tao; Feng, Po-Hao; Su, Chien-Ling; Chuang, Kai-Jen; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Chuang, Hsiao-Chi

    2016-01-01

    Although traffic exposure has been associated with the development of COPD, the role of particulate matter diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide levels (r=-0.914, P=0.029), changes in the pulse oxygen saturation (ΔSaO2; r=-0.973, P=0.005), receptor for advanced glycation end-products (r=-0.881, P=0.048), interleukin-6 (r=0.986, P=0.002), ubiquitin (r=0.940, P=0.017), and beclin 1 (r=0.923, P=0.025) in COPD. Next, we observed that ubiquitin was correlated with ΔSaO2 (r=-0.374, P=0.019). Beclin 1 was associated with diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide (r=-0.362, P=0.028), ΔSaO2 (r=-0.354, P=0.032), and receptor for advanced glycation end-products (r=-0.471, P=0.004). Autophagy may be an important regulator of the PM10-related pathogenesis of COPD, which could cause deterioration in the lung diffusion capacity and oxygen saturation.

  12. Assessment of the menstrual cycle upon total hemoglobin, water concentration, and oxygen saturation in the female breast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shudong; Pogue, Brian W.; Srinivasan, Subhadra; Soho, Sandra; Poplack, Steven P.; Tosteson, Tor D.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2003-07-01

    Near-infrared imaging can be used in humans to characterize changes in breast tumor tissue by imaging total hemoglobin and water concentrations as well as oxygen saturation. In order to improve our understanding of these changes, we need to carefully quantify the range of variation possible in normal tissues for these parameters. In this study, the effect of the subject"s menstrual cycle was examined by imaging their breast at the follicular (7-14 days of the cycle) and secretory phases (21-28 days of the cycle), using our NIR tomographic system. In this system, a three layer patient interface is used to measure 3 planes along the breast from chest wall towards the nipple at 1cm increments. Seven volunteers in their 40s were observed for 2 menstrual cycles and all of these volunteers recently had normal mammograms (ACR 1) with heterogeneously dense breast composition. The results show that average total hemoglobin in the breast increased in many subjects between 0 to 15% from the follicular phase to secretory phase. Oxygen saturation and water concentration changes between these 2 parts of the cycle were between -6.5% to 12% for saturation and between -33% to 28% for water concentration. While the data averaged between subjects showed no significant change existed between phases, it was clear that individual subjects did exhibit changes in composition which were consistent from cycle to cycle. Understanding what leads to this heterogeneity between subjects will be an important factor in utilizing these measurements in clinical practice.

  13. Comparison of cerebral oxygen saturation in premature infants by near-infrared spatially resolved spectroscopy: observations on probe-dependent bias

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, Line C; Leung, Terence S; Greisen, Gorm

    2008-01-01

    Spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS) allows the estimation of absolute tissue oxygen saturation, the ratio of oxygenated to total hemoglobin concentration, which may facilitate the comparison of results among patients. Eighty-two premature infants were included over two years. The cerebral tissue...

  14. Hypercapnic Acidosis Preserves Gastric Mucosal Microvascular Oxygen Saturation in a Canine Model of Hemorrhage.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartges, Ingo; Picker, Olaf; Beck, Christopher; Scheeren, Thomas W. L.; Schwarte, Lothar A.

    2010-01-01

    The authors aimed to clarify the effects of hypercapnic acidosis and its timing on gastric mucosal oxygenation in a canine model of hemorrhage. This was designed as a prospective, controlled, randomized animal study set in a university research laboratory. Five chronically instrumented dogs were

  15. Association between regional quadriceps oxygenation and blood oxygen saturation during normoxic one-legged dynamic knee extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esaki, Kazuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Rådegran, Göran;

    2005-01-01

    one-legged dynamic knee extension exercise (1L-KEE). Five healthy male subjects (age 25+/-2 year, height 177.8+/-4.8 cm, body weight 67.1 +/- 5.0 kg; mean +/- SD) performed 1L-KEE at 20, 40, and 60% of peak work rate (WR-peak) each for 4 min. S(fv)o2 was measured at rest and during the 3rd minute......It is not clear whether muscle oxygenation (O(2-NIRS)) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) correlates with femoral venous SO2 (S(fv)o2) during normoxic exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare physiologically calibrated O(2-NIRS) with S(fv)o2 in subjects performing...

  16. Noninvasively Determined Muscle Oxygen Saturation Is an Early Indicator of Central Hypovolemia in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-15

    additional mathematical preprocessing techniques to correct spectra for variation in skin pigmentation , fat, and muscle optical properties prior to the...from skin pigmentation and fat is critical to determining absolute chemical concentrations from mus- cle spectra. The mathematical equations for...pathlength through the tissue, CHbO2 MbO2 is the oxygenated heme concentration, and CHb Mb is the deoxygenated heme concentration, Hb represents

  17. Effects of slow deep breathing at high altitude on oxygen saturation, pulmonary and systemic hemodynamics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Bilo

    Full Text Available Slow deep breathing improves blood oxygenation (Sp(O2 and affects hemodynamics in hypoxic patients. We investigated the ventilatory and hemodynamic effects of slow deep breathing in normal subjects at high altitude. We collected data in healthy lowlanders staying either at 4559 m for 2-3 days (Study A; N = 39 or at 5400 m for 12-16 days (Study B; N = 28. Study variables, including Sp(O2 and systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure, were assessed before, during and after 15 minutes of breathing at 6 breaths/min. At the end of slow breathing, an increase in Sp(O2 (Study A: from 80.2±7.7% to 89.5±8.2%; Study B: from 81.0±4.2% to 88.6±4.5; both p<0.001 and significant reductions in systemic and pulmonary arterial pressure occurred. This was associated with increased tidal volume and no changes in minute ventilation or pulmonary CO diffusion. Slow deep breathing improves ventilation efficiency for oxygen as shown by blood oxygenation increase, and it reduces systemic and pulmonary blood pressure at high altitude but does not change pulmonary gas diffusion.

  18. Retinal Oxygen Saturation Correlates With Visual Acuity but Does Not Predict Outcome After Anti-VEGF Treatment in Central Retinal Vein Occlusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeppesen, Signe Krejberg; Bek, Toke

    2017-05-01

    Occlusion of the central retinal vein (CRVO) is a frequent cause of visual loss. The occlusion induces hypoxia in the retina and the larger retinal veins, but the significance of retinal oxygen saturation for visual acuity at diagnosis and after anti-VEGF treatment for CRVO has not been studied in detail. Retinal oximetry was performed in 91 patients consecutively referred for specialist evaluation of CRVO. The correlation between oxygen saturation in larger retinal vessels and visual acuity at the primary examination and the predictive value of oxygen saturation for visual prognosis after three monthly intravitreal injections with anti-VEGF medication were studied. At referral, the oxygen saturation in larger retinal vessels of the affected eye was significantly higher in arterioles (100.7 ± 1.4% vs. 96.3 ± 0.6%) and significantly lower in venules (37.8 ± 2.6% vs. 58.2 ± 1.3%) than in the unaffected eye (P retinal arterioles (P = 0.002) and a significant positive correlation with the saturation in retinal venules (P = 0.013). Multiple linear regression showed that BCVA, but not oxygen saturations, contributed significantly to predicting visual outcome after three monthly intravitreal injections with VEGF inhibitor. The correlation between retinal oxygen saturation and BCVA at the time of diagnosis of CRVO may help understanding hemodynamic and visual changes in the acute stages of the disease. However, retinal oximetry cannot replace measures of retinal function as a predictive parameter for the visual outcome in CRVO after three monthly intravitreal anti-VEGF injections.

  19. Tongue Volume Influences Lowest Oxygen Saturation but Not Apnea-Hypopnea Index in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hyeon Ahn

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to identify correlations between sleep apnea severity and tongue volume or posterior airway space measured via three-dimensional reconstruction of volumetric computerized tomography (CT images in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA for use in predicting OSA severity and in surgical treatment. We also assessed associations between tongue volume and Mallampati score.Snoring/OSA male patients (n = 64 who underwent polysomnography, cephalometry, and CT scans were enrolled in this retrospective study. OSA was diagnosed when the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI was greater than 5 (mild 5-14; moderate 15-29; severe>30. The patients were also categorized into the normal-mild group (n = 22 and the moderate-severe group (n = 42. Using volumetric CT images with the three-dimensional reconstruction technique, the volume of the tongue, posterior airway space volume, and intra-mandibular space were measured. The volumes, polysomnographic parameters, and physical examination findings were compared, and independent factors that are related to OSA were analysed.No associations between tongue volume or posterior airway space and the AHI were observed. However, multivariate linear analyses showed that tongue volume had significantly negative association with lowest O2 saturation (r = 0.365, p = 0.027. High BMI was related to an increase in tongue volume. Modified Mallampati scores showed borderline significant positive correlations with absolute tongue volume (r = 0.251, p = 0.046 and standardized tongue volume (absolute tongue volume / intramandibular area; r = 0.266, p = 0.034. Between the normal-mild and moderate-severe groups, absolute tongue volumes were not different, although the standardized tongue volume in the moderate-severe group was significantly higher.Absolute tongue volume showed stronger associations with lowest O2 saturation during sleep than with the severity of AHI. We also found that high BMI was a relevant factor for

  20. Intelligent Approach for Analysis of Respiratory Signals and Oxygen Saturation in the Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moret-Bonillo, Vicente; Alvarez-Estévez, Diego; Fernández-Leal, Angel; Hernández-Pereira, Elena

    2014-01-01

    This work deals with the development of an intelligent approach for clinical decision making in the diagnosis of the Sleep Apnea/Hypopnea Syndrome, SAHS, from the analysis of respiratory signals and oxygen saturation in arterial blood, SaO2. In order to accomplish the task the proposed approach makes use of different artificial intelligence techniques and reasoning processes being able to deal with imprecise data. These reasoning processes are based on fuzzy logic and on temporal analysis of the information. The developed approach also takes into account the possibility of artifacts in the monitored signals. Detection and characterization of signal artifacts allows detection of false positives. Identification of relevant diagnostic patterns and temporal correlation of events is performed through the implementation of temporal constraints. PMID:25035712

  1. Nocturnal arterial oxygen saturation and academic performance in a community sample of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschitz, Michael S; Wolff, Judith; Sokollik, Christiane; Eggebrecht, Esther; Urschitz-Duprat, Pilar M; Schlaud, Martin; Poets, Christian F

    2005-02-01

    Hypoxemia, often assessed via pulse oximetry, is associated with neurocognitive deficits in children. The best way to qualify hypoxemia, or which level of hypoxemia already affects cognition, is unknown. We assessed the association of pulse oximetry-derived variables that qualify hypoxemia with impaired academic performance in mathematics in a population-based cross-section of 995 primary school children who underwent overnight home recordings of motion-resistant new-generation pulse oximeter saturation (SpO2). Impaired academic performance in mathematics was based on the last school report and defined as grade 4 to 6 on a 6-point scale (ie, approximately the lowest quintile grades). Of 10 variables under study, only the nadir of the SpO2 values was significantly associated with impaired performance. Categories of this variable representing mild (ie, 91%-93% SpO2; odds ratio: 1.65; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-2.56) and moderate hypoxemia (ie, performance in mathematics. We suggest using the nadir of the SpO2 values in an overnight study to qualify hypoxemia in future studies. This variable may predict neurocognitive deficits in school children. Mild hypoxemia, as yet widely considered benign, may already affect cognition in childhood. SpO2

  2. Jugular bulb oxygen saturation during propofol and isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia in patients undergoing brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, G F; van Praagh, B H; Kedaria, M B; Odoom, J A

    1999-08-01

    We investigated, in brain tumor patients, the jugular bulb venous oxygen partial pressure (PjO2) and hemoglobin saturation (SjO2), the arterial to jugular bulb venous oxygen content difference (AJDO2), and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity (Vmca) during anesthesia, and the effect of hyperventilation on these variables. Twenty patients were randomized to receive either isoflurane/ nitrous oxide/fentanyl (Group 1) or propofol/fentanyl (Group 2). At normoventilation (PacO2 35 +/- 2 mm Hg in Group 1 and 33 +/- 3 mm Hg in Group 2), SjO2 and PjO2 were significantly higher in Group 1 than in Group 2 (SjO2 60% +/- 6% and 49% +/- 13%, respectively; P = 0.019) (PjO2 32 +/- 3 and 27 +/- 5 mm Hg, respectively; P = 0.027). In Group 2, 5 of 10 patients had SjO2 9 mL/dL. All patients in Group 1 had SjO2 > 50%. During hyperventilation, there were no differences in SjO2, PjO2, or AJDO2 between the two groups. On hyperventilation, there was no correlation between the relative decreases of Vmca and 1/AJDO2 (r = 0.21, P = 0.41). The results indicate during propofol anesthesia, half of the brain tumor patients showed signs of cerebral hypoperfusion, but not during isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia. Furthermore, during PacO2 manipulations, shifts in Vmca are inadequate to evaluate brian oxygen delivery in these patients. During propofol anesthesia at normoventilation, 50% of brain tumor patients showed signs suggesting cerebral hypoperfusion, but this could not be demonstrated during isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia. During PacO2 manipulations, consecutive measurements of the cerebral blood flow velocity may be inadequate to assess cerebral oxygenation.

  3. The Relationship between Oxygen Saturation and Color Alteration of a Compromised Skin Flap: Experimental Study on the Rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theddeus O. H. Prasetyono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to collect important data on the time of oxygensaturation change in relation to skin flap color alteration using non-invasive pulse oximetryto evaluate its ability to provide continuous monitoring of skin flap perfusion.Methods An experimental study on the monitoring of blood perfusion of 20 tube-islandgroin flaps of 10 male New Zealand rabbits was performed using pulse oximetry. The animalswere randomly assigned to one of two groups representing a blockage of either arterial orvenous blood flow. The oxygen saturation change and clinical color alteration were monitoredfrom the beginning of vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectable. The resultwas analyzed by the t-test using SSPS ver. 10.0.Results The mean times from the vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectablewere 20.19±2.13 seconds and 74.91±10.57 seconds for the artery and vein clamping groups,respectively. The mean time of the clinical alteration from the beginning of vein clampingwas 34.5±11.72 minutes, while the alteration in flaps with artery clamping could not bedetected until 2.5 hours after clamping.Conclusions The use of neonate-type reusable flex sensor-pulse oximetry is objective andeffective in early detection of arterial and vein blockage. It provides real-time data on vesselocclusion, which in turn will allow for early salvaging. The detection periods of both arterialocclusion and venous congestion are much earlier than the color alteration one may encounterclinically.

  4. The effects of perceiving color in living environment on QEEG, oxygen saturation, pulse rate, and emotion regulation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sroykham, Watchara; Wongsathikun, J; Wongsawat, Y

    2014-01-01

    Light and color have been shown to have substantial physical, psychological and sociological effects on humans. Hence, an investigation on the effect of changes in light and color to the biological signals is a challenging problem. Five participants were measured the oxygen saturation (SpO2), pulse rate, and quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) in six colors (white, blue, green, yellow, red and black) of living environment for 5 minutes per color. Then all participants were asked to answer the emotional questionnaire of BRUMS and color performance for each color environment. The results showed brain activity of high beta wave (25-30 Hz) that associated with alertness, agitation, mental activity, and general activation of mind and body functions (at frontal lobes and temporal lobes) in red and yellow colored rooms were higher than blue, green, white and black colored rooms, respectively. It also had the relationship with the psychological effect (BRUMS). The amplitude asymmetry of beta wave (12-25 Hz) was highly attenuated in warm color (red and yellow colored rooms), moderately attenuated in cool color (green and blue colored room) and little attenuated in white and black colored rooms. The BRUMS showed that red and yellow yielded significant effect on anger (F = 4.966, p = 0.002) and confusion (F=3.853, p=0.008). Red and green color yielded high effect on vigor. Green color did not affect the depression. Blue color yielded moderate effect on confusion, tension and fatigue. White and black colors yielded low effect on any mood, but black color had no effect on vigor. In addition, we cannot observe any significant changes of pulse rate and blood oxygen saturation in each color. The results can possibly be used as the recommendation to design the room for either normal people or patients.

  5. Blood oxygen saturation measured in the presence of a mixture of cyclopropane, sulfur hexafluoride, and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, V A; Burse, R L; Cymerman, A

    1997-01-01

    Some anesthetic gases interfere with the determination of blood O2 values. We evaluated, for its potential for such interference, a gas mixture containing (v/v) approximately 70% ethane, 20% sulfur hexafluoride, and 10% cyclopropane, as is currently used in trace amounts to determine ventilation-perfusion (v/Q) ratios. Normal human blood samples were first tonometered with control gas mixtures containing (v/v): (1) 20.9% O2, 0.04% CO2; (2) 16.0% O2, 4.0% CO2; and (3) 9.9% O2, 7.8% CO2. A large quantity (20.9%) of the v/Q mixture was blended experimentally into the control mixture and the tonometry repeated. The entire experiment was then repeated substituting pure N2 for the v/Q mixture as a dilution control. O2 values were determined by three methods: (1) a polarographic electrode, ABL-300 (ABL); (2) a spectrophotometric method, Co-Oximeter (COOX); and (3) a galvanic cell, Lex-O2-Con (LEX). The v/Q gas mixture lowered significantly all measured LEX values by 2.5-3.6 saturation percent (sat%), but showed no effect, dilution or otherwise, on the O2 values determined by the COOX and ABL methods. The N2 dilution lowered the LEX values by an average of only 0.9 sat%; the ABL and the COOX were approximately 0.6 sat% lower. We therefore suggest that, if any of these O2 measurement methods are used in the presence of the v/Q mixture, baseline O2 values should be determined both before and after injection of the mixture into the bloodstream, prior to performing other experimental manipulations. The difference between the two values, if any, can then be used to interpret subsequent results.

  6. The Effect of Recorded Mum's Lullaby and Brahm’s Lullaby on Oxygen Saturation in Preterm Infants: a Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabraeili, Mahnaz; Sabet, Tahmineh; MustafaGharebaghi, Manijeh; Asghari Jafarabadi, Mohammad; Arshadi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Music stimulation has been shown to provide significant benefits to preterm infants. Thus the aim of this study was determine the effect of recorded mum's lullaby and Brahm’s lullaby on oxygen saturation in preterm infants. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out on 66 premature newborns with the postnatal age of ≥3 days and weight ≤ 2800 grams at Taleghani Hospital. Infants were randomly divided into three groups: control, Brahm’s lullaby and Mum's lullaby groups. Infants were continuously monitored for primary outcome of percutaneous oxygen saturation, for three consecutive sessions. Results: There were significant difference in neonate oxygen saturation between the Brahm’s lullaby and Mum's lullaby as compared with control groups in the 15 minutes after intervention. Conclusion: This study showed beneficial effects of Brahm’s lullaby and Mum's lullaby sound. Therefore; it may be used for improving short term outcomes in premature infants. PMID:26989669

  7. The Effect of Recorded Mum's Lullaby and Brahm’s Lullaby on Oxygen Saturation in Preterm Infants: a Randomized Double-Blind Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahnaz Jabraeili

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Music stimulation has been shown to provide significant benefits to preterm infants. Thus the aim of this study was determine the effect of recorded mum's lullaby and Brahm’s lullaby on oxygen saturation in preterm infants. Methods: This double-blind randomized controlled trial was carried out on 66 premature newborns with the postnatal age of ≥3 days and weight ≤ 2800 grams at Taleghani Hospital. Infants were randomly divided into three groups: control, Brahm’s lullaby and Mum's lullaby groups. Infants were continuously monitored for primary outcome of percutaneous oxygen saturation, for three consecutive sessions. Results: There were significant difference in neonate oxygen saturation between the Brahm’s lullaby and Mum's lullaby as compared with control groups in the 15 minutes after intervention. Conclusion: This study showed beneficial effects of Brahm’s lullaby and Mum's lullaby sound. Therefore; it may be used for improving short term outcomes in premature infants.

  8. Oxygen supply in disposable shake-flasks: prediction of oxygen transfer rate, oxygen saturation and maximum cell concentration during aerobic growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiefelbein, Sarah; Fröhlich, Alexander; John, Gernot T; Beutler, Falco; Wittmann, Christoph; Becker, Judith

    2013-08-01

    Dissolved oxygen plays an essential role in aerobic cultivation especially due to its low solubility. Under unfavorable conditions of mixing and vessel geometry it can become limiting. This, however, is difficult to predict and thus the right choice for an optimal experimental set-up is challenging. To overcome this, we developed a method which allows a robust prediction of the dissolved oxygen concentration during aerobic growth. This integrates newly established mathematical correlations for the determination of the volumetric gas-liquid mass transfer coefficient (kLa) in disposable shake-flasks from the filling volume, the vessel size and the agitation speed. Tested for the industrial production organism Corynebacterium glutamicum, this enabled a reliable design of culture conditions and allowed to predict the maximum possible cell concentration without oxygen limitation.

  9. Effect of oronasopharyngeal suction on arterial oxygen saturation in normal, term infants delivered vaginally: a prospective randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modarres Nejad, V; Hosseini, R; Sarrafi Nejad, A; Shafiee, G

    2014-07-01

    Oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) with a suction bulb at birth is a traditional practice in the initial management of healthy infants in Iran and many other countries. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of oronasopharyngeal suction (ONPS) with those of no suction in normal, term newborns delivered vaginally. A total of 170 healthy term infants of first and single uncomplicated pregnancies, with clear amniotic fluid, vaginal delivery and cephalic presentation, enrolled in the trial during labour. Newborns were randomised into one of the two groups, according to the use of the ONPS procedure. Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) levels, heart rates, blood gases of umbilical cord and Apgar scores were determined. The mean SaO2 values over the first and fifth min of birth were similar in the two groups. The maximum time to reach SaO2 of ≥ 92% was shorter in the no suction group. There were no statistically significant differences in the mean of heart rates, respiratory rates and Apgar scores between the groups. Apgar scores at 5 and 10 min were between 8 and 10 for all infants, respectively. Newborns receiving suction showed a statistically significant, lower mean partial carbon dioxide pressure (PCO2) and a significantly higher partial oxygen pressure (PO2) of umbilical artery. Although the differences were statistically significant, these were not considered clinically significant because values remained within normal ranges. According to this study, ONPS is not recommended as a routine procedure in normal, term infants delivered vaginally.

  10. Development of a reflected optical fiber system for measuring oxygen saturation in an integrated artificial heart-lung system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Toshitaka; Saito, Tomohiko; Kihara, Tatsuya; Takatani, Setsuo; Funakubo, Akio

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a blood oxygen saturation (OS) monitoring system for use with an integrated artificial heart-lung system (IAHLS). The OS monitoring system consists of two paired optical fiber probes (OFPs) and a measurement system. To investigate the effect of the OFP configuration and incident light wavelength on the relationship between OS and the reflectance ratio for wavelengths of 810 and 645 nm, we performed theoretical analyses of the relationship between OS and R810/R645 using a diffusion equation. The prototype OFP located on the blood outlet port of our IAHLS housing was evaluated using an in vitro test. An OS range of 65-100% was adjusted to supply oxygen and nitrogen gas to the IAHLS. The blood flow rate was maintained at 3 L/min by the rotational speed of an impeller in the IAHLS. The OS-corrected blood from the IAHLS was measured using a commercial gas analyzer. The correlation coefficients (r(2)) between the theoretical ratio of R810/R645 and OS, and between measured OS and the reflectance ratio of R810/R645 were 0.97 and 0.78, respectively. In conclusion, we confirmed that the development of this oximetry system is applicable for IAHLS.

  11. Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation: carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bockmon

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the anthropogenic impact on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 between approximately 500–1400 μatm and O2 from 80–240 μmol kg−1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10–17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, control results in variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration less than 3.5 μmol kg−1. Longer experiments, over a month, have been completed with reasonable but lessened control, still better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg−1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  12. Monitoring respiration and oxygen saturation in patients during the first night after elective bariatric surgery: A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerts, Liselott; Forsberg, Sune; Bouvier, Frederic; Jakobsson, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Background: Obstructive sleep apnoea and obese hypoventilation is not uncommon in patients with obesity. Residuals effect from surgery/anaesthesia and opioid analgesics may worsen respiration during the first nights after bariatric surgery. The aim of this observational study was to monitor respiration on the first postoperative night following elective bariatric surgery. Methods: This observational study aimed to determine the incidence and severity of hypo/apnoea in low risk obsess patients undergoing elective bariatric surgery in general anesthaesia. Patients with known or suspected sleep respiratory disturbances was not included. ESS was scored prior to surgery. Oxygen desaturation was analyzed by continuous respiratory monitoring. Mean oxygen saturation (SpO2), nadir SPo2, apnoea/hypopnea index and oxygen desaturation index was assess by standard tools. Results: 45 patients were monitored with portable polygraphy equipment (Embletta, ResMed) during the first postoperative night at the general ward following elective laparoscopic bariatric surgery. The prop ESS was 0-5 in 22, 6-10 in 14 and 11-16 in 6 of the patients studied (missing data 3). Mean SpO2 was 93%; 10 patients had a mean SpO2 of less than 92% and 4 of less than 90%. The lowest mean SpO2 was 87%. There were 16 patients with a nadir SpO2 of less than 85%, lowest nadir SpO2 being 63%. An Apnoea Hypo/apnoea Index (AHI) > 5 was found in 2 patients only (AHI 10 and 6), and an Oxygen Desaturation index (ODI) > 5 was found in 3 patients (24, 10 and 6, respectively). 3 patients had more prolonged (> 30 seconds) apnoea with nadir SpO2 81%, 83% and 86%. ESS score and type of surgery did not impact on respiration/oxygenation during the observation period. Conclusions: A low mean SpO2 and episodes of desaturation were not uncommon during the first postoperative night following elective bariatric surgery in patients without history of night time breathing disturbance. AHI and/or ODI of more than 5 were only

  13. Investigation of the effects of naratriptan, rizatriptan, and sumatriptan on jugular venous oxygen saturation in anesthetized pigs: implications for their mechanism of acute antimigraine action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Létienne, Robert; Verscheure, Yvan; John, Gareth W

    2003-10-01

    The effects of naratriptan, rizatriptan, and sumatriptan on arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference and carotid hemodynamics were compared in the anesthetized pig. Oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures in systemic arterial and jugular venous blood as well as hemoglobin oxygen saturation were determined by conventional blood gas analysis. Vehicle (n = 19) or naratriptan, rizatriptan, or sumatriptan (0.63, 2.5, 10, 40, 160, 630, and 2,500 microg/kg i.v.; n = 7/group) were infused cumulatively. In naratriptan-, rizatriptan-, and sumatriptan-treated animals, jugular venous oxygen saturation decreased dose dependently (geometric mean ED50 values of 3.1, 17.9, and 16.0 microg/kg, respectively) concomitantly with increases in carotid vascular resistance. Rizatriptan significantly and dose dependently, from 160 microg/kg, increased PvCO2 (P animals studied. Maximal variations in PvCO2 were found to correlate highly with those in PvO2 (P = 0.002), but maximal variations in carotid resistance failed to correlate with those in PvCO2 (P = 0.76) or PvO2 (P = 0.28). The results demonstrate that the triptans investigated robustly produced carotid vasoconstriction, but elicited less consistent decreases in VOS and increases in jugular PvCO2, possibly suggestive of distinct mechanisms. Collectively, the data suggest that triptan-induced increases in arteriovenous oxygen saturation difference and carbon dioxide partial pressure in venous blood draining the head are class effects.

  14. New hybrid reflectance optical pulse oximetry sensor for lower oxygen saturation measurement and for broader clinical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Masamichi; Ching, Chong Thong; Ida, Takeyuki; Itakura, Keiko; Takatani, Setsuo

    1997-06-01

    A new reflectance pulse oximeter sensor for lower arterial oxygen saturation (Sa)2) measurement has been designed and evaluated in animals prior to clinical trials. The new sensor incorporates ten light emitting diode chips for each wavelength of 730 and 880 nm mounted symmetrically and at the radial separation distance of 7 mm around a photodiode chip. The separation distance of 7 mm was chosen to maximize the ratio of the pulsatile to the average plethysmographic signal level at each wavelength. The 730 and 880 wavelength combination was determined to obtain a linear relationship between the reflectance ratio of the 730 and 880 nm wavelengths and Sa)2. In addition to these features of the sensor, the Fast Fourier Transform method was employed to compute the pulsatile and average signal level at each wavelength. The performance of the new reflectance pulse oximeter sensor was evaluated in dogs in comparison to the 665/910 nm sensor. As predicted by the theoretical simulation based on a 3D photon diffusion theory, the 730/880 nm sensor demonstrated an excellent linearity over the SaO2 range from 100 to 30 percent. For the SaO2 range between 100 and 70 percent, the 665/910 and 730/880 sensors showed the standard error of around 3.5 percent and 2.1 percent, respectively, in comparison to the blood samples. For the range between 70 and 30 percent, the standard error of the 730/880 nm sensor was only 2.7 percent, while that of the 665/910 nm sensor was 9.5 percent. The 730/880 sensor showed improved accuracy for a wide range of SaO2 particularly over the range between 70 and 30 percent. This new reflectance sensor can provide noninvasive measurement of SaO2 accurately over the wide saturation range from 100 to 30 percent.

  15. The Effects of Massage with Coconut and Sunflower Oils on Oxygen Saturation of Premature Infants with Respiratory Distress Syndrome Treated With Nasal Continuous Positive Airway Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousan Valizadeh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays particular emphasis is placed on the developmental aspects of premature infants care. Massage therapy is one of the best-known methods of caring. Due to the minimal touch policy in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs, massaging is not usually performed on premature infants. However, there is not sufficient evidence to support the claim that newborn infants with complex medical conditions should not be massaged. This study aimed to determine the effects of massage with coconut and sunflower oils on oxygen saturation of infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS treated with nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP. Methods: This was a randomized controlled trial on 90 newborns who were admitted to Alzahra Hospital (Tabriz, Iran. The infants were divided into control and massage therapy groups (massage with coconut and sunflower oils. Data was collected using a hospital documentation form. A 15-minute daily massage was performed for 3 days. Respiratory rate (RR, fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 and oxygen saturation were measured 5 minutes before the massage, 3 times during the massage, and 5 minutes after the massage. The collected data was analyzed using a mixed model. Results: In comparison to coconut oil and control groups, mean oxygen saturation of sunflower oil group was improved. In addition, the coconut massage group showed lower oxygen saturation than the control group but was all values were within the normal range. Although massage decreased oxygen saturation, there was no need to increase FiO2. Conclusion: Massage therapy can provide developmental care for infants treated with NCPAP.

  16. Changes in Muscle Oxygen Saturation Have Low Sensitivity in Diagnosing Chronic Anterior Compartment Syndrome of the Leg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rennerfelt, Kajsa; Zhang, Qiuxia; Karlsson, Jón; Styf, Jorma

    2016-01-06

    Near-infrared spectroscopy measures muscle oxygen saturation (StO2) in the skeletal muscle and has been proposed as a noninvasive tool for diagnosing chronic anterior compartment syndrome (CACS). The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of changes in StO2 during and after exercise in patients with CACS. The study comprised 159 consecutive patients with exercise-induced leg pain. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure StO2 continuously before, during, and after an exercise test. One minute post-exercise, intramuscular pressure was recorded in the same muscle. The cohort was divided into patients with CACS (n = 87) and patients without CACS (n = 72) according to the CACS diagnostic criteria. Reoxygenation at rest after exercise was calculated as the time period required for the level of muscular StO2 to reach 50% (T50), 90% (T90), and 100% (T100) of the baseline value. The lowest level of StO2 during exercise was 1% (range, 1% to 36%) in the patients with CACS and 3% (range, 1% to 54%) in the patients without CACS. The sensitivity was 34% and the specificity was 43% when an StO2 level of ≤8% at peak exercise was used to indicate CACS. The sensitivity and the specificity were only 1% when an StO2 level of ≤50% at peak exercise was used to indicate CACS. The time period for reoxygenation was seven seconds (range, one to forty-three seconds) at T50, twenty-eight seconds (range, seven to seventy-seven seconds) at T90, and forty-two seconds (range, seven to 200 seconds) at T100 in the patients with CACS and ten seconds (range, one to forty-nine seconds) at T50, thirty-two seconds (range, four to 138 seconds) at T90, and forty-eight seconds (range, four to 180 seconds) at T100 in the patients without CACS. When thirty seconds or more at T90 was set as the cutoff value for a prolonged time for reoxygenation, indicating a diagnosis of CACS, the sensitivity was 38% and the specificity was 50%. Changes in muscle oxygen saturation during and

  17. Oxidation behavior of ferritic/martensitic steels in stagnant liquid LBE saturated by oxygen at 600 °C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Quanqiang; Liu, Jian; Luan, He; Yang, Zhenguo; Wang, Wei; Yan, Wei; Shan, Yiyin; Yang, Ke

    2015-02-01

    Ferritic/martensitic (F/M) steels are primary candidates for application as cladding and structural materials in the Generation IV Nuclear Reactor, especially accelerator driven sub-critical system (ADS). The compatibility of F/M steels with liquid lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) is a critical issue for development of ADS using liquid LBE as the coolant. In this work, the corrosion tests of two F/M steels, including a novel 9-12 Cr modified F/M steel named SIMP steel and a commercial T91 steel, were conducted in the static oxygen-saturated liquid LBE at 600 °C up to 1000 h, the microstructure of the oxide scale formed on these two steels was analyzed, the relationship between the microstructure and the oxidation behavior was studied, and the reason why the SIMP steel showed better oxidation resistance compared to T91 steel was analyzed. The results of this study confirmed that the oxidation behavior of the F/M steels in liquid metals is influenced by their alloying elements and microstructures.

  18. Skin conductance as pain indicator in newborns: a comparison study with heart rate, oxygen saturation and pain behavioral scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Alfredo Lacerda de Jesus

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Heart rate (HR, oxygen saturation (OS and skin conductance activity (SCA are physiological markers of acute pain. Neonatal Facial Coding System (NFCS, Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS and modified COMFORT are validated pain behavioral scales. Objective It was to compare whether the scores of these measures fit the psychophysical parameters for a pain marker (intensity, reactivity, direction, regulation and slope. Method Observational prospective study including 41 newborns, in which it were compared the maximum HR, the minimum OS, the SCA variables number of waves per second (NWps and relative area under the curve of waves (AUC, and the scores of behavioral pain scales in the periods before, during and after heel prick. Results The parameters intensity and regulation were significant for the NWps (p0.05. The slope was significant for the minimum OS and NIPS and modified COMFORT scales (p<0.05. Conclusion The responses of SCA, HR, OS and behavioral pain scales are similarly in acute painful events. They fit the psychophysical parameters of a pain marker and serve as measures for pain diagnostic.

  19. Acute resistance exercise with blood flow restriction effects on heart rate, double product, oxygen saturation and perceived exertion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Gabriel R; Sousa, Maria S C; Costa e Silva, Gabriel V; Gil, Ana L S; Salles, Belmiro F; Novaes, Jefferson S

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the acute effect of resistance exercise (RE) with and without blood flow restriction (BFR) on heart rate (HR), double product (DP), oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) and rating of perceived exertion (RPE). Twenty-four men (21·79 ± 3·21 years) performed three experimental protocols in a random order (crossover): (i) high-intensity RE at 80% of 1RM (HI), (ii) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM (LI) and (iii) low-intensity RE at 20% of 1RM combined with partial blood flow restriction (LI+BFR). HR, blood pressure, SpO2 and RPE were assessed. The data were analysed using repeated measures analysis of variance and the Wilcoxon test for RPE. The results indicated that all protocols significantly increased HR, both immediately postexercise and during the subsequent 60 min (Pexercise and increase HR and DP while maintaining a perception of greater exertion on the lower limbs. © 2014 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Comparison of Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Cerebral Perfusion Computed Tomography in Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Alexey O; Kalentiev, George; Voennov, Oleg; Grigoryeva, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and cerebral blood volume in patients with traumatic brain injury. Perfusion computed tomography of the brain was performed in 25 patients with traumatic brain injury together with simultaneous SctO2 level measurement using cerebral near-infrared oxymetry. The mean age of the injured persons was 34.5±15.6 years (range 15-65); 14 men, 11 women. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) values were 44.4±9.7 (range 25-81). The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) mean value before the study was 10.6±2.1 (range 5-13). SctO2 ranged from 51 to 89%, mean 62±8.2%. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) values were 2.1±0.67 ml/100 g (min 1.1; max 4.3 ml/100 g). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 31.99±13.6 ml/100 g×min. Mean transit time (MTT) values were 5.7±4.5 s (min 2.8; max 34.3 s). The time to peak (TTP) was 22.2±3.1 s. A statistically significant correlation was found between SctO2 level and cerebral blood volume (CBV) level (R=0.9; pperfusion.

  1. Implementing higher oxygen saturation targets reduced the impact of poor weight gain as a predictor for retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundgren, Pia; Hård, Anna-Lena; Wilde, Åsa; Löfqvist, Chatarina; Smith, Lois E H; Hellström, Ann

    2017-09-05

    This study evaluated poor weight gain as a risk factor for infants who required treatment for retinopathy of prematurity (ROP), by comparing those born before and after the implementation of higher oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) targets at the Queen Silvia Children's Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden. We compared infants born at less than 31 weeks, who were screened and, or, treated for ROP: 127 in 2011-2012 when SpO2 targets were 88-92% and 142 in 2015-2016 when they were 91-95%. The subjects were reviewed for birth characteristics, weekly weight and ROP treatment. Data were analysed using the weight, insulin-like growth factor-1, neonatal, ROP (WINROP) prediction tool. The 2011-12 infants who needed ROP treatment (12.6%) had significantly poorer postnatal weight gain than those who did not, but this was not seen in the treated (17.6%) and non-treated ROP groups in 2015-2016. WINROP sensitivity decreased from 87.5% in 2011-12 to 48% in 2015-2016. After the SpO2 target range was increased from 88-92% to 91-95%, postnatal weight gain was no longer a significant risk factor and WINROP lost its ability to predict ROP requiring treatment. Risk factors clearly change as neonatal care develops. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. The Influence of High-Altitude Acclimatization on Ventilatory and Blood Oxygen Saturation Responses During Normoxic and Hypoxic Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ušaj1 Anton

    2016-04-01

    V˙E${\\dot V_E}$, SaO2, blood pH and Pco2 were measured at a similar absolute exercise intensity of 180 W in NOR and HYP conditions. Seven experienced alpinists (mean ± SD: age: 50 ± 6 yrs; body mass: 76 ± 5 kg; body height: 175 ± 8 cm volunteered to participate in this study after they had reached the summit of Gasherbrum II and Ama Dablam. They had therefore experienced the limitations of their acclimatization. Individual differences of PLT between values reached after and before the expedition (∆PLT correlated (r = 0.98, p = 0.01 with differences of SaO2 (∆SaO2 in HYP, and differences of PVT (∆PVT correlated (r = -0.83, p = 0.02 with differences of V˙E(ΔV˙E${\\dot V_E}\\left( {\\Delta {{\\dot V}_E}} \\right$ in HYP. The results suggest that the acclimatization may not have an equivocal and simple influence on the performance in hypoxia: enhanced blood oxygen saturation may be accompanied by increased endurance only, when the increase exceeded 2-3%, but enhanced ventilation, when increased more than 10 l/min in HYP, could detrimentally influence endurance.

  3. [Study of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate changes and plateau reaction of the Antarctic Kunlun station investigation team in different plateau environments].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shun-yun; Wu, Xin-min; Guo, Ya-min; Zhang, Shu-shun; An, Yan-ming; Li, Bing; Wang, Hao

    2013-06-11

    To explore the blood oxygen saturation and heart rate changes of the Antarctic explorers. During August 2010 to April 2011, the changes in blood oxygen saturation, heart rate and plateau reaction of 16 Antarctic expedition team in different plateau environments (Tibetan plateau versus Antarctic plateau) were monitored with the noninvasive pulse oximeter MD300-C. The extent of acute mountain sickness was determined according to the Lake Louise Consensus acute mountain reaction symptom scores and judgment method. The changes of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate at different altitudes of 110, 3650, 4300 m (96.8% ± 1.2%,89.1% ± 1.2%, 86.1% ± 2.0%, (75.0 ± 5.4) times/min, (104.0 ± 4.3) times/min, (113.0 ± 5.2) times/min,F = 214.155, 240.088,both P blood oxygen saturation, heart rate at different altitudes of 2000, 2500, 3000, 3500 and 4087 m(91.9% ± 1.3%,90.5% ± 1.3%,87.6% ± 1.4%,85.0% ± 1.8%,81.5% ± 2.2%, (85.9 ± 3.2) times/min, (90.6 ± 2.8) times/min, (97.8 ± 4.1) times/min, (102.0 ± 3.4) times/min, (106.3 ± 3.9) times/min, F = 105.418, 90.174, both P blood oxygen saturation and heart rate were both correlated with the risk of altitude sickness (r = -0.446 and 0.565, both P heart rate of the Antarctic explorers. And with the increases of altitude, the risk of altitude sickness gradually increases.

  4. Development of Pulse Oxygen Saturation Measurement System Based on FPGA%基于FPGA的脉搏血氧饱和度检测系统设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游海峰; 谢勤岚

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen saturation is an important parameter to measure human blood oxygen carrying capacity, and also an important physiological indexes in the common clinical diagnosis and family care. Based on the infrared spectrum method in blood oxygen saturation measurement, a pulse oxygen aturation measurement system is designed. The system which consists of the FPGA platform, the RSJ048CAS finger chip pulse oximeter sensor, control and display module, can monitor the oxygen saturation timely, continuously and non-invasively. The experimental results show that in a quiet state the system can realize the measurement of the oxygen saturation not less than 94%.%血氧饱和度是衡量人体血液携带氧能力的重要参数,也是临床诊断和家庭保健中重要的生理指标.根据红外光谱法血氧饱和度测量原理,设计了一种血氧饱和度测量系统.系统以FPGA为开发平台,包括RSJ048CAS指夹式脉搏血氧探头、AD采集模块、信号调理模块、控制显示模块等模块,它可以实时、连续和无创地进行血氧饱和度检测.实验结果表明,在安静状态下,该系统可实现测得的血氧饱和度不低于94%.

  5. Diagnosis and prediction of the occurrence of acute mountain sickness measuring oxygen saturation--independent of absolute altitude?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leichtfried, Veronika; Basic, Daniel; Burtscher, Martin; Gothe, Raffaella Matteucci; Siebert, Uwe; Schobersberger, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Commercialization of trekking tourism enables untrained persons to participate in trekking tours. Because hypoxia is one of the main purported triggers for acute mountain sickness (AMS), pulse oximetry, which measures arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2), is discussed to be a possible and useful tool for the diagnosis of AMS. The purpose of this study was to evaluate possible associations between SPO2 values and the occurrence of AMS. In 204 trekkers, SPO2 values (pulse oximetry) were measured and the Lake Louise Self-assessment Score (LLS) was administered over the first 7 days of their trekking tours. During treks at altitudes of 2500-5500 m in Nepal, India, Africa, and South America, 100 participants suffered from mild AMS, 3 participants suffered from severe AMS, and 9 participants reported both mild and severe AMS. The lowest mean SPO2 was 85.5 (95 % confidence interval (CI), 83.9-86.1 %) on day 5. SPO2 and LLS exhibited a weak to moderate negative correlation for all days of the study (ρ ranging from -0.142 to -0.370). Calculation of time-shifted associations of 24 and 48 h resulted in the disappearance of most associations. Susceptibility to headaches (odds ratio (OR) 2.9-7.2) and a history of AMS (OR 2.2-3.1) were determined to be potential risk factors for the development of AMS. Since there is no strong altitude-independent association between AMS and SPO2 during the first week of high-altitude adaptation, the implementation of pulse oximetry during trekking in order to detect and predict AMS remains questionable.

  6. The effects of different ventilator modes on cerebral tissue oxygen saturation in patients with bidirectional superior cavopulmonary connection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayda Türköz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: We used near-infrared spectroscopy to document changes in cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO 2 in response to ventilation mode alterations after bidirectional Glenn (BDG; superior cavopulmonary connection procedure. We also determined whether spontaneous ventilation have a beneficial effect on hemodynamic status, lactate and SctO 2 when compared with other ventilation modes. Materials and Methods: 20 consecutive patients undergoing BDG were included. We measured SctO 2 during three ventilator modes (intermittent positive-pressure ventilation [IPPV]; synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation [SIMV]; and continuous positive airway pressure + pressure support ventilation [CPAP + PSV]. We, also, measured mean airway pressure (AWP, arterial blood gases, lactate and systolic arterial pressures (SAP. Results: There was no change in SctO 2 in IPPV and SIMV modes; the SctO 2 measured during CPAP + PSV and after extubation increased significantly (60.5 ± 11, 61 ± 10, 65 ± 10, 66 ± 11 respectively ( P < 0.05. The differences in the SAP measured during IPPV and SIMV modes was insignificant; the SAP increased significantly during CPAP + PSV mode and after extubation compared with IPPV and SIMV (109 ± 11, 110 ± 12, 95 ± 17, 99 ± 13 mmHg, respectively ( P < 0.05. Mean AWP did not change during IPPV and SIMV modes, mean AWP decreased significantly during CPAP + PSV mode (14 ± 4, 14 ± 3, 10 ± 1 mmHg, respectively ( P < 0.01. Conclusions: The SctO 2 was higher during CPAP + PSV ventilation and after extubation compared to IPPV and SIMV modes of ventilation. The mean AWP was lower during CPAP + PSV ventilation compared to IPPV and SIMV modes of ventilation.

  7. Characterization of haemoglobin from Actinorhizal plants -- An in silico approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sanghati Bhattacharya; Arnab Sen; Subarna Thakur; Louis S Tisa

    2013-11-01

    Plant haemoglobins (Hbs), found in both symbiotic and non-symbiotic plants, are heme proteins and members of the globin superfamily. Hb genes of actinorhizal Fagales mostly belong to the non-symbiotic type of haemoglobin; however, along with the non-symbiotic Hb, Casuarina sp. posses a symbiotic one (symCgHb), which is expressed specifically in infected cells of nodules. A thorough sequence analysis of 26 plant Hb proteins, currently available in public domain, revealed a consensus motif of 29 amino acids. This motif is present in all the members of symbiotic class II Hbs including symCgHb and non-symbiotic Class II Hbs, but is totally absent in Class I symbiotic and non-symbiotic Hbs. Further, we constructed 3D structures of Hb proteins from Alnus and Casuarina through homology modelling and peeped into their structural properties. Structure-based studies revealed that the Casuarina symbiotic haemoglobin protein shows distinct stereochemical properties from that of the other Casuarina and Alnus Hb proteins. It also showed considerable structural similarities with leghemoglobin structure from yellow lupin (pdb id 1GDI). Therefore, sequence and structure analyses point to the fact that symCgHb protein shows significant resemblance to symbiotic haemoglobin found in legumes and may thus eventually play a similar role in shielding the nitrogenase from oxygen as seen in the case of leghemoglobin.

  8. Short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping vs autogenic drainage on oxygen saturation and sputum recovery in patients with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, D R; Wagener, J S; Accurso, F J; Butler-Simon, N

    1995-10-01

    To compare the short-term effects of postural drainage with clapping (PD) and autogenic drainage (AD) on oxygen saturation, pulmonary function, and sputum recovery, we studied ten patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) randomly treated with PD or AD on separate days. Pulse oximetry was monitored and sputum was collected during and for 1 h following each treatment. Pulmonary function was measured before and then 1, 15, and 60 min after each treatment. There was no significant difference in the amount of sputum recovered with AD (14.0 +/- 3.5 g) vs PD (10.4 +/- 3.0 g) and no significant differences in pulmonary function occurred. Oxygen saturation during PD fell from 93.3 +/- 0.7% to 91.2 +/- 0.8% (p clearance.

  9. Identification of the haemoglobin scavenger receptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, M; Graversen, Jonas Heilskov; Jacobsen, C

    2001-01-01

    Intravascular haemolysis is a physiological phenomenon as well as a severe pathological complication when accelerated in various autoimmune, infectious (such as malaria) and inherited (such as sickle cell disease) disorders. Haemoglobin released into plasma is captured by the acute phase protein...... of haemoglobin and dimeric haptoglobin (the 1-1 phenotype). Specific CD163-mediated endocytosis of haptoglobin-haemoglobin complexes is measurable in cells transfected with CD163 complementary DNA and in CD163-expressing myelo-monocytic lymphoma cells....

  10. Heart rate recovery after the 6-min walk test is related to 6-min walk distance and percutaneous oxygen saturation recovery in patients with COPD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiroishi, Ryota; Kitagawa, Chika; Miyamoto, Naomi; Kakuno, Nao; Koyanagi, Harumi; Rikitomi, Naoto; Senjyu, Hideaki

    2015-05-01

    Heart rate recovery (HRR) after maximal load exercise affects mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, the associations of clinical characteristics with HRR after the 6-min walk test (6MWT), which is defined as a submaximal load test, remain unclear. We showed that HRR in patients with COPD after 6MWT was related to 6-min walk distance and percutaneous oxygen saturation recovery. HRR after the 6MWT may be useful to assess exercise capacity in COPD.

  11. Low FEV1, smoking history, and obesity are factors associated with oxygen saturation decrease in an adult population cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vold ML

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Monica Linea Vold,1,3 Ulf Aasebø,1,2 Hasse Melbye3 1Department of Respiratory Medicine, University Hospital of North Norway, 2Department of Clinical Medicine, 3Department of Community Medicine, University of Tromsø, Tromsø, Norway Background: Worsening of pulmonary diseases is associated with a decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO2. Such a decrease in SpO2 and associated factors has not been previously evaluated in a general adult population. Aim: We sought to describe SpO2 in a sample of adults, at baseline and after 6.3 years, to determine whether factors predicting low SpO2 in a cross-sectional study were also associated with a decrease in SpO2 in this cohort. Methods: As part of the Tromsø Study, 2,822 participants were examined with pulse oximetry in Tromsø 5 (2001/2002 and Tromsø 6 (2007/2008. Low SpO2 by pulse oximetry was defined as an SpO2 ≤95%, and SpO2 decrease was defined as a ≥2% decrease from baseline to below 96%. Results: A total of 139 (4.9% subjects had a decrease in SpO2. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1 <50% of the predicted value and current smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years were the baseline characteristics most strongly associated with an SpO2 decrease in multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio 3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI 1.60–7.89] and 2.48 [95% CI 1.48–4.15], respectively. Male sex, age, former smoking with a history of ≥10 pack-years, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2, and C-reactive protein ≥5 mg/L were also significantly associated with an SpO2 decrease. A significant decrease in FEV1 and a new diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the observation period most strongly predicted a fall in SpO2. A lower SpO2 decrease was observed in those who quit smoking and those who lost weight, but these tendencies were not statistically significant. Conclusion: A decrease in SpO2 was most strongly associated with severe airflow limitation and a history of

  12. Low FEV1, smoking history, and obesity are factors associated with oxygen saturation decrease in an adult population cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vold, Monica Linea; Aasebø, Ulf; Melbye, Hasse

    2014-01-01

    Worsening of pulmonary diseases is associated with a decrease in oxygen saturation (SpO2). Such a decrease in SpO2 and associated factors has not been previously evaluated in a general adult population. We sought to describe SpO2 in a sample of adults, at baseline and after 6.3 years, to determine whether factors predicting low SpO2 in a cross-sectional study were also associated with a decrease in SpO2 in this cohort. As part of the Tromsø Study, 2,822 participants were examined with pulse oximetry in Tromsø 5 (2001/2002) and Tromsø 6 (2007/2008). Low SpO2 by pulse oximetry was defined as an SpO2 ≤ 95%, and SpO2 decrease was defined as a ≥ 2% decrease from baseline to below 96%. A total of 139 (4.9%) subjects had a decrease in SpO2. Forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) decrease in multivariable logistic regression (odds ratio 3.55 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.60-7.89] and 2.48 [95% CI 1.48-4.15], respectively). Male sex, age, former smoking with a history of ≥ 10 pack-years, body mass index ≥ 30 kg/m(2), and C-reactive protein ≥ 5 mg/L were also significantly associated with an SpO2 decrease. A significant decrease in FEV1 and a new diagnosis of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease during the observation period most strongly predicted a fall in SpO2. A lower SpO2 decrease was observed in those who quit smoking and those who lost weight, but these tendencies were not statistically significant. A decrease in SpO2 was most strongly associated with severe airflow limitation and a history of smoking. Smoking cessation and reducing obesity seem to be important measures to target for avoiding SpO2 decreases in the general population.

  13. Bone disease in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ersi Voskaridou

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Bone disease represents a prominent cause of morbidity in patients with thalassaemia and other haemoglobin disorders. The delay in sexual maturation, the presence of diabetes and hypothyroidism, the parathyroid gland dysfunction, the haemolytic anaemia, the progressive marrow expansion, the iron toxicity on osteoblasts, the iron chelators, and the deficiency of growth hormone or insulin growth factors have been identified as major causes of osteoporosis in thalassaemia. Adequate hormonal replacement, effective iron chelation, improvement of hemoglobin levels, calcium and vitamin D administration, physical activity, and smoking cessation are the main to-date measures for the management of the disease. During the last decade, novel pathogenetic data suggest that the reduced osteoblastic activity, which is believed to be the basic mechanism of bone loss in thalassemia, is accompanied by a comparable or even greater increase in bone resorption. Therefore, potent inhibitors of osteoclast activation, such as the aminobisphosphonates, arise as key drugs for the management of osteoporosis in thalassaemia patients and other haemoglobin disorders.

  14. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Measurement of the Effect of Leg Dominance on Muscle Oxygen Saturation During Cycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellerby, Gwenn E. C.; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Paunescu, Lelia Adelina; Pereira, Chelsea; Smith, Charles P.; Soller, Babs R.

    2011-01-01

    The effect of leg dominance on the symmetry of the biomechanics during cycling remains uncertain -- asymmetries have been observed in kinematics and kinetics, while symmetries were found in muscle activation. No studies have yet investigated the symmetry of muscle metabolism during cycling. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides a non-invasive method to investigate the metabolic responses of specific muscles during cycling. PURPOSE: To determine whether there was an effect of leg dominance on thigh muscle oxygen saturation (SmO2) during incrementally loaded submaximal cycling using NIRS. METHODS: Eight right leg dominant, untrained subjects (5 men, 3 women; 31+/-2 yrs; 168.6+/-1.0 cm; 67.2+/-1.8 kg, mean +/- SE) volunteered to participate. Spectra were collected bilaterally from the vastus lateralis (VL) during supine rest and cycling. SmO2 was calculated using previously published methods. Subjects pedaled at 65 rpm while resistance to pedaling was increased in 0.5 kp increments from 0.5 kp every 3 min until the subject reached 80% of age-predicted maximal heart rate. SmO2 was averaged over 3 min for each completed stage. A two-way ANOVA was performed to test for leg differences. A priori contrasts were used to compare work levels to rest. RESULTS: VL SmO2 was not different between the dominant and non-dominant legs at rest and during exercise (p=0.57). How SmO2 changed with workload was also not different between legs (p=0.32). SmO2 at 0.5 kp (60.3+/-4.0, p=0.12) and 1.0 kp (59.5+/-4.0, p=0.10) was not different from rest (69.1+/-4.0). SmO2 at 1.5 kp (55.4 4.0, p=0.02), 2.0 kp (55.7+/-5.0, p=0.04), and 2.5 kp (43.4+/-7.9, p=0.01) was significantly lower than rest. CONCLUSION: VL SmO2 during cycling is not different between dominant and non-dominant legs and decreases with moderate workload in untrained cyclists. Assuming blood flow is directed equally to both legs, similar levels of oxygen extraction (as indicated by SmO2) suggests the metabolic load of

  15. Arterial oxygen content is precisely maintained by graded erythrocytotic responses in settings of high/normal serum iron levels, and predicts exercise capacity: an observational study of hypoxaemic patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatshalan Santhirapala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2, are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without concurrent hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. METHODOLOGY: 165 consecutive unselected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were studied, in 98 cases, pre/post embolisation treatment. 159 (96% had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Arterial oxygen content was calculated by SaO2 x haemoglobin x 1.34/100. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was wide variation in SaO2 on air (78.5-99, median 95% but due to secondary erythrocytosis and resultant polycythaemia, SaO2 explained only 0.1% of the variance in arterial oxygen content per unit blood volume. Secondary erythrocytosis was achievable with low iron stores, but only if serum iron was high-normal: Low serum iron levels were associated with reduced haemoglobin per erythrocyte, and overall arterial oxygen content was lower in iron deficient patients (median 16.0 [IQR 14.9, 17.4]mls/dL compared to 18.8 [IQR 17.4, 20.1]mls/dL, p<0.0001. Exercise tolerance appeared unrelated to SaO2 but was significantly worse in patients with lower oxygen content (p<0.0001. A pre-defined athletic group had higher Hb:SaO2 and serum iron:ferritin ratios than non-athletes with normal exercise capacity. PAVM embolisation increased SaO2, but arterial oxygen content was precisely restored by a subsequent fall in haemoglobin: 86 (87.8% patients reported no change in exercise tolerance at post-embolisation follow-up. SIGNIFICANCE: Haemoglobin and oxygen measurements in isolation do not indicate the more physiologically relevant

  16. Association between minor loading vein architecture and light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution among Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes from different latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M Cohu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Through microscopic analysis of veins and assessment of light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution, we investigated the relationship between minor loading vein anatomy and photosynthesis of mature leaves in three ecotypes of Arabidopsis thaliana grown under four different combinations of temperature and photon flux density (PFD. All three ecotypes exhibited greater numbers and cross-sectional area of phloem cells as well as higher photosynthesis rates in response to higher PFD and especially lower temperature. The Swedish ecotype exhibited the strongest response to these conditions, the Italian ecotype the weakest response, and the Col-0 ecotype exhibited an intermediate response. Among all three ecotypes, strong linear relationships were found between light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution and the number and area of either sieve elements or of companion and phloem parenchyma cells in foliar minor loading veins, with the Swedish ecotype showing the highest number of cells in minor loading veins (and largest minor veins coupled with unprecedented high rates of photosynthesis. Linear, albeit less significant, relationships were also observed between number and cross-sectional area of tracheids per minor loading vein versus light- and CO2-saturated rates of photosynthetic oxygen evolution. We suggest that sugar distribution infrastructure in the phloem is co-regulated with other features that set the upper limit for photosynthesis. The apparent genetic differences among Arabidopsis ecotypes should allow for future identification of the gene(s involved in augmenting sugar-loading and -transporting phloem cells and maximal rates of photosynthesis.

  17. 反射式血氧饱和度测量系统设计%Design of Blood Oxygen Saturation Measure System Based on Reflection Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许晓峰; 历哲; 凌振宝

    2013-01-01

    To improve the portability of the transmissive oxygen saturation measurement,a reflection type blood oxygen saturation test system is provided,including the sensor unit,signal separation and filtering unit,data acquisition and processing unit,and the display module.The sensing unit consists of a photoelectric sensor,which can transform the biological signal into electrical signal; the electrical signal is processed by the signal separation and filtering unit,which can extract the effective signal from the original signal; the processed signal is converted to digital signal after A/D converter,STC12C5A60S2,and the oxygen saturation value can be calculated through MCU (Micro Control Unit); the oxygen saturation result is displayed on the 1602 LCD (Liquid Crystal Display) screen.The experiment shows that the system can meet the clinical requirements with the measurements accuracy of ± 1%.%针对透射式血氧饱和度测量仪存在携带不便的问题,设计了反射式血氧饱和度测量系统.系统主要由传感单元、信号分离及滤波单元、数据采集和处理单元以及显示模块组成.传感单元主要由光电传感器组成,用于将人体的生物信号转化成电信号.由于传感单元提取的红光和红外光信号混在一起,并有其他干扰信号,需进行信号分离和滤波;处理后的信号经A/D转换器STC12C5A60S2采样转化为数字量,利用单片机计算得到血氧饱和度值,并通过1602液晶显示结果.实验表明,系统测量精度在1%左右,满足临床使用要求.

  18. The Effect of Inspired Oxygen Concentration and Transportation Time on Arterial Hemoglobin Oxygen Saturation During Transport from the Operating Room to the Postanesthesia Care UnitCare Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-08-14

    oxygen to all ambulatory patients recovering from general anesthesia. The second study involved 71 healthy pediatric patients undergoing general...Male/Female 7. ASA Status (I, II, III) _ 8. Anesthetic Agent Enflurane Halothane Desflurane Isoflurane Nitrous oxide Propofol 9. Narcotic

  19. Increased blood glycohemoglobin A1c levels lead to overestimation of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin. Objectives We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2 in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy. Methods Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation. Results Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6% and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8% were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p 2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94% and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92% in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson’s r = 0.307, p  Conclusions Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia.

  20. A comparative study of supine lying, side lying and prone positioning on oxygen saturation, in mechanically ventilated patients, in acute respiratory failure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prajakta S. Patil

    2015-07-01

    Methods: Total 33 subjects aged between 15-73 years, 21 male and 12 female patients were selected for study from ICU, Neurological trauma unit Pune. Inclusion criteria: All subjects with respiratory failure due to different pathologies like ARDS, Pulmonary edema, pneumonia, tuberculosis, collection of fluid in pleural cavity with underlying lung collapse. Exclusion criteria: Unstable cardiac conditions, unstable fractures, unstable hemodynamic, recently operated cardiac subjects. The patients were kept in supine position, lateral and prone and vitals like BP, HR, RR and oxygen saturation with help of pulse oximeter noted just before position. Thorough ET or tracheostomy suction was done. Before turning patient if any intercostal drain present was clamped. Results: Paired t-test was used. p values for prone and bilateral side lying positions was < 0.05 showing its significance for above mentioned 3-positions. p value for supine was not < 0.05 showing its non-significance. Conclusion: The study concluded that oxygen saturation improves in prone lying and side lying position as compared to supine lying. But this improvement is quiet significant in prone position as compared to side lying. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(7.000: 1627-1631

  1. Arterial input function of an optical tracer for dynamic contrast enhanced imaging can be determined from pulse oximetry oxygen saturation measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Jonathan T.; Wright, Eric A.; Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Pogue, Brian W.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2012-12-01

    In many cases, kinetic modeling requires that the arterial input function (AIF)—the time-dependent arterial concentration of a tracer—be characterized. A straightforward method to measure the AIF of red and near-infrared optical dyes (e.g., indocyanine green) using a pulse oximeter is presented. The method is motivated by the ubiquity of pulse oximeters used in both preclinical and clinical applications, as well as the gap in currently available technologies to measure AIFs in small animals. The method is based on quantifying the interference that is observed in the derived arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) following a bolus injection of a light-absorbing dye. In other words, the change in SaO2 can be converted into dye concentration knowing the chromophore-specific extinction coefficients, the true arterial oxygen saturation, and total hemoglobin concentration. A simple error analysis was performed to highlight potential limitations of the approach, and a validation of the method was conducted in rabbits by comparing the pulse oximetry method with the AIF acquired using a pulse dye densitometer. Considering that determining the AIF is required for performing quantitative tracer kinetics, this method provides a flexible tool for measuring the arterial dye concentration that could be used in a variety of applications.

  2. Molecular evolution of plant haemoglobin: two haemoglobin genes in Nymphaeaceae Euryale ferox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldner, E; Desmarais, E; Galtier, N; Godelle, B

    2004-01-01

    We isolated and sequenced two haemoglobin genes from the early-branching angiosperm Euryale ferox (Nymphaeaceae). The two genes belong to the two known classes of plant haemoglobin. Their existence in Nymphaeaceae supports the theory that class 1 haemoglobin was ancestrally present in all angiosperms, and is evidence for class 2 haemoglobin being widely distributed. These sequences allowed us to unambiguously root the angiosperm haemoglobin phylogeny, and to corroborate the hypothesis that the class 1/class 2 duplication event occurred before the divergence between monocots and eudicots. We addressed the molecular evolution of plant haemoglobin by comparing the synonymous and nonsynonymous substitution rates in various groups of genes. Class 2 haemoglobin genes of legumes (functionally involved in a symbiosis with nitrogen-fixing bacteria) show a higher nonsynonymous substitution rate than class 1 (nonsymbiotic) haemoglobin genes. This suggests that a change in the selective forces applying to plant haemoglobins has occurred during the evolutionary history of this gene family, potentially in relation with the evolution of symbiosis.

  3. Dynamics of Dissolved Oxygen in Relation to Saturation and Health of an Aquatic Body: A Case for Chilka Lagoon, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. S. R. V. Prasad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dissolved oxygen (DO is essential for an aquatic ecosystem since it controls the biological productivity. Here, we propose a unidimensional dynamic model for DO by incorporating biological (photosynthesis, respiration, and mineralization, physical (atmospheric reaeration and chemical (nitrification processes so characteristic of shallow coastal water bodies. The analytical study of the proposed model is focussed on supersaturation and undersaturation of oxygen in the water body. The controllability of the ecosystem health has also been investigated. Model results indicate that, while undersaturation of oxygen is largely governed by nitrification and Net Ecosystem Metabolism (NEM, the supersaturation is controlled by photosynthetic activity. The model results are corroborated with observed data collected from Chilka lagoon, India. Subsequently, a biogeochemical model to study the DO variations in Chilka lagoon has been constructed. The model is properly calibrated and validated with observed data. Two independent sets of data (2004-2005 and 2005-2006 were used for model calibration and validation and Chi-square tests supported its robustness (R2=0.982 and 0.987; P<0.05. The model was used to evaluate independently the influence of individual taxa (diatoms, microphytobenthos, and cyanophyceans on DO variations. Simulations indicate the vital role of microphytobenthos in lagoon DO dynamics and the overall wellbeing.

  4. Formation of a ruthenium(IV)-oxo complex by electron-transfer oxidation of a coordinatively saturated ruthenium(II) complex and detection of oxygen-rebound intermediates in C-H bond oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kojima, Takahiko; Nakayama, Kazuya; Ikemura, Kenichiro; Ogura, Takashi; Fukuzumi, Shunichi

    2011-08-03

    A coordinatively saturated ruthenium(II) complex having tetradentate tris(2-pyridylmethyl)amine (TPA) and bidentate 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), [Ru(TPA)(bpy)](2+) (1), was oxidized by a Ce(IV) ion in H(2)O to afford a Ru(IV)-oxo complex, [Ru(O)(H(+)TPA)(bpy)](3+) (2). The crystal structure of the Ru(IV)-oxo complex 2 was determined by X-ray crystallography. In 2, the TPA ligand partially dissociates to be in a facial tridentate fashion and the uncoordinated pyridine moiety is protonated. The spin state of 2, which showed paramagnetically shifted NMR signals in the range of 60 to -20 ppm, was determined to be an intermediate spin (S = 1) by the Evans' method with (1)H NMR spectroscopy in acetone-d(6). The reaction of 2 with various oraganic substrates in acetonitrile at room temperature afforded oxidized and oxygenated products and a solvent-bound complex, [Ru(H(+)TPA)(bpy)(CH(3)CN)], which is intact in the presence of alcohols. The oxygenation reaction of saturated C-H bonds with 2 proceeds by two-step processes: the hydrogen abstraction with 2, followed by the dissociation of the alcohol products from the oxygen-rebound complexes, Ru(III)-alkoxo complexes, which were successfully detected by ESI-MS spectrometry. The kinetic isotope effects in the first step for the reaction of dihydroanthrathene (DHA) and cumene with 2 were determined to be 49 and 12, respectively. The second-order rate constants of C-H oxygenation in the first step exhibited a linear correlation with bond dissociation energies of the C-H bond cleavage.

  5. A general model to calculate the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time of blood, accounting for haematocrit, oxygen saturation and magnetic field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick W; Kirkham, Fenella J; Clark, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    Many MRI techniques require prior knowledge of the T1-relaxation time of blood (T1bl). An assumed/fixed value is often used; however, T1bl is sensitive to magnetic field (B0), haematocrit (Hct), and oxygen saturation (Y). We aimed to combine data from previous in vitro measurements into a mathematical model, to estimate T1bl as a function of B0, Hct, and Y. The model was shown to predict T1bl from in vivo studies with a good accuracy (± 87 ms). This model allows for improved estimation of T1bl between 1.5-7.0 T while accounting for variations in Hct and Y, leading to improved accuracy of MRI-derived perfusion measurements.

  6. Low near infrared spectroscopic somatic oxygen saturation at admission is associated with need for lifesaving interventions among unplanned admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, Binod; Dasgupta, Mahua; Gajewski, Kim; Hoffmann, Raymond G; Simpson, Pippa M; Havens, Peter L; Hanson, Sheila J

    2017-03-03

    To investigate the association between low near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) somatic oxygen saturation (admission and the need for lifesaving interventions (LSI) in the initial 24 h of a PICU admission. Retrospective chart review of all unplanned admissions to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) with NIRS somatic oxygen saturation data available within 4 h of admission, excluding admissions with a cardiac diagnosis. LSI data were collected for the first 24 h after admission. Hemodynamic parameters, laboratory values, illness severity scores and diagnoses were collected. Included PICU admissions were stratified by lowest NIRS value in the first 4 h after admission: low NIRS (admissions to the PICU of which 184 (44%) patients underwent NIRS monitoring. A higher proportion of patients who underwent somatic NIRS monitoring required LSIs compared to those without NIRS monitoring (36.4 vs 5.7% respectively, p medications were the most common LSIs. Multivariable modeling showed NIRS  2SD for age to be associated with LSIs. ROC curve analysis of the combination of NIRS 2SD for age had an area under the curve of 0.79 with 78% sensitivity and 76% specificity for association with LSI. Compared to the normal NIRS group, the low NIRS group had higher mortality (10.4 vs 0.7%, p = 0.005) and longer median hospital length of stay (2.9 vs 1.6 days, p admission is associated with need for higher number of subsequent lifesaving interventions up to 24 h after admission. Noninvasive, continuous, somatic NIRS monitoring may identify children at high risk of medical instability.

  7. Chapter 1: building the ground for the first two protein structures: myoglobin and haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, Bror

    2009-09-11

    Fifty years ago, Max Perutz and John Kendrew at Cambridge University achieved something that many people at the time considered impossible: they were the first to use x-ray crystallography to decipher the molecular structures of proteins: haemoglobin and myoglobin. They found that both molecules were built from Linus Pauling's alpha helices, but folded and packed together in a complicated manner that never could have been deciphered by any other technique.With structure information in hand they could then explain how haemoglobin in the bloodstream binds and releases oxygen on cue, how it passes its cargo on to the related storage protein myoglobin, and how a single amino acid mutation can produce the catastrophe known as sickle-cell anemia. Perutz and Kendrew also observed that the folding of helices was identical in myoglobin and the two chains of haemoglobin, and this along with the simultaneously evolving new technique of amino acid sequence analysis established for the first time the concept of molecular evolution. The crystallographic puzzle was "cracked" by Perutz when he demonstrated that the binding of only two heavy metal atoms to horse haemoglobin changed the x-ray pattern enough to allow him to solve the "phase problem" and circumvent the main obstacle to protein crystal structure analysis. Because myoglobin has a single chain whereas haemoglobin has four, Kendrew's work with myoglobin progressed more rapidly; a low resolution structure appeared in 1956 and the high resolution structure in 1959. That same year saw the low resolution picture of haemoglobin, and the high resolution structure followed shortly thereafter. Much of the work in structure analysis was carried out by visiting postdoctoral fellows and technicians, under the watchful eye of Perutz and Kendrew. This celebratory review has been written by three of those former postdoctorals: Strandberg and Dickerson from the myoglobin project, and Rossmann from the haemoglobin.

  8. Tackling the Saturation of Oxygen: The Use of Phosphorus and Sulphur as Proxies Within the Neutral ISM of Star-Forming Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    James, Bethan L

    2015-01-01

    The abundance of oxygen in galaxies is widely used in furthering our understanding of galaxy formation and evolution. Unfortunately, direct measurements of O/H in the neutral gas are extremely difficult to obtain due to the fact that the only OI line available within the HST UV wavelength range (1150-3200A) is often saturated. As such, proxies for oxygen are needed to indirectly derive an O/H via the assumption that solar ratios based on local Milky Way sight lines hold in different environments. In this paper, we assess the validity of using two such proxies, PII and SII, within more typical star-forming environments. Using HST-COS FUV spectra of a sample of nearby star-forming galaxies, we find that P and S follow a trend, log(PII/SII)=1.73+/-0.18, which is in excellent agreement with the solar ratio of log(P/S)_sol=-1.71+/-0.04 over a large range of galaxy properties, i.e., metallicities in the range 0.03-3.2 Z_sol and HI column densities of log[N(HI)/cm^-2]=18.44-21.28. We additionally show evidence from ...

  9. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trepanowski, John F; Farney, Tyler M; McCarthy, Cameron G; Schilling, Brian K; Craig, Stuart A; Bloomer, Richard J

    2011-12-01

    Trepanowski, JF, Farney, TM, McCarthy, CG, Schilling, BK, Craig, SA, and Bloomer, RJ. The effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance, skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, and associated biochemical parameters in resistance trained men. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3461-3471, 2011-We examined the effects of chronic betaine supplementation on exercise performance and associated parameters in resistance trained men. Men were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner using a crossover design to consume betaine (2.5 g of betaine mixed in 500 ml of Gatorade®) or a placebo (500 ml of Gatorade®) for 14 days, with a 21-day washout period. Before and after each treatment period, tests of lower- and upper-body muscular power and isometric force were conducted, including a test of upper-body muscular endurance (10 sets of bench press exercise to failure). Muscle tissue oxygen saturation (StO2) during the bench press protocol was measured via near infrared spectroscopy. Blood samples were collected before and after the exercise test protocol for analysis of lactate, nitrate/nitrite (NOx), and malondialdehyde (MDA). When analyzed using a repeated measures analysis of variance, no significant differences were noted between conditions for exercise performance variables (p > 0.05). However, an increase in total repetitions (p = 0.01) and total volume load (p = 0.02) in the 10-set bench press protocol was noted with betaine supplementation (paired t-tests), with values increasing approximately 6.5% from preintervention to postintervention. Although not of statistical significance (p = 0.14), postexercise blood lactate increased to a lesser extent with betaine supplementation (210%) compared with placebo administration (270%). NOx was lower postintervention as compared with preintervention (p = 0.06), and MDA was relatively unchanged. The decrease in StO2 during the bench press protocol was greater with betaine vs. placebo (p = 0.01), possibly suggesting

  10. Technical Note: Controlled experimental aquarium system for multi-stressor investigation of carbonate chemistry, oxygen saturation, and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. E. Bockmon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available As the field of ocean acidification has grown, researchers have increasingly turned to laboratory experiments to understand the impacts of increased CO2 on marine organisms. However, other changes such as ocean warming and deoxygenation are occurring concurrently with the increasing CO2 concentrations, complicating the understanding of the impacts of anthropogenic changes on organisms. This experimental aquarium design allows for independent regulation of CO2 concentration, O2 levels, and temperature in a controlled environment to study the impacts of multiple stressors. The system has the flexibility for a wide range of treatment chemistry, seawater volumes, and study organisms. Control of the seawater chemistry is achieved by equilibration of a chosen gas mixture with seawater using a Liqui-Cel® membrane contactor. Included as examples, two experiments performed using the system have shown control of CO2 at values between approximately 500 and 1400 μatm and O2 at values from 80 to 240 μmol kg−1. Temperature has been maintained to 0.5 °C or better in the range of 10–17 °C. On a weeklong timescale, the system has achieved variability in pH of less than 0.007 pH units and in oxygen concentration of less than 3.5 μmol kg−1. Longer experiments, over a month in duration, have been completed with control to better than 0.08 pH units and 13 μmol kg−1 O2. The ability to study the impacts of multiple stressors in the laboratory simultaneously, as well as independently, will be an important part of understanding the response of marine organisms to a high-CO2 world.

  11. Exercise and sports in haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yazman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia causes lower oxygen transport to tissues, interfering with normal physical development and may interfere with exercise and sports in thalassemia and Sickle-Cell-Disease (SCD l. Moreover, in SCD, the abnormal haemoglobin alters the erythrocyte shape and leads to pulmonary parenchymal damage, impaired vascular function and micro vascular complications. However, we now accept that, with regular blood transfusions and efficient oral or parenteral chelation modalities, many patients lead a normal development and life with little or no change from the lifestyle of their unaffected friends, although there are cognitive and emotional factors leading behaviour for participation in the social life and exercise, as studied by many scientists in Italy, United Kingdom, Greece and India. 贫血导致组织供氧不足,妨碍身体的正常发育,并可能干扰地中海贫血和镰状细胞病(SCD)患者的体育运动。更严重的是,在镰状细胞病患者体内,异常血红蛋白能改变红细胞形态,造成肺薄壁组织损害、血管功能损伤,并引起微血管并发症。 然而,意大利、英国、希腊和印度的多位科学家的研究表明:尽管认知因子和情感因子是参加社会生活和运动的主导行为,但只要患者定期输血和采用高效的口服或非口服螯合疗法,很多人都可以正常发育和生活,与未受感染的人群并无大的区别。

  12. Expression and evolution of functionally distinct haemoglobin genes in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, P W; Watts, R A; Trevaskis, B; Llewelyn, D J; Burnell, J; Dennis, E S; Peacock, W J

    2001-11-01

    Haemoglobin genes have been found in a number of plant species, but the number of genes known has been too small to allow effective evolutionary inferences. We present nine new non-symbiotic haemoglobin sequences from a range of plants, including class 1 haemoglobins from cotton, Citrus and tomato, class 2 haemoglobins from cotton, tomato, sugar beet and canola and two haemoglobins from the non-vascular plants, Marchantia polymorpha (a liverwort) and Physcomitrella patens (a moss). Our molecular phylogenetic analysis of all currently known non-symbiotic haemoglobin genes and a selection of symbiotic haemoglobins have confirmed the existence of two distinct classes of haemoglobin genes in the dicots. It is likely that all dicots have both class 1 and class 2 non-symbiotic haemoglobin genes whereas in monocots we have detected only class 1 genes. The symbiotic haemoglobins from legumes and Casuarina are related to the class 2 non-symbiotic haemoglobins, whilst the symbiotic haemoglobin from Parasponia groups with the class 1 non-symbiotic genes. Probably, there have been two independent recruitments of symbiotic haemoglobins. Although the functions of the two non-symbiotic haemoglobins remain unknown, their patterns of expression within plants suggest different functions. We examined the expression in transgenic plants of the two non-symbiotic haemoglobins from Arabidopsis using promoter fusions to a GUS reporter gene. The Arabidopsis GLB1 and GLB2 genes are likely to be functionally distinct. The class 2 haemoglobin gene (GLB2) is expressed in the roots, leaves and inflorescence and can be induced in young plants by cytokinin treatment in contrast to the class 1 gene (GLB1) which is active in germinating seedlings and can be induced by hypoxia and increased sucrose supply, but not by cytokinin treatment.

  13. Evaluation of haemoglobin (erythrogen): for improved somatic embryogenesis and plant regeneration in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. SVPR 2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganesan, M; Jayabalan, N

    2004-10-01

    Somatic embryogenesis in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) is accelerated when the plant regeneration medium is supplemented with haemoglobin (erythrogen). In cotton SVPR 2 lines, a higher frequency of embryoid formation was observed when the medium contained 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Fresh weight of the callus, rate of embryoid induction, number of embryoids formed and the percentage of plant regeneration from somatic embryos were increased. Among the two different cultivars tested, MCU 11 showed no response to the presence of haemoglobin when compared to SVPR 2, and embryogenic callus formation was completely absent in the former. Medium containing MS salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol , 0.3 mg/l thiamine-HCL, 0.3 mg/l Picloram (PIC), 0.1 mg/l kinetin and 400 mg/l haemoglobin effected a better response with respect to embryogenic callus induction. After 8 weeks of culture, a high frequency of embryoid induction was observed on medium containing MS basal salts, 100 mg/l myo-inositol, 0.3 mg/l PIC , 0.1 mg/l isopentenyl adenine, 1.0 g/l NH4NO3 and 400 mg/l haemoglobin. Plant regeneration was observed in 75.8% of the mature somatic embryos, and whole plant regeneration was achieved within 6-7 months of culture. The regenerated plantlets were fertile and similar to in vivo-grown, seed-derived plants except that they were phenotypically smaller. A positive influence of haemoglobin was observed at concentrations up to 400 mg/l at all stages of somatic embryogenesis. The increase in the levels of antioxidant enzyme activities, for example superoxide dismutase and peroxidase, indicated the presence of excess oxygen uptake and the stressed condition of the plant tissues that arose from haemoglobin supplementation. This increased oxygen uptake and haemoglobin-mediated stress appeared to accelerate somatic embryogenesis in cotton.

  14. Oxygen absorption by skin exposed to oxygen supersaturated water

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reading, Stacey A; Yeomans, Maggie

    2012-01-01

    ... min in 50 different experiments. Transcutaneous oximetry and near infrared spectroscopy were used to evaluate changes in skin PO 2 , oxygenated haemoglobin, and cytochrome oxidase aa 3 that resulted from treatment...

  15. The Use of the Ratio between the Veno-arterial Carbon Dioxide Difference and the Arterial-venous Oxygen Difference to Guide Resuscitation in Cardiac Surgery Patients with Hyperlactatemia and Normal Central Venous Oxygen Saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Du; Yun Long; Xiao-Ting Wang; Da-Wei Liu

    2015-01-01

    Background:After cardiac surgery,central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) and serum lactate concentration are often used to guide resuscitation;however,neither are completely reliable indicators of global tissue hypoxia.This observational study aimed to establish whether the ratio between the veno-arterial carbon dioxide and the arterial-venous oxygen differences (P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2) could predict whether patients would respond to resuscitation by increasing oxygen delivery (DO2).Methods:We selected 72 patients from a cohort of 290 who had undergone cardiac surgery in our institution between January 2012 and August 2014.The selected patients were managed postoperatively on the Intensive Care Unit,had a normal ScvO2,elevated serum lactate concentration,and responded to resuscitation by increasing DO2 by >10%.As a consequence,48 patients responded with an increase in oxygen consumption (VO2) while VO2 was static or fell in 24.Results:At baseline and before resuscitative intervention in postoperative cardiac surgery patients,a P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio ≥1.6 mmHg/ml predicted a positive VO2 response to an increase in DO2 of>1 0% with a sensitivity of 68.8% and a specificity of 87.5%.Conclusions:P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio appears to be a reliable marker of global anaerobic metabolism and predicts response to DO2 challenge.Thus,patients likely to benefit from resuscitation can be identified promptly,the P(v-a)CO2/C(a-v)O2 ratio may,therefore,be a useful resuscitation target.

  16. Effect of automated red cell exchanges on oxygen saturation on-air, blood parameters and length of hospitalization in sickle cell disease patients with acute chest syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John C Aneke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Red cell exchanges (RCEs lead to improvement in tissue oxygenation and reduction in inflammatory markers in sickle cell disease (SCD patients who present with acute chest syndrome (ACS. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of automated-RCE (auto-RCE on oxygen saturation (SpO 2 on-air, blood counts, the time to correct the parameters and length of hospitalization after the exchange in SCD patients presenting with ACS. Subjects and Methods: This was 2 years study involving five SCD patients; the time for SpO 2 on air to increase to ≥95% and chest symptoms to resolve, postprocedure, as well as the length of in-patient hospitalization was recorded. All data were entered into Statistical Package for Social Sciences Version 20.0 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA computer software for analyses. Results: The study involved 4 (80% hemoglobin (Hb SS and 1 (20% HbSC patients. The median time of SpO 2 recovery was 24 h, ranging from 6 to 96 h. About 60% (3/5 of patients achieved optimal SpO 2 within 24 h post-RCE, while discharge from intensive care unit was 24 h after auto-RCE in one patient. The Hb concentration was significantly higher, while the total white cell and absolute neutrophil counts were significantly lower at the time of resolution of symptoms, compared to before auto-RCE (P < 0.05. The average post auto-red cell transfusion symptoms duration was 105.6 (24-240 h while mean inpatient stay was 244.8 (144-456 h. Conclusion: Auto-RCE could reverse hypoxia in ACS within 24 h.

  17. Toward translating near-infrared spectroscopy oxygen saturation data for the non-invasive prediction of spatial and temporal hemodynamics during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellwein, Laura; Samyn, Margaret M; Danduran, Michael; Schindler-Ivens, Sheila; Liebham, Stacy; LaDisa, John F

    2017-02-01

    Image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies conducted at rest have shown that atherosclerotic plaque in the thoracic aorta (TA) correlates with adverse wall shear stress (WSS), but there is a paucity of such data under elevated flow conditions. We developed a pedaling exercise protocol to obtain phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) blood flow measurements in the TA and brachiocephalic arteries during three-tiered supine pedaling at 130, 150, and 170 % of resting heart rate (HR), and relate these measurements to non-invasive tissue oxygen saturation [Formula: see text] acquired by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) while conducting the same protocol. Local quantification of WSS indices by CFD revealed low time-averaged WSS on the outer curvature of the ascending aorta and the inner curvature of the descending aorta (dAo) that progressively increased with exercise, but that remained low on the anterior surface of brachiocephalic arteries. High oscillatory WSS observed on the inner curvature of the aorta persisted during exercise as well. Results suggest locally continuous exposure to potentially deleterious indices of WSS despite benefits of exercise. Linear relationships between flow distributions and tissue oxygen extraction calculated from [Formula: see text] were found between the left common carotid versus cerebral tissue [Formula: see text] and the dAo versus leg tissue [Formula: see text]. A resulting six-step procedure is presented to use NIRS data as a surrogate for exercise PC-MRI when setting boundary conditions for future CFD studies of the TA under simulated exercise conditions. Relationships and ensemble-averaged PC-MRI inflow waveforms are provided in an online repository for this purpose.

  18. A Japanese Family with Congenital Erythrocytosis Caused by Haemoglobin Bethesda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinobu; Tamura, Tadahiko; Gima, Hiroya; Nishikawa, Akinori; Okamoto, Yukiharu; Kanazawa, Nobuo; Relvas, Luis; Cunha, Elizabete; Frances McMullin, Mary; Bento, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    We herein present a case of congenital erythrocytosis caused by haemoglobin (Hb) Bethesda in a Japanese family. A 55-year-old asymptomatic man was referred to our hospital for the investigation of erythrocytosis, which was present in other members of his family. The patient's serum erythropoietin level was normal, and the JAK2 V617F mutation was not detected. His P50 value was mildly decreased, thus we suspected the presence of an Hb variant with a high oxygen affinity. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed an abnormal Hb, and by direct sequencing we identified the Hb Bethesda variant in this patient. For the differential diagnosis, we recommend the estimation of the P50 value as a practical and useful test.

  19. Rejection of false saturation data in optical pulse-oximeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scalise, Lorenzo; Marchionni, Paolo; Carnielli, Virgilio

    2010-04-01

    Pulse oximetry (PO) is a non-invasive medical device used for monitoring of the arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) and in particular of haemoglobin oxygenation in blood. Oxygen saturation is commonly used in any setting where the patient blood oxygen saturation is unstable, including Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU). The main factor affecting PO's output data is the presence of voluntary or involuntary motion artifacts or imperfect skin-sensor contact. Various methods have been employed to reject motion artifact but have met with little success. The aim of the present work is to propose a novel measurement procedure for real-time monitoring and validation of the oxygen saturation data as measured in standard pulse oxymeter. The procedure should be able to individuate and reject erroneous saturation data due to incorrect transducer-skin contact or motion artifact. In the case of short sequences of rejected SpO2 data (time durationoximeter (HRSAT) and the SpO2 value. In order to remove the erroneous SpO2 values reported in the rough data in coincidence of motion artifact (top, right), we have implemented a specific algorithm which provides at the output a new sequence of SpO2 data (validated SpO2 data). With the aim to "rescue" SpO2 value rejected by the previously presented algorithm, we have implemented an algorithm able to provide the "most-probable" SpO2 values in the case of single rejected values or in the case of short sequences of invalidated data (oximeter are not validated by the use of our method (corresponding to a total time of 16 hr, 8min and 40s). The use of the proposed algorithm aiming to "rescue" data from short sequences of rejected data (< 8s) allows to increase the validated data of the 2.5%t(equivalent to 8hr, 40 min and 16s), allowing a percent of usable data of the 95.7%. Once implemented in clinic, it could be used to identify the period of the day in which the percent of rejected data increase or correlate this data to clinical procedure

  20. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    . The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5%) met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0%) in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3%) in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were......-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary...... with a PARIS score ≥3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤1 had a low mortality (≤1%); with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%); and ≥3, high mortality (≥10%). CONCLUSIONS: Seven-day mortality...

  1. Raman and SERS recognition of β-carotene and haemoglobin fingerprints in human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casella, Michele; Lucotti, Andrea; Tommasini, Matteo; Bedoni, Marzia; Forvi, Elena; Gramatica, Furio; Zerbi, Giuseppe

    2011-09-01

    The present work reports on Raman and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) vibrational fingerprints of β-carotene and haemoglobin in fresh whole blood (i.e. right after blood test) with different laser excitations, i.e. visible (514 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 785 nm). The use of colloidal silver nanoparticles significantly increases the Raman signal, thus providing a clear SERS spectrum of blood. The collected spectra have been examined and marker bands of β-carotene and of the haem prosthetic group of haemoglobin have been found. In particular, the fundamental features of β-carotene (514 nm excitation), blood proteins and haem molecules (785 nm excitation) were recognized and assigned. Moreover haemoglobin SERS signals can be identified and related with its oxygenation state (oxy-haemoglobin). The data reported show the prospects of Raman and SERS techniques to detect important bio-molecules in a whole blood sample with no pre-treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cotransport of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles and hematite colloids in saturated porous media: Mechanistic insights from mathematical modeling and phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dengjun; Jin, Yan; Jaisi, Deb P.

    2015-11-01

    The fate and transport of individual type of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in porous media have been studied intensively and the corresponding mechanisms controlling ENPs transport and deposition are well-documented. However, investigations regarding the mobility of ENPs in the concurrent presence of another mobile colloidal phase such as naturally occurring colloids (colloid-mediated transport of ENPs) are largely lacking. Here, we investigated the cotransport and retention of engineered hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HANPs) with naturally occurring hematite colloids in water-saturated sand columns under environmentally relevant transport conditions, i.e., pH, ionic strength (IS), and flow rate. Particularly, phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation of HANPs during cotransport was explored at various ISs and flow rates to examine the mechanisms controlling the isotope fractionation of HANPs in abiotic transport processes (physical transport). During cotransport, greater mobility of both HANPs and hematite occurred at higher pHs and flow rates, but at lower ISs. Intriguingly, the mobility of both HANPs and hematite was substantially lower during cotransport than the individual transport of either, attributed primarily to greater homo- and hetero-aggregation when both particles are copresent in the suspension. The shapes of breakthrough curves (BTCs) and retention profiles (RPs) during cotransport for both particles evolved from blocking to ripening with time and from flat to hyperexponential with depth, respectively, in response to decreases in pH and flow rate, and increases in IS. The blocking BTCs and RPs that are flat or hyperexponential can be well-approximated by a one-site kinetic attachment model. Conversely, a ripening model that incorporates attractive particle-particle interaction has to be employed to capture the ripening BTCs that are impacted by particle aggregation during cotransport. A small phosphate oxygen isotope fractionation (≤ 1.8

  3. Regional oxygen saturation index (rSO2) in brachioradialis and deltoid muscle. Correlation and prognosis in patients with respiratory sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, A; Claverias, L; Marín, J; Magret, M; Rosich, S; Bodí, M; Trefler, S; Pascual, S; Gea, J

    2015-03-01

    To compare oxygen saturation index (rSO2) obtained simultaneously in two different brachial muscles. Prospective and observational study. Intensive care unit. Critically ill patients with community-acquired pneumonia. Two probes of NIRS device (INVOS 5100) were simultaneously placed on the brachioradialis (BR) and deltoid (D) muscles. rSO2 measurements were recorded at baseline (ICU admission) and at 24h. Demographic and clinical variables were registered. Pearson's correlation coefficient was used to assess the association between continuous variables. The consistency of the correlation was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and Bland-Altman plot. The predictive value of the rSO2 for mortality was calculated by ROC curve. Nineteen patients were included with an ICU mortality of 21.1%. The rSO2 values at baseline and at 24h were significantly higher in D than in BR muscle. Values obtained simultaneously in both limbs showed a strong correlation and adequate consistency: BR (r=0.95; p0.001) but a wide limit of agreement. Non-survivors had rSO2 values significantly lower than survivors at all times of the study. No patient with rSO2 >60% in BR died, and only 17.6% died with an rSO2 value >60% in D. Both muscles showed consistent discriminatory power for mortality. Both BR and D muscles were appropriate for measuring rSO2. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMICYUC. All rights reserved.

  4. Pulse Oximetry for the Detection of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome: Can the Memory Capacity of Oxygen Saturation Influence Their Diagnostic Accuracy?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Nigro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess the diagnostic ability of WristOx 3100 using its three different recording settings in patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS. Methods. All participants (135 performed the oximetry (three oximeters WristOx 3100 and polysomnography (PSG simultaneously in the sleep laboratory. Both recordings were interpreted blindly. Each oximeter was set to one of three different recording settings (memory capabilities 0.25, 0.5, and 1 Hz. The software (nVision 5.1 calculated the adjusted O2 desaturation index-mean number of O2 desaturation per hour of analyzed recording ≥2, 3, and 4% (ADI2, 3, and 4. The ADI2, 3, and 4 cutoff points that better discriminated between subjects with or without OSAS arose from the receiver-operator characteristics (ROCs curve analysis. OSAS was defined as a respiratory disturbance index (RDI ≥ 5. Results. 101 patients were included (77 men, mean age 52, median RDI 22.6, median BMI 27.4 kg/m2. The area under the ROCs curves (AUC-ROCs of ADI2, 3, and 4 with different data storage rates were similar (AUC-ROCs with data storage rates of 0.25/0.5/1 Hz: ADI2: 0.958/0.948/0.965, ADI3: 0.961/0.95/0.966, and ADI4: 0.957/0.949/0.963, P NS. Conclusions. The ability of WristOx 3100 to detect patients with OSAS was not affected by the data storage rate of the oxygen saturation signal. Both memory capacity of 0.25, 0.5, or 1 Hz showed a similar performance for the diagnosis of OSAS.

  5. Initial clinical experience with near-infrared spectroscopy in assessing cerebral tissue oxygen saturation in cerebral vasospasm before and after intra-arterial verapamil injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Lingzhong; Settecase, Fabio; Xiao, Jifang; Yu, Zhaoxia; Flexman, Alana M; Higashida, Randall T

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral vasospasm is a devastating complication after subarachnoid hemorrhage. The use of cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (SctO2) to non-invasively assess changes in cerebral tissue perfusion induced by intra-arterial (IA) verapamil treatment has not been described to our knowledge. A total of 21 consecutive post-craniotomy patients scheduled for possible IA verapamil treatment of cerebral vasospasm were recruited. The effect of IA verapamil injection on SctO2 being continuously monitored on both the left and right forehead was investigated. Comparisons between changes in SctO2 monitored on the ipsilateral and contralateral forehead in relationship to the side of internal carotid artery (ICA) injection were performed. A total of 47 IA verapamil injections (15 left ICA, 18 right ICA, and 14 vertebral artery injections) during 18 neurointerventional procedures in 13 patients were analyzed. IA verapamil administration led to both increases and decreases in SctO2. Changes in SctO2 ipsilateral to the ICA injection side were more pronounced (p=0.02 and 0.07 for left and right ICA injections, respectively) and favored compared to contralateral SctO2 changes. We were unable to obtain reliable measurements on the side ipsilateral to the craniotomy during four procedures in three patients, presumably secondary to pneumocephalus. The local cerebral vasodilating effect of IA verapamil injection is suggested by the differential changes in SctO2 ipsilateral and contralateral to the ICA injection side. The inconsistent changes in SctO2 and the limitations of applying cerebral oximetry in this patient population needs to be recognized.

  6. Design and Realization of Transmission of Blood Oxygen Saturation Degree Measurement System%透射式脉搏血氧饱和度检测系统的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷; 黄明; 丛茂柠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To realize noninvasive measurement of blood oxygen saturation degree. Methods By changing the traditional method of optical detection and amplifying circuit discrete design, using OPT301 photoelectric integrated block, AT89C51 single chip and ADC0809 analog digital converter, we achieve acquisition and processing for 4 channels of photoelectric signal, and according to the detection principle of transmission blood oxygen saturation degree measurement with near infrared double wavelength, calculate the value by the formula of "SaO2=A+BR". Results The simulation test shows that this system achieves the function of blood oxygen saturation degree measurement. Conclusion Using integrated devices, we can optimize the structure of the blood oxygen saturation degree measurement system, and improve the anti-interference ability.%目的 实现血氧饱和度的无创检测.方法改变传统的光检测和放大电路分立设计的方法,采用OPT301光电集成块、AT89C51单片机和ADC0809模数转换器,实现对4路光电信号的采集处理,根据近红外双波长透射式脉搏血氧检测原理,由血氧饱和度经验公式 "sao2=A+BR"计算血氧饱和度值.结果实验仿真证明,系统实现了血氧饱和度的检测功能.结论采用集成器件可以优化血氧饱和度检测系统结构,提高抗干扰能力.

  7. Prediction of Outcome in Neonates with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy II: Role of Amplitude-Integrated Electroencephalography and Cerebral Oxygen Saturation Measured by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeral, Katharina; Urlesberger, Berndt; Giordano, Vito; Kasprian, Gregor; Wagner, Michael; Schmidt, Lisa; Berger, Angelika; Klebermass-Schrehof, Katrin; Olischar, Monika

    2017-07-14

    Few data have been published on the combined use of amplitude-integrated electroencephalography (aEEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for outcome prediction in neonates cooled for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Our aim was to evaluate the predictive values and the most powerful predictive combinations of single aEEG and NIRS parameters and the respective cut-off values with regard to short-term outcomes in HIE II. aEEG and NIRS were prospectively studied at the Medical University of Vienna in the first 102 h of life with regard to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Thirty-two neonates diagnosed with HIE II treated with hypothermia were investigated. The measurement period was divided into 6-h epochs. According to MRI, 2 outcome groups were defined and predictive values of aEEG parameters, regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2), and the additional value of both methods combined were studied. Receiver operating curves (ROC) were obtained and area under the curve (AUC) values were calculated. ROC were then used to detect the optimal cut-off points, sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive values, and negative predictive values. At all time epochs, combined parameter scores were more predictive than single parameter scores. The highest AUC were observed between 18 and 60 h of cooling for the aEEG summation score (0.72-0.84) and for (background pattern + seizures) × rScO2 (0.79-0.85). At 42-60 h sensitivity was similar between those 2 scores (87.5-90.0%), but the addition of NIRS to aEEG led to an increase in specificity (from 52.4-59.1% to 72.7-90.5%). In HIE II, aEEG and NIRS are important predictors of short-term outcome. The combination of both methods improves prognostication. The highest predictive abilities were observed between 18 and 60 h of cooling. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Protoporphyrin IX-induced structural and functional changes in human red blood cells, haemoglobin and myoglobin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Susmita Sil; Tania Bose; Dibyendu Roy; Abhay Sankar Chakraborti

    2004-09-01

    Protoporphyrin IX and its derivatives are used as photosensitizers in the photodynamic therapy of cancer. Protoporphyrin IX penetrates into human red blood cells and releases oxygen from them. This leads to a change in the morphology of the cells. Spectrophotometric studies reveal that protoporphyrin IX interacts with haemoglobin and myoglobin forming ground state complexes. For both proteins, the binding affinity constant decreases, while the possible number of binding sites increases, as the aggregation state of the porphyrin is increased. The interactions lead to conformational changes of both haemoglobin and myoglobin as observed in circular dichroism studies. Upon binding with the proteins, protoporphyrin IX releases the heme-bound oxygen from the oxyproteins, which is dependent on the stoichiometric ratios of the porphyrin: protein. The peroxidase activities of haemoglobin and myoglobin are potentiated by the protein-porphyrin complexation. Possible mechanisms underlying the relation between the porphyrin-induced structural modifications of the heme proteins and alterations in their functional properties have been discussed. The findings may have a role in establishing efficacy of therapeutic uses of porphyrins as well as in elucidating their mechanisms of action as therapeutic agents.

  9. Separation of the valence intermediates of human haemoglobin by high-performance chromatofocusing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolzacchini, E; Fermo, I; Rovida, E; Colombo, R; Samaja, M

    1987-06-26

    Investigations into the properties of haemoglobin often require the isolation of the valence intermediates (alpha o2 beta+)2 and (alpha+ beta o2)2. Chromatofocusing with an anion-exchange gel (Mono PTM; Pharmacia, particle size 10 micron) in an HR5/20 column at various temperatures (10-25 degrees C) provides an excellent method for this task. A linearly decreasing pH gradient (8 to 7, generated by Polybuffer 96, Pharmacia) eluted sequentially the species methaemoglobin, (alpha o2 beta+)2, (alpha+ beta o2)2 and oxygenated haemoglobin. Calibration graphs help in quantitative analyses. This method is simpler and less time consuming and provides a similar or even better resolution than the traditional ion-exchange or isoelectric focusing methods.

  10. Evaluation of a reference material for glycated haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weykamp, CW; Penders, TJ; Muskiet, FAJ; vanderSlik, W

    1996-01-01

    The use of lyophilized blood as a reference material for glycated haemoglobin was investigated with respect to IFCC criteria for calibrators and control materials. Ninety-two laboratories, using 11 methods, detected no changes in glycated haemoglobin content when the lyophilizate was stored for one

  11. Evaluation of a reference material for glycated haemoglobin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weykamp, CW; Penders, TJ; Muskiet, FAJ; vanderSlik, W

    The use of lyophilized blood as a reference material for glycated haemoglobin was investigated with respect to IFCC criteria for calibrators and control materials. Ninety-two laboratories, using 11 methods, detected no changes in glycated haemoglobin content when the lyophilizate was stored for one

  12. 173 original article glycated haemoglobin levels in patients with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    This study therefore assessed changes in glycated haemoglobin levels in patients with MDR-TB. ... Keywords: Diabetes mellitus, Glycaemic change, Glycated haemoglobin, Multidrug resistant tuberculosis therapy ... their DM status and therefore, cannot self-report [5]. .... The authors have no competing interest to declare.

  13. Screening of Newborn Saturation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senem Ozgur

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In terms of the incidence, congenital heart diseases ranks first among congenital problems in the neonatal period. Although some of those diseases are with significant clinical findings, they might be insignificant in most cases. Standardization methods have been studied in variety of points, and oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry is thougt to be a good alternative to physical examination. In several studies, it is mentioned that some of congenital heart diseases are diagnosed by saturation screening. However, the benefits of this method are marred with the false negative and false positive rates. Therefore, in 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics has revised its saturation algorithm for scanning. It was aimed to have a standardization in saturation detecting time and evaluation of achieved saturation in newborns. Despite all efforts, some newborns with congenital heart disease are not diagnosed before discharging. We beleive that the details of saturation measurements are needed to be carefully evaluated because although these measurements are widely used their details are not well known. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2014; 23(4.000: 587-604

  14. Orthorhombic YBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 8.4} crystals as a result of saturation of hexagonal YBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} crystals with oxygen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podberezskaya, N. V., E-mail: podberez@niic.nsc.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation); Bolotina, N. B., E-mail: nb-bolotina@mail.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Komarov, V. Yu., E-mail: komarov-v-y@niic.nsc.ru; Kameneva, M. Yu.; Kozeeva, L. P.; Lavrov, A. N.; Smolentsev, A. I. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Nikolaev Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Siberian Branch (Russian Federation)

    2015-07-15

    Hexagonal YBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 7} crystals (sp. gr. P6{sub 3}mc, a{sub h} = 6.3058(4) Å, c{sub h} = 10.2442(7) Å, Z = 2) are saturated with oxygen to the YBaCo{sub 4}O{sub 8.4} composition and studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis. The saturation is completed by a structural first-order phase transition to orthorhombic crystals (sp. gr. Pbc2{sub 1}, a{sub o} = 31.8419(2) Å, b{sub o} = 10.9239(5) Å, c{sub o} = 10.0960(5) Å, Z = 20). The connection of two lattices is expressed in terms of the action of matrix (500/120/001) on the hexagonal basis. Five structural fragments of the same type but with different degrees of order alternate along the long axis of the oxygen-saturated orthorhombic structure. The XRD data on single crystals differ from the results obtained by other researchers on ceramic samples; possible causes of these differences are discussed.

  15. Serum Iron, Haemoglobin and Serum Lipid Peroxidation in Neonates with Respiratory Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushama P. Dhonde

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Respiratory disorders are the most common cause for higher morbidity and mortality rate in India. Higher oxygen concentration of extrauterine existence causes increased erythrocyte lysis lead to release of iron in neonates. Iron is known to catalyze the formation of Reactive oxygen species. Involvement of hemoglobin and iron in oxygen-mediated reactions stimulate us to study the role of these in neonates.Objectives :iTo estimate the concentration of Haemoglobin, serum iron, serum lipid peroxidation in neonates with respiratory disorders; and compare those with that of healthy controls. iiTo study the role of these parameters in neonates with respiratory disorders.Materials and Methods: Present study includes 50 neonates suffering from respiratory disorders and 50 healthy neonates as controls. Samples collected from these were used for the estimation of haemoglobin, serum iron, and serum lipid peroxidation.Observations: Significantly (p<0.001 increased levels of serum iron and lipid peroxidation were observed in neonates with respiratory disorders when compared those with control values. These levels were found significantly (p<0.001 higher in preterm than full-term neonates. Concentration of haemoglobin showed no significant difference in both groups.Conclusion: Exacerbation of oxidative stress in neonates with respiratory disorders may be due to hypoxia induced free radical generation, higher oxidative tendency of HbF and elevated iron. Premature neonates are probably unprepared for extra uterine life in an oxygen rich environment and due to this they are more prone to oxidative insult. Thus this study reveals the pro-oxidant role of HbF and iron, which enhances the oxidative stress in respiratory disorder.

  16. Presión parcial de oxígeno, pH, hematocrito, hemoglobina e índice cardíaco en pollos de engorde a 2.600 metros sobre el nivel del mar Arterial blood oxygen partial pressure, hematocrit, haemoglobin, and cardiac index in broilers at 2600 m above sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. JIMENEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HP en pollosparrilleros constituye un problema económico importante. Dentrode los mecanismos de adaptación del organismo a la altitud se encuentran,además del aumento de la tensión arterial pulmonar, el incremento de la masa muscular ventricular derecha, la policitemía y posiblemente la hiperventilación con la subsecuente alcalosis respiratoria. Es factible que el alto nivel de energía en la ración incremente la hipoxemia derivada de la hipoxia; con lo anterior, el grado de policitemia se puede elevar y producirse un efecto agravante de la HP. Para establecer valores de pO2, Ht, Hb e IC en pollos parrilleros residentes a 2.600 m de altura sobre el nivel del mar, se estudiaron 24 aves de ambos sexos, de una población de 400 animales. Los valores promedios obtenidos fueron los siguientes: a pO2: 67.21 mmHg ± 5.21. Hubo diferencias estadísticas (pWideman y Buss (1985y Julian y col. (1985. La correlación inversa entre el IC y la pO2 arterial indican el efecto de la hipoxia de las vías aéreas en la hipoxemia y en el grado de hipertrofia e hiperplasia ventricular derecha.High incidence of cardiac failure in broilers due to hypoxic pulmonaryhypertension (PH, produces huge economical losses. Adaptive responsesinclude right ventricular hypertrophy and polycythemia. High energy levelin feed could increase hypoxemia and therefore the degree of polycythemia,thus increasing PH. To establish normal values in arterial oxygen partialpressure (pO2, pH, hematocrit (Ht, haemoglobin (Hb, and cardiacindex (CI, 24 broilers (12 males and 12 females, chosen at random, froma population of 400 birds, were studied in Bogotá, Colombia, 2600m above sea level. Mean values obtained were as follows: a pO2:67.21 ± 5.21 mmHg; statistical differences between sexes and among ages were found (p<0.05; b pH: 7.5 ± 0.05; c Ht: 37.13 ± 3.27%. In males, Ht values were higher at 24 and 37 days. In females, therewas a

  17. Absolute measurement of cerebral optical coefficients, hemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation in old and young adults with near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    We present near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of absolute cerebral hemoglobin concentration and saturation in a large sample of 36 healthy elderly (mean age, 85 ± 6 years) and 19 young adults (mean age, 28 ± 4 years). Non-invasive measurements were obtained on the forehead using a commercially a...

  18. Independent component analysis applied to pulse oximetry in the estimation of the arterial oxygen saturation (SpO2) - a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas; Duun, Sune Bro; Larsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    ), and Mean Field ICA (ICAMF). The signal processing includes pre-processing bandpass filtering to eliminate noise, and post-processing by calculating the SpO2. The algorithms are compared to the commercial state-of-the-art algorithm Discrete Saturation Transform (DST) by Masimo Corporation...

  19. The incidence of low venous oxygen saturation on admission to the intensive care unit : a multi-center observational study in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beest, P. A.; Hofstra, J. J.; Schultz, M. J.; Boerma, E. C.; Spronk, P. E.; Kuiper, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    Background Low mixed or central venous saturation (S(c)vO(2)) can reveal global tissue hypoxia and therefore can predict poor prognosis in critically ill patients. Early goal directed therapy (EGDT), aiming at an ScvO(2) >= 70%, has been shown to be a valuable strategy in patients with sepsis or sep

  20. Digestion of haemoglobin by schistosomes: 35 years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, J P; Smith, A M; Clough, K A; Brindley, P J

    1995-08-01

    Adult schistosomes obtain nutrients by digesting haemoglobin, which they obtain from ingested host red blood cells. Here John Dalton, Angela Smith, Karen Clough and Paul Brindley argue that a cathepsin L proteinase recently identified in their laboratory as the predominant cysteine proteinase activity of Schistosoma mansoni may play the leading role in haemoglobin digestion. They discuss the importance of elucidating the roles of both cathepsin B and cathepsin L in the digestion of haemoglobin, since both should be considered important targets to which novel schistosomicidal agents could be directed.

  1. Comparison the effects of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning on respiratory rate, arterial blood oxygen saturation and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbasinia, M; Irajpour, A; Babaii, A

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate...... (RR), arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were...... randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA), chi...

  2. A Survey of ABO, Rhesus (D) Antigen and Haemoglobin Genes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    This longitudinal study involved the determination of ABO and Rh(D) antigens in 3241 and ... Keywords: ABO antigen, Rhesus D, Blood group, Haemoglobin genotype, Blood substitutes ... composition, the variations in amino acid composition.

  3. Relationship between glycated Haemoglobin and glucose levels in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relationship between glycated Haemoglobin and glucose levels in adult healthy and diabeticNigerians in Benin Metropolis. ... Annals of Biomedical Sciences ... Patients And Methods: A total of 200 subjects participated in this study.

  4. Spatial and temporal skin blood volume and saturation estimation using a multispectral snapshot imaging camera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewerlöf, Maria; Larsson, Marcus; Salerud, E. Göran

    2017-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) can estimate the spatial distribution of skin blood oxygenation, using visible to near-infrared light. HSI oximeters often use a liquid-crystal tunable filter, an acousto-optic tunable filter or mechanically adjustable filter wheels, which has too long response/switching times to monitor tissue hemodynamics. This work aims to evaluate a multispectral snapshot imaging system to estimate skin blood volume and oxygen saturation with high temporal and spatial resolution. We use a snapshot imager, the xiSpec camera (MQ022HG-IM-SM4X4-VIS, XIMEA), having 16 wavelength-specific Fabry-Perot filters overlaid on the custom CMOS-chip. The spectral distribution of the bands is however substantially overlapping, which needs to be taken into account for an accurate analysis. An inverse Monte Carlo analysis is performed using a two-layered skin tissue model, defined by epidermal thickness, haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation, melanin concentration and spectrally dependent reduced-scattering coefficient, all parameters relevant for human skin. The analysis takes into account the spectral detector response of the xiSpec camera. At each spatial location in the field-of-view, we compare the simulated output to the detected diffusively backscattered spectra to find the best fit. The imager is evaluated for spatial and temporal variations during arterial and venous occlusion protocols applied to the forearm. Estimated blood volume changes and oxygenation maps at 512x272 pixels show values that are comparable to reference measurements performed in contact with the skin tissue. We conclude that the snapshot xiSpec camera, paired with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm, permits us to use this sensor for spatial and temporal measurement of varying physiological parameters, such as skin tissue blood volume and oxygenation.

  5. Haemoglobin modulates NO emission and hyponasty under hypoxia-related stress in Arabidopsis thaliana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hebelstrup, Kim; van Zanten, Martijn; Mandon, Julien;

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) and ethylene are signalling molecules that are synthesized in response to oxygen depletion. Non-symbiotic plant haemoglobins (Hbs) have been demonstrated to act in roots under oxygen depletion to scavenge NO. Using Arabidopsis thaliana plants, the online emission of NO or ethylene...... represented a major loss of nitrogen equivalent to 0.2mM nitrate per 24h under hypoxic conditions. Hb gene expression was greatly enhanced in flooded roots, suggesting induction by reduced oxygen diffusion. The function could be to limit loss of nitrogen under NO emission. NO reacts with thiols to form S......-nitrosylated compounds, and it is demonstrated that hypoxia substantially increased the content of S-nitrosylated compounds. A parallel up-regulation of Hb gene expression in the normoxic shoots of the flooded plants may reflect signal transmission from root to shoot via ethylene and a role for Hb in the shoots. Hb gene...

  6. Alpha-haemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) stabilizes apo-α-haemoglobin in a partially folded state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, Kaavya; Dickson, Claire F.; Weiss, Mitchell J.; Mackay, Joel P.; Gell, David A.

    2015-01-01

    SYNOPSIS To produce functional haemoglobin, nascent α-globin (αo) and β-globin (βo) chains must each bind a single haem molecule (to form αh and βh) and interact together to form heterodimers. The precise sequence of binding events is unknown, and it has been suggested that additional factors might enhance the efficiency of Hb folding. The α-haemoglobin stabilizing protein (AHSP) has previously been shown to bind αh and regulate redox activity of the haem iron. Here, we use a combination of classical and dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate that AHSP forms a heterodimeric complex with αo that inhibits αo aggregation and promotes αo folding in the absence of haem. These findings indicate that AHSP may function as an αo-specific chaperone, and suggest an important role for αo in guiding Hb assembly by stabilizing βo and inhibiting off-pathway self-association of βh. PMID:20860551

  7. AHSP (α-haemoglobin-stabilizing protein) stabilizes apo-α-haemoglobin in a partially folded state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna Kumar, Kaavya; Dickson, Claire F; Weiss, Mitchell J; Mackay, Joel P; Gell, David A

    2010-12-01

    To produce functional Hb (haemoglobin), nascent α-globin (αo) and β-globin (βo) chains must each bind a single haem molecule (to form αh and βh) and interact together to form heterodimers. The precise sequence of binding events is unknown, and it has been suggested that additional factors might enhance the efficiency of Hb folding. AHSP (α-haemoglobin-stabilizing protein) has been shown previously to bind αh and regulate redox activity of the haem iron. In the present study, we used a combination of classical and dynamic light scattering and NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate that AHSP forms a heterodimeric complex with αo that inhibits αo aggregation and promotes αo folding in the absence of haem. These findings indicate that AHSP may function as an αo-specific chaperone, and suggest an important role for αo in guiding Hb assembly by stabilizing βo and inhibiting off-pathway self-association of βh.

  8. The differential effects of recombinant brain natriuretic peptide, nitroglycerine and dihydralazine on systemic oxygen delivery and gastric mucosal microvascular oxygenation in dogs*

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, L. A.; Schwartges, I.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Schober, P.; Picker, O.

    Brain natriuretic peptide has vasodilatory properties and may thus increase splanchnic perfusion and oxygenation. We compared the effects of recombinant brain natriuretic peptide on gastric mucosal microvascular haemoglobin oxygenation (reflectance spectrophotometry) and systemic variables with

  9. Investigation of haemoglobin polymorphism in Ogaden cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjoy Kumar Pal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The Ogaden cattle is one among the tropical cattle breeds (Bos indicus widely distributed in eastern and south eastern part of Ethiopia. The breed has been evolved in arid and semi arid agro-ecological setup, but later on distributed and adapted to the wide agro-ecological zones. Because of its multi-purpose role, the Ogaden cattle have been used for milk, beef, and income generation. Information on the inherent genetic diversity is important in the design of breeding improvement programmes, making rational decisions on sustainable utilization and conservation of Animal Genetic Resources. Limited information is available about genetic variation of Ogaden breed at molecular level. The present investigation was aimed to study the biochemical polymorphism at the Hemoglobin (Hb locus. Materials and Methods: Blood samples collected from 105 Ogaden cattle maintained at Haramaya beef farm by jugular vein puncture were subjected to agarose gel electrophoresis [pH range 8.4-8.5] to study the polymorphic activities of haemoglobin. Results: Three types of phenotypes were detected i.e. a slow moving (AA band, fast moving (BB band and a combination of slow + fast moving bands (AB. The frequency of the fast moving band was less [13 (12.3%] than the slow moving band [57 (54.2%]. Both slow & fast moving phenotype was observed in 35 (33.3% animals. The gene frequency of HBA allele was 0.709 and that of HBB allele 0.291. Conclusion: The distribution of phenotypes was in agreement with codominant single gene inheritance. The Chi-square (χ2 test revealed that the population is under Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium.

  10. Changes in cerebral haemodynamics, regional oxygen saturation and amplitude-integrated continuous EEG during hypoxia-ischaemia and reperfusion in newborn piglets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioroi, T; Peeters-Scholte, C; Post, [No Value; Groenendaal, F; van Bel, F

    2002-01-01

    Perinatal asphyxia models are necessary to obtain knowledge of the pathophysiology of hypoxia-ischaemia (HI) and to test potential neuroprotective strategies. The present study was performed in newborn piglets to obtain information about simultaneous changes in cerebral oxygenation and haemodynamics

  11. Changes In Arterial Hemoglobin Oxygen Saturation During Transport From the Operating Room to the Postanesthesia Care Unit In Healthy Patients Breathing Room Air

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-12-16

    Propafol ___ Ketamine __ Etomidate Other’ ______ _ Inhalational: Isoflurane ___ Halothane ___ Desflurane Sevoflurane Narcotics: ___ Fentanyl...This occurs because nitrous oxide is 31 times more soluble in blood than nitrogen. If nitrogen was more soluble in blood than nitrous oxide this would...lack of data on pat i ent oxygenation during postoperative transfer, explainable in part by the difficulty of measuring blood gases under s uch

  12. [Values of mixed venous oxygen saturation and difference of mixed venous-arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide in monitoring of oxygen metabolism and treatment after open-heart operation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Chuanliang; Zhang, Haiying; Liu, Jianping

    2014-10-01

    To explore the clinic values of early goal directed treatment (EGDT) with the target of mixed venous oxygen saturation (SvO₂) and difference of mixed venous-arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide (Pv-aCO₂) in monitoring of oxygen metabolism and treatment for patients post open-heart operation. A prospective study was conducted. The adult patients admitted to Third People's Hospital of Chengdu from December 2011 to March 2014 with SvO₂2 mmol/L when admitted in intensive care unit (ICU) were selected on whom elective open-heart operation and pulmonary artery catheter examination were done. All patients received EGDT with the target of SvO₂≥0.65 and Pv-aCO₂<6 mmHg (1 mmHg=0.133 kPa) and were divided into three groups by the values of SvO₂and Pv-aCO₂at 6-hour after ICU admission: A group with SvO₂≥0.65 and Pv-aCO₂<6 mmHg, B group with SvO₂≥0.65 and Pv-aCO₂≥6 mmHg, and C group with SvO₂<0.65. Then the changes and prognosis of the patients in different groups were observed. 103 cases were included, 44 in A group, 31 in B group and 28 in C group. The acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHEII) score in group A were significantly lower than that in group B or C at 6, 24, 48 and 72 hours (T6, T24, T48, T72) of ICU admission (T6: 11.4 ± 5.8 vs. 13.9 ± 5.4, 13.7 ± 6.4; T24: 8.8 ± 3.7 vs. 10.8 ± 4.8, 11.8 ± 5.4; T48: 8.7 ± 4.1 vs. 9.6 ± 4.2, 10.2 ± 5.1; T72: 7.5 ± 3.4 vs. 8.6 ± 2.9, 9.2 ± 4.2, all P<0.05), and the sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) showed the same tendency (T6: 6.5 ± 4.3 vs. 8.0 ± 3.8, 9.1 ± 4.5; T24: 6.6 ±3.6 vs. 8.6 ± 3.9, 8.5 ± 3.3; T48: 5.2 ± 3.4 vs. 7.0 ± 3.6, 7.6 ± 5.1; T72: 4.6 ± 2.4 vs. 5.8 ± 2.5, 6.8 ± 3.5, all P<0.05). The values of blood lactic acid (mmol/L) in group A and B were significant lower than that in group C at T6, T24, T48 and T72 (T6: 1.60 ± 0.95, 2.20 ± 1.02 vs. 2.55 ± 1.39; T24: 2.26 ± 1.26, 2.70 ± 1.36 vs. 3.34 ± 2.36; T48: 2.01 ± 1.15, 2.17

  13. Effect of late vs early clamping of the umbilical cord (on haemoglobin level) in full-term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesheli, Hassan Mahmoodi; Esmailzadeh, Seddigheh; Haghshenas, Mohsen; Bijani, Ali; Moghaddams, Tahereh Galini

    2014-11-01

    Sixty term infants delivered vaginally were assigned randomly to one of the two management groups; early cord clamping (ECC) or delayed cord clamping (DCC). Six months after delivery, the children in both groups were called back for follow-up. Blood samples were obtained for measuring haemoglobin (Hb), haematocrit (Hct), mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH), serum iron (SI), transferrin saturation (TS) and serum ferritin (SF) levels. The mean Hb, HCT, SI and TS at 6 months were significantly higher in the DCC group (95% confidence interval (CI); p<0.001, p<0.001, p<0.024 and p<0.009). The mean SF at 6 months was also higher in the DCC group but it was not significant (p<0.071). Polycythaemia, jaundice and other undesirable side-effects of DCC were not seen.

  14. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Langberg, H; Green, Sara Marie Ehrenreich

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise...... with a rise in leg vascular conductance and microvascular haemoglobin volume, despite elevated systemic vascular resistance. 4. The parallel rise in calf muscle and peritendinous blood flow and fall in O2 saturation during exercise indicate that blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism in both tissue...... by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous flow...

  15. Application of HBOCs electrophoretic method to detect a new blood substitute derived from the giant extracellular haemoglobin of lugworm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, A; Crepin, N; Roulland, I; Semence, F; Domergue, V; Zal, F; Polard, V; Coquerel, A

    2016-10-27

    Manipulation of blood and blood components is prohibited in sports by the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA). This includes the use of blood substitutes to increase oxygen transport, like haemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), which are compounds derived from haemoglobin. Despite their medical interest, the first generation of HBOCs had serious adverse effects and was abandoned. However, new studies are now exploiting the properties of marine worm haemoglobins, which circulate as giant extracellular complexes with high oxygen-binding capacities. HEMOXYCarrier® (HC), developed by Hemarina, is one of the most advanced and promising HBOCs, and HC may become a tempting doping tool for athletes in the future. Here, HC detection in plasma/serum was evaluated with the method used to detect the first HBOCs, based on electrophoresis and heme peroxidase properties. An HC-derived product was identified in human plasma up to 72 h after in vitro incubation at 37 °C. HC degradation also induced methemalbumin formation. After injecting HC at the effective dose of 200 mg/kg into mice, the HC-derived product was detected only for a few hours and no accumulation of methemalbumin was observed. Due to this limited detection window in vivo, measuring specific worm globin degradation products by mass spectrometry might be an alternative for future anti-doping analyses. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  16. Recombinant E. coli expressing Vitreoscilla haemoglobin prefers aerobic metabolism under microaerobic conditions: A proteome-level study

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bini Ramachandran; Kanak Lata Dikshit; Kuppamuthu Dharmalingam

    2012-09-01

    Vitreoscilla haemoglobin (VHb) expression in heterologous host was shown to enhance growth and oxygen utilization capabilities under oxygen-limited conditions. The exact mechanism by which VHb enhances the oxygen utilization under oxygen-limiting conditions is still unknown. In order to understand the role of VHb in promoting oxygen utilization, changes in the total protein profile of E. coli expressing the vgb gene under its native promoter was analysed. Two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) was employed to quantify the differentially expressed proteins under oxygen-limiting conditions. Overexpression of proteins involved in aerobic metabolic pathways and suppression of proteins involved in non-oxidative metabolic pathways shown in this study indicates that the cells expressing VHb prefer aerobic metabolic pathways even under oxygen limitation. Under these conditions, the expression levels of proteins involved in central metabolic pathways, cellular adaptation and cell division were also found to be altered. These results imply that Vitreoscilla haemoglobin expression alters aerobic metabolism specifically, in addition to altering proteins involved in other pathways, the significance of which is not clear as of now.

  17. Effects of epidural fentanyl for caesarean section on pulse oxygen saturation of neonates%芬太尼硬膜外注射对剖宫产新生儿脉搏氧饱和度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾令全; 李频; 朱长江; 魏安宁

    2008-01-01

    目的 研究芬太尼、利多卡因联合应用于剖宫产术麻醉对新生儿脉搏氧饱和度的影响.方法 将40例产妇随机分为两组,芬太尼组(n=20)采用芬太尼、利多卡因联合硬膜外腔麻醉,常规组(n=20)采用单纯利多卡因硬膜外麻醉,记录手术开始及胎儿娩出的时间,术前及术毕麻醉平面、麻醉效果、新生儿娩出后1、5 min时Apgar评分,新生儿的脉搏血氧饱和度及心率.结果 芬太尼组麻醉效果较完善(P<0.01),两组手术过程及麻醉平面,新生儿娩出后1、5 min时Apgar评分、脉搏血氧饱和度及心率差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 芬太尼、利多卡因联合硬膜外阻滞能够提高镇痛时效,对新生儿脉搏氧饱和度无影响.%Objective To evaluate the effects of epidural fentanyl combined with lidocaine for caesarean section on pulse oxygen saturation of neonates. Methods Forty pregnancy parturients were randomly divided into two groups :fentanyl group (n = 20 ) and routine group (n = 20 ). The parturients received lidocaine. In group fentanyl,fentanyl 1 ml(50 μg) was injected. In group routine,normal saline 1 ml was injected. The neonatal Apgar score, duration of labor, analgetic effects, anaesthesia plane, pulse oxygen saturation and heat rates of neonates were observed. Results The analgetic effects in group fentanyl were more perfect than in group routine ( P < 0.01 ), however, the others items had no difference in two groups. Conclusion The addition of fentanyl (50 μg epidurally) can significantly improve the anesthetic quality during caesarean section at the same time no effect on pulse oxygen saturation of neonates.

  18. Transabdominal oxygenation using perfluorocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiba, T; Harrison, M R; Ohkubo, T; Rollins, M D; Albanese, C T; Jennings, R W

    1999-05-01

    Evaluation of the intraabdominal (intraperitoneal and intraluminal) administration of oxygen-saturated perfluorocarbon on both portal and arterial blood oxygenation. Eight male rabbits were divided into the test (n = 5) and control (n = 3) groups. Each underwent intrajejunal, intraperitoneal, and intravascular (artery, portal vein) catheter placements along with ligation of the duodenum and the terminal ileum under general anesthesia. The test group received oxygen-saturated perfluorotripropylamine (FTPA), and the control group received oxygen desaturated FTPA. The oxygen delivery was assessed by serial blood gas measurements before and after the administration of FTPA. The administration of oxygen-saturated FTPA significantly increased the partial pressure of oxygen within both the arterial and the portal venous blood (PaO2, PpVO2) without significant changes in PCO2 values. Oxygen desaturated FTPA failed to show any effects on blood gas values. Compared with oxygen desaturated FTPA, oxygen-saturated FTPA increased PaO2, PpVO2, and oxygen saturation (artery, portal vein) significantly at some, but not all of the time-points measured. The intraabdominal administration of saturated FTPA improved both the portal venous and the arterial oxygenation. This new mode of oxygenation may be helpful as an adjunct to conventional oxygen delivery systems.

  19. Oxygenation and ventilation characteristics in obese sedated dogs before and after weight loss: a clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosing, M; German, A J; Holden, S L; MacFarlane, P; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; Iff, I

    2013-11-01

    This prospective clinical study examined the effect of obesity and subsequent weight loss on oxygenation and ventilation during deep sedation in pet dogs. Data from nine dogs completing a formalised weight loss programme were evaluated. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) was used to quantify body fat mass prior to and after weight loss. Dogs were deeply sedated and positioned in dorsal recumbency. Sedation was scored using a semi-objective scheme. As part of the monitoring of sedation, arterial oxygen partial pressure (PaO2) and arterial carbon dioxide partial pressure (PaCO2) were measured after 10 min in dorsal recumbency. Oxygen saturation of haemoglobin (SpO2) was monitored continuously using pulse oximetry, starting oxygen supplementation where indicated (SpO2PaO2/FiO2 (inspired oxygen fraction) and Pa/AO2 (ratio of PaO2 to alveolar PO2) also improved significantly, but there was no change in f-shunt and PaCO2 after weight loss. On multiple linear regression analysis, all oxygen indices were negatively associated with thoracic fat percentage. In conclusion, obesity decreases oxygenation in dogs during deep sedation. Oxygenation status improves with successful weight loss, but ventilation is not influenced by obesity.

  20. Six-minute walking distance and decrease in oxygen saturation during the six-minute walk test in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douwes, Johannes M; Hegeman, Anneke K; van der Krieke, Merel B; Roofthooft, Marcus T R; Hillege, Hans L; Berger, Rolf M F

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the prognostic value of the 6-minute walking distance (6-MWD), transcutaneous saturation (tcSO2) and heart rate (HR) obtained during the 6-minute walk test (6-MWT) in pediatric pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). This was an observational study with forty-seven pediatric PAH patients, aged ≥7 years, and diagnosed and followed at the national referral center for pediatric PAH in the Netherlands. All patients performed a comprehensive 6-minute walk test (6-MWT), which measures 6-MWD and tcSO2 and HR before ("baseline"), during ("exercise") and 5 min after ("recovery") the walk test. The 6-MWD expressed either in meters or in sex- and age-corrected z-scores, was associated with transplant-free survival, independently from sex, age, and the presence of a shunt-defect. Shorter 6-MWD correlated with higher WHO-FC and increased NT-pro-BNP. Absolute tcSO2 at exercise and tcSO2-decrease during 6-MWT were associated with transplant-free survival, independent from 6-MWD. Combining tcSO2-decrease with 6-MWD provided the strongest prognostic model. Patients with 6-MWD>352 m (the median 6-MWD) had a better outcome than those with smaller 6-MWD. A large tcSO2-decrease during 6-MWT (>19% for patients with and >5% for patients without a shunt defect) identified patients with worse transplant-free survival both in patients with a 6-MWD above and below the median 6-MWD. The 6-MWD is an independent predictor of prognosis in pediatric PAH, that reflects disease severity and clinically relevant exercise-tolerance and therefore qualifies as a treatment goal. The magnitude of tcSO2-decrease during 6-MWT, adjusted for the presence of a shunt, indicates an additional risk factor for prognosis in children with PAH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Comparison the Effects of Shallow and Deep Endotracheal Tube Suctioning on Respiratory Rate, Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation and Number of Suctioning in Patients Hospitalized in the Intensive Care Unit: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Abbasinia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Endotracheal tube suctioning is essential for improve oxygenation in the patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. There are two types of shallow and deep endotracheal tube suctioning. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of shallow and deep suctioning methods on respiratory rate (RR, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2 and number of suctioning in patients hospitalized in the intensive care units of Al-Zahra Hospital, Isfahan, Iran. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 74 patients who hospitalized in the intensive care units of Isfahan Al-Zahra Hospital were randomly allocated to the shallow and deep suctioning groups. RR and SpO2 were measured immediately before, immediately after, 1 and 3 minute after each suctioning. Number of suctioning was also noted in each groups. Data were analyzed using repeated measures analysis of variance (RMANOVA, chi-square and independent t-tests. Results: RR was significantly increased and SpO2 was significantly decreased after each suctioning in the both groups. However, these changes were not significant between the two groups. The numbers of suctioning was significantly higher in the shallow suctioning group than in the deep suctioning group. Conclusion: Shallow and deep suctioning had a similar effect on RR and SpO2. However, shallow suctioning caused further manipulation of patient’s trachea than deep suctioning method. Therefore, it seems that deep endotracheal tube suctioning method can be used to clean the airway with lesser manipulation of the trachea.

  2. Oxygenation of saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons with sodium periodate catalyzed by manganese(III) tetra-arylporphyrins, to study the axial ligation of imidazole

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Reza Tayebee

    2006-09-01

    Competitive oxygenation of cyclooctene and tetralin with sodium periodate catalyzed by MnIII(TPP)OAc, TPP = meso-tetraphenylporphyrin; MnIII (TNP)OAc, TNP = meso-tetrakis(1-naphthyl) porphyrin; MnIII (TMP)OAc, TMP = meso-tetrakis(2,4,6-trimethyl-phenyl)porphyrin; MnIII (TDCPP)OAc, TDCPP = meso-tetrakis(2,6-dichlorophenyl) porphyrin, and MnIII (TPNMe2-TFPP)OAc, TPNMe2-TFPP = meso-tetrakis(para-NMe2-tetrafluorophenyl)porphyrin, was carried out in the presence or absence of imidazole. This study showed that, in the absence of imidazole, selectivity for epoxide formation was high with electron-rich catalysts such as Mn(TPP)OAc, Mn(TNP)OAc and Mn(TMP)OAc, but low with electron-deficient catalysts such as Mn(TDCPP)OAc and Mn(TPNMe2-TFPP)OAc. Presumably, not only the axial ligation of imidazole to the four-coordinate Mn(III)-center, but also the steric and electronic influences of aryl-substituents on the porphyrin periphery affect the selectivity of the catalytic oxidation reaction.

  3. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of human glycosylated haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Syakhovich, Vitaly E. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus); Saraswathi, N. T.; Ruff, Marc, E-mail: ruff@igbmc.u-strasbg.fr [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Bokut, Sergey B. [Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus); Moras, Dino [Département de Biologie et Génomique Structurales, Institut de Génétique et de Biologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, 1 Rue Laurent Fries, BP 10142, 67404 Illkirch (France); Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics, International Sakharov Environmental University, Dolgobrodskaya St 23, 220009 Minsk (Belarus)

    2006-02-01

    Non enzymatic modification of haemoglobin by glucose plays an important role in diabetes pathogenesis. Here the purification, characterization and crystallization of human glycosylated haemoglobin are reported. Human glycosylated haemoglobin A{sub 1C} is a stable minor variant formed in vivo by post-translational modification of the main form of haemoglobin by glucose. Crystals of oxyHbA{sub 1C} were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method and PEG as precipitant. The diffraction pattern of the crystal extends to a resolution of 2.3 Å at 120 K. The crystals belong to space group C2, with unit-cell parameters a = 237.98, b = 59.27, c = 137.02 Å, α = 90.00, β = 125.40, γ = 90.00°. The presence of two and a half molecules per asymmetric unit gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 9.70 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 49%.

  4. The impact of prematurity on fetal haemoglobin and how it can bias measurement of glycated haemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zachariassen, Gitte; Esberg, Gitte; Grytter, Carl

    Background: The extent to which fetal hemoglobin (HbF) concentrations are increased in premature infants at the age of six to eight months is only sporadically described. The influence of HbF on measurement of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) has not been investigated in this population. Methods...

  5. Relationship between visual field measurements and retinal oxygen saturation in suspected glaucoma patients%可疑青光眼患者视野指数与眼底血管变化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜绍林; 王继亚; 鞠兰丽; 华山; 黄河华

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨可疑青光眼者眼底血氧饱和度的基本特征及其与视野指数的关系。方法采用横断面研究设计,对可疑青光眼者及正常对照者应用视网膜血氧饱和度测量仪测量眼底血氧饱和度,同时进行中心30°阈值视野检测;统计分析平均视网膜光敏感度( MS)、平均视野缺损度(MD)及丢失方差(LV)三个视野指数,以及视网膜血氧饱和度,并进行相关分析。结果可疑青光眼者与正常者MD存在统计学差异(P <0.05);可疑青光眼者平均视网膜动脉血氧饱和度及视网膜鼻下支动脉血氧饱和度与正常者比较存在统计学差异(P <0.05);可疑青光眼者视野检测的MD与NIA存在相关性,(r =0.368,P =0.045)。结论可疑青光眼者眼底血管可能发生了相应的变化,视网膜血氧饱和度状况与视野指数间存在一定联系。%Objective To evaluate the relationship between visual field measurements and retinal oxygen satura-tion (Sat O 2 )in suspected glaucoma patients. Methods A cross sectional study design was performed. The glaucoma suspects were examined with spectrophotometric retinal oximeter (Oxymap ehf,Reykjavik,Iceland)for Sat O 2 ,and with Octopus-101 perimetry with G2 strategy for visual field. SPSS 20. 0 was used for data analysis of retinal oxygen saturation, mean sensitivity (MS),mean defect (MD),and loss variance (LV). The relationship between these visual field indices and retinal oxygen saturation were examined using Pearson product moment correlation coefficient. Results The mean de-fect (MD),mean retinal Sat O2 in retinal arterioles (MA)and retinal arterioles of inferonasal quadrant (NIA)were sig-nificantly different in glaucoma suspects compared to normal eyes (P < 0. 05). In patients with suspected glaucoma,there was a correlation between MD and NIA (r = 0. 368,P = 0. 045). Conclusion Changed retinal vasculature functions may be found in patients

  6. Oxygen binding properties of non-mammalian nerve globins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hundahl, Christian; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2006-01-01

    Oxygen-binding globins occur in the nervous systems of both invertebrates and vertebrates. While the function of invertebrate nerve haemoglobins as oxygen stores that extend neural excitability under hypoxia has been convincingly demonstrated, the physiological role of vertebrate neuroglobins...... is less well understood. Here we provide a detailed analysis of the oxygenation characteristics of nerve haemoglobins from an annelid (Aphrodite aculeata), a nemertean (Cerebratulus lacteus) and a bivalve (Spisula solidissima) and of neuroglobin from zebrafish (Danio rerio). The functional differences...... temperatures investigated and exhibited large enthalpies of oxygenation, the hexacoordinate globins showed reverse Bohr effects (at least at low temperature) and approximately twofold lower oxygenation enthalpies. Only S. solidissima nerve haemoglobin showed apparent cooperativity in oxygen binding, suggesting...

  7. 基于 Android 的血氧饱和度和脉率检测系统设计%DESIGNING BLOOD OXYGEN SATURATION AND PULSE RATE MEASURING SYSTEM BASED ON ANDROID

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田浩雨; 朱健铭; 梁永波; 殷世民; 陈真诚

    2016-01-01

    The measurement of blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate has great significance in people’s routine inspections,but the hospital physicals cost a lot of manpower and material resources.In view of this,the paper proposes an Android platform-based blood oxygen saturation and pulse rate parameters detection system.By analysing the pulse wave data of fingertip it is able to obtain multiple physiological parameters,the control of Bluetooth module by microcontroller is employed to achieve the communication with Android mobile devices and to implement the reception and display of physiological parameters,and in further the data exchange with Baidu cloud database is completed through 3G/4G network.This design overcomes the drawbacks of traditional wired devices in inconvenient moving,brings convenience to patients for their inspection.Experimental results show that to use this method can effectively improve the efficiency,realises remote inspection,and creates conditions for home monitoring and remote medical treatment.%血氧饱和度和脉率的检测在人们常规检查中有着重要意义,医院体检耗费大量人力物力。针对这种情况,提出一种基于Android 平台的血氧饱和度、脉率参数检测系统。通过分析指端脉搏波数据得出多项生理参数,利用单片机对蓝牙模块的控制,实现与 Android 移动设备通信,完成生理参数的接收、显示,并进一步通过3G/4G 网络,完成与百度云端数据库的数据交换。克服了传统有线设备移动不便的缺点,给病人检测带来便利。实验结果表明,采用该方法可以有效提高效率,实现远程监测,为家庭监护、远程医疗创造了条件。

  8. Analysis of Influencing Factors on Pulse Oxygen Saturation Monitoring%脉搏血氧饱和度监测过程中影响因素的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄桃; 徐钦

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析脉搏血氧饱和度(SpO)监测的影响因素,为临床更好地应用SpO监测提供借鉴.方法:回顾性分析某医院中心ICU于2007-01-2009-07期间SpO监测值与动脉血氧饱和度(SaO)监测值不符(85例)的影响因素.结果:85例SpO监测值异常的影响因素主要为SpO探头位置异常、动作伪差、被检部位低灌注状态、SpO监测系统异常、被检部位皮肤色泽异常及环境光,其中,SpO探头位置异常是最多见的影响因素,占29.41%(25/85).结论:SpO监测能较好地反映动脉血氧的变化,但其影响因素较多,必须进行相应的干预,提高其准确性.%Objective To analyze influencing factors on pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) monitoring for clinical practice reference. Methods The influencing factors of which SpO2 readings were different from arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) values of 85 cases in central ICU from January 2007 to July 2009 were analyzed retrospectively. Results The abnormal site of SpO2 probe, movement artifact, low perfusion states, abnormity of SpO2 monitoring system, abnormal skin color and ambient light might all lead the inaccurateness of SpO2 measurements. The primary influencing factor was the abnonnal site of SpO2 probe, which took a 29.41% (25/85) proportion. Conclusion SpO2 readings can better reflect the changes in SaO2,but many factors influence SpO2 readings. Appropriate intervention is needed to improve its accuracy.[Chinese Medical Equipment Journal, 2011 , 32 (4) : 117-118

  9. Measuring tissue oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soyemi, Olusola O. (Inventor); Soller, Babs R. (Inventor); Yang, Ye (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for calculating tissue oxygenation, e.g., oxygen saturation, in a target tissue are disclosed. In some embodiments, the methods include: (a) directing incident radiation to a target tissue and determining reflectance spectra of the target tissue by measuring intensities of reflected radiation from the target tissue at a plurality of radiation wavelengths; (b) correcting the measured intensities of the reflectance spectra to reduce contributions thereto from skin and fat layers through which the incident radiation propagates; (c) determining oxygen saturation in the target tissue based on the corrected reflectance spectra; and (d) outputting the determined value of oxygen saturation.

  10. Saturated fat (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturated fat can raise blood cholesterol and can put you at risk for heart disease and stroke. You ... or limit any foods that are high in saturated fat. Sources of saturated fat include whole-milk dairy ...

  11. Purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies of great cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagadeesan, G. [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India); Malathy, P.; Gunasekaran, K. [University of Madras, Chennai 600 025 (India); Harikrishna Etti, S. [GKM College of Engineering and Technology, Kamaraj Salai, Chennai 600 063 (India); Aravindhan, S., E-mail: aravindhanpresidency@gmail.com [Presidency College, Chennai 600 005 (India)

    2014-10-25

    The great cormorant hemoglobin has been isolated, purified and crystallized and the three dimensional structure is solved using molecular replacement technique. Haemoglobin is the iron-containing oxygen-transport metalloprotein that is present in the red blood cells of all vertebrates. In recent decades, there has been substantial interest in attempting to understand the structural basis and functional diversity of avian haemoglobins. Towards this end, purification, crystallization, preliminary X-ray diffraction and molecular-replacement studies have been carried out on cormorant (Phalacrocorax carbo) haemoglobin. Crystals were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350, NaCl and glycerol as precipitants. The crystals belonged to the trigonal system P3{sub 1}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 55.64, c = 153.38 Å, β = 120.00°; a complete data set was collected to a resolution of 3.5 Å. Matthews coefficient analysis indicated that the crystals contained a half-tetramer in the asymmetric unit.

  12. Fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin in the assessment of long term glycaemic control in diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shield, J P; Poyser, K; Hunt, L; Pennock, C A

    1994-01-01

    Fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin were measured simultaneously in 147 children with diabetes. If glycated haemoglobin is considered as the 'gold standard' for long term glycaemic control, then fructosamine is a poor indicator of actual glycated haemoglobin values, with wide 95% confidence (fiducial) limits. This shows that it is impossible to accurately predict glycated haemoglobin concentrations and therefore, by implication, longer term glycaemic control, from measurements of fructosamine. As the major studies on the prevention of microvascular complications in diabetes have used glycated haemoglobin levels to assess glycaemic control, it is suggested that this measurement should be used in all children with diabetes in preference to the measurement of fructosamine. PMID:7826117

  13. Structural studies of haemoglobin from pisces species shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at 1.9 Å resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Pandian, E-mail: prms23@gmail.com [Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Suwon 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India); Sundaresan, S. S.; Sathya Moorthy, Pon.; Balasubramanian, M.; Ponnuswamy, M. N. [University of Madras, Maraimalai Campus (Guindy), Chennai 600 025 (India)

    2013-11-01

    Shortfin mako shark haemoglobin adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation, which is shown from the quaternary structural features, interface interactions and heme binding sites of different subunits of haemoglobin with high-resolution X-ray data. Haemoglobin (Hb) is a tetrameric iron-containing protein that carries oxygen from the lungs to tissues and carbon dioxide from tissues back to the lungs. Pisces are the advanced aquatic vertebrates capable of surviving at wide depth ranges. The shortfin mako shark (SMS) is the pelagic, largest, fastest and most sophisticated species of the shark kingdom with well developed eyes. Mostly the pisces species are cold blooded in nature. Distinctly, the SMSs are warm-blooded animals with an advanced circulatory system. SMSs are capable of maintaining elevated muscle temperatures up to 33 K above the ambient water temperatures at a depth of 150–500 m. SMSs have a diverged air-breathing mechanism compared with other vertebrates. The haemoglobin molecule consists of four polypeptide chains, namely two α chains, each with 140 amino acids and two β chains each having 136 amino acids. The SMS Hb was found to crystallize in monoclinic space group P2{sub 1} using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method at room temperature. The crystal packing parameters for the SMS Hb structure contain one whole biological molecule in the asymmetric unit with a solvent content of 47%. The SMS Hb quaternary structural features interface–interface interactions and heme binding sites are discussed with different state Hbs and the results reveal that SMS Hb adopts an unliganded deoxy T state conformation.

  14. Computed tomography scan measurement of abdominal wall thickness for application of near-infrared spectroscopy probes to monitor regional oxygen saturation index of gastrointestinal and renal circulations in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balaguru, Duraisamy; Bhalala, Utpal; Haghighi, Mohammad; Norton, Karen

    2011-05-01

    To measure abdominal wall thickness to determine the depth at which the renal vascular bed and mesenteric vascular bed are located, and to determine the appropriate site for placement of near-infrared spectroscopy probes for accurate monitoring regional oxygen saturation index in children. Abdominal computerized tomography scans in children were used to measure the abdominal wall thickness and to ascertain the location of kidneys. Tertiary care children's hospital. Children 0-18 yrs of age; n = 38. None. The main mass of the kidneys is located between vertebral levels T12 and L2 on both sides. The left kidney is located about a half-vertebral length higher than the right kidney. Posterior abdominal wall thickness ranged from 6.6 to 115.8 mm (median, 22.1 mm). Posterolateral abdominal wall thickness ranged from 6.7 to 114.5 mm (median, 19.6 mm). Anterior abdominal wall thickness in the supraumbilical level ranged from 3.5 to 62.9 mm (median, 16.0 mm). All abdominal wall thicknesses correlated better with weight of the subjects than their age. Abdominal wall thickness potentially exceeds the sampling depth of currently used near-infrared spectroscopy probes above a certain body size. Application of current near-infrared spectroscopy probes and design of future probes should consider patient size variations in the pediatric population.

  15. Design of a Pulse Oximeter Used to Low Perfusion and Low Oxygen Saturation%一种可用于低灌注和低血氧测量的脉搏血氧仪的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭双平; 艾志光; 杨玉星; 谢庆国

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new pulse oximeter used to low perfusion at 0.125%and wide oxygen saturation range from 35%to 100%. In order to acquire the best PPG signals, the variable gain amplifier(VGA) is adopted in hardware. The self-developed auto-correlation modeling method is adopted in software and it can extract pulse wave from low perfusion signals and remove motion artifacts partly.%  设计了一种能在低灌注和低血氧条件下准确测量的脉搏血氧仪,将低灌注检测能力和SpO2的测量范围分别扩展至0.125%和35%~100%。在硬件方面使用数字可控的可变增益放大器来获得最佳的光电容积图信号;在软件方面使用了自主开发的自相关建模法的低灌注SpO2测量算法,能有效从低灌注信号中提取脉搏波信号,且对运动干扰也有一定的抑制能力。

  16. Net haemoglobin increase from reinfusion of refrigerated vs. frozen red blood cells after autologous blood transfusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashenden, M; Mørkeberg, Jakob Sehested

    2011-01-01

    objective was to examine which storage procedure yielded the largest increase in circulating haemoglobin after reinfusion compared to baseline. MATERIALS AND METHODS  Equal volumes of blood from 15 men were withdrawn and stored either frozen or refrigerated as packed red blood cells. Serial measures...... freezing. Nevertheless, frozen storage allowed haemoglobin to fully recover before reinfusion, while the haemoglobin was 10% lower in the refrigerated group compared with baseline. After reinfusion, the haemoglobin levels were 11·5% higher than the baseline values in the group reinfused with frozen blood......, while for the refrigerated group, haemoglobin levels were only 5·2% higher than baseline. CONCLUSION  The relatively larger recovery from anaemia in the frozen group during storage more than compensated for the larger loss of haemoglobin during freezing and resulted in a larger net gain in haemoglobin...

  17. Knowledge insufficient: the management of haemoglobin SC disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecker, Lydia H; Schaefer, Beverly A; Luchtman-Jones, Lori

    2017-02-01

    Although haemoglobin SC (HbSC) accounts for 30% of sickle cell disease (SCD) in the United States and United Kingdom, evidence-based guidelines for genotype specific management are lacking. The unique pathology of HbSC disease is complex, characterized by erythrocyte dehydration, intracellular sickling and increased blood viscosity. The evaluation and treatment of patients with HbSC is largely inferred from studies of SCD consisting mostly of haemoglobin SS (HbSS) patients. These studies are underpowered to allow definitive conclusions about HbSC. We review the pathophysiology of HbSC disease, including known and potential differences between HbSS and HbSC, and highlight knowledge gaps in HbSC disease management. Clinical and translational research is needed to develop targeted treatments and to validate management recommendations for efficacy, safety and impact on quality of life for people with HbSC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Transferrin and Haemoglobin types in the African Elephant (Loxodonta Africana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R Osterhoff

    1972-01-01

    Full Text Available In a random sample of 84 elephants from the Kruger National Park and five elephants from the Addo Elephant National Park, biochemical polymorphism in the serum transferrins could be established. It seems that elephants in the Kruger and Addo Parks are genetically similar but further studies are indicated to confirm these preliminary findings. For the haemo- globin investigations 109 blood samples were available, all originating from the Kruger National Park and all revealing only one type of haemoglobin.

  19. SERUM MAGNESIUM, LIPID PROFILE AND GLYCATED HAEMOGLOBIN IN DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunanda Vusikala

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy is one of the important microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus of long duration. Alterations in trace metals like magnesium and lipid profile was observed in diabetic retinopathy with hyperglycaemic status. AIM The study was taken up to assess the role of magnesium, lipid profile and glycated haemoglobin in diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 80 subjects between 40-65 years were included in the study. Group 1 includes 20 age and sex matched healthy controls. Group 2 includes 30 cases of Diabetes mellitus without retinopathy. Group 3 includes 30 cases of Diabetes mellitus with retinopathy. RESULTS Magnesium was found to be significantly low in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Serum cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly elevated in the diabetic group with retinopathy. Fasting and Postprandial plasma glucose and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c levels confirmed the glycaemic status of each of the groups. CONCLUSIONS Hypomagnesemia, hypercholesterolaemia, hypertriglyceridemia was observed in diabetic retinopathy along with increased levels of glycated haemoglobin in our study.

  20. Adaptation to extreme environments: structure-function relationships in Emperor penguin haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamburrini, M; Condò, S G; di Prisco, G; Giardina, B

    1994-04-15

    The functional properties of the single haemoglobin (Hb) of Emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) have been investigated at different temperatures as a function of proton and organic phosphate concentration. The complete amino acid sequence has been established. Comparison with that of human HbA shows 12 substitutions in the contact regions of alpha beta dimers. In addition to overall similarities shared with most of the avian Hbs previously described, this Hb shows significant differences, which could be related to the peculiar behaviour of this penguin. In particular we may consider that: (1) the shape of the Bohr effect curve seems well adapted for gas exchange during very prolonged dives, preserving penguin Hb from a sudden and not controlled stripping of oxygen; (2) the very minor enthalpy change observed at lower pH could be an example of molecular adaptation, through which oxygen delivery becomes essentially insensitive to exposure to the extremely low temperatures of the environment. Moreover, the small alkaline Bohr effect has been found to be only chloride-linked, since the pH dependence of the oxygen affinity is totally abolished in the absence of this ion. These functional characteristics are discussed on the basis of the primary structure of alpha and beta-chains.

  1. Microbial community dynamics and methane, carbon dioxide, oxygen, and nitrous oxide concentrations in upland forest and riparian soils across a seasonal gradient of fully saturated soils to completely dried soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, R. T.; McGlynn, B. L.; McDermott, T.; Dore, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Gas concentrations (CH4, CO2, N2O, and O2), soil properties (soil water content and pH), and microbial community composition were measured from soils at 32 sites across the Stringer Creek Watershed in the Tenderfoot Creek Experimental Forest 7 times between June 3, 2013 and September 20, 2013. Soils were fully saturated during the initial sampling period and dried down over the course of the summer. Soils and gas were sampled from 5cm and 20cm at each site and also at 50cm at eight riparian sites. In total, 496 individual soil samples were collected. Soil moisture ranged from 3.7% to fully saturated; soil pH ranged from 3.60 to 6.68. Methane concentrations in soils ranged from 0.426 ppm to 218 ppm; Carbon dioxide concentrations ranged from 550 ppm to 42,990 ppm; Nitrous oxide concentrations ranged from 0.220 ppm to 2.111 ppm; Oxygen concentrations ranged from 10.2% to 21.5%. Soil microbial communities were characterized by DNA sequences covering the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. DNA sequences were generated (~30,000,000 sequences) from the 496 soil samples using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Operational Taxonomic Units were generated using USEARCH, and representative sequences were taxonomically classified according the Ribosomal Database Project's taxonomy scheme. Analysis of similarity revealed that microbial communities found within a landscape type (high upland forest, low upland forest, riparian) were more similar than among landscape types (R = 0.600; p<0.001). Similarly, communities from unique site x depths were similar across the 7 collection periods (R = 0.646; p<0.001) despite changes in soil moisture. Euclidean distances of soil properties and gas concentrations were compared to Bray-Curtis community dissimilarity matrices using Mantel tests to determine how community structure co-varies with the soil environment and gas concentrations. All variables measured significantly co-varied with microbial community membership (pH: R = 0.712, p < 0.001; CO2: R

  2. Phosphate-haemoglobin interaction. The primary structure of the haemoglobin of the African elephant (Loxodonta africana, Proboscidea): asparagine in position 2 of the beta-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunitzer, G; Stangl, A; Schrank, B; Krombach, C; Wiesner, H

    1984-07-01

    The primary structure of the haemoglobin of the African Elephant (Loxodonta africana) is reported. The sequence was determined by means of a sequenator. The haemoglobin differs in 26 amino acids in the alpha-chains and in 27 in the beta-chains from that of adult human haemoglobin. The haemoglobin of the African Elephant, like that of the Indian Elephant and Ilama, has only 5 binding sites for polyphosphate. This finding explains the low p(O2)50 value in whole blood as a result of the lower 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-haemoglobin interaction. This is discussed in relation to aspects of respiratory physiology; some points are also of interest with regard to the Second Punic War and Hannibal's crossing of the Alps.

  3. 食道内脉搏氧饱和度信号来源及其影响因素%The Source and Influential Factors in Signals of Trans-esophageal Oxygen Saturation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    喻思源; 牟玲; 魏蔚

    2012-01-01

    研究食道内脉搏氧饱和度(SeO2)信号的来源及其影响因素.在成年杂交犬降主动脉(DA)水平记录屏蔽DA和中断食管血供前后的SeO2,且记录传感器与食管壁不同接触压力下及机械通气前后在食管内不同深度和方向的SeO2,同期舌氧饱和度(StO2)作为对照.屏蔽DA后SeO2信号消失(P<0.001),中断食管血供前后的SeO2 无统计学差异(P>0.05),放置于食管内不同深度和方向的传感器在机械通气前后以及与食管壁不同接触压力下,所获SeO2读数有显著差异(P<0.05).SeO2信号主要来源其相邻大血管.机械通气,传感器的位置及其与食管壁接触压力均可影响SeO2信号.%This paper is aimed to investigate the signal source and influential factors in signals of trans-esophageal putse oxygen saturation (SeO2). The red light of the SeOj probe was faced directly to the descending aorta (DA) of the mongrel dogs. The readings and waveform of SeO2 signals were recorded under following conditions: before and after DA was shield; before and after the blood supply of esophagus was cut off; under the different touch pressures between the SeO: probe and the esophageal walL The readings and waveform of SeO2 signals were also recorded respectively at both different esophageal depth and directions when mechanical ventilation was on and off. The tongue oxygen saturation (StO2) was recorded simultaneously as control. The waveform of SeO2 signals disappeared after DA was shield (P0.05). Compared with the StO2 readings when the SeO2 probe was placed at different esophageal depth, the waldeyer ring, cervical area and thoracic inlet,the readings of SeOa significantly decreased(P< 0,05) while mechanical ventilation was on and off. However, there was no significant difference in the readings between SeOz signals from DA* aortic arch (AA) and left subclavian artery and the StO2 signals recorded simultaneously. Mechanical ventilation had a remarkable effect on the SeO2

  4. Seven-day mortality can be predicted in medical patients by blood pressure, age, respiratory rate, loss of independence, and peripheral oxygen saturation (the PARIS score: a prospective cohort study with external validation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Brabrand

    Full Text Available Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven-day mortality of acutely admitted medical patients using routinely collected variables obtained within the first minutes after arrival.This observational prospective cohort study used three independent cohorts at the medical admission units at a regional teaching hospital and a tertiary university hospital and included all adult (≥ 15 years patients. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was used to identify the clinical variables that best predicted the endpoint. From this, we developed a simplified model that can be calculated without specialized tools or loss of predictive ability. The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5% met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0% in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3% in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were associated with the endpoint (full model. Based on this, we developed a simple score (range 0-5, ie, the PARIS score, by dichotomizing the variables. The ability to identify patients at increased risk (discriminatory power and calibration was excellent for all three cohorts using both models. For patients with a PARIS score ≥ 3, sensitivity was 62.5-74.0%, specificity 85.9-91.1%, positive predictive value 11.2-17.5%, and negative predictive value 98.3-99.3%. Patients with a score ≤ 1 had a low mortality (≤ 1%; with 2, intermediate mortality (2-5%; and ≥ 3, high mortality (≥ 10%.Seven-day mortality can be predicted upon admission with high sensitivity and specificity and excellent negative predictive values.

  5. Influence of blood donation on oxygen uptake kinetics during moderate and heavy intensity cycle exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, D; Marshall, K; Connell, A; Barnes, R J

    2010-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a reduced whole body blood volume on the kinetic response of VO(2) during moderate and heavy intensity exercise. Six males and four females (age, 21+/-2 yrs; height, 175.2+/-5.1 cm; weight, 66.4+/-2.8 kg; VO(2)max, 53.0+/-4.1 ml x kg (-1) x min(-1)), completed a square-wave cycling ramp test to determine ventilatory threshold (VT) and VO(2max). Kinetics trials were completed 24 h pre and post donation of 450 cm (3) of blood. The kinetics trials were moderate intensity (80%VT) and heavy intensity (Delta50% VT - VO(2max)). Breath-by-breath gas exchange, heart rate, blood pressure, haemoglobin O(2) saturation, and blood [lactate] were measured throughout the trials. Post-donation haemoglobin, haematocrit and erythrocyte count were all significantly reduced (por= 0.05), or in the amplitude of the slow component. The capacity of the cardiovascular system to meet the metabolic demands of skeletal muscle at the onset of exercise does not limit the oxygen uptake.

  6. A STUDY OF HAEMOGLOBIN PATTERNS AMONG THE STUDENTS OF RIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urmila

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Haemoglobinopathies are a major health problem worldwide. Because of the high prevalence of these disorders in India and especially in North–East, we undertook this limited student based study as RIMS comprised students from the seven North-East states of Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Sikkim and Tripura. AIMS: To study the prevalence of haemoglobin variants among the North-East students of RIMS and to find out any abnormal haemoglobin pattern pertaining to a particular community. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was carried out in the Department of Pathology, RIMS. From Sept. 2002 to Dec. 2004, our study included 100 student volunteers taking a minimum of ten from each of the seven states. History of presenting complaints, personal, family and past illness were taken. Physical examination was done with special emphasis on appearance, presence of pallor, jaundice and hepatosplenomegaly etc. Blood samples were collected in 2 EDTA vials, one was used for CBC and another for preparation of hemolysate. CBC was done for all cases by electronic cell counter supported by manual hemocytometry, peripheral blood examination and reticulocyte count. All the cases were routinely screened for haemoglobin type using standard alkaline cellulose acetate electrophoresis with Tris-Ethylene Diamine Tetra Acetic Acid (EDTA borate buffer. Fetal Hb. estimation, sickling test, serum bilirubin estimation were also done in relevant cases. RESULTS: Out of the 100 student volunteers studied, 98 cases showed HbA pattern in 46 males and 52 females while HbE was seen in 2 cases, 1 male and a female. The prevalence of HbE was 2% in our study, which belonged to the ethnic group of Garo of Meghalaya. Both case had mild anemia with microcytosis and normal reticulocyte count. Peripheral smear showed anisopoikilocytosis and target cells. RBC count, MCH values were within normal range. CONCLUSION: Our study showed that HbA was the predominant

  7. Characterization of blood donors with high haemoglobin concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Hasselbalch, H C; Ullum, H;

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives  The literature contains little on the prevalence and causes of high predonation haemoglobin levels among blood donors. This study aimed to characterize and develop an algorithm to manage would-be donors with polycythaemia. Materials and Methods  Between November 2009......, erythropoietin, ferritin, platelet count and leucocyte count, JAK2 V617 and JAK2 exon12 analysis, as well as other routine measurements. Results  Among 46 such donors, 39 had a history of smoking, which contributes to erythrocytosis. Two had PV, five had severe hypertension, one of them because of renal artery...

  8. Intraoperative transfusion threshold and tissue oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, K; Dahl, B; Johansson, P I;

    2012-01-01

    Transfusion with allogeneic red blood cells (RBCs) may be needed to maintain oxygen delivery during major surgery, but the appropriate haemoglobin (Hb) concentration threshold has not been well established. We hypothesised that a higher level of Hb would be associated with improved subcutaneous...

  9. Haemoglobin and red cell counts in leptospirosis patients infected with different serovars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott Benjamin Craig

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The aim of the study was to compare haemoglobin and red cell counts between patients known to be infected with a range of leptospiral serovars. Methods The study retrospectively compared the haemoglobin and red cell count results from the first blood samples taken from 207 patients at presentation to a Queensland Health hospital. Results Significant differences were observed in haemoglobin and red cell counts in those infected with Leptospira interrogans serovars Szwajizak and Canicola when compared with most of the other serovars. Conclusions These findings suggest that haemoglobin and red cell counts may be useful in differentiating leptospiral serovars in leptospirosis patients.

  10. The use of haemoglobin concentrations to assess physiological condition in birds: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minias, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Total blood haemoglobin concentration is increasingly being used to assess physiological condition in wild birds, although it has not been explicitly recognized how reliably this parameter reflects different components of individual quality. Thus, I reviewed over 120 published studies linking variation in haemoglobin concentrations to different measures of condition and other phenotypic or ecological traits. In most of the studied avian species, haemoglobin concentrations were positively correlated with other commonly used indices of condition, such as body mass and fat loads, as well as with quality of the diet. Also, chick haemoglobin concentrations reliably reflected the intensity of nest infestation by parasitic arthropods, and haemoglobin was suggested to reflect parasitism by haematophagous ectoparasites much more precisely than haematocrit. There was also some evidence for the negative effect of helminths on haemoglobin levels in adult birds. Finally, haemoglobin concentrations were found to correlate with such fitness-related traits as timing of arrival at breeding grounds, timing of breeding, egg size, developmental stability and habitat quality, although these relationships were not always consistent between species. In consequence, I recommend the total blood haemoglobin concentration as a relatively robust indicator of physiological condition in birds, although this parameter is also strongly affected by age, season and the process of moult. Thus, researchers are advised to control fully for these confounding effects while using haemoglobin concentrations as a proxy of physiological condition in both experimental and field studies on birds.

  11. Cardiovascular determinants of maximal oxygen consumption in upright and supine posture at the end of prolonged bed rest in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bringard, Aurélien; Pogliaghi, Silvia; Adami, Alessandra; De Roia, Gabriela; Lador, Frédéric; Lucini, Daniela; Pizzinelli, Paolo; Capelli, Carlo; Ferretti, Guido

    2010-06-30

    We tested the hypothesis that, after bed rest, maximal oxygen consumption ( VO₂max ) decreases more upright than supine, because of adequate cardiovascular response supine, but not upright. On 9 subjects, we determined VO₂max and maximal cardiac output (Q ) upright and supine, before and after (reambulation day upright, the following day supine) 35-day bed rest, by classical steady state protocol. Oxygen consumption, heart rate (f(H)) and stroke volume (Q(st)) were measured by a metabolic cart, electrocardiography and Modelflow from pulse pressure profiles, respectively. We computed Q as f(H) times Q(st), and systemic oxygen flow ( QaO₂) as Q. times arterial oxygen concentration, obtained after haemoglobin and arterial oxygen saturation measurements. Before bed rest, all parameters at maximal exercise were similar upright and supine. After bed rest, VO₂max was lower (pcardiovascular response (i) did not affect VO₂max supine, (ii) partially explained the VO₂max decrease upright, and (iii) caused the VO₂max differences between postures. We speculate that impaired peripheral oxygen transfer and/or utilisation may explain the VO₂max decrease supine and the fraction of VO₂max decrease upright unexplained by cardiovascular responses.

  12. Antarctic bacterial haemoglobin and its role in the protection against nitrogen reactive species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppola, Daniela; Giordano, Daniela; Tinajero-Trejo, Mariana; di Prisco, Guido; Ascenzi, Paolo; Poole, Robert K; Verde, Cinzia

    2013-09-01

    In a cold and oxygen-rich environment such as Antarctica, mechanisms for the defence against reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are needed and represent important components in the evolutionary adaptations. In the Antarctic bacterium Pseudoalteromonas haloplanktis TAC125, the presence of multiple genes encoding 2/2 haemoglobins and a flavohaemoglobin strongly suggests that these proteins fulfil important physiological roles, perhaps associated to the peculiar features of the Antarctic habitat. In this work, the putative role of Ph-2/2HbO, encoded by the PSHAa0030 gene, was investigated by in vivo and in vitro experiments in order to highlight its involvement in NO detoxification mechanisms. The PSHAa0030 gene was cloned and then over-expressed in a flavohaemoglobin-deficient mutant of Escherichia coli, unable to metabolise NO, and the resulting strain was studied analysing its growth properties and oxygen uptake in the presence of NO. We here demonstrate that Ph-2/2HbO protects growth and cellular respiration of the heterologous host from the toxic effect of NO-donors. Unlike in Mycobacterium tuberculosis 2/2 HbN, the deletion of the N-terminal extension of Ph-2/2HbO does not seem to reduce the NO scavenging activity, showing that the N-terminal extension is not a requirement for efficient NO detoxification. Moreover, the ferric form of Ph-2/2HbO was shown to catalyse peroxynitrite isomerisation in vitro, confirming its potential role in the scavenging of reactive nitrogen species. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Oxygen Binding and Sensing Proteins.

  13. Comparison of pre-workout nitric oxide stimulating dietary supplements on skeletal muscle oxygen saturation, blood nitrate/nitrite, lipid peroxidation, and upper body exercise performance in resistance trained men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canale Robert E

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We compared Glycine Propionyl-L-Carnitine (GlycoCarn® and three different pre-workout nutritional supplements on measures of skeletal muscle oxygen saturation (StO2, blood nitrate/nitrite (NOx, lactate (HLa, malondialdehyde (MDA, and exercise performance in men. Methods Using a randomized, double-blind, cross-over design, 19 resistance trained men performed tests of muscular power (bench press throws and endurance (10 sets of bench press to muscular failure. A placebo, GlycoCarn®, or one of three dietary supplements (SUPP1, SUPP2, SUPP3 was consumed prior to exercise, with one week separating conditions. Blood was collected before receiving the condition and immediately after exercise. StO2 was measured during the endurance test using Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Heart rate (HR and rating of perceived exertion (RPE were determined at the end of each set. Results A condition effect was noted for StO2 at the start of exercise (p = 0.02, with GlycoCarn® higher than SUPP2. A condition effect was also noted for StO2 at the end of exercise (p = 0.003, with SUPP1 lower than all other conditions. No statistically significant interaction, condition, or time effects were noted for NOx or MDA (p > 0.05; however, MDA decreased 13.7% with GlycoCarn® and increased in all other conditions. Only a time effect was noted for HLa (p 0.05; however, GlycoCarn® resulted in a statistically insignificant greater total volume load compared to the placebo (3.3%, SUPP1 (4.2%, SUPP2 (2.5%, and SUPP3 (4.6%. Conclusion None of the products tested resulted in favorable changes in our chosen outcome measures, with the exception of GlycoCarn® in terms of higher StO2 at the start of exercise. GlycoCarn® resulted in a 13.7% decrease in MDA from pre- to post-exercise and yielded a non-significant but greater total volume load compared to all other conditions. These data indicate that 1 a single ingredient (GlycoCarn® can provide similar practical benefit

  14. The structure of α-haemoglobin in complex with a haemoglobin-binding domain from Staphylococcus aureus reveals the elusive α-haemoglobin dimerization interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Kaavya Krishna; Jacques, David A; Guss, J Mitchell; Gell, David A

    2014-08-01

    Adult haemoglobin (Hb) is made up of two α and two β subunits. Mutations that reduce expression of the α- or β-globin genes lead to the conditions α- or β-thalassaemia, respectively. Whilst both conditions are characterized by anaemia of variable severity, other details of their pathophysiology are different, in part owing to the greater stability of the β chains that is conferred through β self-association. In contrast, α subunits interact weakly, and in the absence of stabilizing quaternary interactions the α chain (α) is prone to haem loss and denaturation. The molecular contacts that confer weak self-association of α have not been determined previously. Here, the first structure of an α2 homodimer is reported in complex with one domain of the Hb receptor from Staphylococcus aureus. The α2 dimer interface has a highly unusual, approximately linear, arrangement of four His side chains within hydrogen-bonding distance of each other. Some interactions present in the α1β1 dimer interface of native Hb are preserved in the α2 dimer. However, a marked asymmetry is observed in the α2 interface, suggesting that steric factors limit the number of stabilizing interactions that can form simultaneously across the interface.

  15. Saturated Switching Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Benzaouia, Abdellah

    2012-01-01

    Saturated Switching Systems treats the problem of actuator saturation, inherent in all dynamical systems by using two approaches: positive invariance in which the controller is designed to work within a region of non-saturating linear behaviour; and saturation technique which allows saturation but guarantees asymptotic stability. The results obtained are extended from the linear systems in which they were first developed to switching systems with uncertainties, 2D switching systems, switching systems with Markovian jumping and switching systems of the Takagi-Sugeno type. The text represents a thoroughly referenced distillation of results obtained in this field during the last decade. The selected tool for analysis and design of stabilizing controllers is based on multiple Lyapunov functions and linear matrix inequalities. All the results are illustrated with numerical examples and figures many of them being modelled using MATLAB®. Saturated Switching Systems will be of interest to academic researchers in con...

  16. Serum fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin measurements in diabetic control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindle, E J; Rostron, G M; Clark, S A; Gatt, J A

    1986-01-01

    Serum fructosamine and glycated haemoglobin (HbA1) were measured in capillary samples from diabetic children and compared with samples from non-diabetic children. Glycaemic control was assessed clinically and by average daily glucose values recorded by home monitoring. Fructosamine correlated with HbA1 and with average glucose values measured over 30 days. HbA1 also correlated with average glucose values measured over 60 days. Changes in fructosamine with time tended to parallel those of HbA1, and advance indication of deteriorating or improving glycaemic control was possible by observing changes in these. Fructosamine has many advantages over HbA1 measurement such as speed, technical ease, and low cost, and is a reliable alternative to HbA1 estimation as an indication of glycaemic control. PMID:3954436

  17. Electrochemical investigation of the effect of some organic phosphates on haemoglobin

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Rezaei-Zarchi; A A Saboury; H Ghourchian; J Hong; A Barzegar; P Norouzi; A A Moosavi-Movahedi; M R Ganjali; A Javed

    2007-03-01

    The effects of DPG, IHP, GTP, GDP and GMP on the structure and stability of haemoglobin were electrochemically investigated with an iodide-modified silver electrode in 0.01 M KNO3 at pH 7.0. Anodic and cathodic peaks of haemoglobin were observed at 250 mV and 12 mV with a formal potential value of 133 mV vs. Ag/AgCl. The effects of different concentrations of DPG, IHP, GTP, GDP and GMP on the anaerobic redox reaction were determined. The results showed that DPG and IHP can lead to a positive shift in the reduction peak of haemoglobin, indicating that the oxidation peak shift of haemoglobin was small as a result of stabilization of the reduced state and destabilization of the R-like state of haemoglobin. GTP elicited a more positive shift in the cathodic and anodic peaks of haemoglobin at a higher concentration, signifying that it has a low-affinity binding site on haemoglobin. The positive shift of the cathodic and anodic peaks revealed a slight variation in the structure and indicated the unfolding of haemoglobin in the presence of high concentrations of GTP. Our study also showed that GDP and GMP did not cause significant shift the cathodic and anodic peaks of haemoglobin even at high concentrations, refuting the existence of specific GDP- and GMP-binding sites on the protein. Moreover, the iodide-modified silver electrode method proved to be easy and useful in investigating the effects of ligands or other effectors on haemoglobin in solution.

  18. Contrasting growth and adaptive responses of two oak species to flooding stress: role of non-symbiotic haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parent, Claire; Crèvecoeur, Michèle; Capelli, Nicolas; Dat, James F

    2011-07-01

    Soil flooding is an environmental constraint that is increasingly important for forest ecosystems, affecting tree growth and regeneration. As a result, selection pressure will alter forest diversity and distribution by favouring tree species tolerant of soil oxygen deprivation. Sessile and pedunculate oaks are the most abundant oak species and they exhibit a strong differential tolerance to waterlogging. In order to gain some understanding of the mechanisms of tolerance of both species to hypoxia, we undertook the characterization of the physiological, morphological, cellular and molecular responses of both species to flooding stress. Our results indicate that pedunculate oak, the more tolerant species, succeeded in maintaining its growth, water status and photosynthetic activity at a higher level than sessile oak. Furthermore, pedunculate oak developed aerenchyma in its root cortex as well as adventitious roots. The later exhibited a strong accumulation of class1 non-symbiotic haemoglobin localized by in situ hybridization in the protoderm and in some cortical cells. In conclusion, the higher tolerance of pedunculate oak to flooding was associated with an enhanced capacity to maintain photosynthesis and water homeostasis, coupled with the development of adaptive features (aerenchyma, adventitious roots) and with a higher expression of non-symbiotic haemoglobin in the roots.

  19. Structure, function and molecular adaptations of haemoglobins of the polar cartilaginous fish Bathyraja eatonii and Raja hyperborea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Cinzia; De Rosa, M Cristina; Giordano, Daniela; Mosca, Donato; De Pascale, Donatella; Raiola, Luca; Cocca, Ennio; Carratore, Vitale; Giardina, Bruno; Di Prisco, Guido

    2005-07-15

    Cartilaginous fish are very ancient organisms. In the Antarctic sea, the modern chondrichthyan genera are poorly represented, with only three species of sharks and eight species of skates; the paucity of chondrichthyans is probably an ecological consequence of unusual trophic or habitat conditions in the Southern Ocean. In the Arctic, there are 26 species belonging to the class Chondrichthyes. Fish in the two polar regions have been subjected to different regional histories that have influenced the development of diversity: Antarctic marine organisms are highly stenothermal, in response to stable water temperatures, whereas the Arctic communities are exposed to seasonal temperature variations. The structure and function of the oxygen-transport haem protein from the Antarctic skate Bathyraja eatonii and from the Arctic skate Raja hyperborea (both of the subclass Elasmobranchii, order Rajiformes, family Rajidae) is reported in the present paper. These species have a single major haemoglobin (Hb 1; over 80% of the total). The Bohr-proton and the organophosphate-binding sites are absent. Thus the haemoglobins of northern and southern polar skates appear functionally similar, whereas differences were observed with several temperate elasmobranchs. Such evidence suggests that, in temperate and polar habitats, physiological adaptations have evolved along distinct pathways, whereas, in this case, the effect of the differences characterizing the two polar environments is negligible.

  20. Monitoring Cerebral Oxygenation in Neonates: An Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dix, Laura Marie Louise; van Bel, Frank; Lemmers, Petra Maria Anna

    2017-01-01

    Cerebral oxygenation is not always reflected by systemic arterial oxygenation. Therefore, regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2) monitoring with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is of added value in neonatal intensive care. rScO2 represents oxygen supply to the brain, while cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction, which is the ratio between rScO2 and systemic arterial oxygen saturation, reflects cerebral oxygen utilization. The balance between oxygen supply and utilization provides insight in neonatal cerebral (patho-)physiology. This review highlights the potential and limitations of cerebral oxygenation monitoring with NIRS in the neonatal intensive care unit. PMID:28352624

  1. Seasonal changes in cell mediated immune responses to soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens in children with haemoglobin AA and haemoglobin AS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abu-Zeid, Y A; Abdulhadi, N H; Theander, T G

    1992-01-01

    In this longitudinal study peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained before and during the malaria season from healthy HbAA and HbAS children. Cells were compared for proliferation in response to stimulation by soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens (SPAg) or purified derivative of ......AS children during the malaria season. No distinct seasonal change in the response to PPD was found in relation to the haemoglobin phenotype. The study points to the role of the sickle cell trait in modulating the cellular immune responses to falciparum malaria.......In this longitudinal study peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were obtained before and during the malaria season from healthy HbAA and HbAS children. Cells were compared for proliferation in response to stimulation by soluble Plasmodium falciparum antigens (SPAg) or purified derivative...

  2. The Clinical Study on Relation between Regional Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Postoperative Delirium in Patients during Cardiopulmonary Bypass%体外循环术中局部脑氧饱和度与术后谵妄的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘威; 齐娟; 于荣国; 姚祖武; 龚书榕; 顾恩郁

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the relation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rScO2)and postoperative delirium in patients underwent cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) of cardiac surgery.Methods Twenty-eight patients underwent elective cardiac surgery were enrolled in the study. Postoperative delirium was assessed by the CAM-ICU everyday during 7 days after operation. All of the patients were divided into two groups (delirium group and non-delirium group) based on the postoperative delirium. The rScO2 of all patients was monitored during operation. The value of the mean rScO2 in the 7 periods (preoperatiion, preinducement, from inducement to the beginning of CPB, from the beginning of CPB to the end of nose temperature cooling, from the end of nose temperature cooling to the beginning of warming, from the beginning of warming to the end of CPB, the 30 minutes after CPB) during the operation period were calculated. The area under the curve of the rScO2 was calculated. Results The AUC-rScO2 of the patients in delirium group was significantly larger than the non-delirium group (P<0.05).Conclusions The low rScO2 increases the postoperative delirium in patients who underwent cardiopulmonary bypass of cardiac surgery. Hence we should monitor the rScO2 during operation.%目的 探讨体外循环(CPB)心血管外科手术期间患者脑氧代谢与术后谵妄的关系.方法 收集择期行CPB下心内直视手术患者28例,术后7 d内,每日以ICU精神错乱评估量表(CAM-ICU)评估患者的精神状态,以是否发生谵妄分为谵妄组和非谵妄组.2组术中均以近红外光谱仪动态监测监测局部脑氧饱和度(rScO2),计算围手术期中7个时段(术前、诱导前、诱导至CPB前、CPB开始至鼻咽温降温末、鼻咽温降温末至复温初、复温初至CPB结束、CPB结束后30 min)rScO2均值;计算rScO2曲线下面积(AUC-rScO2).结果 谵妄组AUC-rScO2较非谵妄组增大(P<0.05).结论 心血管外科手术CPB期间患者出现低rScO2

  3. Influence of gestational age and delivery mode on neonatal pulse oxygen saturation shortly after birth%胎龄及娩出方式对新生儿生后脉搏血氧饱和度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚娟; 田秀英; 郑军; 马俊苓; 张银柱; 高琦; 郑珊

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the trend of preductal pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2) during 10 min after birth in newborns born at different gestational age and through different delivery mode.Methods From May 2014 to August 2014,319 neonates,born in Tianjin Central Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology and whose Apgar score at 1 min after birth ≥ 8,were included into the study.Term infants were grouped into vaginal delivery group (n=102) and caesarean group (n=117) according to the delivery mode.Infants born through caesarean section were divided into three groups,including 30-33+6 weeks (n=50),34-36+6 weeks (n=50) and 37-41+6 weeks (n=117) group according to the gestational age at birth.Immediately after the umbilical cord clamped,preductal SpO2 was recorded at each minute from one to ten minutes using the pulse oximetry.Oneway analysis of variance and two independent sample t test were applied for statistical analysis.Results At each time point within ten minutes after birth,the preductal SpO2 for preterm infants of 30-33+6 weeks gestation in the caesarean group were (54± 3)%,(59± 3)%,(65 ±4)%,(70±4)%,(75 ±4)%,(80±4)%,(84± 3)%,(89± 3)%,(91 ± 3)% and (93 ± 2)%,respectively,which were significant lower than those of the 34-36+6 weeks group [(57 ± 5)%,(66 ± 4)%,(72 ± 6)%,(78 ± 6)%,(83 ± 6)%,(87 ± 6)%,(90± 5)%,(92 ± 4)%,(94± 4)% and (95 ± 4)%,respectively] and of the term infants [(58 ± 3)%,(67 ± 4)%,(73 ± 5)%,(78 ± 6)%,(83 ± 6)%,(87 ± 6)%,(90± 5)%,(92± 5)%,(94± 3)% and (95± 3)%,respectively] (all P ≤ 0.05).While the corresponding preductal SpO2 for term infants in the vaginal delivery group were (61 ± 6)%,(69± 7)%,(75 ± 6)%,(81 ± 7)%,(86± 6)%,(90 ± 6)%,(93 ± 5)%,(94± 4)%,(95 ± 4)% and (96 ± 3)%,respectively,which were all higher than those of term infants in the caesarean group (all P ≤ 0.05).Conclusions The preductal SpO2 for preterm infants of 30

  4. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobi...

  5. Serum albumin--a non-saturable carrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodersen, R; Honoré, B; Larsen, F G

    1984-01-01

    The shape of binding isotherms for sixteen ligands to human serum albumin showed no signs of approaching saturation at high ligand concentrations. It is suggested that ligand binding to serum albumin is essentially different from saturable binding of substrates to enzymes, of oxygen to haemoglobi...

  6. Saturated Domino Coverings

    CERN Document Server

    Buchanan, Andrew; Ryba, Alex

    2011-01-01

    A domino covering of a board is saturated if no domino is redundant. We introduce the concept of a fragment tiling and show that a minimal fragment tiling always corresponds to a maximal saturated domino covering. The size of a minimal fragment tiling is the domination number of the board. We define a class of regular boards and show that for these boards the domination number gives the size of a minimal X-pentomino covering. Natural sequences that count maximal saturated domino coverings of square and rectangular boards are obtained. These include the new sequences A193764, A193765, A193766, A193767, and A193768 of OEIS.

  7. Saturating Sperner families

    CERN Document Server

    Gerbner, Dániel; Lemons, Nathan; Pálvölgyi, Dömötör; Palmer, Cory; Patkós, Balázs

    2011-01-01

    A family $\\cF \\subseteq 2^{[n]}$ saturates the monotone decreasing property $\\cP$ if $\\cF$ satisfies $\\cP$ and one cannot add any set to $\\cF$ such that property $\\cP$ is still satisfied by the resulting family. We address the problem of finding the minimum size of a family saturating the $k$-Sperner property and the minimum size of a family that saturates the Sperner property and that consists only of $l$-sets and $(l+1)$-sets.

  8. Using broadband spatially resolved NIRS to assess muscle oxygenation during altered running protocols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukourakis, Georg; Vafiadou, Maria; Steimers, André; Geraskin, Dmitri; Neary, Patrick; Kohl-Bareis, Matthias

    2009-07-01

    We used spatially resolved near-infrared spectroscopy (SRS-NIRS) to assess calf and thigh muscle oxygenation during running on a motor-driven treadmill. Two protocols were used: An incremental speed protocol (velocity = 6 - 12 km/h, ▵v = 2 km/h) was performed in 3 minute stages, while a pacing paradigm modulated step frequency alternatively (2.3 Hz [SLow]; 3.3 Hz [SHigh]) during a constant velocity for 2 minutes each. A SRS-NIRS broadband system (600 - 1000 nm) was used to measure total haemoglobin concentration and oxygen saturation (SO2). An accelerometer was placed on the hip joints to measure limb acceleration through the experiment. The data showed that the calf (SO2 58 to 42%) desaturated to a significantly lower level than the thigh (61 to 54%). During the pacing protocol, SO2 was significantly different between the SLow vs. SHigh trials. Additionally, physiological data as measured by spirometry were different between the SLow vs. SHigh pacing trials (VO2 (2563+/- 586 vs. 2503 +/- 605 mL/min). Significant differences in VO2 at the same workload (speed) indicate alterations in mechanical efficiency. These data suggest that SRS broadband NIRS can be used to discern small changes in muscle oxygenation, making this device useful for metabolic exercise studies in addition to spirometry and movement monitoring by accelerometers.

  9. 丙泊酚在无痛上消化道内镜检查术中对血氧饱和度的影响%Effect of Propofol on heart rate and saturation of blood oxygen during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴明; 霍惠峰; 周家华; 陈英良

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of Propofol on the saturation decline of blood oxygen in upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination and the reason of decline. Methods Two hundred patients (103 men and 97 women) having received upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination due to various reasons enrolled in this study. Anamnesis and anthropometric values of the patients were taken.Preoperative oxygen saturation, hemoglobin levels and heart rate were recorded. Patients with initial oxygen saturation level <90% were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups. The first group included 100 patients, who underwent endoscopic examination without sedation and the second group included 100 patients, who underwent endoscopic examination propofol 1~ 2mg/(kg · h-1) for sedation. Patients' oxygen saturation and heart rate were monitored from the oropharyngeal anesthesia sedation before the start till 1 minute after the operation. During the endoscopic examination, minimum oxygen saturation and maximum heart rate values were recorded. The duration of the oxygen saturation <90% was recorded throughout the procedure to determine the stage of endoscopy at that time.Results There were no differences between the 2 groups in body mass index, smoking, hemoglobin and basal maximum pulse rate, duration of endoscopy, minimum basal oxygen saturation, duration of hypoxia and time to hypoxia. Reduction of blood oxygen saturation had no relationship with gender,duration of the endoscopy, basal pulse rate and hemoglobin level, but it correlatied with smoking.Conclusion Propofol as a premedication is a reliable method for upper gastrointestinal endoscopy examination and does not produce additional risk of serious complications. However, smoking as a factor of oxygen saturation decrease should be taken into account in patients with upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.%目的 研究上消化道内镜术前使用丙泊酚进行镇静是否会导致氧饱和度下降,并分析导致氧

  10. Fiberoptic monitoring of central venous oxygen saturation (PediaSat in small children undergoing cardiac surgery: continuous is not continuous [v3; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/3qt

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    Francesca G. Iodice

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monitoring of superior vena cava saturation (ScvO2 has become routine in the management of pediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. The objective of our study was to evaluate the correlation between continuous ScvO2 by the application of a fiber-optic oximetry catheter (PediaSat and intermittent ScvO2 by using standard blood gas measurements. These results were compared to those obtained by cerebral near infrared spectroscopy (cNIRS. Setting: Tertiary pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU. Methods and main results: A retrospective study was conducted in consecutive patients who were monitored with a 4.5 or 5.5 F PediaSat catheter into the right internal jugular vein. An in vivo calibration was performed once the patient was transferred to the PCICU and re-calibration took place every 24 hours thereafter. Each patient had a NIRS placed on the forehead. Saturations were collected every 4 hours until extubation. Ten patients with a median age of 2.2 (0.13-8.5 years and a weight of 12.4 (3.9-24 kg were enrolled. Median sampling time was 32 (19-44 hours: 64 pairs of PediaSat and ScVO2 saturations showed a poor correlation (r=0.62, 95% CI 44-75; p<0.0001 and Bland Altman analysis for repeated measures showed an average difference of 0.34 with a standard deviation of 7,9 and 95% limits of agreement from -15 to 16. Thirty-six pairs of cNIRS and ScVO2 saturations showed a fair correlation (r=0.79, 95% CI 0.60-0.89; p<0.0001 an average difference of -1.4 with a standard deviation of 6 and 95% limits of agreement from -13 to 10. Analysis of median percentage differences between PediaSat and ScvO2 saturation over time revealed that, although not statistically significant, the change in percentage saturation differences was clinically relevant after the 8th hour from calibration (from -100 to +100%. Conclusion: PediaSat catheters showed unreliable performance in our cohort. It should be further investigated whether repeating

  11. The effects of injury and illness on haemoglobin mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, C E; Sharpe, K; Garvican, L A; Anson, J M; Saunders, P U; Gore, C J

    2013-09-01

    This study sought to quantify the effects of reduced training, surgery and changes in body mass on haemoglobin mass (Hbmass) in athletes. Hbmass of 15 athletes (6 males, 9 females) was measured 9±6 (mean±SD) times over 162±198 days, during reduced training following injury or illness. Additionally, body mass (n=15 athletes) and episodes of altitude training (n=2), iron supplementation (n=5), or surgery (n=3) were documented. Training was recorded and compared with pre-injury levels. Analysis used linear mixed models for ln(Hbmass), with Sex, Altitude, Surgery, Iron, Training and log(Body Mass) as fixed effects, and Athlete as a fixed and random effect. Reduced training and surgery led to 2.3% (p=0.02) and 2.7% (p=0.04) decreases in Hbmass, respectively. Altitude and iron increased Hbmass by 2.4% (p=0.03) and 4.2% (p=0.05), respectively. The effect of changes in body mass on Hbmass was not statistically significant (p=0.435).The estimates for the effects of surgery and altitude on Hbmass should be confirmed by future research using a larger sample of athletes. These estimates could be used to inform the judgements of experts examining athlete biological passports, improving their interpretation of Hbmass perturbations, which athletes claim are related to injury, thereby protecting innocent athletes from unfair sanctioning.

  12. Haemoglobin F modulation in childhood sickle cell disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trompeter, Sara; Roberts, Irene

    2009-02-01

    While supportive care remains the best option for most well children with sickle cell disease (SCD), increasing awareness of early signs of chronic organ damage in childhood has focused attention on therapy which modulates the natural history of the disease. Since cure by stem cell transplantation is only feasible for a minority and gene therapy remains developmental, pharmacological modification by Haemoglobin F (HbF)-inducers, is the most widely used approach in SCD. Currently, the only HbF modulator with a clear place in the management of childhood SCD is hydroxycarbamide for which the main indications are frequent painful crises and recurrent acute chest syndrome. In the majority of SCD children treated with hydroxycarbamide there is clear evidence of clinical benefit and the drug is well tolerated. The main disadvantages are the need for frequent monitoring and uncertainity about long-term risks of carcinogenicity and impaired fertility, although these risks appear to be very low. The role of hydroxycarbamide in sickle-associated central nervous system disease remains to be established. Decitabine and butyrate derivatives show some promise although robust data in children with SCD are lacking. A number of other drugs are currently under investigation for their effects on HbF production including thalidomide and lenolidamide.

  13. Saturation and geometrical scaling

    CERN Document Server

    Praszalowicz, Michal

    2016-01-01

    We discuss emergence of geometrical scaling as a consequence of the nonlinear evolution equations of QCD, which generate a new dynamical scale, known as the saturation momentum: Qs. In the kinematical region where no other energy scales exist, particle spectra exhibit geometrical scaling (GS), i.e. they depend on the ratio pT=Qs, and the energy dependence enters solely through the energy dependence of the saturation momentum. We confront the hypothesis of GS in different systems with experimental data.

  14. The structure of haemoglobin bound to the haemoglobin receptor IsdH from Staphylococcus aureus shows disruption of the native α-globin haem pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Claire F; Jacques, David A; Clubb, Robert T; Guss, J Mitchell; Gell, David A

    2015-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common and serious cause of infection in humans. The bacterium expresses a cell-surface receptor that binds to, and strips haem from, human haemoglobin (Hb). The binding interface has previously been identified; however, the structural changes that promote haem release from haemoglobin were unknown. Here, the structure of the receptor-Hb complex is reported at 2.6 Å resolution, which reveals a conformational change in the α-globin F helix that disrupts the haem-pocket structure and alters the Hb quaternary interactions. These features suggest potential mechanisms by which the S. aureus Hb receptor induces haem release from Hb.

  15. Evaluation of haemoglobin in blister fluid as an indicator of paediatric burn wound depth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanzer, Catherine; Sampson, Dayle L; Broadbent, James A; Cuttle, Leila; Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy M; Upton, Zee; Parker, Tony J

    2015-08-01

    The early and accurate assessment of burns is essential to inform patient treatment regimens; however, this first critical step in clinical practice remains a challenge for specialist burns clinicians worldwide. In this regard, protein biomarkers are a potential adjunct diagnostic tool to assist experienced clinical judgement. Free circulating haemoglobin has previously shown some promise as an indicator of burn depth in a murine animal model. Using blister fluid collected from paediatric burn patients, haemoglobin abundance was measured using semi-quantitative Western blot and immunoassays. Although a trend was observed in which haemoglobin abundance increased with burn wound severity, several patient samples deviated significantly from this trend. Further, it was found that haemoglobin concentration decreased significantly when whole cells, cell debris and fibrinous matrix was removed from the blister fluid by centrifugation; although the relationship to depth was still present. Statistical analyses showed that haemoglobin abundance in the fluid was more strongly related to the time between injury and sample collection and the time taken for spontaneous re-epithelialisation. We hypothesise that prolonged exposure to the blister fluid microenvironment may result in an increased haemoglobin abundance due to erythrocyte lysis, and delayed wound healing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Características clínicas e da saturação transcutânea de oxigênio em lactentes hospitalizados com bronquiolite viral aguda Clinical and transcutaneous oxygen saturation characteristics in hospitalized infants with acute viral bronchiolitis

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    Fernanda M. Rubin

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Descrever as características clínicas de lactentes com bronquiolite viral aguda (BVA e verificar a influência do tempo de dessaturação de oxigênio (TD como teste preditivo para estimar a evolução desses pacientes. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte realizado com 111 lactentes hospitalizados com diagnóstico de BVA e em oxigenoterapia por cateter nasal. Os desfechos foram: tempo de internação, tempo de oxigenoterapia e tempo para saturar 95% em ar ambiente. Foi aplicado, duas vezes ao dia, um escore de gravidade com os sinais clínicos verificados durante o período em que o paciente necessitou de oxigênio suplementar. Após suspender o oxigênio do paciente, foi observado o tempo necessário para a saturação transcutânea de oxigênio decrescer até 90% e 85%. Utilizou-se o teste do qui-quadrado ou teste exato de Fisher, para comparar entre si os grupos de variáveis categóricas, e o teste t ou Mann-Whitney, para as variáveis numéricas. A correlação de Spearman foi utilizada para avaliar associações entre variáveis contínuas de distribuição assimétrica. RESULTADOS: Houve predominância de idade inferior a quatro meses (61,3%. Os pacientes com história de sibilância prévia (45% foram analisados separadamente e tiveram resultados semelhantes ao grupo com BVA (pOBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical characteristics of infants with acute viral bronchiolitis (AVB and to assess the influence of oxygen desaturation time (DT as a prognostic test to estimate the evolution of such patients. METHODS: We performed a cohort study with 111 hospitalized patients diagnosed with AVB receiving oxygen therapy through nasal prong. The outcomes were: length of admission, length of oxygen therapy and time elapsed to read 95% saturation in room air. A severity score was obtained twice a day based on clinical signs during the time when the patient required oxygen supplementation. After the supply of oxygen was interrupted, the time required

  17. Hb Santa Clara (beta 97His-->Asn), a human haemoglobin variant: functional characterization and structure modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Maria Cristina; Carelli Alinovi, Cristiana; Schininà, Maria Eugenia; Clementi, Maria Elisabetta; Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Pezzotti, Michela; Giardina, Bruno

    2007-10-01

    This study examines the functional and structural effects of amino acid substitution at alpha(1)beta(2) interface of Hb Santa Clara (beta 97His-->Asn). We have characterized the variation by a combination of electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry and DNA sequence analysis followed by oxygen-binding experiments. Functional studies outlined an increased oxygen affinity, reduced effect of organic phosphates and a reduced Bohr effect with respect to HbA. In view of the primary role of this interface in the cooperative quaternary transition from the T to R conformational state, a theoretical three-dimensional model of Hb Santa Clara was generated. Structural investigations suggest that replacement of Asn for His beta 97 results in a significant stabilization of the high affinity R-state of the haemoglobin molecule with respect to the low affinity T-state. The role of beta FG4 position has been further examined by computational models of known beta FG4 variants, namely Hb Malmö (beta 97His-->Gln), Hb Wood (beta 97His-->Leu), Hb Nagoya (beta 97His-->Pro) and Hb Moriguchi (beta 97His-->Tyr). These findings demonstrate that, among the various residues at the alpha(1)beta(2) (and alpha(2)beta(1)) intersubunit interface, His beta FG4 contributes significantly to the quaternary constraints that are responsible for the low oxygen affinity of human deoxyhaemoglobin.

  18. Fructosamine or glycated haemoglobin as a measure of diabetic control?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allgrove, J; Cockrill, B L

    1988-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin A1 (HbA1c), fructosamine, and total serum proteins were measured in 30 normal and 61 diabetic children. The normal range for HbA1c was 4.7-8.8% and for fructosamine was 0.98-1.88 mmol/l. These were similar to adult normal ranges and there were no significant age differences during childhood. There was a highly significant correlation between HbA1c and fructosamine in the diabetic children but this was lost when only concentrations within the established normal ranges were considered. Adjustment of concentrations of fructosamine for total serum proteins made no difference to the results. Changes in HbA1c and fructosamine were followed in three newly diagnosed patients and in one whose diabetes was getting worse. HbA1c decayed with a half life of 28.7 days and fructosamine decayed with a half life of 16.5 days. Fructosamine concentrations were lower than expected in the patients who were improving and higher than expected in the patient who was deteriorating. It is suggested that while fructosamine is not a direct substitute for HbA1c it may be a useful adjunct in determining whether a patient is worsening or improving in the short term. A change from HbA1c to fructosamine for routine assessment of diabetes while retaining HbA1c on selected occasions would result in some cost savings while retaining the advantages of having both assays available. PMID:3365012

  19. First reported case of Haemoglobin-M Hyde Park in a Malay family living in Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loong, Tang Yee; Chong, Doris Lau Sie; Jamal, A Rahman A; Murad, Nor Azian Abdul; Sabudin, Raja Zahratul Azma Raja; Fun, Leong Chooi

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb)-M Hyde Park, also known as Hb-M Akita is a rare type of hereditary Hb M due to autosomal dominant mutation of CAC>TAC on codon 92 of β globin gene resulting in the replacement of histidine by tyrosine on β globin chain. This variant Hb has a tendency to form methaemoglobin (metHb). The iron ion in metHb is oxidized to ferric (Fe3+) which is unable to carry oxygen and the patients manifest as cyanosis clinically. A 9-year-old Malay girl was incidentally found to be cyanotic when she presented to a health clinic. Laboratory investigations revealed raised methaemoglobin levels and Hb analysis findings were consistent with Hb-M Hyde Park. β gene sequencing confirmed a point mutation of CAC>TAC on codon 92 in one of the β genes. The family study done on the individuals with cyanosis showed similar findings. A diagnosis of heterozygous Hb-M Hyde Park was made. Patients with this variant Hb usually presented with cyanosis with mild haemolysis and maybe misdiagnosed as congenital heart disease. No further treatment is needed as patients are relatively asymptomatic. Although the disease is harmless in the heterozygous carriers but the offspring of the carriers may suffer severe haemolytic anaemia when the offspring also inherit other β haemoglobinopathies/thalassemia. This can happen due to high prevalence of β thalassemia carrier (3.5-4 %) found in Malaysia. At the time of writing, this is the first case of hereditary Hb-M Hyde Park diagnosed in a Malay family living in Malaysia.

  20. Melatonin Restores White Blood Cell Count, Diminishes Glycated Haemoglobin Level and Prevents Liver, Kidney and Muscle Oxidative Stress in Mice Exposed to Acute Ethanol Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurhaluk, Natalia; Sliuta, Alina; Kyriienko, Svitlana; Winklewski, Pawel J

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to examine the effects of melatonin impact on changes in haematological profile, biomarkers of oxidative stress (dienes conjugates, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxidatively modified protein levels, total antioxidant capacity and antioxidant enzyme activity) in liver, muscle, kidney and erythrocytes, and glycated haemoglobin (HBA1c) in mice during acute ethanol stress. Assays were carried out in quadruplicate: control, melatonin (10 mg/kg, 10 days), acute ethanol stress (0.75 g/kg/day, 10 days) and acute ethanol stress plus melatonin groups. Acute ethanol stress caused a significant increase in the total number of white blood cells (WBC), especially neutrophils in the blood, and HBA1c levels vs. control mice. The correlation between lipid peroxidation and the glycated haemoglobin level was shown (r = 0.93, P = 0.007). Ethanol reduced the antioxidant capacity by increasing reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and the level of oxidatively modified protein content, diene conjugates and MDA. Melatonin administration in animals during acute ethanol stress reduced antioxidant stress biomarkers, WBC, HBA1c levels and ROS production. Melatonin had protective effects on liver, kidney and muscle tissues by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes in initial (diene conjugation production) and late stages (MDA level), and significantly reduced the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives. Furthermore, melatonin restored elevated WBC count and HBA1c level and diminished ROS production. Ethanol reduces antioxidant capacity and leads to exaggerated reactive oxygen species production and consequent increases in oxidatively modified proteins. Melatonin exerts protective effects by preventing the intensive lipid peroxidation processes. Melatonin significantly reduces the level of aldehyde and ketone protein derivatives, restores glycated haemoglobin level and white blood cell count.

  1. Maternal haemoglobin and short-term neonatal outcome in preterm neonates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Savajols

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine whether there is a significant association between maternal haemoglobin measured before delivery and short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. STUDY DESIGN: We included prospectively all live births occurring from 25 to 32+6 weeks of gestation in a tertiary care centre between January 1(st 2009 and December 31(st 2011. Outborn infants and infants presenting with lethal malformations were excluded. Three hundred and thirty-nine mothers and 409 infants met the inclusion criteria. For each mother-infant pair a prospective record of epidemiologic data was performed and maternal haemoglobin concentration recorded within 24 hours before delivery was retrospectively researched. Maternal haemoglobin was divided into quartiles with the second and the third one regarded as reference as they were composed of normal haemoglobin values. Short-term outcome was defined as poor in case of death during hospital stay and/or grades III/IV intraventricular haemorrhage and/or periventricular leukomalacia and/or necessity of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. RESULTS: The global rate of poor short-term neonatal outcome was 11.4% and was significantly associated with low maternal haemoglobin values. This association remained significant after adjustment for antenatal corticosteroids therapy, gestational age, parity, mechanism of preterm birth, mode of delivery and birth weight (aOR = 2.97 CI 95% [1.36-6.47]. There was no relation between short-term neonatal outcome and high maternal haemoglobin concentration values. CONCLUSION: We show that low maternal haemoglobin concentration at delivery is an independent risk factor for poor short-term neonatal outcome in very preterm neonates. This study is one of the first to show such an association within the preterm population.

  2. Pump for Saturated Liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, D. G.

    1986-01-01

    Boiling liquids pumped by device based on proven components. Expanding saturated liquid in nozzle and diverting its phases along separate paths in liquid/vapor separator raises pressure of liquid. Liquid cooled in process. Pump makes it unnecessary to pressurize cryogenic liquids in order to pump them. Problems of introducing noncondensable pressurizing gas avoided.

  3. Non-Invasive Haemoglobin Estimation in Patients with Thalassaemia Major

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    Murtadha K. Al Khabori

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: This study aimed to validate pulse CO-oximetry-based haemoglobin (Hb estimation in children and adults with thalassaemia major (TM and to determine the impact of different baseline variables on the accuracy of the estimation. Methods: This observational study was conducted over a five-week period from March to April 2012. A total of 108 patients with TM attending the daycare thalassaemia centre of a tertiary care hospital in Muscat, Oman, were enrolled. Spot (Sp Hb measurements were estimated using a Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device (Masimo Corp., Irvine, California, USA. These were compared to venous samples of Hb using the CELL-DYN Sapphire Hematology Analyzer (Abbott Diagnostics, Abbott Park, Illinois, USA to determine the reference (Ref Hb levels. A multivariable linear regression model was used to assess the impact of baseline variables such as age, gender, weight, height, Ref Hb and blood pressure on the Hb estimations. Results: Of the 108 enrolled patients, there were 54 males and 54 females with a mean age of 21.6 years (standard deviation [SD] = 7.3 years; range: 2.5–38 years. The mean Ref Hb and Sp Hb were 9.4 g/dL (SD = 0.9 g/dL; range: 7.5–12.3 g/dL and 11.1 g/dL (SD = 1.2 g/dL; range: 7.5–14.7 g/dL, respectively. The coefficient of determination (R2 was 21% with a mean difference of 1.7 g/dL (SD = 1.1 g/dL; range: −0.9–4.3 g/dL. In the multivariable model, the Ref Hb level (P = 0.001 was the only statistically significant predictor. Conclusion: The Pronto-7® pulse CO-oximetry device was found to overestimate Hb levels in patients with TM and therefore cannot be recommended. Further larger studies are needed to confirm these results.

  4. Evaluación de parámetros fisiológicos en función de la saturación de oxigeno muscular en mujeres con sobrepeso y obesidad. [Evaluation physiological parameters depending on muscle oxygen saturation in overweight and obesity].

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    Aldo Alfonso Vasquez-Bonilla

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar parámetros fisiológicos para comparar y correlacionar en función de la saturación de oxigeno muscular y hemoglobina total medida con espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano no invasivo. La muestra (n=17 mujeres se dividieron en 2 grupos: sobrepeso/obesidad y normopeso, se valoró la composición corporal, parámetros fisiológicos, saturación de oxigeno muscular e indicie de esfuerzo percibido durante la prueba de esfuerzo incremental máxima en un cicloergometro en base a cuatro zonas metabólicas establecidas: fatmax, umbral aeróbico, umbral anaeróbico y zona de consumo máximo de oxígeno. Los resultados se analizaron utilizando el método estadístico Anova de un factor y la correlación de pearsón. Los resultados encontrados en el grupo normopeso la saturación de oxigeno muscular tiene correlación positiva alta con el vo2max durante la zona fatmax y umbral aeróbico (r=0,72- p=0,04 (r=0,77 – p=0,02, la frecuencia cardíaca de entrenamiento (r= -0,87 – p=0,01 tiene correlación negativa muy alta en la zona umbral anaeróbico, en el grupo sobrepeso obesidad no se encontró ninguna correlación. En conclusión las mujeres con normopeso la saturación de oxigeno muscular medida con espectroscopia de infrarrojo cercano no invasivo puede ser un buen parámetro fisiológico para programar ejercicio en la zonas fatmax, umbral aeróbico y umbral anaeróbico, pero en las mujeres con sobrepeso y obesidad se necesitan más estudios. Abstract The objective of this study was to compare physiological parameters and correlate function of muscle oxygen saturation and total hemoglobin measured with near-infrared spectroscopy noninvasive. The sample (n = 17 women were divided into 2 groups: overweight / obese and normal weight, was measured body composition, physiological parameters, saturation of muscle oxygen and index of perceived exertion during testing maximum incremental exercise on a cycle ergometer

  5. Investigating the Importance of Haemoglobin Measurement for Selection of Blood Donors in Libya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abud, AI; Bashein, AM; Msalati, AA

    2009-01-01

    In Libya, haemoglobin estimation is not used routinely to assess the fitness of blood donors. We examined the importance of including this parameter in donor selection. Venous blood samples were collected from the bleed line at the end of the donation process from 1339 healthy adult male blood donors, aged 18–60 years, in Al-Jala Women Hospital in Tripoli, Libya. Haemoglobin concentration was measured using an automated haematology analyzer. The main donor age categories were 21–30 and 31–40 years (49.5% and 37%, respectively). Blood donation was mainly a replacement donation. The mean ±2SD range for haemoglobin was 10.8–17.0 g/dl. 27.2% of the donors had haemoglobin concentration of less than 13 g/dl, 16.9% of them had less than 12.5 g/dl and 1.9% had less than 10.8.5 g/dl. Our results suggest that it is important to include haemoglobin estimation as a routine procedure in selection of blood donors. PMID:21483535

  6. The relationship between the haemoglobin concentration and the haematocrit in Plasmodium falciparum malaria

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    Newton Paul

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a very important cause of anaemia in tropical countries. Anaemia is assessed either by measurement of the haematocrit or the haemoglobin concentration. For comparisons across studies, it is often necessary to derive one measure from the other. Methods Data on patients with slide-confirmed uncomplicated falciparum malaria were pooled from 85 antimalarial drug trials conducted in 25 different countries, to assess the haemoglobin/haematocrit relationship at different time points in malaria. Using a linear random effects model, a conversion equation for haematocrit was derived based on 3,254 measurements from various time points (ranging from day 0 to day 63 from 1,810 patients with simultaneous measurements of both parameters. Haemoglobin was also estimated from haematocrit with the commonly used threefold conversion. Results A good fit was obtained using Haematocrit = 5.62 + 2.60 * Haemoglobin. On average, haematocrit/3 levels were slightly higher than haemoglobin measurements with a mean difference (± SD of -0.69 (± 1.3 for children under the age of 5 (n = 1,440 measurements from 449 patients. Conclusion Based on this large data set, an accurate and robust conversion factor both in acute malaria and in convalescence was obtained. The commonly used threefold conversion is also valid.

  7. Conformal invariant saturation

    CERN Document Server

    Navelet, H

    2002-01-01

    We show that, in onium-onium scattering at (very) high energy, a transition to saturation happens due to quantum fluctuations of QCD dipoles. This transition starts when the order alpha^2 correction of the dipole loop is compensated by its faster energy evolution, leading to a negative interference with the tree level amplitude. After a derivation of the the one-loop dipole contribution using conformal invariance of the elastic 4-gluon amplitude in high energy QCD, we obtain an exact expression of the saturation line in the plane (Y,L) where Y is the total rapidity and L, the logarithm of the onium scale ratio. It shows universal features implying the Balitskyi - Fadin - Kuraev - Lipatov (BFKL) evolution kernel and the square of the QCD triple Pomeron vertex. For large L, only the higher BFKL Eigenvalue contributes, leading to a saturation depending on leading log perturbative QCD characteristics. For initial onium scales of same order, however, it involves an unlimited summation over all conformal BFKL Eigen...

  8. Haemoglobin function and respiratory status of the Port Jackson shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni, in response to lowered salinity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, A R; Morris, S

    2004-04-01

    Haemoglobin function and respiratory status of sub-adult sharks, Heterodontus portusjacksoni was investigated for up to 1 week following transfer from 100% to either 75% or 50% seawater. Metabolic rates were unusually low and arterial-venous differences in blood O2 small. Haemodilution from osmotic inflow lowered haematocrit and reduced blood O2 content by up to 50%. There was no change in O2 consumption rate, blood O2 partial pressure, cardiac output, or the arterial-venous O2 content difference, and thus O2 delivery was maintained. Ventilation was acutely elevated but returned to normal within 24 h. The O2 delivery to the tissues was facilitated by decreased blood O2-affinity that could not be simply ascribed to changes in the osmolyte concentration. The Hb was unaffected by changes in intra-erythrocyte fluid urea or trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) but was sensitive to changes in NaCl. The Bohr shifts in whole blood were low and there was little role for pH in modulating O2 transport. Venous Hb saturation remained close to 65%, at the steepest part of the in vivo O2 equilibrium curve, such that O2 unloading could be facilitated by small reductions in pressure without increasing cardiac or ventilatory work. H. portusjacksoni tolerated 50% seawater for at least 1 month, but there was little evidence of respiratory responses being adaptive which instead appeared to be consequential on changes in osmotic and ionic status. Copyright 2004 Springer-Verlag

  9. Promoting access to treatment for patients with haemoglobin disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perickleous

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available For the thalassaemia syndromes the Thalassaemia International Federation, the international patients’ organization has been struggling since its inception in 1987 to facilitate access to treatment for all thalassaemia patients across the globe. Ever since we accepted the doctrine that where strong patient organisation exists, we have observed that there has been a marked improvement in the health care services provided for the haemoglobin disorders worldwide. Unfortunately personality or ego issues and lack or inexperience of strategic planning have always proved to be major drawbacks in achieving collective goals for patients. But the biggest obstacle to access to treatment in the years of my early adulthood has been no other than my self. Having finally secured safe and adequate blood, sample chelating agents and excellent medical professionals, I had decided that I had enough and I stopped chelating. I know now that the access to treatment has as much to do with our determination to live and prosper as with the influence of our countrymen to provide to the less privileged. My disorder provided me with much more than I could ever pray for… Thank God. 自1987年成立以来,地中海贫血国际联合会和国际病人组织一直致力于帮助全球此病患者接受治疗。 自从我们接受了“存在着最强大的病人组织”这个观点以后,我们注意到在全球范围内血红蛋白病人的医疗服务得到显著提高。 不幸的是,性格或自尊心问题、缺少或缺乏策略规划经验总是成为达到整体目标的主要障碍。 但是在我成年期的头几年,接受治疗的最大障碍莫过于自己。 在拥有安全和充足的血液、样本螯合剂和优秀的医疗人员后,我觉得这已经足够,便停止了螯合治疗。 我现在知道接受治疗与生存决心息息相关,同时也与我们能对其他人造成的影响相关。 在这次患病中,我得到的远远超过

  10. Ethylene, nitric oxide and haemoglobins in plant tolerance to flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2015-01-01

    As much as 12% of the world's soils may suffer excess water so that flooding is a major limiting factor on crop production in many areas. Plants attempt to deal with submergence by forming root aerenchyma to facilitate oxygen diffusion from the shoot to the root, initiating a hyponastic response...... where petiole elongation facilitates access to atmospheric oxygen or initiating a bio-energetically conserving quiescence phase. Ethylene has well established roles in the initiation of programmed cell death (PCD) to form air-spaces in aerenchyma and in the hyponastic responses in petioles. The flooding......-tolerant species Rumex palustris and the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana have been extensively exploited to reveal some key molecular events. Our groups have recently demonstrated that nitric oxide (NO) triggers the biosynthesis of ethylene during stress and that NO plays key roles in PCD and the hyponastic...

  11. Ethylene, nitric oxide and haemoglobins in plant tolerance to flooding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Gupta, Kapuganti J; Hebelstrup, Kim

    2015-01-01

    As much as 12% of the world's soils may suffer excess water so that flooding is a major limiting factor on crop production in many areas. Plants attempt to deal with submergence by forming root aerenchyma to facilitate oxygen diffusion from the shoot to the root, initiating a hyponastic response...... where petiole elongation facilitates access to atmospheric oxygen or initiating a bio-energetically conserving quiescence phase. Ethylene has well established roles in the initiation of programmed cell death (PCD) to form air-spaces in aerenchyma and in the hyponastic responses in petioles. The flooding...... response. NO is formed from the reduction of NO3/NO2 via several pathways, which are differentially utilized depending on the availability of O2. In fact, NO production and responses to flooding can be directly dependent on the nitrogen status of soil, which reflects local agricultural practice...

  12. Haemoglobin concentrations appear to be lower in indigenous Greenlanders than in Danes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N; Byg, K E; Mulvad, G

    2001-01-01

    's correlation coefficient (rs). RESULTS: Greenlanders: Haemoglobin levels were not correlated with age or consumption of traditional foods, and were not significantly different in the three residential areas. Mean haemoglobin was higher in men, 146+/-9.6 (SD) g/L, than in women, 132+/-9.6 g/L (p...) aged 30-60 yr. The Greenlandic participants were residents in the capital Nuuk (n=70), the town Ilulissat (n=74), and four settlements in the Uummannaq district (n=90). The significance of differences was assessed by Student's t-test, and the xi2-test. Correlations were assessed by Spearman...

  13. 南极考察队员在不同高原环境下血氧饱和度及心率与高原反应风险的关系%Study of blood oxygen saturation, heart rate changes and plateau reaction of the Antarctic Kunlun station investigation team in different plateau environments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵顺云; 吴新民; 郭亚民; 张树顺; 安艳明; 李冰; 王皓

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨南极考察队员在不同高原环境下血氧饱和度、心率变化与高原反应风险的关系.方法 2010年8月至2011年4月采用无创性氧饱和度测定仪监测(MD300-C) 16名南极考察队员在不同海拔情况以及不同高原环境(西藏高原和南极高原)下的血氧饱和度和心率变化以及高原反应情况,根据Lake Louise Consensus急性高原反应症状评分和判定方法,判定急性高原反应的程度.结果 16名考察队员在我国海拔110、3650、4300 m时血氧饱和度、心率情况差异均有统计学意义[96.8%±1.2%、89.1%±1.2%、86.1%±2.0%,(75.0±5.4)次/min、(104.0±4.3)次/min、(113.0±5.2)次/min,F=214.155、240.088,均P<0.05].南极高原环境下不同海拔(2000、2500、3000、3500、4087 m)血氧饱和度、心率差异也均有统计学意义[91.9%±1.3%、90.5%±1.3%、87.6%±1.4%、85.0%±1.8%、81.5%±2.2%,(85.9±3.2)次/min、(90.6±2.8)次/min、(97.8±4.1)次/min、(102.0±3.4)次/min、(106.3±3.9)次/min,F=105.418、90.174,均P<0.05].在南极高原环境下氧饱和度、心率与Lake Louise Consensus急性高原病症状评分相关(r=-0.446、0.565,均P<0.05).结论 南极考察队员在西藏高原和南极高原不同海拔下血氧饱和度、心率有明显的变化,且随着海拔的升高,高原反应风险逐渐增加.%Objective To explore the blood oxygen saturation and heart rate changes of the Antarctic expeditioners.Methods During August 2010 to April 2011,the changes in blood oxygen saturation,heart rate and plateau reaction of 16 Antarctic expedition team in different plateau environments (Tibetan plateau versus Antarctic plateau) were monitored with the noninvasive pulse oximeter MD300-C.The extent of acute mountain sickness was determined according to the Lake Louise Consensus acute mountain reaction symptom scores and judgment method.Results The changes of blood oxygen saturation,heart rate at different altitudes

  14. In vitro effects of anthocyanin extracts from Justicia secunda Vahl on the solubility of haemoglobin S and membrane stability of sickle erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpiana, Pius T; Ngbolua, KotoTe Niwa N; Bokota, Matthieu T; Kasonga, Teddy K; Atibu, Emmanuel K; Tshibangu, Damien S T; Mudogo, Virima

    2010-10-01

    Sickle cell disease or drepanocytosis is caused by the polymerisation of abnormal haemoglobin S when oxygen tension decreases. This lead to the changes in the shape of red blood cells and anaemia. It has also been postulated that the red cells of patients with sickle cell disease contain a higher than normal concentration of calcium ions. These ions are bound to membrane proteins resulting in dehydration and loss of red blood cell deformability and cell-to-cell adherence. Anthocyanins extracted from some Congolese plants used in traditional medicine against sickle cell disease have recently been shown to have anti-sickling activity in vitro. Justicia secunda is a plant used in Congo by Jehovah's Witnesses, well known for their refusal of blood transfusions, against anaemia. Emmel, Itano and osmotic fragility tests were used to test the effect of anthocyanin extracts from Justicia secunda leaves on haemoglobin S solubility and sickle cell membrane stability. Anthocyanins from Justicia secunda were found to possess anti-sickling activity. Treated SS red blood cells recovered a normal, classical biconcave form with a radius of 3.3±0.3 μm, similar to that of normal erythrocytes. The solubility of deoxyhaemoglobin S increased and the osmotic fragility of drepanocytes decreased upon treatment with anthocyanin extracts. These findings suggest that anthocyanin extracts play a role in both stabilising the red blood cell membrane and inhibiting polymerisation of haemoglobin S. This provides a possible molecular basis for earlier reports on the anti-sickling properties of anthocyanins from some Congolese plants and their use in the management of sickle cell disease by Congolese traditional healers.

  15. Restoration of Haemoglobin Level Using Hydrodynamic Gene Therapy with Erythropoietin Does Not Alleviate the Disease Progression in an Anaemic Mouse Model for TGFβ1-Induced Chronic Kidney Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lea Pedersen

    Full Text Available Erythropoietin, Epo, is a 30.4 kDa glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the fetal liver and the adult kidney. Epo exerts its haematopoietic effects by stimulating the proliferation and differentiation of erythrocytes with subsequent improved tissue oxygenation. Epo receptors are furthermore expressed in non-haematopoietic tissue and today, Epo is recognised as a cytokine with many pleiotropic effects. We hypothesize that hydrodynamic gene therapy with Epo can restore haemoglobin levels in anaemic transgenic mice and that this will attenuate the extracellular matrix accumulation in the kidneys. The experiment is conducted by hydrodynamic gene transfer of a plasmid encoding murine Epo in a transgenic mouse model that overexpresses TGF-β1 locally in the kidneys. This model develops anaemia due to chronic kidney disease characterised by thickening of the glomerular basement membrane, deposition of mesangial matrix and mild interstitial fibrosis. A group of age matched wildtype littermates are treated accordingly. After a single hydrodynamic administration of plasmid DNA containing murine EPO gene, sustained high haemoglobin levels are observed in both transgenic and wildtype mice from 7.5 ± 0.6 mmol/L to 9.4 ± 1.2 mmol/L and 10.7 ± 0.3 mmol/L to 15.5 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. We did not observe any effects in the thickness of glomerular or tubular basement membrane, on the expression of different collagen types in the kidneys or in kidney function after prolonged treatment with Epo. Thus, Epo treatment in this model of chronic kidney disease normalises haemoglobin levels but has no effect on kidney fibrosis or function.

  16. Saturated logistic avalanche model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aielli, G.; Camarri, P.; Cardarelli, R.; Di Ciaccio, A.; Liberti, B.; Paoloni, A.; Santonico, R.

    2003-08-01

    The search for an adequate avalanche RPC working model evidenced that the simple exponential growth can describe the electron multiplication phenomena in the gas with acceptable accuracy until the external electric field is not perturbed by the growing avalanche. We present here a model in which the saturated growth induced by the space charge effects is explained in a natural way by a constant coefficient non-linear differential equation, the Logistic equation, which was originally introduced to describe the evolution of a biological population in a limited resources environment. The RPCs, due to the uniform and intense field, proved to be an ideal device to test experimentally the presented model.

  17. Two-colour immunocytochemical staining of gamma (gamma) and epsilon (epsilon) type haemoglobin in fetal red cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mesker, WE; Velzen, MCMOV; Oosterwijk, JC; Bernini, LF; Golbus, MS; Kanhai, HHH; Van Ommen, GJB; Tanke, HJ

    1998-01-01

    We have developed a two-colour immunocytochemical staining method for the detection of fetal and embryonic haemoglobin in erythroid cells. The method was applied to study these haemoglobin types in fetal red cells. Specimens from fetal blood (10 weeks), cord blood and fetal liver (14 weeks) as well

  18. Role of the duplicated CCAAT box region in γ-globin gene regulation and hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Ronchi (Antonella); M. Berry (Meera); S. Raguz (Selina); A.M.A. Imam (Ali); N. Yannoutsos (Nikos); S. Ottolenghi (Sergio); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); N.O. Dillon (Niall)

    1996-01-01

    textabstractHereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH) is a clinically important condition in which a change in the developmental specificity of the gamma-globin genes results in varying levels of expression of fetal haemoglobin in the adult. The condition is benign and can significantly all

  19. The contribution of hookworm and other parasitic infections to haemoglobin and iron status among children and adults in western Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Anette; Magnussen, P.; Ouma, J.H.

    1998-01-01

    hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency......hookworm, Necator americanus, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Schistosoma mansoni, malaria, Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium malariae, haemoglobin, serum ferritin, anaemia, iron deficiency...

  20. LOCALISED MUSCLE TISSUE OXYGENATION DURING DYNAMIC EXERCISE WITH WHOLE BODY VIBRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Robbins

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite increasing use of whole body vibration during exercise an understanding of the exact role of vibration and the supporting physiological mechanisms is still limited. An important aspect of exercise analysis is the utilisation of oxygen, however, there have been limited studies considering tissue oxygenation parameters, particularly during dynamic whole body vibration (WBV exercise. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of adding WBV during heel raise exercises and assessing changes in tissue oxygenation parameters of the lateral gastrocnemius using Near Infra Red Spectroscopy (NIRS. Twenty healthy subjects completed ten alternating sets of 15 heel raises (vibration vs. no vibration. Synchronous oxygenation and motion data were captured prior to exercise to determine baseline levels, for the duration of the exercise and 20 sec post exercise for the recovery period. Both vibration and no vibration conditions elicited a characteristic increase in deoxyhaemoglobin and decreases in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, tissue oxygenation index and normalised tissue haemoglobin index which are indicative of local tissue hypoxia. However, the addition of vibration elicited significantly lower (p < 0. 001 depletions in oxyhaemoglobin, total haemoglobin, normalised tissue haemoglobin index but no significant differences in deoxyhaemoglobin. These findings suggest that addition of vibration to exercise does not increase the cost of the exercise for the lateral gastrocnemius muscle, but does decrease the reduction in local muscle oxygenation parameters, potentially resulting from increased blood flow to the calf or a vasospastic response in the feet. However, further studies are needed to establish the mechanisms underlying these findings

  1. Near-infrared spectroscopy for monitoring muscle oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, Robert Christopher; Piantadosi, C A

    2000-01-01

    Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a non-invasive method for monitoring oxygen availability and utilization by the tissues. In intact skeletal muscle, NIRS allows semi-quantitative measurements of haemoglobin plus myoglobin oxygenation (tissue O2 stores) and the haemoglobin volume. Specialized...... algorithms allow assessment of the oxidation-reduction (redox) state of the copper moiety (CuA) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase and, with the use of specific tracers, accurate assessment of regional blood flow. NIRS has demonstrated utility for monitoring changes in muscle oxygenation and blood flow...... during submaximal and maximal exercise and under pathophysiological conditions including cardiovascular disease and sepsis. During work, the extent to which skeletal muscles deoxygenate varies according to the type of muscle, type of exercise and blood flow response. In some instances, a strong...

  2. Controls on Highly Siderophile Element Concentrations in Martian Basalt: Sulfide Saturation and Under-Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    Highly siderophile elements (HSE; Re, Au and the platinum group elements) in shergottites exhibit a wide range from very high, similar to the terrestrial mantle, to very low, similar to sulfide saturated mid ocean ridge basalt (e.g., [1]). This large range has been difficult to explain without good constraints on sulfide saturation or under-saturation [2]. A new model for prediction of sulfide saturation places new constraints on this problem [3]. Shergottite data: For primitive shergottites, pressure and temperature estimates are between 1.2-1.5 GPa, and 1350-1470 C [4]. The range of oxygen fugacities is from FMQ-2 to IW, where the amount of Fe2O3 is low and thus does not have a significant effect on the S saturation values. Finally, the bulk compositions of shergottites have been reported in many recent studies (e.g., [5]). All of this information will be used to test whether shergottites are sulfide saturated [3]. Modeling values and results: The database for HSE partition coefficients has been growing with many new data for silicates and oxides [6-8] to complement a large sulfide database [9- 11]. Combining these data with simple batch melting models allows HSE contents of mantle melts to be estimated for sulfide-bearing vs. sulfide-free mantle. Combining such models with fractional crystallization modeling (e.g., [12]) allows HSE contents of more evolved liquids to be modeled. Most primitive shergottites have high HSE contents (and low S contents) that can be explained by sulfide under-saturated melting of the mantle. An exception is Dhofar 019 which has high S contents and very low HSE contents suggesting sulfide saturation. Most evolved basaltic shergottites have lower S contents than saturation, and intermediate HSE contents that can be explained by olivine, pyroxene, and chromite fractionation. An exception is EET A79001 lithology B, which has very low HSE contents and S contents higher than sulfide saturation values . evidence for sulfide saturation

  3. Sevoflurane and propofol anaesthesia differentially modulate the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on microcirculatory gastric mucosal oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, L. A.; Schwartges, I.; Schober, P.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Fournell, A.; Picker, O.

    2010-01-01

    Adequate gastrointestinal mucosal oxygenation is regarded to be crucial in the prevention and therapy of critical illness. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are used for perioperative haemodynamic support. However, their per se effects on gastromucosal haemoglobin oxygenation (mu HbO(2)) remain unclear

  4. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda

    2010-01-01

    and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure...

  5. Sevoflurane and propofol anaesthesia differentially modulate the effects of epinephrine and norepinephrine on microcirculatory gastric mucosal oxygenation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarte, L. A.; Schwartges, I.; Schober, P.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Fournell, A.; Picker, O.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Adequate gastrointestinal mucosal oxygenation is regarded to be crucial in the prevention and therapy of critical illness. Epinephrine and norepinephrine are used for perioperative haemodynamic support. However, their per se effects on gastromucosal haemoglobin oxygenation (mu HbO(2)) re

  6. Elevated third-trimester haemoglobin A 1c predicts preterm delivery in type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekbom, Pia; Damm, Peter; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2008-01-01

    The prevalence of preterm delivery is considerably elevated in women with type 1 diabetes. The aim of the study was to evaluate haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) as a predictor of preterm delivery. Two hundred thirteen consecutive pregnant women with type 1 diabetes and normal urinary albumin excretion...

  7. Haemoglobin modulates salicylate and jasmonate/ethylene-mediated resistance mechanisms against pathogens

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mur, Luis A J; Sivakumaran, Anushen; Mandon, Julien

    2012-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) plays a role in defence against hemibiotrophic pathogens mediated by salicylate (SA) and also necrotrophic pathogens influenced by jasmonate/ethylene (JA/Et). This study examined how NO-oxidizing haemoglobins (Hb) encoded by GLB1, GLB2, and GLB3 in Arabidopsis could influence both...

  8. Close tetrapod relationships of the coelacanth Latimeria indicated by haemoglobin sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorr, T; Kleinschmidt, T; Fricke, H

    1991-05-30

    The origin of tetrapods has been debated for many years. In traditional systematics, the extinct lobe-finned bony fish (Rhipidistia) are regarded as the closest relatives of tetrapods. Among living fish, the coelacanth Latimeria chalumnae (Actinistia), which is the only recent representative of the Crossopterygii (Actinistia and Rhipidistia), the lungfish (Dipnoi) and ray-finned fish (Actinopterygii), have each been considered as sister-groups of the tetrapods. We have now determined the sequence of the alpha- and beta-globin chains of coelacanth haemoglobin and compared them with all known haemoglobins of bony and cartilaginous fish as well as those of tadpoles and adult amphibians. Haemoglobins of bony fish match more closely those of larval than adult amphibians. The beta chains of Latimeria match those of tadpoles more closely (54%) than do those of any other fish, whereas the alpha chains of Latimeria (45.4%), and especially of teleosts (49.2%), are closer to those of larval amphibians than are those of lungfish (39.8%). If only synapomorphous sequence matches (those at derived positions shared by one bony fish and tadpoles but not by any other bony fish) are considered, both Latimeria globin chains have distinctly more identities with phase of tadpoles than do those of any bony fish. Thus the primary structure of Latimeria haemoglobin indicates that the coelacanth is the closest living relative of tetrapods.

  9. The triad of renal function, erythropoietin and haemoglobin in old age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willems, Jorien M.

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of physiological changes in renal function, EPO and haemoglobin level and their impact at old age are essential for clinicians especially those working with older patients. The results of the studies presented in this thesis provide more insight in the physiological aspects of age related

  10. Differences in iron acquisition from human haemoglobin among strains of Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hayashida, H.; Poulsen, Knud; Kilian, Mogens

    2002-01-01

    . actinomycetemcomitans strains examined harboured a single genomic sequence with homology to the hgpA gene encoding haemoglobin-binding protein A in Haemophilus influenzae. However, in all three strains belonging to the JP2 clone and in one serotype e strain hgpA was a pseudogene. Seven other strains possessed...

  11. Catabolism of haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes in haemolytic uraemia-like syndromes of different etiologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandslund, I; Petersen, P H; Brinkløv, M M; Andersen, P K; Parlev, E

    1982-10-01

    The catabolism of haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes was studied in four patients with increased vascular haemolysis as part of acute or subacute haemolytic uraemic syndromes. The apparent volumic substance elimination rates for haemoglobin (Fe) bound to haptoglobin in plasma were 1.1 mumol/h/l and 2.9 mumol/h/l in two patients suffering from sublimate and hydrochloric acid poisoning, respectively. This is estimated to correspond to a normal catabolism, when the increased haptoglobin synthesis is taken into account. In the other two patients suffering from serum-sickness there was reduced clearance and thereby an accumulation of haemoglobin-haptoglobin complexes in plasma during penicillin administration. When the offending drug was withdrawn the plasma concentration of haemoglobin bound to haptoglobin remained high for about three days and then fell rapidly (approximately with 3.8 mumol/l/h and 1.9 mumol/l/h). Thus, also in these patients the clearance capacity could be normalized after discontinuation of the drug.

  12. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chikowore, T.; Pisa, P.T.; Zyl, van Tertia; Feskens, E.J.M.; Wentzel-Viljoen, E.; Conradie, K.R.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis w

  13. Reliability and validity of non-invasive determined haemoglobin mass and blood volumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoni, Nazzareno; Andersen, Andreas Breenfeldt; Oberholzer, Laura

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The carbon monoxide (CO) rebreathing method used for the determination of haemoglobin mass (Hbmass ) is associated with blood sample analysis (in this study: Radiometer ABL800). As an alternative hereto the aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of a portable and non-invas...

  14. Glycated haemoglobin may in future be reported as estimated mean blood glucose concentration--secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borg, R.; Nerup, J.; Nathan, D.M.

    2009-01-01

    Glycated haemoglobin (HbA 1c ) is widely used to determine levels of chronic glycaemia, to judge the adequacy of diabetes treatment and to adjust therapy. HbA 1c results are expressed as the percentage of HbA that is glycated. Day-to-day management is guided by self-monitoring of capillary glucos...

  15. Fetal haemoglobin in sickle-cell disease: from genetic epidemiology to new therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettre, Guillaume; Bauer, Daniel E

    2016-06-18

    Sickle-cell disease affects millions of individuals worldwide, but the global incidence is concentrated in Africa. The burden of sickle-cell disease is expected to continue to rise over the coming decades, adding to stress on the health infrastructures of many countries. Although the molecular cause of sickle-cell disease has been known for more than half a century, treatment options remain greatly limited. Allogeneic haemopoietic stem-cell transplantation is the only existing cure but is limited to specialised clinical centres and remains inaccessible for most patients. Induction of fetal haemoglobin production is a promising strategy for the treatment of sickle-cell disease. In this Series paper, we review scientific breakthroughs in epidemiology, genetics, and molecular biology that have brought reactivation of fetal haemoglobin to the forefront of sickle-cell disease research. Improved knowledge of the regulation of fetal haemoglobin production in human beings and the development of genome editing technology now support the design of innovative therapies for sickle-cell disease that are based on fetal haemoglobin.

  16. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefevre, Sjannie; Jensen, Frank B; Huong, Do T T; Wang, Tobias; Phuong, Nguyen T; Bayley, Mark

    2011-07-01

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO₂⁻) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO(2max)) and critical swimming speed (U(crit)) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC₅₀ of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO(2max) and U(crit). The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO(2max) and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  17. Effects of nitrite exposure on functional haemoglobin levels, bimodal respiration, and swimming performance in the facultative air-breathing fish Pangasianodon hypophthalmus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefevre, Sjannie, E-mail: sjannie.lefevre@biology.au.dk [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Jensen, Frank B. [Department of Biology, University of Southern Denmark, Odense (Denmark); Huong, Do.T.T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Wang, Tobias [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Phuong, Nguyen T. [College of Aquaculture and Fisheries, Can Tho University, Can Tho City (Viet Nam); Bayley, Mark [Zoophysiology, Department of Biological Sciences, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark)

    2011-07-15

    In this study we investigated nitrite (NO{sub 2}{sup -}) effects in striped catfish, a facultative air-breather. Fish were exposed to 0, 0.4, and 0.9 mM nitrite for 0, 1, 2, 4, and 7 days, and levels of functional haemoglobin, methaemoglobin (metHb) and nitrosyl haemoglobin (HbNO) were assessed using spectral deconvolution. Plasma concentrations of nitrite, nitrate, chloride, potassium, and sodium were also measured. Partitioning of oxygen consumption was determined to reveal whether elevated metHb (causing functional hypoxia) induced air-breathing. The effects of nitrite on maximum oxygen uptake (MO{sub 2max}) and critical swimming speed (U{sub crit}) were also assessed. Striped catfish was highly tolerant to nitrite exposure, as reflected by a 96 h LC{sub 50} of 1.65 mM and a moderate nitrite uptake into the blood. Plasma levels of nitrite reached a maximum after 1 day of exposure, and then decreased, never exceeding ambient levels. MetHb, HbNO and nitrate (a nitrite detoxification product) also peaked after 1 day and then decreased. Only high levels of nitrite and metHb caused reductions in MO{sub 2max} and U{sub crit}. The response of striped catfish contrasts with that seen in most other fish species and discloses efficient mechanisms of combating nitrite threats. Furthermore, even though striped catfish is an efficient air-breather, this species has the ability to sustain aerobic scope and swimming performance without air-breathing, even when faced with nitrite-induced reductions in blood oxygen carrying capacity. Our study is the first to confirm that high levels of nitrite and metHb reduce MO{sub 2max} and thereby aerobic scope, while more moderate elevations fail to do so. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the low nitrite accumulation in striped catfish.

  18. Crystallization and Preliminary Structural Analysis of the Giant Haemoglobin from Glossoscolex paulistus at 3.2 Angstrom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J Bachega; l Bleicher; E Horjales; p Santiago; R Garratt; M Tabak

    2011-12-31

    Glossoscolex paulistus is a free-living earthworm encountered in south-east Brazil. Its oxygen transport requirements are undertaken by a giant extracellular haemoglobin, or erythrocruorin (HbGp), which has an approximate molecular mass of 3.6 MDa and, by analogy with its homologue from Lumbricus terrestris (HbLt), is believed to be composed of a total of 180 polypeptide chains. In the present work the full 3.6 MDa particle in its cyanomet state was purified and crystallized using sodium citrate or PEG8000 as precipitant. The crystals contain one-quarter of the full particle in the asymmetric unit of the I222 cell and have parameters of a = 270.8 {angstrom}, b = 320.3 {angstrom} and c = 332.4 {angstrom}. Diffraction data were collected to 3.15 {angstrom} using synchrotron radiation on beamline X29A at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and represent the highest resolution data described to date for similar erythrocruorins. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using a search model corresponding to one-twelfth of its homologue from HbLt. This revealed that HbGp belongs to the type I class of erythrocruorins and provided an interpretable initial electron density map in which many features including the haem groups and disulfide bonds could be identified.

  19. Tracking adaptive evolution in the structure, function and molecular phylogeny of haemoglobin in non-Antarctic notothenioid fish species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verde, Cinzia; Parisi, Elio; di Prisco, Guido

    2006-04-01

    With the notable exception of Antarctic icefishes, haemoglobin (Hb) is present in all vertebrates. In polar fish, Hb evolution has included adaptations with implications at the biochemical, physiological and molecular levels. Cold adaptation has been shown to be also linked to small changes in primary structure and post-translational modifications in proteins, including hydrophobic remodelling and increased flexibility. A wealth of knowledge is available on the oxygen-transport system of fish inhabiting Antarctic waters, but very little is known on the structure and function of Hb of non-Antarctic notothenioid fishes. The comparison of the biochemical and physiological adaptations between cold-adapted and non-cold-adapted species is a powerful tool to understand whether (and to what extent) extreme environments require specific adaptations or simply select for phenotypically different life styles. This study focuses on structure, function and molecular phylogeny of Hb in Antarctic and non-Antarctic notothenioid fishes. The rationale is to use the primary structure of Hb as tool of choice to gain insight into the pathways of the evolution history of α and β globins of notothenioids and also as a basis for reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships among Antarctic and non-Antarctic species.

  20. Critical insight into the interaction of naringenin with human haemoglobin: A combined spectroscopic and computational modeling approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maity, Subhajit; Chakraborty, Sandipan; Chakraborti, Abhay Sankar

    2017-02-01

    The present study demonstrates critical insight into the binding of a bioactive flavanone naringenin with normal human haemoglobin (NHb). Both spectrophotometric and spectrofluorimetric studies reveal that naringenin interacts with NHb. The binding affinity constant and number of binding sites appear to be approximately (1.5 ± 0.2) × 104 M-1 and 1, respectively. Static quenching seems to be an important factor in binding process, as evident from steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopic studies. Far UV circular dichroism spectroscopy depicts that binding of naringenin to NHb causes no change in the secondary structure of the protein, which is also evident from Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic study. Free energy change (ΔG0) for naringenin-NHb interaction, determined by spectroscopic and isothermal calorimetric method, appears to be -5.67 kcal/mol and -6.90 kcal/mol, respectively, and is close to the docking energy -6.84 kcal/mol. Molecular docking suggests that naringenin binds near the cavity of the tetrameric heme protein, forming hydrogen bonds with surrounding amino acid residues. The binding site is away from the heme moieties, implicating naringenin binding does not affect the oxygen binding capacity of NHb, which makes the protein a suitable carrier of the flavonoid.

  1. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  2. Oxygen Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen therapy is a treatment that provides you with extra oxygen. Oxygen is a gas that your body needs to function. Normally, your lungs absorb oxygen from the air you breathe. But some conditions ...

  3. 两种雾化吸入法在提高脑卒中肺部感染患者氧饱和度的效果观察%Effects of two atomizing inhalations on oxygen saturation of patients with stroke combined with pulmonary infections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史少凤; 李爱东; 邓雪萍

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of ultrasonic atomizing inhalation and oxygen atomizing inhalation on SaO2 saturation of patients with stroke combined with pulmonary infections. Methods 62 patients with stroke combined with pulmonary infections were equally randomized into the observation group and the control group, which were managed with oxygen atomizing inhalation and ultrasonic atomizing inhalation, respectively. The two groups were compared in respect of SaO2. Result The mean level of SaO2 in the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.01). Conclusion Oxygen atomizing inhalation is more effective both in the reduction of oxygen consumption in the patients with stroke combined with pulmonary infections and in the increase of SaO2.%目的 比较超声雾化吸入方法和氧驱动雾化吸入方法在提高脑卒中并发肺部感染患者氧饱和度(SaO2)中的作用效果.方法 选择62例脑卒中并发肺部感染患者,按入院确诊先后顺序分为观察组和对照组,每组各31例,分别采用超声雾化吸入方法和氧驱动雾化吸入方法.比较雾化吸入前后两组患者SaO2的差异.结果 雾化吸入治疗后观察组患者SaO2高于对照组,两组比较,P<0.01,差异具有统计学意义.结论 采用氧驱动雾化吸入可降低脑卒中并发肺部感染患者耗氧量,提高SaO2.

  4. Haematological values in homozygous sickle cell disease in steady state and haemoglobin phenotypes AA controls in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akinbami Akinsegun

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sickle cell disease is a genetic abnormality involving the haemoglobin. Although, it is primarily a red cell disorders, the white blood cells and platelets are also affected by the mutation. The consequent haemoglobin S causes polymerization of haemoglobin resulting in haemolysis and anaemia. This study aims to provide baseline haematological values in sickle cell disease patients in steady state and compare the deviation from haemoglobin phenotype AA control values. Methods A case–control study was conducted amongst homozygous sickle cell patients attending the sickle cell clinics of Lagos State University Teaching Hospital Ikeja and haemoglobin phenotype AA controls. About 4.5mls of blood sample was collected from each participant for full blood count analysis. All blood samples were screened for HIV and haemoglobin phenotypes confirmed using cellulose acetate haemoglobin electrophoresis at pH 8.6. Results A total of 103 cases and 98 controls were enrolled. The overall mean haemoglobin concentration for cases was 7.93 ± 1.47 g/dl, packed cell volume 24.44 ± 4.68%, mean cell volume 81.52 ± 7.89 fl, and mean cell haemoglobin 26.50 ± 3.20 pg. While for controls, mean haemoglobin concentration was 13.83 ± 1.32 g/dl, packed cell volume 43.07 ± 3.95%, mean cell volume 86.90 ± 4.69 fl, and mean cell haemoglobin 28.50 ± 1.34 pg. The overall mean white blood cell counts for the cases was 10.27 ± 3.94 *103/μl and platelet counts of 412.71 ± 145.09*103/μl. While white blood cell count for the controls was 5.67 ± 1.59*103/μl and platelet counts of 222.82 ± 57.62*103/μl. Conclusion Homozygous sickle cell disease patients have lower values of red cell parameters, but higher values of white cell and platelets counts compared to haemoglobin phenotype AA controls.

  5. The role of haemoglobin mass on VO(2)max following normobaric 'live high-train low' in endurance-trained athletes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robach, Paul; Siebenmann, Christoph; Jacobs, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    It remains unclear by which mechanism 'live high-train low' (LHTL) altitude training increases exercise performance. Haematological and skeletal muscle adaptations have both been proposed. To test the hypotheses that (i) LHTL improves maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max) and (ii) this improvement...... is related to hypoxia-induced increases in total haemoglobin mass (Hb(mass)) and not to improved maximal oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle, we determined VO(2)max before LHTL and after LHTL, before and after the altitude-induced increases in Hb(mass) (measured by carbon-monoxide rebreathing) had been...... to 3000 m altitude (LHTL, n=10). Four-week LHTL did not increase VO(2)max, irrespective of treatment (LHTL: 1.5%; placebo: 2.0%). Hb(mass) was slightly increased (4.6%) in 5 (of 10) LHTL subjects but this was not accompanied by a concurrent increase in VO(2)max. In the subjects demonstrating an increase...

  6. Testing Saturation at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Marquet, C

    2003-01-01

    We extend the saturation models a la Golec-Biernat and Wusthoff to cross-sections of hard processes initiated by virtual-gluon probes separated by large rapidity intervals at hadron colliders. We derive their analytic expressions and apply them to physical examples, such as saturation effects for Mueller-Navelet jets. By comparison to gamma*-gamma* cross-sections we find a more abrupt transition to saturation. We propose to study observables with a potentially clear saturation signal and to use heavy vector and flavored mesons as alternative virtual-gluon probes.

  7. Saturated fats: what dietary intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, J Bruce; Dillard, Cora J

    2004-09-01

    Public health recommendations for the US population in 1977 were to reduce fat intake to as low as 30% of calories to lower the incidence of coronary artery disease. These recommendations resulted in a compositional shift in food materials throughout the agricultural industry, and the fractional content of fats was replaced principally with carbohydrates. Subsequently, high-carbohydrate diets were recognized as contributing to the lipoprotein pattern that characterizes atherogenic dyslipidemia and hypertriacylglycerolemia. The rising incidences of metabolic syndrome and obesity are becoming common themes in the literature. Current recommendations are to keep saturated fatty acid, trans fatty acid, and cholesterol intakes as low as possible while consuming a nutritionally adequate diet. In the face of such recommendations, the agricultural industry is shifting food composition toward lower proportions of all saturated fatty acids. To date, no lower safe limit of specific saturated fatty acid intakes has been identified. This review summarizes research findings and observations on the disparate functions of saturated fatty acids and seeks to bring a more quantitative balance to the debate on dietary saturated fat. Whether a finite quantity of specific dietary saturated fatty acids actually benefits health is not yet known. Because agricultural practices to reduce saturated fat will require a prolonged and concerted effort, and because the world is moving toward more individualized dietary recommendations, should the steps to decrease saturated fatty acids to as low as agriculturally possible not wait until evidence clearly indicates which amounts and types of saturated fatty acids are optimal?

  8. Effects of intermittent hypoxia training on the electroencephalogram complexity and saturation of blood oxygen of high performance fighter pilots%间歇性低氧训练对高性能战斗机飞行员脑电复杂度及血氧饱和度的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李交杰; 张刚林; 黄炜; 潘郁萍; 沈嘉平; 胡萌; 丁秋平; 李光

    2010-01-01

    目的 通过动态观察间歇性低氧训练前后高性能战斗机飞行员EEG复杂度和血氧饱和度(arterial oxygen saturation,Sa()2)的变化特征,为低氧适应性训练效果评价提供量化指标.方法 对32名高性能战斗机飞行员进行15 d的间歇性低氧训练(模拟高度3500 m),1次/d,每次25 min.于训练前后,分别检测受试者在模拟7500 m高空环境下的EEG、SaO2、红细胞数及血红蛋白含量,并对受试者低氧训练前后的检测数据进行t检验.结果 间歇性低氧训练后,受试者在模拟7500 m高空环境下的EEG复杂度较训练前显著降低,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),Sa()2升高,差异有统计学意义(P<0.01),红细胞和血红蛋白含量则无明显变化(P>0.05).结论 模拟3500 m间歇性低氧训练可提高机体高空缺氧耐力水平,EEG复杂度和SaO2可作为评价高性能战斗机飞行员间歇性低氧训练的定量生理指标.%Objective To explore the quantitative index for evaluating the intermittent hypoxia training effects by analyzing the characteristic changes of electroencephalogram (EEG) complexity and saturation of blood oxygen (SaO2) of high performance fighter pilots. Methods Thirty-two pilots were selected as subjects and undertook a 25 min-training (simulated hypoxia at 3500 m-oxygen concentration 13.1%) with Type DY-84 hypoxia training device once a day for 15 d. Before and after training the subjects were put in simulated 7500 m hypoxia condition (oxygen concentration 7.1%,ventilation volume 15L/min) and their EEG, SaO2, number of red blood cell and hemoglobin level were recorded and analyzed by t-test. Results Training effects showed that the subjects' 7500m EE(G complexity was significantly decreased (P<0.01), but SaO2 was significantly increased (P<0.01).Number of red blood cell and hemoglobin level had no obvious change (P>0.05).Conclusions The simulated 3500 m intermittent hypoxia training could improve pilot's hypoxia tolerance. EEG

  9. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lequier, Laurance; Horton, Stephen B; McMullan, D Michael; Bartlett, Robert H

    2013-06-01

    The extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit is made of a number of components that have been customized to provide adequate tissue oxygen delivery in patients with severe cardiac and/or respiratory failure for a prolonged period of time (days to weeks). A standard extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit consists of a mechanical blood pump, gas-exchange device, and a heat exchanger all connected together with circuit tubing. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits can vary from simple to complex and may include a variety of blood flow and pressure monitors, continuous oxyhemoglobin saturation monitors, circuit access sites, and a bridge connecting the venous access and arterial infusion limbs of the circuit. Significant technical advancements have been made in the equipment available for short- and long-term extracorporeal membrane oxygenation applications. Contemporary extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuits have greater biocompatibility and allow for more prolonged cardiopulmonary support time while minimizing the procedure-related complications of bleeding, thrombosis, and other physiologic derangements, which were so common with the early application of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Modern era extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuitry and components are simpler, safer, more compact, and can be used across a wide variety of patient sizes from neonates to adults.

  10. Saturation of Zonal Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun-Jin

    2002-11-01

    Zonal flows (ZF) are generated by drift wave (DW) turbulence and then regulate it near marginality by shear suppression. Since collisions damp ZF while ZF suppress DW, the amplitude of DW turbulence (i.e. turbulent transport) is, in turn, proportional to collisionality. A key question is then what happens away from marginality, namely what is the saturation mechanism of ZF in that regime? This raises the interesting physical question of how ZF interact with mne 0, poloidally non-axisymmetric modes [1], both linearly and non linearly. We investigate this issue by exploring the nonlinear excitation of GKH modes by modulational instability in the background of finite amplitude of DW turbulence, as well as the linear inflection-type instability of ZF. In a simple model with cold ions, we show that ZF can grow faster than the linear GKH for γ/ωGKH modes can be comparable to their linear generation. Here, γ and ω are the growth rate and frequency of DW, and p and k are the characteristic wavenumbers of ZF and DW. These findings imply that the linear analysis of GKH may not always be valid and also that there may be no clear distinction between secondary (ZF) and tertiary mode (GKH). The effect of finite ion temperature fluctuations is incorporated in a simple toroidal ion temperature gradient model, within which both zonal flow and temperature are generated by modulational instability. The phase between the two is calculated self-consistently and shown to be positive. Furthermore, the correction to nonlinear generation of GKH modes appears to be small. [1] We refer to these low mne 0 modes as Generalized Kelvin-Helmholtz (GKH) modes, since they will appear as mne 0 distortions of a shear layer.

  11. Sustainability of the effects of medicinal iron and iron rich food supplementation on haemoglobin, intelligence quotient and growth of school aged girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Jain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Anaemia in school aged girls is an important but neglected issue. Since iron supplementation programmes have had little reported success in reducing anaemia, interest is turning to food based approaches that have higher potential for achieving far reaching benefits. The purpose of the study was to observe sustainability of the effect of iron and food supplementation on haemoglobin (Hb, intelligence quotient (IQ and growth of the subjects. At baseline, estimation of haemoglobin (Hb, red cell indices, serum iron, total iron binding capacity, serum transferrin saturation and serum ferritin was done. IQ, weight and height were measured using standard procedures. Anaemic subjectswere divided into three groups, viz., (i twice weekly supplementation of iron folic acid syrup (53 mg iron/week; (ii daily supplementation of 4 niger seed and defatted soyaflour biscuits plus 2 lemons (45 mg iron/week and (iii control. Non anaemic group(NAC was not intervened. Endline data was collected after 120 days. Follow up for Hb, IQ, weight and height was done 4 months after cessation of supplementation. The prevalence of anaemia was 77% in the study population; 46% subjects had mild anaemia and 32% had moderate anaemia. Iron status was lower in anaemic subjects (p<0.001.Iron supplementation was more effective in raising Hb and building iron stores than iron rich food supplementation. Iron supplementation improved IQ but did not bring about catch up of anaemics to non anaemics. Iron rich food supplementation was better than medicinal iron in promoting growth in anaemic girls. The impact of iron rich food supplementation on Hb, IQ and growth sustained for 4 months while that of medicinal iron did not. Effects of food supplementation are sustainable for 4 months, therefore, this strategy holds more potential to control anaemia, in school aged girls.

  12. Cerebral oxygenation after birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hessel, Trine W; Hyttel-Sorensen, Simon; Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To compare absolute values of regional cerebral tissue oxygenation (cStO2 ) during haemodynamic transition after birth and repeatability during steady state for two commercial near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) devices. METHODS: In a prospective observational study, the INVOS 5100C and FORE......: The INVOS and FORE-SIGHT cStO2 estimates showed oxygenation-level-dependent difference during birth transition. The better repeatability of FORE-SIGHT could be due to the lower response to change in saturation....

  13. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tinashe Chikowore

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes (T2D burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis was used to derive nutrient patterns of 2010 participants stratified by urban/rural status and gender. Principal Component Analysis (PCA was applied to 25 nutrients, computed from the quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ. Three nutrient patterns per stratum, which accounted for 73% of the variation of the selected nutrients, were identified. Multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education attained, alcohol intake, seasonality and total energy intake were computed. Starch, dietary fibre and B vitamins driven nutrient pattern was significantly associated with fasting glucose (β = −0.236 (−0.458; −0.014; p = 0.037 and glycated haemoglobin levels (β = −0.175 (−0.303; −0.047; p = 0.007 in rural women. Thiamine, zinc and plant protein driven nutrient pattern was associated with significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin and fasting glucose ((β = −0.288 (−0.543; −0.033; p = 0.027 and (β = −0.382 (−0.752; −0.012; p = 0.043, respectively in rural men. Our results indicate that plant driven nutrient patterns are associated with low fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels.

  14. Nutrient Patterns Associated with Fasting Glucose and Glycated Haemoglobin Levels in a Black South African Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikowore, Tinashe; Pisa, Pedro T.; van Zyl, Tertia; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Wentzel-Viljoen, Edelweiss; Conradie, Karin R.

    2017-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) burden is increasing globally. However, evidence regarding nutrient patterns associated with the biomarkers of T2D is limited. This study set out to determine the nutrient patterns associated with fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin the biomarkers of T2D. Factor analysis was used to derive nutrient patterns of 2010 participants stratified by urban/rural status and gender. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was applied to 25 nutrients, computed from the quantified food frequency questionnaires (QFFQ). Three nutrient patterns per stratum, which accounted for 73% of the variation of the selected nutrients, were identified. Multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, BMI, smoking, physical activity, education attained, alcohol intake, seasonality and total energy intake were computed. Starch, dietary fibre and B vitamins driven nutrient pattern was significantly associated with fasting glucose (β = −0.236 (−0.458; −0.014); p = 0.037) and glycated haemoglobin levels (β = −0.175 (−0.303; −0.047); p = 0.007) in rural women. Thiamine, zinc and plant protein driven nutrient pattern was associated with significant reductions in glycated haemoglobin and fasting glucose ((β = −0.288 (−0.543; −0.033); p = 0.027) and (β = −0.382 (−0.752; −0.012); p = 0.043), respectively) in rural men. Our results indicate that plant driven nutrient patterns are associated with low fasting glucose and glycated haemoglobin levels. PMID:28106816

  15. Fetal Haemoglobin and β-globin Gene Cluster Haplotypes among Sickle Cell Patients in Chhattisgarh

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagat, Sanjana; Patra, Pradeep Kumar; Thakur, Amar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Background: Foetal Haemoglobin (HbF) is the best-known genetic modulator of sickle cell anaemia, which varies dramatically in concentration in the blood of these patients. The patients with SCA display a remarkable variability in the disease severity. High HbF levels and the β-globin gene cluster haplotypes influence the clinical presentation of sickle cell disease. To identify the genetic modifiers which influence the disease severity, we conducted a β-globin haplotype analysis in the sickle...

  16. Brief Review of Saturation Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kovchegov, Yuri V

    2014-01-01

    We present a short overview of saturation physics followed by a summary of the recent progress in our understanding of nonlinear small-$x$ evolution. Topics include McLerran-Venugopalan model, Glauber-Mueller approximation, nonlinear BK/JIMWLK evolution equations, along with the running-coupling and NLO corrections to these equations. We conclude with selected topics in saturation phenomenology.

  17. Brine Distribution after Vacuum Saturation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedegaard, Kathrine; Andersen, Bertel Lohmann

    1999-01-01

    Experiments with the vacuum saturation method for brine in plugs of chalk showed that a homogeneous distribution of brine cannot be ensured at saturations below 20% volume. Instead of a homogeneous volume distribution the brine becomes concentrated close to the surfaces of the plugs...

  18. Cross-sectional study of glycosylated haemoglobin in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients of South Indian origin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarin SM

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: The study provides a reliable cutoff of glycated haemoglobin (6.45% among South Indian population which is in accordance with the ADA recommendations. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(6.000: 1439-1442

  19. Aspirin-mediated acetylation of haemoglobin increases in presence of high glucose concentration and decreases protein glycation

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Finamore; Feliciano Priego-Capote; Severine Nolli; Pierre Fontana; Jean-Charles Sanchez

    2015-01-01

    Glycation represents the first stage in the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin was shown to prevent sugars reacting with proteins, but the exact mechanism of this interaction was not well defined. We performed a quantitative analysis to calculate the levels of acetylation and glycation of haemoglobin, among others red blood cell (RBC) proteins, using a label free approach. After glucose incubation, increases in the acetylation levels were seen for several haemoglobin subunits, whi...

  20. Effect of Shengmai injection on blood oxygen saturation and lactic acid in patients with cardiogenic shock%生脉注射液对心源性休克患者血氧饱和度及乳酸的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴玉琼

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨生脉注射液对心源性休克患者中心静脉血氧饱和度(venous oxygen saturation,ScvO2)及动脉血乳酸(lactic acid,Lac)的影响.方法:将60例符合标准的心源性休克患者随机分为治疗组(30例)和对照组(30例),两组均给予西药常规治疗,治疗组同时给予生脉注射液持续静滴,对照组给予5%葡萄糖注射液持续静滴.分别在用药前、用药后2,6和12h行中心静脉和动脉血气分析,检测ScvO2和Lac的变化.结果:治疗组用药后2,6和12 h ScvO2水平明显高于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗组用药后2,6和12h乳酸浓度均低于对照组相同时点的乳酸浓度,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论:在西药常规复苏治疗基础上加用生脉注射液治疗心源性休克患者,较单纯西药常规复苏治疗能更好地升高ScvO2、降低乳酸水平和增加氧摄取,提示生脉注射液可改善心源性休克患者的全身氧代谢状况.%Objective; To investigate the effect of Shengmai injection on central venous oxygen saturation ( ScvO2) and lactic acid (Lac) in patients with cardiogenic shock. Methods-. Sixty patients meeting the standard of cardiogenic shock were randomly divided into 2 groups (30 patients in each group). Patients in both groups were treated with either routine therapy alone or combined with intravenous infusion of Shengmai injection. The central venous and arterial blood was respectively collected before medication, and 2,6, 12 h after the administration to e-valuate the levels of the ScvO2 and Lac. Results; The ScvO2 level was significantly higher and lactic acid concentration was significantly lower in Shengmai group than in control group 2, 6, 12 h after the administration (P < 0.05). Conclusion; Combined treatment with Shengmai injection is beneficial to raise ScvO2 level, reduce Lac level, and improve oxygen metabolism in patients with cardiogenic shock.

  1. Hypoxia, Color Vision Deficiencies, and Blood Oxygen Saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Kobrick, 1970; Ernest & Krill, 1971; Kobrick, Zwick , Witt, & Devine,1984; Connolly & Barbur, 2009; Connolly, 2011). With the exception of two studies...Physiol, 28, 741-747. Kobrick, J.L., Zwick , H., Witt, C.E., & Devine, J.A. (1984). Effects of extended hypoxia on night vision. Aviat Space Environ Med

  2. Syncytiotrophoblast vesicles show altered micro-RNA and haemoglobin content after ex-vivo perfusion of placentas with haemoglobin to mimic preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronqvist, Tina; Saljé, Karen; Familari, Mary; Guller, Seth; Schneider, Henning; Gardiner, Chris; Sargent, Ian L; Redman, Christopher W; Mörgelin, Matthias; Åkerström, Bo; Gram, Magnus; Hansson, Stefan R

    2014-01-01

    Cell-free foetal haemoglobin (HbF) has been shown to play a role in the pathology of preeclampsia (PE). In the present study, we aimed to further characterize the harmful effects of extracellular free haemoglobin (Hb) on the placenta. In particular, we investigated whether cell-free Hb affects the release of placental syncytiotrophoblast vesicles (STBMs) and their micro-RNA content. The dual ex-vivo perfusion system was used to perfuse isolated cotyledons from human placenta, with medium alone (control) or supplemented with cell-free Hb. Perfusion medium from the maternal side of the placenta was collected at the end of all perfusion phases. The STBMs were isolated using ultra-centrifugation, at 10,000×g and 150,000×g (referred to as 10K and 150K STBMs). The STBMs were characterized using the nanoparticle tracking analysis, identification of surface markers and transmission electron microscopy. RNA was extracted and nine different micro-RNAs, related to hypoxia, PE and Hb synthesis, were selected for analysis by quantitative PCR. All micro-RNAs investigated were present in the STBMs. Mir-517a, mir-141 and mir-517b were down regulated after Hb perfusion in the 10K STBMs. Furthermore, Hb was shown to be carried by the STBMs. This study showed that Hb perfusion can alter the micro-RNA content of released STBMs. Of particular interest is the alteration of two placenta specific micro-RNAs; mir-517a and mir-517b. We have also seen that STBMs may function as carriers of Hb into the maternal circulation.

  3. Broadband fast semiconductor saturable absorber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobovitz-Veselka, G R; Kellerm, U; Asom, T

    1992-12-15

    Kerr lens mode-locked (KLM) solid-state lasers are typically not self-starting. We address this problem by introducing a broadband semiconductor saturable absorber that could be used as a tunable, all-solid-state, passive starting mechanism. We extend the wavelength tunability of a semiconductor saturable absorber to more than 100 nm using a band-gap-engineered low-temperature molecular-beam-epitaxy (MBE)-grown bulk AlGaAs semiconductor saturable absorber in which the absorption edge of the saturable absorber has been artificially broadened by continuously reducing the Al concentration during the MBE growth. We demonstrate its tunability and its feasibility as a starting mechanism for KLM with a picosecond resonant passive mode-locked Ti:sapphire laser. The extension to femtosecond KLM lasers has been discussed previously.

  4. Crystallization and preliminary structural analysis of the giant haemoglobin from Glossoscolex paulistus at 3.2 Å

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachega, J. F. R., E-mail: bachega@ursa.if.sc.usp.br; Bleicher, L.; Horjales, E. R. [Centro de Biotecnologia Molecular Estrutural, Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Santiago, P. S. [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Garratt, R. C. [Centro de Biotecnologia Molecular Estrutural, Instituto de Fisica de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil); Tabak, M., E-mail: bachega@ursa.if.sc.usp.br [Instituto de Química de São Carlos, Universidade de São Paulo, São Carlos - SP, CEP 13566-590 (Brazil)

    2011-01-01

    Diffraction data to 3.2 Å from crystals of the 3.6 MDa erythrocruorin from a Brazilian earthworm represent the highest resolution reported to date for similar complexes. An unambiguous molecular replacement solution shows the particle to belong to the type I class. Glossoscolex paulistus is a free-living earthworm encountered in south-east Brazil. Its oxygen transport requirements are undertaken by a giant extracellular haemoglobin, or erythrocruorin (HbGp), which has an approximate molecular mass of 3.6 MDa and, by analogy with its homologue from Lumbricus terrestris (HbLt), is believed to be composed of a total of 180 polypeptide chains. In the present work the full 3.6 MDa particle in its cyanomet state was purified and crystallized using sodium citrate or PEG8000 as precipitant. The crystals contain one-quarter of the full particle in the asymmetric unit of the I222 cell and have parameters of a = 270.8 Å, b = 320.3 Å and c = 332.4 Å. Diffraction data were collected to 3.15 Å using synchrotron radiation on beamline X29A at the Brookhaven National Laboratory and represent the highest resolution data described to date for similar erythrocruorins. The structure was solved by molecular replacement using a search model corresponding to one-twelfth of its homologue from HbLt. This revealed that HbGp belongs to the type I class of erythrocruorins and provided an interpretable initial electron density map in which many features including the haem groups and disulfide bonds could be identified.

  5. Development of A Blood Oxygen Saturation and Heart Rate Signal Collector of Sleeping Environment Regulating System%睡眠环境调节系统的血氧饱和度与心率信号采集环节研制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄俊杰; 孙骁; 刘燕; 黄耀樑

    2012-01-01

    Sleep is the rest stage for energy recovery and storage after daily activities The sleep quality in this stage is closely related to health Temperature, humidity, oxygen content, noise, illumination, anion, etc of the sleeping environment are connected with the sleep quality tightly In order to gain better sleep effect, it is necessary to provide sleeping environment which can be automatically adjusted according to physiological parameters This paper designs the blood oxygen saturation and heart rate signal collector using MSP430F2274 and CC2500 as core module based on the development tool eZ430-RF2500 from Texas Instruments, achieves to collect process and wirelessly transmit pulse signals, and provides measurement methods of physiological parameters for the sleeping environment regulating system%睡眠是人在一天活动后进行精力恢复和能量贮存的休复阶段.该阶段的睡眠质量好坏与身体健康密切相关,而睡眠环境的温度、湿度、氧含量、噪音、光照、负离子等与睡眠质量有着紧密的联系.为了让人可以获得最佳睡眠效果,有必要提供可根据人体生理参数进行自动调节的睡眠环境.基于TI公司的eZ430-RF2500开发工具,设计开发了以MSP430F2274芯片和CC2500芯片为核心模块的血氧与心率信号检测环节,实现对脉搏波信号的采集、处理与无线发送,为睡眠环境调节系统提供前级人体生理参数的测量手段.

  6. Blood haemoglobin concentrations are higher in smokers and heavy alcohol consumers than in non-smokers and abstainers-should we adjust the reference range?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milman, N.; Pedersen, Agnes N.

    2009-01-01

    The blood haemoglobin concentration is one of the most frequently used laboratory parameters in clinical practice. There is evidence that haemoglobin levels are influenced by tobacco smoking. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of smoking and alcohol consumption on haemoglobin...... or equal to seven drinks/week. Smokers displayed similar results. Body mass index per se had no direct influence on haemoglobin levels but had indirect positive influence in men through its correlation with tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. Tobacco smoking has an increasing effect on haemoglobin...... concentrations in both genders, which is proportional to the amount of tobacco smoked. The effect appears to be more pronounced in women. Likewise, high alcohol consumption has an increasing effect on haemoglobin in both genders, being most pronounced in women. However, in clinical biochemistry, the relatively...

  7. Continuous home oxygen therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega Ruiz, Francisco; Díaz Lobato, Salvador; Galdiz Iturri, Juan Bautista; García Rio, Francisco; Güell Rous, Rosa; Morante Velez, Fátima; Puente Maestu, Luis; Tàrrega Camarasa, Julia

    2014-05-01

    Oxygen therapy is defined as the therapeutic use of oxygen and consists of administering oxygen at higher concentrations than those found in room air, with the aim of treating or preventing hypoxia. This therapeutic intervention has been shown to increase survival in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and respiratory failure. Although this concept has been extended by analogy to chronic respiratory failure caused by respiratory and non-respiratory diseases, continuous oxygen therapy has not been shown to be effective in other disorders. Oxygen therapy has not been shown to improve survival in patients with COPD and moderate hypoxaemia, nor is there consensus regarding its use during nocturnal desaturations in COPD or desaturations caused by effort. The choice of the oxygen source must be made on the basis of criteria such as technical issues, patient comfort and adaptability and cost. Flow must be adjusted to achieve appropriate transcutaneous oxyhaemoglobin saturation correction. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. Haemoglobins of the shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni. III. Amino acid sequence of the beta-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, W K; Nash, A R; Thompson, E O

    1977-12-01

    The amino acid sequence of the beta-chain of the principal haemoglobin from the shark H. portusjacksoni has been determined. The chain has 141 residues, the same as that of mammalian alpha-chains and less than the 146 residues of mammalian beta-chains or the 148 residues of the alpha-chain from the tetrameric shark haemoglobin. The sequence was deduced from the sequences of peptides obtained by digestion of the globin or its cyanogen bromide fragments with trypsin, chymotrypsin, pepsin and papain. The difference in length of the beta-chain is most readily accounted for by the absence of the D helix. This small helical section is normally present in myoglobins and beta-globins but absent in alpha-chains. The deduction that it is absent from shark beta-chain is based on consideration of homology. The beta-chain shows the insertion of histidine beta2 and the deletions corresponding to residues A17 and AB1 relative to alpha-and myoglobin chains. The reactive thiol group in shark haemoglobin was shown by radioactive labelling to be residue 51 in the beta-chain, immediately preceding the E helix. The amino acid sequence of shark beta-chain shows 92 differences from human beta-chain, significantly more differences than shown by chicken or frog beta-chains, in line with its earlier time of divergence. If the tertiary structure of the shark beta-chain is the same as that of the horse then there are two changes in the alpha1beta2 contact site in oxyhaemoglobin and an additional one in deoxyhaemoglobin. When both alpha- and beta-chain contacts are considered there is a total of nine changes in residues involved in the alpha1beta2 contacts. There is no Bohr effect in shark haemoglobin, and of the residues normally involved in this effect the C-terminal histidine residue of the beta-chain is present, but the aspartyl (FG1) residue to which it is salt-linked is not, being replaced by a glutamyl residue.

  9. Epidemiological evidence for the role of the haemoglobin receptor, HmbR, in meningococcal virulence

    OpenAIRE

    Harrison, Odile B.; Evans, Nicholas J.; Blair, Jessica M.; Grimes, Holly S.; Tinsley, Colin R.; Nassif, Xavier; Kriz, Paula; Ure, Roisin; Gray, Steve J.; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the haemoglobin receptor gene (hmbR) was investigated in disease and carried Neisseria meningitidis isolates revealing that the gene occurred at a significantly higher frequency in disease isolates compared to those obtained from carriage. Where hmbR was absent, the locus was occupied by the cassettes exl2 or exl3, or with a “pseudo hmbR” gene designated exl4. The hmbR locus in published N. meningitidis genomes, as well as N. gonorrhoeae and N. lactamica ST-640, exhibited ...

  10. Epidemiological evidence for the role of the haemoglobin receptor, HmbR, in meningococcal virulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Odile B.; Evans, Nicholas J.; Blair, Jessica M.; Grimes, Holly S.; Tinsley, Colin R.; Nassif, Xavier; Kriz, Paula; Ure, Roisin; Gray, Steve J.; Derrick, Jeremy P.; Maiden, Martin C.J.; Feavers, Ian M.

    2009-01-01

    The distribution of the haemoglobin receptor gene (hmbR) was investigated in disease and carried Neisseria meningitidis isolates revealing that the gene occurred at a significantly higher frequency in disease isolates compared to those obtained from carriage. Where hmbR was absent, the locus was occupied by the cassettes exl2 or exl3, or with a “pseudo hmbR” gene designated exl4. The hmbR locus in published N. meningitidis genomes, as well as N. gonorrhoeae and N. lactamica ST-640, exhibited characteristics of a pathogenicity island. These data are consistent with a role for the hmbR gene in meningococcal disease. PMID:19476432

  11. Effect of enalapril on haemoglobin and serum erythropoietin in patients with chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Nielsen, O J

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors halt the progression of chronic renal failure. During the first months of a controlled trial of this hypothesis a fall in haemoglobin (Hb) was observed in patients treated with the ACE inhibitor enalapril. It was investigated...... of patients on conventional antihypertensive treatment (n = 32) median Hb was unchanged (7.6 mmol/l) throughout the observation period (p less than 0.001 enalapril vs control). In the enalapril-treated group median EPO concentration fell from 32 to 24 U/l at 90 days of treatment, whereas in conventionally...

  12. Impact of study oximeter masking algorithm on titration of oxygen therapy in the Canadian oxygen trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Barbara; Roberts, Robin S; Whyte, Robin K; Asztalos, Elizabeth V; Poets, Christian; Rabi, Yacov; Solimano, Alfonso; Nelson, Harvey

    2014-10-01

    To compare oxygen saturations as displayed to caregivers on offset pulse oximeters in the 2 groups of the Canadian Oxygen Trial. In 5 double-blind randomized trials of oxygen saturation targeting, displayed saturations between 88% and 92% were offset by 3% above or below the true values but returned to true values below 84% and above 96%. During the transition, displayed values remained static at 96% in the lower and at 84% in the higher target group during a 3% change in true saturations. In contrast, displayed values changed rapidly from 88% to 84% in the lower and from 92% to 96% in the higher target group during a 1% change in true saturations. We plotted the distributions of median displayed saturations on days with >12 hours of supplemental oxygen in 1075 Canadian Oxygen Trial participants to reconstruct what caregivers observed at the bedside. The oximeter masking algorithm was associated with an increase in both stability and instability of displayed saturations that occurred during the transition between offset and true displayed values at opposite ends of the 2 target ranges. Caregivers maintained saturations at lower displayed values in the higher than in the lower target group. This differential management reduced the separation between the median true saturations in the 2 groups by approximately 3.5%. The design of the oximeter masking algorithm may have contributed to the smaller-than-expected separation between true saturations in the 2 study groups of recent saturation targeting trials in extremely preterm infants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Prognostic implications of baseline anaemia and changes in haemoglobin concentrations with amphotericin B therapy for cryptococcal meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugume, L; Morawski, B M; Abassi, M; Bahr, N C; Kiggundu, R; Nabeta, H W; Hullsiek, K H; Taseera, K; Musubire, A K; Schutz, C; Muzoora, C; Williams, D A; Rolfes, M A; Meintjes, G; Rhein, J; Meya, D B; Boulware, D R

    2017-01-01

    Anaemia represents a common toxicity with amphotericin B-based induction therapy in HIV-infected persons with cryptococcal meningitis. We sought to examine the impact of amphotericin-related anaemia on survival. We used data from Ugandan and South African trial participants to characterize the variation of haemoglobin concentrations from diagnosis to 12 weeks post-diagnosis. Anaemia severity was classified based on the haemoglobin concentration at cryptococcal meningitis diagnosis, and nadir haemoglobin values during amphotericin induction. Cox proportional hazard models were used to estimate 2- and 10-week mortality risk. We also estimated 10-week mortality risk among participants with nadir haemoglobin anaemia occurring with amphotericin therapy did not have a statistically significant association with 10-week mortality (HR 2.0; 95% CI 0.5-9.1; P = 0.4). Amphotericin induced significant haemoglobin declines, which were mostly transient and did not impact 10-week mortality. Individuals with moderate to life-threatening anaemia at baseline had a higher mortality risk at 2 and 10 weeks post-enrolment. © 2016 British HIV Association.

  14. Short-term hypoxic vasodilation in vivo is mediated by bioactive nitric oxide metabolites, rather than free nitric oxide derived from haemoglobin-mediated nitrite reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umbrello, Michele; Dyson, Alex; Pinto, Bernardo Bollen; Fernandez, Bernadette O; Simon, Verena; Feelisch, Martin; Singer, Mervyn

    2014-03-01

    Local increases in blood flow--'hypoxic vasodilation'--confer cellular protection in the face of reduced oxygen delivery. The physiological relevance of this response is well established, yet ongoing controversy surrounds its underlying mechanisms. We sought to confirm that early hypoxic vasodilation is a nitric oxide (NO)-mediated phenomenon and to study putative pathways for increased levels of NO, namely production from NO synthases, intravascular nitrite reduction, release from preformed stores and reduced deactivation by cytochrome c oxidase. Experiments were performed on spontaneously breathing, anaesthetized, male Wistar rats undergoing short-term systemic hypoxaemia, who received pharmacological inhibitors and activators of the various NO pathways. Arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, tissue oxygen tension and the circulating pool of NO metabolites (oxidation, nitrosation and nitrosylation products) were measured in plasma and erythrocytes. Hypoxaemia caused a rapid and sustained vasodilation, which was only partially reversed by non-selective NO synthase inhibition. This was associated with significantly lower plasma nitrite, and marginally elevated nitrate levels, suggestive of nitrite bioinactivation. Administration of sodium nitrite had little effect in normoxia, but produced significant vasodilation and increased nitrosylation during hypoxaemia that could not be reversed by NO scavenging. Methodological issues prevented assessment of the contribution, if any, of reduced deactivation of NO by cytochrome c oxidase. In conclusion, acute hypoxic vasodilation is an adaptive NO-mediated response conferred through bioactive metabolites rather than free NO from haemoglobin-mediated reduction of nitrite.

  15. Theory of graphene saturable absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Marini, A; de Abajo, F J Garcia

    2016-01-01

    Saturable absorption is a non-perturbative nonlinear optical phenomenon that plays a pivotal role in the generation of ultrafast light pulses. Here we show that this effect emerges in graphene at unprecedentedly low light intensities, thus opening avenues to new nonlinear physics and applications in optical technology. Specifically, we theoretically investigate saturable absorption in extended graphene by developing a non-perturbative single-particle approach, describing conduction-electron dynamics in the atomically-thin material using the two-dimensional Dirac equation for massless Dirac fermions, which is recast in the form of generalized Bloch equations. By solving the electron dynamics non-perturbatively, we account for both interband and intraband contributions to the intensity-dependent saturated conductivity and conclude that the former dominates regardless of the intrinsic doping state of the material. The results are in excellent agreement with atomistic quantum-mechanical simulations including high...

  16. Effects of iron salts and haemosiderin from a thalassaemia patient on oxygen radical damage as measured in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, D.; Yardley-Jones, A.; Hambly, R.J.; Vives-Bauza, C.; Smykatz-Kloss, V.; Chua-anusorn, W.; Webb, J.

    2000-01-01

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic diseases where haemoglobin synthesis is impaired. This chronic anaemia leads to increased dietary iron absorption, which develops into iron overload pathology. Treatment through regular transfusions increases oxygen capacity but also provides iron through the red c

  17. Effects of iron salts and haemosiderin from a thalassaemia patient on oxygen radical damage as measured in the comet assay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anderson, D.; Yardley-Jones, A.; Hambly, R.J.; Vives-Bauza, C.; Smykatz-Kloss, V.; Chua-anusorn, W.; Webb, J.

    2000-01-01

    Thalassaemia is a group of genetic diseases where haemoglobin synthesis is impaired. This chronic anaemia leads to increased dietary iron absorption, which develops into iron overload pathology. Treatment through regular transfusions increases oxygen capacity but also provides iron through the red

  18. Which blood oxygen can sensitively indicate shock severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Li, Kai; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Clinical shock-monitoring mainly depends on measuring oxygen saturations from SVC blood samples invasively. The golden standard indicator is the central internal jugular vein oxygenation (SjvO2). Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) also can monitor shock in some papers published, but there is no discussion about which oxygen saturation (cerebral venous oxygen saturation, ScvO2; tissue oxygen saturation of internal jugular area; tissue oxygen saturation of extremities areas) can monitor shock patient more sensitively and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to examine which one is most effective. In order to discuss the problem, we continuously detected 56 critical patients who may be into shock state using NIRS oximeter at prefrontal, internal jugular vein area and forearm, and chose 24 patients who were into shock and then out of shock from the 56 critical patients. Combined with the patients' condition, the pulse oxygen saturation is most sensitively to monitoring shock than the others, and the internal jugular vein area oxygen saturation is most effective.

  19. Using oxygen at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oxygen - home use; COPD - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive airways disease - home oxygen; Chronic obstructive lung disease - home oxygen; Chronic bronchitis - home oxygen; Emphysema - home oxygen; Chronic respiratory ...

  20. Haemoglobins of the shark, Heterodontus portusjacksoni II. Amino acid sequence of the alpha-chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, A R; Fisher, W K; Thompson, E O

    1976-03-01

    The amino acid sequence of the alpha-chain of the principal haemoglobin from the shark, H. portusjacksoni has been determined. The chain has 148 residues and is acetylated at the amino terminal. The soluble peptides obtained by tryptic and chymotryptic digestion of the protein or its cyanogen bromide fragments were isolated by gel filtration, paper ionophoresis and paper chromatography. The amino acid sequences were determined by the dansyl-Edman procedure. The insoluble "core" peptide from the tryptic digestion contained 34 residues and required cleavage by several prosteases before the sequence was established. Compared with human alpha-chain there are 88 amino acid differences including the additional seven residues which appear on the amino terminal of the shark chain. There is also one deletion and one insertion. The chain contains no tryptophan but has four cysteinyl residues which is the highest number of such residues recorded for a vertebrate globin. In the alpha1beta1 contact sites there are four changes in the oxyhaemoglobin form and six deoxy form. Nine of the 16, alpha1beta1 contact sites show variation while three of the haem contact sites have changed in comparison to the residues known to be involved in these interactions in horse haemoglobin alpha-chain. Use of the sequence data to estimate a time of divergence of the shark from the main vertebrate line yielded the value of 410 +/- 46 million years. The data, in general, support the palaeontological view that bony fishes arose before the elasmobranchs.

  1. Therapeutic haemoglobin synthesis in beta-thalassaemic mice expressing lentivirus-encoded human beta-globin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, C; Rivella, S; Callegari, J; Heller, G; Gaensler, K M; Luzzatto, L; Sadelain, M

    2000-07-06

    The stable introduction of a functional beta-globin gene in haematopoietic stem cells could be a powerful approach to treat beta-thalassaemia and sickle-cell disease. Genetic approaches aiming to increase normal beta-globin expression in the progeny of autologous haematopoietic stem cells might circumvent the limitations and risks of allogeneic cell transplants. However, low-level expression, position effects and transcriptional silencing hampered the effectiveness of viral transduction of the human beta-globin gene when it was linked to minimal regulatory sequences. Here we show that the use of recombinant lentiviruses enables efficient transfer and faithful integration of the human beta-globin gene together with large segments of its locus control region. In long-term recipients of unselected transduced bone marrow cells, tetramers of two murine alpha-globin and two human betaA-globin molecules account for up to 13% of total haemoglobin in mature red cells of normal mice. In beta-thalassaemic heterozygous mice higher percentages are obtained (17% to 24%), which are sufficient to ameliorate anaemia and red cell morphology. Such levels should be of therapeutic benefit in patients with severe defects in haemoglobin production.

  2. The distribution of haemoglobin C and its prevalence in newborns in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piel, Frédéric B; Howes, Rosalind E; Patil, Anand P; Nyangiri, Oscar A; Gething, Peter W; Bhatt, Samir; Williams, Thomas N; Weatherall, David J; Hay, Simon I

    2013-01-01

    Haemoglobin C (HbC) is one of the commonest structural haemoglobin variants in human populations. Although HbC causes mild clinical complications, its diagnosis and genetic counselling are important to prevent inheritance with other haemoglobinopathies. Little is known about its contemporary distribution and the number of newborns affected. We assembled a global database of population surveys. We then used a Bayesian geostatistical model to create maps of HbC frequency across Africa and paired our predictions with high-resolution demographics to calculate heterozygous (AC) and homozygous (CC) newborn estimates and their associated uncertainty. Data were too sparse outside Africa for this methodology to be applied. The highest frequencies were found in West Africa but HbC was commonly found in other parts of the continent. The expected annual numbers of AC and CC newborns in Africa were 672,117 (interquartile range (IQR): 642,116-705,163) and 28,703 (IQR: 26,027-31,958), respectively. These numbers are about two times previous estimates.

  3. The influence of haemoglobin and iron on in vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition assays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanner, Rachel; O’Shea, Matthew K.; White, Andrew D.; Müller, Julius; Harrington-Kandt, Rachel; Matsumiya, Magali; Dennis, Mike J.; Parizotto, Eneida A.; Harris, Stephanie; Stylianou, Elena; Naranbhai, Vivek; Bettencourt, Paulo; Drakesmith, Hal; Sharpe, Sally; Fletcher, Helen A.; McShane, Helen

    2017-01-01

    The current vaccine against tuberculosis, live attenuated Mycobacterium bovis BCG, has variable efficacy, but development of an effective alternative is severely hampered by the lack of an immune correlate of protection. There has been a recent resurgence of interest in functional in vitro mycobacterial growth inhibition assays (MGIAs), which provide a measure of a range of different immune mechanisms and their interactions. We identified a positive correlation between mean corpuscular haemoglobin and in vitro growth of BCG in whole blood from healthy UK human volunteers. Mycobacterial growth in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from both humans and macaques was increased following the experimental addition of haemoglobin (Hb) or ferric iron, and reduced following addition of the iron chelator deferoxamine (DFO). Expression of Hb genes correlated positively with mycobacterial growth in whole blood from UK/Asian adults and, to a lesser extent, in PBMC from South African infants. Taken together our data indicate an association between Hb/iron levels and BCG growth in vitro, which may in part explain differences in findings between whole blood and PBMC MGIAs and should be considered when using such assays. PMID:28256545

  4. Carrier screening for inherited haemoglobin disorders among secondary school students and young adults in Latium, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Antonio; Cappabianca, Maria Pia; Lerone, Maria; Colosimo, Alessia; Grisanti, Paola; Ponzini, Donatella; Di Biagio, Paola; Perri, Maria; Gianni, Debora; Rinaldi, Silvana; Piscitelli, Roberta

    2014-07-01

    To reduce the incidence of β-thalassaemia major and other severe haemoglobin-related disorders by the early identification of healthy carriers, the Centro Studi Microcitemie Roma has been organising since 1975 a prevention programme in Latium, an Italian central region. This programme entails two different types of carrier screening on a voluntary basis: a universal screening offered to secondary school students and a screening offered to young adults. In 36 years of scholastic screening (from 1975 until 2011), 1,466,100 students have been examined and 26,786 (1.8 %) carriers of non-α thalassaemia have been identified. In the extra-scholastic screening, 388,690 adult subjects (including the carriers' relatives) have been examined and a total of 38,457 (9.9 %) carriers of non-α thalassaemia have been detected. These results demonstrate that the precocious identification of healthy carriers allowed the identification of at-risk couples and reduced to zero the birth of affected babies in the Latium native population. This programme does not involve huge resources and is relatively inexpensive and, as such, it is essential to be offered to the total Latium scholastic and extra-scholastic population, which is epidemiologically changing due to migratory fluxes from countries in which haemoglobin disorders are common.

  5. Haemoglobin fortified cereal: a source of available iron to breast-fed infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertrampf, E; Olivares, M; Pizarro, F; Walter, T; Cayazzo, M; Heresi, G; Llaguno, S; Chadud, P; Stekel, A

    1990-11-01

    We tested in the field an extruded rice flour, fortified with a bovine haemoglobin concentrate (Fe:14 mg/100 g of powder). This cereal has a high iron bioavailability, good protein quality and amino acid score. Healthy, term breast-fed infants were prospectively studied. One group (n = 92) received the fortified cereal (from 4 to 12 months of age). As control, 96 infants received regular solid foods (cooked vegetables and meat) from age 4 months. At the end of the field trial, a subsample of infants in both groups was supplemented with 45 mg Fe during 90 d. Iron nutrition status was determined at 9, 12 and 15 months. At 12 months, iron deficiency anaemia was present in 17 per cent of controls, in 10 per cent of fortified infants as a whole, but only in 6 per cent of the babies who consumed over 30 g of cereal/d. In addition, this latter group did not show any significant changes in iron nutrition status after the supplementation trial. Results demonstrate that the consumption of a haemoglobin fortified cereal is effective in markedly reducing the incidence of iron deficiency in breast-fed infants.

  6. Haemoglobin-fortified cereal: an alternative weaning food with high iron bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, E; Hertrampf, E; de Pablo, S; Amar, M; Stekel, A

    1989-04-01

    Extruded rice flour was fortified with 5 per cent bovine haemoglobin concentrate (BHC). The amino acid score of the product was 59 per cent. The protein efficiency ratio (PER) for the fortified cereal alone was 1.4; however, when given as a mixed diet of cereal and humanized milk (providing 41 and 59 per cent of the protein, respectively) PER was 2.6 (casein standard = 2.5). Iron absorption studies were performed with a double isotope technique, on 10 infants 8-10 months of age. Geometric mean absorption of the rice-BHC iron was 14.2 per cent, as measured with a tag of 55Fe-haemoglobin. The 59Fe-ferrous ascorbate reference dose had a mean absorption of 38.5 per cent. The use of a haem-iron fortified cereal as a weaning food seems feasible and advantageous, supplying an appropriate amount of absorbed iron, an adequate energy density, and a protein which could complement milk protein.

  7. Haemoglobin polymorphism in Gadus morhua: Genotypic differences in maturing age and within-season gonad maturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mork, J.; Giskeödegård, R.; Sundnes, G.

    1983-09-01

    276 specimens of Atlantic cod ( Gadus morhua L.) were caught during spawning in a restricted area of the Trondheimsfjord, Norway, in April and May 1979. Genotypes at the polymorphic haemoglobin locus Hbl differed significantly with respect to mean age at maturation (in males) and mean gonadic development stage (in females). There was no indication of population mixing in the genotypic composition at Hbl or at any of the 4 polymorphic tissue enzyme loci investigated ( LDH-3, IDH-1, PGM, and PGI-1. The findings obtained were considered with regard to temperature-related differences in the functional properties of Hbl molecules, and genotypic differences in growth, age at maturation, and fishing mortality. At the present stage of investigation, the natural selection pattern seems directional and strong. However, the Hbl allele frequencies observed in cod from the examined areas reveal no detectable changes over a period of two decades (˜ 4 generations). The current pattern of commercial exploitation causes, through size selection, a modification of the rate of erosion of the inferior allele, but additional factors must be in force, which play a role in its current abundance in an evolutionary perspective. The observed Hbl genotypic differences in the exact within-season time for spawning might be one such factor. A potential sexual difference in genotypic fitness might be another, but this has yet to be confirmed. The apparent existence of considerable natural and artificial selection forces acting upon cod haemoglobin genotypes makes Hbl allele frequencies unreliable for use in population structure analyses.

  8. A comparison of pulse oximetry and cerebral oxygenation in children with severe sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmo Arroyo, Jorge; Khirani, Sonia; Amaddeo, Alessandro; Griffon, Lucie; De Sanctis, Livio; Pouard, Philippe; Fauroux, Brigitte

    2017-05-31

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to assess the impact of obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) on cerebral oxygenation. However, the relationship between the variations in the cerebral tissue oxygen saturation (ΔTOI) and pulse oximetry (ΔSpO2 ) has not been assessed in children with OSAHS. Consecutive clinically stable children with severe OSAHS [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) >15 events h(-1) ] diagnosed during a night-time polygraphy with simultaneous recording of cerebral oxygenation with NIRS (NIRO-200NX, Hamamatsu Photonics KK) were included between September 2015 and June 2016. Maximal ΔSpO2 (SpO2 drop from the value preceding desaturation to nadir) and concomitant variations in transcutaneous carbon dioxide (ΔPtcCO2 ), maximal ΔTOI and maximal variations in cerebral oxygenated (O2 Hb) and deoxygenated (HHb) haemoglobin were reported. The relationships between ΔSpO2 , ΔPtcCO2 and ΔTOI, ΔO2 Hb and ΔHHb were investigated. The data from five children (three boys, aged 9.6 ± 6.7 years, AHI 16-91 events h(-1) ) were analysed. Strong correlations were found between ΔSpO2 and ΔTOI (r = 0.887, P < 0.001), but also with ΔO2 Hb and ΔHHb with a particular pattern in the youngest child with a dark skin pigmentation. Mean ΔSpO2 was 20 ± 17% and mean ΔTOI was 8 ± 7%. Maximal ΔSpO2 of approximately 70% were coupled with ΔTOI of no more than 35%. ΔPtcCO2 correlated only weakly with the cerebral oxygenation indexes. This pilot study shows a strong relationship between pulse oximetry and cerebral oxygenation in children with OSAHS, with lower changes in TOI compared to SpO2 . Future studies should address the clinical impact of respiratory events on cerebral oxygenation and its consequences. © 2017 European Sleep Research Society.

  9. Method of measuring blood oxygenation based on spectroscopy of diffusely scattered light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleshnin, M. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Kirillin, M. Yu.; Golubyatnikov, G. Yu.; Turchin, I. V.

    2017-05-01

    A new approach to the measurement of blood oxygenation is developed and implemented, based on an original two-step algorithm reconstructing the relative concentration of biological chromophores (haemoglobin, water, lipids) from the measured spectra of diffusely scattered light at different distances from the radiation source. The numerical experiments and approbation of the proposed approach using a biological phantom have shown the high accuracy of the reconstruction of optical properties of the object in question, as well as the possibility of correct calculation of the haemoglobin oxygenation in the presence of additive noises without calibration of the measuring device. The results of the experimental studies in animals agree with the previously published results obtained by other research groups and demonstrate the possibility of applying the developed method to the monitoring of blood oxygenation in tumour tissues.

  10. From tissue iron retention to low systemic haemoglobin levels, new pathophysiological biomarkers of human abdominal aortic aneurysm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez-Pinna, Roxanna; Lindholt, Jes Sanddal; Madrigal-Matute, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Iron deposits are observed in tissue of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients, although the underlying mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Therefore we explored circulating markers of iron metabolism in AAA patients, and tested if they could serve as biomarkers of AAA. Increased red blood...... cell (RBC)-borne iron retention and transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin expression was observed in AAA tissue compared to control aorta (immunohistochemistry and western blot). In contrast, decreased circulating iron, transferrin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC......) and haemoglobin concentration, along with circulating RBC count, were observed in AAA patients (aortic diameter >3 cm, n=114) compared to controls (aortic diameter AAA subjects (MS/MS assay). Moreover, iron, transferrin and haemoglobin levels...

  11. [Evaluation of HbA1c using different methods in haemoglobin variant, Hb J-Bangkok].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawaragi, Wakana; Shibuya, Hitoshi; Yasuda, Keiko; Suzuki, Haruki; Shimizu, Chikara; Matsuno, Kazuhiko

    2009-05-01

    A 31-year-old Japanese man with haemoglobin variant, Hb J-Bangkok [beta56 (D7) Gly-->Asp], was found by discrepant values between HbA1c and glycated-albumin. We measured HbA1c using three different methods, HPLC, enzyme assay and turbidimetric immunoassay. HbA1c value measured by HPLC was much lower than those by others. Furthermore, we estimated calculated glyco-haemoglobin value measured by high-resolution HPLC, revealing that HbA1c values measured by enzyme assay and turbidimetric immunoassay were comparable with calculated value. When measuring HbA1c value in haemoglobin variant, Hb J Bangkok, enzyme assay and turbidimetric immunoassay are useful methods.

  12. The effect of golimumab on haemoglobin levels in patients with rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Jonathan; Wasko, Mary Chester; Keystone, Edward; Kavanaugh, Arthur; Deodhar, Atul; Murphy, Frederick T.; Magnus, Jeanette H.; Hsia, Elizabeth C.; Hsu, Benjamin; Xu, Stephen; Rahman, Mahboob U.; Doyle, Mittie K.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the effect of golimumab on haemoglobin levels in patients with RA, PsA or AS. Methods. Secondary analysis was performed on integrated data from five randomized controlled studies: three RA, one PsA and one AS (2303 patients total). Golimumab 50 or 100 mg was injected s.c. every 4 weeks with or without MTX. Control groups received placebo injections plus MTX or background therapy. Patients with haemoglobin levels below the age- and sex-specific normal ranges were considered to have anaemia. Ferritin levels were used to distinguish anaemia of mixed aetiology (≥15 and <60 ng/ml) and anaemia of inflammation (≥60 ng/ml). Changes from baseline to weeks 14 and 24 in haemoglobin level were compared between treatment groups using an analysis of variance on the van der Waerden normal scores. Results. At baseline, 21% of RA patients, 9% of PsA patients and 15% of AS patients had anaemia. Of these, 24%, 57% and 25%, respectively, had anaemia of inflammation. The median increase from baseline to week 14 in the haemoglobin level of anaemic patients was 0.3 g/dl in the control group and 0.9 g/dl in the golimumab group (P < 0.001). Haemoglobin levels improved within the subgroups of patients with anaemia of mixed aetiology (control, 0.4 g/dl vs golimumab, 0.7 g/dl) (P = 0.305) and with anaemia of inflammation (0.2 vs 1.4 g/dl, respectively) (P < 0.001). Conclusion. Compared with the control group, patients receiving golimumab treatment had significantly improved haemoglobin levels, particularly among patients with anaemia of inflammation. PMID:23838027

  13. Extraction of haemoglobin from human blood by affinity precipitation using a haptoglobin-based stimuli-responsive affinity macroligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stocker-Majd, Gisela; Hilbrig, Frank; Freitag, Ruth

    2008-06-13

    Affinity precipitation was compared to affinity chromatography and batch adsorption as the final purification step in a protocol for the isolation of haemoglobin from human blood. Haptoglobin was the affinity ligand. The first steps on the process were realized by traditional methods (lyses of red blood cells followed by ammonium sulphate precipitation). For affinity chromatography (and batch adsorption) the ligand was linked to Sepharose, for affinity precipitation to a thermoresponsive polymer, namely poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Five haptoglobin-poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) bioconjugates (affinity macroligands) were constructed with different polymer: haptoglobin-coupling ratios. Conjugation of haptoglobin to the soluble poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) apparently does not change the interaction thermodynamics with haemoglobin, as the haemoglobin binding constants calculated by a Scatchard analysis for the affinity macroligand were of the same order of magnitude as those described in the literature for the haemoglobin-haptoglobin complex in solution. Two elution protocols were used for haemoglobin release from the various affinity materials, one at pH 2, the other with 5 M urea at pH 11. Both affinity chromatography and affinity precipitation yielded a pure haemoglobin of high quality. Compared to the affinity chromatography, affinity precipitation showed a significantly higher ligand efficiency (ratio of the experimental capacity to the theoretical one). The method thus makes better use of the expensive affinity ligands. As affinity precipitation only requires small temperature changes to bring about precipitation/redissolution of the affinity complexes and a centrifugation step for recovery of the precipitate, the method in addition has advantages in term of scalability and simplicity.

  14. Haplotype analyses of haemoglobin C and haemoglobin S and the dynamics of the evolutionary response to malaria in Kassena-Nankana District of Ghana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Ghansah

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Haemoglobin S (HbS and C (HbC are variants of the HBB gene which both protect against malaria. It is not clear, however, how these two alleles have evolved in the West African countries where they co-exist at high frequencies. Here we use haplotypic signatures of selection to investigate the evolutionary history of the malaria-protective alleles HbS and HbC in the Kassena-Nankana District (KND of Ghana. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The haplotypic structure of HbS and HbC alleles was investigated, by genotyping 56 SNPs around the HBB locus. We found that, in the KND population, both alleles reside on extended haplotypes (approximately 1.5 Mb for HbS and 650 Kb for HbC that are significantly less diverse than those of the ancestral HbA allele. The extended haplotypes span a recombination hotspot that is known to exist in this region of the genome SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings show strong support for recent positive selection of both the HbS and HbC alleles and provide insights into how these two alleles have both evolved in the population of northern Ghana.

  15. Saturation and High Density QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Mueller, A. H.

    2005-01-01

    Recent progress in understanding general properties of high energy scattering near the unitarity limit, where high density gluon components of the wavefunction are dominant, is reviewed. The similarity of the QCD problem and that of reaction-diffusion processes in statistical physics is emphasized. The energy dependence of the saturation momentum and the status of geometric scaling are discussed.

  16. Aspirin-mediated acetylation of haemoglobin increases in presence of high glucose concentration and decreases protein glycation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Finamore

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Glycation represents the first stage in the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin was shown to prevent sugars reacting with proteins, but the exact mechanism of this interaction was not well defined. We performed a quantitative analysis to calculate the levels of acetylation and glycation of haemoglobin, among others red blood cell (RBC proteins, using a label free approach. After glucose incubation, increases in the acetylation levels were seen for several haemoglobin subunits, while a parallel decrease of their glycation levels was observed after aspirin incubation. These results suggest that, a mutual influence between these two modifications, occur at protein level.

  17. Tissue specific haemoglobin gene expression suggests adaptation to local marine conditions in North Sea flounder (Platichthys flesus L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, P.F.; Eg Nielsen, Einar; Hansen, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    of the haemoglobin alpha and beta subunit genes was studied in reciprocally transplanted European flounder Platichthys flesus from the highly saline North Sea and the brackish Baltic Sea. Clear differences in expression patterns of haemoglobin alpha and beta subunit genes were found among different types of tissue....... Finally, for kidney tissue a stress response was observed in one population, with gene up-regulation when North Sea flounders were transplanted to low salinity. This study underlines the importance of tissue specific gene expression and the significance of gene expression for evolution of local adaptation...... in high gene flow marine fishes. © 2013 The Genetics Society of Korea...

  18. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones (chemical group 9 when used as flavourings for all animal species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available

    Chemical group 9 consists of primary aliphatic saturated or unsaturated alcohols/aldehydes/acids/acetals/esters with a second primary, secondary or tertiary oxygenated functional group including aliphatic lactones, of which 30 are currently authorised for use as flavours in food. The FEEDAP Panel was unable to perform an assessment of 2-oxopropanal because of issues related to the purity of the compound. The FEEDAP Panel concludes that lactic acid, succinic acid, fumaric acid, 4-oxovaleric acid, ethyl lactate, butyl lactate, butyl-O-butyryllactate, hex-3-enyl lactate, hexyl lactate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl 4-oxovalerate, diethylsuccinate and diethyl malonate are considered to be safe for all animal species at the use levels proposed when used as feed flavourings; octano-1,4-lactone, nonano-1,4-lactone, decano-1,4-lactone and undecano-1,4-lactone are safe at 20 mg/kg complete feed; butyro-1,4-lactone, pentano-1,4-lactone, hexano-1,4-lactone, heptano-1,4-lactone, octano-1,5-lactone, nonano-1,5-lactone, decano-1,5-lactone and undecano-1,5-lactone at 5 mg/kg complete feed; dodecano-1,4-lactone, dodecano-1,5-lactone, tetradecano-1,5-lactone, and pentadecano-1,15-lactone at a maximum of 1.5 mg/kg complete feed for cattle, salmonids and non food producing animals and of 1 mg/kg complete feed for pigs and poultry. No safety concern was identified for the consumer from the use of compounds belonging to CG 9 up to the highest safe level in feedingstuffs for all animal species. All compounds should be considered as irritants to skin, eyes and respiratory tract, and as skin sensitizers. The compounds do not pose a risk to the environment when used at concentrations considered safe for the target species. Since all compounds are used in food as flavourings, no further demonstration of efficacy is necessary.

  19. Effect of oxygen treatment on heart rate after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg-Adamsen, S; Lie, C; Bernhard, A;

    1999-01-01

    . METHODS: The authors studied the effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate in 100 consecutive unselected patients randomly and double blindly allocated to receive air or oxygen therapy between the first and fourth day after major abdominal surgery. RESULTS: The median arterial...... supplementation were found between patients with or without an epidural catheter or between the postoperative day studied. CONCLUSION: Postoperative oxygen therapy increased arterial oxygen saturation and decreased heart rate after uncomplicated abdominal surgery in a consecutive unselected group of patients who......BACKGROUND: Cardiac complications are common during the postoperative period and may be associated with hypoxemia and tachycardia. Preliminary studies in high-risk patients after operation have shown a possible beneficial effect of oxygen therapy on arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate...

  20. [Apneic oxygenation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseev, A V; Vyzhigina, M A; Parshin, V D; Fedorov, D S

    2013-01-01

    Recent technological advances in thoracic and tracheal surgery make the anaesthesiologist use different respiratory techniques during the operation. Apneic oxygenation is a one of alternative techniques. This method is relatively easy in use, does not require special expensive equipment and is the only possible technique in several clinical situations when other respiratory methods are undesirable or cannot be used. However there is no enough information about apneic oxygenation in Russian. This article reviews publications about apneic oxygenation. The review deals with experiments on diffusion respiration in animals, physiological changes during apneic oxygenation in man and defines clinical cases when apneic oxygenation can be used.

  1. Serendipity: A Rare Discovery of Haemoglobin D-Iran in An Indian Female During Routine Antenatal Screening for β-Thalassemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandel, Rittu Surjit; Roy, Abhishek; Abichandani, Leela Gul

    2015-07-01

    Haemoglobin D is a rare form of haemoglobinopathy in homozygous form. However, the heterozygous form of the disease is clinically silent and relatively easier to find in North-West India, Pakistan and Iran. Haemoglobin D is sometimes found to be coexistent with Haemoglobin S and/or Thalassaemia leading to clinically significant conditions like sickle cell anaemia with mild to moderate splenomegaly. In India the more prevalent form is Haemoglobin D-Punjab (also known as Hb D- Los Angeles) which has a prevalence of 2% in Punjab and around 1% in Gujarat. However, the variant, Haemoglobin D- Iran is very rare in India in heterozygous as well as homozygous forms. This report is of a 36-year-old female, who visited for an antenatal check up. On analysing the blood sample using Agarose Gel Electrophoresis in Alkaline media, the migration of abnormal haemoglobin to haemoglobin S/D/G region was observed. Sickle cell solubility test was negative. On capillary electrophoresis, peak in the Haemoglobin D Zone was seen.

  2. Accuracy of non-invasive measurement of haemoglobin concentration by pulse co-oximetry during steady-state and dynamic conditions in liver surgery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J. J.; Kalmar, A. F.; Struys, M. M. R. F.; Porte, R. J.; Wietasch, J. K. G.; Scheeren, T. W. L.; Hendriks, H. G. D.

    2012-01-01

    Background: The Masimo Radical 7 (Masimo Corp., Irvine, CA, USA) pulse co-oximeter calculates haemoglobin concentration (SpHb) non-invasively using transcutaneous spectrophotometry. We compared SpHb with invasive satellite-lab haemoglobin monitoring (Hb(satlab)) during major hepatic resections both

  3. Efficacy and Prognosis of Monitoring Pulse Oxygen Saturation During Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention with ST-segment Elevation Myocardial Infarction%急诊PCI中监测血氧饱和度对急性S T段抬高型心肌梗死的疗效和预后的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红雷; 董平栓; 尚喜燕; 邢适颖; 李治国; 曲红培

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the relationship between pulse oxygen saturation (SpO2 ) during primary percutaneous coronary intervention(PCI)in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI)and its clinical efficacy and prognostic value. Methods We studied 126 STEMI patients who monitored pulse oxygen saturation continuously during primary PCI.According to the SpO2 ,the patients were divided into the observation group(n=58,SpO2 90%), observing the number of the stenotic vessls,left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV ),left ventricular end-diastolic volume(LVEDV)and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)4 weeks after PCI,and also analyzing the major adverse cardiac events (MACE ) and six-minute walk test between the hospitalization period and 1 year after PCI. Results There were no significant differences in sex,age,susceptible factors (eg hypertension,hyperlipidemia,diabetes mellitus,smoking,et al),hemoglobin level,original heart disease history,door to balloon time and the number of stent implantation between the two groups in the baseline characteristics.The number of the stenotic vessls in the observation group was more than the observation group [P<0.05],and the percentage of infarct-related artery in the left anterior descending artery was also higher (P<0.05).The diameters of LVESV,LVEDV were larger,and the LVEF was lower than the control group. The incidence of MACE between the hospitalization period and 1 month after PCI in the observation group was higher,while shorter with the six-minute walk test than the control group. Conclusion The SpO2 during primary PCI with STEMI is a reliable index in evaluating the clinical efficacy and prognostic value,which can guide clinical practice.%目的:探讨急诊经皮冠状动脉介入治疗(PCI)术中脉搏血氧饱和度(SpO2)水平与急性 ST段抬高型心肌梗死(STEMI)患者临床疗效和预后的关系。方法选择进行急诊PCI术的STEMI患者126例,依据 SpO2

  4. Cerebral Tissue Oxygenation during Immediate Neonatal Transition and Resuscitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Gerhard; Schmölzer, Georg M.; Urlesberger, Berndt

    2017-01-01

    This article provides a review of cerebral tissue oxygenation during immediate transition after birth in human neonates. Recommended routine monitoring, especially if resuscitation is needed, during this period includes arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate measured by pulse oximetry and electrocardiogram. However, there is increasing interest to monitor in addition with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) the oxygenation of the brain. There is a different pattern of increase between cerebral tissue oxygenation and arterial oxygen saturation during the immediate transition, with cerebral tissue oxygenation reaching a plateau faster than arterial oxygen saturation. Differences can be explained, since cerebral tissue oxygenation is not only affected by arterial oxygen saturation but also by cerebral blood flow, hemoglobin content, and cerebral oxygen consumption. Normal values have already been established for different devices, gestational ages, and modes of delivery in neonates without any medical support. Cerebral hypoxia during immediate transition might cause brain damage. In preterm neonates with cerebral hemorrhage evolving in the first week after birth, the cerebral tissue oxygenation is already lower in the first minutes after birth compared to preterm neonates without cerebral hemorrhage. Using cerebral NIRS in combination with intervention guidelines has been shown to reduce the burden of cerebral hypoxia in preterm neonates. Cerebral tissue oxygenation during immediate transition seems to have an impact on outcome, whereby NIRS monitoring is feasible and has the advantage of continuous, non-invasive recording. The impact of NIRS monitoring and interventions on short- and long-term outcomes still need to be evaluated. PMID:28280719

  5. Two unusual cases of haemoglobin Bart's hydrops fetalis due to uniparental disomy or non-paternity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, K O; Lee, Helena; Lau, Betty; Wong, W S; Kan, Anita; Tang, Mary; Lau, Elizabeth T; Poon, C F; Leung, K Y

    2014-01-01

    The authors present 2 unusual cases of haemoglobin (Hb) Bart's hydrops fetalis and highlight the problem of a screening system for α-thalassaemia which focuses on maternal and paternal mean corpuscular volume (MCV) alone. Normal paternal MCV may not preclude fetal Hb Bart's disease because of the rare occurrence of maternal uniparental disomy or non-paternity. During a mid-trimester anomaly scan, with fetal cardiomegaly or hydrops in a woman with low MCV but normal paternal MCV, obstetricians should remain alert for fetal Hb Bart's disease. This is very important and relevant for national screening systems in South-East Asia, where a routine mid-trimester scan may not be available. A routine mid-trimester anomaly scan should therefore be implemented and in high prevalence areas, sonographers should be sensitive to the cardio-thoracic ratio even if screening shows that pregnancy is unlikely to be at risk.

  6. Haemoglobin phenotypes of the wild European mouflon sheep living on the island of Sardinia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naitana, S; Ledda, S; Cocco, E; Manca, L; Masala, B

    1991-01-01

    Haemoglobin (Hb) phenotypes have been studied in 100 wild European mouflons living on the island of Sardinia by means of isoelectric focusing (pH 6.7-7.7 range) of the native tetramers, acid-urea-Triton gel-electrophoresis, and reversed-phase HPLC of globin chains. The result indicates the presence of two beta-globin alleles one of which, corresponding to the beta B, being the most common (f = 0.94). None were carriers of the earlier described Hb A. The new Hb was provisionally named Hb M. Severely anaemic mouflons were able to synthesize Hb C at expense of the Hb B alone, thus suggesting structural and physiological homologies between mouflon beta B and sheep beta A globin genes, and between the newly observed beta M allele and the beta B of the domestic Sardinian sheep.

  7. Radioimmunoassay of haemoglobin F in K 562 cells following induction with renin substrate and erythropoietin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenloef, K.; Fyhrquist, F.; Hortling, L.; Groenhagen-Riska, C. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Minerva Inst. for Medical Research; Helsinki Univ. (Finland). 4th Dept. of Medicine)

    1985-06-01

    To test the hypothesis of renin substrate (RS: angiotensinogen) being a precursor of erythropoietin (EP), the capacity of RS and EP to induce Hb synthesis was compared in cultured human erythroid leukaemia cells of the K 562 line after prestimulation with haemin. For this purpose a radioimmunoassay for haemoglobin F (HbF) was developed. This assay was shown to be specific for HbF, reproducible, and sensitive for 0.1 ng of HbF. The cells were induced by RS and EP to increased HbF production. Cells stimulated with RS or EP showed increased benzidine staining. These data support the hypothesis that renin substrate is a likely precursor of erythropoietin.

  8. Saturation of Van Allen's belts

    CERN Document Server

    Le Bel, E

    2002-01-01

    The maximum number of electrons that can be trapped in van Allen's belts has been evaluated at CEA-DAM more precisely than that commonly used in the space community. The modelization that we have developed allows to understand the disagreement (factor 50) observed between the measured and predicted electrons flux by US satellites and theory. This saturation level allows sizing-up of the protection on a satellite in case of energetic events. (authors)

  9. Saturation of the turbulent dynamo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schober, J; Schleicher, D R G; Federrath, C; Bovino, S; Klessen, R S

    2015-08-01

    The origin of strong magnetic fields in the Universe can be explained by amplifying weak seed fields via turbulent motions on small spatial scales and subsequently transporting the magnetic energy to larger scales. This process is known as the turbulent dynamo and depends on the properties of turbulence, i.e., on the hydrodynamical Reynolds number and the compressibility of the gas, and on the magnetic diffusivity. While we know the growth rate of the magnetic energy in the linear regime, the saturation level, i.e., the ratio of magnetic energy to turbulent kinetic energy that can be reached, is not known from analytical calculations. In this paper we present a scale-dependent saturation model based on an effective turbulent resistivity which is determined by the turnover time scale of turbulent eddies and the magnetic energy density. The magnetic resistivity increases compared to the Spitzer value and the effective scale on which the magnetic energy spectrum is at its maximum moves to larger spatial scales. This process ends when the peak reaches a characteristic wave number k☆ which is determined by the critical magnetic Reynolds number. The saturation level of the dynamo also depends on the type of turbulence and differs for the limits of large and small magnetic Prandtl numbers Pm. With our model we find saturation levels between 43.8% and 1.3% for Pm≫1 and between 2.43% and 0.135% for Pm≪1, where the higher values refer to incompressible turbulence and the lower ones to highly compressible turbulence.

  10. Effect of epidural blockade and oxygen therapy on changes in subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, U; Erichsen, C J

    1994-01-01

    oxygen tension, arterial oxygen saturation, heart rate, and skin temperature on the day after operation, and arterial blood for gas analysis was drawn every 15 min during the study. A fluid challenge (10 ml saline/kg body wt) did not alter any of the measured values. The epidural blockade did not change...

  11. Haemoglobin C and S role in acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum malaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Verra

    Full Text Available A recently proposed mechanism of protection for haemoglobin C (HbC; beta6Glu-->Lys links an abnormal display of PfEMP1, an antigen involved in malaria pathogenesis, on the surface of HbC infected erythrocytes together with the observation of reduced cytoadhesion of parasitized erythrocytes and impaired rosetting in vitro. We investigated the impact of this hypothesis on the development of acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum variant surface antigens (VSA encoding PfEMP1 in HbC in comparison with HbA and HbS carriers of Burkina Faso. We measured: i total IgG against a single VSA, A4U, and against a panel of VSA from severe malaria cases in human sera from urban and rural areas of Burkina Faso of different haemoglobin genotypes (CC, AC, AS, SC, SS; ii total IgG against recombinant proteins of P. falciparum asexual sporozoite, blood stage antigens, and parasite schizont extract; iii total IgG against tetanus toxoid. Results showed that the reported abnormal cell-surface display of PfEMP1 on HbC infected erythrocytes observed in vitro is not associated to lower anti- PfEMP1 response in vivo. Higher immune response against the VSA panel and malaria antigens were observed in all adaptive genotypes containing at least one allelic variant HbC or HbS in the low transmission urban area whereas no differences were detected in the high transmission rural area. In both contexts the response against tetanus toxoid was not influenced by the beta-globin genotype. These findings suggest that both HbC and HbS affect the early development of naturally acquired immunity against malaria. The enhanced immune reactivity in both HbC and HbS carriers supports the hypothesis that the protection against malaria of these adaptive genotypes might be at least partially mediated by acquired immunity against malaria.

  12. GLYCOSYLATED HAEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IS A DEFINITIVE PREDICTOR OF DIABETIC NEPHROPATHY- A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saroja

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Diabetes Mellitus is a part of a metabolic syndrome, which leads to severe morbidity and mortality. It has emerged as an illness which is beset with numerous complications and incapacitation. Out of all complications Diabetic Nephropathy takes a heavy toll on our health system. Therefore, it is imperative to find not only a cure, but also a feature which predicts the onset of the disease. Fortunately, microalbuminaria (Excretion of minute quantities of albumin in urine is one such factor. Moreover, it is also linked to glycemic control which in turn is reflected by glycosylated haemoglobin levels which can be measured with reasonable accuracy. Also the stage of MA is reversible. Our study was an attempt at correlating the two factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 100 patients (50 T2DM patients without DN and 50 T2DM patients with DN who attended the Medical and Nephrology In-Patient and Out-Patient Departments of Gandhi Hospital. Clinical DN was diagnosed by the presence of albumin excretion and creatinine clearance. Estimation of glycosylated hemoglobin was done by Cation-Exchange chromatography. Micral-Test strip was used to screen for Microalbuminuria Percentage of hemoglobin was estimated by modified Sahli-Adam’s method. RESULTS Significant correlation was found between levels of HbA1c and occurrence of MA as all MA cases in patients of T2DM without DN had >8% HbA1c levels. Mean MA levels were compared between in T2DM and Diabetic Nephropathy which showed statistical significance. CONCLUSION Our study reiterates the correlation between glycosylated haemoglobin levels and microalbuminuria. As MA occurs prior to overt Diabetic Nephropathy, it predicts the onset of the latter. Also MA is a disturbance in renal function in early DN, which is reversible and hence can be targeted for preventive measures.

  13. Malaria and gravidity interact to modify maternal haemoglobin concentrations during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ouédraogo Smaïla

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primigravidity is one of the main risk factors for both malaria and anaemia. Since the implementation of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp in sub-Saharan Africa, the relationship between anaemia and gravidity and its evolution during pregnancy has been little explored. This study aimed to evaluate the impact of gravidity on the variation of haemoglobin during pregnancy according to the timing of gestation. Methods Data from three studies carried out in nearby areas in south Benin (Ouidah, Comé, Allada between 2005 and 2012 were analysed. At inclusion (first antenatal visit, ANV1 women’s age, area of residence, schooling, gravidity, gestational age, weight and height were recorded. Thick blood smears were performed on ANV1, second visit (ANV2 and at delivery. In Allada, women’s serum ferritin and CRP concentrations were also assessed. The impact of gravidity on maternal haemoglobin (Hb was analysed using a logistic or linear regression depending on the outcome. The statistical significance was set to P Results In total, data from 3,591 pregnant women were analysed. Both univariate and multivariate analyses showed a constant association between Hb concentrations and gravidity in the three periods of Hb assessment (ANV1, ANV2 and delivery. Mean Hb concentration was significantly lower in primigravidae than in multigravidae at ANV1 (mean difference = -2.4 g/L, CI 95%: [-3.4, -1.4], P Conclusion In a context of IPTp, Hb levels improved progressively throughout pregnancy in primigravidae, likely as a result of reduction in malaria infection. In multigravidae, the improvement was less perceptible and anaemia was mainly due to iron deficiency.

  14. Altitude Exposure at 1800 m Increases Haemoglobin Mass in Distance Runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A. Garvican-Lewis, Iona Halliday, Chris R. Abbiss, Philo U. Saunders, Christopher J. Gore

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of low natural altitudes (< 2000 m on erythropoietic adaptation is currently unclear, with current recommendations indicating that such low altitudes may be insufficient to stimulate significant increases in haemoglobin mass (Hbmass. As such, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of 3 weeks of live high, train high exposure (LHTH at low natural altitude (i.e. 1800 m on Hbmass, red blood cell count and iron profile. A total of 16 elite or well-trained runners were assigned into either a LHTH (n = 8 or CONTROL (n = 8 group. Venous blood samples were drawn prior to, at 2 weeks and at 3 weeks following exposure. Hbmass was measured in duplicate prior to exposure and at 2 weeks and at 3 weeks following exposure via carbon monoxide rebreathing. The percentage change in Hbmass from baseline was significantly greater in LHTH, when compared with the CONTROL group at 2 (3.1% vs 0.4%; p = 0.01; and 3 weeks (3.0% vs -1.1%; p < 0.02, respectively following exposure. Haematocrit was greater in LHTH than CONTROL at 2 (p = 0.01 and 3 weeks (p = 0.04 following exposure. No significant interaction effect was observed for haemoglobin concentration (p = 0.06, serum ferritin (p = 0.43, transferrin (p = 0.52 or reticulocyte percentage (p = 0.16. The results of this study indicate that three week of natural classic (i.e. LHTH low altitude exposure (1800 m results in a significant increase in Hbmass of elite distance runners, which is likely due to the continuous exposure to hypoxia.

  15. SATURATED PICRIC ACID PREVENTS AUTOPHAGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Rahimi-Movaghar

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available "nThe dysesthesia and paresthesia that occurs in laboratory rats after spinal cord injury (SCI results in autophagia. This self-destructive behavior interferes with functional assessments in designed studies and jeopardizes the health of the injured rat. In this study, we evaluated role of saturated picric acid in the prevention of autophagia and self-mutilation. All rats were anesthetized with an intraperitoneal injection of a mixture of ketamine (100 mg/kg and xylazine (10 mg/kg for the SCI procedures. In the first 39 rats, no solution applied to the hind limbs, but in the next 26 cases, we smeared the saturated picric acid on the tail, lower extremities, pelvic, and abdomen of the rats immediately after SCI. In the rats without picric acid, 23 rats died following autophagia, but in the 26 rats with picric acid, there was no autophagia (P < 0.001. Picric acid side effects in skin and gastrointestinal signs such as irritation, redness and diarrhea were not seen in any rat. Saturated picric acid is a topical solution that if used appropriately and carefully, might be safe and effectively prevents autophagia and self-mutilation. When the solution is applied to the lower abdomen and limbs, we presume that its bitterness effectively prevents the rat from licking and biting the limb.

  16. Response of oxygen saturation in preterm infants receiving rib cage stabilization with an elastic band in two body positions: a randomized clinical trial Resposta da saturação de oxigênio no recém-nascido pré-termo com estabilização do gradil costal por meio da faixa elástica em duas posições corporais: ensaio clínico randomizado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa A. A. Brunherotti

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Preterm newborns have higher thoracic compliance, providing less stability to the different forces of distortion imposed on the rib cage, leading to instability of the chest. Adequate body position may reduce this instability and facilitate respiratory work. OBJECTIVE: To assess the oxygen saturation response of preterm newborns receiving rib cage stabilization with an elastic band in two body positions. METHOD: A clinical, prospective, randomized crossover study was conducted, including sixteen newborns with a gestational age of 31 to 35 weeks (mean 32.8 weeks at a tertiary care facility, who did not receive supplemental oxygen. The infants were placed in a sequence of prone and supine positions with and without chest stabilization with an elastic band. Respiratory rate, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were measured at 10-minute intervals, corresponding to 7 samplings of 60 minutes. Data collection was interrupted when oxygen saturation was less than 90%. RESULTS: The mean gestational age of the infants was 32.8±1.5 weeks and the mean birth weight was 1,789±255g. Better values for the variables studied were observed in the supine position with an elastic chest band compared to the supine position without the band. The positions using an elastic band resulted in lower mean respiratory rate and heart rate and higher oxygen saturation. CONCLUSION: The use of an elastic chest band improves respiratory indicators such as oxygen saturation. CONTEXTUALIZAÇÃO: Os recém-nascidos pré-termos possuem maior complacência torácica, oferecendo menor estabilidade às diferentes forças de distorção impostas à parede torácica, o que leva à instabilidade da caixa torácica. A posição corporal adequada pode diminuir essa instabilidade, facilitando o trabalho respiratório. OBJETIVO: Verificar a resposta da saturação de oxigênio em recém-nascido pré-termo com estabilização do gradil costal com faixa elástica em dois

  17. The importance of pre-treatment haemoglobin level in inoperable non-small cell lung carcinoma treated with radical radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Langendijk, H; de Jong, J; Wanders, R; Lambin, P; Slotman, B

    2003-01-01

    Background and purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of the pre-treatment haemoglobin level among patients with inoperable non-small cell lung carcinorna (NSCLC) treated with definitive radiotherapy with regard to loco-regional tumour control (LC) and overall

  18. Preferred temperature of juvenile Atlantic cod Gadus morhua with different haemoglobin genotypes at normoxia and moderate hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Maria Faldborg; Steffensen, John Fleng

    2003-01-01

    in northern regions, and the HbI(1) allele dominant in warmer areas. To determine if temperature is a selective parameter in the distribution of the haemoglobin types, the preferred temperature of the homozygous genotypes HbI-1 and HbI-2 was measured. We found that HbI-2 cod preferred a temperature of 8...

  19. A single point mutation is the cause of the Greek form of Hereditary Persistence of foetal haemoglobin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Berry (Meera); F.G. Grosveld (Frank); N.O. Dillon (Niall)

    1992-01-01

    textabstractIn normal humans the fetal stage-specific gamma-globin genes are silenced after birth and not expressed in the adult. Exceptions are seen in cases of hereditary persistence of fetal haemoglobin (HPFH). These are clinically important because the elevated levels of gamma-globin can allevia

  20. Arterial blood gas analysers: accuracy in determining haemoglobin, glucose and electrolyte concentrations in critically ill adult patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, L M; Hamnett, N; Wilkin, R; Sheikh, A

    2013-01-01

    Arterial blood gas (ABG) machines are vital tools in the assessment of critically ill patients. Current ABG point-of-care (POC) analysers provide information on concentrations of haemoglobin, glucose and electrolytes in addition to acid-base balance. Awaiting results from venous analysers may present a significant delay in diagnosis and management, thus reliance on arterial blood gas determination of these parameters is increasing. However, published data on the concordance between the two modalities are limited. This study aims to assess the concordance of ABG machines in analysing haemoglobin, glucose and electrolyte concentrations compared to standard venous analysers as the gold standard. Results from 100 patients undergoing ABG analysis and simultaneous venous sampling without therapeutic intervention between sampling were compared. Differences in haemoglobin, glucose, sodium and potassium concentrations were determined and analysed using statistical software (Statview). There was a significant difference (P 5 mmol/L), ABG readings varied significantly (P Arterial blood gas analysers are invaluable for rapid assessment of critically ill patients; however, estimations of haemoglobin, glucose and potassium concentrations (> 5 mmol/L) obtained from such machines should be interpreted with caution and confirmed using standard venous samples.

  1. Association between glycated haemoglobin and the risk of congestive heart failure in diabetes mellitus : systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erqou, Sebhat; Lee, Chee-Tin Christine; Suffoletto, Matthew; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B.; de Boer, Rudolf A.; van Melle, Joost P.; Adler, Amanda I.

    Clinical trials to date have not provided definitive evidence regarding the effects of glucose lowering on the incidence of congestive heart failure (CHF). We synthesized available prospective epidemiological data on the association between glycaemia measured by haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) and

  2. Effects of Rambutan Peel Extract to The Number of Erythrocytes and Haemoglobin in Rats Exposed to Cigarette Smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisdiana; Dewi, F. K.

    2017-04-01

    Cigarette smoke is one of the exogenous free radicals sources. When it is inhaled, its activity may damage the structure of erythrocyte membrane function. The impacts of free radicals can be reduced through the provision of antioxidants. Rambutan fruit peel contains the phenolic compound in the form of polyphenols that are antioxidants. The purpose of this study is to determine the effect of rambutan fruit peel extracts to the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rats exposed to cigarette smoke. This design used Post Test Control Group Design. A sample of 25 rats was divided into five groups, each group consisting of 5 rats. The positive control group (K+) were given a standard food and drinking water. The negative control group (K) by three cigarettes, the treatment group (KP1, KP2, KP3) by three cigarettes and skin extract of rambutan each treatment group with a dose 15 mg/kg, 30 mg/kg and 45 mg/kg for 30 days. Data on the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in rat blood was analysed with LSD and to determine the optimum dosage was analysed by using regression test. Research results shown that the content of rambutan fruit peel extract may increase the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin of blood. Conclusions from this research are the rambutan fruit peel extract at a dose of 45 mg/kg body weight can increase and maintain the number of erythrocytes and haemoglobin in the blood of rat exposed to cigarette smoke.

  3. Soil applied cobalt alters the nodulation, leg-haemoglobin content and antioxidant status of Glycine max (L.) Merr.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayakumar, Kaliyamoorthy; Vijayarengan, Packirisamy; Changxing, Zhao; Gomathinayagam, M.; Jaleel, Cheruth Abdul

    2008-01-01

    The present investigation has been carried out to estimate the effect of cobalt on the nodulation leg-haemoglobin content and antioxidant enzyme activities of soybean plants. The experiments were conducted in earthen pots containing 3 kg of air dried soil. The inner surface of pots was lined with po

  4. Selective label-free electrochemical impedance measurement of glycated haemoglobin on 3-aminophenylboronic acid-modified eggshell membranes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boonyasit, Yuwadee; Heiskanen, Arto; Chailapakul, Orawan

    2015-01-01

    We propose a novel alternative approach to long-term glycaemic monitoring using eggshell membranes (ESMs) as a new immobilising platform for the selective label-free electrochemical sensing of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), a vital clinical index of the glycaemic status in diabetic individuals. Du...

  5. Active oxygen doctors the evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló, Ana; Francès, Francesc; Corella, Dolores; Verdú, Fernando

    2009-02-01

    Investigation at the scene of a crime begins with the search for clues. In the case of bloodstains, the most frequently used reagents are luminol and reduced phenolphthalein (or phenolphthalin that is also known as the Kastle-Meyer colour test). The limitations of these reagents have been studied and are well known. Household cleaning products have evolved with the times, and new products with active oxygen are currently widely used, as they are considered to be highly efficient at removing all kinds of stains on a wide range of surfaces. In this study, we investigated the possible effects of these new cleaning products on latent bloodstains that may be left at a scene of a crime. To do so, various fabrics were stained with blood and then washed using cleaning agents containing active oxygen. The results of reduced phenolphthalein, luminol and human haemoglobin tests on the washed fabrics were negative. The conclusion is that these new products alter blood to such an extent that it can no longer be detected by currently accepted methods employed in criminal investigations. This inability to locate bloodstains means that highly important evidence (e.g. a DNA profile) may be lost. Consequently, it is important that investigators are aware of this problem so as to compensate for it.

  6. Operational Considerations for Oxygen Flammability Risks: Concentrated Oxygen Diffusion and Permeation Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Susana; Smith, Sarah; Juarez, Alfredo; Hirsch, David

    2010-01-01

    Increased human spaceflight operations utilize oxygen concentrations that are frequently varied with use of concentrations up to 100 percent oxygen. Even after exiting a higher percentage oxygen environment, high oxygen concentrations can still be maintained due to material saturation and oxygen entrapment between barrier materials. This paper examines the material flammability concerns that arise from changing oxygen environments during spaceflight operations. We examine the time required for common spacecraft and spacesuit materials exposed to oxygen to return to reduced ignitability and flammability once removed from the increased concentration. Various common spacecraft materials were considered: spacecraft cabin environment foams, Extra Vehicular Mobility Unit materials and foams, Advanced Crew Escape Suit materials, and other materials of interest such as Cotton, Nomex^ HT90-40, and Tiburon Surgical Drape. This paper presents calculated diffusion coefficients derived from experimentally obtained oxygen transmission rates for the tested materials and the analytically derived times necessary for reduced flammability to be achieved based on NASA flammability criteria. Oxygen material saturation and entrapment scenarios are examined. Experimental verification data on oxygen diffusion in saturation scenarios are also presented and discussed. We examine how to use obtained data to address flammability concerns during operational planning to reduce the likelihood of fires while improving efficiency for procedures.

  7. Independent associations of fasting insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin with stroke and coronary heart disease in older women.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbie A Lawlor

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that variations in fasting glucose and insulin amongst those without frank type 2 diabetes mellitus are important determinants of cardiovascular disease. However, the relative importance of variations in fasting insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin as risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women without diabetes is unclear. Our aim was to determine the independent associations of fasting insulin, glucose, and glycated haemoglobin with coronary heart disease and stroke in older women. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We undertook a prospective cohort study of 3,246 British women aged 60-79 y, all of whom were free of baseline coronary heart disease, stroke, and diabetes, and all of whom had fasting glucose levels below 7 mmol/l. Fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment for insulin sensitivity (HOMA-S were linearly associated with a combined outcome of coronary heart disease or stroke (n = 219 events, but there was no association of fasting glucose or glycated haemoglobin with these outcomes. Results were similar for coronary heart disease and stroke as separate outcomes. The age, life-course socioeconomic position, smoking, and physical activity adjusted hazard ratio for a combined outcome of incident coronary heart disease or stroke per one standard deviation of fasting insulin was 1.14 (95% CI 1.02-1.33. Additional adjustment for other components of metabolic syndrome, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting glucose, and glycated haemoglobin had little effect on this result. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that in women in the 60-79 y age range, insulin resistance, rather than insulin secretion or chronic hyperglycaemia, is a more important risk factor for coronary heart disease and stroke. Below currently used thresholds of fasting glucose for defining diabetes, neither fasting glucose nor glycated haemoglobin are associated with cardiovascular disease.

  8. From tissue iron retention to low systemic haemoglobin levels, new pathophysiological biomarkers of human abdominal aortic aneurysm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Pinna, R; Lindholt, J S; Madrigal-Matute, J; Blanco-Colio, L M; Esteban-Salan, M; Torres-Fonseca, M M; Lefebvre, T; Delbosc, S; Laustsen, J; Driss, F; Vega de Ceniga, M; Gouya, L; Weiss, G; Egido, J; Meilhac, O; Michel, J-B; Martin-Ventura, J

    2014-07-03

    Iron deposits are observed in tissue of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) patients, although the underlying mechanisms are not completely elucidated. Therefore we explored circulating markers of iron metabolism in AAA patients, and tested if they could serve as biomarkers of AAA. Increased red blood cell (RBC)-borne iron retention and transferrin, transferrin receptor and ferritin expression was observed in AAA tissue compared to control aorta (immunohistochemistry and western blot). In contrast, decreased circulating iron, transferrin, mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and haemoglobin concentration, along with circulating RBC count, were observed in AAA patients (aortic diameter >3 cm, n=114) compared to controls (aortic diameter aortic diameter in AAA patients. The association of low haemoglobin with AAA presence or aortic diameter was independent of specific risk factors. Moreover, MCHC negatively correlated with thrombus area in another cohort of AAA patients (aortic diameter 3-5 cm, n=357). We found that anaemia was significantly more prevalent in AAA patients (aortic diameter >5 cm, n=8,912) compared to those in patients with atherosclerotic aorto-iliac occlusive disease (n=17,737) [adjusted odds ratio=1.77 (95% confidence interval: 1.61;1.93)]. Finally, the mortality risk among AAA patients with anaemia was increased by almost 30% [adjusted hazard ratio: 1.29 (95% confidence interval: 1.16;1.44)] as compared to AAA subjects without anaemia. In conclusion, local iron retention and altered iron recycling associated to high hepcidin and low transferrin systemic concentrations could lead to reduced circulating haemoglobin levels in AAA patients. Low haemoglobin levels are independently associated to AAA presence and clinical outcome.

  9. Oxygen Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    LTOT is prescribed for people with chronic lung disease in whom there is a decrease in the ability of the lungs to supply enough oxygen to the body. The heart is obliged to pump faster to meet the body's oxygen requirements. This may place undue stress on the heart, resulting in palpitations, dizziness and fatigue. A low oxygen level in arterial blood is also harmful to the heart, the brain and the pulmonary blood vessels. Oxygen therapy is used to break this cycle. A person with low blood ox...

  10. Continuous assessment of oxygen saturation and subcutaneous oxygen tension after abdominal operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Ullstad, T; Larsen, P N

    1990-01-01

    O2, but not PscO2, followed the episodic variations in SpO2. PscO2 was 58 mmHg (46-69) on the second postoperative night and 61 mmHg (48-71) on the third postoperative night. PscO2 correlated with SpO2 in all but one patient who had lower PscO2 than expected from the measured SpO2 and estimated PaO2...

  11. The correlation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation and POCD in older patients undergoing SLV during thoracic surgery%老年食管癌患者全身麻醉术后认知功能障碍与术中脑氧饱和度变化的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁超; 孙莉; 张燕; 王海; 承耀中; 赵桂军

    2012-01-01

    目的 研究老年食管癌患者全身麻醉术后认知功能障碍(POCD)与术中脑氧饱和度(rSO2)降低之间的关系.方法 随机选取78例年龄大于65岁,拟静吸复合全身麻醉下行左后外切口开胸食管癌根治术的患者,采用双腔支气管导管进行单肺通气(SLV)管理,应用脑氧饱和度监测仪监测从清醒状态到气管拔管阶段的脑氧饱和度( rSO2)变化,并观察记录脑电双频指数(BIS)和标准监测参数,在对应时间点进行血气分析,所有患者术后均使用静脉镇痛,在术前2天和术后4天采用简易智力状态检查法(MMSE)评估患者认知功能,根据评估结果分为POCD组和非POCD组,进行对比研究.结果 64例老年食管癌患者入组,全身麻醉术后POCD发生率为28.1% (18/64);在SLV期间,rSO2绝对值低于50%的患者比率为29.7%( 19/64),POCD与rSO2绝对值低于50%具有明显相关性;POCD组的MMSE基线变化率明显大于非POCD组.结论 老年食管癌患者术后早期POCD发病率较高,与单肺通气期间脑氧饱和度绝对值低于50%有明显相关性.%Objective To study the correlation between regional cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) changes and POCD in older esophageal cancer patients undergoing SLV during thoracic surgery. Methods Seventy-eight esopha-geal cancer patients participated in this study, age ≥ 65 years old, each of whom received general anesthesia and SLV using double-lumen endotracheal tube, rSO2 was measured using INVOS 5100B (Somanetics, Troy, MI, USA) before anesthesia (baseline value) and until SLV was completed. Patient cognitive function was assessed u-sing the mini mental state examination (MMSE) on the day before surgery (baseline) and then repeated 4 days after surgery. The bispectral index ( BIS) , standard monitoring parameters and blood gas analysis was observed and recorded at the corresponding time points. The patients were classified into two groups: with (group POCD) and without (non

  12. The effect of the ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of different concentration of sodium chloride on the Pulse Oxygen Saturation%不同浓度氯化钠溶液超声雾化吸入对支气管哮喘急性发作期患者血氧饱和度和肺通气功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱建勇; 曾玉琴; 邝军; 陈功; 张立波; 何敏

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of the ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of different concentration of sodium chloride on the Pulse Oxygen Saturation (SPO2 ) and pulmonary ventilation function of the patients with bronchial asthma in acute episode. Methods The mild-middle patients with bronchial asthma in acute episode (case group, n= 110) and health people ( health group, n= 58) were chosen randomly. After the ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of distilled water,0.45%, 0. 9% and 1. 8% sodium chloride solution for 15 minutes, SPO2, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and peak expiratory flow (PEF) were measured at different time points. Results After the ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of the different solution, the SPO2 of two groups were lower than before. The FEV1, PEF levels in the case group decreased gradually with the increase of sodium chloride concentration. There was significant difference( t= 2. 253 ~6. 751, P<0.05). Conclusion Compared to the inhalation of 0.45 %, 0.9% and 1.8% sodium chloride solution, ultrasonic atomizing inhalation of distilled water would had the least side effect on pulmonary ventilation function for the patients with bronchial asthma in acute episode.%目的 研究不同浓度氯化钠溶液超声雾化吸入对支气管哮喘急性发作期患者血氧饱和度和肺通气功能的影响.方法 随机选取支气管哮喘急性发作期轻、中度病人110例(病例组)和健康人群(健康组)58例,通过超声雾化分别吸入蒸馏水、0.45%、0.9%、1.8%氯化钠溶液各15 min,然后将吸入不同溶液时的血氧饱和度(SPO2)、第一秒用力呼气容积(FEV1)和最大呼气流量(PEF)值进行比较.结果 两组超声雾化吸入各种溶液时SPO2均有下降;在病例组随着超声雾化液中氧化钠浓度的增高,FEV.、PEF值依次降低,差异具有统计学意义(t=2.253~6.751,P<0.05).结论 与0.45%、0.9%、1.8%氯化钠溶液相比较,超声雾化吸入蒸馏水对支气管

  13. Rapid and accurate estimation of blood saturation, melanin content, and epidermis thickness from spectral diffuse reflectance.

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    We present a method to determine chromophore concentrations, blood saturation, and epidermal thickness of human skin from diffuse reflectance spectra. Human skin was approximated as a plane-parallel slab of variable thickness supported by a semi-infinite layer corresponding to the epidermis and dermis, respectively. The absorption coefficient was modeled as a function of melanin content for the epidermis and blood content and oxygen saturation for the dermis. The scattering coefficient and re...

  14. Promoter analysis by saturation mutagenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baliga Nitin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Gene expression and regulation are mediated by DNA sequences, in most instances, directly upstream to the coding sequences by recruiting transcription factors, regulators, and a RNA polymerase in a spatially defined fashion. Few nucleotides within a promoter make contact with the bound proteins. The minimal set of nucleotides that can recruit a protein factor is called a cis-acting element. This article addresses a powerful mutagenesis strategy that can be employed to define cis-acting elements at a molecular level. Technical details including primer design, saturation mutagenesis, construction of promoter libraries, phenotypic analysis, data analysis, and interpretation are discussed.

  15. Appreciating Oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Hilton M.

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic flora and microfauna utilize light from the sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into carbohydrates and oxygen. While these carbohydrates and their derivative hydrocarbons are generally considered to be fuels, it is the thermodynamically energetic oxygen molecule that traps, stores, and provides almost all of the energy that…

  16. Comparative efficiency of oxygen therapy in patients (smokers and non-smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.G. Zarubina and I.O. Prokhorenko

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in clinical efficacy of oxygen therapy takes place in patients suffering from chronic pulmonary obstructive disease who continue smoking even if the intensity of smoking is getting lower. It is explained by the damage of oxygen utilization regardless of normalization of arterial blood saturation indices and perfusion oxygen saturation indices in blood flow.

  17. Comparative efficacy of oxygen therapy in patients (smokers and non-smokers with chronic pulmonary obstructive disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starodumov N.I.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The decrease in clinical efficacy of oxygen therapy takes place in patients suffering from chronic pulmonary obstructive disease who continue smoking even if the intensity of smoking is getting lower. It is explained by the damage of oxygen utilization regardless of normalization of arterial blood saturation indices and perfusion oxygen saturation indices in blood flow

  18. Severe hypoxaemia in field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros (Ceratotherium simum and effects of using tracheal insufflation of oxygen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bush

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available White rhinoceros anaesthetised with etorphine and azaperone combination develop adverse physiological changes including hypoxia, hypercapnia, acidosis, tachycardia and hypertension. These changes are more marked in field-anaesthetised rhinoceros. This study was designed to develop a technique to improve safety for field-anaesthetised white rhinoceros by tracheal intubation and oxygen insufflation. Twenty-five free-ranging white rhinoceros were anaesthetised with an etorphine and azaperone combination for translocation or placing microchips in their horns. Once anaesthetised the rhinoceros were monitored prior to crating for transportation or during microchip placement. Physiological measurements included heart and respiratory rate, blood pressure and arterial blood gas samples. Eighteen rhinoceros were intubated using an equine nasogastric tube passed nasally into the trachea and monitored before and after tracheal insufflation with oxygen. Seven rhinoceros were not intubated or insufflated with oxygen and served as controls. All anaesthetised rhinoceros were initially hypoxaemic (percentage arterial haemoglobin oxygen saturation (% O2Sa = 49 % + 16 (mean + SD and PaO2 = 4.666 + 1.200 kPa (35 + 9 mm Hg, hypercapnic (PaCO2 = 8.265 + 1.600 kPa (62 + 12 mm Hg and acidaemic (pHa = 7.171 + 0.073 . Base excess was -6.7 + 3.9 mmol/ℓ, indicating a mild to moderate metabolic acidosis. The rhinoceros were also hypertensive (systolic blood pressure = 21.861 + 5.465 kPa (164 + 41 mm Hg and tachycardic (HR = 107 + 31/min. Following nasal tracheal intubation and insufflation, the % O2Sa and PaO2 increased while blood pHa and PaCO2 remained unchanged.Tracheal intubation via the nose is not difficult, and when oxygen is insufflated, the PaO2 and the % O2Sa increases, markedly improving the safety of anaesthesia, but this technique does not correct the hypercapnoea or acidosis. After regaining their feet following reversal of the anaesthesia, the animals

  19. Effect of Nitrogen Compounds on the Oxidation Stability of Saturate Fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOUYasong; LINShixiong

    2002-01-01

    A custom built dynamic oxygen uptake tester was used to study the influence of nitrogen compounds on the oxidation characteristics of the saturate fractions from mineral base oils. Expermental results indicate that nitrogen compounds,especially quinoline and indole,take part in the oxidation of saturates.It is also found that indole is more active than quinoline. The latter can be oxidized partly into ketoimine,and the former is more rapidly oxidized into acylamide.The oxidation products, ketoimine or acylamide, could inhibit the oxidation of the saturates by decomposing hydroperoxide.The influences of indole and quinoline on oxidation of saturates are more complex.For lower nitrogen content, the oxidation processes were accelerated.However, at high nitrogen content, the oxidation induction peroids were increased. The oxidation characteristics of saturates were also dependent on the type of catalysts presented.

  20. 右美托咪定对老年腹腔镜手术患者脑氧饱和度及术后认知功能的影响%Effect of dexmedetomidine on cerebral oxygen saturation and cognitive function in elder patients after laparoscopic surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昀; 张华; 于泳浩

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨右美托咪定对老年患者行腹腔镜手术脑氧饱和度(SctO2)的变化及术后认知功能的影响。方法:选择妇科及直肠腹腔镜手术年龄≥60岁患者40例,ASA分级Ⅰ~Ⅱ级,体质量指数18~25 kg/m2,随机分为两组:右美托咪定组(D组,n=20)和对照组(C组,n=20)。麻醉方法为气管插管全身麻醉,D组10 min泵注右美托咪定0.5μg/kg,并按0.3μg/(kg·h)持续泵注;C组给予等量生理盐水。应用FORE-SIGHT近红外光仪监测SctO2,收集入室时(T0)、面罩吸氧后(T1)、气腹前(T2)和气腹30 min (T3)的SctO2、动脉氧分压(PaO2)、动脉二氧化碳分压(PaCO2)、平均动脉压(MAP)。术前1 d及术后24 h对患者进行简易智能精神状态检查量表(MMSE)测试评分,计算术后认知功能障碍(POCD)发生率。结果:两组患者SctO2、PaCO2及MAP在T3时较T2时增高(P<0.05);与术前相比,C组患者术后24 h MMSE降低(P<0.05)。结论:右美托咪定对老年腹腔镜手术患者SctO2没有明显影响,但是可以降低POCD的发生率。%Objective:To observe the effect of dexmedetomidine on cerebral oxygen saturation (SctO2) and cognitive function in elder patients after laparoscopic surgery. Methods:Forty patients aged 60 years and older, ASAⅠ-Ⅱpatients, undergoing gynecological or rectal laparoscopic surgery were randomly divided into 2 groups(n=20 each):dexmedetomidine group (group D) and control group (group C). The anesthesia method was general anesthesia with tracheal intubation. The FORE-SIGHT near infrared instrument was used to monitor SctO2. SctO2, PaO2, PaCO2 and MAP were collected in baseline (T0), after oxygen by mask (T1), before pneumoperitoneum (T2) and 30 minutes after pneumoperitoneum (T3). The cognitive functions of patients in both groups were tested with mini-mental state examination (MMSE). Test scores at 1 day before surgery, 24 hours after

  1. Saturated versus non-saturated two-scales permeability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Elena; Ammar, Amine; Abisset-Chavanne, Emmanuelle; Binetruy, Christophe; Chinesta, Francisco

    2016-10-01

    A crucial step in many composites manufacturing processes is the impregnation of fibrous medium with the resin. The fundamental property needed to quantify the flow is the permeability of the fibrous medium. Process models require the permeability as input data to predict flow patterns and pressure fields. Efficient numerical techniques are needed to solve homogenization problems with geometrical data coming from high-resolution images, involving two-scales and linear fluids. Within this frame-work, this work addresses the question of how to compute the macroscopic permeability from a microscopic description consisting of a viscous fluid flow model defined in a two-scale porous medium, considering the saturated and unsaturated cases.

  2. Passive migration barriers using slow release oxygen compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norris, R.D. [Eckenfelder, Inc., Nashville, TN (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Odencrantz, J. [TRI-S Environmental Corp., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes passive barriers for controlling downgradient plume migration in contaminated aquifers. Numerous field studies using migration barriers to control benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylene (BTEX) plumes are briefly summarized. The barriers consist of a patented oxygen release compound placed in a row of wells transecting a BTEX plume. Oxygen is slowly released to the saturated zone, thus enhancing natural biodegradation. Migration is controlled by matching the oxygen release rate to the flux and oxygen demand of the dissolved contaminants.

  3. The use of saturation in qualitative research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Janiece L

    2012-01-01

    Understanding qualitative research is an important component of cardiovascular nurses' practice and allows them to understand the experiences, stories, and perceptions of patients with cardiovascular conditions. In understanding qualitative research methods, it is essential that the cardiovascular nurse understands the process of saturation within qualitative methods. Saturation is a tool used for ensuring that adequate and quality data are collected to support the study. Saturation is frequently reported in qualitative research and may be the gold standard. However, the use of saturation within methods has varied. Hence, the purpose of this column is to provide insight for the cardiovascular nurse regarding the use of saturation by reviewing the recommendations for which qualitative research methods it is appropriate to use and how to know when saturation is achieved. In understanding saturation, the cardiovascular nurse can be a better consumer of qualitative research.

  4. Effect of oxygen therapy on late postoperative episodic and constant hypoxaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenberg, J; Pedersen, M H; Gebuhr, Peter Henrik;

    1992-01-01

    monitored with a pulse oximeter on the second night after operation (23:00 to 07:00), receiving either 21% or 37% oxygen by face mask in a randomized double-blind design. Mean oxygen saturation was greater in the group receiving 37% oxygen than in those having 21% oxygen (96% vs 92%, P less than 0...

  5. Oxygen uptake kinetics of Pseudomonas chlororaphis grown in glucose- or glutamate-limited continuous cultures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodelier, P.L.E.; Laanbroek, H.J.

    1997-01-01

    Oxygen uptake and glucose and glutamate oxidation kinetics of the heterotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas chlororaphis grown in glucose- or glutamate-limited cultures under oxygen-saturating or oxygen-limiting conditions were determined. Km values for oxygen were 1.4– 5.6 UM. Only in the case of glucose

  6. Holographic Pomeron: Saturation and DIS

    CERN Document Server

    Stoffers, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We briefly review the approach to dipole-dipole scattering in holographic QCD developed in ARXIV:1202.0831. The Pomeron is modeled by exchanging closed strings between the dipoles and yields Regge behavior for the elastic amplitude. We calculate curvature corrections to this amplitude in both a conformal and confining background, identifying the holographic direction with the virtuality of the dipoles. The it wee-dipole density is related to the string tachyon diffusion in both virtuality and the transverse directions. We give an explicit derivation of the dipole saturation momentum both in the conformal and confining metric. Our holographic result for the dipole-dipole cross section and the it wee-dipole density in the conformal limit are shown to be identical in form to the BFKL pomeron result when the non-critical string transverse dimension is $D_\\perp=3$. The total dipole-dipole cross section is compared to DIS data from HERA.

  7. Heating of food and haemoglobin adducts from carcinogens: possible precursor role of glycidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindsø Landin, H; Tareke, E; Rydberg, P; Olsson, U; Törnqvist, M

    2000-11-01

    Studies of adducts from reactive compounds to haemoglobin (Hb) by gas chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry according to the N-alkyl Edman method reveals the occurrence of N-(2,3-dihydroxypropyl)valine (diHOPrVal) at levels of 1-2 pmol/g Hb, in persons without known exposure. The hypothesis that this background originates from glycidol or related compounds during heating of food was tested in experiments with rats. Animals fed fried animal feed for 30 or 72 days showed an increase of the diHOPrVal level by about 50% compared with controls. Several arguments, such as the formation of reactive oxiranes by heat-induced dehydration of glycol configurations in glycerol and sugars, support the idea that glycidol (or e.g. glycidyl esters) are precursors of the adduct. In Hb samples, reduced for stabilisation of aldehyde adducts, relatively high levels of adducts determined as diHOPrVal were found, although without significant relation to frying of the feed. There is thus no indication that reduction in vivo of, for example, the Schiff base from glyceraldehyde, is a pathway for formation of the diHOPrVal. The background level of diHOPrVal in humans Hb is low, and the cancer risk associated with exposure to the specific alkylator-probably glycidol-formed in cooking, is therefore presumably low. The result implies, however, that low-molecular mass mutagenic oxiranes formed during the heating of food should be studied further.

  8. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; de Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio De; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron. PMID:25946243

  9. Exploring the Nitric Oxide Detoxification Mechanism of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Truncated Haemoglobin N

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bidon-Chanal, A.; Martí, M. A.; Estrín, D. A.; Luque, F. J.

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of human tuberculosis, encodes a haemoprotein named Truncated Haemoglobin N (trHbN), which in its active site transforms nitric oxide (NO) to nitrate anion.left( {{text{NO}}_3^ - } right). The NO-dioxygenase activity of trHbN seems to be crucial for the bacillus, which can survive under the nitrosative stress conditions that occur upon infection of the host. As a defense mechanism against the copious amounts of NO produced by macrophages upon infection, the protein must achieve a high level of NO-dioxygenase activity to eliminate NO, but this is modulated by its efficiency in capturing O2 and NO. Migration of small diatomic ligands through the protein matrix is related to the presence of a doubly branched tunnel system connecting the surface and the haem cavity site. In this work, we have studied the mechanism that controls ligand diffusion and product egression with state-of-the-art molecular dynamics simulations. The results support a dual path mechanism for migration of O2 and NO through distinct branches of the tunnel, where migration of NO is facilitated upon binding of O2 to the haem group. Finally, egression of left( {{text{NO}}_3^ - } right) is preceded by the entrance of water to the haem cavity and occurs through a different pathway. Overall, the results highlight the intimate relationship between structure, dynamical behavior and biological function of trHbN.

  10. Haemoglobin status and predictors of anaemia among pregnant women in Mpigi, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ononge, Sam; Campbell, Oona; Mirembe, Florence

    2014-10-10

    Anaemia in pregnancy is a major public health problem especially in the low-income countries where it is highly prevalent. There has been no recent study in Uganda about the factors associated with anaemia in pregnancy. We aimed to assess the current haemoglobin (Hb) status and factors associated with anaemia (Hb anaemia were estimated using linear and logistic regression analysis. The mean Hb was 11.5 (± 1.38) g/dl and prevalence of anaemia (Hb anaemia in pregnancy were malaria infection (OR: 1.32, 95% CI: 1.11, 1.58), Human Immuno-deficiency Virus infection (OR: 2.13, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.90) and lack of iron supplementation (OR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.36, 2.03). Intermittent presumptive treatment of malaria, maternal age and parity showed a weak association with anaemia in pregnancy The high prevalence of anaemia in pregnancy in our setting highlights the need to put more effort in the fight against malaria and HIV, and also ensure that pregnant women access iron supplements early in pregnancy.

  11. Haemoglobin level in relation to vitamin D status in infants and toddlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vitamin D Deficiency (VDD is defined as the level of 25(OHD in the serum < 30 ng/ml. According to the contemporary research, even the slight vitamin D deficiency can adversely affect our body in many ways. Numerous studies indicate that vitamin D deficiency is very common in children. The study aimed to research the frequency of vitamin D deficiency in infants and toddlers, the connection between VDD and iron deficiency anemia (IDA, as well as the correlation between 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OHD and haemoglobin (Hb in the examinees. Method: The study includes 150 children, 73 (49% newborns and 77 (51% infants. Vitamin D status was determined through the amount of 25(OHD in blood, using the electrochemiluminescence. Results: Vitamin D Deficiency was found in 58% of infants and toddlers (severe vitamin D deficiency was found in 16% of examinees, vitamin D deficiency was found in 23% of examinees, while vitamin D insufficiency was found in 19% of examinees. Vitamin D deficiency (VDD and anaemia were found in 80% of examined infants and toddlers. VDD was found in 49% of newborns that were not anaemic. We have observed the substantial difference between the examinees suffering from both anaemia and VDD and the examinees suffering from VDD only. Conclusion: The highest level on anaemia was found in the children with severe vitamin D deficiency, while in the examined infants and toddlers, there was a connection between the level of 25(OHD and Hb in the serum.

  12. The thermal and storage stability of bovine haemoglobin by ultraviolet–visible and circular dichroism spectroscopies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchir Bhomia

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of temperature, pH and long-term storage on the secondary structure and conformation changes of bovine haemoglobin (bHb were studied using circular dichroism (CD and ultraviolet--visible (UV–vis spectroscopies. Neural network software was used to deconvolute the CD data to obtain the fractional content of the five secondary structures. The storage stability of bHb solutions in pH 6, 7 and 8 buffers was significantly higher at 4 °C than at 23 °C for the first 3 days. A complete denaturation of bHb was observed after 40 days irrespective of storage temperature or pH. The bHb solutions were also exposed to heating and cooling cycles between 25 and 65 °C and structural changes were followed by UV–vis and CD spectroscopies. These experiments demonstrated that α-helix content of bHb decreased steadily with the increasing temperature above 35 °C at all pH values. The loss in α-helicity and gain in random coil conformations was pH-dependent and the greatest under alkaline conditions. Furthermore, there was minimal recovery of the secondary structure content upon cooling to 25 °C. The use of bHb as a model drug is very common and this study elucidates the significance of storage and processing conditions on its stability.

  13. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Silva, Nícolas Luiz Feijó; Kist, Luiza Wilges; Oliveira, Giovanna Medeiros Tavares de; Bogo, Maurício Reis; Carli, Geraldo Atillio de; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2015-04-01

    Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB) and haemin (HM) enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5'-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  14. Iron from haemoglobin and haemin modulates nucleotide hydrolysis in Trichomonas vaginalis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia de Brum Vieira

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular ATP may act as a danger signalling molecule, inducing inflammation and immune responses in infection sites. The ectonucleotidases NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase are enzymes that modulate extracellular nucleotide levels; these enzymes have been previously characterised in Trichomonas vaginalis. Iron plays an important role in the complex trichomonal pathogenesis. Herein, the effects of iron on growth, nucleotide hydrolysis and NTPDase gene expression in T. vaginalis isolates from female and male patients were evaluated. Iron from different sources sustained T. vaginalis growth. Importantly, iron from haemoglobin (HB and haemin (HM enhanced NTPDase activity in isolates from female patients and conversely reduced the enzyme activity in isolates from male patients. Iron treatments could not alter the NTPDase transcript levels in T. vaginalis. Furthermore, our results reveal a distinct ATP, ADP and AMP hydrolysis profile between isolates from female and male patients influenced by iron from HB and HM. Our data indicate the participation of NTPDase and ecto-5’-nucleotidase in the establishment of trichomonas infection through ATP degradation and adenosine production influenced by iron.

  15. Characterization of Spbhp-37, a haemoglobin-binding protein of Streptococcus pneumoniae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena eRomero-Espejel

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pneumoniae is a Gram-positive microorganism that is the cause of bacterial pneumonia, sinusitis and otitis media. This human pathogen also can cause invasive diseases such as meningitis, bacteremia and septicemia. Haemoglobin