Sample records for habrobracon

  1. Modification of fecundity and fertility during oogenesis by γ radiation and/or ozone with a cytological analysis in the ectoparasitic wasp, Habrobracon juglandis (Ashmead)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ofuoku, E.E.


    In Experiment I, adult female wasps were exposed to ozone for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, 24, and 27 h. The results indicated that the 27 h of ozone exposure produced 100% lethality on the first day. Exposures below 27 h progressively decreased life span with increasing length of exposure. In Experiment II A, adult virgin Habrobracon females were exposed to ozone for 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 16, and 24 h to determine the effects of ozone on fecundity (egg laying ability) and fertility (egg hatching ability). The results showed that ozone significantly decreased fecundity and fertility in all meiotic stages except metaphase I. In Experiment II B, adult virgin Habrobracon females were exposed to Co-60 γ radiation. All treated wasps showed significant progressive decreases in fecundity and fertility with increases in radiation dose. In Experiment II C, adult virgin Habrobracon females were exposed to Co-60 γ radiation, to ozone, or to combinations thereof to determine the effects of these insults on fecundity and fertility. Together or singly ozone and radiation reduced fecundity and fertility. In Experiment III, adult virgin Habrobracon females were exposed to the conditions of Experiment II C to correlate by cytological examination of the ovarioles the effects of ionizing radiation and/or ozone on the germ cells at specific meiotic stages. Results obtained from the cytological study explain the fecundity and fertility observations

  2. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and cypermethrin on Habrobracon hebetor (Hymenoptera: Braconidae). (United States)

    Abedi, Zahra; Saber, Moosa; Gharekhani, Gholamhossein; Mehrvar, Ali; Kamita, Shizuo George


    Habrobracon hebetor Say is an ectoparasitoid of larval stage of various lepidopteran pests. Lethal and sublethal effects of azadirachtin and cypermethrin were evaluated on adult and preimaginal stages of H. hebetor under laboratory conditions. Contact exposure bioassays with adults indicated that the lethal concentration (LC50) of two commercial azadirachtin-containing formulations, NeemGuard and BioNeem, were 43.5 and 10.2 microg a.i./ml, respectively. The LC50 of cypermethrin was 5.4 microg a.i./ml. When larval stage of H. hebetor was exposed to these insecticides with a field recommended concentration of NeemGuard, BioNeem, or cypermethrin by a dip protocol, the emergence rate was reduced by 39.0, 36.6, and 97.6%, respectively. To assay the sublethal effects of these insecticides, adult wasps were exposed to an LC30 concentration of the insecticides, and then demographic parameters of the surviving wasps were determined. Fecundity, fertility, and parameters including the intrinsic rate of increase (r(m)) were affected negatively. The r(m) values following exposure to NeemGuard, BioNeem, cypermethrin, or mock treatment were 0.143, 0.149, 0.160, and 0.179, respectively, female offspring per female per day, respectively. The current study showed that cypermethrin had more acute toxicity on larval and adult stages of H. hebetor compared with azadirachin. The commercial formulations of azadirachtin and cypermethrin negatively affected most of the life table parameters of the parasitoid. Semifield and field studies are needed for obtaining more applicable results on combining H. hebetor and the tested insecticides for an integrated pest management-based strategy for crop protection.

  3. Passive vectoring of entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana among the wax moth Galleria mellonella larvae by the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor females. (United States)

    Kryukov, Vadim Yu; Kryukova, Natalia A; Tyurin, Maksim V; Yaroslavtseva, Olga N; Glupov, Viktor V


    Females of the ectoparasitoid Habrobracon hebetor attack and envenomate numerous host individuals during oviposition. The vectoring of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana during the adhesion stage by ectoparasitoid females among the wax moth larvae Galleria mellonella was explored under laboratory conditions. Vectoring occurred both from infected parasitoids to wax moth larvae and from infected to healthy wax moth larvae by parasitoids. The efficacy of vectoring in both cases was dose dependent. Parasitoid females were unable to recognize infected larvae in a labyrinth test. In addition, the presence of H. hebetor females significantly (1.5-13 fold) increased the mycoses level in clusters of G. mellonella, with 40% of the larvae infected with fungal conidia. Envenomation by H. hebetor increased conidia germination on the cuticles of the wax moth larvae by 4.4 fold. An enhanced germination rate (2 fold) was registered in the n-hexane epicuticular extract of envenomated larvae compared to that of healthy larvae. Both envenomation and mycoses enhanced the phenoloxidase (PO) activity in the integument of G. mellonella and, in contrast, decreased the encapsulation rate in hemolymphs. We hypothesize that changes in the integument property and inhibition of cellular immunity provide the highest infection efficacy of entomopathogenic fungi with H. hebetor. © 2017 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  4. The utilization of Habrobracon and artemia as experimental materials in bioastronautic studies (United States)

    Grosch, D. S.


    In the reproductive performance of female braconids striking contrasts were revealed between the results from the actual biosatellite flight and those from experiments when the recovered vehicle was subjected to the forces of simulated launching and recovery. Second week decreases in egg production due to the radiation damage of cells in mitosis were minimized for the females irradiated during space flight. It was demonstrated that females irradiated for two days during orbital flight laid as many eggs during the second week as the unirradiated ground-based controls. After the 10th day their oviposition records exceeded control values. The hatchability of eggs deposited by Biosatellite II females was excellent. Explanations were sought for the space flight's cancellation of the characteristic radiation-induced decrease in egg production, and for the exceptionally good hatchability of eggs derived from most of the cell types in the irradiated ovarioles. Eggs from only two classes of cells showed enhanced embryonic lethality: those poised in meiotic metaphase during their mother's orbital flight, and those from oocytes beginning vitellogenesis.

  5. Beneficial effect of adipokinetic hormone on neuromuscular paralysis in insect body elicited by braconid wasp venom

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Shaik, Haq Abdul; Mishra, Archana; Kodrík, Dalibor


    Roč. 196, JUN 01 (2017), s. 11-18 ISSN 1532-0456 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-03253S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : AKH * Akh gene expression * Habrobracon hebetor Subject RIV: ED - Physiology OBOR OECD: Biology (theoretical, mathematical, thermal, cryobiology, biological rhythm), Evolutionary biology Impact factor: 2.416, year: 2016

  6. Biological control of Indianmeal moth (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae) on finished stored products using egg and larval parasitoids. (United States)

    Grieshop, Matthew J; Flinn, Paul W; Nechols, James R


    Biological control using hymenopteran parasitoids presents an attractive alternative to insecticides for reducing infestations and damage from the Indianmeal moth, Plodia interpunctella (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), in retail and warehouse environments. We examined the potential for using combinations of the egg parasitoid Trichogramma deion Riley (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae), and the larval parasitoid Habrobracon hebetor (Say) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) for preventing infestations of P. interpunctella in coarse-ground cornmeal as well as the influence of packaging on parasitoid effectiveness. Treatments included one or both parasitoids and either cornmeal infested with P. interpunctella eggs or eggs deposited on the surface of plastic bags containing cornmeal. H. hebetor had a significant impact on the number of live P. interpunctella, suppressing populations by approximately 71% in both unbagged and bagged cornmeal. In contrast, T. deion did not suppress P. interpunctella in unbagged cornmeal. However, when released on bagged cornmeal, T. deion significantly increased the level of pest suppression (87%) over bagging alone (15%). When H. hebetor was added to bagged cornmeal, there was a significant reduction of live P. interpunctella compared with the control (70.6%), with a further reduction observed when T. deion was added (96.7%). These findings suggest that, in most situations, a combined release of both T. deion and H. hebetor would have the greatest impact; because even though packaging may protect most of the stored products, there are usually areas in the storage landscape where poor sanitation is present.

  7. Breve Estudio Biológico del Predator Coleomejilla Maculata de Geer (Coleoptera -Coccinellidae en el Valle de Medellín

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bravo V. Gilberto


    Full Text Available El insecto tiene los siguientes nombres comunes: "Petaquita", "Grajito". En México lo denominan "Catarinita" y en EE. UU. "Lady Birds"; "Lady-Buys" (Vaquita de Dios. El Coleomegilla maculata de Geer, tiene las siguientes sinonimias: Megilla maculata, coleomegilla fuscilabris, Ceratomegilla fuscilabris, Megilla fuscilabris, Ceratomegilla maculata (Szumkowski 1955 y Ceratomegilla floridiana Leng. (Humbbell 1932. En cuanto a su distribución mundial podemos afirmar que existe el insecto en todo el Continente Americano. En Colombia existe en las zonas de clima cálido y medio. Su ciclo biológico está determinado por condiciones ambientales, así: período de preoviposición comprendido entre 8 a 25 días. Las hembras depositan los huevos sobre plantas de maíz y fríjol y sobre las siguientes malezas: "Coquito" (Cyperus sp., verdolaga (Portulaca oleracea, acedera (Oxalis sp. y otras. El período de incubación demora de 3 a 6 días. La larva es de tipo campodeiforme y tiene una duración que varía entre 10 a 22 días, tiempo en el cual hemos observado hasta 4 instars. El período de encrisalidación puede establecerse entre 3 a 12 días. Los adultos pueden vivir hasta 100 días (Szumkowski 1955. Se ha constatado que las hembras depositan su pos-tura en masas de 4 a 36 huevos, los cuales se consideran con un 100 %, de fertilidad. Las larvas son parasitadas por un pequeño Himenóptero, posiblemente se trate de un Chalcido. Los adultos son parasitados por un braconido al parecer se trata de un Habrobracon. Tanto las larvas como los adultos tienen hábitos canibalescos. La acción predatora del Coleomegilla maculata no está limitada solamente a insectos pequeños de cuerpo blando de la orden Homóptera, sino que su acción destructiva puede ser también sobre muchas especies de lepidópteros perjudiciales (huevos y larvas pequeñas, tales como: Laphygma frugiperda, Agrotis, Diatrea lineolata, Prodenia lati-jascia, Feltias, Alabama

  8. Reproductive Performance of Female Braconids Compared after (A) Brief and (B) Protracted Exposures to Ionizing Radiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grosch, D. S. [Genetics Department, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC (United States)


    {sup 85}Sr sources are installed in the initial US biosatellites to provide calculable dose levels during three-day orbital space flights. Such protracted exposures are longer than those used customarily in insect radiobiology and shorter than those of ecological studies. This paper concerns results from the ground controls of ill-fated US Biosatellite A and compares them with results from other dose rates and types of radiation. Males are packaged separately and used for mutational studies to be reported elsewhere. To compare the vulnerability of cell types in the ovariole sequence, nearly 1000 virgin females from a vigorous out- cross are used, half for ground controls and half for the satellite launched. Samples of 20-25 wasps are packed in each of two screw-capped capsules inserted into housings in plastic modules which also incorporate thermisters and radiodosimeters. These packages are fixed in shielded positions as well as in places which receive one of four levels of gamma rays from the {sup 85}Sr source. Each treatment thus consists of 40-50 virgins; a similar number receives a sensitizing preflight exposure to 2000 R of X-rays. After the flight period daily egg production is scored to detect resorption following gross chromosomal damage, embryonic deaths to reveal more subtle damage, and maternal life span as a measure of somatic fitness. In most insects bundles of numerous ovarioles confound interpretation relating cell status during exposure to eggs deposited subsequently. Habrobracon's four synchronized ovarioles provide a uniquely suitable system for studying radiosensitivity of a sequence complete from specialized oocytes through oocyte- trophocyte units to primitive interphase cells. Following a series of doses, the family of oviposition curves reflects the vulnerability of differentiating units in a valley which deepens and broadens with increased dose. At high dose rates, lowest egg production occurs on day 7. The pattern, well established for X