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Sample records for haematocrit layer geometry

  1. Influence of Antenatal Care on the Haematocrit Value of Pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Context: Antenatal care is generally believed to influence the outcome of any pregnancy. Haematocrit values are important in the assessment of anaemia in pregnancy. A good antenatal care is expected to be associated with good haematocrit values, prevent anaemia in pregnancy, and result in an overall good pregnancy ...

  2. Postoperative Haematocrit and Outcome in Critically Ill Surgical Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Ana Martins; Silva, Diana; Sousa, Gabriela; Silva, Joana; Santos, Alice; Abelha, Fernando José

    2017-08-31

    Haematocrit has been studied as an outcome predictor. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between low haematocrit at surgical intensive care unit admission and high disease scoring system score and early outcomes. This retrospective study included 4398 patients admitted to the surgical intensive care unit between January 2006 and July 2013. Acute physiology and chronic health evaluation and simplified acute physiology score II values were calculated and all variables entered as parameters were evaluated independently. Patients were classified as haematocrit if they had a haematocrit < 30% at surgical intensive care unit admission. The correlation between admission haematocrit and outcome was evaluated by univariate analysis and linear regression. A total of 1126 (25.6%) patients had haematocrit. These patients had higher rates of major cardiac events (4% vs 1.9%, p < 0.001), acute renal failure (11.5% vs 4.7%, p < 0.001), and mortality during surgical intensive care unit stay (3% vs 0.8%, p < 0.001) and hospital stay (12% vs 5.9%, p < 0.001). A haematocrit level < 30% at surgical intensive care unit admission was frequent and appears to be a predictor for poorer outcome in critical surgical patients. Patients with haematocrit had longer surgical intensive care unit and hospital stay lengths, more postoperative complications, and higher surgical intensive care unit and hospital mortality rates.

  3. Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary pattern, haemoglobin and haematocrit status of pregnant women in Ogbaru ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... 220 out of 733 pregnant women attending antenatal clinics in the health centres within the three communities.

  4. Determination of haematocrit using Mindray BC-2800Vet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A comparative cross sectional study was carried out between September and November 2014 to determine the haematocrit values obtained using automated haematology analyser and the microhaematocrit (manual) methods. A total of 197 cattle were sampled. Three (3) ml of blood was obtained from each animal into an ...

  5. Whole blood coagulation time, haematocrit, haemoglobin and total ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to determine the values of whole blood coagulation time (WBCT), haematocrit (HM), haemaglobin (HB) and total protein (TP) of one hundred and eighteen apparently healthy turkeys reared under an extensive management system in Zaria. The mean values for WBCT, HM, HB and TP were 1.12 ...

  6. Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Sossinsky, A B

    2012-01-01

    The book is an innovative modern exposition of geometry, or rather, of geometries; it is the first textbook in which Felix Klein's Erlangen Program (the action of transformation groups) is systematically used as the basis for defining various geometries. The course of study presented is dedicated to the proposition that all geometries are created equal--although some, of course, remain more equal than others. The author concentrates on several of the more distinguished and beautiful ones, which include what he terms "toy geometries", the geometries of Platonic bodies, discrete geometries, and classical continuous geometries. The text is based on first-year semester course lectures delivered at the Independent University of Moscow in 2003 and 2006. It is by no means a formal algebraic or analytic treatment of geometric topics, but rather, a highly visual exposition containing upwards of 200 illustrations. The reader is expected to possess a familiarity with elementary Euclidean geometry, albeit those lacking t...

  7. Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . In the previous article we looked at the origins of synthetic and analytic geometry. More practical minded people, the builders and navigators, were studying two other aspects of geometry- trigonometry and integral calculus. These are actually ...

  8. Organic photovoltaic devices with a single layer geometry (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolesov, Vladimir A.; Fuentes-Hernandez, Canek; Aizawa, Naoya; Larrain, Felipe A.; Chou, Wen-Fang; Perrotta, Alberto; Graham, Samuel; Kippelen, Bernard

    2016-09-01

    Organic photovoltaics (OPV) can lead to a low cost and short energy payback time alternative to existing photovoltaic technologies. However, to fulfill this promise, power conversion efficiencies must be improved and simultaneously the architecture of the devices and their processing steps need to be further simplified. In the most efficient devices to date, the functions of photocurrent generation, and hole/electron collection are achieved in different layers adding complexity to the device fabrication. In this talk, we present a novel approach that yields devices in which all these functions are combined in a single layer. Specifically, we report on bulk heterojunction devices in which amine-containing polymers are first mixed in the solution together with the donor and acceptor materials that form the active layer. A single-layer coating yields a self-forming bottom electron-collection layer comprised of the amine-containing polymer (e.g. PEIE). Hole-collection is achieved by subsequent immersion of this single layer in a solution of a polyoxometalate (e.g. phosphomolybdic acid (PMA)) leading to an electrically p-doped region formed by the diffusion of the dopant molecules into the bulk. The depth of this doped region can be controlled with values up to tens of nm by varying the immersion time. Devices with a single 500 nm-thick active layer of P3HT:ICBA processed using this method yield power conversion efficiency (PCE) values of 4.8 ± 0.3% at 1 sun and demonstrate a performance level superior to that of benchmark three-layer devices with separate layers of PEIE/P3HT:ICBA/MoOx (4.1 ± 0.4%). Devices remain stable after shelf lifetime experiments carried-out at 60 °C over 280 h.

  9. Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II drugs zero-order release system. Abdullah Monahi Albogami, Mustafa E. Omer, Abdulkareem M. Al Bekairy, Abdulmalik Alkatheri, Alaa Eldeen B. Yassin ...

  10. Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Prasolov, V V

    2015-01-01

    This book provides a systematic introduction to various geometries, including Euclidean, affine, projective, spherical, and hyperbolic geometries. Also included is a chapter on infinite-dimensional generalizations of Euclidean and affine geometries. A uniform approach to different geometries, based on Klein's Erlangen Program is suggested, and similarities of various phenomena in all geometries are traced. An important notion of duality of geometric objects is highlighted throughout the book. The authors also include a detailed presentation of the theory of conics and quadrics, including the theory of conics for non-Euclidean geometries. The book contains many beautiful geometric facts and has plenty of problems, most of them with solutions, which nicely supplement the main text. With more than 150 figures illustrating the arguments, the book can be recommended as a textbook for undergraduate and graduate-level courses in geometry.

  11. Mechanical testing of adherence of stacked layers in tubular geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correia, L.A.; Schuring, E.W.; Van Delft, Y.C. [ECN Energy Efficiency in the Industry, Petten (Netherlands)

    2007-09-15

    For the development of new molecular separation technologies strong robust tubular membrane systems are required. The fragile membranes, however, need a strong defect free support such as a porous asymmetric ceramic tube. Mechanical failure of these ceramic membrane systems during manufacturing and operation is mainly caused by delamination of the stacked layers. Therefore development is focused on improving the adherence. As no standard mechanical test for tubular samples is available yet, a new tensile test was developed to facilitate the current research. The most important components in the new equipment is a test tool with a curvature matching that of the test sample and a sample casing that align and guide the test tool during the tensile test. With this tensile test the manufacturing procedure for the ECN standard tubular {alpha}-alumina support was optimized. Firing the asymmetric support at 1300C resulted in the highest mechanical strength for the support system with cohesive fracture in the support tube. With the test developed the process condition could be identified where the material of the support tube is the weakest link in the support system.

  12. Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Pedoe, Dan

    1988-01-01

    ""A lucid and masterly survey."" - Mathematics Gazette Professor Pedoe is widely known as a fine teacher and a fine geometer. His abilities in both areas are clearly evident in this self-contained, well-written, and lucid introduction to the scope and methods of elementary geometry. It covers the geometry usually included in undergraduate courses in mathematics, except for the theory of convex sets. Based on a course given by the author for several years at the University of Minnesota, the main purpose of the book is to increase geometrical, and therefore mathematical, understanding and to he

  13. X-Ray Topography of the Subsurface Crystal Layers in the Skew Asymmetric Reflection Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swiątek Z.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The technique of X ray topography with the asymmetric reflection geometry of X-ray diffraction presented in this paper as useful tool for structural characterization of materials, particularly, epitaxial thin films and semiconductor multi-layered crystal systems used for the optoelectronic devices. New possibilities of this technique for a layer-by-layer visualization of structural changes in the subsurface crystal layers are demonstrated for semiconductors after various types of surface treatment, such as chemical etching, laser irradiation and ion implantation.

  14. Effect of ablation geometry on the formation of stagnation layer in laterally colliding plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondal, Alamgir; Singh, Rajesh K.; Kumar, Ajai

    2015-01-01

    Interaction between two parallel propagating plasma plumes have been investigated in two different ablation schemes e.g. laser-blow-off (LBO) of thin film and conventional laser ablation (LPP). Fast imagine technique is used to study the dynamical and geometrical aspect of seed plasmas and induced stagnation layer in between the two expanding seed plasmas. Interaction between the energetic particles, coming from the seed plasmas are responsible for formation of stagnation layer. It has been found that geometrical shape, size, kinetic energy and divergence of plasma plumes are highly dependent on the ablation geometry. These variations in seed plasmas initiate the significant differences in the stagnation layer formed by LBO and LPP geometry. In this presentation, characteristic feature of stagnation layer which includes density, initiation time, emissive life time and geometry in both LBO and LPP geometry are briefly discussed. A comparative study of present results suggests that the plume composition and directionality of seed plasma play crucial role in mechanistic aspect of stagnation layer. (author)

  15. Newborn screening blood spot analysis in the UK: influence of spot size, punch location and haematocrit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, A J; Bernstone, L; Hall, S K

    2016-03-01

    In dried blood spot analysis, punch location and variations in applied sample volume and haematocrit can produce different measured concentrations of analytes. We investigated the magnitude of these effects in newborn screening in the UK. Heparinized blood spiked with thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, methionine, octanoyl carnitine (C8), and immunoreactive trypsinogen (IRT) was spotted onto filter paper: (i) at a constant haematocrit of 50% at various volumes, and (ii) at a range of haematocrits using a constant volume. Subpunches (3.2 mm) of the dried blood spots were then analysed. Compared with a central punch from a 50 µL blood spot with 50% haematocrit, 10 µL spots can have significantly lower measured concentrations of all analytes, with decreases of 15% or more observed for leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, and tyrosine. Punching at the edge of a spot can increase measured concentrations up to 35%. Higher haematocrit decreased measured TSH and C8 yet increased amino acids and IRT by 15% compared with 50% haematocrit. Lower haematocrits had the opposite effect, but only with higher concentrations of some analytes. Differences in blood spot size, haematocrit and punch location substantially affect measured concentrations for analytes used in the UK newborn screening programme, and this could affect false positive and negative rates. To minimize analytical bias, these variables should be controlled or adjusted for where possible. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. The haematocrit – an important factor causing impaired haemostasis in patients with cyanotic congenital heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, A S; Johansson, P I; Idorn, L

    2013-01-01

    of haematocrit, platelet count and thrombelastography(TEG) was characterized in ninety-eight CCHD patients. To evaluate the influence of haematocrit on the haemostatic profile, 21 of the patients underwent phlebotomy and 16 patients received treatment with an iron supplement. Furthermore ten patients...

  17. Quantum Hall states of atomic Bose gases: Density profiles in single-layer and multilayer geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, N. R.; Lankvelt, F. J. M. van; Reijnders, J. W.; Schoutens, K.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the density profiles of confined atomic Bose gases in the high-rotation limit, in single-layer and multilayer geometries. We show that, in a local-density approximation, the density in a single layer shows a landscape of quantized steps due to the formation of incompressible liquids, which are analogous to fractional quantum Hall liquids for a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field. In a multilayered setup we find different phases, depending on the strength of the interlayer tunneling t. We discuss the situation where a vortex lattice in the three-dimensional condensate (at large tunneling) undergoes quantum melting at a critical tunneling t c 1 . For tunneling well below t c 1 one expects weakly coupled or isolated layers, each exhibiting a landscape of quantum Hall liquids. After expansion, this gives a radial density distribution with characteristic features (cusps) that provide experimental signatures of the quantum Hall liquids

  18. Optimal intravenous infusion to decrease the haematocrit level in patient of DHF infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handayani, D.; Nuraini, N.; Saragih, R.; Wijaya, K. P.; Naiborhu, J.

    2014-02-01

    The optimal control of infusion model for Dengue Hemorrhagic Fever (DHF) infection is formulated here. The infusion model will be presented in form of haematocrit level. The input control aim to normalize the haematocrit level and is expressed as infusion volume on mL/day. The stability near the equilibrium points will be analyzed. Numerical simulation shows the dynamic of each infection compartments which gives a description of within-host dynamic of dengue virus. These results show particularly that infected compartments tend to be vanished in ±15days after the onset of the virus. In fact, without any control added, the haematocrit level will decrease but not up to the normal level. Therefore the effective haematocrit normalization should be done with the treatment control. Control treatment for a fixed time using a control input can bring haematocrit level to normal range 42-47%. The optimal control in this paper is divided into three cases, i.e. fixed end point, constrained input, and tracking haematocrit state. Each case shows different infection condition in human body. However, all cases require that the haematocrit level to be in normal range in fixed final time.

  19. The importance of defining the geometry of foundations of soil layers for dynamic analysis of Colosseum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beste, H-J.; Clemente, P.; Conti, C.; D'Ovidio, G.; Nakamura, Y.; Orlando, L.; Rea, R.; Rovelli, A.; Valente, G.

    2015-01-01

    By the comparison between tests and analyses, the dynamic characterization was performed, in order to obtain the map of elastic modules for soil Colosseum interaction. The accuracy for foundations and soil is lower than for monument, due ti unknown exact geometry underground. For foundations, a high variability was found of elasticity modules, which was referred to variable damage of concrete for cracking in time. For soil layers, different definitions exist, and we are interested in the best. The vibrations produced by trains are depending on the underground geometry too. The analyses are performed with traditional convoys running on Metro B and C, for the vibrations knowledge on RA XLVII and on ground felt by pedestrians.

  20. Neutron diffusion approximation solution for the the three layer borehole cylindrical geometry. Pt. 1. Theoretical description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czubek, J.A.; Woznicka, U.

    1997-01-01

    A solution of the neutron diffusion equation is given for a three layer cylindrical coaxial geometry. The calculation is performed in two neutron-energy groups which distinguish the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes in the media irradiated by the fast point neutron source. The aim of the calculation is to define the neutron slowing down and migration lengths which are observed at a given point of the system. Generally, the slowing down and migration lengths are defined for an infinite homogenous medium (irradiated by the point neutron source) as a quotient of the neutron flux moment of the (2n + 2)-order to the moment of the 2n-order. Czubek(1992) introduced in the same manner the apparent neutron slowing down length and the apparent migration length for a given multi-region cylindrical geometry. The solutions in the present paper are applied to the method of semi-empirical calibration of neutron well-logging tools. The three-region cylindrical geometry corresponds to the borehole of radius R 1 surrounded by the intermediate region (e.g. mud cake) of thickness (R 2 -R 1 ) and finally surrounded by the geological formation which spreads from R 2 up to infinity. The cylinders of an infinite length are considered. The paper gives detailed solutions for the 0-th, 2-nd and 4-th neutron moments of the neutron fluxes for each neutron energy group and in each cylindrical layer. A comprehensive list of the solutions for integrals containing Bessel functions or their derivatives, which are absent in common tables of integrals, is also included. (author)

  1. Neutron diffusion approximation solution for the the three layer borehole cylindrical geometry. Pt. 1. Theoretical description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czubek, J.A.; Woznicka, U. [The H. Niewodniczanski Inst. of Nuclear Physics, Cracow (Poland)

    1997-12-31

    A solution of the neutron diffusion equation is given for a three layer cylindrical coaxial geometry. The calculation is performed in two neutron-energy groups which distinguish the thermal and epithermal neutron fluxes in the media irradiated by the fast point neutron source. The aim of the calculation is to define the neutron slowing down and migration lengths which are observed at a given point of the system. Generally, the slowing down and migration lengths are defined for an infinite homogenous medium (irradiated by the point neutron source) as a quotient of the neutron flux moment of the (2n{sup +}2)-order to the moment of the 2n-order. Czubek(1992) introduced in the same manner the apparent neutron slowing down length and the apparent migration length for a given multi-region cylindrical geometry. The solutions in the present paper are applied to the method of semi-empirical calibration of neutron well-logging tools. The three-region cylindrical geometry corresponds to the borehole of radius R{sub 1} surrounded by the intermediate region (e.g. mud cake) of thickness (R{sub 2}-R{sub 1}) and finally surrounded by the geological formation which spreads from R{sub 2} up to infinity. The cylinders of an infinite length are considered. The paper gives detailed solutions for the 0-th, 2-nd and 4-th neutron moments of the neutron fluxes for each neutron energy group and in each cylindrical layer. A comprehensive list of the solutions for integrals containing Bessel functions or their derivatives, which are absent in common tables of integrals, is also included. (author) 6 refs, 2 figs

  2. Studies of low current back-discharge in point-plane geometry with dielectric layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworek, A.; Rajch, E.; Czech, T.; Lackowski, M

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents results of spectroscopic investigations of back-discharge generated in the point-plane electrode geometry in air at atmospheric pressure, with the plane covered with fly ash layer. Four forms of the discharges were studied: onset streamers, glow, breakdown streamers and low-current back-arc discharge. Both polarities of the active discharge electrode, positive and negative, were tested. The back discharge is a type of DC electrical discharge, which take place when the passive plane electrode is covered with a dielectric layer. The layer can be made of solid material or a packed bed of dust or powder of low conductivity. The charge produced due to ionisation processes in the vicinity of the active point electrode is accumulated on the dielectric surface, and generates high electric field through this layer. When critical electric field through the layer is attained an electrical breakdown of the layer take place. The point of breakdown becomes a new source of ions of polarity opposite to those generated by the active electrode. The dielectric layer on the passive electrode causes that gaseous discharges such as breakdown streamers or arc start at lower voltages than they could in the case of normal corona discharge. The visual forms of the discharge were recorded and correlated with the current-voltage characteristics and optical emission spectra. Emission spectra of the discharge were measured in the light wavelength range of 200 to 600 nm to get information about excitation and ionisation processes. The light spectra were analysed by monochromator SPM-2 Karl-Zeiss-Jena with diffraction grating of 1302 grooves/mm and photomultiplier R375 (Hamamatsu) and signal preamplifier unit C7319 (Hamamatsu). The spectral analysis showed that the nitrogen molecular bands were dominant, but the emission of negative ions from the dielectric layer material were also detected. The most noticeable light emission in the range from 280 to 490 nm due to second

  3. Effect of leading-edge geometry on boundary-layer receptivity to freestream sound

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Nay; Reed, Helen L.; Saric, W. S.

    1991-01-01

    The receptivity to freestream sound of the laminar boundary layer over a semi-infinite flat plate with an elliptic leading edge is simulated numerically. The incompressible flow past the flat plate is computed by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. A finite-difference method which is second-order accurate in space and time is used. Spatial and temporal developments of the Tollmien-Schlichting wave in the boundary layer, due to small-amplitude time-harmonic oscillations of the freestream velocity that closely simulate a sound wave travelling parallel to the plate, are observed. The effect of leading-edge curvature is studied by varying the aspect ratio of the ellipse. The boundary layer over the flat plate with a sharper leading edge is found to be less receptive. The relative contribution of the discontinuity in curvature at the ellipse-flat-plate juncture to receptivity is investigated by smoothing the juncture with a polynomial. Continuous curvature leads to less receptivity. A new geometry of the leading edge, a modified super ellipse, which provides continuous curvature at the juncture with the flat plate, is used to study the effect of continuous curvature and inherent pressure gradient on receptivity.

  4. Thermodynamic analysis of the effect of channel geometry on heat transfer in double-layered microchannel heat sinks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Yuling; Li, Zhouhang; Wang, Hua; Xu, Jianxin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel geometry with rectangular and complex channels in each layer is presented. • It shows lower pressure drop and more uniform temperature distribution. • The essence of enhanced heat transfer is analyzed from thermodynamics. - Abstract: Novel double-layered microchannel heat sinks with different channel geometries in each layer (Structure 2 for short) are designed to reduce pressure drop and maintain good heat transfer performance, which is compared with structure 1 (the same of complex channel geometry in each layer). The effect of parallel flow, counter flow and different channel geometries on heat transfer is studied numerically. Moreover, the essence of heat transfer enhancement is analyzed by thermodynamics. On one hand, the synergy relationship between flow field and temperature field is analyzed by field synergy principle. On the other hand, the irreversibility of heat transfer is studied by transport efficiency of thermal energy. The results show that the temperature distribution of counter flow is more uniform than that of parallel flow. Furthermore, heat dissipation and pressure drop of structure 2 are both better and lower than that of structure 1. Form the viewpoint of temperature distribution, structure C2 (i.e., counter flow with rectangular channels in upper layer and complex channels in bottom layer) presents the most uniform bottom temperature for microelectronic cooling. However, comprehensive heat transfer performance of structure P2 (i.e., parallel flow with rectangular channels in upper layer and complex channels in bottom layer) shows the best from the viewpoint of thermodynamics. The reasons can be ascribed to the channel geometry of structure P2 can obviously improve the synergy relationship between temperature and velocity fields, reduce fluid temperature gradient and heat transfer irreversibility.

  5. Effects of thin-layer boilover on flame geometry and dynamics in large hydrocarbon pool fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrero, Fabio; Munoz, Miguel; Arnaldos, Josep [Centre d' Estudis del Risc Tecnologic (CERTEC), Chemical Engineering Department, Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Diagonal 647, 08028-Barcelona, Catalonia (Spain)

    2007-03-15

    This work aims to estimate the effects of thin-layer boilover on flame geometry and dynamics. A series of large scale experiments (in pools ranging from 1.5 to 6 m in diameter) were performed using gasoline and diesel as fuel. As expected, only diesel showed evidence of this phenomenon. This article presents a summary of the results obtained for flame height, tilt and pulsation. Flame height increases during water ebullition, though the increase is no longer detectable when wind speed exceeds certain values. Correlations previously presented in the literature to predict flame length and tilt were modified in order to fit the results obtained during thin-layer boilover. However, the influence on flame tilt is not as great and the equations for the stationary period seem suitable for the entire fire. Results of flame pulsation during the stationary period fill the gap in the literature for fires between 1.5 and 6 m and fit previous correlations. On the other hand, during ebullition, the flame pulsates faster, as air entrainment is greater and, as one would expect, this effect decreases with pool size. A new equation for estimating pulsation frequency during boilover is proposed. (author)

  6. Invisibility cloaks with arbitrary geometries for layered and gradually changing backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, C; Yao, K; Li, F

    2009-01-01

    Cloaks with arbitrary geometries are proposed which can make objects invisible in inhomogeneous backgrounds. The general and explicit expressions of the complex permittivity and permeability tensors are derived for cloaks embedded in layered and gradually changing media. The inner and the outer boundaries of the cloaks can be non-conformal with arbitrary shapes, which considerably improve the flexibility of the cloak applications. The interactions of electromagnetic waves with irregular cloaks are studied based on numerical simulations. The influences of the cloaked and uncloaked perfect electric conductor (PEC) cylinders upon the scattering fields of the multilayered backgrounds are quantitatively evaluated. The effect of loss on the cloaking performance has also been investigated. It is verified that cloaks with ideal parameters can smoothly deflect and guide the incoming beams to propagate around the shielded regions without disturbing the beams when they return to the inhomogeneous backgrounds. Therefore, the objects in the shielded region can be effectively invisible to the corresponding backgrounds. The performance of lossy cloaks will degrade with comparatively large power reduction of the transmitted beams.

  7. Heat transfer and pressure drop amidst frost layer presence for the full geometry of fin-tube heat exchanger

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Jool; Choi, Ho Jin; Ha, Man Yeong; Kim, Seok Ro; Bang, Seon Wook

    2010-01-01

    The present study numerically solves the flow and thermal fields in the full geometry of heat exchanger modeling with frost layer presence on the heat exchanger surface. The effects of air inlet velocity, air inlet temperature, frost layer thickness, fin pitch, fin thickness, and heat exchanger shape on the thermo-hydraulic performance of a fin-tube heat exchanger are investigated. Heat transfer rate rises with increasing air inlet velocity and temperature, and decreasing frost layer thickness and fin pitch. Pressure drop rises with increasing air inlet velocity and frost layer thickness, and decreasing fin pitch. The effect of fin thickness on heat transfer and pressure drop is negligible. Based on the present results, we derived the correlations, which express pressure drop and temperature difference between air inlet and outlet as a function of air inlet velocity and temperature, as well as frost layer thickness

  8. Blood thixotropy in patients with sickle cell anaemia: role of haematocrit and red blood cell rheological properties.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jens Vent-Schmidt

    Full Text Available We compared the blood thixotropic/shear-thinning properties and the red blood cells' (RBC rheological properties between a group of patients with sickle cell anaemia (SS and healthy individuals (AA. Blood thixotropy was determined by measuring blood viscosity with a capillary viscometer using a "loop" protocol: the shear rate started at 1 s-1 and increased progressively to 922 s-1 and then re-decreased to the initial shear rate. Measurements were performed at native haematocrit for the two groups and at 25% and 40% haematocrit for the AA and SS individuals, respectively. RBC deformability was determined by ektacytometry and RBC aggregation properties by laser backscatter versus time. AA at native haematocrit had higher blood thixotropic index than SS at native haematocrit and AA at 25% haematocrit. At 40% haematocrit, SS had higher blood thixotropic index than AA. While RBC deformability and aggregation were lower in SS than in AA, the strength of RBC aggregates was higher in the former population. Our results showed that 1 anaemia is the main modulator of blood thixtropy and 2 the low RBC deformability and high RBC aggregates strength cause higher blood thixotropy in SS patients than in AA individuals at 40% haematocrit, which could impact blood flow in certain vascular compartments.

  9. Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    shape tablet composed of a core layer matrix made mainly of the enteric polymer hydroxypropyl methylcellulose acetate succinate and two barrier layers on either sides made of ethylcellulose. He showed that the system is capable of providing a.

  10. Magnetoresistance measurements of different geometries on epitaxial InP and GaInAs/InP layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Somogyi, K. [Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest (Hungary). Research Inst. for Technical Physics

    1996-12-31

    Hall effect measurement is the main method of the determination of the charge carrier mobility in semiconductors. Magnetoresistance measurements are much less used for the same purpose, perhaps because of the influence of the sample geometry or of the scattering factor differing from the Hall factor. On the other hand, in the case of the epitaxial layers, all these measurements require semi-insulating substrate. In this work two aspects of the magnetoresistance measurements and use of them is demonstrated. First classical geometrical magnetoresistance measurements on InP are studied. On the other hand, a method is presented and applied to sandwich structures in order to measure the geometrical magnetoresistance on epitaxial layers grown on conducting substrates. Resistance of structures metal-epitaxial layer-substrate-metal is measured in the dependence on the angle between the current and magnetic field vectors.

  11. Effect of geometry on the downstream flow topology of a micro ramp in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer : An experimental study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tambe, S.S.; Schrijer, F.F.J.; van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2017-01-01

    The physical relation between the geometry and the flow topology of the wake of a micro ramp is investigated by means of a parametric study. Various micro ramp geometries are placed in a supersonic turbulent boundary layer at a free-stream Mach number of 2. The flow field is measured with schlieren

  12. Inverse estimation for temperatures of outer surface and geometry of inner surface of furnace with two layer walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.-K.; Su, C.-R.

    2008-01-01

    This study provides an inverse analysis to estimate the boundary thermal behavior of a furnace with two layer walls. The unknown temperature distribution of the outer surface and the geometry of the inner surface were estimated from the temperatures of a small number of measured points within the furnace wall. The present approach rearranged the matrix forms of the governing differential equations and then combined the reversed matrix method, the linear least squares error method and the concept of virtual area to determine the unknown boundary conditions of the furnace system. The dimensionless temperature data obtained from the direct problem were used to simulate the temperature measurements. The influence of temperature measurement errors upon the precision of the estimated results was also investigated. The advantage of this approach is that the unknown condition can be directly solved by only one calculation process without initially guessed temperatures, and the iteration process of the traditional method can be avoided in the analysis of the heat transfer. Therefore, the calculation in this work is more rapid and exact than the traditional method. The result showed that the estimation error of the geometry increased with increasing distance between measured points and inner surface and in preset error, and with decreasing number of measured points. However, the geometry of the furnace inner surface could be successfully estimated by only the temperatures of a small number of measured points within and near the outer surface under reasonable preset error

  13. Optimization of electrode geometry and piezoelectric layer thickness of a deformable mirror

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nováková Kateřina

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Deformable mirrors are the most commonly used wavefront correctors in adaptive optics systems. Nowadays, many applications of adaptive optics to astronomical telescopes, high power laser systems, and similar fast response optical devices require large diameter deformable mirrors with a fast response time and high actuator stroke. In order to satisfy such requirements, deformable mirrors based on piezoelectric layer composite structures have become a subject of intense scientific research during last two decades. In this paper, we present an optimization of several geometric parameters of a deformable mirror that consists of a nickel reflective layer deposited on top of a thin lead zirconate titanate (PZT piezoelectric disk. Honeycomb structure of gold electrodes is deposited on the bottom of the PZT layer. The analysis of the optimal thickness ratio between the PZT and nickel layers is performed to get the maximum actuator stroke using the finite element method. The effect of inter-electrode distance on the actuator stroke and influence function is investigated. Applicability and manufacturing issues are discussed.

  14. Modified geometry three-layered tablet as a platform for class II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    9,10]. Multi-layered tablets have showed a growing attention as a useful controlled release tool with multiple other applications such as drug combinations with reduced chance of interaction and/or inducing multi-drug release profiles in one.

  15. Optimized-geometry ARROW waveguides using TiO{sub 2} as anti-resonant layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Daniel O.; Albertin, Katia F.; Alayo, Marco I. [PSI, University of Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2010-04-15

    The simulation, fabrication and characterization of ARROW waveguides using dielectric films deposited by Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition (PECVD) and Sputtering techniques, are presented in this work. Amorphous titanium oxide (TiO{sub 2}) films were used as first cladding layer and silicon oxynitride (SiO{sub x}N{sub y}) films, as core layer. Furthermore, homemade routines based in two computational methods were used, for numerical simulations: Transfer Matrix Method (TMM) for the determination of the optimum thickness values of the Fabry-Perot layers, and the Finite Difference Method (FDM) for 2D design and determination of the maximum width that allows single-mode operation. The utilization of thermally grown silicon oxide as second anti-resonant layer, along with improvements in the Reactive Ion Etching conditions for the definition of sidewalls of the optical waveguides were responsible for diminishing optical attenuations. Optimization of the waveguide rib height was done both through FDM simulations and experimentally. (copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  16. A numerical investigation on the effects of slot geometry on shock boundary layer interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazazzadeh, M.; Menshadi, M. D.; Karbasizadeh, M. [Dept. of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Malek Ashtar University of Technology, Esfahan (Turkmenistan)

    2017-01-15

    Slot is one of the features that control Shock wave-boundary layer interaction (SBLI), which is generally used to prevent strong interference from shockwaves to the boundary layer in supersonic flows. With this feature, the height of the triple point of λ shock significantly increases, and this increase causes a decline in shock power and pressure drop rate. In the current paper, the main focus is on the monitoring of the geometrical effect of slot as an influential parameter on the structure of the shock and flow characteristics by using numerical methods. Therefore, the averaged implicit Navier-Stokes equations and two equation standard k-ω turbulence models for the numerical simulation of the flow field have been used. Results indicate that the numerical results are fairly consistent with the experimental data. Because of the increase in the number of slots (n), and the leading leg of the λ shock is located within the slot, the height of the triple point increases. However, because of the increasing drops due to viscosity, the total pressure changes are negligible. In addition, with an increase in this parameter, changes in the static pressure caused by the leading leg of the shock have increased. By increasing the width of the slots, the height of the triple point has had an upward trend up to s = 8 mm and then had nearly constant values. In this mode, the static pressure changes resulting from the leading leg of the shock are negligible. For increasing the number or the width of slots, the re-expansion waves formed within the slot are removed because of the reduction in the severity of the changes in the boundary layer. To simulate and compare the results with the data obtained from the experimental tests, results from the Cambridge University's wind tunnel tests have been used.

  17. Stabilization of ideal plasma resistive wall modes in cylindrical geometry: The effect of resistive layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    A cylindrical model with finite beta having an external resonant ideal magnetohydrodynamic instability has been constructed. This resonant mode has a mode rational surface, where the safety factor q equals m/n, within the plasma. In this model, the perturbed radial magnetic field for the ideal mode is nonzero between the mode rational surface and the wall, even though it must vanish at the mode rational surface. This property of the mode is in common with the toroidal external kink. Results are presented showing that in the parameter range for which this ideal mode is stable with a conducting wall but unstable with the wall at infinity, a resistive wall mode persists. However, in the presence of plasma resistivity in a resistive layer about the mode rational surface, this resistive wall mode can be stabilized by a plasma rotation frequency of order a nominal resistive instability growth rate. Furthermore, the stabilization occurs in a large gap in wall position or beta. It is also shown that for the ideal resonant mode, as well as resistive plasma modes and nonresonant ideal plasma modes, there is a maximum value of plasma rotation above which there is no stability gap. Discussions are presented suggesting that these properties may hold for the toroidal external kink. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  18. Field and numerical descriptions of fracture geometries and terminations in chalk containing chert layers and inclusions; implications for groundwater flow in Danish chalk aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyum, S.

    2017-12-01

    This study is a description of the fracture distribution in laterally discontinuous chalk and chert layers, with an investigation on how fracture lengths and apertures vary as a function of applied stresses, material properties, and interface properties. Natural fractures intersect laterally extensive, discontinuous, chalk-chert material interfaces in 62 million-year old to 72 million-year old Chalk Group formations exposed at Stevns Klint, Denmark. Approximately one-third of Denmark's fresh water use is from chalk and limestone regional aquifers of the Chalk Group formations, where rock permeability is dominantly a function of open fracture connectivities. Fractured, centimeter- to decimeter-thick chert layers and inclusions (101 GPa elastic stiffness) are interlayered with fractured, meter-thick chalk layers (100 GPa elastic stiffness). Fractures are observed to terminate against and cross chalk-chert interfaces, affecting the vertical flow of water and pollutants between aquifers. The discontinuous and variably thin nature of chert layers at Stevns Klint effectively merges adjacent fracture-confining layers of chalk along discrete position intervals, resulting in lateral variability of fracture spacing. Finite element numerical models are designed to describe fracture interactions with stiff, chert inclusions of various shapes, thicknesses, widths, orientations, and interface friction and fracture toughness values. The models are two-dimensional with isotropic, continuous material in plane strain and uniformly applied remote principal stresses. These characteristics are chosen based on interpretations of the petrophysics of chalk and chert, the burial history of the rock, and the scale of investigation near fracture tips relative to grain sizes. The result are value ranges for relative stiffness contrasts, applied stresses, and material interface conditions that would cause fractures to cross, terminate at, or form along chalk-chert interfaces, with emphasis on

  19. Spinning geometry = Twisted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freidel, Laurent; Ziprick, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that the SU(2)-gauge invariant phase space of loop gravity can be represented in terms of twisted geometries. These are piecewise-linear-flat geometries obtained by gluing together polyhedra, but the resulting geometries are not continuous across the faces. Here we show that this phase space can also be represented by continuous, piecewise-flat three-geometries called spinning geometries. These are composed of metric-flat three-cells glued together consistently. The geometry of each cell and the manner in which they are glued is compatible with the choice of fluxes and holonomies. We first remark that the fluxes provide each edge with an angular momentum. By studying the piecewise-flat geometries which minimize edge lengths, we show that these angular momenta can be literally interpreted as the spin of the edges: the geometries of all edges are necessarily helices. We also show that the compatibility of the gluing maps with the holonomy data results in the same conclusion. This shows that a spinning geometry represents a way to glue together the three-cells of a twisted geometry to form a continuous geometry which represents a point in the loop gravity phase space. (paper)

  20. Rendering of surface-geometries at job-generation level for camouflaging the layered nature of Additively Manufactured parts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, D. B.; Hansen, H. N.; Nielsen, J. S.

    2014-01-01

    The layered nature of Additive Manufactured parts, specifically those given from the Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM) process, exhibit a distinct surface definition. The origin of this is from the 2.5D deposition scheme, which leaves the seam between the individual layers clearly visible.[1...

  1. Encystment of parasitic freshwater pearl mussel (Margaritifera margaritifera) larvae coincides with increased metabolic rate and haematocrit in juvenile brown trout (Salmo trutta).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipsson, Karl; Brijs, Jeroen; Näslund, Joacim; Wengström, Niklas; Adamsson, Marie; Závorka, Libor; Österling, E Martin; Höjesjö, Johan

    2017-04-01

    Gill parasites on fish are likely to negatively influence their host by inhibiting respiration, oxygen transport capacity and overall fitness. The glochidia larvae of the endangered freshwater pearl mussel (FPM, Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)) are obligate parasites on the gills of juvenile salmonid fish. We investigated the effects of FPM glochidia encystment on the metabolism and haematology of brown trout (Salmo trutta Linnaeus, 1758). Specifically, we measured whole-animal oxygen uptake rates at rest and following an exhaustive exercise protocol using intermittent flow-through respirometry, as well as haematocrit, in infested and uninfested trout. Glochidia encystment significantly affected whole-animal metabolic rate, as infested trout exhibited higher standard and maximum metabolic rates. Furthermore, glochidia-infested trout also had elevated levels of haematocrit. The combination of an increased metabolism and haematocrit in infested fish indicates that glochidia encystment has a physiological effect on the trout, perhaps as a compensatory response to the potential respiratory stress caused by the glochidia. When relating glochidia load to metabolism and haematocrit, fish with low numbers of encysted glochidia were the ones with particularly elevated metabolism and haematocrit. Standard metabolic rate decreased with substantial glochidia loads towards levels similar to those of uninfested fish. This suggests that initial effects visible at low levels of encystment may be countered by additional physiological effects at high loads, e.g. potential changes in energy utilization, and also that high numbers of glochidia may restrict oxygen uptake by the gills.

  2. In vitro confocal micro-PIV measurements of blood flow in a square microchannel: the effect of the haematocrit on instantaneous velocity profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Rui; Wada, Shigeo; Takeda, Motohiro; Tsubota, Ken-ichi; Yamaguchi, Takami

    2007-01-01

    A confocal microparticle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) system was used to obtain detailed information on the velocity profiles for the flow of pure water (PW) and in vitro blood (haematocrit up to 17%) in a 100-microm-square microchannel. All the measurements were made in the middle plane of the microchannel at a constant flow rate and low Reynolds number (Re=0.025). The averaged ensemble velocity profiles were found to be markedly parabolic for all the working fluids studied. When comparing the instantaneous velocity profiles of the three fluids, our results indicated that the profile shape depended on the haematocrit. Our confocal micro-PIV measurements demonstrate that the root mean square (RMS) values increase with the haematocrit implying that it is important to consider the information provided by the instantaneous velocity fields, even at low Re. The present study also examines the potential effect of the RBCs on the accuracy of the instantaneous velocity measurements.

  3. Study of the in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system using polarized neutron scattering under grazing incidence geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, R., E-mail: ryuji.maruyama@j-parc.jp [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Bigault, T.; Wildes, A.R.; Dewhurst, C.D. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France); Soyama, K. [J-PARC Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 2-4 Shirakata Shirane, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195 (Japan); Courtois, P. [Institut Laue Langevin, 71 avenue des Martyrs, 38042 Grenoble (France)

    2016-05-21

    The in-plane magnetic structure of a layered system with a polycrystalline grain size less than the ferromagnetic exchange length was investigated using polarized neutron off-specular scattering and grazing incidence small angle scattering measurements to gain insight into the mechanism that controls the magnetic properties which are different from the bulk. These complementary measurements with different length scales and the data analysis based on the distorted wave Born approximation revealed the lateral correlation on a length scale of sub- μm due to the fluctuating orientation of the magnetization in the layer. The obtained in-plane magnetic structure is consistent with the random anisotropy model, i.e. competition between the exchange interactions between neighboring spins and the local magnetocrystalline anisotropy.

  4. Cu2+ in layered compounds: origin of the compressed geometry in the model system K2ZnF4:Cu2+.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramburu, J A; García-Lastra, J M; García-Fernández, P; Barriuso, M T; Moreno, M

    2013-06-17

    Many relevant properties (including superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance) of layered materials containing Cu(2+), Ag(2+), or Mn(3+) ions are commonly related to the Jahn-Teller instability. Along this line, the properties of the CuF6(4-) complex in the K2ZnF4 layered perovskite have recently been analyzed using a parametrized Jahn-Teller model with an imposed strain [Reinen, D. Inorg. Chem.2012, 51, 4458]. Here, we present results of ab initio periodic supercell and cluster calculations on K2ZnF4:Cu(2+), showing unequivocally that the actual origin of the unusual compressed geometry of the CuF6(4-) complex along the crystal c axis in that tetragonal lattice is due to the presence of an electric field due to the crystal surrounding the impurity. Our calculations closely reproduce the experimental optical spectrum. The calculated values of the equilibrium equatorial and axial Cu(2+)-F(-) distances are, respectively, R(ax) = 193 pm and R(eq) = 204 pm, and so the calculated distortion R(ax) - R(eq) = 11 pm is three times smaller than the estimated through the parametrized Jahn-Teller model. As a salient feature, we find that if the CuF6(4-) complex would assume a perfect octahedral geometry (R(ax) = R(eq) = 203 pm) the antibonding a(1g)*(∼3z(2) - r(2)) orbital is placed above b(1g)*(∼x(2) - y(2)) with a transition energy E((2)A(1g) → (2)B(1g)) = 0.34 eV. This surprising fact stresses that about half the experimental value E((2)A(1g) → (2)B(1g)) = 0.70 eV is not due to the small shortening of the axial Cu(2+)-F(-) distance, but it comes from the electric field, E(R)(r), created by the rest of the lattice ions on the CuF6(4-) complex. This internal field, displaying tetragonal symmetry, is thus responsible for the compressed geometry in K2ZnF4:Cu(2+) and the lack of symmetry breaking behind the ligand relaxation. Moreover, we show that the electronic energy gain in this process comes from bonding orbitals and not from antibonding ones. The present

  5. Hyperbolic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Iversen, Birger

    1992-01-01

    Although it arose from purely theoretical considerations of the underlying axioms of geometry, the work of Einstein and Dirac has demonstrated that hyperbolic geometry is a fundamental aspect of modern physics

  6. Twistor geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Broek, P.M.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a detailed exposition of the relation between the geometry of twistor space and the geometry of Minkowski space. The paper has a didactical purpose; no use has been made of differential geometry and cohomology.

  7. Incidence of Haemonchus spp. and effect on haematocrit and eye colour in goats farmed under resource-poor conditions in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatta, A F; Krecek, R C; Letty, B A; van der Linde, M J; Grimbeek, R J; de Villiers, J F; Motswatswe, P W; Molebiemang, G S; Boshoff, H M; Hansen, J W

    2002-01-03

    The diversity and predominance of nematode genera in goats of resource-poor farmers at Rust de Winter, Gauteng Province, Impendle, KwaZulu-Natal Province, and Kraaipan, North-West Province, South Africa, was determined by means of a longitudinal study of the nematode faecal egg counts (FECs) and differential third-stage nematode larvae. The animals were bled for haematocrit determination and scored for pallor of ocular mucous membranes using the FAMACHA( Copyright) method, an assay for clinical evaluation of anaemia caused by Haemonchus spp. Animals considered to be in danger of dying from anaemia caused by haemonchosis were selectively treated with an anthelmintic. Lower haematocrit values were registered during periods of heavier Haemonchus infection, which occurred from December/January to March for Rust de Winter; from December to March/April for Impendle; and from November/December to February or April for Kraaipan. There was agreement too between the lower haematocrits and paler mucous membranes scored according to the FAMACHA( Copyright) method. The use of this system may be recommended as part of an integrated approach to worm control in goats kept in the resource-poor areas studied.

  8. Molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rodger, Alison

    1995-01-01

    Molecular Geometry discusses topics relevant to the arrangement of atoms. The book is comprised of seven chapters that tackle several areas of molecular geometry. Chapter 1 reviews the definition and determination of molecular geometry, while Chapter 2 discusses the unified view of stereochemistry and stereochemical changes. Chapter 3 covers the geometry of molecules of second row atoms, and Chapter 4 deals with the main group elements beyond the second row. The book also talks about the complexes of transition metals and f-block elements, and then covers the organometallic compounds and trans

  9. Optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, I.; Trautman, A.

    1988-01-01

    The geometry of classical physics is Lorentzian; but weaker geometries are often more appropriate: null geodesics and electromagnetic fields, for example, are well known to be objects of conformal geometry. To deal with a single null congruence, or with the radiative electromagnetic fields associated with it, even less is needed: flag geometry for the first, optical geometry, with which this paper is chiefly concerned, for the second. The authors establish a natural one-to-one correspondence between optical geometries, considered locally, and three-dimensional Cauchy-Riemann structures. A number of Lorentzian geometries are shown to be equivalent from the optical point of view. For example the Goedel universe, the Taub-NUT metric and Hauser's twisting null solution have an optical geometry isomorphic to the one underlying the Robinson congruence in Minkowski space. The authors present general results on the problem of lifting a CR structure to a Lorentz manifold and, in particular, to Minkowski space; and exhibit the relevance of the deviation form to this problem

  10. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut; Eigensatz, Michael; Vaxman, Amir; Wallner, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  11. Architectural geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2014-11-26

    Around 2005 it became apparent in the geometry processing community that freeform architecture contains many problems of a geometric nature to be solved, and many opportunities for optimization which however require geometric understanding. This area of research, which has been called architectural geometry, meanwhile contains a great wealth of individual contributions which are relevant in various fields. For mathematicians, the relation to discrete differential geometry is significant, in particular the integrable system viewpoint. Besides, new application contexts have become available for quite some old-established concepts. Regarding graphics and geometry processing, architectural geometry yields interesting new questions but also new objects, e.g. replacing meshes by other combinatorial arrangements. Numerical optimization plays a major role but in itself would be powerless without geometric understanding. Summing up, architectural geometry has become a rewarding field of study. We here survey the main directions which have been pursued, we show real projects where geometric considerations have played a role, and we outline open problems which we think are significant for the future development of both theory and practice of architectural geometry.

  12. Beautiful geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maor, Eli

    2014-01-01

    If you've ever thought that mathematics and art don't mix, this stunning visual history of geometry will change your mind. As much a work of art as a book about mathematics, Beautiful Geometry presents more than sixty exquisite color plates illustrating a wide range of geometric patterns and theorems, accompanied by brief accounts of the fascinating history and people behind each. With artwork by Swiss artist Eugen Jost and text by acclaimed math historian Eli Maor, this unique celebration of geometry covers numerous subjects, from straightedge-and-compass constructions to intriguing configur

  13. Analytische Geometrie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemnitz, Arnfried

    Der Grundgedanke der Analytischen Geometrie besteht darin, dass geometrische Untersuchungen mit rechnerischen Mitteln geführt werden. Geometrische Objekte werden dabei durch Gleichungen beschrieben und mit algebraischen Methoden untersucht.

  14. Algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Lefschetz, Solomon

    2005-01-01

    An introduction to algebraic geometry and a bridge between its analytical-topological and algebraical aspects, this text for advanced undergraduate students is particularly relevant to those more familiar with analysis than algebra. 1953 edition.

  15. Information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ay, Nihat; Lê, Hông Vân; Schwachhöfer, Lorenz

    2017-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive introduction and a novel mathematical foundation of the field of information geometry with complete proofs and detailed background material on measure theory, Riemannian geometry and Banach space theory. Parametrised measure models are defined as fundamental geometric objects, which can be both finite or infinite dimensional. Based on these models, canonical tensor fields are introduced and further studied, including the Fisher metric and the Amari-Chentsov tensor, and embeddings of statistical manifolds are investigated. This novel foundation then leads to application highlights, such as generalizations and extensions of the classical uniqueness result of Chentsov or the Cramér-Rao inequality. Additionally, several new application fields of information geometry are highlighted, for instance hierarchical and graphical models, complexity theory, population genetics, or Markov Chain Monte Carlo. The book will be of interest to mathematicians who are interested in geometry, inf...

  16. Behaviour of perioperative values of haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cells in elderly patients undergoing lower limb arthroplasty: a retrospective cohort study on non-transfused patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drago, L; De Vecchi, E; Romano', C L; Vassena, C; Banfi, G

    2013-01-01

    Little is known on how elderly patients recover pre-operative haemoglobin, haematocrit and red blood cell levels after total hip and knee arthroplasties. In this study we aimed to evaluate blood loss and recovery blood levels in relation to gender, type of surgery and preoperative haemoglobin values. We conducted a retrospective cohort study on 187 patients over 65 years of age who underwent total knee or total hip arthroplasty between January 2008 and December 2009. Preoperative blood analysis was carried out within 40 days prior to intervention followed by a 15-day postoperative follow-up. Haemoglobin recovery values in anaemic patients versus healthy patients was also estimated. All tested values decreased significantly during the first 3-5 postoperative days. Haemoglobin levels decreased statistically significantly more in males than in females, while no significant differences were observed for haematocrit and erythrocytes. Recovery of haemoglobin values did not differ significantly between healthy patients and patients with preoperative haemoglobin below 120 g/L. Furthermore, our data showed a higher blood loss in total hip arthroplasty, whilst recovery rates showed to be higher after a total knee arthroplasty procedure. In conclusion, the type of intervention and gender played an important role in blood loss and recovery rates in total joint arthroplasty.

  17. Analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burdette, A C

    1971-01-01

    Analytic Geometry covers several fundamental aspects of analytic geometry needed for advanced subjects, including calculus.This book is composed of 12 chapters that review the principles, concepts, and analytic proofs of geometric theorems, families of lines, the normal equation of the line, and related matters. Other chapters highlight the application of graphing, foci, directrices, eccentricity, and conic-related topics. The remaining chapters deal with the concept polar and rectangular coordinates, surfaces and curves, and planes.This book will prove useful to undergraduate trigonometric st

  18. Geometry Revealed

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel

    2010-01-01

    Both classical geometry and modern differential geometry have been active subjects of research throughout the 20th century and lie at the heart of many recent advances in mathematics and physics. The underlying motivating concept for the present book is that it offers readers the elements of a modern geometric culture by means of a whole series of visually appealing unsolved (or recently solved) problems that require the creation of concepts and tools of varying abstraction. Starting with such natural, classical objects as lines, planes, circles, spheres, polygons, polyhedra, curves, surfaces,

  19. Vector geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Gilbert de B

    2011-01-01

    This brief undergraduate-level text by a prominent Cambridge-educated mathematician explores the relationship between algebra and geometry. An elementary course in plane geometry is the sole requirement for Gilbert de B. Robinson's text, which is the result of several years of teaching and learning the most effective methods from discussions with students. Topics include lines and planes, determinants and linear equations, matrices, groups and linear transformations, and vectors and vector spaces. Additional subjects range from conics and quadrics to homogeneous coordinates and projective geom

  20. Noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain

    1994-01-01

    This English version of the path-breaking French book on this subject gives the definitive treatment of the revolutionary approach to measure theory, geometry, and mathematical physics developed by Alain Connes. Profusely illustrated and invitingly written, this book is ideal for anyone who wants to know what noncommutative geometry is, what it can do, or how it can be used in various areas of mathematics, quantization, and elementary particles and fields.Key Features* First full treatment of the subject and its applications* Written by the pioneer of this field* Broad applications in mathemat

  1. Projective Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mathematicians are trained to use very precise language, and so find it hard to simplify and state .... thing. If you take a plane on which there are two such triangles which enjoy the above ... within this geometry to simplify things if needed.

  2. Geometry -----------~--------------RESONANCE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Parallel: A pair of lines in a plane is said to be parallel if they do not meet. Mathematicians were at war ... Subsequently, Poincare, Klein, Beltrami and others refined non-. Euclidean geometry. ... plane divides the plane into two half planes and.

  3. A general model to calculate the spin-lattice (T1) relaxation time of blood, accounting for haematocrit, oxygen saturation and magnetic field strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, Patrick W; Kirkham, Fenella J; Clark, Christopher A

    2016-02-01

    Many MRI techniques require prior knowledge of the T1-relaxation time of blood (T1bl). An assumed/fixed value is often used; however, T1bl is sensitive to magnetic field (B0), haematocrit (Hct), and oxygen saturation (Y). We aimed to combine data from previous in vitro measurements into a mathematical model, to estimate T1bl as a function of B0, Hct, and Y. The model was shown to predict T1bl from in vivo studies with a good accuracy (± 87 ms). This model allows for improved estimation of T1bl between 1.5-7.0 T while accounting for variations in Hct and Y, leading to improved accuracy of MRI-derived perfusion measurements. © The Author(s) 2015.

  4. Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Intended for a one year course, this text serves as a single source, introducing readers to the important techniques and theorems, while also containing enough background on advanced topics to appeal to those students wishing to specialize in Riemannian geometry. This is one of the few Works to combine both the geometric parts of Riemannian geometry and the analytic aspects of the theory. The book will appeal to a readership that have a basic knowledge of standard manifold theory, including tensors, forms, and Lie groups. Important revisions to the third edition include: a substantial addition of unique and enriching exercises scattered throughout the text; inclusion of an increased number of coordinate calculations of connection and curvature; addition of general formulas for curvature on Lie Groups and submersions; integration of variational calculus into the text allowing for an early treatment of the Sphere theorem using a proof by Berger; incorporation of several recent results about manifolds with posit...

  5. Special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strominger, A.

    1990-01-01

    A special manifold is an allowed target manifold for the vector multiplets of D=4, N=2 supergravity. These manifolds are of interest for string theory because the moduli spaces of Calabi-Yau threefolds and c=9, (2,2) conformal field theories are special. Previous work has given a local, coordinate-dependent characterization of special geometry. A global description of special geometries is given herein, and their properties are studied. A special manifold M of complex dimension n is characterized by the existence of a holomorphic Sp(2n+2,R)xGL(1,C) vector bundle over M with a nowhere-vanishing holomorphic section Ω. The Kaehler potential on M is the logarithm of the Sp(2n+2,R) invariant norm of Ω. (orig.)

  6. General Geometry and Geometry of Electromagnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi S.

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that Electromagnetism creates geometry different from Riemannian geometry. General geometry including Riemannian geometry as a special case is constructed. It is proven that the most simplest special case of General Geometry is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. And it is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic...

  7. Differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ciarlet, Philippe G

    2007-01-01

    This book gives the basic notions of differential geometry, such as the metric tensor, the Riemann curvature tensor, the fundamental forms of a surface, covariant derivatives, and the fundamental theorem of surface theory in a selfcontained and accessible manner. Although the field is often considered a classical one, it has recently been rejuvenated, thanks to the manifold applications where it plays an essential role. The book presents some important applications to shells, such as the theory of linearly and nonlinearly elastic shells, the implementation of numerical methods for shells, and

  8. Complex analysis and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Alessandro

    1993-01-01

    The papers in this wide-ranging collection report on the results of investigations from a number of linked disciplines, including complex algebraic geometry, complex analytic geometry of manifolds and spaces, and complex differential geometry.

  9. Non-Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenhart, Luther Pfahler

    2005-01-01

    This concise text by a prominent mathematician deals chiefly with manifolds dominated by the geometry of paths. Topics include asymmetric and symmetric connections, the projective geometry of paths, and the geometry of sub-spaces. 1927 edition.

  10. Geometry of the Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurevich, L.Eh.; Gliner, Eh.B.

    1978-01-01

    Problems of investigating the Universe space-time geometry are described on a popular level. Immediate space-time geometries, corresponding to three cosmologic models are considered. Space-time geometry of a closed model is the spherical Riemann geonetry, of an open model - is the Lobachevskij geometry; and of a plane model - is the Euclidean geometry. The Universe real geometry in the contemporary epoch of development is based on the data testifying to the fact that the Universe is infinitely expanding

  11. Dayside merging and cusp geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crooker, N.U.

    1979-01-01

    Geometrical considerations are presented to show that dayside magnetic merging when constrained to act only where the fields are antiparallel results in lines of merging that converge at the polar cusps. An important consequence of this geometry is that no accelerated flows are predicted across the dayside magnetopause. Acceleration owing to merging acts in opposition to the magnetosheath flow at the merging point and produces the variably directed, slower-than-magnetosheath flows observed in the entry layer. Another consequence of the merging geometry is that much of the time closed field lines constitute the subsolar region of the magnetopause. The manner in which the polar cap convection patterns predicted by the proposed geometry change as the interplanetary field is rotated through 360 0 provides a unifying description of how the observed single circular vortex and the crescent-shaped double vortex patterns mutually evolve under the influence of a single operating principle

  12. Geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Walter J

    2006-01-01

    Meyer''s Geometry and Its Applications, Second Edition, combines traditional geometry with current ideas to present a modern approach that is grounded in real-world applications. It balances the deductive approach with discovery learning, and introduces axiomatic, Euclidean geometry, non-Euclidean geometry, and transformational geometry. The text integrates applications and examples throughout and includes historical notes in many chapters. The Second Edition of Geometry and Its Applications is a significant text for any college or university that focuses on geometry''s usefulness in other disciplines. It is especially appropriate for engineering and science majors, as well as future mathematics teachers.* Realistic applications integrated throughout the text, including (but not limited to): - Symmetries of artistic patterns- Physics- Robotics- Computer vision- Computer graphics- Stability of architectural structures- Molecular biology- Medicine- Pattern recognition* Historical notes included in many chapters...

  13. Algebraic geometry in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    algebraic geometry but also in related fields like number theory. ... every vector bundle on the affine space is trivial. (equivalently ... les on a compact Riemann surface to unitary rep- ... tial geometry and topology and was generalised in.

  14. Spinorial Geometry and Branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sloane, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)

  15. Spinorial Geometry and Branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sloane, Peter [Department of Mathematics, King' s College, University of London, Strand, London WC2R 2LS (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    We adapt the spinorial geometry method introduced in [J. Gillard, U. Gran and G. Papadopoulos, 'The spinorial geometry of supersymmetric backgrounds,' Class. Quant. Grav. 22 (2005) 1033 [ (arXiv:hep-th/0410155)

  16. Granular flows in constrained geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Tejas; Viswanathan, Koushik

    Confined geometries are widespread in granular processing applications. The deformation and flow fields in such a geometry, with non-trivial boundary conditions, determine the resultant mechanical properties of the material (local porosity, density, residual stresses etc.). We present experimental studies of deformation and plastic flow of a prototypical granular medium in different nontrivial geometries- flat-punch compression, Couette-shear flow and a rigid body sliding past a granular half-space. These geometries represent simplified scaled-down versions of common industrial configurations such as compaction and dredging. The corresponding granular flows show a rich variety of flow features, representing the entire gamut of material types, from elastic solids (beam buckling) to fluids (vortex-formation, boundary layers) and even plastically deforming metals (dead material zone, pile-up). The effect of changing particle-level properties (e.g., shape, size, density) on the observed flows is also explicitly demonstrated. Non-smooth contact dynamics particle simulations are shown to reproduce some of the observed flow features quantitatively. These results showcase some central challenges facing continuum-scale constitutive theories for dynamic granular flows.

  17. Geometry essentials for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Ryan, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Just the critical concepts you need to score high in geometry This practical, friendly guide focuses on critical concepts taught in a typical geometry course, from the properties of triangles, parallelograms, circles, and cylinders, to the skills and strategies you need to write geometry proofs. Geometry Essentials For Dummies is perfect for cramming or doing homework, or as a reference for parents helping kids study for exams. Get down to the basics - get a handle on the basics of geometry, from lines, segments, and angles, to vertices, altitudes, and diagonals Conque

  18. Arithmetic noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Marcolli, Matilde

    2005-01-01

    Arithmetic noncommutative geometry denotes the use of ideas and tools from the field of noncommutative geometry, to address questions and reinterpret in a new perspective results and constructions from number theory and arithmetic algebraic geometry. This general philosophy is applied to the geometry and arithmetic of modular curves and to the fibers at archimedean places of arithmetic surfaces and varieties. The main reason why noncommutative geometry can be expected to say something about topics of arithmetic interest lies in the fact that it provides the right framework in which the tools of geometry continue to make sense on spaces that are very singular and apparently very far from the world of algebraic varieties. This provides a way of refining the boundary structure of certain classes of spaces that arise in the context of arithmetic geometry, such as moduli spaces (of which modular curves are the simplest case) or arithmetic varieties (completed by suitable "fibers at infinity"), by adding boundaries...

  19. The Geometry Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Bárány, Imre; Vilcu, Costin

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents easy-to-understand yet surprising properties obtained using topological, geometric and graph theoretic tools in the areas covered by the Geometry Conference that took place in Mulhouse, France from September 7–11, 2014 in honour of Tudor Zamfirescu on the occasion of his 70th anniversary. The contributions address subjects in convexity and discrete geometry, in distance geometry or with geometrical flavor in combinatorics, graph theory or non-linear analysis. Written by top experts, these papers highlight the close connections between these fields, as well as ties to other domains of geometry and their reciprocal influence. They offer an overview on recent developments in geometry and its border with discrete mathematics, and provide answers to several open questions. The volume addresses a large audience in mathematics, including researchers and graduate students interested in geometry and geometrical problems.

  20. Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dickenstein, Alicia; Sommese, Andrew J

    2008-01-01

    In the last decade, there has been a burgeoning of activity in the design and implementation of algorithms for algebraic geometric computation. Some of these algorithms were originally designed for abstract algebraic geometry, but now are of interest for use in applications and some of these algorithms were originally designed for applications, but now are of interest for use in abstract algebraic geometry. The workshop on Algorithms in Algebraic Geometry that was held in the framework of the IMA Annual Program Year in Applications of Algebraic Geometry by the Institute for Mathematics and Its

  1. Revolutions of Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    O'Leary, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Guides readers through the development of geometry and basic proof writing using a historical approach to the topic. In an effort to fully appreciate the logic and structure of geometric proofs, Revolutions of Geometry places proofs into the context of geometry's history, helping readers to understand that proof writing is crucial to the job of a mathematician. Written for students and educators of mathematics alike, the book guides readers through the rich history and influential works, from ancient times to the present, behind the development of geometry. As a result, readers are successfull

  2. Fundamental concepts of geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Meserve, Bruce E

    1983-01-01

    Demonstrates relationships between different types of geometry. Provides excellent overview of the foundations and historical evolution of geometrical concepts. Exercises (no solutions). Includes 98 illustrations.

  3. Developments in special geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohaupt, Thomas; Vaughan, Owen

    2012-01-01

    We review the special geometry of N = 2 supersymmetric vector and hypermultiplets with emphasis on recent developments and applications. A new formulation of the local c-map based on the Hesse potential and special real coordinates is presented. Other recent developments include the Euclidean version of special geometry, and generalizations of special geometry to non-supersymmetric theories. As applications we discuss the proof that the local r-map and c-map preserve geodesic completeness, and the construction of four- and five-dimensional static solutions through dimensional reduction over time. The shared features of the real, complex and quaternionic version of special geometry are stressed throughout.

  4. Geometry of multihadron production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions.

  5. Designs and finite geometries

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    Designs and Finite Geometries brings together in one place important contributions and up-to-date research results in this important area of mathematics. Designs and Finite Geometries serves as an excellent reference, providing insight into some of the most important research issues in the field.

  6. Geometry of multihadron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorken, J.D.

    1994-10-01

    This summary talk only reviews a small sample of topics featured at this symposium: Introduction; The Geometry and Geography of Phase space; Space-Time Geometry and HBT; Multiplicities, Intermittency, Correlations; Disoriented Chiral Condensate; Deep Inelastic Scattering at HERA; and Other Contributions

  7. The Beauty of Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Barbara H.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes a geometry project that used the beauty of stained-glass-window designs to teach middle school students about geometric figures and concepts. Three honors prealgebra teachers and a middle school mathematics gifted intervention specialist created a geometry project that covered the curriculum and also assessed students'…

  8. A Lorentzian quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotz, Andreas

    2011-10-07

    In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.

  9. Methods of information geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Amari, Shun-Ichi

    2000-01-01

    Information geometry provides the mathematical sciences with a new framework of analysis. It has emerged from the investigation of the natural differential geometric structure on manifolds of probability distributions, which consists of a Riemannian metric defined by the Fisher information and a one-parameter family of affine connections called the \\alpha-connections. The duality between the \\alpha-connection and the (-\\alpha)-connection together with the metric play an essential role in this geometry. This kind of duality, having emerged from manifolds of probability distributions, is ubiquitous, appearing in a variety of problems which might have no explicit relation to probability theory. Through the duality, it is possible to analyze various fundamental problems in a unified perspective. The first half of this book is devoted to a comprehensive introduction to the mathematical foundation of information geometry, including preliminaries from differential geometry, the geometry of manifolds or probability d...

  10. A Lorentzian quantum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotz, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis, a formulation of a Lorentzian quantum geometry based on the framework of causal fermion systems is proposed. After giving the general definition of causal fermion systems, we deduce space-time as a topological space with an underlying causal structure. Restricting attention to systems of spin dimension two, we derive the objects of our quantum geometry: the spin space, the tangent space endowed with a Lorentzian metric, connection and curvature. In order to get the correspondence to classical differential geometry, we construct examples of causal fermion systems by regularizing Dirac sea configurations in Minkowski space and on a globally hyperbolic Lorentzian manifold. When removing the regularization, the objects of our quantum geometry reduce to the common objects of spin geometry on Lorentzian manifolds, up to higher order curvature corrections.

  11. Tearing modes in toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Connor, J.W.; Cowley, S.C.; Hastie, R.J.; Hender, T.C.; Hood, A.; Martin, T.J.

    1988-01-01

    The separation of the cylindrical tearing mode stability problem into a resistive resonant layer calculation and an external marginal ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) calculation (Δ' calculation) is generalized to axisymmetric toroidal geometry. The general structure of this separation is analyzed and the marginal ideal MHD information (the toroidal generalization of Δ') required to discuss stability is isolated. This can then, in principle, be combined with relevant resonant layer calculations to determine tearing mode growth rates in realistic situations. Two examples are given: the first is an analytic treatment of toroidally coupled (m = 1, n = 1) and (m = 2, n = 1) tearing modes in a large aspect ratio torus; the second, a numerical treatment of the toroidal coupling of three tearing modes through finite pressure effects in a large aspect ratio torus. In addition, the use of a coupling integral approach for determining the stability of coupled tearing modes is discussed. Finally, the possibility of using initial value resistive MHD codes in realistic toroidal geometry to determine the necessary information from the ideal MHD marginal solution is discussed

  12. Geometry on the space of geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christodoulakis, T.; Zanelli, J.

    1988-06-01

    We discuss the geometric structure of the configuration space of pure gravity. This is an infinite dimensional manifold, M, where each point represents one spatial geometry g ij (x). The metric on M is dictated by geometrodynamics, and from it, the Christoffel symbols and Riemann tensor can be found. A ''free geometry'' tracing a geodesic on the manifold describes the time evolution of space in the strong gravity limit. In a regularization previously introduced by the authors, it is found that M does not have the same dimensionality, D, everywhere, and that D is not a scalar, although it is covariantly constant. In this regularization, it is seen that the path integral measure can be absorbed in a renormalization of the cosmological constant. (author). 19 refs

  13. Complex and symplectic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Medori, Costantino; Tomassini, Adriano

    2017-01-01

    This book arises from the INdAM Meeting "Complex and Symplectic Geometry", which was held in Cortona in June 2016. Several leading specialists, including young researchers, in the field of complex and symplectic geometry, present the state of the art of their research on topics such as the cohomology of complex manifolds; analytic techniques in Kähler and non-Kähler geometry; almost-complex and symplectic structures; special structures on complex manifolds; and deformations of complex objects. The work is intended for researchers in these areas.

  14. Non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kulczycki, Stefan

    2008-01-01

    This accessible approach features two varieties of proofs: stereometric and planimetric, as well as elementary proofs that employ only the simplest properties of the plane. A short history of geometry precedes a systematic exposition of the principles of non-Euclidean geometry.Starting with fundamental assumptions, the author examines the theorems of Hjelmslev, mapping a plane into a circle, the angle of parallelism and area of a polygon, regular polygons, straight lines and planes in space, and the horosphere. Further development of the theory covers hyperbolic functions, the geometry of suff

  15. Cloaking of 2D particle geometries in a surface medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexopoulos, A., E-mail: Aris.Alexopoulos@dsto.defence.gov.au [Electronic Warfare and Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), PO Box 1500, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia); Yau, K.S.B. [Electronic Warfare and Radar Division, Defence Science and Technology Organisation (DSTO), PO Box 1500, Edinburgh 5111 (Australia)

    2013-06-17

    We theoretically examine the cloaking condition for two-dimensional particles with varying geometry embedded inside a surface medium. General solutions are obtained for multi-layer particle configurations with either all positive or partially negative constitutive parameters respectively. Cloaking of particle geometries that are large relative to the incident wavelength is demonstrated. Theoretical predictions are compared to full-wave numerical simulations for arrays of particles consisting of different geometries.

  16. Lectures on coarse geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Roe, John

    2003-01-01

    Coarse geometry is the study of spaces (particularly metric spaces) from a 'large scale' point of view, so that two spaces that look the same from a great distance are actually equivalent. This point of view is effective because it is often true that the relevant geometric properties of metric spaces are determined by their coarse geometry. Two examples of important uses of coarse geometry are Gromov's beautiful notion of a hyperbolic group and Mostow's proof of his famous rigidity theorem. The first few chapters of the book provide a general perspective on coarse structures. Even when only metric coarse structures are in view, the abstract framework brings the same simplification as does the passage from epsilons and deltas to open sets when speaking of continuity. The middle section reviews notions of negative curvature and rigidity. Modern interest in large scale geometry derives in large part from Mostow's rigidity theorem and from Gromov's subsequent 'large scale' rendition of the crucial properties of n...

  17. Lectures on Symplectic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Silva, Ana Cannas

    2001-01-01

    The goal of these notes is to provide a fast introduction to symplectic geometry for graduate students with some knowledge of differential geometry, de Rham theory and classical Lie groups. This text addresses symplectomorphisms, local forms, contact manifolds, compatible almost complex structures, Kaehler manifolds, hamiltonian mechanics, moment maps, symplectic reduction and symplectic toric manifolds. It contains guided problems, called homework, designed to complement the exposition or extend the reader's understanding. There are by now excellent references on symplectic geometry, a subset of which is in the bibliography of this book. However, the most efficient introduction to a subject is often a short elementary treatment, and these notes attempt to serve that purpose. This text provides a taste of areas of current research and will prepare the reader to explore recent papers and extensive books on symplectic geometry where the pace is much faster. For this reprint numerous corrections and cl...

  18. Complex algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kollár, János

    1997-01-01

    This volume contains the lectures presented at the third Regional Geometry Institute at Park City in 1993. The lectures provide an introduction to the subject, complex algebraic geometry, making the book suitable as a text for second- and third-year graduate students. The book deals with topics in algebraic geometry where one can reach the level of current research while starting with the basics. Topics covered include the theory of surfaces from the viewpoint of recent higher-dimensional developments, providing an excellent introduction to more advanced topics such as the minimal model program. Also included is an introduction to Hodge theory and intersection homology based on the simple topological ideas of Lefschetz and an overview of the recent interactions between algebraic geometry and theoretical physics, which involve mirror symmetry and string theory.

  19. Geometry and Combinatorics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kokkendorff, Simon Lyngby

    2002-01-01

    The subject of this Ph.D.-thesis is somewhere in between continuous and discrete geometry. Chapter 2 treats the geometry of finite point sets in semi-Riemannian hyperquadrics,using a matrix whose entries are a trigonometric function of relative distances in a given point set. The distance...... to the geometry of a simplex in a semi-Riemannian hyperquadric. In chapter 3 we study which finite metric spaces that are realizable in a hyperbolic space in the limit where curvature goes to -∞. We show that such spaces are the so called leaf spaces, the set of degree 1 vertices of weighted trees. We also...... establish results on the limiting geometry of such an isometrically realized leaf space simplex in hyperbolic space, when curvature goes to -∞. Chapter 4 discusses negative type of metric spaces. We give a measure theoretic treatment of this concept and related invariants. The theory developed...

  20. The geometry of geodesics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    A comprehensive approach to qualitative problems in intrinsic differential geometry, this text examines Desarguesian spaces, perpendiculars and parallels, covering spaces, the influence of the sign of the curvature on geodesics, more. 1955 edition. Includes 66 figures.

  1. Geometry and billiards

    CERN Document Server

    Tabachnikov, Serge

    2005-01-01

    Mathematical billiards describe the motion of a mass point in a domain with elastic reflections off the boundary or, equivalently, the behavior of rays of light in a domain with ideally reflecting boundary. From the point of view of differential geometry, the billiard flow is the geodesic flow on a manifold with boundary. This book is devoted to billiards in their relation with differential geometry, classical mechanics, and geometrical optics. The topics covered include variational principles of billiard motion, symplectic geometry of rays of light and integral geometry, existence and nonexistence of caustics, optical properties of conics and quadrics and completely integrable billiards, periodic billiard trajectories, polygonal billiards, mechanisms of chaos in billiard dynamics, and the lesser-known subject of dual (or outer) billiards. The book is based on an advanced undergraduate topics course (but contains more material than can be realistically taught in one semester). Although the minimum prerequisit...

  2. Introduction to tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Maclagan, Diane

    2015-01-01

    Tropical geometry is a combinatorial shadow of algebraic geometry, offering new polyhedral tools to compute invariants of algebraic varieties. It is based on tropical algebra, where the sum of two numbers is their minimum and the product is their sum. This turns polynomials into piecewise-linear functions, and their zero sets into polyhedral complexes. These tropical varieties retain a surprising amount of information about their classical counterparts. Tropical geometry is a young subject that has undergone a rapid development since the beginning of the 21st century. While establishing itself as an area in its own right, deep connections have been made to many branches of pure and applied mathematics. This book offers a self-contained introduction to tropical geometry, suitable as a course text for beginning graduate students. Proofs are provided for the main results, such as the Fundamental Theorem and the Structure Theorem. Numerous examples and explicit computations illustrate the main concepts. Each of t...

  3. Rudiments of algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Jenner, WE

    2017-01-01

    Aimed at advanced undergraduate students of mathematics, this concise text covers the basics of algebraic geometry. Topics include affine spaces, projective spaces, rational curves, algebraic sets with group structure, more. 1963 edition.

  4. Implosions and hypertoric geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dancer, A.; Kirwan, F.; Swann, A.

    2013-01-01

    The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion.......The geometry of the universal hyperkahler implosion for SU (n) is explored. In particular, we show that the universal hyperkahler implosion naturally contains a hypertoric variety described in terms of quivers. Furthermore, we discuss a gauge theoretic approach to hyperkahler implosion....

  5. Intermediate algebra & analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gondin, William R

    1967-01-01

    Intermediate Algebra & Analytic Geometry Made Simple focuses on the principles, processes, calculations, and methodologies involved in intermediate algebra and analytic geometry. The publication first offers information on linear equations in two unknowns and variables, functions, and graphs. Discussions focus on graphic interpretations, explicit and implicit functions, first quadrant graphs, variables and functions, determinate and indeterminate systems, independent and dependent equations, and defective and redundant systems. The text then examines quadratic equations in one variable, system

  6. d-geometries revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Ceresole, Anna; Gnecchi, Alessandra; Marrani, Alessio

    2013-01-01

    We analyze some properties of the four dimensional supergravity theories which originate from five dimensions upon reduction. They generalize to N>2 extended supersymmetries the d-geometries with cubic prepotentials, familiar from N=2 special K\\"ahler geometry. We emphasize the role of a suitable parametrization of the scalar fields and the corresponding triangular symplectic basis. We also consider applications to the first order flow equations for non-BPS extremal black holes.

  7. CMS geometry through 2020

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, I; Brownson, E; Eulisse, G; Jones, C D; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Lange, D J

    2014-01-01

    CMS faces real challenges with upgrade of the CMS detector through 2020 and beyond. One of the challenges, from the software point of view, is managing upgrade simulations with the same software release as the 2013 scenario. We present the CMS geometry description software model, its integration with the CMS event setup and core software. The CMS geometry configuration and selection is implemented in Python. The tools collect the Python configuration fragments into a script used in CMS workflow. This flexible and automated geometry configuration allows choosing either transient or persistent version of the same scenario and specific version of the same scenario. We describe how the geometries are integrated and validated, and how we define and handle different geometry scenarios in simulation and reconstruction. We discuss how to transparently manage multiple incompatible geometries in the same software release. Several examples are shown based on current implementation assuring consistent choice of scenario conditions. The consequences and implications for multiple/different code algorithms are discussed.

  8. Software Geometry in Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alion, Tyler; Viren, Brett; Junk, Tom

    2015-04-01

    The Long Baseline Neutrino Experiment (LBNE) involves many detectors. The experiment's near detector (ND) facility, may ultimately involve several detectors. The far detector (FD) will be significantly larger than any other Liquid Argon (LAr) detector yet constructed; many prototype detectors are being constructed and studied to motivate a plethora of proposed FD designs. Whether it be a constructed prototype or a proposed ND/FD design, every design must be simulated and analyzed. This presents a considerable challenge to LBNE software experts; each detector geometry must be described to the simulation software in an efficient way which allows for multiple authors to easily collaborate. Furthermore, different geometry versions must be tracked throughout their use. We present a framework called General Geometry Description (GGD), written and developed by LBNE software collaborators for managing software to generate geometries. Though GGD is flexible enough to be used by any experiment working with detectors, we present it's first use in generating Geometry Description Markup Language (GDML) files to interface with LArSoft, a framework of detector simulations, event reconstruction, and data analyses written for all LAr technology users at Fermilab. Brett is the other of the framework discussed here, the General Geometry Description (GGD).

  9. Introduction to combinatorial geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gabriel, T.A.; Emmett, M.B.

    1985-01-01

    The combinatorial geometry package as used in many three-dimensional multimedia Monte Carlo radiation transport codes, such as HETC, MORSE, and EGS, is becoming the preferred way to describe simple and complicated systems. Just about any system can be modeled using the package with relatively few input statements. This can be contrasted against the older style geometry packages in which the required input statements could be large even for relatively simple systems. However, with advancements come some difficulties. The users of combinatorial geometry must be able to visualize more, and, in some instances, all of the system at a time. Errors can be introduced into the modeling which, though slight, and at times hard to detect, can have devastating effects on the calculated results. As with all modeling packages, the best way to learn the combinatorial geometry is to use it, first on a simple system then on more complicated systems. The basic technique for the description of the geometry consists of defining the location and shape of the various zones in terms of the intersections and unions of geometric bodies. The geometric bodies which are generally included in most combinatorial geometry packages are: (1) box, (2) right parallelepiped, (3) sphere, (4) right circular cylinder, (5) right elliptic cylinder, (6) ellipsoid, (7) truncated right cone, (8) right angle wedge, and (9) arbitrary polyhedron. The data necessary to describe each of these bodies are given. As can be easily noted, there are some subsets included for simplicity

  10. Global aspects of complex geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Huckleberry, Alan T

    2006-01-01

    Present an overview of developments in Complex Geometry. This book covers topics that range from curve and surface theory through special varieties in higher dimensions, moduli theory, Kahler geometry, and group actions to Hodge theory and characteristic p-geometry.

  11. Sources of hyperbolic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stillwell, John

    1996-01-01

    This book presents, for the first time in English, the papers of Beltrami, Klein, and Poincaré that brought hyperbolic geometry into the mainstream of mathematics. A recognition of Beltrami comparable to that given the pioneering works of Bolyai and Lobachevsky seems long overdue-not only because Beltrami rescued hyperbolic geometry from oblivion by proving it to be logically consistent, but because he gave it a concrete meaning (a model) that made hyperbolic geometry part of ordinary mathematics. The models subsequently discovered by Klein and Poincaré brought hyperbolic geometry even further down to earth and paved the way for the current explosion of activity in low-dimensional geometry and topology. By placing the works of these three mathematicians side by side and providing commentaries, this book gives the student, historian, or professional geometer a bird's-eye view of one of the great episodes in mathematics. The unified setting and historical context reveal the insights of Beltrami, Klein, and Po...

  12. Generalizing optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard; Westman, Hans

    2006-01-01

    We show that by employing the standard projected curvature as a measure of spatial curvature, we can make a certain generalization of optical geometry (Abramowicz M A and Lasota J-P 1997 Class. Quantum Grav. A 14 23-30). This generalization applies to any spacetime that admits a hypersurface orthogonal shearfree congruence of worldlines. This is a somewhat larger class of spacetimes than the conformally static spacetimes assumed in standard optical geometry. In the generalized optical geometry, which in the generic case is time dependent, photons move with unit speed along spatial geodesics and the sideways force experienced by a particle following a spatially straight line is independent of the velocity. Also gyroscopes moving along spatial geodesics do not precess (relative to the forward direction). Gyroscopes that follow a curved spatial trajectory precess according to a very simple law of three-rotation. We also present an inertial force formalism in coordinate representation for this generalization. Furthermore, we show that by employing a new sense of spatial curvature (Jonsson R 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 1)) closely connected to Fermat's principle, we can make a more extensive generalization of optical geometry that applies to arbitrary spacetimes. In general this optical geometry will be time dependent, but still geodesic photons move with unit speed and follow lines that are spatially straight in the new sense. Also, the sideways experienced (comoving) force on a test particle following a line that is straight in the new sense will be independent of the velocity

  13. Computational synthetic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bokowski, Jürgen

    1989-01-01

    Computational synthetic geometry deals with methods for realizing abstract geometric objects in concrete vector spaces. This research monograph considers a large class of problems from convexity and discrete geometry including constructing convex polytopes from simplicial complexes, vector geometries from incidence structures and hyperplane arrangements from oriented matroids. It turns out that algorithms for these constructions exist if and only if arbitrary polynomial equations are decidable with respect to the underlying field. Besides such complexity theorems a variety of symbolic algorithms are discussed, and the methods are applied to obtain new mathematical results on convex polytopes, projective configurations and the combinatorics of Grassmann varieties. Finally algebraic varieties characterizing matroids and oriented matroids are introduced providing a new basis for applying computer algebra methods in this field. The necessary background knowledge is reviewed briefly. The text is accessible to stud...

  14. Discrete and computational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Devadoss, Satyan L

    2011-01-01

    Discrete geometry is a relatively new development in pure mathematics, while computational geometry is an emerging area in applications-driven computer science. Their intermingling has yielded exciting advances in recent years, yet what has been lacking until now is an undergraduate textbook that bridges the gap between the two. Discrete and Computational Geometry offers a comprehensive yet accessible introduction to this cutting-edge frontier of mathematics and computer science. This book covers traditional topics such as convex hulls, triangulations, and Voronoi diagrams, as well as more recent subjects like pseudotriangulations, curve reconstruction, and locked chains. It also touches on more advanced material, including Dehn invariants, associahedra, quasigeodesics, Morse theory, and the recent resolution of the Poincaré conjecture. Connections to real-world applications are made throughout, and algorithms are presented independently of any programming language. This richly illustrated textbook also fe...

  15. Geometry and Cloaking Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochiai, T.; Nacher, J. C.

    2011-09-01

    Recently, the application of geometry and conformal mappings to artificial materials (metamaterials) has attracted the attention in various research communities. These materials, characterized by a unique man-made structure, have unusual optical properties, which materials found in nature do not exhibit. By applying the geometry and conformal mappings theory to metamaterial science, it may be possible to realize so-called "Harry Potter cloaking device". Although such a device is still in the science fiction realm, several works have shown that by using such metamaterials it may be possible to control the direction of the electromagnetic field at will. We could then make an object hidden inside of a cloaking device. Here, we will explain how to design invisibility device using differential geometry and conformal mappings.

  16. Lectures on discrete geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2002-01-01

    Discrete geometry investigates combinatorial properties of configurations of geometric objects. To a working mathematician or computer scientist, it offers sophisticated results and techniques of great diversity and it is a foundation for fields such as computational geometry or combinatorial optimization. This book is primarily a textbook introduction to various areas of discrete geometry. In each area, it explains several key results and methods, in an accessible and concrete manner. It also contains more advanced material in separate sections and thus it can serve as a collection of surveys in several narrower subfields. The main topics include: basics on convex sets, convex polytopes, and hyperplane arrangements; combinatorial complexity of geometric configurations; intersection patterns and transversals of convex sets; geometric Ramsey-type results; polyhedral combinatorics and high-dimensional convexity; and lastly, embeddings of finite metric spaces into normed spaces. Jiri Matousek is Professor of Com...

  17. Complex differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Fangyang

    2002-01-01

    The theory of complex manifolds overlaps with several branches of mathematics, including differential geometry, algebraic geometry, several complex variables, global analysis, topology, algebraic number theory, and mathematical physics. Complex manifolds provide a rich class of geometric objects, for example the (common) zero locus of any generic set of complex polynomials is always a complex manifold. Yet complex manifolds behave differently than generic smooth manifolds; they are more coherent and fragile. The rich yet restrictive character of complex manifolds makes them a special and interesting object of study. This book is a self-contained graduate textbook that discusses the differential geometric aspects of complex manifolds. The first part contains standard materials from general topology, differentiable manifolds, and basic Riemannian geometry. The second part discusses complex manifolds and analytic varieties, sheaves and holomorphic vector bundles, and gives a brief account of the surface classifi...

  18. Geometry and symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Yale, Paul B

    2012-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the geometry of Euclidean, affine, and projective spaces with special emphasis on the important groups of symmetries of these spaces. The two major objectives of the text are to introduce the main ideas of affine and projective spaces and to develop facility in handling transformations and groups of transformations. Since there are many good texts on affine and projective planes, the author has concentrated on the n-dimensional cases.Designed to be used in advanced undergraduate mathematics or physics courses, the book focuses on ""practical geometry,"" emphasi

  19. Nozzle geometry variations on the discharge coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M.A. Alam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Numerical works have been conducted to investigate the effect of nozzle geometries on the discharge coefficient. Several contoured converging nozzles with finite radius of curvatures, conically converging nozzles and conical divergent orifices have been employed in this investigation. Each nozzle and orifice has a nominal exit diameter of 12.7×10−3 m. A 3rd order MUSCL finite volume method of ANSYS Fluent 13.0 was used to solve the Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes equations in simulating turbulent flows through various nozzle inlet geometries. The numerical model was validated through comparison between the numerical results and experimental data. The results obtained show that the nozzle geometry has pronounced effect on the sonic lines and discharge coefficients. The coefficient of discharge was found differ from unity due to the non-uniformity of flow parameters at the nozzle exit and the presence of boundary layer as well.

  20. Changes of glucose utilization by erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the serum and blood cells, and haematocrit value during one hour rest after maximal effort in individuals differing in physical efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasik, M

    1982-01-01

    Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes, lactic acid concentration in the blood and erythrocytes, and haematocrit value were determined before exercise and during one hour rest following maximal exercise in 97 individuals of either sex differing in physical efficiency. In the investigations reported by the author individuals with strikingly high physical fitness performed maximal work one-third greater than that performed by individuals with medium fitness. The serum concentration of lactic acid was in all individuals above the resting value still after 60 minutes of rest. On the other hand, this concentration returned to the normal level in the erythrocytes but only in individuals with strikingly high efficiency. Glucose utilization by the erythrocytes during the restitution period was highest immediately after the exercise in all studied individuals and showed a tendency for more rapid return to resting values again in individuals with highest efficiency. The investigation of very efficient individuals repeated twice demonstrated greater utilization of glucose by the erythrocytes at the time of greater maximal exercise. This was associated with greater lactic acid concentration in the serum and erythrocytes throughout the whole one-hour rest period. The observed facts suggest an active participation of erythrocytes in the process of adaptation of the organism to exercise.

  1. Towards relativistic quantum geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridao, Luis Santiago [Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Físicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-12-17

    We obtain a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum geometry by using a Weylian-like manifold with a geometric scalar field which provides a gauge-invariant relativistic quantum theory in which the algebra of the Weylian-like field depends on observers. An example for a Reissner–Nordström black-hole is studied.

  2. Multiplicity in difference geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Tomasic, Ivan

    2011-01-01

    We prove a first principle of preservation of multiplicity in difference geometry, paving the way for the development of a more general intersection theory. In particular, the fibres of a \\sigma-finite morphism between difference curves are all of the same size, when counted with correct multiplicities.

  3. Spacetime and Euclidean geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, Dieter; Jacobson, Ted

    2006-04-01

    Using only the principle of relativity and Euclidean geometry we show in this pedagogical article that the square of proper time or length in a two-dimensional spacetime diagram is proportional to the Euclidean area of the corresponding causal domain. We use this relation to derive the Minkowski line element by two geometric proofs of the spacetime Pythagoras theorem.

  4. Physics and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konopleva, N.P.

    2009-01-01

    The basic ideas of description methods of physical fields and elementary particle interactions are discussed. One of such ideas is the conception of space-time geometry. In this connection experimental measurement methods are analyzed. It is shown that measure procedures are the origin of geometrical axioms. The connection between space symmetry properties and the conservation laws is considered

  5. Origami, Geometry and Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wares, Arsalan; Elstak, Iwan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the mathematics that emanates from the construction of an origami box. We first construct a simple origami box from a rectangular sheet and then discuss some of the mathematical questions that arise in the context of geometry and algebra. The activity can be used as a context for illustrating how algebra…

  6. Gravity is Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  7. Towards a Nano Geometry?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Booss-Bavnbek, Bernhelm

    2011-01-01

    This paper applies I.M. Gelfand's distinction between adequate and non-adequate use of mathematical language in different contexts to the newly opened window of model-based measurements of intracellular dynamics. The specifics of geometry and dynamics on the mesoscale of cell physiology are elabo...

  8. Diophantine geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Hindry, Marc

    2000-01-01

    This is an introduction to diophantine geometry at the advanced graduate level. The book contains a proof of the Mordell conjecture which will make it quite attractive to graduate students and professional mathematicians. In each part of the book, the reader will find numerous exercises.

  9. Sliding vane geometry turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Harold Huimin; Zhang, Jizhong; Hu, Liangjun; Hanna, Dave R

    2014-12-30

    Various systems and methods are described for a variable geometry turbine. In one example, a turbine nozzle comprises a central axis and a nozzle vane. The nozzle vane includes a stationary vane and a sliding vane. The sliding vane is positioned to slide in a direction substantially tangent to an inner circumference of the turbine nozzle and in contact with the stationary vane.

  10. History of analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Boyer, Carl B

    2012-01-01

    Designed as an integrated survey of the development of analytic geometry, this study presents the concepts and contributions from before the Alexandrian Age through the eras of the great French mathematicians Fermat and Descartes, and on through Newton and Euler to the "Golden Age," from 1789 to 1850.

  11. Non-euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Coxeter, HSM

    1965-01-01

    This textbook introduces non-Euclidean geometry, and the third edition adds a new chapter, including a description of the two families of 'mid-lines' between two given lines and an elementary derivation of the basic formulae of spherical trigonometry and hyperbolic trigonometry, and other new material.

  12. Topics in Riemannian geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezin, J.P.

    1988-08-01

    The lectures given at the ''5th Symposium of Mathematics in Abidjan: Differential Geometry and Mechanics'' are presented. They are divided into four chapters: Riemannian metric on a differential manifold, curvature tensor fields on a Riemannian manifold, some classical functionals on Riemannian manifolds and questions. 11 refs

  13. Geometry Euclid and beyond

    CERN Document Server

    Hartshorne, Robin

    2000-01-01

    In recent years, I have been teaching a junior-senior-level course on the classi­ cal geometries. This book has grown out of that teaching experience. I assume only high-school geometry and some abstract algebra. The course begins in Chapter 1 with a critical examination of Euclid's Elements. Students are expected to read concurrently Books I-IV of Euclid's text, which must be obtained sepa­ rately. The remainder of the book is an exploration of questions that arise natu­ rally from this reading, together with their modern answers. To shore up the foundations we use Hilbert's axioms. The Cartesian plane over a field provides an analytic model of the theory, and conversely, we see that one can introduce coordinates into an abstract geometry. The theory of area is analyzed by cutting figures into triangles. The algebra of field extensions provides a method for deciding which geometrical constructions are possible. The investigation of the parallel postulate leads to the various non-Euclidean geometries. And ...

  14. Multivariate calculus and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Dineen, Seán

    2014-01-01

    Multivariate calculus can be understood best by combining geometric insight, intuitive arguments, detailed explanations and mathematical reasoning. This textbook has successfully followed this programme. It additionally provides a solid description of the basic concepts, via familiar examples, which are then tested in technically demanding situations. In this new edition the introductory chapter and two of the chapters on the geometry of surfaces have been revised. Some exercises have been replaced and others provided with expanded solutions. Familiarity with partial derivatives and a course in linear algebra are essential prerequisites for readers of this book. Multivariate Calculus and Geometry is aimed primarily at higher level undergraduates in the mathematical sciences. The inclusion of many practical examples involving problems of several variables will appeal to mathematics, science and engineering students.

  15. Transformational plane geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Umble, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    Axioms of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Existence and Incidence Postulates The Distance and Ruler Postulates The Plane Separation Postulate The Protractor Postulate The Side-Angle-Side Postulate and the Euclidean Parallel Postulate Theorems of Euclidean Plane Geometry The Exterior Angle Theorem Triangle Congruence Theorems The Alternate Interior Angles Theorem and the Angle Sum Theorem Similar Triangles Introduction to Transformations, Isometries, and Similarities Transformations Isometries and SimilaritiesAppendix: Proof of Surjectivity Translations, Rotations, and Reflections Translations Rotations Reflections Appendix: Geometer's Sketchpad Commands Required by Exploratory Activities Compositions of Translations, Rotations, and Reflections The Three Points Theorem Rotations as Compositions of Two Reflections Translations as Compositions of Two Halfturns or Two Reflections The Angle Addition Theorem Glide Reflections Classification of Isometries The Fundamental Theorem and Congruence Classification of Isometr...

  16. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M.; Fast, Patton L.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2000-02-01

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol.

  17. Multilevel geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Jocelyn M. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Fast, Patton L. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States); Truhlar, Donald G. [Department of Chemistry and Supercomputer Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455-0431 (United States)

    2000-02-15

    Geometry optimization has been carried out for three test molecules using six multilevel electronic structure methods, in particular Gaussian-2, Gaussian-3, multicoefficient G2, multicoefficient G3, and two multicoefficient correlation methods based on correlation-consistent basis sets. In the Gaussian-2 and Gaussian-3 methods, various levels are added and subtracted with unit coefficients, whereas the multicoefficient Gaussian-x methods involve noninteger parameters as coefficients. The multilevel optimizations drop the average error in the geometry (averaged over the 18 cases) by a factor of about two when compared to the single most expensive component of a given multilevel calculation, and in all 18 cases the accuracy of the atomization energy for the three test molecules improves; with an average improvement of 16.7 kcal/mol. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  18. Geometry and Destiny

    OpenAIRE

    Krauss, Lawrence M.; Turner, Michael S.

    1999-01-01

    The recognition that the cosmological constant may be non-zero forces us to re-evaluate standard notions about the connection between geometry and the fate of our Universe. An open Universe can recollapse, and a closed Universe can expand forever. As a corollary, we point out that there is no set of cosmological observations we can perform that will unambiguously allow us to determine what the ultimate destiny of the Universe will be.

  19. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  20. Electroweak vacuum geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lepora, N.; Kibble, T.

    1999-01-01

    We analyse symmetry breaking in the Weinberg-Salam model paying particular attention to the underlying geometry of the theory. In this context we find two natural metrics upon the vacuum manifold: an isotropic metric associated with the scalar sector, and a squashed metric associated with the gauge sector. Physically, the interplay between these metrics gives rise to many of the non-perturbative features of Weinberg-Salam theory. (author)

  1. W-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hull, C.M.

    1993-01-01

    The geometric structure of theories with gauge fields of spins two and higher should involve a higher spin generalisation of Riemannian geometry. Such geometries are discussed and the case of W ∝ -gravity is analysed in detail. While the gauge group for gravity in d dimensions is the diffeomorphism group of the space-time, the gauge group for a certain W-gravity theory (which is W ∝ -gravity in the case d=2) is the group of symplectic diffeomorphisms of the cotangent bundle of the space-time. Gauge transformations for W-gravity gauge fields are given by requiring the invariance of a generalised line element. Densities exist and can be constructed from the line element (generalising √detg μν ) only if d=1 or d=2, so that only for d=1,2 can actions be constructed. These two cases and the corresponding W-gravity actions are considered in detail. In d=2, the gauge group is effectively only a subgroup of the symplectic diffeomorphisms group. Some of the constraints that arise for d=2 are similar to equations arising in the study of self-dual four-dimensional geometries and can be analysed using twistor methods, allowing contact to be made with other formulations of W-gravity. While the twistor transform for self-dual spaces with one Killing vector reduces to a Legendre transform, that for two Killing vectors gives a generalisation of the Legendre transform. (orig.)

  2. Integral geometry and valuations

    CERN Document Server

    Solanes, Gil

    2014-01-01

    Valuations are finitely additive functionals on the space of convex bodies. Their study has become a central subject in convexity theory, with fundamental applications to integral geometry. In the last years there has been significant progress in the theory of valuations, which in turn has led to important achievements in integral geometry. This book originated from two courses delivered by the authors at the CRM and provides a self-contained introduction to these topics, covering most of the recent advances. The first part, by Semyon Alesker, is devoted to the theory of convex valuations, with emphasis on the latest developments. A special focus is put on the new fundamental structures of the space of valuations discovered after Alesker's irreducibility theorem. Moreover, the author describes the newly developed theory of valuations on manifolds. In the second part, Joseph H. G. Fu gives a modern introduction to integral geometry in the sense of Blaschke and Santaló, based on the notions and tools presented...

  3. CBM RICH geometry optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoud, Tariq; Hoehne, Claudia [II. Physikalisches Institut, Giessen Univ. (Germany); Collaboration: CBM-Collaboration

    2016-07-01

    The Compressed Baryonic Matter (CBM) experiment at the future FAIR complex will investigate the phase diagram of strongly interacting matter at high baryon density and moderate temperatures in A+A collisions from 2-11 AGeV (SIS100) beam energy. The main electron identification detector in the CBM experiment will be a RICH detector with a CO{sub 2} gaseous-radiator, focusing spherical glass mirrors, and MAPMT photo-detectors being placed on a PMT-plane. The RICH detector is located directly behind the CBM dipole magnet. As the final magnet geometry is now available, some changes in the RICH geometry become necessary. In order to guarantee a magnetic field of 1 mT at maximum in the PMT plane for effective operation of the MAPMTs, two measures have to be taken: The PMT plane is moved outwards of the stray field by tilting the mirrors by 10 degrees and shielding boxes have been designed. In this contribution the results of the geometry optimization procedure are presented.

  4. Introducing geometry concept based on history of Islamic geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maarif, S.; Wahyudin; Raditya, A.; Perbowo, K. S.

    2018-01-01

    Geometry is one of the areas of mathematics interesting to discuss. Geometry also has a long history in mathematical developments. Therefore, it is important integrated historical development of geometry in the classroom to increase’ knowledge of how mathematicians earlier finding and constructing a geometric concept. Introduction geometrical concept can be started by introducing the Muslim mathematician who invented these concepts so that students can understand in detail how a concept of geometry can be found. However, the history of mathematics development, especially history of Islamic geometry today is less popular in the world of education in Indonesia. There are several concepts discovered by Muslim mathematicians that should be appreciated by the students in learning geometry. Great ideas of mathematicians Muslim can be used as study materials to supplement religious character values taught by Muslim mathematicians. Additionally, by integrating the history of geometry in teaching geometry are expected to improve motivation and geometrical understanding concept.

  5. Two lectures on D-geometry and noncommutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    This is a write-up of lectures given at the 1998 Spring School at the Abdus Salam ICTP. We give a conceptual introduction to D-geometry, the study of geometry as seen by D-branes in string theory, and to noncommutative geometry as it has appeared in D-brane and Matrix theory physics. (author)

  6. Topologically nontrivial quantum layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carron, G.; Exner, P.; Krejcirik, D.

    2004-01-01

    Given a complete noncompact surface Σ embedded in R 3 , we consider the Dirichlet Laplacian in the layer Ω that is defined as a tubular neighborhood of constant width about Σ. Using an intrinsic approach to the geometry of Ω, we generalize the spectral results of the original paper by Duclos et al. [Commun. Math. Phys. 223, 13 (2001)] to the situation when Σ does not possess poles. This enables us to consider topologically more complicated layers and state new spectral results. In particular, we are interested in layers built over surfaces with handles or several cylindrically symmetric ends. We also discuss more general regions obtained by compact deformations of certain Ω

  7. Geometry of Quantum States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hook, D W

    2008-01-01

    A geometric framework for quantum mechanics arose during the mid 1970s when authors such as Cantoni explored the notion of generalized transition probabilities, and Kibble promoted the idea that the space of pure quantum states provides a natural quantum mechanical analogue for classical phase space. This central idea can be seen easily since the projection of Schroedinger's equation from a Hilbert space into the space of pure spaces is a set of Hamilton's equations. Over the intervening years considerable work has been carried out by a variety of authors and a mature description of quantum mechanics in geometric terms has emerged with many applications. This current offering would seem ideally placed to review the last thirty years of progress and relate this to the most recent work in quantum entanglement. Bengtsson and Zyczkowski's beautifully illustrated volume, Geometry of Quantum States (referred to as GQS from now on) attempts to cover considerable ground in its 466 pages. Its topics range from colour theory in Chapter 1 to quantum entanglement in Chapter 15-to say that this is a whirlwind tour is, perhaps, no understatement. The use of the work 'introduction' in the subtitle of GQS, might suggest to the reader that this work be viewed as a textbook and I think that this interpretation would be incorrect. The authors have chosen to present a survey of different topics with the specific aim to introduce entanglement in geometric terms-the book is not intended as a pedagogical introduction to the geometric approach to quantum mechanics. Each of the fifteen chapters is a short, and mostly self-contained, essay on a particular aspect or application of geometry in the context of quantum mechanics with entanglement being addressed specifically in the final chapter. The chapters fall into three classifications: those concerned with the mathematical background, those which discuss quantum theory and the foundational aspects of the geometric framework, and

  8. Functional integration over geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mottola, E.

    1995-01-01

    The geometric construction of the functional integral over coset spaces M/G is reviewed. The inner product on the cotangent space of infinitesimal deformations of M defines an invariant distance and volume form, or functional integration measure on the full configuration space. Then, by a simple change of coordinates parameterizing the gauge fiber G, the functional measure on the coset space M/G is deduced. This change of integration variables leads to a Jacobian which is entirely equivalent to the Faddeev--Popov determinant of the more traditional gauge fixed approach in non-abelian gauge theory. If the general construction is applied to the case where G is the group of coordinate reparameterizations of spacetime, the continuum functional integral over geometries, i.e. metrics modulo coordinate reparameterizations may be defined. The invariant functional integration measure is used to derive the trace anomaly and effective action for the conformal part of the metric in two and four dimensional spacetime. In two dimensions this approach generates the Polyakov--Liouville action of closed bosonic non-critical string theory. In four dimensions the corresponding effective action leads to novel conclusions on the importance of quantum effects in gravity in the far infrared, and in particular, a dramatic modification of the classical Einstein theory at cosmological distance scales, signaled first by the quantum instability of classical de Sitter spacetime. Finite volume scaling relations for the functional integral of quantum gravity in two and four dimensions are derived, and comparison with the discretized dynamical triangulation approach to the integration over geometries are discussed. Outstanding unsolved problems in both the continuum definition and the simplicial approach to the functional integral over geometries are highlighted

  9. Kinematic geometry of gearing

    CERN Document Server

    Dooner, David B

    2012-01-01

    Building on the first edition published in 1995 this new edition of Kinematic Geometry of Gearing has been extensively revised and updated with new and original material. This includes the methodology for general tooth forms, radius of torsure', cylinder of osculation, and cylindroid of torsure; the author has also completely reworked the '3 laws of gearing', the first law re-written to better parallel the existing 'Law of Gearing" as pioneered by Leonard Euler, expanded from Euler's original law to encompass non-circular gears and hypoid gears, the 2nd law of gearing describing a unique relat

  10. From geometry to topology

    CERN Document Server

    Flegg, H Graham

    2001-01-01

    This excellent introduction to topology eases first-year math students and general readers into the subject by surveying its concepts in a descriptive and intuitive way, attempting to build a bridge from the familiar concepts of geometry to the formalized study of topology. The first three chapters focus on congruence classes defined by transformations in real Euclidean space. As the number of permitted transformations increases, these classes become larger, and their common topological properties become intuitively clear. Chapters 4-12 give a largely intuitive presentation of selected topics.

  11. Torsional heterotic geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, Katrin; Sethi, Savdeep

    2009-01-01

    We construct new examples of torsional heterotic backgrounds using duality with orientifold flux compactifications. We explain how duality provides a perturbative solution to the type I/heterotic string Bianchi identity. The choice of connection used in the Bianchi identity plays an important role in the construction. We propose the existence of a much larger landscape of compact torsional geometries using string duality. Finally, we present some quantum exact metrics that correspond to NS5-branes placed on an elliptic space. These metrics describe how torus isometries are broken by NS flux.

  12. Geometrie verstehen: statisch - kinematisch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Ekkehard

    Dem Allgemeinen steht begrifflich das Besondere gegenüber. In diesem Sinne sind allgemeine Überlegungen zum Verstehen von Mathematik zu ergänzen durch Untersuchungen hinsichtlich des Verstehens der einzelnen mathematischen Disziplinen, insbesondere der Geometrie. Hier haben viele Schülerinnen und Schüler Probleme. Diese rühren hauptsächlich daher, dass eine fertige geometrische Konstruktion in ihrer statischen Präsentation auf Papier nicht mehr die einzelnen Konstruktionsschritte erkennen lässt; zum Nachvollzug müssen sie daher ergänzend in einer Konstruktionsbeschreibung festgehalten werden.

  13. Elementary algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kendig, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Designed to make learning introductory algebraic geometry as easy as possible, this text is intended for advanced undergraduates and graduate students who have taken a one-year course in algebra and are familiar with complex analysis. This newly updated second edition enhances the original treatment's extensive use of concrete examples and exercises with numerous figures that have been specially redrawn in Adobe Illustrator. An introductory chapter that focuses on examples of curves is followed by a more rigorous and careful look at plane curves. Subsequent chapters explore commutative ring th

  14. Local analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Abhyankar, Shreeram Shankar

    1964-01-01

    This book provides, for use in a graduate course or for self-study by graduate students, a well-motivated treatment of several topics, especially the following: (1) algebraic treatment of several complex variables; (2) geometric approach to algebraic geometry via analytic sets; (3) survey of local algebra; (4) survey of sheaf theory. The book has been written in the spirit of Weierstrass. Power series play the dominant role. The treatment, being algebraic, is not restricted to complex numbers, but remains valid over any complete-valued field. This makes it applicable to situations arising from

  15. Geometry of conics

    CERN Document Server

    Akopyan, A V

    2007-01-01

    The book is devoted to the properties of conics (plane curves of second degree) that can be formulated and proved using only elementary geometry. Starting with the well-known optical properties of conics, the authors move to less trivial results, both classical and contemporary. In particular, the chapter on projective properties of conics contains a detailed analysis of the polar correspondence, pencils of conics, and the Poncelet theorem. In the chapter on metric properties of conics the authors discuss, in particular, inscribed conics, normals to conics, and the Poncelet theorem for confoca

  16. Geometry and trigonometry

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This stimulating volume offers a broad collection of the principles of geometry and trigonometry and contains colorful diagrams to bring mathematical principles to life. Subjects are enriched by references to famous mathematicians and their ideas, and the stories are presented in a very comprehensible way. Readers investigate the relationships of points, lines, surfaces, and solids. They study construction methods for drawing figures, a wealth of facts about these figures, and above all, methods to prove the facts. They learn about triangle measure for circular motion, sine and cosine, tangent

  17. Geometry I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Geometry I includes methods of proof, points, lines, planes, angles, congruent angles and line segments, triangles, parallelism, quadrilaterals, geometric inequalities, and geometric

  18. Graded geometry and Poisson reduction

    OpenAIRE

    Cattaneo, A S; Zambon, M

    2009-01-01

    The main result of [2] extends the Marsden-Ratiu reduction theorem [4] in Poisson geometry, and is proven by means of graded geometry. In this note we provide the background material about graded geometry necessary for the proof in [2]. Further, we provide an alternative algebraic proof for the main result. ©2009 American Institute of Physics

  19. Parameterized combinatorial geometry modeling in Moritz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Riper, K.A.

    2005-01-01

    We describe the use of named variables as surface and solid body coefficients in the Moritz geometry editing program. Variables can also be used as material numbers, cell densities, and transformation values. A variable is defined as a constant or an arithmetic combination of constants and other variables. A variable reference, such as in a surface coefficient, can be a single variable or an expression containing variables and constants. Moritz can read and write geometry models in MCNP and ITS ACCEPT format; support for other codes will be added. The geometry can be saved with either the variables in place, for modifying the models in Moritz, or with the variables evaluated for use in the transport codes. A program window shows a list of variables and provides fields for editing them. Surface coefficients and other values that use a variable reference are shown in a distinctive style on object property dialogs; associated buttons show fields for editing the reference. We discuss our use of variables in defining geometry models for shielding studies in PET clinics. When a model is parameterized through the use of variables, changes such as room dimensions, shielding layer widths, and cell compositions can be quickly achieved by changing a few numbers without requiring knowledge of the input syntax for the transport code or the tedious and error prone work of recalculating many surface or solid body coefficients. (author)

  20. Real algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bochnak, Jacek; Roy, Marie-Françoise

    1998-01-01

    This book is a systematic treatment of real algebraic geometry, a subject that has strong interrelation with other areas of mathematics: singularity theory, differential topology, quadratic forms, commutative algebra, model theory, complexity theory etc. The careful and clearly written account covers both basic concepts and up-to-date research topics. It may be used as text for a graduate course. The present edition is a substantially revised and expanded English version of the book "Géometrie algébrique réelle" originally published in French, in 1987, as Volume 12 of ERGEBNISSE. Since the publication of the French version the theory has made advances in several directions. Many of these are included in this English version. Thus the English book may be regarded as a completely new treatment of the subject.

  1. Critique of information geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skilling, John

    2014-01-01

    As applied to probability, information geometry fails because probability distributions do not form a metric space. Probability theory rests on a compelling foundation of elementary symmetries, which also support information (aka minus entropy, Kullback-Leibler) H(p;q) as the unique measure of divergence from source probability distribution q to destination p. Because the only compatible connective H is from≠to asymmetric, H(p;q)≠H(q;p), there can be no compatible geometrical distance (which would necessarily be from=to symmetric). Hence there is no distance relationship compatible with the structure of probability theory. Metrics g and densities sqrt(det(g)) interpreted as prior probabilities follow from the definition of distance, and must fail likewise. Various metrics and corresponding priors have been proposed, Fisher's being the most popular, but all must behave unacceptably. This is illustrated with simple counter-examples

  2. Geometry from Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, Diego H.; Silva, Guillermo A.

    2008-01-01

    We discuss how geometrical and topological aspects of certain (1/2)-BPS type IIB geometries are captured by their dual operators in N = 4 Super Yang-Mills theory. The type IIB solutions are characterized by arbitrary droplet pictures in a plane and we consider, in particular, axially symmetric droplets. The 1-loop anomalous dimension of the dual gauge theory operators probed with single traces is described by some bosonic lattice Hamiltonians. These Hamiltonians are shown to encode the topology of the droplets. In appropriate BMN limits, the Hamiltonians spectrum reproduces the spectrum of near-BPS string excitations propagating along each of the individual edges of the droplet. We also study semiclassical regimes for the Hamiltonians. For droplets having disconnected constituents, the Hamiltonian admits different complimentary semiclassical descriptions, each one replicating the semiclassical description for closed strings extending in each of the constituents

  3. Emergent geometry of membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badyn, Mathias Hudoba de; Karczmarek, Joanna L.; Sabella-Garnier, Philippe; Yeh, Ken Huai-Che [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia,6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver (Canada)

    2015-11-13

    In work http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.086001, a surface embedded in flat ℝ{sup 3} is associated to any three hermitian matrices. We study this emergent surface when the matrices are large, by constructing coherent states corresponding to points in the emergent geometry. We find the original matrices determine not only shape of the emergent surface, but also a unique Poisson structure. We prove that commutators of matrix operators correspond to Poisson brackets. Through our construction, we can realize arbitrary noncommutative membranes: for example, we examine a round sphere with a non-spherically symmetric Poisson structure. We also give a natural construction for a noncommutative torus embedded in ℝ{sup 3}. Finally, we make remarks about area and find matrix equations for minimal area surfaces.

  4. Geometry through history Euclidean, hyperbolic, and projective geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Dillon, Meighan I

    2018-01-01

    Presented as an engaging discourse, this textbook invites readers to delve into the historical origins and uses of geometry. The narrative traces the influence of Euclid’s system of geometry, as developed in his classic text The Elements, through the Arabic period, the modern era in the West, and up to twentieth century mathematics. Axioms and proof methods used by mathematicians from those periods are explored alongside the problems in Euclidean geometry that lead to their work. Students cultivate skills applicable to much of modern mathematics through sections that integrate concepts like projective and hyperbolic geometry with representative proof-based exercises. For its sophisticated account of ancient to modern geometries, this text assumes only a year of college mathematics as it builds towards its conclusion with algebraic curves and quaternions. Euclid’s work has affected geometry for thousands of years, so this text has something to offer to anyone who wants to broaden their appreciation for the...

  5. On organizing principles of discrete differential geometry. Geometry of spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobenko, Alexander I; Suris, Yury B

    2007-01-01

    Discrete differential geometry aims to develop discrete equivalents of the geometric notions and methods of classical differential geometry. This survey contains a discussion of the following two fundamental discretization principles: the transformation group principle (smooth geometric objects and their discretizations are invariant with respect to the same transformation group) and the consistency principle (discretizations of smooth parametrized geometries can be extended to multidimensional consistent nets). The main concrete geometric problem treated here is discretization of curvature-line parametrized surfaces in Lie geometry. Systematic use of the discretization principles leads to a discretization of curvature-line parametrization which unifies circular and conical nets.

  6. Higher geometry an introduction to advanced methods in analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Woods, Frederick S

    2005-01-01

    For students of mathematics with a sound background in analytic geometry and some knowledge of determinants, this volume has long been among the best available expositions of advanced work on projective and algebraic geometry. Developed from Professor Woods' lectures at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, it bridges the gap between intermediate studies in the field and highly specialized works.With exceptional thoroughness, it presents the most important general concepts and methods of advanced algebraic geometry (as distinguished from differential geometry). It offers a thorough study

  7. Waves in inhomogeneous plasma of cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rebut, P.H.

    1966-01-01

    The conductivity tensor of a hot and inhomogeneous plasma has been calculated for a cylindrical geometry using Vlasov equations. The method used consists in a perturbation method involving the first integrals of the unperturbed movement. The conductivity tensor will be particularly useful for dealing with stability problems. In the case of a cold plasma the wave equation giving the electric fields as a function of the radius is obtained. This equation shows the existence of resonant layers which lead to an absorption analogous to the Landau absorption in a hot plasma. (author) [fr

  8. An introduction to incidence geometry

    CERN Document Server

    De Bruyn, Bart

    2016-01-01

    This book gives an introduction to the field of Incidence Geometry by discussing the basic families of point-line geometries and introducing some of the mathematical techniques that are essential for their study. The families of geometries covered in this book include among others the generalized polygons, near polygons, polar spaces, dual polar spaces and designs. Also the various relationships between these geometries are investigated. Ovals and ovoids of projective spaces are studied and some applications to particular geometries will be given. A separate chapter introduces the necessary mathematical tools and techniques from graph theory. This chapter itself can be regarded as a self-contained introduction to strongly regular and distance-regular graphs. This book is essentially self-contained, only assuming the knowledge of basic notions from (linear) algebra and projective and affine geometry. Almost all theorems are accompanied with proofs and a list of exercises with full solutions is given at the end...

  9. Casimir forces and geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buescher, R.

    2005-01-01

    Casimir interactions are interactions induced by quantum vacuum fluctuations and thermal fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Using a path integral quantization for the gauge field, an effective Gaussian action will be derived which is the starting point to compute Casimir forces between macroscopic objects analytically and numerically. No assumptions about the independence of the material and shape dependent contributions to the interaction are made. We study the limit of flat surfaces in further detail and obtain a concise derivation of Lifshitz' theory of molecular forces. For the case of ideally conducting boundaries, the Gaussian action will be calculated explicitly. Both limiting cases are also discussed within the framework of a scalar field quantization approach, which is applicable for translationally invariant geometries. We develop a non-perturbative approach to calculate the Casimir interaction from the Gaussian action for periodically deformed and ideally conducting objects numerically. The obtained results reveal two different scaling regimes for the Casimir force as a function of the distance between the objects, their deformation wavelength and -amplitude. The results confirm that the interaction is non-additive, especially in the presence of strong geometric deformations. Furthermore, the numerical approach is extended to calculate lateral Casimir forces. The results are consistent with the results of the proximity-force approximation for large deformation wavelengths. A qualitatively different behaviour between the normal and lateral force is revealed. We also establish a relation between the boundary induced change of the of the density of states for the scalar Helmholtz equation and the Casimir interaction using the path integral method. For statically deformed boundaries, this relation can be expressed as a novel trace formula, which is formally similar to the so-called Krein-Friedel-Lloyd formula. While the latter formula describes the

  10. Planetary Image Geometry Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deen, Robert C.; Pariser, Oleg

    2010-01-01

    The Planetary Image Geometry (PIG) library is a multi-mission library used for projecting images (EDRs, or Experiment Data Records) and managing their geometry for in-situ missions. A collection of models describes cameras and their articulation, allowing application programs such as mosaickers, terrain generators, and pointing correction tools to be written in a multi-mission manner, without any knowledge of parameters specific to the supported missions. Camera model objects allow transformation of image coordinates to and from view vectors in XYZ space. Pointing models, specific to each mission, describe how to orient the camera models based on telemetry or other information. Surface models describe the surface in general terms. Coordinate system objects manage the various coordinate systems involved in most missions. File objects manage access to metadata (labels, including telemetry information) in the input EDRs and RDRs (Reduced Data Records). Label models manage metadata information in output files. Site objects keep track of different locations where the spacecraft might be at a given time. Radiometry models allow correction of radiometry for an image. Mission objects contain basic mission parameters. Pointing adjustment ("nav") files allow pointing to be corrected. The object-oriented structure (C++) makes it easy to subclass just the pieces of the library that are truly mission-specific. Typically, this involves just the pointing model and coordinate systems, and parts of the file model. Once the library was developed (initially for Mars Polar Lander, MPL), adding new missions ranged from two days to a few months, resulting in significant cost savings as compared to rewriting all the application programs for each mission. Currently supported missions include Mars Pathfinder (MPF), MPL, Mars Exploration Rover (MER), Phoenix, and Mars Science Lab (MSL). Applications based on this library create the majority of operational image RDRs for those missions. A

  11. Initiation to global Finslerian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Akbar-Zadeh, Hassan

    2006-01-01

    After a brief description of the evolution of thinking on Finslerian geometry starting from Riemann, Finsler, Berwald and Elie Cartan, the book gives a clear and precise treatment of this geometry. The first three chapters develop the basic notions and methods, introduced by the author, to reach the global problems in Finslerian Geometry. The next five chapters are independent of each other, and deal with among others the geometry of generalized Einstein manifolds, the classification of Finslerian manifolds of constant sectional curvatures. They also give a treatment of isometric, affine, p

  12. Ostrich eggs geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Nedomová

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Precise quantification of the profile of egg can provide a powerful tool for the analysis of egg shape for various biological problems. A new approach to the geometry of a Ostrich’s egg profile is presented here using an analysing the egg’s digital photo by edge detection techniques. The obtained points on the eggshell counter are fitted by the Fourier series. The obtained equations describing an egg profile have been used to calculate radii of curvature. The radii of the curvature at the important point of the egg profile (sharp end, blunt end and maximum thickness are independent on the egg shape index. The exact values of the egg surface and the egg volume have been obtained. These quantities are also independent on the egg shape index. These quantities can be successively estimated on the basis of simplified equations which are expressed in terms of the egg length, L¸ and its width, B. The surface area of the eggshells also exhibits good correlation with the egg long circumference length. Some limitations of the most used procedures have been also shown.

  13. Nonperturbative quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacobson, T.; California Univ., Santa Barbara; Smolin, L.; California Univ., Santa Barbara

    1988-01-01

    Using the self-dual representation of quantum general relativity, based on Ashtekar's new phase space variables, we present an infinite dimensional family of quantum states of the gravitational field which are exactly annihilated by the hamiltonian constraint. These states are constructed from Wilson loops for Ashtekar's connection (which is the spatial part of the left handed spin connection). We propose a new regularization procedure which allows us to evaluate the action of the hamiltonian constraint on these states. Infinite linear combinations of these states which are formally annihilated by the diffeomorphism constraints as well are also described. These are explicit examples of physical states of the gravitational field - and for the compact case are exact zero eigenstates of the hamiltonian of quantum general relativity. Several different approaches to constructing diffeomorphism invariant states in the self dual representation are also described. The physical interpretation of the states described here is discussed. However, as we do not yet know the physical inner product, any interpretation is at this stage speculative. Nevertheless, this work suggests that quantum geometry at Planck scales might be much simpler when explored in terms of the parallel transport of left-handed spinors than when explored in terms of the three metric. (orig.)

  14. Matrix Information Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bhatia, Rajendra

    2013-01-01

    This book is an outcome of the Indo-French Workshop on Matrix Information Geometries (MIG): Applications in Sensor and Cognitive Systems Engineering, which was held in Ecole Polytechnique and Thales Research and Technology Center, Palaiseau, France, in February 23-25, 2011. The workshop was generously funded by the Indo-French Centre for the Promotion of Advanced Research (IFCPAR).  During the event, 22 renowned invited french or indian speakers gave lectures on their areas of expertise within the field of matrix analysis or processing. From these talks, a total of 17 original contribution or state-of-the-art chapters have been assembled in this volume. All articles were thoroughly peer-reviewed and improved, according to the suggestions of the international referees. The 17 contributions presented  are organized in three parts: (1) State-of-the-art surveys & original matrix theory work, (2) Advanced matrix theory for radar processing, and (3) Matrix-based signal processing applications.  

  15. Geometry and Mechanics of Chiral Pod Opening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon, Eran; Armon, Shahaf; Efrati, Efi; Kupferman, Raz

    2012-02-01

    We study the geometry and mechanics that drive the opening of Bauhinia seeds pods. The pod valve wall consists of two fibrous layers oriented at ± 45^o with respect to the pod axis. Upon drying, each of the layers shrinks uniaxially, perpendicularly to the fibers orientation. This active deformation turn the valve into an incompatible sheet with reference saddle-like curvature tensor and a flat (Euclidean) reference metric. These two intrinsic properties are incompatible. The shape is, therefore, selected by a stretching-bending competition. Strips cut from the valve tissue and from synthetic model material adopt various helical configurations. We provide analytical expressions for these configurations in the bending and stretching dominated regimes. Surface measurements show the transition from minimal surfaces (narrow limit) to cylindrical ones (wide limit). Finally, we show how plants use these mechanical principles using different tissue architectures.

  16. GPS: Geometry, Probability, and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Mike

    2012-01-01

    It might be said that for most occupations there is now less of a need for mathematics than there was say fifty years ago. But, the author argues, geometry, probability, and statistics constitute essential knowledge for everyone. Maybe not the geometry of Euclid, but certainly geometrical ways of thinking that might enable us to describe the world…

  17. Surrogate Modeling for Geometry Optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rojas Larrazabal, Marielba de la Caridad; Abraham, Yonas; Holzwarth, Natalie

    2009-01-01

    A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used.......A new approach for optimizing the nuclear geometry of an atomic system is described. Instead of the original expensive objective function (energy functional), a small number of simpler surrogates is used....

  18. Kaehler geometry and SUSY mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Nersessian, Armen

    2001-01-01

    We present two examples of SUSY mechanics related with Kaehler geometry. The first system is the N = 4 supersymmetric one-dimensional sigma-model proposed in hep-th/0101065. Another system is the N = 2 SUSY mechanics whose phase space is the external algebra of an arbitrary Kaehler manifold. The relation of these models with antisymplectic geometry is discussed

  19. A prediction for bubbling geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Okuda, Takuya

    2007-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric circular Wilson loops in N=4 Yang-Mills theory. Their vacuum expectation values are computed in the parameter region that admits smooth bubbling geometry duals. The results are a prediction for the supergravity action evaluated on the bubbling geometries for Wilson loops.

  20. Molecular motion in restricted geometries

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular dynamics in restricted geometries is known to exhibit anomalous behaviour. Diffusion, translational or rotational, of molecules is altered significantly on confinement in restricted geometries. Quasielastic neutron scattering (QENS) offers a unique possibility of studying molecular motion in such systems. Both time ...

  1. Geometry optimization of zirconium sulfophenylphosphonate layers by molecular simulation methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Škoda, J.; Pospíšil, M.; Kovář, P.; Melánová, Klára; Svoboda, J.; Beneš, L.; Zima, Vítězslav

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2018), s. 1-12, č. článku 10. ISSN 1610-2940 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-13368S; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-10639S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : zirconium sulfophenylphosphonate * intercalation * molecular simulation Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry OBOR OECD: Inorganic and nuclear chemistry Impact factor: 1.425, year: 2016

  2. Basic algebraic geometry, v.2

    CERN Document Server

    Shafarevich, Igor Rostislavovich

    1994-01-01

    Shafarevich Basic Algebraic Geometry 2 The second edition of Shafarevich's introduction to algebraic geometry is in two volumes. The second volume covers schemes and complex manifolds, generalisations in two different directions of the affine and projective varieties that form the material of the first volume. Two notable additions in this second edition are the section on moduli spaces and representable functors, motivated by a discussion of the Hilbert scheme, and the section on Kähler geometry. The book ends with a historical sketch discussing the origins of algebraic geometry. From the Zentralblatt review of this volume: "... one can only respectfully repeat what has been said about the first part of the book (...): a great textbook, written by one of the leading algebraic geometers and teachers himself, has been reworked and updated. As a result the author's standard textbook on algebraic geometry has become even more important and valuable. Students, teachers, and active researchers using methods of al...

  3. Optical geometry across the horizon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jonsson, Rickard

    2006-01-01

    In a recent paper (Jonsson and Westman 2006 Class. Quantum Grav. 23 61), a generalization of optical geometry, assuming a non-shearing reference congruence, is discussed. Here we illustrate that this formalism can be applied to (a finite four-volume) of any spherically symmetric spacetime. In particular we apply the formalism, using a non-static reference congruence, to do optical geometry across the horizon of a static black hole. While the resulting geometry in principle is time dependent, we can choose the reference congruence in such a manner that an embedding of the geometry always looks the same. Relative to the embedded geometry the reference points are then moving. We discuss the motion of photons, inertial forces and gyroscope precession in this framework

  4. Complex analysis and CR geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Zampieri, Giuseppe

    2008-01-01

    Cauchy-Riemann (CR) geometry is the study of manifolds equipped with a system of CR-type equations. Compared to the early days when the purpose of CR geometry was to supply tools for the analysis of the existence and regularity of solutions to the \\bar\\partial-Neumann problem, it has rapidly acquired a life of its own and has became an important topic in differential geometry and the study of non-linear partial differential equations. A full understanding of modern CR geometry requires knowledge of various topics such as real/complex differential and symplectic geometry, foliation theory, the geometric theory of PDE's, and microlocal analysis. Nowadays, the subject of CR geometry is very rich in results, and the amount of material required to reach competence is daunting to graduate students who wish to learn it. However, the present book does not aim at introducing all the topics of current interest in CR geometry. Instead, an attempt is made to be friendly to the novice by moving, in a fairly relaxed way, f...

  5. The geometry description markup language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chytracek, R.

    2001-01-01

    Currently, a lot of effort is being put on designing complex detectors. A number of simulation and reconstruction frameworks and applications have been developed with the aim to make this job easier. A very important role in this activity is played by the geometry description of the detector apparatus layout and its working environment. However, no real common approach to represent geometry data is available and such data can be found in various forms starting from custom semi-structured text files, source code (C/C++/FORTRAN), to XML and database solutions. The XML (Extensible Markup Language) has proven to provide an interesting approach for describing detector geometries, with several different but incompatible XML-based solutions existing. Therefore, interoperability and geometry data exchange among different frameworks is not possible at present. The author introduces a markup language for geometry descriptions. Its aim is to define a common approach for sharing and exchanging of geometry description data. Its requirements and design have been driven by experience and user feedback from existing projects which have their geometry description in XML

  6. Head First 2D Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fallow), Stray

    2009-01-01

    Having trouble with geometry? Do Pi, The Pythagorean Theorem, and angle calculations just make your head spin? Relax. With Head First 2D Geometry, you'll master everything from triangles, quads and polygons to the time-saving secrets of similar and congruent angles -- and it'll be quick, painless, and fun. Through entertaining stories and practical examples from the world around you, this book takes you beyond boring problems. You'll actually use what you learn to make real-life decisions, like using angles and parallel lines to crack a mysterious CSI case. Put geometry to work for you, and

  7. A first course in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walsh, Edward T

    2014-01-01

    This introductory text is designed to help undergraduate students develop a solid foundation in geometry. Early chapters progress slowly, cultivating the necessary understanding and self-confidence for the more rapid development that follows. The extensive treatment can be easily adapted to accommodate shorter courses. Starting with the language of mathematics as expressed in the algebra of logic and sets, the text covers geometric sets of points, separation and angles, triangles, parallel lines, similarity, polygons and area, circles, space geometry, and coordinate geometry. Each chapter incl

  8. Differential geometry curves, surfaces, manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Kohnel, Wolfgang

    2002-01-01

    This carefully written book is an introduction to the beautiful ideas and results of differential geometry. The first half covers the geometry of curves and surfaces, which provide much of the motivation and intuition for the general theory. Special topics that are explored include Frenet frames, ruled surfaces, minimal surfaces and the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. The second part is an introduction to the geometry of general manifolds, with particular emphasis on connections and curvature. The final two chapters are insightful examinations of the special cases of spaces of constant curvature and Einstein manifolds. The text is illustrated with many figures and examples. The prerequisites are undergraduate analysis and linear algebra.

  9. Advances in discrete differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This is one of the first books on a newly emerging field of discrete differential geometry and an excellent way to access this exciting area. It surveys the fascinating connections between discrete models in differential geometry and complex analysis, integrable systems and applications in computer graphics. The authors take a closer look at discrete models in differential geometry and dynamical systems. Their curves are polygonal, surfaces are made from triangles and quadrilaterals, and time is discrete. Nevertheless, the difference between the corresponding smooth curves, surfaces and classical dynamical systems with continuous time can hardly be seen. This is the paradigm of structure-preserving discretizations. Current advances in this field are stimulated to a large extent by its relevance for computer graphics and mathematical physics. This book is written by specialists working together on a common research project. It is about differential geometry and dynamical systems, smooth and discrete theories, ...

  10. Hyperbolic Metamaterials with Complex Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Andryieuski, Andrei; Zhukovsky, Sergei

    2016-01-01

    We investigate new geometries of hyperbolic metamaterialssuch as highly corrugated structures, nanoparticle monolayer assemblies, super-structured or vertically arranged multilayersand nanopillars. All structures retain basic propertiesof hyperbolic metamaterials, but have functionality improved...

  11. An introduction to differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Willmore, T J

    2012-01-01

    This text employs vector methods to explore the classical theory of curves and surfaces. Topics include basic theory of tensor algebra, tensor calculus, calculus of differential forms, and elements of Riemannian geometry. 1959 edition.

  12. Symplectic geometry and Fourier analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Wallach, Nolan R

    2018-01-01

    Suitable for graduate students in mathematics, this monograph covers differential and symplectic geometry, homogeneous symplectic manifolds, Fourier analysis, metaplectic representation, quantization, Kirillov theory. Includes Appendix on Quantum Mechanics by Robert Hermann. 1977 edition.

  13. Geometry-invariant GRIN lens: finite ray tracing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrami, Mehdi; Goncharov, Alexander V

    2014-11-17

    The refractive index distribution of the geometry-invariant gradient refractive index lens (GIGL) model is derived as a function of Cartesian coordinates. The adjustable external geometry of the GIGL model aims to mimic the shape of the human and animal crystalline lens. The refractive index distribution is based on an adjustable power-law profile, which provides additional flexibility of the model. An analytical method for layer-by-layer finite ray tracing through the GIGL model is developed and used to calculate aberrations of the GIGL model. The result of the finite ray tracing aberrations of the GIGL model are compared to those obtained with paraxial ray tracing. The derived analytical expression for the refractive index distribution can be employed in the reconstruction processes of the eye using the conventional ray tracing methods. The layer-by-layer finite ray tracing approach would be an asset in ray tracing through a modified GIGL model, where the refractive index distribution cannot be described analytically. Using the layer-by-layer finite ray-tracing method, the potential of the GIGL model in representing continuous as well as shell-like layered structures is illustrated and the results for both cases are presented and analysed.

  14. Topology and geometry for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Nash, Charles

    1983-01-01

    Differential geometry and topology are essential tools for many theoretical physicists, particularly in the study of condensed matter physics, gravity, and particle physics. Written by physicists for physics students, this text introduces geometrical and topological methods in theoretical physics and applied mathematics. It assumes no detailed background in topology or geometry, and it emphasizes physical motivations, enabling students to apply the techniques to their physics formulas and research. ""Thoroughly recommended"" by The Physics Bulletin, this volume's physics applications range fr

  15. Spectral dimension of quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2014-01-01

    The spectral dimension is an indicator of geometry and topology of spacetime and a tool to compare the description of quantum geometry in various approaches to quantum gravity. This is possible because it can be defined not only on smooth geometries but also on discrete (e.g., simplicial) ones. In this paper, we consider the spectral dimension of quantum states of spatial geometry defined on combinatorial complexes endowed with additional algebraic data: the kinematical quantum states of loop quantum gravity (LQG). Preliminarily, the effects of topology and discreteness of classical discrete geometries are studied in a systematic manner. We look for states reproducing the spectral dimension of a classical space in the appropriate regime. We also test the hypothesis that in LQG, as in other approaches, there is a scale dependence of the spectral dimension, which runs from the topological dimension at large scales to a smaller one at short distances. While our results do not give any strong support to this hypothesis, we can however pinpoint when the topological dimension is reproduced by LQG quantum states. Overall, by exploring the interplay of combinatorial, topological and geometrical effects, and by considering various kinds of quantum states such as coherent states and their superpositions, we find that the spectral dimension of discrete quantum geometries is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structures than to the details of the additional data associated with them. (paper)

  16. Three-layer magnetoconvection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, M.-K.; Silvers, L.J.; Proctor, M.R.E.

    2008-01-01

    It is believed that some stars have two or more convection zones in close proximity near to the stellar photosphere. These zones are separated by convectively stable regions that are relatively narrow. Due to the close proximity of these regions it is important to construct mathematical models to understand the transport and mixing of passive and dynamic quantities. One key quantity of interest is a magnetic field, a dynamic vector quantity, that can drastically alter the convectively driven flows, and have an important role in coupling the different layers. In this Letter we present the first investigation into the effect of an imposed magnetic field in such a geometry. We focus our attention on the effect of field strength and show that, while there are some similarities with results for magnetic field evolution in a single layer, new and interesting phenomena are also present in a three layer system

  17. Photonic crystal geometry for organic solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Doo-Hyun; Tumbleston, John R; Zhang, Lei; Williams, Stuart; DeSimone, Joseph M; Lopez, Rene; Samulski, Edward T

    2009-07-01

    We report organic solar cells with a photonic crystal nanostructure embossed in the photoactive bulk heterojunction layer, a topography that exhibits a 3-fold enhancement of the absorption in specific regions of the solar spectrum in part through multiple excitation resonances. The photonic crystal geometry is fabricated using a materials-agnostic process called PRINT wherein highly ordered arrays of nanoscale features are readily made in a single processing step over wide areas (approximately 4 cm(2)) that is scalable. We show efficiency improvements of approximately 70% that result not only from greater absorption, but also from electrical enhancements. The methodology is generally applicable to organic solar cells and the experimental findings reported in our manuscript corroborate theoretical expectations.

  18. Categorification in geometry, topology, and physics

    CERN Document Server

    Beliakova, Anna

    2017-01-01

    The emergent mathematical philosophy of categorification is reshaping our view of modern mathematics by uncovering a hidden layer of structure in mathematics, revealing richer and more robust structures capable of describing more complex phenomena. Categorification is a powerful tool for relating various branches of mathematics and exploiting the commonalities between fields. It provides a language emphasizing essential features and allowing precise relationships between vastly different fields. This volume focuses on the role categorification plays in geometry, topology, and physics. These articles illustrate many important trends for the field including geometric representation theory, homotopical methods in link homology, interactions between higher representation theory and gauge theory, and double affine Hecke algebra approaches to link homology. The companion volume (Contemporary Mathematics, Volume 683) is devoted to categorification and higher representation theory.

  19. Prediction of melt geometry in laser cutting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tani, Giovanni; Tomesani, Luca; Campana, Giampaolo

    2003-03-15

    In this paper, an analytical model for the evaluation of the melt film geometry in laser cutting of steels is developed. Using as basis, a previous model for kerf geometry estimation developed by the authors, with both reactive and non-reactive process gases, the film thickness and velocity were determined as a function of the kerf depth in the cutting plate. Two criteria were then adopted to predict the quality of the laser cutting operation: the first is based on a minimum acceptable value of the ejection speed of the melt from the bottom of the kerf, the second on the occlusion of the kerf itself due to an excess of molten material in the boundary layer at the kerf width. These criteria determined a feasibility region in the domain of the process and material variables, such as cutting speed, assistant gas pressure, laser beam power and material characteristics. These factors may be successfully used to build a process-planning tool for parameters optimisation and setting, in order to achieve a satisfactory process quality. The model response is in excellent agreement with the feasibility regions reported from experimental data by various authors and demonstrates a relationship between the occurrence of dross adhesion and the two different mechanisms predicted for such a phenomenon were: unsatisfactory ejection speed of the melt film from the bottom of the kerf and occlusion of the kerf.

  20. Variable geometry Darrieus wind machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pytlinski, J. T.; Serrano, D.

    1983-08-01

    A variable geometry Darrieus wind machine is proposed. The lower attachment of the blades to the rotor can move freely up and down the axle allowing the blades of change shape during rotation. Experimental data for a 17 m. diameter Darrieus rotor and a theoretical model for multiple streamtube performance prediction were used to develop a computer simulation program for studying parameters that affect the machine's performance. This new variable geometry concept is described and interrelated with multiple streamtube theory through aerodynamic parameters. The computer simulation study shows that governor behavior of a Darrieus turbine can not be attained by a standard turbine operating within normally occurring rotational velocity limits. A second generation variable geometry Darrieus wind turbine which uses a telescopic blade is proposed as a potential improvement on the studied concept.

  1. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grana, Mariana

    2006-01-01

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T 6 /(Z 3 x Z 3 ) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry

  2. Flux compactifications and generalized geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grana, Mariana [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA/Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France)

    2006-11-07

    Following the lectures given at CERN Winter School 2006, we present a pedagogical overview of flux compactifications and generalized geometries, concentrating on closed string fluxes in type II theories. We start by reviewing the supersymmetric flux configurations with maximally symmetric four-dimensional spaces. We then discuss the no-go theorems (and their evasion) for compactifications with fluxes. We analyse the resulting four-dimensional effective theories for Calabi-Yau and Calabi-Yau orientifold compactifications, concentrating on the flux-induced superpotentials. We discuss the generic mechanism of moduli stabilization and illustrate with two examples: the conifold in IIB and a T{sup 6} /(Z{sub 3} x Z{sub 3}) torus in IIA. We finish by studying the effective action and flux vacua for generalized geometries in the context of generalized complex geometry.

  3. Euclidean geometry and its subgeometries

    CERN Document Server

    Specht, Edward John; Calkins, Keith G; Rhoads, Donald H

    2015-01-01

    In this monograph, the authors present a modern development of Euclidean geometry from independent axioms, using up-to-date language and providing detailed proofs. The axioms for incidence, betweenness, and plane separation are close to those of Hilbert. This is the only axiomatic treatment of Euclidean geometry that uses axioms not involving metric notions and that explores congruence and isometries by means of reflection mappings. The authors present thirteen axioms in sequence, proving as many theorems as possible at each stage and, in the process, building up subgeometries, most notably the Pasch and neutral geometries. Standard topics such as the congruence theorems for triangles, embedding the real numbers in a line, and coordinatization of the plane are included, as well as theorems of Pythagoras, Desargues, Pappas, Menelaus, and Ceva. The final chapter covers consistency and independence of axioms, as well as independence of definition properties. There are over 300 exercises; solutions to many of the...

  4. Guide to Computational Geometry Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bærentzen, Jakob Andreas; Gravesen, Jens; Anton, François

    be processed before it is useful. This Guide to Computational Geometry Processing reviews the algorithms for processing geometric data, with a practical focus on important techniques not covered by traditional courses on computer vision and computer graphics. This is balanced with an introduction...... to the theoretical and mathematical underpinnings of each technique, enabling the reader to not only implement a given method, but also to understand the ideas behind it, its limitations and its advantages. Topics and features: Presents an overview of the underlying mathematical theory, covering vector spaces......, metric space, affine spaces, differential geometry, and finite difference methods for derivatives and differential equations Reviews geometry representations, including polygonal meshes, splines, and subdivision surfaces Examines techniques for computing curvature from polygonal meshes Describes...

  5. Electrodynamics and Spacetime Geometry: Foundations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S. N.

    2017-02-01

    We explore the intimate connection between spacetime geometry and electrodynamics. This link is already implicit in the constitutive relations between the field strengths and excitations, which are an essential part of the axiomatic structure of electromagnetism, clearly formulated via integration theory and differential forms. We review the foundations of classical electromagnetism based on charge and magnetic flux conservation, the Lorentz force and the constitutive relations. These relations introduce the conformal part of the metric and allow the study of electrodynamics for specific spacetime geometries. At the foundational level, we discuss the possibility of generalizing the vacuum constitutive relations, by relaxing the fixed conditions of homogeneity and isotropy, and by assuming that the symmetry properties of the electro-vacuum follow the spacetime isometries. The implications of this extension are briefly discussed in the context of the intimate connection between electromagnetism and the geometry (and causal structure) of spacetime.

  6. DOGBONE GEOMETRY FOR RECIRCULATING ACCELERATORS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BERG, J.S.; JOHNSTONE, C.; SUMMERS, D.

    2001-01-01

    Most scenarios for accelerating muons require recirculating acceleration. A racetrack shape for the accelerator requires particles with lower energy in early passes to traverse almost the same length of arc as particles with the highest energy. This extra arc length may lead to excess decays and excess cost. Changing the geometry to a dogbone shape, where there is a single linac and the beam turns completely around at the end of the linac, returning to the same end of the linac from which it exited, addresses this problem. In this design, the arc lengths can be proportional to the particle's momentum. This paper proposes an approximate cost model for a recirculating accelerator, attempts to make cost-optimized designs for both racetrack and dogbone geometries, and demonstrates that the dogbone geometry does appear to be more cost effective

  7. Geometric Transformations in Engineering Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. F. Borovikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, for business purposes, in view of current trends and world experience in training engineers, research and faculty staff there has been a need to transform traditional courses of descriptive geometry into the course of engineering geometry in which the geometrical transformations have to become its main section. On the basis of critical analysis the paper gives suggestions to improve a presentation technique of this section both in the classroom and in academic literature, extend an application scope of geometrical transformations to solve the position and metric tasks and simulation of surfaces, as well as to design complex engineering configurations, which meet a number of pre-specified conditions.The article offers to make a number of considerable amendments to the terms and definitions used in the existing courses of descriptive geometry. It draws some conclusions and makes the appropriate proposals on feasibility of coordination in teaching the movement transformation in the courses of analytical and descriptive geometry. This will provide interdisciplinary team teaching and allow students to be convinced that a combination of analytical and graphic ways to solve geometric tasks is useful and reasonable.The traditional sections of learning courses need to be added with a theory of projective and bi-rational transformations. In terms of application simplicity and convenience it is enough to consider the central transformations when solving the applied tasks. These transformations contain a beam of sub-invariant (low-invariant straight lines on which the invariant curve induces non-involution and involution projectivities. The expediency of nonlinear transformations application is shown in the article by a specific example of geometric modeling of the interfacing surface "spar-blade".Implementation of these suggestions will contribute to a real transformation of a traditional course of descriptive geometry to the engineering geometry

  8. KEMAJUAN BELAJAR SISWA PADA GEOMETRI TRANSFORMASI MENGGUNAKAN AKTIVITAS REFLEKSI GEOMETRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irkham Ulil Albab

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak: Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mendeskripsikan kemajuan belajar siswa pada materi geometri transformasi yang didukung dengan serangkaian aktivitas belajar berdasarkan Pendidikan Matematika Realistik Indonesia. Penelitian didesain melalui tiga tahap, yaitu tahapan perancangan desain awal, pengujian desain melalui pembelajaran awal dan pembelajaran eksperimental, dan tahap analisis retrospektif. Dalam penelitian ini, Hypothetical Learning Trajectory, HLT (HLT berperan penting sebagai desain pembelajaran sekaligus instrumen penelitian. HLT diujikan terhadap 26 siswa kelas VII. Data dikumpulkan dengan teknik wawancara, pengamatan, dan catatan lapangan. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa desain pembelajaran ini mampu menstimulasi siswa untuk memberikan karakteristik refleksi dan transformasi geometri lainnya secara informal, mengklasifikasikannya dalam transformasi isometri pada level kedua, dan menemukan garis bantuan refleksi pada level yang lebih formal. Selain itu, garis bantuan refleksi digunakan oleh siswa untuk menggambar bayangan refleksi dan pola pencerminan serta memahami bentuk rotasi dan translasi sebagai kombinasi refleksi adalah level tertinggi. Keyword: transformasi geometri, kombinasi refleksi, rotasi, translasi, design research, HLT STUDENTS’ LEARNING PROGRESS ON TRANSFORMATION GEOMETRY USING THE GEOMETRY REFLECTION ACTIVITIES Abstract: This study was aimed at describing the students’ learning progress on transformation geometry supported by a set of learning activities based on Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education. The study was designed into three stages, that is, the preliminary design stage, the design testing through initial instruction and experiment, and the restrospective analysis stage. In this study, Hypothetical Learning Trajectory (HLT played an important role as an instructional design and a research instrument. HLT was tested to 26 seventh grade students. The data were collected through interviews

  9. Graphical debugging of combinational geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, T.J.; Smith, M.S.

    1992-01-01

    A graphical debugger for combinatorial geometry being developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is described. The prototype debugger consists of two parts: a FORTRAN-based ''view'' generator and a Microsoft Windows application for displaying the geometry. Options and features of both modules are discussed. Examples illustrating the various options available are presented. The potential for utilizing the images produced using the debugger as a visualization tool for the output of the radiation transport codes is discussed as is the future direction of the development

  10. Lectures on Algebraic Geometry I

    CERN Document Server

    Harder, Gunter

    2012-01-01

    This book and the following second volume is an introduction into modern algebraic geometry. In the first volume the methods of homological algebra, theory of sheaves, and sheaf cohomology are developed. These methods are indispensable for modern algebraic geometry, but they are also fundamental for other branches of mathematics and of great interest in their own. In the last chapter of volume I these concepts are applied to the theory of compact Riemann surfaces. In this chapter the author makes clear how influential the ideas of Abel, Riemann and Jacobi were and that many of the modern metho

  11. Combinatorial geometry in the plane

    CERN Document Server

    Hadwiger, Hugo; Klee, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Geared toward advanced undergraduates familiar with analysis and college geometry, this concise book discusses theorems on topics restricted to the plane such as convexity, coverings, and graphs. In addition to helping students cultivate rigorous thought, the text encourages the development of mathematical intuition and clarifies the nature of mathematical research.The two-part treatment begins with specific topics including integral distances, covering problems, point set geometry and convexity, simple paradoxes involving point sets, and pure combinatorics, among other subjects. The second pa

  12. Modern differential geometry for physicists

    CERN Document Server

    Isham, C J

    1989-01-01

    These notes are the content of an introductory course on modern, coordinate-free differential geometry which is taken by the first-year theoretical physics PhD students, or by students attending the one-year MSc course "Fundamental Fields and Forces" at Imperial College. The book is concerned entirely with mathematics proper, although the emphasis and detailed topics have been chosen with an eye to the way in which differential geometry is applied these days to modern theoretical physics. This includes not only the traditional area of general relativity but also the theory of Yang-Mills fields

  13. Comparison theorems in Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeger, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The central theme of this book is the interaction between the curvature of a complete Riemannian manifold and its topology and global geometry. The first five chapters are preparatory in nature. They begin with a very concise introduction to Riemannian geometry, followed by an exposition of Toponogov's theorem-the first such treatment in a book in English. Next comes a detailed presentation of homogeneous spaces in which the main goal is to find formulas for their curvature. A quick chapter of Morse theory is followed by one on the injectivity radius. Chapters 6-9 deal with many of the most re

  14. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varadarajan, Uday [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated.

  15. Spatial geometry and special relativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kneubil, Fabiana Botelho

    2016-01-01

    In this work, it is shown the interplay of relative and absolute entities, which are present in both spatial geometry and special relativity. In order to strengthen the understanding of special relativity, we discuss firstly an instance of geometry and the existence of both frame......-dependent and frame-independent entities. We depart from a subject well known by students, which is the three-dimensional geometric space in order to compare, afterwards, with the treatment of four-dimensional space in the special relativity. The differences and similarities between these two subjects are also...

  16. Stochastic geometry and its applications

    CERN Document Server

    Chiu, Sung Nok; Kendall, Wilfrid S; Mecke, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    An extensive update to a classic text Stochastic geometry and spatial statistics play a fundamental role in many modern branches of physics, materials sciences, engineering, biology and environmental sciences. They offer successful models for the description of random two- and three-dimensional micro and macro structures and statistical methods for their analysis. The previous edition of this book has served as the key reference in its field for over 18 years and is regarded as the best treatment of the subject of stochastic geometry, both as a subject with vital a

  17. Introduction to topology and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Stahl, Saul

    2014-01-01

    An easily accessible introduction to over three centuries of innovations in geometry Praise for the First Edition ". . . a welcome alternative to compartmentalized treatments bound to the old thinking. This clearly written, well-illustrated book supplies sufficient background to be self-contained." -CHOICE This fully revised new edition offers the most comprehensive coverage of modern geometry currently available at an introductory level. The book strikes a welcome balance between academic rigor and accessibility, providing a complete and cohesive picture of the science with an unparallele

  18. Algebraic geometry and theta functions

    CERN Document Server

    Coble, Arthur B

    1929-01-01

    This book is the result of extending and deepening all questions from algebraic geometry that are connected to the central problem of this book: the determination of the tritangent planes of a space curve of order six and genus four, which the author treated in his Colloquium Lecture in 1928 at Amherst. The first two chapters recall fundamental ideas of algebraic geometry and theta functions in such fashion as will be most helpful in later applications. In order to clearly present the state of the central problem, the author first presents the better-known cases of genus two (Chapter III) and

  19. Geometry, topology, and string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varadarajan, Uday

    2003-01-01

    A variety of scenarios are considered which shed light upon the uses and limitations of classical geometric and topological notions in string theory. The primary focus is on situations in which D-brane or string probes of a given classical space-time see the geometry quite differently than one might naively expect. In particular, situations in which extra dimensions, non-commutative geometries as well as other non-local structures emerge are explored in detail. Further, a preliminary exploration of such issues in Lorentzian space-times with non-trivial causal structures within string theory is initiated

  20. The Idea of Order at Geometry Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rishel, Thomas

    The idea of order in geometry is explored using the experience of assignments given to undergraduates in a college geometry course "From Space to Geometry." Discussed are the definition of geometry, and earth measurement using architecture, art, and common experience. This discussion concludes with a consideration of the question of whether…

  1. Teaching Spatial Geometry in a Virtual World

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Förster, Klaus-Tycho

    2017-01-01

    Spatial geometry is one of the fundamental mathematical building blocks of any engineering education. However, it is overshadowed by planar geometry in the curriculum between playful early primary education and later analytical geometry, leaving a multi-year gap where spatial geometry is absent...

  2. The effect of roll gap geometry on microstructure in cold-rolled aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Bay, B.; Winther, G.

    2004-01-01

    Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling-type tex......Microstructure and texture are analyzed through the thickness of two aluminum plates cold-rolled 40% with different roll gap geometries. It is found that both texture and microstructure are strongly affected by the rolling geometry. After rolling with intermediate-size draughts a rolling...... layers. In these layers, extended planar dislocation boundaries are frequently found to be inclined closely to the rolling direction. The subsurface and central layers of this plate exhibit microstructures similar to those in the plate rolled with intermediate draughts. It is suggested...

  3. Analogical Reasoning in Geometry Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magdas, Ioana

    2015-01-01

    The analogical reasoning isn't used only in mathematics but also in everyday life. In this article we approach the analogical reasoning in Geometry Education. The novelty of this article is a classification of geometrical analogies by reasoning type and their exemplification. Our classification includes: analogies for understanding and setting a…

  4. Normal forms in Poisson geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcut, I.T.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of Poisson manifolds is highly nontrivial even locally. The first important result in this direction is Conn's linearization theorem around fixed points. One of the main results of this thesis (Theorem 2) is a normal form theorem in Poisson geometry, which is the Poisson-geometric

  5. Exploring Bundling Theory with Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckalbar, John C.

    2006-01-01

    The author shows how instructors might successfully introduce students in principles and intermediate microeconomic theory classes to the topic of bundling (i.e., the selling of two or more goods as a package, rather than separately). It is surprising how much students can learn using only the tools of high school geometry. To be specific, one can…

  6. Stochastic Modelling of River Geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Schaarup-Jensen, K.

    1996-01-01

    Numerical hydrodynamic river models are used in a large number of applications to estimate critical events for rivers. These estimates are subject to a number of uncertainties. In this paper, the problem to evaluate these estimates using probabilistic methods is considered. Stochastic models for ...... for river geometries are formulated and a coupling between hydraulic computational methods and numerical reliability methods is presented....

  7. Matter in toy dynamical geometries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konopka, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    One of the objectives of theories describing quantum dynamical geometry is to compute expectation values of geometrical observables. The results of such computations can be affected by whether or not matter is taken into account. It is thus important to understand to what extent and to what effect

  8. Let??s teach geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Ca??adas, Mar??a C.; Molina, Marta; Gallardo, Sandra; Mart??nez-Santaolalla, Manuel J.; Pe??as, Mar??a

    2010-01-01

    In this work we present an activity for High School students in which various mathematical concepts of plane and spatial geometry are involved. The final objective of the proposed tasks is constructing a particular polyhedron, the cube, by using a modality of origami called modular origami.

  9. General Relativity: Geometry Meets Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomsen, Dietrick E.

    1975-01-01

    Observing the relationship of general relativity and the geometry of space-time, the author questions whether the rest of physics has geometrical explanations. As a partial answer he discusses current research on subatomic particles employing geometric transformations, and cites the existence of geometrical definitions of physical quantities such…

  10. Learners engaging with transformation geometry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    participants engaged in investigative semi-structured interviews with the resear- chers. ... Keywords: analysis; conversions; transformation geometry; transformations; treatments .... semiotic systems of representation is not only to designate mathematical objects or to com- municate but also to ... Research design. We believe ...

  11. Multivariable calculus and differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Walschap, Gerard

    2015-01-01

    This text is a modern in-depth study of the subject that includes all the material needed from linear algebra. It then goes on to investigate topics in differential geometry, such as manifolds in Euclidean space, curvature, and the generalization of the fundamental theorem of calculus known as Stokes' theorem.

  12. College geometry a unified development

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, David C

    2011-01-01

    ""The book is a comprehensive textbook on basic geometry. … Key features of the book include numerous figures and many problems, more than half of which come with hints or even complete solutions. Frequent historical comments add to making the reading a pleasant one.""-Michael Joswig, Zentralblatt MATH 1273

  13. Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahaffey, Michael L.

    One of a series of experimental units for children at the preschool level, this booklet deals with geometric concepts. A unit on volume and a unit on linear measurement are covered; for each unit a discussion of mathematical objectives, a list of materials needed, and a sequence of learning activities are provided. Directions are specified for the…

  14. Geometri

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byg din egen boomerang, kast den, se den flyve, forstå hvorfor og hvordan den vender tilbage, og grib den. Det handler om opdriften på vingerne når du flyver, men det handler også og allermest om den mærkværdige gyroskop-effekt, du bruger til at holde balancen, når du kører på cykel. Vi vil bruge...

  15. Effects of design geometry on SU8 polymer waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Anthony S.; Balkunje, Vishal S.; Mitchell, Arnan; Austin, Michael W.; Raghunathan, Mukund K.; Kostovski, Gorgi

    2005-02-01

    The spin-on photoresist SU8 from MicroChem has a relatively high refractive index (n=1.57 at 1550nm) compared with other polymers. It is stable and has high optical transmission at optical communication wavelengths. In this paper we study rib waveguides fabricated using SU8 as the core layer and thermoset polymers UV15 (n=1.50 at 1550nm) from Master Bond and NOA61 (n=1.54 at 1550nm) from Gentec as the cladding layers. The rib height is varied from 0.3 to 1.7μm high. This is part of the SU8 layer sandwiched between the cladding layers. The waveguides are tested to determine the effects of varying this geometry for single mode optical transmission. The lengths of the waveguides were 1.5 cm to 5 cm.

  16. Discrete differential geometry. Consistency as integrability

    OpenAIRE

    Bobenko, Alexander I.; Suris, Yuri B.

    2005-01-01

    A new field of discrete differential geometry is presently emerging on the border between differential and discrete geometry. Whereas classical differential geometry investigates smooth geometric shapes (such as surfaces), and discrete geometry studies geometric shapes with finite number of elements (such as polyhedra), the discrete differential geometry aims at the development of discrete equivalents of notions and methods of smooth surface theory. Current interest in this field derives not ...

  17. A nonlinear resistive MHD-code in cylindrical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakoby, A.

    1987-11-01

    A computer code has been developed which solves the full compressible resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations in cylindrical geometry. The variables are expanded in Fourier series in the poloidal and axial directions while finite differences are used in the radial direction. The time advance is accomplished by using a semi-implicit predictor-corrector-scheme. Applications to the ideal m=1 ideal kink saturation in the nonlinear regime and the subsequent decay of the singular current layer due to resistivity are presented. (orig.)

  18. Numerically robust geometry engine for compound solid geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlachoudis, V.; Sinuela-Pastor, D.

    2013-01-01

    Monte Carlo programs heavily rely on a fast and numerically robust solid geometry engines. However the success of solid modeling, depends on facilities for specifying and editing parameterized models through a user-friendly graphical front-end. Such a user interface has to be fast enough in order to be interactive for 2D and/or 3D displays, but at the same time numerically robust in order to display possible modeling errors at real time that could be critical for the simulation. The graphical user interface Flair for FLUKA currently employs such an engine where special emphasis has been given on being fast and numerically robust. The numerically robustness is achieved by a novel method of estimating the floating precision of the operations, which dynamically adapts all the decision operations accordingly. Moreover a predictive caching mechanism is ensuring that logical errors in the geometry description are found online, without compromising the processing time by checking all regions. (authors)

  19. Code subspaces for LLM geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berenstein, David; Miller, Alexandra

    2018-03-01

    We consider effective field theory around classical background geometries with a gauge theory dual, specifically those in the class of LLM geometries. These are dual to half-BPS states of N= 4 SYM. We find that the language of code subspaces is natural for discussing the set of nearby states, which are built by acting with effective fields on these backgrounds. This work extends our previous work by going beyond the strict infinite N limit. We further discuss how one can extract the topology of the state beyond N→∞ and find that, as before, uncertainty and entanglement entropy calculations provide a useful tool to do so. Finally, we discuss obstructions to writing down a globally defined metric operator. We find that the answer depends on the choice of reference state that one starts with. Therefore, within this setup, there is ambiguity in trying to write an operator that describes the metric globally.

  20. Euclidean distance geometry an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Liberti, Leo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook, the first of its kind, presents the fundamentals of distance geometry:  theory, useful methodologies for obtaining solutions, and real world applications. Concise proofs are given and step-by-step algorithms for solving fundamental problems efficiently and precisely are presented in Mathematica®, enabling the reader to experiment with concepts and methods as they are introduced. Descriptive graphics, examples, and problems, accompany the real gems of the text, namely the applications in visualization of graphs, localization of sensor networks, protein conformation from distance data, clock synchronization protocols, robotics, and control of unmanned underwater vehicles, to name several.  Aimed at intermediate undergraduates, beginning graduate students, researchers, and practitioners, the reader with a basic knowledge of linear algebra will gain an understanding of the basic theories of distance geometry and why they work in real life.

  1. Fractal geometry and computer graphics

    CERN Document Server

    Sakas, Georgios; Peitgen, Heinz-Otto; Englert, Gabriele

    1992-01-01

    Fractal geometry has become popular in the last 15 years, its applications can be found in technology, science, or even arts. Fractal methods and formalism are seen today as a general, abstract, but nevertheless practical instrument for the description of nature in a wide sense. But it was Computer Graphics which made possible the increasing popularity of fractals several years ago, and long after their mathematical formulation. The two disciplines are tightly linked. The book contains the scientificcontributions presented in an international workshop in the "Computer Graphics Center" in Darmstadt, Germany. The target of the workshop was to present the wide spectrum of interrelationships and interactions between Fractal Geometry and Computer Graphics. The topics vary from fundamentals and new theoretical results to various applications and systems development. All contributions are original, unpublished papers.The presentations have been discussed in two working groups; the discussion results, together with a...

  2. The geometry of celestial mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Geiges, Hansjörg

    2016-01-01

    Celestial mechanics is the branch of mathematical astronomy devoted to studying the motions of celestial bodies subject to the Newtonian law of gravitation. This mathematical introductory textbook reveals that even the most basic question in celestial mechanics, the Kepler problem, leads to a cornucopia of geometric concepts: conformal and projective transformations, spherical and hyperbolic geometry, notions of curvature, and the topology of geodesic flows. For advanced undergraduate and beginning graduate students, this book explores the geometric concepts underlying celestial mechanics and is an ideal companion for introductory courses. The focus on the history of geometric ideas makes it perfect supplementary reading for students in elementary geometry and topology. Numerous exercises, historical notes and an extensive bibliography provide all the contextual information required to gain a solid grounding in celestial mechanics.

  3. Differential geometry and mathematical physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rudolph, Gerd

    Starting from an undergraduate level, this book systematically develops the basics of • Calculus on manifolds, vector bundles, vector fields and differential forms, • Lie groups and Lie group actions, • Linear symplectic algebra and symplectic geometry, • Hamiltonian systems, symmetries and reduction, integrable systems and Hamilton-Jacobi theory. The topics listed under the first item are relevant for virtually all areas of mathematical physics. The second and third items constitute the link between abstract calculus and the theory of Hamiltonian systems. The last item provides an introduction to various aspects of this theory, including Morse families, the Maslov class and caustics. The book guides the reader from elementary differential geometry to advanced topics in the theory of Hamiltonian systems with the aim of making current research literature accessible. The style is that of a mathematical textbook,with full proofs given in the text or as exercises. The material is illustrated by numerous d...

  4. Grassmannian geometry of scattering amplitudes

    CERN Document Server

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Cachazo, Freddy; Goncharov, Alexander; Postnikov, Alexander; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Outlining a revolutionary reformulation of the foundations of perturbative quantum field theory, this book is a self-contained and authoritative analysis of the application of this new formulation to the case of planar, maximally supersymmetric Yang–Mills theory. The book begins by deriving connections between scattering amplitudes and Grassmannian geometry from first principles before introducing novel physical and mathematical ideas in a systematic manner accessible to both physicists and mathematicians. The principle players in this process are on-shell functions which are closely related to certain sub-strata of Grassmannian manifolds called positroids - in terms of which the classification of on-shell functions and their relations becomes combinatorially manifest. This is an essential introduction to the geometry and combinatorics of the positroid stratification of the Grassmannian and an ideal text for advanced students and researchers working in the areas of field theory, high energy physics, and the...

  5. Foliation theory in algebraic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    McKernan, James; Pereira, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    Featuring a blend of original research papers and comprehensive surveys from an international team of leading researchers in the thriving fields of foliation theory, holomorphic foliations, and birational geometry, this book presents the proceedings of the conference "Foliation Theory in Algebraic Geometry," hosted by the Simons Foundation in New York City in September 2013.  Topics covered include: Fano and del Pezzo foliations; the cone theorem and rank one foliations; the structure of symmetric differentials on a smooth complex surface and a local structure theorem for closed symmetric differentials of rank two; an overview of lifting symmetric differentials from varieties with canonical singularities and the applications to the classification of AT bundles on singular varieties; an overview of the powerful theory of the variety of minimal rational tangents introduced by Hwang and Mok; recent examples of varieties which are hyperbolic and yet the Green-Griffiths locus is the whole of X; and a classificati...

  6. Groups and Geometries : Siena Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Kantor, William; Lunardon, Guglielmo; Pasini, Antonio; Tamburini, Maria

    1998-01-01

    On September 1-7, 1996 a conference on Groups and Geometries took place in lovely Siena, Italy. It brought together experts and interested mathematicians from numerous countries. The scientific program centered around invited exposi­ tory lectures; there also were shorter research announcements, including talks by younger researchers. The conference concerned a broad range of topics in group theory and geometry, with emphasis on recent results and open problems. Special attention was drawn to the interplay between group-theoretic methods and geometric and combinatorial ones. Expanded versions of many of the talks appear in these Proceedings. This volume is intended to provide a stimulating collection of themes for a broad range of algebraists and geometers. Among those themes, represented within the conference or these Proceedings, are aspects of the following: 1. the classification of finite simple groups, 2. the structure and properties of groups of Lie type over finite and algebraically closed fields of f...

  7. Needle decompositions in Riemannian geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Klartag, Bo'az

    2017-01-01

    The localization technique from convex geometry is generalized to the setting of Riemannian manifolds whose Ricci curvature is bounded from below. In a nutshell, the author's method is based on the following observation: When the Ricci curvature is non-negative, log-concave measures are obtained when conditioning the Riemannian volume measure with respect to a geodesic foliation that is orthogonal to the level sets of a Lipschitz function. The Monge mass transfer problem plays an important role in the author's analysis.

  8. Systematics of IIB spinorial geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Gran, U.; Gutowski, J.; Papadopoulos, G.; Roest, D.

    2005-01-01

    We reduce the classification of all supersymmetric backgrounds of IIB supergravity to the evaluation of the Killing spinor equations and their integrability conditions, which contain the field equations, on five types of spinors. This extends the work of [hep-th/0503046] to IIB supergravity. We give the expressions of the Killing spinor equations on all five types of spinors. In this way, the Killing spinor equations become a linear system for the fluxes, geometry and spacetime derivatives of...

  9. Geometry Dependence of Stellarator Turbulence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mynick, H.E.; Xanthopoulos, P.; Boozer, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Using the nonlinear gyrokinetic code package GENE/GIST, we study the turbulent transport in a broad family of stellarator designs, to understand the geometry-dependence of the microturbulence. By using a set of flux tubes on a given flux surface, we construct a picture of the 2D structure of the microturbulence over that surface, and relate this to relevant geometric quantities, such as the curvature, local shear, and effective potential in the Schrodinger-like equation governing linear drift modes

  10. Superbanana orbits in stellarator geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, J.A.; Shohet, J.L.

    1979-04-01

    The presence of superbanana orbit types localized to either the interior or the exterior of stellarators and torsatrons is numerically investigated for 3.5 MeV alpha particles. The absence of the interior superbanana in both geometries is found to be due to non-conservation of the action. Exterior superbananas are found in the stellarator only, as a consequence of the existence of closed helical magnetic wells. No superbananas of either type are found in the torsatron

  11. Turtle geometry the Python way

    OpenAIRE

    Battle, S.

    2014-01-01

    An introduction to coding using Python’s on-screen ‘turtle’ that can be commanded with a few simple instructions including forward, backward, left and right. The turtle leaves a trace that can be used to draw geometric figures. This workshop is aimed at beginners of all ages. The aim is to learn a smattering of programming and a little bit of geometry in a fun way.

  12. Topics in modern differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Verstraelen, Leopold

    2017-01-01

    A variety of introductory articles is provided on a wide range of topics, including variational problems on curves and surfaces with anisotropic curvature. Experts in the fields of Riemannian, Lorentzian and contact geometry present state-of-the-art reviews of their topics. The contributions are written on a graduate level and contain extended bibliographies. The ten chapters are the result of various doctoral courses which were held in 2009 and 2010 at universities in Leuven, Serbia, Romania and Spain.

  13. Computational geometry for reactor applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.B.; Bischoff, F.G.

    1988-01-01

    Monte Carlo codes for simulating particle transport involve three basic computational sections: a geometry package for locating particles and computing distances to regional boundaries, a physics package for analyzing interactions between particles and problem materials, and an editing package for determining event statistics and overall results. This paper describes the computational geometry methods in RACER, a vectorized Monte Carlo code used for reactor physics analysis, so that comparisons may be made with techniques used in other codes. The principal applications for RACER are eigenvalue calculations and power distributions associated with reactor core physics analysis. Successive batches of neutrons are run until convergence and acceptable confidence intervals are obtained, with typical problems involving >10 6 histories. As such, the development of computational geometry methods has emphasized two basic needs: a flexible but compact geometric representation that permits accurate modeling of reactor core details and efficient geometric computation to permit very large numbers of histories to be run. The current geometric capabilities meet these needs effectively, supporting a variety of very large and demanding applications

  14. Number theory III Diophantine geometry

    CERN Document Server

    1991-01-01

    From the reviews of the first printing of this book, published as Volume 60 of the Encyclopaedia of Mathematical Sciences: "Between number theory and geometry there have been several stimulating influences, and this book records of these enterprises. This author, who has been at the centre of such research for many years, is one of the best guides a reader can hope for. The book is full of beautiful results, open questions, stimulating conjectures and suggestions where to look for future developments. This volume bears witness of the broad scope of knowledge of the author, and the influence of several people who have commented on the manuscript before publication ... Although in the series of number theory, this volume is on diophantine geometry, and the reader will notice that algebraic geometry is present in every chapter. ... The style of the book is clear. Ideas are well explained, and the author helps the reader to pass by several technicalities. Reading and rereading this book I noticed that the topics ...

  15. Riemannian geometry and geometric analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Jost, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    This established reference work continues to provide its readers with a gateway to some of the most interesting developments in contemporary geometry. It offers insight into a wide range of topics, including fundamental concepts of Riemannian geometry, such as geodesics, connections and curvature; the basic models and tools of geometric analysis, such as harmonic functions, forms, mappings, eigenvalues, the Dirac operator and the heat flow method; as well as the most important variational principles of theoretical physics, such as Yang-Mills, Ginzburg-Landau or the nonlinear sigma model of quantum field theory. The present volume connects all these topics in a systematic geometric framework. At the same time, it equips the reader with the working tools of the field and enables her or him to delve into geometric research.  The 7th edition has been systematically reorganized and updated. Almost no page has been left unchanged. It also includes new material, for instance on symplectic geometry, as well as the B...

  16. Donaldson invariants in algebraic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettsche, L.

    2000-01-01

    In these lectures I want to give an introduction to the relation of Donaldson invariants with algebraic geometry: Donaldson invariants are differentiable invariants of smooth compact 4-manifolds X, defined via moduli spaces of anti-self-dual connections. If X is an algebraic surface, then these moduli spaces can for a suitable choice of the metric be identified with moduli spaces of stable vector bundles on X. This can be used to compute Donaldson invariants via methods of algebraic geometry and has led to a lot of activity on moduli spaces of vector bundles and coherent sheaves on algebraic surfaces. We will first recall the definition of the Donaldson invariants via gauge theory. Then we will show the relation between moduli spaces of anti-self-dual connections and moduli spaces of vector bundles on algebraic surfaces, and how this makes it possible to compute Donaldson invariants via algebraic geometry methods. Finally we concentrate on the case that the number b + of positive eigenvalues of the intersection form on the second homology of the 4-manifold is 1. In this case the Donaldson invariants depend on the metric (or in the algebraic geometric case on the polarization) via a system of walls and chambers. We will study the change of the invariants under wall-crossing, and use this in particular to compute the Donaldson invariants of rational algebraic surfaces. (author)

  17. Aspects of differential geometry II

    CERN Document Server

    Gilkey, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Differential Geometry is a wide field. We have chosen to concentrate upon certain aspects that are appropriate for an introduction to the subject; we have not attempted an encyclopedic treatment. Book II deals with more advanced material than Book I and is aimed at the graduate level. Chapter 4 deals with additional topics in Riemannian geometry. Properties of real analytic curves given by a single ODE and of surfaces given by a pair of ODEs are studied, and the volume of geodesic balls is treated. An introduction to both holomorphic and Kähler geometry is given. In Chapter 5, the basic properties of de Rham cohomology are discussed, the Hodge Decomposition Theorem, Poincaré duality, and the Künneth formula are proved, and a brief introduction to the theory of characteristic classes is given. In Chapter 6, Lie groups and Lie algebras are dealt with. The exponential map, the classical groups, and geodesics in the context of a bi-invariant metric are discussed. The de Rham cohomology of compact Lie groups an...

  18. Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory Summer School

    CERN Document Server

    Sarıoğlu, Celal; Soulé, Christophe; Zeytin, Ayberk

    2017-01-01

    This lecture notes volume presents significant contributions from the “Algebraic Geometry and Number Theory” Summer School, held at Galatasaray University, Istanbul, June 2-13, 2014. It addresses subjects ranging from Arakelov geometry and Iwasawa theory to classical projective geometry, birational geometry and equivariant cohomology. Its main aim is to introduce these contemporary research topics to graduate students who plan to specialize in the area of algebraic geometry and/or number theory. All contributions combine main concepts and techniques with motivating examples and illustrative problems for the covered subjects. Naturally, the book will also be of interest to researchers working in algebraic geometry, number theory and related fields.

  19. Geometry success in 20 minutes a day

    CERN Document Server

    LLC, LearningExpress

    2014-01-01

    Whether you're new to geometry or just looking for a refresher, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day offers a 20-step lesson plan that provides quick and thorough instruction in practical, critical skills. Stripped of unnecessary math jargon but bursting with geometry essentials, Geometry Success in 20 Minutes a Day: Covers all vital geometry skills, from the basic building blocks of geometry to ratio, proportion, and similarity to trigonometry and beyond Provides hundreds of practice exercises in test format Applies geometr

  20. Network geometry with flavor: From complexity to quantum geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianconi, Ginestra; Rahmede, Christoph

    2016-03-01

    Network geometry is attracting increasing attention because it has a wide range of applications, ranging from data mining to routing protocols in the Internet. At the same time advances in the understanding of the geometrical properties of networks are essential for further progress in quantum gravity. In network geometry, simplicial complexes describing the interaction between two or more nodes play a special role. In fact these structures can be used to discretize a geometrical d -dimensional space, and for this reason they have already been widely used in quantum gravity. Here we introduce the network geometry with flavor s =-1 ,0 ,1 (NGF) describing simplicial complexes defined in arbitrary dimension d and evolving by a nonequilibrium dynamics. The NGF can generate discrete geometries of different natures, ranging from chains and higher-dimensional manifolds to scale-free networks with small-world properties, scale-free degree distribution, and nontrivial community structure. The NGF admits as limiting cases both the Bianconi-Barabási models for complex networks, the stochastic Apollonian network, and the recently introduced model for complex quantum network manifolds. The thermodynamic properties of NGF reveal that NGF obeys a generalized area law opening a new scenario for formulating its coarse-grained limit. The structure of NGF is strongly dependent on the dimensionality d . In d =1 NGFs grow complex networks for which the preferential attachment mechanism is necessary in order to obtain a scale-free degree distribution. Instead, for NGF with dimension d >1 it is not necessary to have an explicit preferential attachment rule to generate scale-free topologies. We also show that NGF admits a quantum mechanical description in terms of associated quantum network states. Quantum network states evolve by a Markovian dynamics and a quantum network state at time t encodes all possible NGF evolutions up to time t . Interestingly the NGF remains fully classical but

  1. A Whirlwind Tour of Computational Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Ron; Yao, Frances

    1990-01-01

    Described is computational geometry which used concepts and results from classical geometry, topology, combinatorics, as well as standard algorithmic techniques such as sorting and searching, graph manipulations, and linear programing. Also included are special techniques and paradigms. (KR)

  2. Optimizing solar-cell grid geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crossley, A. P.

    1969-01-01

    Trade-off analysis and mathematical expressions calculate optimum grid geometry in terms of various cell parameters. Determination of the grid geometry provides proper balance between grid resistance and cell output to optimize the energy conversion process.

  3. Effect of duct geometry on Wells turbine performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaaban, S.; Abdel Hafiz, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A Wells turbine duct design in the form of venturi duct is proposed and investigated. ► Optimum duct geometry is identified. ► Up to 14% increase of the turbine power can be achieved using the optimized duct geometry. ► Up to 9% improve of the turbine efficiency is attained by optimizing the turbine duct geometry. ► The optimized duct geometry results in tangible delay of the turbine stalling point. - Abstract: Wells turbines can represent important source of renewable energy for many countries. An essential disadvantage of Wells turbines is their low aerodynamic efficiency and consequently low power produced. In order to enhance the Wells turbine performance, the present research work proposes the use of a symmetrical duct in the form of a venturi tube with turbine rotor located at throat. The effects of duct area ratio and duct angle are investigated in order to optimize Wells turbine performance. The turbine performance is numerically investigated by solving the steady 3D incompressible Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stocks equation (RANS). A substantial improve of the turbine performance is achieved by optimizing the duct geometry. Increasing both the duct area ratio and duct angle increase the acceleration and deceleration upstream and downstream the rotor respectively. The accelerating flow with thinner boundary layer thickness upstream the rotor reduces the flow separation on the rotor suction side. The downstream diffuser reduces the interaction between tip leakage flow and blade suction side. Up to 14% increase in turbine power and 9% increase in turbine efficiency are achieved by optimizing the duct geometry. On other hand, a tangible delay of the turbine stall point is also detected.

  4. Classical An-W-geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gervais, J.L.

    1993-01-01

    By analyzing the extrinsic geometry of two dimensional surfaces chirally embedded in C P n (the C P n W-surface), we give exact treatments in various aspects of the classical W-geometry in the conformal gauge: First, the basis of tangent and normal vectors are defined at regular points of the surface, such that their infinitesimal displacements are given by connections which coincide with the vector potentials of the (conformal) A n -Toda Lax pair. Since the latter is known to be intrinsically related with the W symmetries, this gives the geometrical meaning of the A n W-Algebra. Second, W-surfaces are put in one-to-one correspondence with solutions of the conformally-reduced WZNW model, which is such that the Toda fields give the Cartan part in the Gauss decomposition of its solutions. Third, the additional variables of the Toda hierarchy are used as coordinates of C P n . This allows us to show that W-transformations may be extended as particular diffeomorphisms of this target-space. Higher-dimensional generalizations of the WZNW equations are derived and related with the Zakharov-Shabat equations of the Toda hierarchy. Fourth, singular points are studied from a global viewpoint, using our earlier observation that W-surfaces may be regarded as instantons. The global indices of the W-geometry, which are written in terms of the Toda fields, are shown to be the instanton numbers for associated mappings of W-surfaces into the Grassmannians. The relation with the singularities of W-surface is derived by combining the Toda equations with the Gauss-Bonnet theorem. (orig.)

  5. Stochastic geometry for image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Descombes, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This book develops the stochastic geometry framework for image analysis purpose. Two main frameworks are  described: marked point process and random closed sets models. We derive the main issues for defining an appropriate model. The algorithms for sampling and optimizing the models as well as for estimating parameters are reviewed.  Numerous applications, covering remote sensing images, biological and medical imaging, are detailed.  This book provides all the necessary tools for developing an image analysis application based on modern stochastic modeling.

  6. Magnetoelectrostatic thruster physical geometry tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Inert gas tests are conducted with several magnetoelectrostatic containment discharge chamber geometries. The configurations tested include three discharge chamber lengths; three boundary magnet patterns; two different flux density magnet materials; hemispherical and conical shaped thrusters having different surface-to-volume ratios; and two and three grid ion optics. Argon mass utilizations of 60 to 79% are attained at 210 to 280 eV/ion in different test configurations. Short hemi thruster configurations are found to produce 70 to 92% xenon mass utilization at 185 to 220 eV/ion.

  7. Programming system for analytic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, Jacques

    1970-01-01

    After having outlined the characteristics of computing centres which do not comply with engineering tasks, notably the time required by all different tasks to be performed when developing a software (assembly, compilation, link edition, loading, run), and identified constraints specific to engineering, the author identifies the characteristics a programming system should have to suit engineering tasks. He discussed existing conversational systems and their programming language, and their main drawbacks. Then, he presents a system which aims at facilitating programming and addressing problems of analytic geometry and trigonometry

  8. The geometry of special relativity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parizet, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This book for students in mathematics or physics shows the interest of geometry to understand special relativity as a consequence of invariance of Maxwell equations and of constancy of the speed of light. Space-time is actually provided with a geometrical structure and a physical interpretation: at each observer are associated his own time and his own physical space in which occur events he is concerned with. This leads to a natural approach to special relativity. The Lorentz group and its algebra are then studied by using matrices and the Pauli algebra. Quaternions are also addressed

  9. Moduli spaces in algebraic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goettsche, L.

    2000-01-01

    This volume of the new series of lecture notes of the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics contains the lecture notes of the School on Algebraic Geometry which took place at the Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics from 26 July to 13 August 1999. The school consisted of 2 weeks of lecture courses and one week of conference. The topic of the school was moduli spaces. More specifically the lectures were divided into three subtopics: principal bundles on Riemann surfaces, moduli spaces of vector bundles and sheaves on projective varieties, and moduli spaces of curves

  10. Worldsheet geometries of ambitwistor string

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohmori, Kantaro [Department of Physics, the University of Tokyo,Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 133-0022 (Japan)

    2015-06-12

    Mason and Skinner proposed the ambitwistor string theory which directly reproduces the formulas for the amplitudes of massless particles proposed by Cachazo, He and Yuan. In this paper we discuss geometries of the moduli space of worldsheets associated to the bosonic or the RNS ambitwistor string. Further, we investigate the factorization properties of the amplitudes when an internal momentum is near on-shell in the abstract CFT language. Along the way, we propose the existence of the ambitwistor strings with three or four fermionic worldsheet currents.

  11. Porous media geometry and transports

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Pierre

    1992-01-01

    The goal of ""Porous Media: Geometry and Transports"" is to provide the basis of a rational and modern approach to porous media. This book emphasizes several geometrical structures (spatially periodic, fractal, and random to reconstructed) and the three major single-phase transports (diffusion, convection, and Taylor dispersion).""Porous Media"" serves various purposes. For students it introduces basic information on structure and transports. Engineers will find this book useful as a readily accessible assemblage of al the major experimental results pertaining to single-phase tr

  12. Geometry of physical dispersion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raetzel, Dennis; Rivera, Sergio; Schuller, Frederic P.

    2011-01-01

    To serve as a dispersion relation, a cotangent bundle function must satisfy three simple algebraic properties. These conditions are derived from the inescapable physical requirements that local matter field dynamics must be predictive and allow for an observer-independent notion of positive energy. Possible modifications of the standard relativistic dispersion relation are thereby severely restricted. For instance, the dispersion relations associated with popular deformations of Maxwell theory by Gambini-Pullin or Myers-Pospelov are not admissible. Dispersion relations passing the simple algebraic checks derived here correspond to physically admissible Finslerian refinements of Lorentzian geometry.

  13. Projective geometry and projective metrics

    CERN Document Server

    Busemann, Herbert

    2005-01-01

    The basic results and methods of projective and non-Euclidean geometry are indispensable for the geometer, and this book--different in content, methods, and point of view from traditional texts--attempts to emphasize that fact. Results of special theorems are discussed in detail only when they are needed to develop a feeling for the subject or when they illustrate a general method. On the other hand, an unusual amount of space is devoted to the discussion of the fundamental concepts of distance, motion, area, and perpendicularity.Topics include the projective plane, polarities and conic sectio

  14. Tropical geometry of statistical models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachter, Lior; Sturmfels, Bernd

    2004-11-16

    This article presents a unified mathematical framework for inference in graphical models, building on the observation that graphical models are algebraic varieties. From this geometric viewpoint, observations generated from a model are coordinates of a point in the variety, and the sum-product algorithm is an efficient tool for evaluating specific coordinates. Here, we address the question of how the solutions to various inference problems depend on the model parameters. The proposed answer is expressed in terms of tropical algebraic geometry. The Newton polytope of a statistical model plays a key role. Our results are applied to the hidden Markov model and the general Markov model on a binary tree.

  15. Geometry of supersymmetric gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gieres, F.

    1988-01-01

    This monograph gives a detailed and pedagogical account of the geometry of rigid superspace and supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. While the core of the text is concerned with the classical theory, the quantization and anomaly problem are briefly discussed following a comprehensive introduction to BRS differential algebras and their field theoretical applications. Among the treated topics are invariant forms and vector fields on superspace, the matrix-representation of the super-Poincare group, invariant connections on reductive homogeneous spaces and the supermetric approach. Various aspects of the subject are discussed for the first time in textbook and are consistently presented in a unified geometric formalism

  16. Clustering in Hilbert simplex geometry

    KAUST Repository

    Nielsen, Frank

    2017-04-03

    Clustering categorical distributions in the probability simplex is a fundamental primitive often met in applications dealing with histograms or mixtures of multinomials. Traditionally, the differential-geometric structure of the probability simplex has been used either by (i) setting the Riemannian metric tensor to the Fisher information matrix of the categorical distributions, or (ii) defining the information-geometric structure induced by a smooth dissimilarity measure, called a divergence. In this paper, we introduce a novel computationally-friendly non-Riemannian framework for modeling the probability simplex: Hilbert simplex geometry. We discuss the pros and cons of those three statistical modelings, and compare them experimentally for clustering tasks.

  17. An invitation to noncommutative geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Marcolli, Matilde

    2008-01-01

    This is the first existing volume that collects lectures on this important and fast developing subject in mathematics. The lectures are given by leading experts in the field and the range of topics is kept as broad as possible by including both the algebraic and the differential aspects of noncommutative geometry as well as recent applications to theoretical physics and number theory. Sample Chapter(s). A Walk in the Noncommutative Garden (1,639 KB). Contents: A Walk in the Noncommutative Garden (A Connes & M Marcolli); Renormalization of Noncommutative Quantum Field Theory (H Grosse & R Wulke

  18. Trends and developments in computational geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berg, de M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper discusses some trends and achievements in computational geometry during the past five years, with emphasis on problems related to computer graphics. Furthermore, a direction of research in computational geometry is discussed that could help in bringing the fields of computational geometry

  19. Global affine differential geometry of hypersurfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Li, An-Min; Zhao, Guosong; Hu, Zejun

    2015-01-01

    This book draws a colorful and widespread picture of global affine hypersurface theory up to the most recent state. Moreover, the recent development revealed that affine differential geometry- as differential geometry in general- has an exciting intersection area with other fields of interest, like partial differential equations, global analysis, convex geometry and Riemann surfaces.

  20. "WGL," a Web Laboratory for Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quaresma, Pedro; Santos, Vanda; Maric, Milena

    2018-01-01

    The role of information and communication technologies (ICT) in education is nowadays well recognised. The "Web Geometry Laboratory," is an e-learning, collaborative and adaptive, Web environment for geometry, integrating a well known dynamic geometry system. In a collaborative session, teachers and students, engaged in solving…

  1. Computational geometry algorithms and applications

    CERN Document Server

    de Berg, Mark; Overmars, Mark; Schwarzkopf, Otfried

    1997-01-01

    Computational geometry emerged from the field of algorithms design and anal­ ysis in the late 1970s. It has grown into a recognized discipline with its own journals, conferences, and a large community of active researchers. The suc­ cess of the field as a research discipline can on the one hand be explained from the beauty of the problems studied and the solutions obtained, and, on the other hand, by the many application domains--computer graphics, geographic in­ formation systems (GIS), robotics, and others-in which geometric algorithms play a fundamental role. For many geometric problems the early algorithmic solutions were either slow or difficult to understand and implement. In recent years a number of new algorithmic techniques have been developed that improved and simplified many of the previous approaches. In this textbook we have tried to make these modem algorithmic solutions accessible to a large audience. The book has been written as a textbook for a course in computational geometry, but it can ...

  2. Foundations of arithmetic differential geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Buium, Alexandru

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this book is to introduce and develop an arithmetic analogue of classical differential geometry. In this new geometry the ring of integers plays the role of a ring of functions on an infinite dimensional manifold. The role of coordinate functions on this manifold is played by the prime numbers. The role of partial derivatives of functions with respect to the coordinates is played by the Fermat quotients of integers with respect to the primes. The role of metrics is played by symmetric matrices with integer coefficients. The role of connections (respectively curvature) attached to metrics is played by certain adelic (respectively global) objects attached to the corresponding matrices. One of the main conclusions of the theory is that the spectrum of the integers is "intrinsically curved"; the study of this curvature is then the main task of the theory. The book follows, and builds upon, a series of recent research papers. A significant part of the material has never been published before.

  3. Geometry of isotropic convex bodies

    CERN Document Server

    Brazitikos, Silouanos; Valettas, Petros; Vritsiou, Beatrice-Helen

    2014-01-01

    The study of high-dimensional convex bodies from a geometric and analytic point of view, with an emphasis on the dependence of various parameters on the dimension stands at the intersection of classical convex geometry and the local theory of Banach spaces. It is also closely linked to many other fields, such as probability theory, partial differential equations, Riemannian geometry, harmonic analysis and combinatorics. It is now understood that the convexity assumption forces most of the volume of a high-dimensional convex body to be concentrated in some canonical way and the main question is whether, under some natural normalization, the answer to many fundamental questions should be independent of the dimension. The aim of this book is to introduce a number of well-known questions regarding the distribution of volume in high-dimensional convex bodies, which are exactly of this nature: among them are the slicing problem, the thin shell conjecture and the Kannan-Lov�sz-Simonovits conjecture. This book prov...

  4. Differential geometry of group lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimakis, Aristophanes; Mueller-Hoissen, Folkert

    2003-01-01

    In a series of publications we developed ''differential geometry'' on discrete sets based on concepts of noncommutative geometry. In particular, it turned out that first-order differential calculi (over the algebra of functions) on a discrete set are in bijective correspondence with digraph structures where the vertices are given by the elements of the set. A particular class of digraphs are Cayley graphs, also known as group lattices. They are determined by a discrete group G and a finite subset S. There is a distinguished subclass of ''bicovariant'' Cayley graphs with the property ad(S)S subset of S. We explore the properties of differential calculi which arise from Cayley graphs via the above correspondence. The first-order calculi extend to higher orders and then allow us to introduce further differential geometric structures. Furthermore, we explore the properties of ''discrete'' vector fields which describe deterministic flows on group lattices. A Lie derivative with respect to a discrete vector field and an inner product with forms is defined. The Lie-Cartan identity then holds on all forms for a certain subclass of discrete vector fields. We develop elements of gauge theory and construct an analog of the lattice gauge theory (Yang-Mills) action on an arbitrary group lattice. Also linear connections are considered and a simple geometric interpretation of the torsion is established. By taking a quotient with respect to some subgroup of the discrete group, generalized differential calculi associated with so-called Schreier diagrams are obtained

  5. Geometry of anisotropic CO outflows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liseau, R.; Sandell, G.; Helsinki Univ., Observatory, Finland)

    1986-01-01

    A simple geometrical model for the space motions of the bipolar high-velocity CO outflows in regions of recent, active star formation is proposed. It is assumed that the velocity field of the neutral gas component can be represented by large-scale uniform motions. From observations of the spatial distribution and from the characteristics of the line shape of the high-velocity molecular gas emission the geometry of the line-emitting regions can be inferred, i.e., the direction in space and the collimating angle of the flow. The model has been applied to regions where a check on presently obtained results is provided by independent optical determinations of the motions of Herbig-Haro objects associated with the CO flows. These two methods are in good agreement and, furthermore, the results obtained provide convincingly strong evidence for the physical association of CO outflows and Herbig-Haro objects. This also supports the common view that a young stellar central source is responsible for the active phenomena observed in its environmental neighborhood. It is noteworthy that within the framework of the model the determination of the flow geometry of the high-velocity gas from CO measurements is independent of the distance to the source and, furthermore, can be done at relatively low spatial resolution. 32 references

  6. Canonical differential geometry of string backgrounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuller, Frederic P.; Wohlfarth, Mattias N.R.

    2006-01-01

    String backgrounds and D-branes do not possess the structure of Lorentzian manifolds, but that of manifolds with area metric. Area metric geometry is a true generalization of metric geometry, which in particular may accommodate a B-field. While an area metric does not determine a connection, we identify the appropriate differential geometric structure which is of relevance for the minimal surface equation in such a generalized geometry. In particular the notion of a derivative action of areas on areas emerges naturally. Area metric geometry provides new tools in differential geometry, which promise to play a role in the description of gravitational dynamics on D-branes

  7. Differential Geometry Based Multiscale Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-01-01

    Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atom-istic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier–Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson–Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson–Nernst–Planck equations that

  8. Differential geometry based multiscale models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Guo-Wei

    2010-08-01

    Large chemical and biological systems such as fuel cells, ion channels, molecular motors, and viruses are of great importance to the scientific community and public health. Typically, these complex systems in conjunction with their aquatic environment pose a fabulous challenge to theoretical description, simulation, and prediction. In this work, we propose a differential geometry based multiscale paradigm to model complex macromolecular systems, and to put macroscopic and microscopic descriptions on an equal footing. In our approach, the differential geometry theory of surfaces and geometric measure theory are employed as a natural means to couple the macroscopic continuum mechanical description of the aquatic environment with the microscopic discrete atomistic description of the macromolecule. Multiscale free energy functionals, or multiscale action functionals are constructed as a unified framework to derive the governing equations for the dynamics of different scales and different descriptions. Two types of aqueous macromolecular complexes, ones that are near equilibrium and others that are far from equilibrium, are considered in our formulations. We show that generalized Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid dynamics, generalized Poisson equations or generalized Poisson-Boltzmann equations for electrostatic interactions, and Newton's equation for the molecular dynamics can be derived by the least action principle. These equations are coupled through the continuum-discrete interface whose dynamics is governed by potential driven geometric flows. Comparison is given to classical descriptions of the fluid and electrostatic interactions without geometric flow based micro-macro interfaces. The detailed balance of forces is emphasized in the present work. We further extend the proposed multiscale paradigm to micro-macro analysis of electrohydrodynamics, electrophoresis, fuel cells, and ion channels. We derive generalized Poisson-Nernst-Planck equations that are

  9. Hopf algebras in noncommutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varilly, Joseph C.

    2001-10-01

    We give an introductory survey to the use of Hopf algebras in several problems of non- commutative geometry. The main example, the Hopf algebra of rooted trees, is a graded, connected Hopf algebra arising from a universal construction. We show its relation to the algebra of transverse differential operators introduced by Connes and Moscovici in order to compute a local index formula in cyclic cohomology, and to the several Hopf algebras defined by Connes and Kreimer to simplify the combinatorics of perturbative renormalization. We explain how characteristic classes for a Hopf module algebra can be obtained from the cyclic cohomology of the Hopf algebra which acts on it. Finally, we discuss the theory of non- commutative spherical manifolds and show how they arise as homogeneous spaces of certain compact quantum groups. (author)

  10. Integrable systems, geometry, and topology

    CERN Document Server

    Terng, Chuu-Lian

    2006-01-01

    The articles in this volume are based on lectures from a program on integrable systems and differential geometry held at Taiwan's National Center for Theoretical Sciences. As is well-known, for many soliton equations, the solutions have interpretations as differential geometric objects, and thereby techniques of soliton equations have been successfully applied to the study of geometric problems. The article by Burstall gives a beautiful exposition on isothermic surfaces and their relations to integrable systems, and the two articles by Guest give an introduction to quantum cohomology, carry out explicit computations of the quantum cohomology of flag manifolds and Hirzebruch surfaces, and give a survey of Givental's quantum differential equations. The article by Heintze, Liu, and Olmos is on the theory of isoparametric submanifolds in an arbitrary Riemannian manifold, which is related to the n-wave equation when the ambient manifold is Euclidean. Mukai-Hidano and Ohnita present a survey on the moduli space of ...

  11. Tarski Geometry Axioms. Part III

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coghetto Roland

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we continue the formalization of the work devoted to Tarski’s geometry - the book “Metamathematische Methoden in der Geometrie” by W. Schwabhäuser, W. Szmielew, and A. Tarski. After we prepared some introductory formal framework in our two previous Mizar articles, we focus on the regular translation of underlying items faithfully following the abovementioned book (our encoding covers first seven chapters. Our development utilizes also other formalization efforts of the same topic, e.g. Isabelle/HOL by Makarios, Metamath or even proof objects obtained directly from Prover9. In addition, using the native Mizar constructions (cluster registrations the propositions (“Satz” are reformulated under weaker conditions, i.e. by using fewer axioms or by proposing an alternative version that uses just another axioms (ex. Satz 2.1 or Satz 2.2.

  12. Applied geometry and discrete mathematics

    CERN Document Server

    Sturm; Gritzmann, Peter; Sturmfels, Bernd

    1991-01-01

    This volume, published jointly with the Association for Computing Machinery, comprises a collection of research articles celebrating the occasion of Victor Klee's sixty-fifth birthday in September 1990. During his long career, Klee has made contributions to a wide variety of areas, such as discrete and computational geometry, convexity, combinatorics, graph theory, functional analysis, mathematical programming and optimization, and theoretical computer science. In addition, Klee made important contributions to mathematics education, mathematical methods in economics and the decision sciences, applications of discrete mathematics in the biological and social sciences, and the transfer of knowledge from applied mathematics to industry. In honor of Klee's achievements, this volume presents more than forty papers on topics related to Klee's research. While the majority of the papers are research articles, a number of survey articles are also included. Mirroring the breadth of Klee's mathematical contributions, th...

  13. Introduction to global variational geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Krupka, Demeter

    2015-01-01

    The book is devoted to recent research in the global variational theory on smooth manifolds. Its main objective is an extension of the classical variational calculus on Euclidean spaces to (topologically nontrivial) finite-dimensional smooth manifolds; to this purpose the methods of global analysis of differential forms are used. Emphasis is placed on the foundations of the theory of variational functionals on fibered manifolds - relevant geometric structures for variational principles in geometry, physical field theory and higher-order fibered mechanics. The book chapters include: - foundations of jet bundles and analysis of differential forms and vector fields on jet bundles, - the theory of higher-order integral variational functionals for sections of a fibred space, the (global) first variational formula in infinitesimal and integral forms- extremal conditions and the discussion of Noether symmetries and generalizations,- the inverse problems of the calculus of variations of Helmholtz type- variational se...

  14. Some Progress in Conformal Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun-Yung A. Chang

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This is a survey paper of our current research on the theory of partial differential equations in conformal geometry. Our intention is to describe some of our current works in a rather brief and expository fashion. We are not giving a comprehensive survey on the subject and references cited here are not intended to be complete. We introduce a bubble tree structure to study the degeneration of a class of Yamabe metrics on Bach flat manifolds satisfying some global conformal bounds on compact manifolds of dimension 4. As applications, we establish a gap theorem, a finiteness theorem for diffeomorphism type for this class, and diameter bound of the $sigma_2$-metrics in a class of conformal 4-manifolds. For conformally compact Einstein metrics we introduce an eigenfunction compactification. As a consequence we obtain some topological constraints in terms of renormalized volumes.

  15. Seesaw mechanism in warped geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, S.J.; Shafi, Q.

    2003-09-01

    We show how the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses can be realized within a five dimensional (5D) warped geometry framework. Intermediate scale standard model (SM) singlet neutrino masses, needed to explain the atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations, are shown to be proportional to M P1 .exp((2c-1)πkR), where c denotes the coefficient of the 5D Dirac mass term for the singlet neutrino which also has a Planck scale Majorana mass localized on the Planck-brane, and kR∼11 in order to resolve the gauge hierarchy problem. The case with a bulk 5D Majorana mass term for the singlet neutrino is briefly discussed. (orig.)

  16. Seesaw mechanism in warped geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, Stephan J.; Shafi, Qaisar

    2004-01-01

    We show how the seesaw mechanism for neutrino masses can be realized within a five-dimensional (5D) warped geometry framework. Intermediate scale standard model (SM) singlet neutrino masses, needed to explain the atmospheric and solar neutrino oscillations, are shown to be proportional to M Pl exp((2c-1)πkR), where c denotes the coefficient of the 5D Dirac mass term for the singlet neutrino which also has a Planck scale Majorana mass localized on the Planck-brane, and kR∼11 in order to resolve the gauge hierarchy problem. The case with a bulk 5D Majorana mass term for the singlet neutrino is briefly discussed

  17. Conformal geometry and quasiregular mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Vuorinen, Matti

    1988-01-01

    This book is an introduction to the theory of spatial quasiregular mappings intended for the uninitiated reader. At the same time the book also addresses specialists in classical analysis and, in particular, geometric function theory. The text leads the reader to the frontier of current research and covers some most recent developments in the subject, previously scatterd through the literature. A major role in this monograph is played by certain conformal invariants which are solutions of extremal problems related to extremal lengths of curve families. These invariants are then applied to prove sharp distortion theorems for quasiregular mappings. One of these extremal problems of conformal geometry generalizes a classical two-dimensional problem of O. Teichmüller. The novel feature of the exposition is the way in which conformal invariants are applied and the sharp results obtained should be of considerable interest even in the two-dimensional particular case. This book combines the features of a textbook an...

  18. Quantization of the Schwarzschild geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melas, Evangelos

    2013-01-01

    The conditional symmetries of the reduced Einstein-Hilbert action emerging from a static, spherically symmetric geometry are used as supplementary conditions on the wave function. Based on their integrability conditions, only one of the three existing symmetries can be consistently imposed, while the unique Casimir invariant, being the product of the remaining two symmetries, is calculated as the only possible second condition on the wave function. This quadratic integral of motion is identified with the reparametrization generator, as an implication of the uniqueness of the dynamical evolution, by fixing a suitable parametrization of the r-lapse function. In this parametrization, the determinant of the supermetric plays the role of the mesure. The combined Wheeler – DeWitt and linear conditional symmetry equations are analytically solved. The solutions obtained depend on the product of the two ''scale factors''.

  19. Geometry optimization of linear and annular plasma synthetic jet actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretti, G; Seri, P; Taglioli, M; Borghi, C A; Shaw, A; Iza, F

    2017-01-01

    The electrohydrodynamic (EHD) interaction induced in atmospheric air pressure by a surface dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator has been experimentally investigated. Plasma synthetic jet actuators (PSJAs) are DBD actuators able to induce an air stream perpendicular to the actuator surface. These devices can be used in the field of aerodynamics to prevent or induce flow separation, modify the laminar to turbulent transition inside the boundary layer, and stabilize or mix air flows. They can also be used to enhance indirect plasma treatment effects, increasing the reactive species delivery rate onto surfaces and liquids. This can play a major role in plasma processing and chemical kinetics modelling, where often only diffusive mechanisms are considered. This paper reports on the importance that different electrode geometries can have on the performance of different PSJAs. A series of DBD aerodynamic actuators designed to produce perpendicular jets has been fabricated on two-layer printed circuit boards (PCBs). Both linear and annular geometries were considered, testing different upper electrode distances in the linear case and different diameters in the annular one. An AC voltage supplied at a peak of 11.5 kV and a frequency of 5 kHz was used. Lower electrodes were connected to the ground and buried in epoxy resin to avoid undesired plasma generation on the lower actuator surface. Voltage and current measurements were carried out to evaluate the active power delivered to the discharges. Schlieren imaging allowed the induced jets to be visualized and gave an estimate of their evolution and geometry. Pitot tube measurements were performed to obtain the velocity profiles of the PSJAs and to estimate the mechanical power delivered to the fluid. The optimal values of the inter-electrode distance and diameter were found in order to maximize jet velocity, mechanical power or efficiency. Annular geometries were found to achieve the best performance. (paper)

  20. A numerical two layer model for blood oxygenation in lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aminatai, A.

    2001-01-01

    In the modelling of the simultaneous transport of O 2 and CO 2 in the pulmonary circulation described in our earlier studies, the blood has been treated as a homogeneous layer of haemoglobin solution. Since the size of the erythrocyte is not negligible in comparison with that of the capillary, the blood can no longer be considered as a homogeneous fluid and hence, It is worthwhile to consider the blood flow as a two-phase flow consisting of cells and plasma. In the present study, the heterogeneous nature of blood has been proposed by considering the axial train model for the flow [whitmore (1967)], in order to analyze the effect of cell free plasma layer on the process of blood oxygenation in pulmonary capillaries. The proposed model consists of a core of suspended erythrocytes surrounded by a cell free plasma layer near the wall. The coupled system of convective diffusion equaions together with the physiologically relevant boundary, entrance and interface conditions is solved numerically by a four-point semi-implicit scheme to gether with a fixed point iterative technique. The distance traversed by the blood before getting fully oxygenated is computed. It is shown that the core haematocrit and the thickness of the cell depleted layer affect the oxygenation process significantly. It is found that (i) oxygen takes longest and carbondioxide is the fastest to attain equilibraton, (ii) the blood is completely oxygenated within one-fifth part of its transit and (iii) the rate of oxygenation is smaller in case of homogeneous model than that in heterogenous model in the capillary. Finally, the effect of various physiological parameters on the rate of oxygenation has been examined

  1. Symplectic and Poisson Geometry in Interaction with Analysis, Algebra and Topology & Symplectic Geometry, Noncommutative Geometry and Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Eliashberg, Yakov; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Symplectic, Poisson, and Noncommutative geometry

    2014-01-01

    Symplectic geometry originated in physics, but it has flourished as an independent subject in mathematics, together with its offspring, symplectic topology. Symplectic methods have even been applied back to mathematical physics. Noncommutative geometry has developed an alternative mathematical quantization scheme based on a geometric approach to operator algebras. Deformation quantization, a blend of symplectic methods and noncommutative geometry, approaches quantum mechanics from a more algebraic viewpoint, as it addresses quantization as a deformation of Poisson structures. This volume contains seven chapters based on lectures given by invited speakers at two May 2010 workshops held at the Mathematical Sciences Research Institute: Symplectic and Poisson Geometry in Interaction with Analysis, Algebra and Topology (honoring Alan Weinstein, one of the key figures in the field) and Symplectic Geometry, Noncommutative Geometry and Physics. The chapters include presentations of previously unpublished results and ...

  2. Influence of probe geometry on pitot-probe displacement in supersonic turbulent flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to determine the varying effects of six different probe-tip and support-shaft configurations on pitot tube displacement. The study was stimulated by discrepancies between supersonic wind-tunnel tests conducted by Wilson and Young (1949) and Allen (1972). Wilson (1973) had concluded that these discrepancies were caused by differences in probe geometry. It is shown that in fact, no major differences in profiles of streamwise velocity over streamwise velocity at boundary-layer edge vs normal coordinate over boundary-layer total thickness result from geometry. The true cause of the discrepancies, however, remains to be discovered.

  3. Convection in Slab and Spheroidal Geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, David H.; Woodward, Paul R.; Jacobs, Michael L.

    2000-01-01

    Three-dimensional numerical simulations of compressible turbulent thermally driven convection, in both slab and spheroidal geometries, are reviewed and analyzed in terms of velocity spectra and mixing-length theory. The same ideal gas model is used in both geometries, and resulting flows are compared. The piecewise-parabolic method (PPM), with either thermal conductivity or photospheric boundary conditions, is used to solve the fluid equations of motion. Fluid motions in both geometries exhibit a Kolmogorov-like k(sup -5/3) range in their velocity spectra. The longest wavelength modes are energetically dominant in both geometries, typically leading to one convection cell dominating the flow. In spheroidal geometry, a dipolar flow dominates the largest scale convective motions. Downflows are intensely turbulent and up drafts are relatively laminar in both geometries. In slab geometry, correlations between temperature and velocity fluctuations, which lead to the enthalpy flux, are fairly independent of depth. In spheroidal geometry this same correlation increases linearly with radius over the inner 70 percent by radius, in which the local pressure scale heights are a sizable fraction of the radius. The effects from the impenetrable boundary conditions in the slab geometry models are confused with the effects from non-local convection. In spheroidal geometry nonlocal effects, due to coherent plumes, are seen as far as several pressure scale heights from the lower boundary and are clearly distinguishable from boundary effects.

  4. Connections between algebra, combinatorics, and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sather-Wagstaff, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Commutative algebra, combinatorics, and algebraic geometry are thriving areas of mathematical research with a rich history of interaction. Connections Between Algebra, Combinatorics, and Geometry contains lecture notes, along with exercises and solutions, from the Workshop on Connections Between Algebra and Geometry held at the University of Regina from May 29-June 1, 2012. It also contains research and survey papers from academics invited to participate in the companion Special Session on Interactions Between Algebraic Geometry and Commutative Algebra, which was part of the CMS Summer Meeting at the University of Regina held June 2–3, 2012, and the meeting Further Connections Between Algebra and Geometry, which was held at the North Dakota State University, February 23, 2013. This volume highlights three mini-courses in the areas of commutative algebra and algebraic geometry: differential graded commutative algebra, secant varieties, and fat points and symbolic powers. It will serve as a useful resou...

  5. Second International workshop Geometry and Symbolic Computation

    CERN Document Server

    Walczak, Paweł; Geometry and its Applications

    2014-01-01

    This volume has been divided into two parts: Geometry and Applications. The geometry portion of the book relates primarily to geometric flows, laminations, integral formulae, geometry of vector fields on Lie groups, and osculation; the articles in the applications portion concern some particular problems of the theory of dynamical systems, including mathematical problems of liquid flows and a study of cycles for non-dynamical systems. This Work is based on the second international workshop entitled "Geometry and Symbolic Computations," held on May 15-18, 2013 at the University of Haifa and is dedicated to modeling (using symbolic calculations) in differential geometry and its applications in fields such as computer science, tomography, and mechanics. It is intended to create a forum for students and researchers in pure and applied geometry to promote discussion of modern state-of-the-art in geometric modeling using symbolic programs such as Maple™ and Mathematica®, as well as presentation of new results. ...

  6. A vector space approach to geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Hausner, Melvin

    2010-01-01

    The effects of geometry and linear algebra on each other receive close attention in this examination of geometry's correlation with other branches of math and science. In-depth discussions include a review of systematic geometric motivations in vector space theory and matrix theory; the use of the center of mass in geometry, with an introduction to barycentric coordinates; axiomatic development of determinants in a chapter dealing with area and volume; and a careful consideration of the particle problem. 1965 edition.

  7. Classical geometry Euclidean, transformational, inversive, and projective

    CERN Document Server

    Leonard, I E; Liu, A C F; Tokarsky, G W

    2014-01-01

    Features the classical themes of geometry with plentiful applications in mathematics, education, engineering, and science Accessible and reader-friendly, Classical Geometry: Euclidean, Transformational, Inversive, and Projective introduces readers to a valuable discipline that is crucial to understanding bothspatial relationships and logical reasoning. Focusing on the development of geometric intuitionwhile avoiding the axiomatic method, a problem solving approach is encouraged throughout. The book is strategically divided into three sections: Part One focuses on Euclidean geometry, which p

  8. Layered materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, David; Clarke, Simon; Wiley, John; Koumoto, Kunihito

    2014-06-01

    Layered compounds, materials with a large anisotropy to their bonding, electrical and/or magnetic properties, have been important in the development of solid state chemistry, physics and engineering applications. Layered materials were the initial test bed where chemists developed intercalation chemistry that evolved into the field of topochemical reactions where researchers are able to perform sequential steps to arrive at kinetically stable products that cannot be directly prepared by other approaches. Physicists have used layered compounds to discover and understand novel phenomena made more apparent through reduced dimensionality. The discovery of charge and spin density waves and more recently the remarkable discovery in condensed matter physics of the two-dimensional topological insulating state were discovered in two-dimensional materials. The understanding developed in two-dimensional materials enabled subsequent extension of these and other phenomena into three-dimensional materials. Layered compounds have also been used in many technologies as engineers and scientists used their unique properties to solve challenging technical problems (low temperature ion conduction for batteries, easy shear planes for lubrication in vacuum, edge decorated catalyst sites for catalytic removal of sulfur from oil, etc). The articles that are published in this issue provide an excellent overview of the spectrum of activities that are being pursued, as well as an introduction to some of the most established achievements in the field. Clusters of papers discussing thermoelectric properties, electronic structure and transport properties, growth of single two-dimensional layers, intercalation and more extensive topochemical reactions and the interleaving of two structures to form new materials highlight the breadth of current research in this area. These papers will hopefully serve as a useful guideline for the interested reader to different important aspects in this field and

  9. Introduction to non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Wolfe, Harold E

    2012-01-01

    One of the first college-level texts for elementary courses in non-Euclidean geometry, this concise, readable volume is geared toward students familiar with calculus. A full treatment of the historical background explores the centuries-long efforts to prove Euclid's parallel postulate and their triumphant conclusion. Numerous original exercises form an integral part of the book.Topics include hyperbolic plane geometry and hyperbolic plane trigonometry, applications of calculus to the solutions of some problems in hyperbolic geometry, elliptic plane geometry and trigonometry, and the consistenc

  10. Disformal transformation in Newton-Cartan geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Peng [Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Department of Information, Hangzhou (China); Sun Yat-Sen University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Guangzhou (China); Yuan, Fang-Fang [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China)

    2016-08-15

    Newton-Cartan geometry has played a central role in recent discussions of the non-relativistic holography and condensed matter systems. Although the conformal transformation in non-relativistic holography can easily be rephrased in terms of Newton-Cartan geometry, we show that it requires a nontrivial procedure to arrive at the consistent form of anisotropic disformal transformation in this geometry. Furthermore, as an application of the newly obtained transformation, we use it to induce a geometric structure which may be seen as a particular non-relativistic version of the Weyl integrable geometry. (orig.)

  11. Applications of Affine and Weyl geometry

    CERN Document Server

    García-Río, Eduardo; Nikcevic, Stana

    2013-01-01

    Pseudo-Riemannian geometry is, to a large extent, the study of the Levi-Civita connection, which is the unique torsion-free connection compatible with the metric structure. There are, however, other affine connections which arise in different contexts, such as conformal geometry, contact structures, Weyl structures, and almost Hermitian geometry. In this book, we reverse this point of view and instead associate an auxiliary pseudo-Riemannian structure of neutral signature to certain affine connections and use this correspondence to study both geometries. We examine Walker structures, Riemannia

  12. Special Geometry and Automorphic Forms

    CERN Document Server

    Berglund, P; Wyllard, N; Berglund, Per; Henningson, Mans; Wyllard, Niclas

    1997-01-01

    We consider special geometry of the vector multiplet moduli space in compactifications of the heterotic string on $K3 \\times T^2$ or the type IIA string on $K3$-fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds. In particular, we construct a modified dilaton that is invariant under $SO(2, n; Z)$ T-duality transformations at the non-perturbative level and regular everywhere on the moduli space. The invariant dilaton, together with a set of other coordinates that transform covariantly under $SO(2, n; Z)$, parameterize the moduli space. The construction involves a meromorphic automorphic function of $SO(2, n; Z)$, that also depends on the invariant dilaton. In the weak coupling limit, the divisor of this automorphic form is an integer linear combination of the rational quadratic divisors where the gauge symmetry is enhanced classically. We also show how the non-perturbative prepotential can be expressed in terms of meromorphic automorphic forms, by expanding a T-duality invariant quantity both in terms of the standard special coord...

  13. Differential geometry in string models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, O.

    1986-01-01

    In this article the author reviews the differential geometric approach to the quantization of strings. A seminal paper demonstrates the connection between the trace anomaly and the critical dimension. The role played by the Faddeev-Popov ghosts has been instrumental in much of the subsequent work on the quantization of strings. This paper discusses the differential geometry of two dimensional surfaces and its importance in the quantization of strings. The path integral quantization approach to strings will be carefully analyzed to determine the correct effective measure for string theories. The choice of measure for the path integral is determined by differential geometric considerations. Once the measure is determined, the manifest diffeomorphism invariance of the theory will have to be broken by using the Faddeev-Popov ansatz. The gauge fixed theory is studied in detail with emphasis on the role of conformal and gravitational anomalies. In the analysis, the path integral formulation of the gauge fixed theory requires summing over all the distinct complex structures on the manifold

  14. Geometry of lattice field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Honan, T.J.

    1986-01-01

    Using some tools of algebraic topology, a general formalism for lattice field theory is presented. The lattice is taken to be a simplicial complex that is also a manifold and is referred to as a simplicial manifold. The fields on this lattice are cochains, that are called lattice forms to emphasize the connections with differential forms in the continuum. This connection provides a new bridge between lattice and continuum field theory. A metric can be put onto this simplicial manifold by assigning lengths to every link or I-simplex of the lattice. Regge calculus is a way of defining general relativity on this lattice. A geometric discussion of Regge calculus is presented. The Regge action, which is a discrete form of the Hilbert action, is derived from the Hilbert action using distribution valued forms. This is a new derivation that emphasizes the underlying geometry. Kramers-Wannier duality in statistical mechanics is discussed in this general setting. Nonlinear field theories, which include gauge theories and nonlinear sigma models are discussed in the continuum and then are put onto a lattice. The main new result here is the generalization to curved spacetime, which consists of making the theory compatible with Regge calculus

  15. Latent geometry of bipartite networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitsak, Maksim; Papadopoulos, Fragkiskos; Krioukov, Dmitri

    2017-03-01

    Despite the abundance of bipartite networked systems, their organizing principles are less studied compared to unipartite networks. Bipartite networks are often analyzed after projecting them onto one of the two sets of nodes. As a result of the projection, nodes of the same set are linked together if they have at least one neighbor in common in the bipartite network. Even though these projections allow one to study bipartite networks using tools developed for unipartite networks, one-mode projections lead to significant loss of information and artificial inflation of the projected network with fully connected subgraphs. Here we pursue a different approach for analyzing bipartite systems that is based on the observation that such systems have a latent metric structure: network nodes are points in a latent metric space, while connections are more likely to form between nodes separated by shorter distances. This approach has been developed for unipartite networks, and relatively little is known about its applicability to bipartite systems. Here, we fully analyze a simple latent-geometric model of bipartite networks and show that this model explains the peculiar structural properties of many real bipartite systems, including the distributions of common neighbors and bipartite clustering. We also analyze the geometric information loss in one-mode projections in this model and propose an efficient method to infer the latent pairwise distances between nodes. Uncovering the latent geometry underlying real bipartite networks can find applications in diverse domains, ranging from constructing efficient recommender systems to understanding cell metabolism.

  16. Fractal Geometry and Stochastics V

    CERN Document Server

    Falconer, Kenneth; Zähle, Martina

    2015-01-01

    This book brings together leading contributions from the fifth conference on Fractal Geometry and Stochastics held in Tabarz, Germany, in March 2014. The book is divided into five sections covering different facets of this fast developing area: geometric measure theory, self-similar fractals and recurrent structures, analysis and algebra on fractals, multifractal theory, and random constructions. There are state-of-the-art surveys as well as papers highlighting more specific recent advances. The authors are world-experts who present their topics comprehensibly and attractively. The book provides an accessible gateway to the subject for newcomers as well as a reference for recent developments for specialists. Authors include: Krzysztof Barański, Julien Barral, Kenneth Falconer, De-Jun Feng, Peter J. Grabner, Rostislav Grigorchuk, Michael Hinz, Stéphane Jaffard, Maarit Järvenpää, Antti Käenmäki, Marc Kesseböhmer, Michel Lapidus, Klaus Mecke, Mark Pollicott,  Michał Rams, Pablo Shmerkin, and András Te...

  17. Stochastic geometry in PRIZMA code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malyshkin, G. N.; Kashaeva, E. A.; Mukhamadiev, R. F.

    2007-01-01

    The paper describes a method used to simulate radiation transport through random media - randomly placed grains in a matrix material. The method models the medium consequently from one grain crossed by particle trajectory to another. Like in the Limited Chord Length Sampling (LCLS) method, particles in grains are tracked in the actual grain geometry, but unlike LCLS, the medium is modeled using only Matrix Chord Length Sampling (MCLS) from the exponential distribution and it is not necessary to know the grain chord length distribution. This helped us extend the method to media with randomly oriented arbitrarily shaped convex grains. Other extensions include multicomponent media - grains of several sorts, and polydisperse media - grains of different sizes. Sort and size distributions of crossed grains were obtained and an algorithm was developed for sampling grain orientations and positions. Special consideration was given to medium modeling at the boundary of the stochastic region. The method was implemented in the universal 3D Monte Carlo code PRIZMA. The paper provides calculated results for a model problem where we determine volume fractions of modeled components crossed by particle trajectories. It also demonstrates the use of biased sampling techniques implemented in PRIZMA for solving a problem of deep penetration in model random media. Described are calculations for the spectral response of a capacitor dose detector whose anode was modeled with account for its stochastic structure. (authors)

  18. The geometry of population genetics

    CERN Document Server

    Akin, Ethan

    1979-01-01

    The differential equations which model the action of selection and recombination are nonlinear equations which are impossible to It is even difficult to describe in general the solve explicitly. Recently, Shahshahani began using qualitative behavior of solutions. differential geometry to study these equations [28]. with this mono­ graph I hope to show that his ideas illuminate many aspects of pop­ ulation genetics. Among these are his proof and clarification of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection and Kimura's Maximum Principle and also the effect of recombination on entropy. We also discover the relationship between two classic measures of 2 genetic distance: the x measure and the arc-cosine measure. There are two large applications. The first is a precise definition of the biological concept of degree of epistasis which applies to general (i.e. frequency dependent) forms of selection. The second is the unexpected appearance of cycling. We show that cycles can occur in the two-locus-two-allele...

  19. Topics in Cubic Special Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Bellucci, Stefano; Roychowdhury, Raju

    2011-01-01

    We reconsider the sub-leading quantum perturbative corrections to N=2 cubic special Kaehler geometries. Imposing the invariance under axion-shifts, all such corrections (but the imaginary constant one) can be introduced or removed through suitable, lower unitriangular symplectic transformations, dubbed Peccei-Quinn (PQ) transformations. Since PQ transformations do not belong to the d=4 U-duality group G4, in symmetric cases they generally have a non-trivial action on the unique quartic invariant polynomial I4 of the charge representation R of G4. This leads to interesting phenomena in relation to theory of extremal black hole attractors; namely, the possibility to make transitions between different charge orbits of R, with corresponding change of the supersymmetry properties of the supported attractor solutions. Furthermore, a suitable action of PQ transformations can also set I4 to zero, or vice versa it can generate a non-vanishing I4: this corresponds to transitions between "large" and "small" charge orbit...

  20. Dipole radiation in a multilayer geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, C.E.; Giergiel, J.; Hemminger, J.C.; Ushioda, S.

    1987-01-01

    There are several kinds of experiments that can be done with multilayer stacks of dielectric media which require an understanding of light emission by sources within the stack for their analysis. These experiments may involve, for example, light-emitting tunnel junctions, Raman scattering in Kretschmann and other multilayered geometries, and Rayleigh scattering by small amounts of surface or interface roughness, either alone or in combination with other processes. A set of electromagnetic Green's functions for a multilayer stack of isotropic dielectric media [D. L. Mills and A. A. Maradudin, Phys. Rev. B 12, 2943 (1975)] gives the electric fields produced everywhere by a point source of current oscillating at a frequency f. These Green's functions can thus be used to solve this type of problem. In this paper we show how these Green's functions can be written in terms of 2 x 2 transfer matrices of the type commonly used to find the fields in a dielectric stack due to an incident plane wave. With this simplification we can easily evaluate the Green's functions for a stack with an arbitrary number of layers. We further show that, when the electric fields generated by a point source within the stack are evaluated far away, they can be written directly in terms of the electric fields that would be generated at the location of the current source by plane waves incident from the direction of the observation point. We show that this follows from the Lorentz reciprocity theorem. Thus, in this case the formalism of Green's functions is not needed

  1. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.

    2014-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...... Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices...

  2. Vortex Generator Induced Flow in a High Re Boundary Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velte, Clara Marika; Braud, C.; Coudert, S.

    2012-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry measurements have been conducted in cross-planes behind three different geometries of Vortex Generators (VGs) in a high Reynolds number boundary layer. The VGs have been mounted in a cascade producing counter-rotating vortices and the downstream flow...... development was examined. Three VG geometries were investigated: rectangular, triangular and cambered. The various VG geometries tested are seen to produce different impacts on the boundary layer flow. Helical symmetry of the generated vortices is confirmed for all investigated VG geometries in this high...... Reynolds number boundary layer. From the parameters resulting from this analysis, it is observed at the most upstream measurement position that the rectangular and triangular VGs produce vortices of similar size, strength and velocity induction whilst the cambered VGs produce smaller and weaker vortices...

  3. Control of flow geometry using electromagnetic body forcing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossi, L.; Bocquet, S.; Ferrari, S.; Garcia de la Cruz, J.M.; Lardeau, S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents conceptual experiments and simulations aiming at controlling flow geometries. Such flow design is performed by driving electromagnetically a shallow layer of brine, the forcing being generated by a transverse electrical current and different combinations of permanent magnets placed underneath the brine supporting wall. It is shown how different basic flow characteristics can be obtained with a single pair of magnets, by varying the angle with the electrical current. These basic flows are proposed as potential building blocks for advanced and complex flows studies. Three typical flow structures are presented to illustrate these building blocks. The discussion is then extended to multi-scale geometry by using blocks of various sizes. The flow is analysed using complementary experiments and numerical simulations. A good agreement is found between the 3D simulations and the experiments for both velocity and acceleration fields, which allows a higher degree of confidence in designing and modelling such flows. As the control of the flow geometry is important for mixing, in particular at low Reynolds number, we also illustrate the different stirring properties of the electromagnetically forced flows by comparing visualisations of passive scalars. They reveal complementary mixing properties for each of the building blocks.

  4. [The Effect of Observation Geometry on Polarized Skylight Spectrum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-bin; Wang, Ling-mei; Gao, Jun; Wang, Chi

    2015-03-01

    Study on polarized skylight spectral characters while observation geometry changing in different solar zenith angles (SZA), viewing zenith angles (VZA) or relative azimuth angles (RAA). Simulation calculation of cloudless daylight polarimetric spectrum is realized based on the solver, vector discrete ordinate method, of radiative transfer equation. In the Sun's principal and perpendicular plane, the spectral irradiance data, varying at wavelengths in the range between 0.4 and 3 μm, are calculated to extend the atmospheric polarization spectral information under the conditions: the MODTRAN solar reference spectrur is the only illuminant source; the main influencing factors of polarized radiative transfer include underlying surface albedo, aerosol layers and components, and the absorption of trace gases. Simulation analysis results: (1) While the relative azimuth angle is zero, the magnitude of spectrum U/I is lower than 10(-7) and V/I is negligible, the degree of polarization and the spectrum Q/I are shaped like the letter V or mirror-writing U. (2) In twilight, when the Sun is not in FOV of the detector, the polarization of the daytime sky has two maximum near 0.51 and 2.75 μm, and a minimum near 1.5 μm. For arbitrary observation geometry, the spectral signal of V/I may be ignored. According to observation geometry, choosing different spectral bands or polarized signal will be propitious to targets detection.

  5. Quantum groups: Geometry and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, C.S.

    1996-01-01

    The main theme of this thesis is a study of the geometry of quantum groups and quantum spaces, with the hope that they will be useful for the construction of quantum field theory with quantum group symmetry. The main tool used is the Faddeev-Reshetikhin-Takhtajan description of quantum groups. A few content-rich examples of quantum complex spaces with quantum group symmetry are treated in details. In chapter 1, the author reviews some of the basic concepts and notions for Hopf algebras and other background materials. In chapter 2, he studies the vector fields of quantum groups. A compact realization of these vector fields as pseudodifferential operators acting on the linear quantum spaces is given. In chapter 3, he describes the quantum sphere as a complex quantum manifold by means of a quantum stereographic projection. A covariant calculus is introduced. An interesting property of this calculus is the existence of a one-form realization of the exterior differential operator. The concept of a braided comodule is introduced and a braided algebra of quantum spheres is constructed. In chapter 4, the author considers the more general higher dimensional quantum complex projective spaces and the quantum Grassman manifolds. Differential calculus, integration and braiding can be introduced as in the one dimensional case. Finally, in chapter 5, he studies the framework of quantum principal bundle and construct the q-deformed Dirac monopole as a quantum principal bundle with a quantum sphere as the base and a U(1) with non-commutative calculus as the fiber. The first Chern class can be introduced and integrated to give the monopole charge

  6. The geometry of elementary particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lov, T.R.

    1987-01-01

    A new model of elementary particles based on the geometry of Quantum deSitter space QdS = SU (3,2)/(SU(3,1) x U(1)) is introduced and studied. QdS is a complexification of quantization of anti-de Sitter space, AdS = SO(3,2)/SO(3,1), which in recent years had played a pivotal role in supergravity. The nontrival principle fiber bundle has total space SU(3,2), fiber SU(3,1) x U(1) and base QdS. In this setting, the standard recipes for Yang-Mills fields don't work. These require connections and the associated covariant derivatives. Here it is shown that the Lie derivatives, not the covariant derivatives are important in quantization. In this setting, the no-go theorems are not valid. This new quantum mechanics leads to a model of elementary particles as vertical vector fields in the bundle with interaction via the Lie bracket. There are five physical interactions modelled by the bracket interaction. The quantum numbers are identified as the roots of su(3,2) and are preserved under the bracket interaction. The model explains conservation of charge, baryon number, lepton number, parity and the heirarchy problem. Since the bracket is the curvature of a homogeneous space, particles are then the curvature of QdS. This model for particles is consistent with the requirements of General Relativity. Furthermore, since the curvature tensor is built from the quantized wave functions, the curvature tensor is quantized and this is quantum theory of gravity

  7. Geometry and physics of branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsov, D V

    2003-01-01

    The book brings together the contents of lecture courses delivered at the school 'Geometry and Physics of Branes' which took place at the Center 'Alessandro Volta' (Como, Italy) in the spring of 2001. The purpose of the school was to provide an introduction to some lines of research, related to the notion of branes in superstring theory, which are in the focus of attention both in the physical and mathematical communities. The book is structured into three parts: the first contains an elementary introduction to branes, the second is devoted to physical aspects (conformal field theory on open and unoriented surfaces and topics in string tachyon dynamics), and the last contains some more formal mathematical developments. An introduction to branes is given in a remarkably lucid contribution by A Lerda. It opens with a construction of p-brane solutions in classical IIA and IIB supergravities with particular emphasis on the 'fundamental string' solution, the NS5-brane and the D3-brane. Then, the quantum description of D-branes is discussed in terms of boundary states of the closed superstring, which is an alternative to the more common description in terms of open strings with Dirichlet boundary conditions in the transverse to the brane directions. When a constant gauge field is present in the D-brane worldvolume, the boundary states are coherent states of the string oscillators depending on the field strength tensor. The couplings of the brane to the bulk fields - the graviton, the dilaton, and the Kalb-Ramond fields - are then extracted and shown to be precisely the ones that are produced by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action governing the low-energy dynamics of the D-brane derived using the open strings formalism. It is also shown that in the classical limit, the boundary states correctly reproduce the parameters of the corresponding classical solutions. The second part of the book starts with a contribution by Y S Stanev devoted to the two-dimensional conformal field

  8. Description of SSG Geometry - phase 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Margheritini, Lucia; Kofoed, Jens Peter

    The purpose of the study is to define the optimized geometry for the SSG in Svaheia, Norway and to provide the responsible for the turbines with useful information to their work.......The purpose of the study is to define the optimized geometry for the SSG in Svaheia, Norway and to provide the responsible for the turbines with useful information to their work....

  9. Increasing insightful thinking in analytic geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmer, Mark; Verhoef, Neeltje Cornelia

    Elsewhere in this issue Ferdinand Verhulst described the discussion of the interaction of analysis and geometry in the 19th century. In modern times such discussions come up again and again. As of 2014, synthetic geometry will not be part of the Dutch 'vwo - mathematics B' programme anymore.

  10. Symposium on Differential Geometry and Differential Equations

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Marcel; Bryant, Robert

    1987-01-01

    The DD6 Symposium was, like its predecessors DD1 to DD5 both a research symposium and a summer seminar and concentrated on differential geometry. This volume contains a selection of the invited papers and some additional contributions. They cover recent advances and principal trends in current research in differential geometry.

  11. Curvature tensor copies in affine geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, P.P.

    1981-01-01

    The sets of space-time and spin-connections which give rise to the same curvature tensor are constructed. The corresponding geometries are compared. Results are illustrated by an explicit calculation and comment on the copies in Einstein-Cartan and Weyl-Cartan geometries. (Author) [pt

  12. Fractal geometry of high temperature superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosolov, A.B.

    1989-01-01

    Microstructural geometry of superconducting structural composites of Ag-Yba 2 Cu 3 O x system with a volumetric shave of silver from 0 to 60% is investigated by light and electron microscopy methods. It is ascertained that the structure of cermets investigated is characterized by fractal geometry which is sufficient for describing the electrical and mechanical properties of these materials

  13. Quantification of variability in bedform geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, C.F.; Blom, Astrid; Hulscher, Suzanne J.M.H.

    2008-01-01

    We analyze the variability in bedform geometry in laboratory and field studies. Even under controlled steady flow conditions in laboratory flumes, bedforms are irregular in size, shape, and spacing, also in case of well-sorted sediment. Our purpose is to quantify the variability in bedform geometry.

  14. Random geometry and Yang-Mills theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.

    1981-01-01

    The author states various problems and discusses a very few preliminary rigorous results in a branch of mathematics and mathematical physics which one might call random (or stochastic) geometry. Furthermore, he points out why random geometry is important in the quantization of Yang-Mills theory. (Auth.)

  15. The Geometry of the Universe: Part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    Hyperbolic geometry occurs on hyperbolic planes--the most commonly cited one being a saddle shape. In this article, the author explores negative hyperbolic curvature, and provides a detailed description of how she constructed two hyperbolic paraboloids. Hyperbolic geometry occurs on surfaces that have negative curvature. (Contains 11 figures and 4…

  16. Poisson geometry from a Dirac perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinrenken, Eckhard

    2018-03-01

    We present proofs of classical results in Poisson geometry using techniques from Dirac geometry. This article is based on mini-courses at the Poisson summer school in Geneva, June 2016, and at the workshop Quantum Groups and Gravity at the University of Waterloo, April 2016.

  17. An approach for management of geometry data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dube, R. P.; Herron, G. J.; Schweitzer, J. E.; Warkentine, E. R.

    1980-01-01

    The strategies for managing Integrated Programs for Aerospace Design (IPAD) computer-based geometry are described. The computer model of geometry is the basis for communication, manipulation, and analysis of shape information. IPAD's data base system makes this information available to all authorized departments in a company. A discussion of the data structures and algorithms required to support geometry in IPIP (IPAD's data base management system) is presented. Through the use of IPIP's data definition language, the structure of the geometry components is defined. The data manipulation language is the vehicle by which a user defines an instance of the geometry. The manipulation language also allows a user to edit, query, and manage the geometry. The selection of canonical forms is a very important part of the IPAD geometry. IPAD has a canonical form for each entity and provides transformations to alternate forms; in particular, IPAD will provide a transformation to the ANSI standard. The DBMS schemas required to support IPAD geometry are explained.

  18. Transformasi Geometri Rotasi Berbantuan Software Geogebra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhamad Hanafi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian  ini bertujuan untuk membantu visualisasi dan menemukan konsep pada Transformasi geometri Rotasi di titik Pusat  dengan menggunakan software GeoGebra. Penelitian ini mengulas tentang Koordinat Kartesius dan Polar, dan selanjutntya Transformasi geometri Rotasi di titik Pusat .

  19. Analisis Keterampilan Geometri Siswa Dalam Memecahkan Masalah Geometri Berdasarkan Tingkat Berpikir Van Hiele

    OpenAIRE

    Muhassanah, Nuraini; Sujadi, Imam; Riyadi, Riyadi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this research was to describe the VIII grade students geometry skills atSMP N 16 Surakarta in the level 0 (visualization), level 1 (analysis), and level 2 (informaldeduction) van Hiele level of thinking in solving the geometry problem. This research was aqualitative research in the form of case study analyzing deeply the students geometry skill insolving the geometry problem based on van Hiele level of thingking. The subject of this researchwas nine students of VIII grade at ...

  20. The design of geometry teaching: learning from the geometry textbooks of Godfrey and Siddons

    OpenAIRE

    Fujita, Taro; Jones, Keith

    2002-01-01

    Deciding how to teach geometry remains a demanding task with one of major arguments being about how to combine the intuitive and deductive aspects of geometry into an effective teaching design. In order to try to obtain an insight into tackling this issue, this paper reports an analysis of innovative geometry textbooks which were published in the early part of the 20th Century, a time when significant efforts were being made to improve the teaching and learning of geometry. The analysis sugge...

  1. Physical meaning of the optical reference geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M.A.

    1990-09-01

    I show that contrary to a popular misconception the optical reference geometry, introduced a few years ago as a formally possible metric of a 3-space corresponding to a static spacetime, is quite satisfactory also from the physical point of view. The optical reference geometry has a clear physical meaning, as it may be constructed experimentally by measuring light round travel time between static observers. Distances and directions in the optical reference geometry are more strongly connected to experiment than distances and directions in the widely used directly projected metric (discussed e.g. in Landau and Lifshitz textbook. In addition, the optical reference geometry is more natural and convenient than the directly projected one in application to dynamics. In the optical geometry dynamical behaviour of matter is described by concepts and formulae identical to those well known in Newtonian dynamics on a given two dimensional (curved) surface. (author). 22 refs

  2. FINAL REPORT: GEOMETRY AND ELEMENTARY PARTICLE PHYSICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Isadore M.

    2008-03-04

    The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists’ quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

  3. Machine learning spatial geometry from entanglement features

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Yi-Zhuang; Yang, Zhao; Qi, Xiao-Liang

    2018-02-01

    Motivated by the close relations of the renormalization group with both the holography duality and the deep learning, we propose that the holographic geometry can emerge from deep learning the entanglement feature of a quantum many-body state. We develop a concrete algorithm, call the entanglement feature learning (EFL), based on the random tensor network (RTN) model for the tensor network holography. We show that each RTN can be mapped to a Boltzmann machine, trained by the entanglement entropies over all subregions of a given quantum many-body state. The goal is to construct the optimal RTN that best reproduce the entanglement feature. The RTN geometry can then be interpreted as the emergent holographic geometry. We demonstrate the EFL algorithm on a 1D free fermion system and observe the emergence of the hyperbolic geometry (AdS3 spatial geometry) as we tune the fermion system towards the gapless critical point (CFT2 point).

  4. Final Report: Geometry And Elementary Particle Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Isadore M.

    2008-01-01

    The effect on mathematics of collaborations between high-energy theoretical physics and modern mathematics has been remarkable. Mirror symmetry has revolutionized enumerative geometry, and Seiberg-Witten invariants have greatly simplified the study of four manifolds. And because of their application to string theory, physicists now need to know cohomology theory, characteristic classes, index theory, K-theory, algebraic geometry, differential geometry, and non-commutative geometry. Much more is coming. We are experiencing a deeper contact between the two sciences, which will stimulate new mathematics essential to the physicists quest for the unification of quantum mechanics and relativity. Our grant, supported by the Department of Energy for twelve years, has been instrumental in promoting an effective interaction between geometry and string theory, by supporting the Mathematical Physics seminar, postdoc research, collaborations, graduate students and several research papers.

  5. Special metrics and group actions in geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Fino, Anna; Musso, Emilio; Podestà, Fabio; Vezzoni, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    The volume is a follow-up to the INdAM meeting “Special metrics and quaternionic geometry” held in Rome in November 2015. It offers a panoramic view of a selection of cutting-edge topics in differential geometry, including 4-manifolds, quaternionic and octonionic geometry, twistor spaces, harmonic maps, spinors, complex and conformal geometry, homogeneous spaces and nilmanifolds, special geometries in dimensions 5–8, gauge theory, symplectic and toric manifolds, exceptional holonomy and integrable systems. The workshop was held in honor of Simon Salamon, a leading international scholar at the forefront of academic research who has made significant contributions to all these subjects. The articles published here represent a compelling testimony to Salamon’s profound and longstanding impact on the mathematical community. Target readership includes graduate students and researchers working in Riemannian and complex geometry, Lie theory and mathematical physics.

  6. Analogy and Dynamic Geometry System Used to Introduce Three-Dimensional Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammana, M. F.; Micale, B.; Pennisi, M.

    2012-01-01

    We present a sequence of classroom activities on Euclidean geometry, both plane and space geometry, used to make three dimensional geometry more catchy and simple. The activity consists of a guided research activity that leads the students to discover unexpected properties of two apparently distant geometrical entities, quadrilaterals and…

  7. Drawing Dynamic Geometry Figures Online with Natural Language for Junior High School Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Wing-Kwong; Yin, Sheng-Kai; Yang, Chang-Zhe

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a tool for drawing dynamic geometric figures by understanding the texts of geometry problems. With the tool, teachers and students can construct dynamic geometric figures on a web page by inputting a geometry problem in natural language. First we need to build the knowledge base for understanding geometry problems. With the…

  8. Surface complexation of selenite on goethite: MO/DFT geometry and charge distribution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hiemstra, T.; Rietra, R.P.J.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2007-01-01

    The adsorption of selenite on goethite (alpha-FeOOH) has been analyzed with the charge distribution (CD) and the multi-site surface complexation (MUSIC) model being combined with an extended Stem (ES) layer model option. The geometry of a set of different types of hydrated iron-selenite complexes

  9. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some "the elementary particles of arithmetic" as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called "the elementary particles of physics" too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles/spheres in 2D/3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable number in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This "number/physical" stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger stable prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show convincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that of the masses of

  10. Primes, Geometry and Condensed Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Rabeh R. H.

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Fascination with primes dates back to the Greeks and before. Primes are named by some “the elementary particles of arithmetic” as every nonprime integer is made of a unique set of primes. In this article we point to new connections between primes, geometry and physics which show that primes could be called “the elementary particles of physics” too. This study considers the problem of closely packing similar circles / spheres in 2D / 3D space. This is in effect a discretization process of space and the allowable num- ber in a pack is found to lead to some unexpected cases of prime configurations which is independent of the size of the constituents. We next suggest that a non-prime can be considered geometrically as a symmetric collection that is separable (factorable into similar parts- six is two threes or three twos for example. A collection that has no such symmetry is a prime. As a result, a physical prime aggregate is more difficult to split symmetrically resulting in an inherent stability. This “number / physical” stability idea applies to bigger collections made from smaller (prime units leading to larger sta- ble prime structures in a limitless scaling up process. The distribution of primes among numbers can be understood better using the packing ideas described here and we further suggest that differing numbers (and values of distinct prime factors making a nonprime collection is an important factor in determining the probability and method of possible and subsequent disintegration. Disintegration is bound by energy conservation and is closely related to symmetry by Noether theorems. Thinking of condensed matter as the packing of identical elements, we examine plots of the masses of chemical elements of the periodic table, and also those of the elementary particles of physics, and show that prime packing rules seem to play a role in the make up of matter. The plots show con- vincingly that the growth of prime numbers and that

  11. Slab2 - Updated Subduction Zone Geometries and Modeling Tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, G.; Hayes, G. P.; Portner, D. E.; Furtney, M.; Flamme, H. E.; Hearne, M. G.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey database of global subduction zone geometries (Slab1.0), is a highly utilized dataset that has been applied to a wide range of geophysical problems. In 2017, these models have been improved and expanded upon as part of the Slab2 modeling effort. With a new data driven approach that can be applied to a broader range of tectonic settings and geophysical data sets, we have generated a model set that will serve as a more comprehensive, reliable, and reproducible resource for three-dimensional slab geometries at all of the world's convergent margins. The newly developed framework of Slab2 is guided by: (1) a large integrated dataset, consisting of a variety of geophysical sources (e.g., earthquake hypocenters, moment tensors, active-source seismic survey images of the shallow slab, tomography models, receiver functions, bathymetry, trench ages, and sediment thickness information); (2) a dynamic filtering scheme aimed at constraining incorporated seismicity to only slab related events; (3) a 3-D data interpolation approach which captures both high resolution shallow geometries and instances of slab rollback and overlap at depth; and (4) an algorithm which incorporates uncertainties of contributing datasets to identify the most probable surface depth over the extent of each subduction zone. Further layers will also be added to the base geometry dataset, such as historic moment release, earthquake tectonic providence, and interface coupling. Along with access to several queryable data formats, all components have been wrapped into an open source library in Python, such that suites of updated models can be released as further data becomes available. This presentation will discuss the extent of Slab2 development, as well as the current availability of the model and modeling tools.

  12. Efeito da vitamina C sobre o hematócrito e glicemia de alevinos de tilápia-do-nilo (Oreochromis niloticus em transporte simulado Effect of vitamin C over the haematocrit and glycemia of nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus alevins in simulated transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Okamura

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito do ascorbato sobre o hematócrito e glicemia em alevinos de tilápia nilótica (Oreochromis niloticus submetidos à simulação de práticas relacionadas ao transporte. Foram utilizadas três dietas experimentais com diferentes níveis de vitamina C (16, 500 e 1000mg de vitamina C/kg, fornecidas durante os 14 dias anteriores à simulação do transporte que se estendeu por 14 horas. O tratamento que continha 16mg de vitamina C/kg foi o que apresentou a glicemia mais elevada logo após a simulação, 108,5mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 91mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. A concentração de 1000mg de vitamina C/kg foi a mais eficiente no controle do aumento da glicemia, 94,6mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 74,4mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Para a concentração de 500mg de vitamina C/kg foram observados os níveis de 91,4mg/dl imediatamente após a simulação e 103,8mg/dl 12 horas após a simulação. Os valores do hematócrito não apresentaram variação significativa (P>0,05. A suplementação com 1000mg de vitamina C/kg por 14 dias anteriores ao transporte pode ser utilizada de forma profilática em alevinos de tilápia nilótica para amenizar o aumento da glicemia relacionado ao estresse.The effects of ascorbate on the haematocrit and blood glucose level were evaluated in Nile tilapia alevins (Oreochromis niloticus submitted to a transport simulation. Three experimental diets with different levels of vitamin C (16, 500 and 1000mg/kg were given for 14 days before the simulation of the transport. The treatment containing 16mg of vitamin C showed the highest level of glucose after the simulation (108.5mg/dl immediately after the transport and 91mg/dl 12 hours after the transport. The vitamin C concentration of 1000mg/kg was the most efficient treatment to control glycemia increases (94.6mg/dl immediately after the simulation and 74.4mg/dl 12 hour after simulation. In the 500mg/kg treatment, the

  13. Low cost fuel cell diffusion layer configured for optimized anode water management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owejan, Jon P; Nicotera, Paul D; Mench, Matthew M; Evans, Robert E

    2013-08-27

    A fuel cell comprises a cathode gas diffusion layer, a cathode catalyst layer, an anode gas diffusion layer, an anode catalyst layer and an electrolyte. The diffusion resistance of the anode gas diffusion layer when operated with anode fuel is higher than the diffusion resistance of the cathode gas diffusion layer. The anode gas diffusion layer may comprise filler particles having in-plane platelet geometries and be made of lower cost materials and manufacturing processes than currently available commercial carbon fiber substrates. The diffusion resistance difference between the anode gas diffusion layer and the cathode gas diffusion layer may allow for passive water balance control.

  14. Geometry and physics of branes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gal' tsov, D V

    2003-03-21

    The book brings together the contents of lecture courses delivered at the school 'Geometry and Physics of Branes' which took place at the Center 'Alessandro Volta' (Como, Italy) in the spring of 2001. The purpose of the school was to provide an introduction to some lines of research, related to the notion of branes in superstring theory, which are in the focus of attention both in the physical and mathematical communities. The book is structured into three parts: the first contains an elementary introduction to branes, the second is devoted to physical aspects (conformal field theory on open and unoriented surfaces and topics in string tachyon dynamics), and the last contains some more formal mathematical developments. An introduction to branes is given in a remarkably lucid contribution by A Lerda. It opens with a construction of p-brane solutions in classical IIA and IIB supergravities with particular emphasis on the 'fundamental string' solution, the NS5-brane and the D3-brane. Then, the quantum description of D-branes is discussed in terms of boundary states of the closed superstring, which is an alternative to the more common description in terms of open strings with Dirichlet boundary conditions in the transverse to the brane directions. When a constant gauge field is present in the D-brane worldvolume, the boundary states are coherent states of the string oscillators depending on the field strength tensor. The couplings of the brane to the bulk fields - the graviton, the dilaton, and the Kalb-Ramond fields - are then extracted and shown to be precisely the ones that are produced by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action governing the low-energy dynamics of the D-brane derived using the open strings formalism. It is also shown that in the classical limit, the boundary states correctly reproduce the parameters of the corresponding classical solutions. The second part of the book starts with a contribution by Y S Stanev devoted to the two

  15. Quantification of Porcine Vocal Fold Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Kimberly A; Thomson, Scott L; Jetté, Marie E; Thibeault, Susan L

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify porcine vocal fold medial surface geometry and three-dimensional geometric distortion induced by freezing the larynx, especially in the region of the vocal folds. The medial surface geometries of five excised porcine larynges were quantified and reported. Five porcine larynges were imaged in a micro-CT scanner, frozen, and rescanned. Segmentations and three-dimensional reconstructions were used to quantify and characterize geometric features. Comparisons were made with geometry data previously obtained using canine and human vocal folds as well as geometries of selected synthetic vocal fold models. Freezing induced an overall expansion of approximately 5% in the transverse plane and comparable levels of nonuniform distortion in sagittal and coronal planes. The medial surface of the porcine vocal folds was found to compare reasonably well with other geometries, although the compared geometries exhibited a notable discrepancy with one set of published human female vocal fold geometry. Porcine vocal folds are qualitatively geometrically similar to data available for canine and human vocal folds, as well as commonly used models. Freezing of tissue in the larynx causes distortion of around 5%. The data can provide direction in estimating uncertainty due to bulk distortion of tissue caused by freezing, as well as quantitative geometric data that can be directly used in developing vocal fold models. Copyright © 2016 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Discrete quantum geometries and their effective dimension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuerigen, Johannes

    2015-01-01

    In several approaches towards a quantum theory of gravity, such as group field theory and loop quantum gravity, quantum states and histories of the geometric degrees of freedom turn out to be based on discrete spacetime. The most pressing issue is then how the smooth geometries of general relativity, expressed in terms of suitable geometric observables, arise from such discrete quantum geometries in some semiclassical and continuum limit. In this thesis I tackle the question of suitable observables focusing on the effective dimension of discrete quantum geometries. For this purpose I give a purely combinatorial description of the discrete structures which these geometries have support on. As a side topic, this allows to present an extension of group field theory to cover the combinatorially larger kinematical state space of loop quantum gravity. Moreover, I introduce a discrete calculus for fields on such fundamentally discrete geometries with a particular focus on the Laplacian. This permits to define the effective-dimension observables for quantum geometries. Analysing various classes of quantum geometries, I find as a general result that the spectral dimension is more sensitive to the underlying combinatorial structure than to the details of the additional geometric data thereon. Semiclassical states in loop quantum gravity approximate the classical geometries they are peaking on rather well and there are no indications for stronger quantum effects. On the other hand, in the context of a more general model of states which are superposition over a large number of complexes, based on analytic solutions, there is a flow of the spectral dimension from the topological dimension d on low energy scales to a real number between 0 and d on high energy scales. In the particular case of 1 these results allow to understand the quantum geometry as effectively fractal.

  17. Clinical use of a portable electronic device to measure haematocrit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mean plasma total protein and albumin concentrations were lower compared with normal reference ranges. Six of the 24 patients were acidotic and 4 alkalotic. Leucocyte counts obtained randomly from 13 patients were elevated. Changes in measurements which could influence conductivity did not affect the BEM reading.

  18. Maternal haematocrit and pregnancy outcome in Nigerian women ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The higher the packed cell volume in labour, the greater the birth weight, better the Apgar scores but the more the blood loss at delivery. The babies of the patients with a normal packed cell volume had better ... Cependant, ceci n'était pas statisquement important. Il n' y avait aucune mort maternelle. West African Journal of ...

  19. Clinical use ofa portable electronic device to measure haematocrit

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    '(BEM), was developed to assist cliriicians to distinguish patients with extreme blood loss from those with normal packed cell volumes. The BEM operates on the princi- ple that blood cells do not conduct a low-frequency alternating current while plasma conducts electricity. Early detection of changes in packed cell volume by.

  20. Effects of Crude Oil Contaminated Water On Haematocrit and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty-four guinea pigs (Caria porcellus) obtained from the Animal House of College of Health Sciences, University of Port-Harcourt, Nigeria, were weighed individually and divided into six groups of four per group. They were allowed access to rat feed and tap water ad libitum for two weeks acclimatization. Different ...

  1. A Gyrovector Space Approach to Hyperbolic Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ungar, Abraham

    2009-01-01

    The mere mention of hyperbolic geometry is enough to strike fear in the heart of the undergraduate mathematics and physics student. Some regard themselves as excluded from the profound insights of hyperbolic geometry so that this enormous portion of human achievement is a closed door to them. The mission of this book is to open that door by making the hyperbolic geometry of Bolyai and Lobachevsky, as well as the special relativity theory of Einstein that it regulates, accessible to a wider audience in terms of novel analogies that the modern and unknown share with the classical and familiar. T

  2. SABRINA, Geometry Plot Program for MCNP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SEIDL, Marcus

    2003-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: SABRINA is an interactive, three-dimensional, geometry-modeling code system, primarily for use with CCC-200/MCNP. SABRINA's capabilities include creation, visualization, and verification of three-dimensional geometries specified by either surface- or body-base combinatorial geometry; display of particle tracks are calculated by MCNP; and volume fraction generation. 2 - Method of solution: Rendering is performed by ray tracing or an edge and intersection algorithm. Volume fraction calculations are made by ray tracing. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: A graphics display with X Window capability is required

  3. Information geometry near randomness and near independence

    CERN Document Server

    Arwini, Khadiga A

    2008-01-01

    This volume will be useful to practising scientists and students working in the application of statistical models to real materials or to processes with perturbations of a Poisson process, a uniform process, or a state of independence for a bivariate process. We use information geometry to provide a common differential geometric framework for a wide range of illustrative applications including amino acid sequence spacings in protein chains, cryptology studies, clustering of communications and galaxies, cosmological voids, coupled spatial statistics in stochastic fibre networks and stochastic porous media, quantum chaology. Introduction sections are provided to mathematical statistics, differential geometry and the information geometry of spaces of probability density functions.

  4. Introduction into integral geometry and stereology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiderlen, Markus

    Statistics and Random Fields and is a self-containing introduction into integral geometry and its applications in stereology. The most important integral geometric tools for stereological applications are kinematic formulas and results of Blaschke-Petkantschin type. Therefore, Crofton's formula......This text is the extended version of two talks held at the Summer Academy Stochastic Geometry, Spatial Statistics and Random Fields in the Soellerhaus, Germany, in September 2009. It forms (with slight modifications) a chapter of the Springer lecture notes Lectures on Stochastic Geometry, Spatial...

  5. Differential geometry and topology of curves

    CERN Document Server

    Animov, Yu

    2001-01-01

    Differential geometry is an actively developing area of modern mathematics. This volume presents a classical approach to the general topics of the geometry of curves, including the theory of curves in n-dimensional Euclidean space. The author investigates problems for special classes of curves and gives the working method used to obtain the conditions for closed polygonal curves. The proof of the Bakel-Werner theorem in conditions of boundedness for curves with periodic curvature and torsion is also presented. This volume also highlights the contributions made by great geometers. past and present, to differential geometry and the topology of curves.

  6. Digital and discrete geometry theory and algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Li

    2014-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the modern methods for geometric problems in the computing sciences. It also covers concurrent topics in data sciences including geometric processing, manifold learning, Google search, cloud data, and R-tree for wireless networks and BigData.The author investigates digital geometry and its related constructive methods in discrete geometry, offering detailed methods and algorithms. The book is divided into five sections: basic geometry; digital curves, surfaces and manifolds; discretely represented objects; geometric computation and processing; and a

  7. Fractal geometry mathematical foundations and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Falconer, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    The seminal text on fractal geometry for students and researchers: extensively revised and updated with new material, notes and references that reflect recent directions. Interest in fractal geometry continues to grow rapidly, both as a subject that is fascinating in its own right and as a concept that is central to many areas of mathematics, science and scientific research. Since its initial publication in 1990 Fractal Geometry: Mathematical Foundations and Applications has become a seminal text on the mathematics of fractals.  The book introduces and develops the general theory and applica

  8. Fault geometry and earthquake mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. J. Andrews

    1994-06-01

    Full Text Available Earthquake mechanics may be determined by the geometry of a fault system. Slip on a fractal branching fault surface can explain: 1 regeneration of stress irregularities in an earthquake; 2 the concentration of stress drop in an earthquake into asperities; 3 starting and stopping of earthquake slip at fault junctions, and 4 self-similar scaling of earthquakes. Slip at fault junctions provides a natural realization of barrier and asperity models without appealing to variations of fault strength. Fault systems are observed to have a branching fractal structure, and slip may occur at many fault junctions in an earthquake. Consider the mechanics of slip at one fault junction. In order to avoid a stress singularity of order 1/r, an intersection of faults must be a triple junction and the Burgers vectors on the three fault segments at the junction must sum to zero. In other words, to lowest order the deformation consists of rigid block displacement, which ensures that the local stress due to the dislocations is zero. The elastic dislocation solution, however, ignores the fact that the configuration of the blocks changes at the scale of the displacement. A volume change occurs at the junction; either a void opens or intense local deformation is required to avoid material overlap. The volume change is proportional to the product of the slip increment and the total slip since the formation of the junction. Energy absorbed at the junction, equal to confining pressure times the volume change, is not large enongh to prevent slip at a new junction. The ratio of energy absorbed at a new junction to elastic energy released in an earthquake is no larger than P/µ where P is confining pressure and µ is the shear modulus. At a depth of 10 km this dimensionless ratio has th value P/µ= 0.01. As slip accumulates at a fault junction in a number of earthquakes, the fault segments are displaced such that they no longer meet at a single point. For this reason the

  9. Geometry characteristics modeling and process optimization in coaxial laser inside wire cladding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianjun; Zhu, Ping; Fu, Geyan; Shi, Shihong

    2018-05-01

    Coaxial laser inside wire cladding method is very promising as it has a very high efficiency and a consistent interaction between the laser and wire. In this paper, the energy and mass conservation law, and the regression algorithm are used together for establishing the mathematical models to study the relationship between the layer geometry characteristics (width, height and cross section area) and process parameters (laser power, scanning velocity and wire feeding speed). At the selected parameter ranges, the predicted values from the models are compared with the experimental measured results, and there is minor error existing, but they reflect the same regularity. From the models, it is seen the width of the cladding layer is proportional to both the laser power and wire feeding speed, while it firstly increases and then decreases with the increasing of the scanning velocity. The height of the cladding layer is proportional to the scanning velocity and feeding speed and inversely proportional to the laser power. The cross section area increases with the increasing of feeding speed and decreasing of scanning velocity. By using the mathematical models, the geometry characteristics of the cladding layer can be predicted by the known process parameters. Conversely, the process parameters can be calculated by the targeted geometry characteristics. The models are also suitable for multi-layer forming process. By using the optimized process parameters calculated from the models, a 45 mm-high thin-wall part is formed with smooth side surfaces.

  10. Polynomials in finite geometries and combinatorics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blokhuis, A.; Walker, K.

    1993-01-01

    It is illustrated how elementary properties of polynomials can be used to attack extremal problems in finite and euclidean geometry, and in combinatorics. Also a new result, related to the problem of neighbourly cylinders is presented.

  11. Algebra, Geometry and Mathematical Physics Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Paal, Eugen; Silvestrov, Sergei; Stolin, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    This book collects the proceedings of the Algebra, Geometry and Mathematical Physics Conference, held at the University of Haute Alsace, France, October 2011. Organized in the four areas of algebra, geometry, dynamical symmetries and conservation laws and mathematical physics and applications, the book covers deformation theory and quantization; Hom-algebras and n-ary algebraic structures; Hopf algebra, integrable systems and related math structures; jet theory and Weil bundles; Lie theory and applications; non-commutative and Lie algebra and more. The papers explore the interplay between research in contemporary mathematics and physics concerned with generalizations of the main structures of Lie theory aimed at quantization, and discrete and non-commutative extensions of differential calculus and geometry, non-associative structures, actions of groups and semi-groups, non-commutative dynamics, non-commutative geometry and applications in physics and beyond. The book benefits a broad audience of researchers a...

  12. Attitudes of High School Students towards Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esat Avcı

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, attitudes of high school students towards geometry were investigated in terms of gender, grade, types of the field and school. Population of research includes students who were studying at high school in five distincs of Mersin in 2013-2014 academical year. Sample of research includes 935 students from twelve high schools. Attitude scale which was developed by Su-Özenir (2008 was used for data collection. For data analysis, mean, standart deviation, t test and ANOVA were used. A meaningful difference between students’ attitudes towards geometry and variance of gender and grade level wasn’t observed, on the other hand a meaningful difference according to field and school type is observed.Key Words:    Attitudes towards geometry, high school geometry lesson, attitude scale

  13. Geometry, structure and randomness in combinatorics

    CERN Document Server

    Nešetřil, Jaroslav; Pellegrini, Marco

    2014-01-01

    This book collects some surveys on current trends in discrete mathematics and discrete geometry. The areas covered include:  graph representations, structural graphs theory, extremal graph theory, Ramsey theory and constrained satisfaction problems.

  14. The elements of non-Euclidean geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Sommerville, D MY

    2012-01-01

    Renowned for its lucid yet meticulous exposition, this classic allows students to follow the development of non-Euclidean geometry from a fundamental analysis of the concept of parallelism to more advanced topics. 1914 edition. Includes 133 figures.

  15. The local index formula in noncommutative geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Higson, N.

    2003-01-01

    These notes present a partial account of the local index theorem in non-commutative geometry discovered by Alain Connes and Henri Moscovici. It includes Elliptic partial differential operators, cyclic homology theory, Chern characters, homotopy invariants and the index formulas

  16. Quantum geometry of bosonic strings - revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.; Botelho, Raimundo C.L.; Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ

    1999-07-01

    We review the original paper by A.M. Polyakov (Quantum Geometry of Bosonic Strings) with corrections and improvements the concepts exposed there and following as closely as possible to the original A.M. Polyakov's paper. (author)

  17. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferraro, Rafael [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2015-02-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  18. 10th China-Japan Geometry Conference

    CERN Document Server

    Miyaoka, Reiko; Tang, Zizhou; Zhang, Weiping

    2016-01-01

    Since the year 2000, we have witnessed several outstanding results in geometry that have solved long-standing problems such as the Poincaré conjecture, the Yau–Tian–Donaldson conjecture, and the Willmore conjecture. There are still many important and challenging unsolved problems including, among others, the Strominger–Yau–Zaslow conjecture on mirror symmetry, the relative Yau–Tian–Donaldson conjecture in Kähler geometry, the Hopf conjecture, and the Yau conjecture on the first eigenvalue of an embedded minimal hypersurface of the sphere. For the younger generation to approach such problems and obtain the required techniques, it is of the utmost importance to provide them with up-to-date information from leading specialists. The geometry conference for the friendship of China and Japan has achieved this purpose during the past 10 years. Their talks deal with problems at the highest level, often accompanied with solutions and ideas, which extend across various fields in Riemannian geometry, sympl...

  19. An experimental study of passive regenerator geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelbrecht, Kurt; Nielsen, Kaspar Kirstein; Pryds, Nini

    2011-01-01

    Active magnetic regenerative (AMR) systems are being investigated because they represent a potentially attractive alternative to vapor compression technology. The performance of these systems is dependent on the heat transfer and pressure drop performance of the regenerator geometry. Therefore th...

  20. The geometry of René Descartes

    CERN Document Server

    Descartes, René

    1954-01-01

    The great work that founded analytical geometry. Includes the original French text, Descartes' own diagrams, and the definitive Smith-Latham translation. "The greatest single step ever made in the progress of the exact sciences." - John Stuart Mill.

  1. VIII International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Flores, José; Palomo, Francisco; GeLoMa 2016; Lorentzian geometry and related topics

    2017-01-01

    This volume contains a collection of research papers and useful surveys by experts in the field which provide a representative picture of the current status of this fascinating area. Based on contributions from the VIII International Meeting on Lorentzian Geometry, held at the University of Málaga, Spain, this volume covers topics such as distinguished (maximal, trapped, null, spacelike, constant mean curvature, umbilical...) submanifolds, causal completion of spacetimes, stationary regions and horizons in spacetimes, solitons in semi-Riemannian manifolds, relation between Lorentzian and Finslerian geometries and the oscillator spacetime. In the last decades Lorentzian geometry has experienced a significant impulse, which has transformed it from just a mathematical tool for general relativity to a consolidated branch of differential geometry, interesting in and of itself. Nowadays, this field provides a framework where many different mathematical techniques arise with applications to multiple parts of mathem...

  2. Homological mirror symmetry and tropical geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Catanese, Fabrizio; Kontsevich, Maxim; Pantev, Tony; Soibelman, Yan; Zharkov, Ilia

    2014-01-01

    The relationship between Tropical Geometry and Mirror Symmetry goes back to the work of Kontsevich and Y. Soibelman (2000), who applied methods of non-archimedean geometry (in particular, tropical curves) to Homological Mirror Symmetry. In combination with the subsequent work of Mikhalkin on the “tropical” approach to Gromov-Witten theory, and the work of Gross and Siebert, Tropical Geometry has now become a powerful tool. Homological Mirror Symmetry is the area of mathematics concentrated around several categorical equivalences connecting symplectic and holomorphic (or algebraic) geometry. The central ideas first appeared in the work of Maxim Kontsevich (1993). Roughly speaking, the subject can be approached in two ways: either one uses Lagrangian torus fibrations of Calabi-Yau manifolds (the so-called Strominger-Yau-Zaslow picture, further developed by Kontsevich and Soibelman) or one uses Lefschetz fibrations of symplectic manifolds (suggested by Kontsevich and further developed by Seidel). Tropical Ge...

  3. Kerr geometry in f(T) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bejarano, Cecilia; Guzman, Maria Jose; Ferraro, Rafael

    2015-01-01

    Null tetrads are shown to be a valuable tool in teleparallel theories of modified gravity. We use them to prove that Kerr geometry remains a solution for a wide family of f(T) theories of gravity. (orig.)

  4. Geometry modeling for SAM-CE Monte Carlo calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steinberg, H.A.; Troubetzkoy, E.S.

    1980-01-01

    Three geometry packages have been developed and incorporated into SAM-CE, for representing in three dimensions the transport medium. These are combinatorial geometry - a general (non-lattice) system, complex combinatorial geometry - a very general system with lattice capability, and special reactor geometry - a special purpose system for light water reactor geometries. Their different attributes are described

  5. Geometry and quantization of moduli spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Andersen, Jørgen; Riera, Ignasi

    2016-01-01

    This volume is based on four advanced courses held at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica (CRM), Barcelona. It presents both background information and recent developments on selected topics that are experiencing extraordinary growth within the broad research area of geometry and quantization of moduli spaces. The lectures focus on the geometry of moduli spaces which are mostly associated to compact Riemann surfaces, and are presented from both classical and quantum perspectives.

  6. ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS, AND GEOMETRY

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gonzalo Reyes Garcia

    2004-01-01

    ON DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRABLE SYSTEMS, AND GEOMETRY Equations in partial derivatives appeared in the 18th century as essential tools for the analytic study of physical models and, later, they proved to be fundamental for the progress of mathematics. For example, fundamental results of modern differential geometry are based on deep theorems on differential equations. Reciprocally, it is possible to study differential equations through geometrical means just like it was done by o...

  7. Geometry and topology of wild translation surfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Randecker, Anja

    2016-01-01

    A translation surface is a two-dimensional manifold, equipped with a translation structure. It can be obtained by considering Euclidean polygons and identifying their edges via translations. The vertices of the polygons form singularities if the translation structure can not be extended to them. We study translation surfaces with wild singularities, regarding the topology (genus and space of ends), the geometry (behavior of the singularities), and how the topology and the geometry are related.

  8. Geometry of quantum computation with qutrits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Yu, Zu-Huan; Fei, Shao-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Determining the quantum circuit complexity of a unitary operation is an important problem in quantum computation. By using the mathematical techniques of Riemannian geometry, we investigate the efficient quantum circuits in quantum computation with n qutrits. We show that the optimal quantum circuits are essentially equivalent to the shortest path between two points in a certain curved geometry of SU(3(n)). As an example, three-qutrit systems are investigated in detail.

  9. Perspectives in Analysis, Geometry, and Topology

    CERN Document Server

    Itenberg, I V; Passare, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    The articles in this volume are invited papers from the Marcus Wallenberg symposium and focus on research topics that bridge the gap between analysis, geometry, and topology. The encounters between these three fields are widespread and often provide impetus for major breakthroughs in applications. Topics include new developments in low dimensional topology related to invariants of links and three and four manifolds; Perelman's spectacular proof of the Poincare conjecture; and the recent advances made in algebraic, complex, symplectic, and tropical geometry.

  10. Optimizing multi-pinhole SPECT geometries using an analytical model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rentmeester, M C M; Have, F van der; Beekman, F J

    2007-01-01

    State-of-the-art multi-pinhole SPECT devices allow for sub-mm resolution imaging of radio-molecule distributions in small laboratory animals. The optimization of multi-pinhole and detector geometries using simulations based on ray-tracing or Monte Carlo algorithms is time-consuming, particularly because many system parameters need to be varied. As an efficient alternative we develop a continuous analytical model of a pinhole SPECT system with a stationary detector set-up, which we apply to focused imaging of a mouse. The model assumes that the multi-pinhole collimator and the detector both have the shape of a spherical layer, and uses analytical expressions for effective pinhole diameters, sensitivity and spatial resolution. For fixed fields-of-view, a pinhole-diameter adapting feedback loop allows for the comparison of the system resolution of different systems at equal system sensitivity, and vice versa. The model predicts that (i) for optimal resolution or sensitivity the collimator layer with pinholes should be placed as closely as possible around the animal given a fixed detector layer, (ii) with high-resolution detectors a resolution improvement up to 31% can be achieved compared to optimized systems, (iii) high-resolution detectors can be placed close to the collimator without significant resolution losses, (iv) interestingly, systems with a physical pinhole diameter of 0 mm can have an excellent resolution when high-resolution detectors are used

  11. Physics- and engineering knowledge-based geometry repair system for robust parametric CAD geometries

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Dong

    2012-01-01

    In modern multi-objective design optimisation, an effective geometry engine is becoming an essential tool and its performance has a significant impact on the entire process. Building a parametric geometry requires difficult compromises between the conflicting goals of robustness and flexibility. The work presents a solution for improving the robustness of parametric geometry models by capturing and modelling relative engineering knowledge into a surrogate model, and deploying it automatically...

  12. Geometry The Language of Space and Form (Revised Edition)

    CERN Document Server

    Tabak, John

    2011-01-01

    Geometry, Revised Edition describes geometry in antiquity. Beginning with a brief description of some of the geometry that preceded the geometry of the Greeks, it takes up the story of geometry during the European Renaissance as well as the significant mathematical progress in other areas of the world. It also discusses the analytic geometry of Ren Descartes and Pierre Fermat, the alternative coordinate systems invented by Isaac Newton, and the solid geometry of Leonhard Euler. Also included is an overview of the geometry of one of the most successful mathematicians of the 19th century, Bernha

  13. The Persistification of the ATLAS Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(INSPIRE)INSPIRE-00068562; The ATLAS collaboration; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria

    2016-01-01

    The complex geometry of the whole detector of the ATLAS experiment at LHC is currently stored only in custom online databases, from which it is built on-the- y on request. Accessing the online geometry guarantees accessing the latest version of the detector description, but requires the setup of the full ATLAS so ware framework “Athena”, which provides the online services and the tools to retrieve the data from the database. is operation is cumbersome and slows down the applications that need to access the geometry. Moreover, all applications that need to access the detector geom- etry need to be built and run on the same platform as the ATLAS framework, preventing the usage of the actual detector geometry in stand-alone applications. Here we propose a new mechanism to persistify and serve the geometry of HEP experiments. e new mechanism is composed by a new le format and a REST API. e new le format allows to store the whole detector description locally in a at le, and it is especially optimized to descri...

  14. Numerical simulations of the IPPE target geometry flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prakash, Akshay; Kakarantzas, Sotiris; Bernardi, Davide; Micciche, Gioacchino; Massaut, Vincent; Knaepen, Bernard

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► We performed numerical simulation of flow over IPPE geometry using turbulence models in FLUENT. ► Stable free surface profile well within the required design limits was predicted by the models. ► Velocity profiles across the liquid jet and jet thickness different for different models. ► There were some 3D effects noticeable for the velocity profiles but the predicted jet thickness similar to 2D models. ► TKE predicted by different models close to each other and compare will with published data. -- Abstract: A high speed water and liquid lithium (Li) flow is computed over the IPPE geometry to evaluate the performance of different turbulence models in 2D and 3D simulations. Results reported are the thickness of the liquid jet, irregularities in the surface, transient phenomena at the wall which can affect fluid surface and effect of the variation in bulk velocity on these quantities. All models show good near wall resolution of the boundary layer and expected profiles for the free surface flow. Predicted turbulent kinetic energy compare well with published data. Fluctuations of the flow surface at the control location (center of the curved section) and elsewhere are well within 1 mm for all models. However it was observed that the predictions are strongly dependent on the model used. Overall, the predictions of RANS models are close to each other whereas predictions of laminar simulations are close to those obtained with LES models

  15. ORMGEN3D, 3-D Crack Geometry FEM Mesh Generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, B.R.; Bryson, J.W.

    1994-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: ORMGEN3D is a finite element mesh generator for computational fracture mechanics analysis. The program automatically generates a three-dimensional finite element model for six different crack geometries. These geometries include flat plates with straight or curved surface cracks and cylinders with part-through cracks on the outer or inner surface. Mathematical or user-defined crack shapes may be considered. The curved cracks may be semicircular, semi-elliptical, or user-defined. A cladding option is available that allows for either an embedded or penetrating crack in the clad material. 2 - Method of solution: In general, one eighth or one-quarter of the structure is modelled depending on the configuration or option selected. The program generates a core of special wedge or collapsed prism elements at the crack front to introduce the appropriate stress singularity at the crack tip. The remainder of the structure is modelled with conventional 20-node iso-parametric brick elements. Element group I of the finite element model consists of an inner core of special crack tip elements surrounding the crack front enclosed by a single layer of conventional brick elements. Eight element divisions are used in a plane orthogonal to the crack front, while the number of element divisions along the arc length of the crack front is user-specified. The remaining conventional brick elements of the model constitute element group II. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of 5,500 nodes, 4 layers of clad elements

  16. Supersymmetric geometries of IIA supergravity III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gran, Ulf; Papadopoulos, George; Schultz, Christian von

    2016-01-01

    We find that (massive) IIA backgrounds that admit a G 2 ⋉ℝ 8 invariant Killing spinor must exhibit a null Killing vector field which leaves the Killing spinor invariant and that the rotation of the Killing vector field satisfies a certain g 2 instanton condition. This result together with those in http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP05(2014)024 and http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2015)113 complete the classification of geometries of all (massive) IIA backgrounds that preserve one supersymmetry. We also explore the geometry of a class of backgrounds which admit a G 2 ⋉ℝ 8 invariant Killing spinor and where in addition an appropriate 1-form bilinear vanishes. In all cases, we express the fluxes of the theory in terms of the geometry.

  17. Geometry of curves and surfaces with Maple

    CERN Document Server

    Rovenski, Vladimir

    2000-01-01

    This concise text on geometry with computer modeling presents some elementary methods for analytical modeling and visualization of curves and surfaces. The author systematically examines such powerful tools as 2-D and 3-D animation of geometric images, transformations, shadows, and colors, and then further studies more complex problems in differential geometry. Well-illustrated with more than 350 figures---reproducible using Maple programs in the book---the work is devoted to three main areas: curves, surfaces, and polyhedra. Pedagogical benefits can be found in the large number of Maple programs, some of which are analogous to C++ programs, including those for splines and fractals. To avoid tedious typing, readers will be able to download many of the programs from the Birkhauser web site. Aimed at a broad audience of students, instructors of mathematics, computer scientists, and engineers who have knowledge of analytical geometry, i.e., method of coordinates, this text will be an excellent classroom resource...

  18. Quasi-crystalline geometry for architectural structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weizierl, Barbara; Wester, Ture

    2001-01-01

    Artikel på CD-Rom 8 sider. The quasi-crystal (QC) type of material was discovered in 1983 by Dan Schechtman from Technion, Haifa. This new crystalline structure of material broke totally with the traditional conception of crystals and geometry introducing non-periodic close packing of cells...... with fivefold symmetry in 3D space. The quasi-crystal geometry can be constructed from two different cubic cells with identical rhombic facets, where the relation between the diagonals is the golden section. All cells have identical rhombic faces, identical edges and identical icosahedral/dedecahedral nodes....... The purpose of the paper is to investigate some possibilities for the application of Quasi-Crystal geometry for structures in architecture. The basis for the investigations is A: to use the Golden Cubes (the two different hexahedra consisting of rhombic facets where the length of the diagonals has the Golden...

  19. Geometry and dynamics of integrable systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matveev, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Based on lectures given at an advanced course on integrable systems at the Centre de Recerca Matemàtica in Barcelona, these lecture notes address three major aspects of integrable systems: obstructions to integrability from differential Galois theory; the description of singularities of integrable systems on the basis of their relation to bi-Hamiltonian systems; and the generalization of integrable systems to the non-Hamiltonian settings. All three sections were written by top experts in their respective fields. Native to actual problem-solving challenges in mechanics, the topic of integrable systems is currently at the crossroads of several disciplines in pure and applied mathematics, and also has important interactions with physics. The study of integrable systems also actively employs methods from differential geometry. Moreover, it is extremely important in symplectic geometry and Hamiltonian dynamics, and has strong correlations with mathematical physics, Lie theory and algebraic geometry (including mir...

  20. Conference on Strings, Duality, and Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Phong, Duong; Yau, Shing-Tung; Mirror Symmetry IV

    2002-01-01

    This book presents contributions of participants of a workshop held at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques (CRM), University of Montréal. It can be viewed as a sequel to Mirror Symmetry I (1998), Mirror Symmetry II (1996), and Mirror Symmetry III (1999), copublished by the AMS and International Press. The volume presents a broad survey of many of the noteworthy developments that have taken place in string theory, geometry, and duality since the mid 1990s. Some of the topics emphasized include the following: Integrable models and supersymmetric gauge theories; theory of M- and D-branes and noncommutative geometry; duality between strings and gauge theories; and elliptic genera and automorphic forms. Several introductory articles present an overview of the geometric and physical aspects of mirror symmetry and of corresponding developments in symplectic geometry. The book provides an efficient way for a very broad audience of mathematicians and physicists to explore the frontiers of research into this rapi...

  1. International conference on Algebraic and Complex Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Kloosterman, Remke; Schütt, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    Several important aspects of moduli spaces and irreducible holomorphic symplectic manifolds were highlighted at the conference “Algebraic and Complex Geometry” held September 2012 in Hannover, Germany. These two subjects of recent ongoing progress belong to the most spectacular developments in Algebraic and Complex Geometry. Irreducible symplectic manifolds are of interest to algebraic and differential geometers alike, behaving similar to K3 surfaces and abelian varieties in certain ways, but being by far less well-understood. Moduli spaces, on the other hand, have been a rich source of open questions and discoveries for decades and still continue to be a hot topic in itself as well as with its interplay with neighbouring fields such as arithmetic geometry and string theory. Beyond the above focal topics this volume reflects the broad diversity of lectures at the conference and comprises 11 papers on current research from different areas of algebraic and complex geometry sorted in alphabetic order by the ...

  2. Guided discovery learning in geometry learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanah, V. N.; Usodo, B.; Subanti, S.

    2018-03-01

    Geometry is a part of the mathematics that must be learned in school. The purpose of this research was to determine the effect of Guided Discovery Learning (GDL) toward geometry learning achievement. This research had conducted at junior high school in Sukoharjo on academic years 2016/2017. Data collection was done based on student’s work test and documentation. Hypothesis testing used two ways analysis of variance (ANOVA) with unequal cells. The results of this research that GDL gave positive effect towards mathematics learning achievement. GDL gave better mathematics learning achievement than direct learning. There was no difference of mathematics learning achievement between male and female. There was no an interaction between sex differences and learning models toward student’s mathematics learning achievement. GDL can be used to improve students’ mathematics learning achievement in geometry.

  3. Application of Tessellation in Architectural Geometry Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wei

    2018-06-01

    Tessellation plays a significant role in architectural geometry design, which is widely used both through history of architecture and in modern architectural design with the help of computer technology. Tessellation has been found since the birth of civilization. In terms of dimensions, there are two- dimensional tessellations and three-dimensional tessellations; in terms of symmetry, there are periodic tessellations and aperiodic tessellations. Besides, some special types of tessellations such as Voronoi Tessellation and Delaunay Triangles are also included. Both Geometry and Crystallography, the latter of which is the basic theory of three-dimensional tessellations, need to be studied. In history, tessellation was applied into skins or decorations in architecture. The development of Computer technology enables tessellation to be more powerful, as seen in surface control, surface display and structure design, etc. Therefore, research on the application of tessellation in architectural geometry design is of great necessity in architecture studies.

  4. Physical properties corresponding to vortical flow geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakayama, K, E-mail: nakayama@aitech.ac.jp [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Aichi Institute of Technology, Toyota, Aichi 470-0392 (Japan)

    2014-10-01

    We examine a vortical flow geometry specified by the velocity gradient tensor ∇v, and derive properties representing the symmetry (axisymmetry or skewness) of the vortical flow in the swirl plane and a property specifying inflowing (outflowing) motion in all directions around the point. We focus on the radial and azimuthal velocities in a plane nonparallel to the eigenvector corresponding to the real eigenvalue of ∇v and show that these components are expressed as specific quadratic forms. The real and imaginary parts of the complex eigenvalues of ∇v represent averages of these eigenvalues of the quadratic forms, and are inadequate to specify the detailed flow geometry uniquely. The new properties complement specifying the precise flow geometry of the vortical flow.

  5. Pearson's Functions to Describe FSW Weld Geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacombe, D.; Coupard, D.; Tcherniaeff, S.; Girot, F.; Gutierrez-Orrantia, M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Friction stir welding (FSW) is a relatively new joining technique particularly for aluminium alloys that are difficult to fusion weld. In this study, the geometry of the weld has been investigated and modelled using Pearson's functions. It has been demonstrated that the Pearson's parameters (mean, standard deviation, skewness, kurtosis and geometric constant) can be used to characterize the weld geometry and the tensile strength of the weld assembly. Pearson's parameters and process parameters are strongly correlated allowing to define a control process procedure for FSW assemblies which make radiographic or ultrasonic controls unnecessary. Finally, an optimisation using a Generalized Gradient Method allows to determine the geometry of the weld which maximises the assembly tensile strength.

  6. Geometric Monte Carlo and black Janus geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bak, Dongsu, E-mail: dsbak@uos.ac.kr [Physics Department, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); B.W. Lee Center for Fields, Gravity & Strings, Institute for Basic Sciences, Daejeon 34047 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chanju, E-mail: cjkim@ewha.ac.kr [Department of Physics, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kyung Kiu, E-mail: kimkyungkiu@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Sejong University, Seoul 05006 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Physics, College of Science, Yonsei University, Seoul 03722 (Korea, Republic of); Min, Hyunsoo, E-mail: hsmin@uos.ac.kr [Physics Department, University of Seoul, Seoul 02504 (Korea, Republic of); Song, Jeong-Pil, E-mail: jeong_pil_song@brown.edu [Department of Chemistry, Brown University, Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    We describe an application of the Monte Carlo method to the Janus deformation of the black brane background. We present numerical results for three and five dimensional black Janus geometries with planar and spherical interfaces. In particular, we argue that the 5D geometry with a spherical interface has an application in understanding the finite temperature bag-like QCD model via the AdS/CFT correspondence. The accuracy and convergence of the algorithm are evaluated with respect to the grid spacing. The systematic errors of the method are determined using an exact solution of 3D black Janus. This numerical approach for solving linear problems is unaffected initial guess of a trial solution and can handle an arbitrary geometry under various boundary conditions in the presence of source fields.

  7. Index theory for locally compact noncommutative geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Carey, A L; Rennie, A; Sukochev, F A

    2014-01-01

    Spectral triples for nonunital algebras model locally compact spaces in noncommutative geometry. In the present text, the authors prove the local index formula for spectral triples over nonunital algebras, without the assumption of local units in our algebra. This formula has been successfully used to calculate index pairings in numerous noncommutative examples. The absence of any other effective method of investigating index problems in geometries that are genuinely noncommutative, particularly in the nonunital situation, was a primary motivation for this study and the authors illustrate this point with two examples in the text. In order to understand what is new in their approach in the commutative setting the authors prove an analogue of the Gromov-Lawson relative index formula (for Dirac type operators) for even dimensional manifolds with bounded geometry, without invoking compact supports. For odd dimensional manifolds their index formula appears to be completely new.

  8. From groups to geometry and back

    CERN Document Server

    Climenhaga, Vaughn

    2017-01-01

    Groups arise naturally as symmetries of geometric objects, and so groups can be used to understand geometry and topology. Conversely, one can study abstract groups by using geometric techniques and ultimately by treating groups themselves as geometric objects. This book explores these connections between group theory and geometry, introducing some of the main ideas of transformation groups, algebraic topology, and geometric group theory. The first half of the book introduces basic notions of group theory and studies symmetry groups in various geometries, including Euclidean, projective, and hyperbolic. The classification of Euclidean isometries leads to results on regular polyhedra and polytopes; the study of symmetry groups using matrices leads to Lie groups and Lie algebras. The second half of the book explores ideas from algebraic topology and geometric group theory. The fundamental group appears as yet another group associated to a geometric object and turns out to be a symmetry group using covering space...

  9. Tests of compressed geometry NEC acceleration tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raatz, J.E.; Rathmell, R.D.; Stelson, P.H.; Ziegler, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Tests have been performed in the 3 MV Pelletron test machine at NEC on a compressed geometry tube which increases the insulating length of the tube by eliminating the heated electrode assemblies (approx.2.5 cm thick) at the end of each tube section. Some insert electrodes are changed to provide some trapping of secondary ions. The geometry tested provided an 18% increase in live ceramic in the tube. The compressed geometry tube allowed a terminal voltage of 3.55 MV on the 3 MV column at normal gradients of 30.3 kv/tube gap. The tube was also conditioned to more than 4 MV and remained stable in voltage with few sparks and with low x-ray levels for days at about 4 MV. This same performance could be achieved with or without arc discharge cleaning. 4 refs., 4 figs

  10. Using Dynamic Geometry Software to Improve Eight Grade Students' Understanding of Transformation Geometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Bulent

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the effect of dynamic geometry software (DGS) on students' learning of transformation geometry. A pre- and post-test quasi-experimental design was used. Participants in the study were 68 eighth grade students (36 in the experimental group and 32 in the control group). While the experimental group students were studying the…

  11. Layering and Ordering in Electrochemical Double Layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yihua [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Kawaguchi, Tomoya [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States; Pierce, Michael S. [Rochester Institute of Technology, School of Physics and Astronomy, Rochester, New York 14623, United States; Komanicky, Vladimir [Faculty of Science, Safarik University, 041 54 Kosice, Slovakia; You, Hoydoo [Materials Science Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439, United States

    2018-02-26

    Electrochemical double layers (EDL) form at electrified interfaces. While Gouy-Chapman model describes moderately charged EDL, formation of Stern layers was predicted for highly charged EDL. Our results provide structural evidence for a Stern layer of cations, at potentials close to hydrogen evolution in alkali fluoride and chloride electrolytes. Layering was observed by x-ray crystal truncation rods and atomic-scale recoil responses of Pt(111) surface layers. Ordering in the layer is confirmed by glancing-incidence in-plane diffraction measurements.

  12. Exploring Concepts of Geometry not Euclidean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Ambrozi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available With this article we intend to propose different situations of teaching and learning, how they can be applied in schools, mediated by the use of concrete materials and Geogebra software, emphasizing the use of technology in the classroom, that this proposal has the role of assisting in the conceptualization and identification of elements of non-Euclidean geometry. In addition, this short course is designed to be a time of current and continuing education for teachers, with activities to be developed with dynamic geometry and based on the theory of Conceptual Fields of Vergnaud.

  13. Geometry-Dependent Electrostatics near Contact Lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Tom

    2001-01-01

    Long-ranged electrostatic interactions in electrolytes modify contact angles on charged substrates in a scale and geometry-dependent manner. For angles measured at scales smaller than the typical Debye screening length, the wetting geometry near the contact line must be explicitly considered. Using variational and asymptotic methods, we derive new transcendental equations for the contact angle as functions of the electrostatic potential only at the three phase contact line. Analytic expressions are found in certain limits and compared with predictions for contact angles measured with lower resolution. An estimate for electrostatic contributions to line tension is also given

  14. Noncommutative Geometry, Quantum Fields and Motives

    CERN Document Server

    Connes, Alain

    2007-01-01

    The unifying theme of this book is the interplay among noncommutative geometry, physics, and number theory. The two main objects of investigation are spaces where both the noncommutative and the motivic aspects come to play a role: space-time, where the guiding principle is the problem of developing a quantum theory of gravity, and the space of primes, where one can regard the Riemann Hypothesis as a long-standing problem motivating the development of new geometric tools. The book stresses the relevance of noncommutative geometry in dealing with these two spaces. The first part of the book dea

  15. Density and geometry of single component plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speck, A.; Gabrielse, G.; Larochelle, P.; Le Sage, D.; Levitt, B.; Kolthammer, W.S.; McConnell, R.; Wrubel, J.; Grzonka, D.; Oelert, W.; Sefzick, T.; Zhang, Z.; Comeau, D.; George, M.C.; Hessels, E.A.; Storry, C.H.; Weel, M.; Walz, J.

    2007-01-01

    The density and geometry of p-bar and e + plasmas in realistic trapping potentials are required to understand and optimize antihydrogen (H-bar) formation. An aperture method and a quadrupole oscillation frequency method for characterizing such plasmas are compared for the first time, using electrons in a cylindrical Penning trap. Both methods are used in a way that makes it unnecessary to assume that the plasmas are spheroidal, and it is shown that they are not. Good agreement between the two methods illustrates the possibility to accurately determine plasma densities and geometries within non-idealized, realistic trapping potentials

  16. Riemannian geometry in an orthogonal frame

    CERN Document Server

    Cartan, Elie Joseph

    2001-01-01

    Foreword by S S Chern. In 1926-27, Cartan gave a series of lectures in which he introduced exterior forms at the very beginning and used extensively orthogonal frames throughout to investigate the geometry of Riemannian manifolds. In this course he solved a series of problems in Euclidean and non-Euclidean spaces, as well as a series of variational problems on geodesics. In 1960, Sergei P Finikov translated from French into Russian his notes of these Cartan's lectures and published them as a book entitled Riemannian Geometry in an Orthogonal Frame. This book has many innovations, such as the n

  17. Density and geometry of single component plasmas

    CERN Document Server

    Speck, A; Larochelle, P; Le Sage, D; Levitt, B; Kolthammer, W S; McConnell, R; Wrubel, J; Grzonka, D; Oelert, W; Sefzick, T; Zhang, Z; Comeau, D; George, M C; Hessels, E A; Storry, C H; Weel, M; Walz, J

    2007-01-01

    The density and geometry of p¯ and e+ plasmas in realistic trapping potentials are required to understand and optimize antihydrogen (H¯) formation. An aperture method and a quadrupole oscillation frequency method for characterizing such plasmas are compared for the first time, using electrons in a cylindrical Penning trap. Both methods are used in a way that makes it unnecessary to assume that the plasmas are spheroidal, and it is shown that they are not. Good agreement between the two methods illustrates the possibility to accurately determine plasma densities and geometries within non-idealized, realistic trapping potentials.

  18. Quasi-crystalline geometry for architectural structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wester, Ture; Weinzieri, Barbara

    The quasi-crystal (QC) type of material was discovered in 1983 by Dan Schechtman from Technion, Haifa. This new crystalline structure of material broke totally with the traditional conception of crystals and geometry introducing non-periodic close packing of cells with fivefold symmetry in 3D space....... The quasi-crystal geometry can be constructed from two different cubic cells with identical rhombic facets, where the relation between the diagonals is the golden section. All cells have identical rhombic faces, identical edges and identical icosahedral/dodecahedral nodes....

  19. Third sound in a restricted geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, P.W.; Draisma, W.A.; Pinkse, P.W.H.; Beelen, H. van; Jochemsen, R.; Frossati, G.

    1992-01-01

    Bergman's general treatment of third sound waves has been extended to a (restricted) parallel plate geometry. In a parallel plate geometry two independent third sound modes can propagate: a symmetric and an antisymmetric one. Calculations show that at temperatures below 1 K the antisymmetric mode carries the most important part of the temperature amplitude. Because of the relatively strong substrate influence the temperature amplitude of the symmetric mode is suppressed. The ΔT/Δh versus T measurements by Laheurte et al. and of the ΔT/Δh versus ω measurements by Ellis et al. are explained. 7 refs., 2 figs

  20. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Rubin de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio [Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, IFIBA-CONICET, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-10-15

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters. (orig.)

  1. Architectural Geometry and Fabrication-Aware Design

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-04-27

    Freeform shapes and structures with a high geometric complexity play an increasingly important role in contemporary architecture. While digital models are easily created, the actual fabrication and construction remains a challenge. This is the source of numerous research problems many of which fall into the area of Geometric Computing and form part of a recently emerging research area, called "Architectural Geometry". The present paper provides a short survey of research in Architectural Geometry and shows how this field moves towards a new direction in Geometric Modeling which aims at combining shape design with important aspects of function and fabrication. © 2013 Kim Williams Books, Turin.

  2. Thin shells joining local cosmic string geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Rubin de Celis, Emilio; Simeone, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present a theoretical construction of spacetimes with a thin shell that joins two different local cosmic string geometries. We study two types of global manifolds, one representing spacetimes with a thin shell surrounding a cosmic string or an empty region with Minkowski metric, and the other corresponding to wormholes which are not symmetric across the throat located at the shell. We analyze the stability of the static configurations under perturbations preserving the cylindrical symmetry. For both types of geometries we find that the static configurations can be stable for suitable values of the parameters. (orig.)

  3. Relating arithmetical techniques of proportion to geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wijayanti, Dyana

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate how textbooks introduce and treat the theme of proportion in geometry (similarity) and arithmetic (ratio and proportion), and how these themes are linked to each other in the books. To pursue this aim, we use the anthropological theory of the didactic....... Considering 6 common Indonesian textbooks in use, we describe how proportion is explained and appears in examples and exercises, using an explicit reference model of the mathematical organizations of both themes. We also identify how the proportion themes of the geometry and arithmetic domains are linked. Our...

  4. Strontium clusters: electronic and geometry shell effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyalin, Andrey G.; Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey V.

    2008-01-01

    charged strontium clusters consisting of up to 14 atoms, average bonding distances, electronic shell closures, binding energies per atom, and spectra of the density of electronic states (DOS). It is demonstrated that the size-evolution of structural and electronic properties of strontium clusters...... is governed by an interplay of the electronic and geometry shell closures. Influence of the electronic shell effects on structural rearrangements can lead to violation of the icosahedral growth motif of strontium clusters. It is shown that the excessive charge essentially affects the optimized geometry...

  5. Thermal geometry from CFT at finite temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Cong Gan

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We present how the thermal geometry emerges from CFT at finite temperature by using the truncated entanglement renormalization network, the cMERA. For the case of 2d CFT, the reduced geometry is the BTZ black hole or the thermal AdS as expectation. In order to determine which spacetimes prefer to form, we propose a cMERA description of the Hawking–Page phase transition. Our proposal is in agreement with the picture of the recent proposed surface/state correspondence.

  6. Thermal geometry from CFT at finite temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Wen-Cong, E-mail: ganwencong@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Shu, Fu-Wen, E-mail: shufuwen@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Wu, Meng-He, E-mail: menghewu.physik@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and High Energy Physics, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)

    2016-09-10

    We present how the thermal geometry emerges from CFT at finite temperature by using the truncated entanglement renormalization network, the cMERA. For the case of 2d CFT, the reduced geometry is the BTZ black hole or the thermal AdS as expectation. In order to determine which spacetimes prefer to form, we propose a cMERA description of the Hawking–Page phase transition. Our proposal is in agreement with the picture of the recent proposed surface/state correspondence.

  7. Freudenthal duality and generalized special geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, Sergio, E-mail: sergio.ferrara@cern.ch [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Marrani, Alessio, E-mail: Alessio.Marrani@cern.ch [Physics Department, Theory Unit, CERN, CH-1211, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Yeranyan, Armen, E-mail: ayeran@lnf.infn.it [INFN - Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Via Enrico Fermi 40, I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Department of Physics, Yerevan State University, Alex Manoogian St. 1, Yerevan, 0025 (Armenia)

    2011-07-27

    Freudenthal duality, introduced in Borsten et al. (2009) and defined as an anti-involution on the dyonic charge vector in d=4 space-time dimensions for those dualities admitting a quartic invariant, is proved to be a symmetry not only of the classical Bekenstein-Hawking entropy but also of the critical points of the black hole potential. Furthermore, Freudenthal duality is extended to any generalized special geometry, thus encompassing all N>2 supergravities, as well as N=2 generic special geometry, not necessarily having a coset space structure.

  8. Geometry of the local equivalence of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawicki, A; Kus, M, E-mail: assawi@cft.edu.pl, E-mail: marek.kus@cft.edu.pl [Center for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warszawa (Poland)

    2011-12-09

    We present a description of locally equivalent states in terms of symplectic geometry. Using the moment map between local orbits in the space of states and coadjoint orbits of the local unitary group, we reduce the problem of local unitary equivalence to an easy part consisting of identifying the proper coadjoint orbit and a harder problem of the geometry of fibers of the moment map. We give a detailed analysis of the properties of orbits of 'equally entangled states'. In particular, we show connections between certain symplectic properties of orbits such as their isotropy and coisotropy with effective criteria of local unitary equivalence. (paper)

  9. Noncommutative geometry and twisted conformal symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matlock, Peter

    2005-01-01

    The twist-deformed conformal algebra is constructed as a Hopf algebra with twisted coproduct. This allows for the definition of conformal symmetry in a noncommutative background geometry. The twisted coproduct is reviewed for the Poincare algebra and the construction is then extended to the full conformal algebra. The case of Moyal-type noncommutativity of the coordinates is considered. It is demonstrated that conformal invariance need not be viewed as incompatible with noncommutative geometry; the noncommutativity of the coordinates appears as a consequence of the twisting, as has been shown in the literature in the case of the twisted Poincare algebra

  10. The geometry of classical Regge calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, J.W.

    1987-01-01

    Standard notions of Riemannian geometry are applied to the case of piecewise-flat manifolds. Particular care is taken to explain how one may define some particular vectors and tensors in an invariant way at points of a conical singularity. The geometry surrounding the equations of motion and the energy-momentum of the piecewise-flat manifold is developed in detail. The resolution theorem is presented, which states that on certain resolution hypersurfaces there is a clear connection between the energy-momentum of the piecewise-flat manifold and the Regge equations of motion. (author)

  11. Recent topics in differential and analytic geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ochiai, T

    1990-01-01

    Advanced Studies in Pure Mathematics, Volume 18-I: Recent Topics in Differential and Analytic Geometry presents the developments in the field of analytical and differential geometry. This book provides some generalities about bounded symmetric domains.Organized into two parts encompassing 12 chapters, this volume begins with an overview of harmonic mappings and holomorphic foliations. This text then discusses the global structures of a compact Kähler manifold that is locally decomposable as an isometric product of Ricci-positive, Ricci-negative, and Ricci-flat parts. Other chapters con

  12. The VSEPR model of molecular geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Gillespie, Ronald J

    2012-01-01

    Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) theory is a simple technique for predicting the geometry of atomic centers in small molecules and molecular ions. This authoritative reference was written by Istvan Hartiggai and the developer of VSEPR theory, Ronald J. Gillespie. In addition to its value as a text for courses in molecular geometry and chemistry, it constitutes a classic reference for professionals.Starting with coverage of the broader aspects of VSEPR, this volume narrows its focus to a succinct survey of the methods of structural determination. Additional topics include the appli

  13. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance When Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  14. Effect of the Cutting Tool Geometry on the Tool Wear Resistance when Machining Inconel 625

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Zlámal

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the design of a suitable cutting geometry of a tool for the machining of the Inconel 625 nickel alloy. This alloy is among the hard-to-machine refractory alloys that cause very rapid wear on cutting tools. Therefore, SNMG and RCMT indexable cutting insert were used to machine the alloy. The selected insert geometry should prevent notch wear and extend tool life. The alloy was machined under predetermined cutting conditions. The angle of the main edge and thus the size and nature of the wear changed with the depth of the material layer being cut. The criterion for determining a more suitable cutting geometry was the tool’s durability and the roughness of the machined surface.

  15. Architectural Geometry and Fabrication-Aware Design

    KAUST Repository

    Pottmann, Helmut

    2013-01-01

    . This is the source of numerous research problems many of which fall into the area of Geometric Computing and form part of a recently emerging research area, called "Architectural Geometry". The present paper provides a short survey of research in Architectural

  16. Geometry and the Design of Product Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherico, Cindy M.

    2011-01-01

    The most common question the author's students ask is, "When will I ever use this in real life?" To address this question in her geometry classes, the author sought to create a project that would incorporate a real-world business situation with their lesson series on the surface area and volume of three-dimensional objects--specifically, prisms,…

  17. An improved injector bunching geometry for ATLAS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This geometry improves the handling of space charge for high-current beams, significantly increases the capture fraction into the primary rf bucket and reduces the capture fraction of the unwanted parasitic rf bucket. Total capture and transport through the PII has been demonstrated as high as 80% of the injected dc beam ...

  18. Anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, Paul F

    2005-01-01

    As part of the Department of Energy's applications oriented SciDAC project, three model problems have been proposed by the Center for Extended Magnetohydrodynamics Modeling to test the potential of numerical algorithms for challenging magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) problems that are required for future fusion development. The first of these, anisotropic diffusion in a toroidal geometry, is considered in this note

  19. Impact damage reduction by structured surface geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusano, Yukihiro; Fedorov, Vladimir; McGugan, Malcolm

    2018-01-01

    performance was observed for polyurethane-coated fibre composites with structured geometries at the back surfaces. Repeated impacts by rubber balls on the coated side caused damage and delamination of the coating. The laminates with structured back surfaces showed longer durability than those with a flat back...

  20. User Interface Design for Dynamic Geometry Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kortenkamp, Ulrich; Dohrmann, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In this article we describe long-standing user interface issues with Dynamic Geometry Software and common approaches to address them. We describe first prototypes of multi-touch-capable DGS. We also give some hints on the educational benefits of proper user interface design.

  1. Fast rendering of scanned room geometries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Søren Krarup; Markovic, Milos; Hammershøi, Dorte

    2014-01-01

    Room acoustics are rendered in Virtual Realities based on models of the real world. These are typically rather coarse representations of the true geometry resulting in room impulse responses with a lack of natural detail. This problem can be overcome by using data scanned by sensors, such as e...

  2. Geometry and Hamiltonian mechanics on discrete spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talasila, V; Clemente-Gallardo, J; Schaft, A J van der

    2004-01-01

    Numerical simulation is often crucial for analysing the behaviour of many complex systems which do not admit analytic solutions. To this end, one either converts a 'smooth' model into a discrete (in space and time) model, or models systems directly at a discrete level. The goal of this paper is to provide a discrete analogue of differential geometry, and to define on these discrete models a formal discrete Hamiltonian structure-in doing so we try to bring together various fundamental concepts from numerical analysis, differential geometry, algebraic geometry, simplicial homology and classical Hamiltonian mechanics. For example, the concept of a twisted derivation is borrowed from algebraic geometry for developing a discrete calculus. The theory is applied to a nonlinear pendulum and we compare the dynamics obtained through a discrete modelling approach with the dynamics obtained via the usual discretization procedures. Also an example of an energy-conserving algorithm on a simple harmonic oscillator is presented, and its effect on the Poisson structure is discussed

  3. Applications of stochastic geometry in image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, van M.N.M.; Kendall, W.S.; Molchanov, I.S.

    2009-01-01

    A discussion is given of various stochastic geometry models (random fields, sequential object processes, polygonal field models) which can be used in intermediate and high-level image analysis. Two examples are presented of actual image analysis problems (motion tracking in video,

  4. Interactive geometry inside MathDox

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, H.; Hendriks, M.; Knopper, J.W.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe how we envision using interactive geometry inside MathDox pages. In particular, by some examples we discuss how users and mathematical services (offered by various mathematical software packages) can interact with the geometric objects available. This not only includes

  5. Ruler of the plane - Games of geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beekhuis, S.; Buchin, K.; Castermans, T.; Hurks, T.; Sonke, W.; Aronov, B.; Katz, M.J.

    2017-01-01

    Ruler of the Plane is a set of games illustrating concepts from combinatorial and computational geometry. The games are based on the art gallery problem, ham-sandwich cuts, the Voronoi game, and geometric network connectivity problems like the Euclidean minimum spanning tree and traveling

  6. The odd side of torsion geometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Diego; Madsen, Thomas Bruun

    2014-01-01

    We introduce and study a notion of `Sasaki with torsion structure' (ST) as an odd-dimensional analogue of Kähler with torsion geometry (KT). These are normal almost contact metric manifolds that admit a unique compatible connection with 3-form torsion. Any odd-dimensional compact Lie group is sho...

  7. Geometry task sheets : grades 3-5

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades 3-5, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  8. Geometry task sheets : grades pk-2

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenberg, Mary

    2009-01-01

    For grades PK-2, our Common Core State Standards-based resource meets the geometry concepts addressed by the NCTM standards and encourages the students to learn and review the concepts in unique ways. Each task sheet is organized around a central problem taken from real-life experiences of the students.

  9. Methods of algebraic geometry in control theory

    CERN Document Server

    Falb, Peter

    1999-01-01

    "Control theory represents an attempt to codify, in mathematical terms, the principles and techniques used in the analysis and design of control systems. Algebraic geometry may, in an elementary way, be viewed as the study of the structure and properties of the solutions of systems of algebraic equations. The aim of this book is to provide access to the methods of algebraic geometry for engineers and applied scientists through the motivated context of control theory" .* The development which culminated with this volume began over twenty-five years ago with a series of lectures at the control group of the Lund Institute of Technology in Sweden. I have sought throughout to strive for clarity, often using constructive methods and giving several proofs of a particular result as well as many examples. The first volume dealt with the simplest control systems (i.e., single input, single output linear time-invariant systems) and with the simplest algebraic geometry (i.e., affine algebraic geometry). While this is qui...

  10. On relational nature of geometry of microphysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chylinski, Z.

    1985-11-01

    A relativity principle and a curiosity of Galilei space-time is described. An internal space-time of R 4 relation is presented. Lorentz limit of R 4 geometry and a field theory is given. The sources of the effects of R 4 hypothesis are characterized. The completeness of quantum description is discussed. 32 refs. (A.S.)

  11. Quantum geometry of bosonic strings - revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botelho, Luiz C.L.; Botelho, Raimundo C.L. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica

    1999-07-01

    We review the original paper by A.M. Polyakov (Quantum Geometry of Bosonic Strings) with corrections and improvements the concepts exposed there and following as closely as possible to the original A.M. Polyakov's paper. (author)

  12. Algebra and Geometry of Hamilton's Quaternions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-08-26

    Aug 26, 2016 ... ... Public Lectures · Lecture Workshops · Refresher Courses · Symposia. Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 6. Algebra and Geometry of Hamilton's Quaternions: 'Well, Papa, Can You Multiply Triplets?' General Article Volume 21 Issue 6 June 2016 pp 529-544 ...

  13. Resistor trimming geometry; past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alafogianni, M; Penlington, R; Birkett, M

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the key developments in thin film resistive trimming geometry for use in the fabrication of discrete precision resistors. Firstly an introduction to the laser trimming process is given with respect to well established trim geometries such as the plunge, 'L' and serpentine cuts. The effect of these trim patterns on key electrical properties of resistance tolerance and temperature co-efficient of resistance (TCR) of the thin films is then discussed before the performance of more recent geometries such as the three-contact and random trim approaches are reviewed. In addition to the properties of the standard trim patterns, the concept of the heat affected zone (HAZ) and ablation energy and the effect of introducing a 'fine' trim in areas of low current density to improve device performance are also studied. It is shown how trimming geometry and laser parameters can be systematically controlled to produce thin film resistors of the required properties for varying applications such as high precision, long term stability and high power pulse performance

  14. Stages As Models of Scene Geometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nedović, V.; Smeulders, A.W.M.; Redert, A.; Geusebroek, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently,

  15. Learning Geometry by Designing Persian Mosaics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karssenberg, Goossen

    2014-01-01

    To encourage students to do geometry, the art of Islamic geometric ornamentation was chosen as the central theme of a lesson strand which was developed using the newly presented didactical tool called "Learning by Acting". The Dutch students who took these lessons in 2010 to 2013 were challenged to act as if they themselves were Persian…

  16. Gamma spectrometry of infinite 4Π geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nordemann, D.J.R.

    1987-07-01

    Owing to the weak absorption og gamma radiation by matter, gamma-ray spectrometry may be applied to samples of great volume. A very interesting case is that of the gamma-ray spectrometry applied with 4Π geometry around the detector on a sample assumed to be of infinite extension. The determination of suitable efficiencies allows this method to be quantitative. (author) [pt

  17. On the geometry of fracture and frustration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koning, Vinzenz

    2014-01-01

    Geometric frustration occurs when local order cannot propagate through space. A common example is the surface of a soccer ball, which cannot be tiled with hexaganons only. Geometric frustration can also be present in materials. In fact, geometry can act as an instrument to design the mechanical,

  18. Connecting Functions in Geometry and Algebra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steketee, Scott; Scher, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    One goal of a mathematics education is that students make significant connections among different branches of mathematics. Connections--such as those between arithmetic and algebra, between two-dimensional and three-dimensional geometry, between compass-and-straight-edge constructions and transformations, and between calculus and analytic…

  19. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. On Ancient Babylonian Algebra and Geometry. Rahul Roy. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 27-42. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/008/08/0027-0042. Keywords.

  20. Foliations and the geometry of 3-manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Calegari, Danny

    2014-01-01

    This unique reference, aimed at research topologists, gives an exposition of the 'pseudo-Anosov' theory of foliations of 3-manifolds. This theory generalizes Thurston's theory of surface automorphisms and reveals an intimate connection between dynamics, geometry and topology in 3 dimensions.

  1. The Geometry of the Universe: Part 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francis, Stephanie

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how the author carries out an investigation into the geometry of the three possible curvatures of the universe. The author begins the investigation by looking on the web and in books. She found that the general consensus was that there were three different possible curvatures of the universe, namely: (1) flat; (2) positive;…

  2. Classification of radar echoes using fractal geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azzaz, Nafissa; Haddad, Boualem

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Implementation of two concepts of fractal geometry to classify two types of meteorological radar echoes. • A new approach, called a multi-scale fractal dimension is used for classification between fixed echoes and rain echoes. • An Automatic identification system of meteorological radar echoes was proposed using fractal geometry. - Abstract: This paper deals with the discrimination between the precipitation echoes and the ground echoes in meteorological radar images using fractal geometry. This study aims to improve the measurement of precipitations by weather radars. For this, we considered three radar sites: Bordeaux (France), Dakar (Senegal) and Me lbourne (USA). We showed that the fractal dimension based on contourlet and the fractal lacunarity are pertinent to discriminate between ground and precipitation echoes. We also demonstrated that the ground echoes have a multifractal structure but the precipitations are more homogeneous than ground echoes whatever the prevailing climate. Thereby, we developed an automatic classification system of radar using a graphic interface. This interface, based on the fractal geometry makes possible the identification of radar echoes type in real time. This system can be inserted in weather radar for the improvement of precipitation estimations.

  3. Special Relativity as a Simple Geometry Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Abreu, Rodrigo; Guerra, Vasco

    2009-01-01

    The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the constancy of the one-way speed of light in the "rest system" are used to formulate a simple problem, to be solved by elementary geometry techniques using a pair of compasses and non-graduated rulers. The solution consists of a drawing allowing a direct visualization of all the fundamental…

  4. Non-commutative geometry and supersymmetry 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Thompson, G.

    1991-05-01

    Following the general construction of supersymmetric models, the model based on the idea of non-commutative geometry is formulated as a Yang-Mills theory of the graded Lie algebra U(2/1) over a graded space-time manifold. 4 refs

  5. Prediction of protein loop geometries in solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rapp, Chaya S.; Strauss, Temima; Nederveen, Aart; Fuentes, Gloria

    2007-01-01

    The ability to determine the structure of a protein in solution is a critical tool for structural biology, as proteins in their native state are found in aqueous environments. Using a physical chemistry based prediction protocol, we demonstrate the ability to reproduce protein loop geometries in

  6. Online measurement of bead geometry in GMAW-based additive manufacturing using passive vision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiong, Jun; Zhang, Guangjun

    2013-01-01

    Additive manufacturing based on gas metal arc welding is an advanced technique for depositing fully dense components with low cost. Despite this fact, techniques to achieve accurate control and automation of the process have not yet been perfectly developed. The online measurement of the deposited bead geometry is a key problem for reliable control. In this work a passive vision-sensing system, comprising two cameras and composite filtering techniques, was proposed for real-time detection of the bead height and width through deposition of thin walls. The nozzle to the top surface distance was monitored for eliminating accumulated height errors during the multi-layer deposition process. Various image processing algorithms were applied and discussed for extracting feature parameters. A calibration procedure was presented for the monitoring system. Validation experiments confirmed the effectiveness of the online measurement system for bead geometry in layered additive manufacturing. (paper)

  7. Geometry of higher-dimensional black hole thermodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaman, Jan E.; Pidokrajt, Narit

    2006-01-01

    We investigate thermodynamic curvatures of the Kerr and Reissner-Nordstroem (RN) black holes in spacetime dimensions higher than four. These black holes possess thermodynamic geometries similar to those in four-dimensional spacetime. The thermodynamic geometries are the Ruppeiner geometry and the conformally related Weinhold geometry. The Ruppeiner geometry for a d=5 Kerr black hole is curved and divergent in the extremal limit. For a d≥6 Kerr black hole there is no extremality but the Ruppeiner curvature diverges where one suspects that the black hole becomes unstable. The Weinhold geometry of the Kerr black hole in arbitrary dimension is a flat geometry. For the RN black hole the Ruppeiner geometry is flat in all spacetime dimensions, whereas its Weinhold geometry is curved. In d≥5 the Kerr black hole can possess more than one angular momentum. Finally we discuss the Ruppeiner geometry for the Kerr black hole in d=5 with double angular momenta

  8. Enhanced heat sink with geometry induced wall-jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Md. Mahamudul, E-mail: sohel0991@gmail.com; Tikadar, Amitav; Bari, Fazlul; Morshed, A. K. M. M. [Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka-1000. Bangladesh (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Mini-channels embedded in solid matrix have already proven to be a very efficient way of electronic cooling. Traditional mini-channel heat sinks consist of single layer of parallel channels. Although mini-channel heat sink can achieve very high heat flux, its pumping requirement for circulating liquid through the channel increase very sharply as the flow velocity increases. The pumping requirements of the heat sink can be reduced by increasing its performance. In this paper a novel approach to increase the thermal performance of the mini-channel heat sink is proposed through geometry induced wall jet which is a passive technique. Geometric irregularities along the channel length causes abrupt pressure change between the channels which causes cross flow through the interconnections thus one channel faces suction and other channel jet action. This suction and jet action disrupts boundary layer causing enhanced heat transfer performance. A CFD model has been developed using commercially available software package FLUENT to evaluate the technique. A parametric study of the velocities and the effect of the position of the wall-jets have been performed. Significant reduction in thermal resistance has been observed for wall-jets, it is also observed that this reduction in thermal resistance is dependent on the position and shape of the wall jet.

  9. SPECTROPOLARIMETRY OF SUPERLUMINOUS SUPERNOVAE: INSIGHT INTO THEIR GEOMETRY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inserra, C.; Bulla, M.; Sim, S. A.; Smartt, S. J., E-mail: c.inserra@qub.ac.uk [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queens University Belfast, Belfast BT7 1NN (United Kingdom)

    2016-11-01

    We present the first spectropolarimetric observations of a hydrogen-free superluminous supernova (SLSN) at z = 0.1136, namely SN 2015bn. The transient shows significant polarization at both of the observed epochs: one 24 days before maximum light in the rest-frame, and the other at 27 days after peak luminosity. Analysis of the Q – U plane suggests the presence of a dominant axis and no physical departure from the main axis at either epoch. The polarization spectrum along the dominant axis is characterized by a strong wavelength dependence and an increase in the signal from the first to the second epoch. We use a Monte Carlo code to demonstrate that these properties are consistent with a simple toy model that adopts an axisymmetric ellipsoidal configuration for the ejecta. We find that the wavelength dependence of the polarization is possibly due to a strong wavelength dependence in the line opacity, while the higher level of polarization at the second epoch is a consequence of the increase in the asphericity of the inner layers of the ejecta or the fact that the photosphere recedes into less spherical layers. The geometry of the SLSN is similar to that of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe connected to GRB, while the overall evolution of the ejecta shape could be consistent with a central engine.

  10. Duplex geometry: an example from the Moine Thrust Belt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, S.

    1987-04-01

    The geometry and microstructure of a small duplex formed in one bed from the Moine Thrust Belt of northwest Scotland is reported. The structure is seen in oblique section, within the Cambrian Pipe-rock, in an area of low strain. A range of movement direction indicators are present in the structure. An early grain shape fabric developed close to the roof thrust is taken as the best estimate of the overall movement direction towards 287°. Slickensides in the gouge developed on movement planes within the duplex show varied orientations on a given plane, and are not considered useful indicators of thrust transport direction. Branch lines exposed converge and diverge, suggesting little lateral continuity of the exposed structure. The microstructures present within the structure indicate an increase in localised deformation, and in cataclastic behavior as the duplex evolved. Early layer parallel shear is ubiquitous, giving rise to an elongate grain shape fabric close to bedding surfaces. In early formed horses, a layer-parallel, oblate grain shape fabric, which shows localised slip zones, is overprinted by gouge formation. Later formed horses show only fracturing and gouge development. This sequence is attributed to stick-slip behavior in the propagation or displacement of the original fault, now the floor thrust.

  11. Development of the geometry database for the CBM experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akishina, E. P.; Alexandrov, E. I.; Alexandrov, I. N.; Filozova, I. A.; Friese, V.; Ivanov, V. V.

    2018-01-01

    The paper describes the current state of the Geometry Database (Geometry DB) for the CBM experiment. The main purpose of this database is to provide convenient tools for: (1) managing the geometry modules; (2) assembling various versions of the CBM setup as a combination of geometry modules and additional files. The CBM users of the Geometry DB may use both GUI (Graphical User Interface) and API (Application Programming Interface) tools for working with it.

  12. Layers of Cold Dipolar Molecules in the Harmonic Approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    R. Armstrong, J.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas; V. Fedorov, D.

    2012-01-01

    We consider the N-body problem in a layered geometry containing cold polar molecules with dipole moments that are polarized perpendicular to the layers. A harmonic approximation is used to simplify the hamiltonian and bound state properties of the two-body inter-layer dipolar potential are used...... to adjust this effective interaction. To model the intra-layer repulsion of the polar molecules, we introduce a repulsive inter-molecule potential that can be parametrically varied. Single chains containing one molecule in each layer, as well as multi-chain structures in many layers are discussed...... and their energies and radii determined. We extract the normal modes of the various systems as measures of their volatility and eventually of instability, and compare our findings to the excitations in crystals. We find modes that can be classified as either chains vibrating in phase or as layers vibrating against...

  13. College geometry an introduction to the modern geometry of the triangle and the circle

    CERN Document Server

    Altshiller-Court, Nathan

    2007-01-01

    The standard university-level text for decades, this volume offers exercises in construction problems, harmonic division, circle and triangle geometry, and other areas. 1952 edition, revised and enlarged by the author.

  14. Geometry of time-spaces non-commutative algebraic geometry, applied to quantum theory

    CERN Document Server

    Landau, Olav Arnfinn

    2011-01-01

    This is a monograph about non-commutative algebraic geometry, and its application to physics. The main mathematical inputs are the non-commutative deformation theory, moduli theory of representations of associative algebras, a new non-commutative theory o

  15. From geometry to algebra and vice versa: Realistic mathematics education principles for analyzing geometry tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupri, Al

    2017-04-01

    In this article we address how Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) principles, including the intertwinement and the reality principles, are used to analyze geometry tasks. To do so, we carried out three phases of a small-scale study. First we analyzed four geometry problems - considered as tasks inviting the use of problem solving and reasoning skills - theoretically in the light of the RME principles. Second, we tested two problems to 31 undergraduate students of mathematics education program and other two problems to 16 master students of primary mathematics education program. Finally, we analyzed student written work and compared these empirical to the theoretical results. We found that there are discrepancies between what we expected theoretically and what occurred empirically in terms of mathematization and of intertwinement of mathematical concepts from geometry to algebra and vice versa. We conclude that the RME principles provide a fruitful framework for analyzing geometry tasks that, for instance, are intended for assessing student problem solving and reasoning skills.

  16. Instabilities of microstate geometries with antibranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bena, Iosif; Pasini, Giulio

    2016-01-01

    One can obtain very large classes of horizonless microstate geometries corresponding to near-extremal black holes by placing probe supertubes whose action has metastable minima inside certain supersymmetric bubbling solutions http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2012)014. We show that these minima can lower their energy when the bubbles move in certain directions in the moduli space, which implies that these near-extremal microstates are in fact unstable once one considers the dynamics of all their degrees of freedom. The decay of these solutions corresponds to Hawking radiation, and we compare the emission rate and frequency to those of the corresponding black hole. Our analysis supports the expectation that generic non-extremal black holes microstate geometries should be unstable. It also establishes the existence of a new type of instabilities for antibranes in highly-warped regions with charge dissolved in fluxes.

  17. Fourier rebinning algorithm for inverse geometry CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazin, Samuel R; Pele, Norbert J

    2008-11-01

    Inverse geometry computed tomography (IGCT) is a new type of volumetric CT geometry that employs a large array of x-ray sources opposite a smaller detector array. Volumetric coverage and high isotropic resolution produce very large data sets and therefore require a computationally efficient three-dimensional reconstruction algorithm. The purpose of this work was to adapt and evaluate a fast algorithm based on Defrise's Fourier rebinning (FORE), originally developed for positron emission tomography. The results were compared with the average of FDK reconstructions from each source row. The FORE algorithm is an order of magnitude faster than the FDK-type method for the case of 11 source rows. In the center of the field-of-view both algorithms exhibited the same resolution and noise performance. FORE exhibited some resolution loss (and less noise) in the periphery of the field-of-view. FORE appears to be a fast and reasonably accurate reconstruction method for IGCT.

  18. Testing R-parity with geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Yang-Hui [Department of Mathematics, City University, London,Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); School of Physics, NanKai University,94 Weijin Road, Tianjin, 300071 (China); Merton College, University of Oxford,Merton Street, OX1 4JD (United Kingdom); Jejjala, Vishnu [Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, and School of Physics,University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Matti, Cyril [Department of Mathematics, City University, London,Northampton Square, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Mandelstam Institute for Theoretical Physics, NITheP, and School of Physics,University of the Witwatersrand,1 Jan Smuts Avenue, Johannesburg, WITS 2050 (South Africa); Nelson, Brent D. [Department of Physics, Northeastern University,360 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)

    2016-03-14

    We present a complete classification of the vacuum geometries of all renormalizable superpotentials built from the fields of the electroweak sector of the MSSM. In addition to the Severi and affine Calabi-Yau varieties previously found, new vacuum manifolds are identified; we thereby investigate the geometrical implication of theories which display a manifest matter parity (or R-parity) via the distinction between leptonic and Higgs doublets, and of the lepton number assignment of the right-handed neutrino fields. We find that the traditional R-parity assignments of the MSSM more readily accommodate the neutrino see-saw mechanism with non-trivial geometry than those superpotentials that violate R-parity. However there appears to be no geometrical preference for a fundamental Higgs bilinear in the superpotential, with operators that violate lepton number, such as νHH̄, generating vacuum moduli spaces equivalent to those with a fundamental bilinear.

  19. Differential geometry connections, curvature, and characteristic classes

    CERN Document Server

    Tu, Loring W

    2017-01-01

    This text presents a graduate-level introduction to differential geometry for mathematics and physics students. The exposition follows the historical development of the concepts of connection and curvature with the goal of explaining the Chern–Weil theory of characteristic classes on a principal bundle. Along the way we encounter some of the high points in the history of differential geometry, for example, Gauss' Theorema Egregium and the Gauss–Bonnet theorem. Exercises throughout the book test the reader’s understanding of the material and sometimes illustrate extensions of the theory. Initially, the prerequisites for the reader include a passing familiarity with manifolds. After the first chapter, it becomes necessary to understand and manipulate differential forms. A knowledge of de Rham cohomology is required for the last third of the text. Prerequisite material is contained in author's text An Introduction to Manifolds, and can be learned in one semester. For the benefit of the reader and to establ...

  20. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali, E-mail: shossein@bu.edu [Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Mirza, Behrouz, E-mail: b.mirza@cc.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharifian, Elham, E-mail: e.sharifian@ph.iut.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan 84156-83111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  1. Extrinsic and intrinsic curvatures in thermodynamic geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosseini Mansoori, Seyed Ali; Mirza, Behrouz; Sharifian, Elham

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the intrinsic and extrinsic curvatures of a certain hypersurface in thermodynamic geometry of a physical system and show that they contain useful thermodynamic information. For an anti-Reissner–Nordström-(A)de Sitter black hole (Phantom), the extrinsic curvature of a constant Q hypersurface has the same sign as the heat capacity around the phase transition points. The intrinsic curvature of the hypersurface can also be divergent at the critical points but has no information about the sign of the heat capacity. Our study explains the consistent relationship holding between the thermodynamic geometry of the KN-AdS black holes and those of the RN (J-zero hypersurface) and Kerr black holes (Q-zero hypersurface) ones [1]. This approach can easily be generalized to an arbitrary thermodynamic system.

  2. Emergent Geometry from Entropy and Causality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, Netta

    In this thesis, we investigate the connections between the geometry of spacetime and aspects of quantum field theory such as entanglement entropy and causality. This work is motivated by the idea that spacetime geometry is an emergent phenomenon in quantum gravity, and that the physics responsible for this emergence is fundamental to quantum field theory. Part I of this thesis is focused on the interplay between spacetime and entropy, with a special emphasis on entropy due to entanglement. In general spacetimes, there exist locally-defined surfaces sensitive to the geometry that may act as local black hole boundaries or cosmological horizons; these surfaces, known as holographic screens, are argued to have a connection with the second law of thermodynamics. Holographic screens obey an area law, suggestive of an association with entropy; they are also distinguished surfaces from the perspective of the covariant entropy bound, a bound on the total entropy of a slice of the spacetime. This construction is shown to be quite general, and is formulated in both classical and perturbatively quantum theories of gravity. The remainder of Part I uses the Anti-de Sitter/ Conformal Field Theory (AdS/CFT) correspondence to both expand and constrain the connection between entanglement entropy and geometry. The AdS/CFT correspondence posits an equivalence between string theory in the "bulk" with AdS boundary conditions and certain quantum field theories. In the limit where the string theory is simply classical General Relativity, the Ryu-Takayanagi and more generally, the Hubeny-Rangamani-Takayanagi (HRT) formulae provide a way of relating the geometry of surfaces to entanglement entropy. A first-order bulk quantum correction to HRT was derived by Faulkner, Lewkowycz and Maldacena. This formula is generalized to include perturbative quantum corrections in the bulk at any (finite) order. Hurdles to spacetime emergence from entanglement entropy as described by HRT and its quantum

  3. Lectures on fractal geometry and dynamical systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pesin, Yakov

    2009-01-01

    Both fractal geometry and dynamical systems have a long history of development and have provided fertile ground for many great mathematicians and much deep and important mathematics. These two areas interact with each other and with the theory of chaos in a fundamental way: many dynamical systems (even some very simple ones) produce fractal sets, which are in turn a source of irregular "chaotic" motions in the system. This book is an introduction to these two fields, with an emphasis on the relationship between them. The first half of the book introduces some of the key ideas in fractal geometry and dimension theory--Cantor sets, Hausdorff dimension, box dimension--using dynamical notions whenever possible, particularly one-dimensional Markov maps and symbolic dynamics. Various techniques for computing Hausdorff dimension are shown, leading to a discussion of Bernoulli and Markov measures and of the relationship between dimension, entropy, and Lyapunov exponents. In the second half of the book some examples o...

  4. Metamaterial Electromagnetic Superabsorber with Arbitrary Geometries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The electromagnetic superabsorber that has larger absorption cross section than its real size may be a novel photothermal device with improved solar energy conversion rates. Based on a transformation optical approach, the material parameters for a two-dimensional (2D metamaterial-assisted electromagnetic superabsorber with arbitrary geometries are derived and validated by numerical simulation. We find that for the given geometry size, the absorption cross section of the superabsorber using nonlinear transformation is larger than that using linear transformation. These transformations can also be specialized to the designing the N-sided regular polygonal superabsorber just by changing the contour equation. All theoretical and numerical results validate the material parameters for the 2D electromagnetic superabsorber we have developed.

  5. Simplified discrete ordinates method in spherical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elsawi, M.A.; Abdurrahman, N.M.; Yavuz, M.

    1999-01-01

    The authors extend the method of simplified discrete ordinates (SS N ) to spherical geometry. The motivation for such an extension is that the appearance of the angular derivative (redistribution) term in the spherical geometry transport equation makes it difficult to decide which differencing scheme best approximates this term. In the present method, the angular derivative term is treated implicitly and thus avoids the need for the approximation of such term. This method can be considered to be analytic in nature with the advantage of being free from spatial truncation errors from which most of the existing transport codes suffer. In addition, it treats the angular redistribution term implicitly with the advantage of avoiding approximations to that term. The method also can handle scattering in a very general manner with the advantage of spending almost the same computational effort for all scattering modes. Moreover, the methods can easily be applied to higher-order S N calculations

  6. Laplacians on discrete and quantum geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Oriti, Daniele; Thürigen, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    We extend discrete calculus for arbitrary (p-form) fields on embedded lattices to abstract discrete geometries based on combinatorial complexes. We then provide a general definition of discrete Laplacian using both the primal cellular complex and its combinatorial dual. The precise implementation of geometric volume factors is not unique and, comparing the definition with a circumcentric and a barycentric dual, we argue that the latter is, in general, more appropriate because it induces a Laplacian with more desirable properties. We give the expression of the discrete Laplacian in several different sets of geometric variables, suitable for computations in different quantum gravity formalisms. Furthermore, we investigate the possibility of transforming from position to momentum space for scalar fields, thus setting the stage for the calculation of heat kernel and spectral dimension in discrete quantum geometries. (paper)

  7. Poincare ball embeddings of the optical geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramowicz, M A; Bengtsson, I; Karas, V; Rosquist, K

    2002-01-01

    It is shown that the optical geometry of the Reissner-Nordstroem exterior metric can be embedded in a hyperbolic space all the way down to its outer horizon. The adopted embedding procedure removes a breakdown of flat-space embeddings which occurs outside the horizon, at and below the Buchdahl-Bondi limit (R/M=9/4 in the Schwarzschild case). In particular, the horizon can be captured in the optical geometry embedding diagram. Moreover, by using the compact Poincare ball representation of the hyperbolic space, the embedding diagram can cover the whole extent of radius from spatial infinity down to the horizon. Attention is drawn to the advantages of such embeddings in an appropriately curved space: this approach gives compact embeddings and it clearly distinguishes the case of an extremal black hole from a non-extremal one in terms of the topology of the embedded horizon

  8. Conference on Complex Geometry and Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Vinet, Luc; Yau, Shing-Tung; Mirror Symmetry III

    1999-01-01

    This book presents surveys from a workshop held during the theme year in geometry and topology at the Centre de recherches mathématiques (CRM, University of Montréal). The volume is in some sense a sequel to Mirror Symmetry I (1998) and Mirror Symmetry II (1996), copublished by the AMS and International Press. Included are recent developments in the theory of mirror manifolds and the related areas of complex and symplectic geometry. The long introductory articles explain the key physical ideas and motivation, namely conformal field theory, supersymmetry, and string theory. Open problems are emphasized. Thus the book provides an efficient way for a very broad audience of mathematicians and physicists to reach the frontier of research in this fast expanding area. - See more at: http://bookstore.ams.org/amsip-10#sthash.DbxEFJDx.dpuf

  9. Effect of detection geometry on radon dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waheed, A.; Cherubini, R.; Moschini, G.; Lembo, L.

    1988-01-01

    Results are given here on the use of plastic track detectors for environmental alpha particle dosimetry. A simple method is presented for calculating the probability distribution for alpha particle registration in a rectangular detection geometry. The track density distributions obtained with CR39 and CN85 detectors in the laboratory are compared with the calculated distribution, and it is concluded that a rectangular geometry (axaxb) should be a better choice for a flat response of track registration. The maximum track registration rate for CR39 and CN85 is found respectively to be 4.95x10 3 /cm 2 hour and 3.14x10 3 /cm 2 hour. It is estimated that 1 track/cm 2 in CR39 represents around 1.14x10 10 alpha disintegrations/meter 3 of surrounding atmosphere. (author)

  10. Plateau's problem an invitation to varifold geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Frederick J Almgren, Jr

    2001-01-01

    There have been many wonderful developments in the theory of minimal surfaces and geometric measure theory in the past 25 to 30 years. Many of the researchers who have produced these excellent results were inspired by this little book--or by Fred Almgren himself. The book is indeed a delightful invitation to the world of variational geometry. A central topic is Plateau's Problem, which is concerned with surfaces that model the behavior of soap films. When trying to resolve the problem, however, one soon finds that smooth surfaces are insufficient: Varifolds are needed. With varifolds, one can obtain geometrically meaningful solutions without having to know in advance all their possible singularities. This new tool makes possible much exciting new analysis and many new results. Plateau's problem and varifolds live in the world of geometric measure theory, where differential geometry and measure theory combine to solve problems which have variational aspects. The author's hope in writing this book was to encour...

  11. Instabilities of microstate geometries with antibranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bena, Iosif; Pasini, Giulio [Institut de physique théorique, Université Paris Saclay, CEA, CNRS,F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2016-04-29

    One can obtain very large classes of horizonless microstate geometries corresponding to near-extremal black holes by placing probe supertubes whose action has metastable minima inside certain supersymmetric bubbling solutions http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/JHEP12(2012)014. We show that these minima can lower their energy when the bubbles move in certain directions in the moduli space, which implies that these near-extremal microstates are in fact unstable once one considers the dynamics of all their degrees of freedom. The decay of these solutions corresponds to Hawking radiation, and we compare the emission rate and frequency to those of the corresponding black hole. Our analysis supports the expectation that generic non-extremal black holes microstate geometries should be unstable. It also establishes the existence of a new type of instabilities for antibranes in highly-warped regions with charge dissolved in fluxes.

  12. Hermeticity of three cryogenic calorimeter geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strovink, M.; Wormersley, W.J.; Forden, G.E.

    1989-04-01

    We calculate the effect of cracks and dead material on resolution in three simplified cryogenic calorimeter geometries, using a crude approximation that neglects transverse shower spreading and considers only a small set of incident angles. For each dead region, we estimate the average unseen energy using a shower parametrization, and relate it to resolution broadening using a simple approximation that agrees with experimental data. Making reasonable and consistent assumptions on cryostat wall thicknesses, we find that the effects of cracks and dead material dominate the expected resolution in the region where separate ''barrel'' and ''end'' cryostats meet. This is particularly true for one geometry in which the end calorimeter caps the barrel and also protrudes into the hole within it. We also find that carefully designed auxiliary ''crack filler'' detectors can substantially reduce the loss of resolution in these areas. 6 figs

  13. Geometry of 6D RG flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heckman, Jonathan J.; Morrison, David R.; Rudelius, Tom; Vafa, Cumrun

    2015-01-01

    We study renormalization group flows between six-dimensional superconformal field theories (SCFTs) using their geometric realizations as singular limits of F-theory compactified on elliptically fibered Calabi-Yau threefolds. There are two general types of flows: one corresponds to giving expectation values to scalars in the tensor multiplets (tensor branch flow) realized as resolving the base of the geometry. The other corresponds to giving expectation values to hypermultiplets (Higgs branch flow) realized as complex structure deformations of the geometry. To corroborate this physical picture we calculate the change in the anomaly polynomial for these theories, finding strong evidence for a flow from a UV fixed point to an IR fixed point. Moreover, we find evidence against non-trivial dualities for 6D SCFTs. In addition we find non-trivial RG flows for theories realizing small E 8 instantons on ALE spaces.

  14. Stages as models of scene geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedović, Vladimir; Smeulders, Arnold W M; Redert, André; Geusebroek, Jan-Mark

    2010-09-01

    Reconstruction of 3D scene geometry is an important element for scene understanding, autonomous vehicle and robot navigation, image retrieval, and 3D television. We propose accounting for the inherent structure of the visual world when trying to solve the scene reconstruction problem. Consequently, we identify geometric scene categorization as the first step toward robust and efficient depth estimation from single images. We introduce 15 typical 3D scene geometries called stages, each with a unique depth profile, which roughly correspond to a large majority of broadcast video frames. Stage information serves as a first approximation of global depth, narrowing down the search space in depth estimation and object localization. We propose different sets of low-level features for depth estimation, and perform stage classification on two diverse data sets of television broadcasts. Classification results demonstrate that stages can often be efficiently learned from low-dimensional image representations.

  15. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  16. Sub-Riemannian geometry and optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Rifford, Ludovic

    2014-01-01

    The book provides an introduction to sub-Riemannian geometry and optimal transport and presents some of the recent progress in these two fields. The text is completely self-contained: the linear discussion, containing all the proofs of the stated results, leads the reader step by step from the notion of distribution at the very beginning to the existence of optimal transport maps for Lipschitz sub-Riemannian structure. The combination of geometry presented from an analytic point of view and of optimal transport, makes the book interesting for a very large community. This set of notes grew from a series of lectures given by the author during a CIMPA school in Beirut, Lebanon.

  17. External and internal geometry of European adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Samuel; Skalli, Wafa; Delacherie, Laurent; Bonneau, Dominique; Kalifa, Gabriel; Mitton, David

    2006-12-15

    The primary objective of the study was to bring a deeper knowledge of the human anthropometry, investigating the external and internal body geometry of small women, mid-sized men and tall men. Sixty-four healthy European adults were recruited. External measurements were performed using classical anthropometric instruments. Internal measurements of the trunk bones were performed using a stereo-radiographic 3D reconstruction technique. Besides the original procedure presented in this paper for performing in vivo geometrical data acquisition on numerous volunteers, this study provides an extensive description of both external and internal (trunk skeleton) human body geometry for three morphotypes. Moreover, this study proposes a global external and internal geometrical description of 5th female 50th male and 95th male percentile subjects. This study resulted in a unique geometrical database enabling improvement for numerical models of the human body for crash test simulation and offering numerous possibilities in the anthropometry field.

  18. Conformal geometry computational algorithms and engineering applications

    CERN Document Server

    Jin, Miao; He, Ying; Wang, Yalin

    2018-01-01

    This book offers an essential overview of computational conformal geometry applied to fundamental problems in specific engineering fields. It introduces readers to conformal geometry theory and discusses implementation issues from an engineering perspective.  The respective chapters explore fundamental problems in specific fields of application, and detail how computational conformal geometric methods can be used to solve them in a theoretically elegant and computationally efficient way. The fields covered include computer graphics, computer vision, geometric modeling, medical imaging, and wireless sensor networks. Each chapter concludes with a summary of the material covered and suggestions for further reading, and numerous illustrations and computational algorithms complement the text.  The book draws on courses given by the authors at the University of Louisiana at Lafayette, the State University of New York at Stony Brook, and Tsinghua University, and will be of interest to senior undergraduates, gradua...

  19. LEARNING GEOMETRY THROUGH MIMESIS AND DIGITAL CONSTRUCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Mion POP

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The theme proposed by us is useful to teachers and students for mathematics in the compulsory school cycle. The issues faced by school teachers/parents are the difficulty with which students read and understand the lessons/examples/synthesis in order to assimilate technical terms. The echoic and iconic memory facilitates the learning of the specific curriculum of linear, spatial and analytical geometry by the students using digital platform designed by us; it facilitates the acquiring of the theoretical elements of applied geometry by encoding-decoding, so that the teacher's role becomes the one of the advisor and not only a person who transmits the information. The utility of the program extends from mainstream schools to special schools.

  20. Non-Perturbative Quantum Geometry III

    CERN Document Server

    Krefl, Daniel

    2016-08-02

    The Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of the refined topological string on toric Calabi-Yau manifolds and the resulting quantum geometry is studied from a non-perturbative perspective. The quantum differential and thus the quantum periods exhibit Stockes phenomena over the combined string coupling and quantized Kaehler moduli space. We outline that the underlying formalism of exact quantization is generally applicable to points in moduli space featuring massless hypermultiplets, leading to non-perturbative band splitting. Our prime example is local P1xP1 near a conifold point in moduli space. In particular, we will present numerical evidence that in a Stockes chamber of interest the string based quantum geometry reproduces the non-perturbative corrections for the Nekrasov-Shatashvili limit of 4d supersymmetric SU(2) gauge theory at strong coupling found in the previous part of this series. A preliminary discussion of local P2 near the conifold point in moduli space is also provided.