WorldWideScience

Sample records for habitual physical activity

  1. Habitual Physical Activity, Peripheral Neuropathy, Foot Deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Habitual physical activity index (3.2 ± 0.83) was highest in work-related activities; 69 (26.1 %) patients presented with peripheral neuropathy and 52 (19. 7%) had the lowest limb function. Pes planus was the most prevalent foot deformity (20.1%). Significant differences existed in physical activity indices across ...

  2. Habitual physical activity levels are positively correlated with CD4 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Habitual physical activity levels are positively correlated with CD4 counts in an ... per month) and functional independence as assessed from the responses to the ... and between CD4 cell counts and total habitual physical activity levels (p ...

  3. Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shehnaz Apabhai

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype.Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI.Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001. 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001 and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001. After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, P<0.01. There were no systematic differences in physical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease.These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.

  4. Habitual physical activity in mitochondrial disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apabhai, Shehnaz; Gorman, Grainne S; Sutton, Laura; Elson, Joanna L; Plötz, Thomas; Turnbull, Douglass M; Trenell, Michael I

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial disease is the most common neuromuscular disease and has a profound impact upon daily life, disease and longevity. Exercise therapy has been shown to improve mitochondrial function in patients with mitochondrial disease. However, no information exists about the level of habitual physical activity of people with mitochondrial disease and its relationship with clinical phenotype. Habitual physical activity, genotype and clinical presentations were assessed in 100 patients with mitochondrial disease. Comparisons were made with a control group individually matched by age, gender and BMI. Patients with mitochondrial disease had significantly lower levels of physical activity in comparison to matched people without mitochondrial disease (steps/day; 6883±3944 vs. 9924±4088, p = 0.001). 78% of the mitochondrial disease cohort did not achieve 10,000 steps per day and 48% were classified as overweight or obese. Mitochondrial disease was associated with less breaks in sedentary activity (Sedentary to Active Transitions, % per day; 13±0.03 vs. 14±0.03, p = 0.001) and an increase in sedentary bout duration (bout lengths/fraction of total sedentary time; 0.206±0.044 vs. 0.187±0.026, p = 0.001). After adjusting for covariates, higher physical activity was moderately associated with lower clinical disease burden (steps/day; r(s) = -0.49; 95% CI -0.33, -0.63, Pphysical activity between different genotypes mitochondrial disease. These results demonstrate for the first time that low levels of physical activity are prominent in mitochondrial disease. Combined with a high prevalence of obesity, physical activity may constitute a significant and potentially modifiable risk factor in mitochondrial disease.

  5. Fundamental movement skills and habitual physical activity in young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Abigail; Reilly, John J; Kelly, Louise A; Montgomery, Colette; Williamson, Avril; Paton, James Y; Grant, Stan

    2005-04-01

    To test for relationships between objectively measured habitual physical activity and fundamental movement skills in a relatively large and representative sample of preschool children. Physical activity was measured over 6 d using the Computer Science and Applications (CSA) accelerometer in 394 boys and girls (mean age 4.2, SD 0.5 yr). Children were scored on 15 fundamental movement skills, based on the Movement Assessment Battery, by a single observer. Total physical activity (r=0.10, Pmovement skills score. Time spent in light-intensity physical activity was not significantly correlated with motor skills score (r=0.02, P>0.05). In this sample and setting, fundamental movement skills were significantly associated with habitual physical activity, but the association between the two variables was weak. The present study questions whether the widely assumed relationships between motor skills and habitual physical activity actually exist in young children.

  6. Physical Educators' Habitual Physical Activity and Self-Efficacy for Regular Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xihe; Haegele, Justin A.; Davis, Summer

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine physical education teachers' habitual physical activity and self-efficacy for regular exercise. In-service physical education teachers (N = 168) voluntarily completed an online questionnaire that included items to collect demographic information (gender, race/ethnicity, years of teaching experience, and…

  7. ENERGY EXPENDITURE AND HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES IN ADOLESCENT SPRINT ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dirk Aerenhouts

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess total energy expenditure (TEE and specific habitual physical activities in adolescent sprint athletes. Two methods used to estimate TEE, an activity diary (AD and SenseWear armband (SWA, were compared. Sixteen athletes (6 girls, 10 boys, mean age 16.5 ± 1.6 yr simultaneously wore a SWA and completed an AD and food diary during one week. Basal energy expenditure as given by the SWA when taken off was corrected for the appropriate MET value using the AD. TEE as estimated by the AD and SWA was comparable (3196 ± 590 kcal and 3012 ± 518 kcal, p = 0.113 without day-to-day variations in TEE and energy expended in activities of high intensity. Daily energy intake (2569 ± 508 kcal did not match TEE according to both the AD and SWA (respectively p < 0.001 and p = 0.007. Athletes were in a supine position for a longer time on weekend days than on week days and slept longer on Sundays. Athletes reported a longer time of high-intensive physical activities in the AD than registered by the SWA on 4 out of 7 days. In addition to specific sprint activities on 3 to 7 days per week, 11 out of 16 athletes actively commuted to school where they participated in sports once or twice per week. The AD and the SWA are comparable in the estimation of TEE, which appears realistic and sustainable. The SWA offers an appropriate and objective method in the assessment of TEE, sleeping and resting in adolescent athletes on the condition that detailed information is given for the times the armband is not worn. The AD offers activity specific information but relies on the motivation, compliance and subjectivity of the individual, especially considering high-intensive intermittent training

  8. Don't worry, be active: positive affect and habitual physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Jacka, Felice N; Williams, Lana J; Brennan, Sharon L; Leslie, Eva; Berk, Michael

    2011-12-01

    The aim of ths study was to examine the association between habitual physical activity and positive and negative affect. This cross-sectional study included 276 women aged 20 +, from the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Habitual physical activity and other lifestyle exposures were assessed by questionnaire, concurrent with anthropometric assessments. Physical activity was categorized as very active, moderately active or sedentary. Positive and negative affect scores were derived from the validated 20 item Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS) self-report and were categorized into tertiles. There was a pattern of lower positive affect scores for lower levels of physical activity. With very active as the reference category, the odds for having a positive affect score in the highest tertile were sequentially lower for those who were moderately active (OR = 0.53, 95%CI 0.28-1.01) and sedentary (OR = 0.28, 95%CI 0.10-0.75). Associations were sustained after adjusting for body mass index and polypharmacy (OR = 0.50, 95%CI 0.26-0.96 and OR = 0.25, 95%CI 0.09-0.72, respectively). These associations were not explained by age, negative affect score or other exposures. No association was detected between physical activity and negative affect scores. This study reports that higher positive affect scores, encompassing emotions such as interest, excitement, enthusiasm and alertness, are associated with higher levels of habitual physical activity. These observations warrant further investigations into possible mechanistic interplay between neurobiological and psychosocial factors that underpin this association.

  9. Objectively determined habitual physical activity in South African adolescents: the PAHL study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background There is limited data on objectively determined habitual physical activity (PA) in 16-year old South African adolescents. The purpose of this study was to objectively determine the habitual PA of adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa by race and gender. Methods Adolescents (137 girls, 89 boys) from the ongoing Physical Activity and Health Longitudinal Study (PAHL study), participated in the present study. Habitual PA was objectively recorded by means of the Actiheart® over a period of 7 days. Time spent in moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed. Results Average MVPA for the study sample was 50.9 ± 40.3 minutes/day. Girls were significantly more active than boys expending more time in MVPA (61.13 ± 52.2 minutes/day; p Physical activity varies by both gender and race in adolescents from the North West Province of South Africa. Objectively determined data from our study indicates that girls habitually spend more time in MVPA per day than boys, and that white adolescents habitually engage in more MVPA than black adolescents. Seeing as the average MVPA per day for the entire study sample falls below the recommended daily average of 60minutes/day, adolescents should be the foremost targets of interventions aimed at enhancing habitual PA. PMID:24885503

  10. Habitual physical activity and the risk for depressive and anxiety disorders among older men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasco, Julie A; Williams, Lana J; Jacka, Felice N; Henry, Margaret J; Coulson, Carolyn E; Brennan, Sharon L; Leslie, Eva; Nicholson, Geoffrey C; Kotowicz, Mark A; Berk, Michael

    2011-03-01

    Regular physical activity is generally associated with psychological well-being, although there are relatively few prospective studies in older adults. We investigated habitual physical activity as a risk factor for de novo depressive and anxiety disorders in older men and women from the general population. In this nested case-control study, subjects aged 60 years or more were identified from randomly selected cohorts being followed prospectively in the Geelong Osteoporosis Study. Cases were individuals with incident depressive or anxiety disorders, diagnosed using the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV-TR (SCID-I/NP); controls had no history of these disorders. Habitual physical activity, measured using a validated questionnaire, and other exposures were documented at baseline, approximately four years prior to psychiatric interviews. Those with depressive or anxiety disorders that pre-dated baseline were excluded. Of 547 eligible subjects, 14 developed de novo depressive or anxiety disorders and were classified as cases; 533 controls remained free of disease. Physical activity was protective against the likelihood of depressive and anxiety disorders; OR = 0.55 (95% CI 0.32-0.94), p = 0.03; each standard deviation increase in the transformed physical activity score was associated with an approximate halving in the likelihood of developing depressive or anxiety disorders. Leisure-time physical activity contributed substantially to the overall physical activity score. Age, gender, smoking, alcohol consumption, weight and socioeconomic status did not substantially confound the association. This study provides evidence consistent with the notion that higher levels of habitual physical activity are protective against the subsequent risk of development of de novo depressive and anxiety disorders.

  11. Sources of variation in habitual physical activity of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Lund; Korsholm, L; Møller, N C

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined the influence of gender, maturity state, seasonality, type of measurement day and socioeconomic status (SES) on habitual physical activity in 8-10-year-old children and 14-16-year-old adolescents (n=1318). Physical activity was assessed objectively by accelerometry....... The results showed a significant effect of the type of measurement day on physical activity with a general pattern of lower activity levels in weekends compared with weekdays. Furthermore, higher physical activity levels were observed during the months of spring/summer compared with the months of autumn....../winter for the 8-10-year-olds, whereas no significant effect of months was observed for the 14-16-year-olds, possibly due to exam preparations and lack of physical activity registration during the months of summer for this cohort. SES was unrelated to physical activity in the 8-10-year-olds, whereas an inverse...

  12. Secular Trends in Habitual Physical Activities of Mozambican Children and Adolescents from Maputo City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Karina dos Santos

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Social and economic changes occurring in the last two decades in Mozambique may have induced lifestyle changes among youth. This study aimed to document secular changes in habitual physical activities of Mozambican youth between 1992, 1999 and 2012. A total of 3393 youth (eight–15 years, were measured in three different time periods (1992, 1999, 2012. Habitual physical activity (PA was estimated with a questionnaire, including items related to household chores, sport participation, traditional games and walking activities. Biological maturation was assessed. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was used to compare mean differences in PA across the years. Significant decreases between 1992–1999 and 1992–2012 were observed for boys in household chores, games and walking, and a significant decline between 1999 and 2012 was found in sport participation. Among girls, a significant and consistent decline (1992 > 1999 > 2012 was observed for household chores, a decline between 1992–1999 and 1992–2012 for games and walking, and a significant increase between 1992 and 1999 in sport participation. In general, a negative secular trend was found in habitual PA among Mozambican youth. Interventions aimed at increasing PA represent important educational and public health opportunities.

  13. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN 8-9 YEARS OLD SCHOOLCHILDREN FROM SPAIN AND INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Felipe López Sánchez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The level of physical activity of people is a very important issue internationally. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the level of habitual physical activity in 8-9 years old schoolchildren from Spain and India. With this purpose, it was administered the questionnaire PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise in a sample of 85 schoolchildren (44 from Spain and 41 from India. The results showed that the sample studied does not do enough physical activity, according to the recommendations of the World Health Organization, as they do at least 60 minutes of physical activity; only an average of 3.13 days/week (SD=1.91. 8-year-old schoolchildren do more physical activity than 9-year-old schoolchildren in both countries; boys do more physical activity than girls in both countries; schoolchildren from India do more physical activity than schoolchildren from Spain. Therefore, it is concluded that the level of physical activity is insufficient, decreases slightly with the age and is higher in India.

  14. Habitual physical activity and vascular aging in a young to middle-age population at low cardiovascular risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kozakova, Michaela; Palombo, Carlo; Mhamdi, Leila

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Regular endurance exercise has been shown to reduce the age-related increase in arterial stiffness that is thought to contribute to cardiovascular risk. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of age and habitual physical activity on carotid artery wall thickness...... physical activity was negatively related to indices of carotid stiffness (r from -0.20 to -0.25, Page...... and physical activity were independently related to carotid stiffness. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides cross-sectional evidence that habitual physical activity is inversely related to the age-dependent increase in carotid wall stiffness in a young to middle-age population at low risk...

  15. Objectively measured habitual physical activity in 1997/1998 vs 2003/2004 in Danish children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, N C; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Wedderkopp, N

    2008-01-01

    -Thu in 2003/2004 when compared with 1997/1998. Gender differences in the level of HPA were found to be more distinct during Mon-Thu than during Fri-Sun. This study does not support the idea that Danish children are becoming less physically active. However, a limited statistical power should be considered when......Based on two cross-sectional studies conducted in 8-10-year-old third-grade children living in the municipality of Odense, potential differences were examined in the level of habitual physical activity (HPA) in Danish children between 1997/1998 and 2003/2004. HPA was assessed objectively...... by accelerometry. Primarily, overall differences were analyzed as gender and day type specific (i.e. Mon-Thu vs Fri-Sun) levels in HPA. Secondarily, differences were analyzed across socioeconomic gradients defined according to parents' occupation. Data were expressed as total counts per registered time. During...

  16. High Habitual Physical Activity Improves Acute Energy Compensation in Nonobese Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Hopkins, Mark; Long, Cecilia; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-11-01

    Evidence suggests that homeostatic satiety signaling is enhanced with higher levels of physical activity (PA), with active individuals demonstrating an improved ability to compensate for previous energy intake (EI). However, prior studies lacked objective assessment of both PA level and EI. This study examined the effect of objectively measured PA level on homeostatic (energy compensation) and hedonic (liking and wanting) responses to high-energy (HEP), low-energy (LEP), and control preloads. Thirty-four nonobese individuals were grouped by tertiles of accelerometry-measured habitual moderate-to-vigorous PA (low, LoMVPA; moderate, ModMVPA; high, HiMVPA), similar in age, sex, and body mass index. After a preliminary assessment, EI (fixed-energy breakfast and ad libitum lunch, dinner, and evening snack box meals) was determined for three probe meal days in which preloads varying in energy content (HEP, 699 kcal; LEP, 258 kcal; control, 0 kcal) were consumed before the lunch meal. Liking and wanting were assessed before and after preload consumption (Leeds Food Preference Questionnaire), and appetite ratings were taken throughout the day. Relative to control, EI at lunch was reduced to a greater extent after consumption of HEP compared with LEP in ModMVPA (P reflecting more accurate energy compensation in HiMVPA and ModMVPA. There were no effects on cumulative EI after preload consumption of (lunch, dinner, and snack box combined). HEP led to a greater suppression of hunger, liking, and wanting compared with LEP in all MVPA tertiles. Nonobese individuals with lower levels of measured PA were insensitive to the nutritional manipulation of the preloads, suggesting a weaker satiety response to food. This study provides objective evidence that higher habitual PA improves acute homeostatic appetite control.

  17. Correlates of habitual physical activity and organized sports in German primary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobel, S; Kettner, S; Kesztyüs, D; Erkelenz, N; Drenowatz, C; Steinacker, J M

    2015-03-01

    The increased prevalence of childhood obesity has also been attributed to low physical activity (PA) levels. Understanding factors affecting child PA levels is especially important considering the benefits PA offers to youth. This study therefore examined different correlates affecting habitual PA and sports participation in primary school children. Height and weight were measured during a school visit in 1714 children (7.1 ± .6 years). PA and behavioural correlates were assessed by parental questionnaire. The effect of various correlates on PA as well as participation in organized sports was assessed using logistic regression analysis. Significant correlates of PA and sports participation were engagement in sporting activities outside of clubs and children's weight status. Playing outdoors for more than 60 min/day was significant for PA, having well educated parents and being male. Participation in sports was influenced by children's media consumption, active travel to school and having active parents. No influence was found for migration, income, parental weight status and health consciousness. In this study, a multiplicity of independent correlates of PA and sports participation, which require a broad approach to promote an active lifestyle, have been considered. Understanding these factors might support the development of effective health-promoting interventions. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Atividade física habitual e risco cardiovascular na pós-menopausa Habitual physical activity and cardiovascular risk in post menopause

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimunda Beserra da Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a prevalência de atividade física habitual e risco cardiovascular em mulheres na pós-menopausa. MÉTODOS: Estudo de coorte transversal com 162 mulheres, entre 40 e 65 anos, em amenorréia há no mínimo 12 meses, acompanhadas no Ambulatório de Menopausa do CAISM/UNICAMP. As mulheres responderam oralmente o questionário International Physical Activity Questionnaire para avaliação do nível de atividade física, que abordou a freqüência e duração das atividades ocorridas durante uma semana normal, realizadas no transporte, trabalho, em casa e no lazer, classificando-as em sedentárias, insuficientemente ativas, ativas e muito ativas. Foram realizados exames laboratoriais para dosagem sérica de colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta densidade, lipoproteína de baixa densidade, triglicérides, glicemia de jejum e medidas de pressão arterial sistólica e diastólica. RESULTADOS: A média de idade das mulheres foi de 56,5 anos e idade na menopausa de 46 anos. A prevalência de atividade física foi de 83,3%, sendo que 2,5% foram classificadas como muito ativas, 80,8% ativas e 16,7% insuficientemente ativas. A maioria realizava atividades, principalmente no transporte e em casa, e apenas 38,3% realizavam atividade física durante o lazer. Nesta população, 87,7% das mulheres apresentavam escore de Framingham inferior a 10, considerado de baixo risco cardiovascular. CONCLUSÃO: Mulheres na pós-menopausa apresentam alta prevalência de atividade física habitual e baixa aderência ao exercício físico. O risco cardiovascular foi baixo na população estudada. É importante incentivar e orientar esta população a praticar atividade física compatível com suas condições físicas, estimulando a prática não somente da atividade física habitual, mas também do exercício físico.BACKGROUND: To evaluate the prevalence of habitual physical activity and cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. METHODS: A cross

  19. [Association between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity in Great East Japan Earthquake evacuees: The Fukushima Health Management Survey].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Masato; Ohira, Tetsuya; Yasumura, Seiji; Takahashi, Hideto; Yuki, Michiko; Nakano, Hironori; Wen, Zhang; Yabe, Hirooki; Ohtsuru, Akira; Maeda, Masaharu; Takase, Kanae

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Prevalence of life-style disease has increased dramatically in evacuees due to the Great East Japan Earthquake. One reason may be that physical activity level decreased from life environment changes due to evacuation. However, associations between evacuation condition and habitual physical activity have not been studied. We examined this association in Fukushima residents who participated in the Fukushima Health Management Survey. Methods: In this study, 37,843 evacuees from 13 municipal evacuation zones from the nuclear-power accident caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake, born before April 1, 1995, were included in the analysis. Evacuation condition was defined by disaster living place (13 zones), evacuation place (inside or outside the prefecture), and current living status (evacuation shelter or temporary housing, rental housing/ apartment, and relative's home or own home). Habitual physical activity was defined from self-administered questionnaires as participants who responded "almost every day" and "2-4 times/week" of regular exercise. In the analysis, habitual physical activity prevalence was aggregated by gender and variables (living place in the disaster, evacuation place, and current living status). Prevalence was adjusted for age, disaster living place, evacuation place, and current living status by standard analysis of covariance methods. Results: Adjusted prevalences of habitual physical activity were: men, 27.9-46.5%; women, 27.0-43.7% in each disaster living place. The differences were 18.6% point in men and 16.7% point in women. For evacuation place, physical activity outside the prefecture for men (37.7%) and inside the prefecture for women (32.1%) were higher, but those differences were only 2.2% point and 1.8% point in men and women, respectively. For current living status, physical activity of those in rental housing/ apartment was the lowest; evacuation shelter or temporary housing was the highest in both genders (men: 38

  20. Impact of habitual physical activity and type of exercise on physical performance across ages in community-living people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Landi

    Full Text Available The maintenance of muscle function into late life protects against various negative health outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of habitual physical activity and exercise types on physical performance across ages in community-living adults. The Longevity check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+ project is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings (e.g., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns across Italy that began on June 1st 2015. The project was designed to raise awareness in the general population on major lifestyle behaviors and risk factors for chronic diseases. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent. Physical performance is evaluated through the 5-repetition chair stand test. Analyses were conducted in 6,242 community-living adults enrolled between June 1st 2015 and June 30th 2017, after excluding 81 participants for missing values of the variables of interest. The mean age of the 6,242 participants was 54.4 years (standard deviation 15.2, range 18-98 years, and 3552 (57% were women. The time to complete the chair stand test was similar from 18 to 40-44 years, and declined progressively across subsequent age groups. Overall, the performance on the chair stand test was better in physically active participants, who completed the test with a mean of 0.5 s less than sedentary enrollees (p < .001. After adjusting for potential confounders, a different distribution of physical performance across exercise intensities was observed, with better performance being recorded in participants engaged in more vigorous activities. Our findings suggest that regular physical activity modifies the age-related pattern of decline in physical performance, with greater benefits observed for more intensive activities. Efforts are needed from health authorities and healthcare providers to promote the large-scale adoption of an

  1. Impact of habitual physical activity and type of exercise on physical performance across ages in community-living people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landi, Francesco; Calvani, Riccardo; Picca, Anna; Tosato, Matteo; Martone, Anna Maria; D'Angelo, Emanuela; Serafini, Elisabetta; Bernabei, Roberto; Marzetti, Emanuele

    2018-01-01

    The maintenance of muscle function into late life protects against various negative health outcomes. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of habitual physical activity and exercise types on physical performance across ages in community-living adults. The Longevity check-up 7+ (Lookup 7+) project is an ongoing cross-sectional survey conducted in unconventional settings (e.g., exhibitions, malls, and health promotion campaigns across Italy) that began on June 1st 2015. The project was designed to raise awareness in the general population on major lifestyle behaviors and risk factors for chronic diseases. Candidate participants are eligible for enrolment if they are at least 18 years of age and provide written informed consent. Physical performance is evaluated through the 5-repetition chair stand test. Analyses were conducted in 6,242 community-living adults enrolled between June 1st 2015 and June 30th 2017, after excluding 81 participants for missing values of the variables of interest. The mean age of the 6,242 participants was 54.4 years (standard deviation 15.2, range 18-98 years), and 3552 (57%) were women. The time to complete the chair stand test was similar from 18 to 40-44 years, and declined progressively across subsequent age groups. Overall, the performance on the chair stand test was better in physically active participants, who completed the test with a mean of 0.5 s less than sedentary enrollees (p performance across exercise intensities was observed, with better performance being recorded in participants engaged in more vigorous activities. Our findings suggest that regular physical activity modifies the age-related pattern of decline in physical performance, with greater benefits observed for more intensive activities. Efforts are needed from health authorities and healthcare providers to promote the large-scale adoption of an active lifestyle throughout the life course.

  2. Stage of change and motivation to healthy diet and habitual physical activity in type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centis, E; Trento, M; Dei Cas, A; Pontiroli, A E; De Feo, P; Bruno, A; Sasdelli, A S; Arturi, F; Strollo, F; Vigili De' Kreutzenberg, S; Invitti, C; Di Bonito, P; Di Mauro, M; Pugliese, G; Molteni, A; Marchesini, G

    2014-08-01

    Lifestyle changes to healthy diet (HD) and habitual physical activity (HPA) are recommended in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Yet, for most people with diabetes, it may be difficult to start changing. We investigated the stage of change toward healthier lifestyles according to Prochaska's model, and the associated psychological factors in T2DM patients, as a prerequisite to improve strategies to implement behavior changes in the population. A total of 1,353 consecutive outpatients with T2DM attending 14 tertiary centers for diabetes treatment completed the validated EMME-3 questionnaire, consisting of two parallel sets of instruments to define the stage of change for HD and HPA, respectively. Logistic regression was used to determine the factors associated with stages that may hinder behavioral changes. A stage of change favoring progress to healthier behaviors was more common in the area of HD than in HPA, with higher scores in action and maintenance. Differences were observed in relation to gender, age and duration of disease. After adjustment for confounders, resistance to change toward HD was associated with higher body mass index (BMI) (odds ratio (OR) 1.05; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 1.02-1.08). Resistance to improve HPA also increased with BMI (OR 1.06; 95 % CI 1.03-1.10) and decreased with education level (OR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.64-0.92). Changing lifestyle, particularly in the area of HPA, is not perceived as an essential part of treatment by many subjects with T2DM. This evidence must be considered when planning behavioral programs, and specific interventions are needed to promote adherence to HPA.

  3. Prática de atividade física habitual entre adolescentes com deficiência visual La actividad física habitual entre los adolescentes con discapacidad visual Habitual physical activity among adolescents with visual impairments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Barboza Seron

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A prática de atividade física é reconhecida como uma potente ferramenta na prevenção de doenças crônico-degenerativas, entretanto ainda se observa um elevado índice de sedentarismo na população, especialmente na parcela composta por pessoas com deficiência. O objetivo desse estudo foi analisar a prática habitual de atividade física em adolescentes com deficiência visual. Para tanto, 16 adolescentes com deficiência visual (idade = 12,81 ± 2,07 anos responderam a questionários e utilizaram pedômetro por quatro dias. Foi utilizada estatística descritiva, teste t independente e correlação, adotando-se em todas as situações significância de alfa La actividad física es reconocida como una herramienta en la prevención de las enfermedades crónicas degenerativas, sin embargo, ha observado una alta tasa de inactividad de la población, sobre todo en la parte compuesta por personas con discapacidad. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la práctica de actividad física en adolescentes con discapacidad visual. Para ello, 16 adolescentes con discapacidad visual (edad = 12,81 ± 2,07 años completaron cuestionarios y se utilizó podómetro durante 4 días. Fue utilizada estadística descriptiva, prueba t independiente y correlación, importancia de la alfa Physical activity practice is known as a great tool in chronic diseases prevention, however we can observe a high prevalence of sedentary habits, especially among people with disability. The purpose of this study was to analyze habitual physical activity practice in adolescents with visual impairment. For that, 16 adolescents with visual impairment (age = 12.81 ± 2.07 years old answered a questionnaire and used pedometer for four days. It was used descriptive statistic, independent T test and correlation, in every case with significance level alpha < 0.05. Results showed that physical activity level among adolescents was often below the recommended parameters. Girls and those

  4. Habitual Physical Activity After Total Knee Replacement : analysis in 830 patients and comparison with a sex-and age-matched normative population (vol 92, pg 1109, 2012)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersten, Roel F. M. R.; Stevens, Martin; van Raay, Jos J. A. M.; Bulstra, Sjoerd K.; van den Akker-Scheek, Inge

    Background. Previous studies on physical activity after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) concentrated mainly on a return to sports activities. Objective. The objectives of this study were to determine the habitual physical activity behavior of people who had undergone TKA (TKA group) 1 to 5 years after

  5. Validation and reliability of the Baecke questionnaire for the evaluation of habitual physical activity in adult men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Antonio Florindo

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify validity and reliability of the scores for physical exercise in leisure (PEL, leisure and locomotion activities (LLA, and total score (TS of the Baecke habitual physical activity questionnaire in adult males. Twenty-one students of Physical Education were evaluated. For validation, the maximum oxygen uptake (O2max and the decrease of the heart rate in percentile (%DHR were measured through the Cooper's 12-minute walk or run test, and an annual index of physical exercise (IPE, and a week index of locomotion activities (ILA. The reliability was verified through test-retest with interval of 45 days. The Pearson correlation coefficient, and partial correlation adjusted for age and body mass index were used for validation. The intraclass correlation and paired t-test were used for reliability. The results indicated that %DHR was correlated with LLA and TS (r = 0.47 and p = 0.030; r = 0.48 and p = 0.027, respectively. IPE was correlated with PEL and TS (r = 0.56 and p = 0.008; r = 0.46 and p = 0.036, respectively. ILA was correlated with LLA and TS (r = 0.64 and p = 0.002 and r = 0.51 and p = 0.017, respectively. There was no significant difference in PEL, LLA and TS means in test-retest. The intraclass correlations were r = 0.69; r = 0.80 and r = 0.77, respectively for PEL, LLA and TS. In conclusion, the Baecke questionnaire is valid and reliable to measure habitual physical activity in Brazilian adult men.

  6. Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity among older Chinese adults:A social-ecological perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiangren Yi; Rui Wang; Zachary Pope; Zan Gao; Shumei Wang; Fang Pan; Jingpeng Yan; Meng Liu; Peipei Wu; Jingjing Xu

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To examine, within a social–ecological framework, associations between multifaceted individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity (HPA) among older Chinese adults. Methods: Through a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods, a survey instrument assessing various factors underlying 3 social–ecological dimensions of intrapersonal, interpersonal, and community and environmental resources was developed. Using a cross-sectional design, older adults (n=1580, aged 67 ± 7 years) recruited from 10 communities in Shandong province completed the social–ecological survey of HPA. Data were analyzed using Partial Least Squares Path Modeling. Results: Factors related to intrapersonal (medical knowledge, motivation, physical function, sport skills, socioeconomic status, and education), interpersonal (social support, social activity, and social norms), and community and physical environmental resources (safety, capacity, availability of and access to physical activity facilities) were found to be significantly associated with older adults’ participation in HPA. Conclusion: The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active. © 2016 Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Shanghai University of Sport. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

  7. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND QUALITY OF LIFE OF WOMEN WITH FIBROMYALGIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoela de Oliveira Nascimento Araújo

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The syndrome of fibromyalgia (FM is a condition of chronic pain, general, difficult to treat and contributes to the decline of cardiorespiratory fitness and quality of life. This study aimed to analyze the association between physical activity and quality of life of women with FM. Was characterized as cross-sectional study and the population consisted 22 women with FM care in the city of Itabuna - BA. The diagnosis of fibromyalgia was according to criteria to American College of Rheumatology. The data collection instrument was established by the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire and the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Atividade física e qualidade de vida For data analysis, we used the procedure descriptive statistics (mean, standard deviation, frequency and percentage and inferential (Chi-square test and Fisher's test, significance level of p≤0.05. The average age of respondents was 41.05 (SD = 6.543 years, ranging between 27 and 56 years. In general physical activity, 45.5% were considered physically active. By analyzing the dimensions of physical activity as a means transportation, only 31.8% are active and in the dimension of leisure, only 27.3%. The assessment of the level of quality of life of the subjects revealed that 72.7% had negative quality of life, while only 27.3% reported having a positive quality of life. The present study showed that fibromyalgia affects mainly women and that this syndrome interfere with the patients' quality of life.

  8. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oftedal, Stina; Bell, Kristie L.; Mitchell, Louise E.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Ware, Robert S.; Boyd, Roslyn N.

    2012-01-01

    Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA) measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC). Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group. PMID:22927865

  9. A Systematic Review of the Clinimetric Properties of Habitual Physical Activity Measures in Young Children with a Motor Disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stina Oftedal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To identify and systematically review the clinimetric properties of habitual physical activity (HPA measures in young children with a motor disability. Method. Five databases were searched for measures of HPA including: children aged <6.0 years with a neuromuscular disorder, physical activity defined as “bodily movement produced by skeletal muscles causing caloric expenditure”, reported HPA as duration, frequency, intensity, mode or energy expenditure, and evaluated clinimetric properties. The quality of papers was assessed using the COSMIN-checklist. A targeted search of identified measures found additional studies of typically developing young children (TDC. Results. Seven papers assessing four activity monitors met inclusion criteria. Four studies were of good methodological quality. The Minimod had good ability to measure continuous walking but the demonstrated poor ability to measure steps during free-living activities. The Intelligent Device for Energy Expenditure and Activity and Ambulatory Monitoring Pod showed poor ability to measure activity during both continuous walking and free-living activities. The StepWatch showed good ability to measure steps during continuous walking in TDC. Interpretation. Studies assessing the clinimetric properties of measures of HPA in this population are urgently needed to allow assessment of the relationship between HPA and health outcomes in this group.

  10. The number of repeated observations needed to estimate the habitual physical activity of an individual to a given level of precision.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Bergman

    Full Text Available Physical activity behavior varies naturally from day to day, from week to week and even across seasons. In order to assess the habitual level of physical activity of a person, the person must be monitored for long enough so that the level can be identified, taking into account this natural within-person variation. An important question, and one whose answer has implications for study- and survey design, epidemiological research and population surveillance, is, for how long does an individual need to be monitored before such a habitual level or pattern can be identified to a desired level of precision? The aim of this study was to estimate the number of repeated observations needed to identify the habitual physical activity behaviour of an individual to a given degree of precision. A convenience sample of 50 Swedish adults wore accelerometers during four consecutive weeks. The number of days needed to come within 5-50% of an individual's usual physical activity 95% of the time was calculated. To get an idea of the uncertainty of the estimates all statistical estimates were bootstrapped 2000 times. The mean number of days of measurement needed for the observation to, with 95% confidence, be within 20% of the habitual physical activity of an individual is highest for vigorous physical activity, for which 182 days are needed. For sedentary behaviour the equivalent number of days is 2.4. To capture 80% of the sample to within ±20% of their habitual level of physical activity, 3.4 days is needed if sedentary behavior is the outcome of interest, and 34.8 days for MVPA. The present study shows that for analyses requiring accurate data at the individual level a longer measurement collection period than the traditional 7-day protocol should be used. In addition, the amount of MVPA was negatively associated with the number of days required to identify the habitual physical activity level indicating that the least active are also those whose habitual

  11. Effects of Mat Pilates training and habitual physical activity on thoracoabdominal expansion during quiet and vital capacity breathing in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Jeniffer L; Vancini, Rodrigo L; Zanoni, Graziely R; Barbosa DE Lira, Claudio A; Santos Andrade, Marilia; Sarro, Karine J

    2017-10-27

    Pilates is a body/mind method that requires different types of exercise (balance, endurance, strength, and flexibility) and attention to muscle control, posture, and breathing. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of Mat Pilates training and habitual physical activity on thoracoabdominal motion of healthy and physically active women. Thirty-five women without experience in Pilates exercise, aged between 18 and 35 years, participated in the study (habitual physical activity group, n=14; and Mat Pilates group, n=21). Three- dimensional kinematic analysis was used to evaluate total and separate thoracoabdominal compartments' expansion (superior and inferior thorax and abdomen), contribution of each compartment to total thoracoabdominal expansion, and coordination between thoracoabdominal compartments. After 12 weeks of Mat Pilates training, thoracoabdominal expansion during quiet breathing was improved by increasing the expansion of abdomen by about 33% (P=0.01). Moreover, expansion of superior (P=0.04) and inferior thorax (P=0.02) and abdomen (P=0.01) was also improved in Pilates (35%, 33% and 37%, respectively) compared to the habitual physical activity group, after the experimental protocol. Finally, the habitual physical activity group presented a decrease of 13% in the expansion of abdomen (P = 0.002). The results suggest the capability of Mat Pilates in improving the action of respiratory and abdominal muscles during breathing and, thus, its benefits to breathing mechanics.

  12. The relationship between the built environment and habitual levels of physical activity in South African older adults: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolbe-Alexander, Tracy L; Pacheco, Kyla; Tomaz, Simone A; Karpul, David; Lambert, Estelle V

    2015-05-30

    Previous research has shown that the built environment plays a role in habitual levels of physical activity (PA), however much of this research has been conducted in adults and higher income countries. The aim of this pilot study was to examine the strength of association between the built environment and PA in South African older adults. Participants were recruited (n = 44, mean age 65 ± 8.5 years) from two suburbs, representing either a high socioeconomic (HSA) or low socioeconomic area (LSA). Self-reported PA, and subjective assessments of neighborhood walkability (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale, NEWS) was measured. Participants wore Actigraph GT3x accelerometers to objectively quantify PA. HSA participants reported significantly more leisure-time and less transport PA. Objectively measured and self-reported MVPA was significantly higher in HSA participants. NEWS 'Land-use Mix' was negatively associated with leisure-time MVPA, (r(2) = 0.20; p leisure-time physical activity (r(2) = 0.33; p = 0.02). 'Safety from traffic' was inversely associated with travel-related PA (r(2) = 0.14, p = 0.01). None of the other NEWS scores were associated with PA for the total group. Leisure-time and transport-related PA was influenced by socio-economic status. Attributes of the perceived built environment associated with leisure-time and total MVPA in older South Africa adults were different in low- and high- income settings.

  13. Prediction of habitual physical activity level and weight status from fundamental movement skill level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Elizabeth Sarah; James, Rob S; Birch, Samantha Louise; Duncan, Mike

    2014-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills (FMS) have been assessed in children in order to investigate the issues of the low proportion of children who meet physical activity (PA) guidelines and rising levels of obesity. The aim of this research was to identify whether previous or current FMS level is a better predictor of PA levels and weight status in children. In January 2012 (year 1), 281 children were recruited from one primary school in the West Midlands, UK. Children performed eight FMS three times, which were videoed and assessed using a subjective checklist. Sprint speed and jump height were measured objectively. Height and mass were measured to calculate the body mass index to determine the weight status. Skinfold calliper readings were used to calculate body fat percentage. One year later, in January 2013, all these tests were repeated on the same children, with the additional collection of PA data via the use of pedometers. Following multiple linear regression, it was identified that prior mastery in FMS was a better predictor of current PA, whereas current FMS was a better predictor of current weight status. Overall, FMS mastery is needed in childhood to be able to participate in PA and maintain a healthy weight status.

  14. Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heelan Kate

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES independent of body mass index. Methods Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females. The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. Results In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p Conclusions Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher BMI in these children might be another factor contributing to increased health risks among low SES children compared to children from with a higher SES.

  15. Validity and reliability of the Baecke questionnaire for the evaluation of habitual physical activity among people living with HIV/AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florindo Alex Antonio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates the validity and reliability of the Baecke questionnaire on habitual physical activity when applied to a population of HIV/AIDS subjects. Validity was determined by comparing measurements for 30 subjects of peak oxygen uptake, peak workload, and energy expenditure with scores for occupational physical activity (OPA, physical exercise in leisure (PEL, leisure and locomotion activities (LLA, and total score (TS. Reliability was determined by testing and retesting 29 subjects at intervals of 15-30 days. Validity was evaluated with the Pearson correlation and reliability analyses were done using the intraclass correlation, paired Student t-test, and Bland-Altman methods. Peak VO2 and peak workload had significant correlation with PEL (r = 0.41; r = 0.43; respectively. Energy expenditure had a significant correlation with OPA (r = 0.64. The intraclass coefficients were 0.70 or more for OPA, PEL and TS. There was no difference in OPA, PEL, LLA and TS between the two evaluations. The Bland-Altman methods showed that there was good agreement between the measurements for all habitual physical activities scores. Results show that the Baecke questionnaire is valid for the evaluation of habitual physical activity among people living with HIV/AIDS.

  16. Influence of socio-economic status on habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior in 8- to 11-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Welk, Greg; Heelan, Kate; Gentile, Douglas; Walsh, David

    2010-04-27

    While socio-economic status has been shown to be an important determinant of health and physical activity in adults, results for children and adolescents are less consistent. The purpose of this study, therefore, is to examine whether physical activity and sedentary behavior differs in children by socio-economic status (SES) independent of body mass index. Data were from two cohorts including 271 children (117 males; 154 females) in study 1 and 131 children in study 2 (63 males; 68 females). The average age was 9.6 and 8.8 years respectively. Height and body mass were assessed according to standard procedures and body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) was calculated. Parent-reported household income was used to determine SES. Habitual, free-living physical activity (PA) was assessed by a pedometer (steps/day) in study 1 and accelerometer (time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA) in study 2. Self-reported time spent watching TV and on the computer was used as measure of sedentary behavior. Differences in PA and sedentary behavior by SES were initially tested using ANOVA. Further analyses used ANCOVA controlling for BMI, as well as leg length in the pedometer cohort. In study 1, mean daily steps differed significantly among SES groups with lower SES groups approximating 10,500 steps/day compared to about 12,000 steps/day in the higher SES groups. These differences remained significant (p depended on the methodology used to determine time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Only one equation resulted in significant group differences (p = 0.015), and these differences remained after controlling for BMI. Significant differences between SES groups were shown for sedentary behavior in both cohorts (P < 0.05) with higher SES groups spending less time watching TV than low SES groups. Children from a low SES show a trend of lower PA levels and spend more time in sedentary behavior than high SES children; however, differences in PA were influenced by BMI. The higher

  17. Socioeconomic and Demographic Factors for Spousal Resemblance in Obesity Status and Habitual Physical Activity in the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Jen Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies suggested that the married population has an increased risk of obesity and assimilation between spouses’ body weight. We examined what factors may affect married spouses’ resemblance in weight status and habitual physical activity (HPA and the association of obesity/HPA with spouses’ sociodemoeconomic characteristics and lifestyles. Medical Expenditure Panel Survey data of 11,403 adult married couples in the US during years 2006–2008 were used. Absolute-scale difference and relative-scale resemblance indices (correlation and kappa coefficients in body mass index (BMI and HPA were estimated by couples’ socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. We found that spousal difference in BMI was smaller for couples with a lower household income, for who were both unemployed, and for older spouses. Correlation coefficient between spouses’ BMI was 0.24, differing by race/ethnicity and family size. Kappa coefficient for weight status (obesity: BMI ≥ 30, overweight: 30 > BMI ≥ 25 was 0.11 and 0.35 for HPA. Never-working women’s husbands had lower odds of obesity than employed women’s husbands (OR = 0.69 (95% CI = 0.53–0.89. Men’s unemployment status was associated with wives’ greater odds of obesity (OR = 1.31 (95% CI = 1.01–1.71. HPA was associated with men’s employment status and income level, but not with women’s. The population representative survey showed that spousal resemblance in weight status and HPA varied with socioeconomic and demographic factors.

  18. Effects of Habitual Physical Activity and Fitness on Tibial Cortical Bone Mass, Structure and Mass Distribution in Pre-pubertal Boys and Girls: The Look Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duckham, Rachel L; Rantalainen, Timo; Ducher, Gaele; Hill, Briony; Telford, Richard D; Telford, Rohan M; Daly, Robin M

    2016-07-01

    Targeted weight-bearing activities during the pre-pubertal years can improve cortical bone mass, structure and distribution, but less is known about the influence of habitual physical activity (PA) and fitness. This study examined the effects of contrasting habitual PA and fitness levels on cortical bone density, geometry and mass distribution in pre-pubertal children. Boys (n = 241) and girls (n = 245) aged 7-9 years had a pQCT scan to measure tibial mid-shaft total, cortical and medullary area, cortical thickness, density, polar strength strain index (SSIpolar) and the mass/density distribution through the bone cortex (radial distribution divided into endo-, mid- and pericortical regions) and around the centre of mass (polar distribution). Four contrasting PA and fitness groups (inactive-unfit, inactive-fit, active-unfit, active-fit) were generated based on daily step counts (pedometer, 7-days) and fitness levels (20-m shuttle test and vertical jump) for boys and girls separately. Active-fit boys had 7.3-7.7 % greater cortical area and thickness compared to inactive-unfit boys (P girls, but active-fit girls had 6.1 % (P girls, which was likely due to their 6.7 % (P active-fit girls. Higher levels of habitual PA-fitness were associated with small regional-specific gains in 66 % tibial cortical bone mass in pre-pubertal children, particularly boys.

  19. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, UO; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    of follow-up. This decrease leads to significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular risk. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of habitual physical activity on PBP. Design. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a longitudinal epidemiological study of CV risk in a random...... population sample. Three surveys were performed with 15 years of follow-up. Methods. BP was measured under standardized circumstances. A questionnaire concerning physical exercise was completed. Two scales were used, describing physical activity at work and during leisure-time, respectively. Results. Most...... of the subjects belonged to the sedentary or low physical activity categories. The population did not change physical activity habits during the observation time. There was no significant difference in either systolic or diastolic BP between the categories. Conclusions. The previously observed reduction in PBP...

  20. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, UO; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2007-01-01

    population sample. Three surveys were performed with 15 years of follow-up. Methods. BP was measured under standardized circumstances. A questionnaire concerning physical exercise was completed. Two scales were used, describing physical activity at work and during leisure-time, respectively. Results. Most...... of follow-up. This decrease leads to significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular risk. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of habitual physical activity on PBP. Design. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a longitudinal epidemiological study of CV risk in a random...... of the subjects belonged to the sedentary or low physical activity categories. The population did not change physical activity habits during the observation time. There was no significant difference in either systolic or diastolic BP between the categories. Conclusions. The previously observed reduction in PBP...

  1. Level of habitual physical activity and behaviors related to the health of bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú - BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jair Sindra Virtuoso Júnior

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study left of the interest in researching on one of the more affected workers' groups for the modifications that it is happening in the world of the work. Starting from this, the objective was to identify as the behaviors related to the health (smoking, consumption of alcoholic drink, stress level, alimentary habits they are related with the level of those workers' habitual physical activity. The sample selected by convenience it was composed of 30 workers bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú-BA, with the average of 42,6 year-old age (DP=10,5, being 20 women and 10 men. For collection of the information an interview was used, applied in an individual way in the interviewee's home. The results indicated that most of the interviewees was classified as physically assets (average of 23,6 METs diaries and with behaviors related to the health inside of the parameters recommended to the health, and of the analyzed variables, only the alimentary habits were associated as the level of habitual physical activity (2=6,16 p=0,01. It is necessary that the information the about of such a problem they continue being transmitted to several population groups, besides to the bank workers for these are motivated always to obtain and to maintain healthy lifestyles.

  2. LEVEL OF HABITUAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND BEHAVIORS RELATED TO THE HEALTH OF BANK CLERKS OF THE MUNICIPAL DISTRICT OF IPIAÚ - BA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malú Oliveira Freire

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available The present study left of the interest in researching on one of the more affected workers' groups for the modifications that it is happening in the world of the work. Starting from this, the objective was to identify as the behaviors related to the health (smoking, consumption of alcoholic drink, stress level, alimentary habits they are related with the level of those workers' habitual physical activity. The sample selected by convenience it was composed of 30 workers bank clerks of the municipal district of Ipiaú-BA, with the average of 42,6 year-old age (DP=10,5, being 20 women and 10 men. For collection of the information an interview was used, applied in an individual way in the interviewee's home. The results indicated that most of the interviewees was classified as physically assets (average of 23,6 METs diaries and with behaviors related to the health inside of the parameters recommended to the health, and of the analyzed variables, only the alimentary habits were associated as the level of habitual physical activity (χ 2 =6,16 p=0,01. It is necessary that the information the about of such a problem they continue being transmitted to several population groups, besides to the bank workers for these are motivated always to obtain and to maintain healthy lifestyles.

  3. Associations between individual and environmental factors and habitual physical activity among older Chinese adults: A social–ecological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangren Yi

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The findings provide an initial validation of a social–ecological approach to the study of HPA in China, suggesting that strategies aimed at promoting physical activity in older adults should address multiple levels of factors that may contribute to the likelihood of older Chinese adults being physically active.

  4. Decreasing population blood pressure is not mediated by changes in habitual physical activity. Results from 15 years of follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Jensen, Gorm

    2007-01-01

    Population blood pressure (PBP) is the average BP shared by all members of a population. In PBP research, the main focus is on the great majority of individuals who are healthy in respect to blood pressure. From previous studies, we know that PBP decreased 2 mmHg during 15 years of follow-up. This decrease leads to significant reductions in cardiovascular (CV) and cerebrovascular risk. The major aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of habitual physical activity on PBP. Copenhagen City Heart Study is a longitudinal epidemiological study of CV risk in a random population sample. Three surveys were performed with 15 years of follow-up. BP was measured under standardized circumstances. A questionnaire concerning physical exercise was completed. Two scales were used, describing physical activity at work and during leisure-time, respectively. Most of the subjects belonged to the sedentary or low physical activity categories. The population did not change physical activity habits during the observation time. There was no significant difference in either systolic or diastolic BP between the categories. The previously observed reduction in PBP is not explained by a change in the population physical activity habits. This fact illustrates the difference between the high-risk strategy and the population strategy. In the first, the preventive strategy identifies hypertensive individuals and offers them antihypertensive medication and lifestyle modulation such as more and regular physical activity to improve blood pressure and lower individual CV and cerebrovascular risk. In contrast, the "population strategy" seeks to control the determinants of incidence in the population as a whole. This paper demonstrates that physical activity is not a determinant of PBP.

  5. Dog ownership status and self-assessed health, life-style and habitual physical activity in chronic hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuban, Magdalena; Królikowski, Jerzy; Nowicki, Michał

    2016-07-01

    Introduction The Statement from the American Heart Association has emphasized a need for novel strategies that can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Taking a dog for a walk forces its owner to take physical activity. Several studies have explored the relationship between pet ownership and CVD and most reported benefits. This issue has not been investigated in dialysis patients. The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of pet ownership on health and physical activity in hemodialysis patients. Methods 270 chronic hemodialysis patients (172 male, 98 female, mean age 62.7 ± 14.0 years, hemodialysis vintage 4 ± 5 years) took part in the survey focused on their general health and physical activity. Findings Two hundred nineteen (81%) patients were mobile. One hundred sixteen participants had dog at home (43%). An additional physical activity was reported by 46 dog owners (40%) compared with 34 (23%) of nonowners (P = 0.002). Patients who often go for a walk were more often pet owners 49 (57%) than nonowners (n = 37, 43%; P = 0.004). Pet owners were younger (58.3 ± 13.6 vs. 66 ± 13.5 years). Body mass index (BMI) was similar. Patients with BMI from upper tertile (>27.5 kg/m(2) ) and from lower (dog owners than from the middle (52.9%, 43.7%, and 31.4%). Dog owners were on dialysis for longer time (5.0 ± 6.5 vs. 3.5 ± 3.7 years; P = 0.02). Discussion Dog ownership appears to positively influence the level of physical activity. Age but not time on dialysis seems to be the most important factor that influences a decision to own a pet and undertake physical activity. © 2016 International Society for Hemodialysis.

  6. In healthy elderly postmenopausal women variations in BMD and BMC at various skeletal sites are associated with differences in weight and lean body mass rather than by variations in habitual physical activity, strength or VO2max.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schöffl, I; Kemmler, W; Kladny, B; Vonstengel, S; Kalender, W A; Engelke, K

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was an integrated cross-sectional investigation for answering the question whether differences in bone mineral density in elderly postmenopausal women are associated with differences in habitual physical activity and unspecific exercise levels. Two hundred and ninety nine elderly women (69-/+3 years), without diseases or medication affecting bone metabolism were investigated. The influence of weight, body composition and physical activity on BMD was measured at multiple sites using different techniques (DXA, QCT, and QUS). Physical activity and exercise level were assessed by questionnaire, maximum strength of the legs and aerobic capacity. Variations in physical activity or habitual exercise had no effect on bone. The only significant univariate relation between strength/VO(2)max and BMD/BMC that remained after adjusting for confounding variables was between arm BMD (DXA) and hand-grip strength. The most important variable for explaining BMD was weight and for cortical BMC of the femur (QCT) lean body mass. Weight and lean body mass emerge as predominant predictors of BMD in normal elderly women, whereas the isolated effect of habitual physical activity, unspecific exercise participation, and muscle strength on bone parameters is negligible. Thus, an increase in the amount of habitual physical activity will probably have no beneficial impact on bone.

  7. Relationship between habitual physical activity and gross motor skills is multifaceted in 5- to 8-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laukkanen, A; Pesola, A; Havu, M; Sääkslahti, A; Finni, T

    2014-04-01

    Adequate motor skills are essential for children participating in age-related physical activities, and gross motor skills may play an important role for maintaining sufficient level of physical activity (PA) during life course. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between gross motor skills and PA in children when PA was analyzed by both metabolic- and neuromuscular-based methods. Gross motor skills (KTK--Körperkoordinationstest für Kinder and APM inventory--manipulative skill test) of 84 children aged 5-8 years (53 preschoolers, 28 girls; 31 primary schoolers, 18 girls) were measured, and accelerometer-derived PA was analyzed using in parallel metabolic counts and neuromuscular impact methods. The gross motor skills were associated with moderate-to-high neuromuscular impacts, PA of vigorous metabolic intensity, and mean level of PA in primary school girls (0.5 motor skills (0.4 motor skills and PA stressing both metabolic and neuromuscular systems in children. Furthermore, PA highly stressing neuromuscular system interacts with gross motor proficiency in girls especially. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. An investigation into the minimum accelerometry wear time for reliable estimates of habitual physical activity and definition of a standard measurement day in pre-school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hislop, Jane; Law, James; Rush, Robert; Grainger, Andrew; Bulley, Cathy; Reilly, John J; Mercer, Tom

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the number of hours and days of accelerometry data necessary to provide a reliable estimate of habitual physical activity in pre-school children. The impact of a weekend day on reliability estimates was also determined and standard measurement days were defined for weekend and weekdays.Accelerometry data were collected from 112 children (60 males, 52 females, mean (SD) 3.7 (0.7)yr) over 7 d. The Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula (S-B prophecy formula) was used to predict the number of days and hours of data required to achieve an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.7. The impact of including a weekend day was evaluated by comparing the reliability coefficient (r) for any 4 d of data with data for 4 d including one weekend day.Our observations indicate that 3 d of accelerometry monitoring, regardless of whether it includes a weekend day, for at least 7 h  d(-1) offers sufficient reliability to characterise total physical activity and sedentary behaviour of pre-school children. These findings offer an approach that addresses the underlying tension in epidemiologic surveillance studies between the need to maintain acceptable measurement rigour and retention of a representatively meaningful sample size.

  9. Comparing motivational, self-regulatory and habitual processes in a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in hospital employees - protocol for the PATHS randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwasnicka, Dominika; Vandelanotte, Corneel; Rebar, Amanda; Gardner, Benjamin; Short, Camille; Duncan, Mitch; Crook, Dawn; Hagger, Martin S

    2017-05-26

    Most people do not engage in sufficient physical activity to confer health benefits and to reduce risk of chronic disease. Healthcare professionals frequently provide guidance on physical activity, but often do not meet guideline levels of physical activity themselves. The main objective of this study is to develop and test the efficacy of a tailored intervention to increase healthcare professionals' physical activity participation and quality of life, and to reduce work-related stress and absenteeism. This is the first study to compare the additive effects of three forms of a tailored intervention using different techniques from behavioural theory, which differ according to their focus on motivational, self-regulatory and/or habitual processes. Healthcare professionals (N = 192) will be recruited from four hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, via email lists, leaflets, and posters to participate in the four group randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to one of four conditions: (1) education only (non-tailored information only), (2) education plus intervention components to enhance motivation, (3) education plus components to enhance motivation and self-regulation, and (4) education plus components to enhance motivation, self-regulation and habit formation. All intervention groups will receive a computer-tailored intervention administered via a web-based platform and will receive supporting text-messages containing tailored information, prompts and feedback relevant to each condition. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome assessed in this study is physical activity measured using activity monitors. Secondary outcomes include: quality of life, stress, anxiety, sleep, and absenteeism. Website engagement, retention, preferences and intervention fidelity will also be evaluated as well as potential mediators and moderators of intervention effect. This is the first study to examine a tailored

  10. Comparing motivational, self-regulatory and habitual processes in a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in hospital employees - protocol for the PATHS randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominika Kwasnicka

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most people do not engage in sufficient physical activity to confer health benefits and to reduce risk of chronic disease. Healthcare professionals frequently provide guidance on physical activity, but often do not meet guideline levels of physical activity themselves. The main objective of this study is to develop and test the efficacy of a tailored intervention to increase healthcare professionals’ physical activity participation and quality of life, and to reduce work-related stress and absenteeism. This is the first study to compare the additive effects of three forms of a tailored intervention using different techniques from behavioural theory, which differ according to their focus on motivational, self-regulatory and/or habitual processes. Methods/Design Healthcare professionals (N = 192 will be recruited from four hospitals in Perth, Western Australia, via email lists, leaflets, and posters to participate in the four group randomised controlled trial. Participants will be randomised to one of four conditions: (1 education only (non-tailored information only, (2 education plus intervention components to enhance motivation, (3 education plus components to enhance motivation and self-regulation, and (4 education plus components to enhance motivation, self-regulation and habit formation. All intervention groups will receive a computer-tailored intervention administered via a web-based platform and will receive supporting text-messages containing tailored information, prompts and feedback relevant to each condition. All outcomes will be assessed at baseline, and at 3-month follow-up. The primary outcome assessed in this study is physical activity measured using activity monitors. Secondary outcomes include: quality of life, stress, anxiety, sleep, and absenteeism. Website engagement, retention, preferences and intervention fidelity will also be evaluated as well as potential mediators and moderators of intervention

  11. Differences in the locomotor-activating effects of indirect serotonin agonists in habituated and non-habituated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halberstadt, Adam L; Buell, Mahálah R; Price, Diana L; Geyer, Mark A

    2012-07-01

    The indirect serotonin (5-HT) agonist 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) produces a distinct behavioral profile in rats consisting of locomotor hyperactivity, thigmotaxis, and decreased exploration. The indirect 5-HT agonist α-ethyltryptamine (AET) produces a similar behavioral profile. Using the Behavioral Pattern Monitor (BPM), the present investigation examined whether the effects of MDMA and AET are dependent on the novelty of the testing environment. These experiments were conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats housed on a reversed light cycle and tested during the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. We found that racemic MDMA (RS-MDMA; 3 mg/kg, SC) increased locomotor activity in rats tested in novel BPM chambers, but had no effect on locomotor activity in rats habituated to the BPM chambers immediately prior to testing. Likewise, AET (5 mg/kg, SC) increased locomotor activity in non-habituated animals but not in animals habituated to the test chambers. These results were unexpected because previous reports indicate that MDMA has robust locomotor-activating effects in habituated animals. To further examine the influence of habituation on MDMA-induced locomotor activity, we conducted parametric studies with S-(+)-MDMA (the more active enantiomer) in habituated and non-habituated rats housed on a standard or reversed light cycle. Light cycle was included as a variable due to reported differences in sensitivity to serotonergic ligands during the dark and light phases. In confirmation of our initial studies, rats tested during the dark phase and habituated to the BPM did not show an S-(+)-MDMA (3 mg/kg, SC)-induced increase in locomotor activity, whereas non-habituated rats did. By contrast, in rats tested during the light phase, S-(+)-MDMA increased locomotor activity in both non-habituated and habituated rats, although the response in habituated animals was attenuated. The finding that habituation and light cycle interact to influence MDMA- and AET

  12. Long-term habitual physical activity is associated with lower distractibility in a Stroop interference task in aging: Behavioral and ERP evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajewski, Patrick D; Falkenstein, Michael

    2015-08-01

    Aging is associated with compromised executive control functions. Several lines of evidence point to beneficial effects of physical activity on cognition which indicate that regular physical activity may counteract the age-related decline of some executive functions. Here, we investigate the effects of lifelong physical activity (about 50 years) on interference processing in two matched groups of 20 physically high active and 20 low active healthy older men using event-related potentials (ERPs). In a low interference block of the Stroop task, participants had to indicate the meaning of color-words, while color was either compatible or incompatible with the meaning. In the high interference block, participants were asked to respond according to the ink color of the word and to ignore its meaning. Physically active seniors showed faster reaction times, lower individual variability in reaction times, and higher accuracy compared to low active seniors, particularly in the high interference block. This result was confirmed in the classic paper-and-pencil version of the Stroop task showing higher interference score in the low active than high active individuals. ERPs revealed a shorter latency of the P2 and generally more negative amplitudes of the fronto-central N2 and N450 components in the high active group compared to the low active group. The amount of interference was negatively correlated with objectively measured fitness and self-reported physical activity. The positive effect of physical fitness on interference processing in the behavioral data was related to N2 and N450 amplitudes. Taken together, this suggests that seniors reporting long-term physical activity may exhibit generally enhanced activity in the frontal cortex which enables more efficient interference resolution in the Stroop task. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Habitual active transport, TV viewing and weight gain: a four year follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Sugiyama, Takemi; Owen, Neville

    2012-01-01

    To examine the associations of TV viewing time and domain-specific physical activity with weight change; to determine whether domain-specific physical activity moderates the potential association of TV viewing time with weight change. We used four-year longitudinal data (baseline: 2003-2004, follow-up: 2007-2008) on 969 adults from selected neighborhoods in Adelaide, Australia (Age: 48.6 ± 10.6 years, 61% females). Mixed models examined four-year weight change as the dependent variable, with TV viewing time, habitual transport and past week domain-specific physical activity at baseline as independent variables. On average, participants gained 1.6 kg over four years. TV viewing time at baseline was positively associated with weight gain at follow-up. Each additional hour of TV viewing was associated with 0.24-0.27 kg of extra weight gain. This relationship was not moderated by recent recall of transport, leisure-time, and occupational physical activity, but was moderated by habitual transport: an additional hour of TV viewing time at baseline was significantly associated with an extra weight gain of 0.65 kg at follow-up among those who were inactive in everyday transport; TV time was not significantly associated with weight change among those who were regularly active in transport. Habitual active transport may protect adults against risk of weight gain associated with prolonged TV viewing time. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Modulation of Energy Intake and Expenditure Due to Habitual Physical Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Matoulek; Krystof, Slaby; Jiri, Radvansky; Martina, Dankova; Renata, Vetrovska; Ondrej, Mikes; Stepan, Svacina; Vladimir, Tuka

    2016-01-01

    The 20th and 21st centuries are marked by an increase in life expectancy on one hand and on the other hand by the increase of so called civilization diseases. Their share one common trait: the energy metabolism imbalance, with low energy expenditure and high energy uptake. Our age can be viewed as the age of inactivity and wealth. The aim of the present review is to highlight the influence of habitual physical activity on energy metabolism and balance. Energy balance is the difference between energy intake and energy expenditure, where energy expenditure further divides into resting metabolic rate, thermic effect of feeding and energy used by physical activity. In general population, resting metabolic rate remains constant and proportional to muscle body mass. Muscle mass increases with exercise, especially resistance exercise, concomitantly with increasing energy expenditure. The effect of exercise on appetite is very strong, proportional to exercise intensity. An acute bout of aerobic exercise suppresses appetite by decreasing ghrelin plasma levels, and increasing gut hormones. Different subgroups of patients respond differently to the same exercise or habitual activity and have thus distinct effects on energy balance. Different myokines plasma levels after exercise could explain these different reactions although most of their effect is still unclear. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention and treatment of many disorders, like obesity, type 1 and type 2 diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypertension, coronary heart disease, osteoporosis, psychiatric and neurologic disorders. It is evident, that physical activity has an effect not only on energy balance but also has a direct effect on other body organ via its own molecules - myokines. The pharmacological effect of myokines gives hope that one day we could have a "myokine drug" that could be used in patients who are unable to exercise. Until then we should use our "muscle-pharmacy" and try to convince

  15. Association of Habitual Patterns and Types of Physical Activity and Inactivity with MRI-Determined Total Volumes of Visceral and Subcutaneous Abdominal Adipose Tissue in a General White Population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Fischer

    Full Text Available Population-based evidence for the role of habitual physical activity (PA in the accumulation of visceral (VAT and subcutaneous (SAAT abdominal adipose tissue is limited. We investigated if usual patterns and types of self-reported PA and inactivity were associated with VAT and SAAT in a general white population. Total volumes of VAT and SAAT were quantified by magnetic resonance imaging in 583 men and women (61 ± 11.9 y; BMI 27.2 ± 4.4 kg/m2. Past-year PA and inactivity were self-reported by questionnaire. Exploratory activity patterns (APAT were derived by principal components analysis. Cross-sectional associations between individual activities, total PA in terms of metabolic equivalents (PA MET, or overall APAT and either VAT or SAAT were analyzed by multivariable-adjusted robust or generalized linear regression models. Whereas vigorous-intensity PA (VPA was negatively associated with both VAT and SAAT, associations between total PA MET, moderate-intensity PA (MPA, or inactivity and VAT and/or SAAT depended on sex. There was also evidence of a threshold effect in some of these relationships. Total PA MET was more strongly associated with VAT in men (B = -3.3 ± 1.4; P = 0.02 than women (B = -2.1 ± 1.1; P = 0.07, but was more strongly associated with SAAT in women (B = -5.7 ± 2.5; P = 0.05 than men (B = -1.7 ± 1.6; P = 0.3. Men (-1.52 dm3 or -1.89 dm3 and women (-1.15 dm3 or -2.61 dm3 in the highest (>6.8 h/wk VPA or second (4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA tertile of an APAT rich in VPA, had lower VAT and SAAT, respectively, than those in the lowest (<4.0 h/wk VPA tertile (P ≤ 0.016; P trend ≤ 0.0005. They also had lower VAT and SAAT than those with APAT rich in MPA and/or inactivity only. In conclusion, our results suggest that in white populations, habitual APAT rich in MPA might be insufficient to impact on accumulation of VAT or SAAT. APAT including ≥ 4.0-6.8 h/wk VPA, by contrast, are more strongly associated with lower VAT and SAAT.

  16. Bone mineral density and accelerometer-determined habitual physical activity and inactivity in postmenopausal women [Kostní denzita a habituální pohybová aktivita a inaktivita u postmenopauzálních žen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondřej Kapuš

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In postmenopausal women, physical activity appears to be important in preventing loss of bone mineral density (BMD and osteoporosis and thus contributes to the reduction of fracture risk. OBJECTIVE: This cross-sectional study aimed to investigate the differences in habitual physical activity, physical inactivity and meeting physical activity recommendations between women with normal femoral BMD and women with osteopenia. METHODS: Out of the ninety-two postmenopausal women analyzed in this study, 72.8% women had normal femoral BMD and 27.2% women were osteopenic. Their BMD and body composition were measured using Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry. The region of interest was the total proximal femur. Seven days of physical activity were objectively assessed by using the ActiGraph GT1M accelerometer. Daily activity and inactivity logs were used for the participants to self-record their times (minutes when the accelerometer was worn and follow activity and inactivity patterns. RESULTS: Women with normal BMD spent significantly more hours/day being active than women with osteopenia. On theother hand, women with osteopenia perform significantly more household-related PA. According to the physical inactivity analysis, women with osteopenia spent significantly more minutes/week while doing different mental activities (reading, doing crossword puzzles, etc. in a sitting position than women with normal BMD. CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, the results of this study show the differences in physical activity and physical inactivity in women with different femoral BMD.[VÝCHODISKA: U postmenopauzálních žen je pohybová aktivita důležitá jako prevence úbytku kostní denzity a osteoporózy a přispívá tak ke snížování rizika zlomenin. CÍLE: Cílem této průřezové studie bylo zjištění, zda existují rozdíly v habituální pohybové aktivitě, pohybové inaktivitě a v plnění doporučení k pohybové aktivitě mezi ženami s norm

  17. Does the habitual mastication side impact jaw muscle activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcio, Karina Helga Leal; Zuim, Paulo Renato Junqueira; Guiotti, Aimée Maria; Dos Santos, Daniela Micheline; Goiato, Marcelo Coelho; Brandini, Daniela Atili

    2016-07-01

    To compare electrical activity in the anterior temporal and masseter muscles on the habitual (HMS) and non-habitual mastication side (NHMS), during mastication and in the mandibular postural position. In addition, the increase in electrical activity during mastication was assessed for the HMS and NHMS, analysing both working (WSM) and non-working side during mastication (NWSM). A total of 28 healthy women (18-32 years) participated in the study. They were submitted to Kazazoglu's test to identify the HMS. Bioresearch 'Bio EMG' software and bipolar surface electrodes were used in the exams. The exams were conducted in the postural position and during the unilateral mastication of raisins, on both the HMS and NHMS. The working and non-working side on HMS and NHMS were assessed separately. The obtained data were then statistically analysed with SPSS 20.0, using the Paired Samples Test at a significance level of 95%. The differences in the average EMG values between HMS and NHMS were not statistically significant in the postural position (Temporal p=0.2; Masseter p=0.4) or during mastication (Temporal WSM p=0.8; Temporal NWSM p=0.8; Masseter WSM p=0.6; Masseter NWSM p=0.2). Differences in the increase in electrical activity between the masseter and temporal muscles occurred on the working side, on the HMS and NHMS (p=0.0), but not on the non-working side: HMS (p=0.9) and NHMS (p=0.3). The increase in electrical activity was about 35% higher in the masseter than in the temporal muscle. Mastication side preference does not significantly impact electrical activity of the anterior temporal and masseter muscles during mastication or in postural position. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Habitual physical activity, peripheral neuropathy, foot deformities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    joint or leg pain), lack of equipment, and exercise partner(s).20. Yet, many of these ... peripheral neuropathy and lower limb functions among a group of Nigerian .... scale for inpatients of an orthopaedic rehabilitation ward found that interclass ...

  19. Eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Fortes,Leonardo de Sousa; Morgado,Fabiane Frota da Rocha; Almeida,Sebastião de Sousa; Ferreira,Maria Elisa Caputo

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences w...

  20. Investigation of habitual pitch during free play activities for preschool-aged children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang; Kimelman, Mikael D Z; Micco, Katie

    2009-01-01

    This study is designed to compare the habitual pitch measured in two different speech activities (free play activity and traditionally used structured speech activity) for normally developing preschool-aged children to explore to what extent preschoolers vary their vocal pitch among different speech environments. Habitual pitch measurements were conducted for 10 normally developing children (2 boys, 8 girls) between the ages of 31 months and 71 months during two different activities: (1) free play; and (2) structured speech. Speech samples were recorded using a throat microphone connected with a wireless transmitter in both activities. The habitual pitch (in Hz) was measured for all collected speech samples by using voice analysis software (Real-Time Pitch). Significantly higher habitual pitch is found during free play in contrast to structured speech activities. In addition, there is no showing of significant difference of habitual pitch elicited across a variety of structured speech activities. Findings suggest that the vocal usage of preschoolers appears to be more effortful during free play than during structured activities. It is recommended that a comprehensive evaluation for young children's voice needs to be based on the speech/voice samples collected from both free play and structured activities.

  1. Eating behavior and physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo de Sousa Fortes

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the inappropriate eating behaviors of adolescents as a function of habitual level of physical activity. METHODS: Participants were 462 youth of both genders aged 10 to 19 years. The Eating Attitudes Test-26 was used for inappropriate eating behaviors assessment. A short version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used for classifying the habitual level of physical activity. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found for the comparison of inappropriate eating behaviors in the multivariate covariance model either for females or males. Moreover, the level of physical activity had no significant influence on the inappropriate eating behaviors of these adolescents. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, inappropriate eating behaviors in both genders were similar regardless of the habitual level of physical activity.

  2. Habituation of Salmonella spp. at Reduced Water Activity and Its Effect on Heat Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattick, K. L.; Jørgensen, F.; Legan, J. D.; Lappin-Scott, H. M.; Humphrey, T. J.

    2000-01-01

    The effect of habituation at reduced water activity (aw) on heat tolerance of Salmonella spp. was investigated. Stationary-phase cells were exposed to aw 0.95 in broths containing glucose-fructose, sodium chloride, or glycerol at 21°C for up to a week prior to heat challenge at 54°C. In addition, the effects of different aws and heat challenge temperatures were investigated. Habituation at aw 0.95 resulted in increased heat tolerance at 54°C with all solutes tested. The extent of the increase and the optimal habituation time depended on the solute used. Exposure to broths containing glucose-fructose (aw 0.95) for 12 h resulted in maximal heat tolerance, with more than a fourfold increase in D54 values. Cells held for more than 72 h in these conditions, however, became as heat sensitive as nonhabituated populations. Habituation in the presence of sodium chloride or glycerol gave rise to less pronounced but still significant increases in heat tolerance at 54°C, and a shorter incubation time was required to maximize tolerance. The increase in heat tolerance following habituation in broths containing glucose-fructose (aw 0.95) was RpoS independent. The presence of chloramphenicol or rifampin during habituation and inactivation did not affect the extent of heat tolerance achieved, suggesting that de novo protein synthesis was probably not necessary. These data highlight the importance of cell prehistory prior to heat inactivation and may have implications for food manufacturers using low-aw ingredients. PMID:11055944

  3. Habituating pain: Questioning pain and physical strain as inextricable conditions in the construction industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeppe Z.N. Ajslev

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we investigate the relations between discursive practices within the Danish construction industry and the perceived pain, physical deterioration, and strain affecting the construction workers. Of central importance is the widely accepted hegemonic discourse on physical strain and pain as unavoidable conditions in construction work. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews performed in eight case studies within four different construction professions, workers’ descriptions of physical strain and its relation to the organizational and social context are analyzed through concepts of subject positioning in discursive practice and a focus on power relations. The analysis shows that workers and employers reproduce certain types of traditional working class masculinities and search for high-pace productive working rhythms, which in combination with economic incentives common within the industry reproduce physical strain and the habituation of pain as unquestioned conditions in construction work. The understanding of this mutual reinforcement of the necessity of physically straining, painful, high-paced construction work provides fruitful perspectives on the overrepresentation of musculoskeletal deterioration within construction work and also sheds light on some of the difficulties in addressing and changing occupational health and safety practices in the construction industry.

  4. Reliability of a new questionnaire for the evaluation of habitual physical activity and food consumption in children DOI:10.5007/1980-0037.2010v12n1p21

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe Ferreira da Costa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the reliability of the Physical Activity and Food Consumption (PAFC questionnaire in schoolchildren from a private school in Natal-RN, Brazil. A total of 101 children, 57 boys and 44 girls (mean age: 9.4 years, SD: 1.03, range: 7.3 to 11.6 in the second to fourth grade of elementary school were recruited. An expanded version of the PAFC questionnaire was applied at the school by a single researcher, with an average of 15 days between test and retest. The coefficient of relative agreement, intraclass correlation coefficient, Spearman’s correlation coefficient, kappa index of agreement, PABAK, and Wilcoxon signed-rank test were used to determine reliability. In general, relatively consistent measures between the two questionnaire sessions were found for items related to attitude towards exercise (0.41, means of transportation used to travel to and from school (0.79, and the remaining 11 physical activities (0.69. An intraclass correlation of 0.87 as obtained for the overall physical activity index. Twenty-seven of the 42 items presented moderate to good agreement (mean kappa index: 0.51. The PAFC questionnaire showed moderate to good reliability for most of its items and seems to be a suitable instrument for the evaluation of physical activity and food intake behavior in schoolchildren. Moreover, the questionnaire might be used as an alternative for the classification of more and less active individuals as well as for the identification of healthy and inadequate dietary patterns.

  5. Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund Alfred; Wisløff, Ulrik

    2014-01-01

    Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers.......Andersen LB, Anderssen SA, Wisløff U, Hellénius M-L, Fogelholm M, Ekelund U. (Expert Group) Nordic Nutrition Recommendations 2012. Integrating nutrition and physical activity. Chapter: Physical Activity p. 195-217.Nordic Counsil of Ministers....

  6. Leg strength declines with advancing age despite habitual endurance exercise in active older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcell, Taylor J; Hawkins, Steven A; Wiswell, Robert A

    2014-02-01

    Age-associated loss of muscle mass (sarcopenia) and strength (dynapenia) is associated with a loss of independence that contributes to falls, fractures, and nursing home admissions, whereas regular physical activity has been suggested to offset these losses. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of habitual endurance exercise on muscle mass and strength in active older adults. A longitudinal analysis of muscle strength (≈4.8 years apart) was performed on 59 men (age at start of study: 58.6 ± 7.3 years) and 35 women (56.9 ± 8.2 years) who used endurance running as their primary mode of exercise. There were no changes in fat-free mass although body fat increased minimally (1.0-1.5%). Training volume (km·wk, d·wk) decreased in both the men and women. There was a significant loss of both isometric knee extension (≈5% per year) and knee flexion (≈3.6% per year) strength in both the men and women. However, there was no significant change in either isokinetic concentric or eccentric torque of the knee extensors. Our data demonstrated a significant decline in isometric knee extensor and knee flexor strength although there were no changes in body mass in this group of very active older men and women. Our data support newer exercise guidelines for older Americans suggesting resistance training be an integral component of a fitness program and that running alone was not sufficient to prevent the loss in muscle strength (dynapenia) with aging.

  7. Physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-09-01

    As we move into the 21st Century, nuclear technology is on the verge of rejuvenation in advanced Member States and of expansion in developing Member States. The principal responsibilities of the IAEA are transferring technologies, co-ordinating scientific research, managing specialized projects and maintaining analytical quality control. The IAEA physics activities provide assistance with nuclear instrumentation, promote more effective utilization of research reactors and accelerators, and facilitate global co-operation in nuclear fusion research. These activities will help Member States improve their standards of living through the benefits of nuclear technology. This booklet presents a brief profile on the physics activities and involvement in these fields of the Physics Section, IAEA

  8. Initiating running barefoot: Effects on muscle activation and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas-Cuevas, Angel Gabriel; Priego Quesada, José Ignacio; Giménez, José Vicente; Aparicio, Inma; Jimenez-Perez, Irene; Pérez-Soriano, Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Runners tend to shift from a rearfoot to a forefoot strike pattern when running barefoot. However, it is unclear how the first attempts at running barefoot affect habitually rearfoot shod runners. Due to the inconsistency of their recently adopted barefoot technique, a number of new barefoot-related running injuries are emerging among novice barefoot runners. The aim of this study was therefore to analyse the influence of three running conditions (natural barefoot [BF], barefoot with a forced rearfoot strike [BRS], and shod [SH]) on muscle activity and impact accelerations in habitually rearfoot shod runners. Twenty-two participants ran at 60% of their maximal aerobic speed while foot strike, tibial and head impact accelerations, and tibialis anterior (TA), peroneus longus (PL), gastrocnemius medialis (GM) and gastrocnemius lateralis (GL) muscle activity were registered. Only 68% of the runners adopted a non-rearfoot strike pattern during BF. Running BF led to a reduction of TA activity as well as to an increase of GL and GM activity compared to BRS and SH. Furthermore, BRS increased tibial peak acceleration, tibial magnitude and tibial acceleration rate compared to SH and BF. In conclusion, 32% of our runners showed a rearfoot strike pattern at the first attempts at running barefoot, which corresponds to a running style (BRS) that led to increased muscle activation and impact accelerations and thereby to a potentially higher risk of injury compared to running shod.

  9. Complex evaluation of student‘s physical activity by physical health, physical fitness and body composition parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Šiupšinskas, Laimonas

    2007-01-01

    Physical activity level of students is decreasing. Students are specific population group with similar patterns of habitual physical activity influenced by study process. That formed requirement to search for a new ways to assess physical activity of the students indirectly. Offered method assesses level of physical health, measures physical fitness and evaluates body composition. The aim of the study is to evaluate indirectly measured health-enhanced physical activity of the students by phys...

  10. Cardiovascular benefits and risks across the physical activity continuum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijsvogels, T.M.H.; George, K.P.; Thompson, P.D.

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Habitual physical activity can reduce the risk of future cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review evaluates recent publications that have assessed the impact of the dose of physical (in)activity on cardiovascular outcomes. RECENT FINDINGS: Sedentary behavior,

  11. Awareness and habit: important factors in physical activity in children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kremers, S.P.J.; Dijkman, M.A.M.; de Meij, J.S.B.; Jurg, M.E.; Brug, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to gain insight into the extent to which Dutch children are aware of their own physical activity level, and to what extent children's physical activity is habitual. Special attention was paid to the potential moderating effect of "awareness" and "habit

  12. Relationship between resistance training and selfreported habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Similar to the non-exercising control group, resistance training resulted in no significant (p > 0.05) changes in the habitual intake of daily intake of total ... as a mode of training may not be an effective mode of exercise to promote overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of macronutrient and energy intake.

  13. Physical Activity Guidelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... use this site. health.gov Physical Activity Guidelines Physical Activity Physical activity is key to improving the health of the Nation. Based on the latest science, the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans is an essential resource for ...

  14. Physical Activity and Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Cancer Genetics Services Directory Cancer Prevention Overview Research Physical Activity and Cancer On This Page What is physical activity? What is known about the relationship between physical ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to Wellness Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR ... Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps to ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for ... Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines ... Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ... Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting a DFCN Promotion ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ...

  2. Physical Activity Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity Basics Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir How much physical activity do you need? Regular physical activity helps improve ...

  3. Physical Activity Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Current evidence convincingly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of colon and breast cancer. Physical activity may also reduce risk of prostate cancer. Scientists are also evaluating potential relationships between physical activity and other cancers.

  4. Guide to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Families ( We Can! ) Health Professional Resources Guide to Physical Activity Physical activity is an important part of your ... to injury. Examples of moderate-intensity amounts of physical activity Common Chores Washing and waxing a car for ...

  5. Effects of a 12-week intervention period with football and running for habitually active men with mild hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knoepfli-Lenzin, C.; Sennhauser, C.; Toigo, M.

    2010-01-01

    /L) but was not altered in R and C. We conclude that football training, consisting of high-intensity intermittent exercise, results in positive effects on blood pressure, body composition, stroke volume and supine heart rate variability, and elicits at least the same cardiovascular health benefits as continuous running......The present study examined the effect of football (F, n=15) training on the health profile of habitually active 25-45-year-old men with mild hypertension and compared it with running (R, n=15) training and no additional activity (controls, C, n=17). The participants in F and R completed a 1-h...

  6. Physical activity and obesity

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bouchard, Claude; Katzmarzyk, Peter T

    2010-01-01

    ... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2 The Physical Activity and Exercise Continuum 7 Darren Warburton Definition of Health, Physical Activity, and Exercise . . . . . . . 7 The Continuum...

  7. Building a Better Mousetrap (Exergame) to Increase Youth Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baranowski, Tom; Maddison, Ralph; Maloney, Ann; Medina, Ernie; Simons, Monique

    Although exergames have been demonstrated to induce moderate levels of physical activity (PA) if played as designed, there is conflicting evidence on use of exergaming leading to increased habitual PA. Exergames have increased PA in some home and school studies, but not others. Exergames have been

  8. Physical activity and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Groot, Renate; Van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; Van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in

  9. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Background: Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore, we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether…

  10. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your ... Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations ...

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs for Older Adults Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart ...

  12. BAM! Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Smarts Links Fuel Up for Fun Power Packing Physical Activity Activity Calendar Activity Information Sheets I Heard Hurdle ... Links Sleep Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Physical Activity Game Questions Answered Under the Microscope Lurking in ...

  13. Facts about Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Facts about Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Some Americans ... Activity Guideline for aerobic activity than older adults. Physical activity and socioeconomic status Adults with more education are ...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Needs for Pregnant or Postpartum Women Physical Activity & Health Adding Physical Activity to Your Life Activities for ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate ... Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How ...

  16. Evaluation of Myoelectric Activity of Paraspinal Muscles in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis during Habitual Standing and Sitting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garcia Kwok

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a number of research work in the literature that have applied sEMG biofeedback as an instrument for muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, sEMG is a good tool for this research work and is used to record the myoelectric activity in the paraspinal muscles of those with AIS during habitual standing and sitting. After the sEMG evaluation, the root-mean-square (RMS sEMG values of the paraspinal muscles in the habitual postures reflect the spinal curvature situation of the PUMC Type Ia and IIc subjects. Both groups have a stronger average RMS sEMG value on the convex side of the affected muscle regions. Correction to posture as instructed by the physiotherapist has helped the subjects to achieve a more balanced RMS sEMG ratio in the trapezius and latissimus dorsi regions; the erector spinae in the thoracic region and/or erector spinae in the lumbar region. It is, therefore, considered that with regular practice of the suggested positions, those with AIS can use motor learning to achieve a more balanced posture. Consequently, the findings can be used in less intrusive early orthotic intervention and provision of care to those with AIS.

  17. Evaluation of Myoelectric Activity of Paraspinal Muscles in Adolescents with Idiopathic Scoliosis during Habitual Standing and Sitting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Garcia; Yip, Joanne; Cheung, Mei-Chun; Yick, Kit-Lun

    2015-01-01

    There is a number of research work in the literature that have applied sEMG biofeedback as an instrument for muscle rehabilitation. Therefore, sEMG is a good tool for this research work and is used to record the myoelectric activity in the paraspinal muscles of those with AIS during habitual standing and sitting. After the sEMG evaluation, the root-mean-square (RMS) sEMG values of the paraspinal muscles in the habitual postures reflect the spinal curvature situation of the PUMC Type Ia and IIc subjects. Both groups have a stronger average RMS sEMG value on the convex side of the affected muscle regions. Correction to posture as instructed by the physiotherapist has helped the subjects to achieve a more balanced RMS sEMG ratio in the trapezius and latissimus dorsi regions; the erector spinae in the thoracic region and/or erector spinae in the lumbar region. It is, therefore, considered that with regular practice of the suggested positions, those with AIS can use motor learning to achieve a more balanced posture. Consequently, the findings can be used in less intrusive early orthotic intervention and provision of care to those with AIS.

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ... What's this? Submit Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Button Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ... Our Division About Us Nutrition Physical Activity Overweight & Obesity Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity MMWR Data Highlights State Indicator Report on Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & ...

  3. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Physical Activity Physical Activity Basics Needs for Adults Needs for Children What Counts Needs ...

  4. Meta-Analyses of the Effects of Habitual Running on Indices of Health in Physically Inactive Adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hespanhol, L.C.; Pillay, J.; van Mechelen, W.; Verhagen, E.A.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: In order to implement running to promote physical activity, it is essential to quantify the extent to which running improves health. Objective: The aim was to summarise the literature on the effects of endurance running on biomedical indices of health in physically inactive adults. Data

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples ...

  6. Measurement of Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dishman, Rod K.; Washburn, Richard A.; Schoeller, Dale A.

    2001-01-01

    Valid assessment of physical activity must be unobtrusive, practical to administer, and specific about physical activity type, frequency, duration, and intensity. Assessment methods can be categorized according to whether they provide direct or indirect (e.g., self-report) observation of physical activity, body motion, physiological response…

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to Your Life Activities for Children Activities for Older Adults Overcoming Barriers ... required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their ...

  8. Physical Activity During School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Lars Domino

    It is important, not only on health grounds, to exercise and to be physically active. In school, physical activities have shown to improve the students’ academic behaviour resulting in improved attention and information processing as well as enhanced coping. To stimulate and motivate students...... to be even more active during school hours further enhancing their academic behaviour, it is important to know when, why and how they are active, and their attitude towards different types of physical activities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to categorize the physical activities attended by students...... during school hours and to elucidate their attitude towards the different types of activities. The data consisted of observations of lessons followed by group interviews. Analyses of the observations revealed six categories of physical activities, varying from mandatory physical activities, activities...

  9. Psychosocial stress among patients with type 2 diabetes: habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Psychosocial stress is a disabling condition and is common among people with diabetes mellitus in view of the complexity of the disorder. It is however not clear if the psychosocial stress has any link with habitual physical activity, which is an important component in the care of people with diabetes. This study was ...

  10. Psychosocial Stress Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Habitual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    A total of 193 adults with type 2 diabetes took part in this study. Psychosocial stress was ... KEY WORDS: Type 2 diabetes, psychosocial stress, habitual physical activity. INTRODUCTION ..... to address them: A qualitative study. PLoS ONE 9(9):.

  11. Physical activity and health characteristics : a survey among Dutch elderly women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hombergh, van den C.E.J.

    1995-01-01

    To study physical activity of elderly people and its relationship with health characteristics, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1991/1992 in Arnhem, the Netherlands, among 515 women and 497 men, aged 65 to 85 years. Habitual physical activity was assessed with a questionnaire,

  12. Habituating pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ajslev, Jeppe Zielinski Nguyen; Lund, Henrik Lambrecht; Møller, Jeppe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    and pain as unavoidable conditions in construction work. Based on 32 semi-structured interviews performed in eight case studies within four different construction professions, workers’ descriptions of physical strain and its relation to the organizational and social context are analyzed through concepts...

  13. Contemporary physical activities

    OpenAIRE

    Tainio, Matti

    2018-01-01

    The customary view of today’s recreational physical activities turns the human movement into a rational practice that is pursued for practical reasons only: for health, vitality, stamina and longevity. This prevalent point of view affects the understanding of the ends, content and quality of physical activities and it creates a bias where the biological, physiological and medical characteristics of physical activities are emphasized while the sensuous, experiential and creative aspects are su...

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Healthy Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram ...

  16. The effects of increased central serotonergic activity on prepulse inhibition and habituation of the human startle response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Kristian S; Oranje, Bob; Wienberg, Malene

    2007-01-01

    modulation is currently inconsistent. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, 18 healthy male volunteers received either placebo or a dose of 10 mg of escitalopram (SSRI), after which they were tested in both PPI and habituation of the startle reflex paradigms. No significant differences...... between the two treatments were observed on PPI, although escitalopram was found to significantly delay habituation of the ASR. In the current study, escitalopram was found to delay habituation, but it did not affect PPI in healthy male volunteers. As escitalopram is a highly specific SSRI, the results...

  17. Delayed habituation in Behcet′s disease

    OpenAIRE

    Gulturk Sefa; Akyol Melih; Kececi Hulusi; Ozcelik Sedat; Cinar Ziynet; Demirkazik Ayse

    2008-01-01

    Background: The autonomic nervous system in Behcet′s patients may be affected due to various reasons. This entity may be detected with the measurement of the electrodermal activities, heart rate variability and pupillometric methods. Habituation is one of the implicit forms of learning and memory and the loss of habituation can reveal pathological changes in the synaptic regions. Aim: To determine whether there is a functional decrease in the synaptic effectiveness (habituation) of ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity ... Implementation Maintaining Interest Needs Assessment Evaluating Success CDC’s Example ... Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other ...

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World Examples Implementation Resource Guide Visual Guide Worksite Physical Activity Steps ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Physical Activity, 2014 Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + ... Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch ...

  1. Obesity and physical activity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerterp, K.R.

    1999-01-01

    Department of Human Biology, Maastricht University, The Netherlands. k.westerterp@hb.unimaas.nl OBJECTIVES: Three aspects of obesity and physical activity are reviewed: whether the obese are inactive; how the activity level can be increased; and which are the effects of an increase in physical

  2. Measuring children's physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  3. Measuring Children's Physical Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Bentsen, Peter; Nielsen, Glen

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Accelerometer-based physical activity monitoring has become the method of choice in many large-scale physical activity (PA) studies. However, there is an ongoing debate regarding the placement of the device, the determination of device wear time, and how to solve a lack of participant...

  4. Children's recreational physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored children's participation in recreational (physical) activities and the extent to which this participation was influenced by individual and household socio-demographics and characteristics of the social and physical environment. Travel and activity diaries were used to collect

  5. Peak Longevity Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    People who engage in three to five times the recommended minimum level of leisure-time physical activity derive the greatest benefit in terms of mortality reduction when compared with people who do not engage in leisure-time physical activity.

  6. Physical activity among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, P W; Ingholt, L; Rasmussen, M

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (a) to examine the association between various kinds of parental social support and adolescents' physical activity (PA) and (b) to examine whether various kinds of social support from mothers and fathers were differently associated with boys' and girls' PA. Data...... to understand why some adolescents are physically active and others are not....

  7. Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sexual, & Bladder Problems Clinical Trials Diabetes Diet, Eating, & Physical Activity Nutrition and physical activity are important parts of ... feet before, during, and after physical activity. What physical activities should I do if I have diabetes? Most ...

  8. Physical Activity and School Absenteeism Due to Illness in Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    de Groot, Renate; van Dijk, Martin; Savelberg, Hans; van Acker, Frederik; Kirschner, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Knowledge about the beneficial role of physical activity (PA) for health and school performance is growing. Studies investigating the link between PA and school absenteeism due to illness are lacking. Therefore we investigated associations between habitual PA and school absenteeism due to illness in adolescents and explored whether mental health and cardiovascular fitness mediated this association. 328 Students in grades 7 and 9 (mean age 13.8 years; 49% boys) were included. PA was measured o...

  9. Delayed habituation in Behcet's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulturk, Sefa; Akyol, Melih; Kececi, Hulusi; Ozcelik, Sedat; Cinar, Ziynet; Demirkazik, Ayse

    2008-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system in Behcet's patients may be affected due to various reasons. This entity may be detected with the measurement of the electrodermal activities, heart rate variability and pupillometric methods. Habituation is one of the implicit forms of learning and memory and the loss of habituation can reveal pathological changes in the synaptic regions. To determine whether there is a functional decrease in the synaptic effectiveness (habituation) of the pathways to sympathetic neurons that had been repeatedly activated in Behcet's. Twelve patients with Behcet's disease and 12 healthy controls were included in the study. Sympathetic skin potential (SSP) records were taken at normal room temperature in a quiet place within a Faraday cage. Sixteen square wave single shock impulses (duration: 1200 ms, strength: 5 mA) were applied on each case. After the 1st stimulus, the SSP amplitudes were lower in the patients compared to the controls (P0.05). Whereas there was no significant differences among the SSP amplitudes after the 9th impulse in the controls (P>0.05). The habituation rate of the SSP after consecutive impulses was slowest in the patients compared to controls (P<0.001, t value=12.39). There is a delayed habituation in Behcet's disease and that may due to pathologic changes with vasculitis through their peripheral nerves.

  10. Physical activity, obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakka, T A; Bouchard, C

    2005-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle and overweight are major public health, clinical, and economical problems in modern societies. The worldwide epidemic of excess weight is due to imbalance between physical activity and dietary energy intake. Sedentary lifestyle, unhealthy diet, and consequent overweight and obesity markedly increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Regular physical activity 45-60 min per day prevents unhealthy weight gain and obesity, whereas sedentary behaviors such as watching television promote them. Regular exercise can markedly reduce body weight and fat mass without dietary caloric restriction in overweight individuals. An increase in total energy expenditure appears to be the most important determinant of successful exercise-induced weight loss. The best long-term results may be achieved when physical activity produces an energy expenditure of at least 2,500 kcal/week. Yet, the optimal approach in weight reduction programs appears to be a combination of regular physical activity and caloric restriction. A minimum of 60 min, but most likely 80-90 min of moderate-intensity physical activity per day may be needed to avoid or limit weight regain in formerly overweight or obese individuals. Regular moderate intensity physical activity, a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy weight gain are effective and safe ways to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases and to reduce premature mortality in all population groups. Although the efforts to promote cardiovascular health concern the whole population, particular attention should be paid to individuals who are physically inactive, have unhealthy diets or are prone to weight gain. They have the highest risk for worsening of the cardiovascular risk factor profile and for cardiovascular disease. To combat the epidemic of overweight and to improve cardiovascular health at a population level, it is important to develop strategies to increase habitual physical activity and to prevent overweight and obesity in

  11. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... using relative intensity, people pay attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple way to measure relative intensity. ...

  12. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 45 David, Age 65 Harold, Age 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps ... relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity The level of effort required by a person to do ...

  13. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... content Start of Search Controls Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC CDC A-Z Index ... Search Controls Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Older Adults Overcoming Barriers Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Target Heart Rate & Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived Exertion ( ... a heavy backpack Other Methods of Measuring Intensity Target Heart Rate and Estimated Maximum Heart Rate Perceived ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Local Programs Measuring Physical Activity Intensity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir For more help with what ... RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton Road ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Walkability Audit Tool Sample Audit Glossary Selected References Discount Fitness Club Network Assessing Need and Interest Selecting ... attention to how physical activity affects their heart rate and breathing. The talk test is a simple ...

  18. Physical activity: genes & health

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Carl Johan SUNDBERG is an Associate Professor in Physiology and Licenced Physician. His research focus is Molecular mechanisms involved in the adaptation of human skeletal muscle to physical activity.

  19. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  20. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National ... INFO U.S. Department of Health & Human Services HHS/Open USA.gov Top

  1. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion ... LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG ...

  2. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . ... Resources & Publications Reports Adults Need More Physical Activity ...

  3. The relationship between fundamental movement skills and the extent of daily physical activity in preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    佐々木, 玲子; 石沢, 順子; 楠原, 慶子; 奥山, 靜代

    2013-01-01

    Fundamental movement skills are significantly associated with habitual physical activity. Recently, it has become clear that children have become less physically active than in the past, and some studies have shown that children's fundamental movement skills have been declining in recent decades. Human movements have various characteristics, and not all movement skills are associated with physical activity level. In this study, we investigated the relationship between 5 fundamental movements ...

  4. Physiological Response and Habituation of Endangered Species to Military Training Activities: SERDP 2006 Annual Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-05-01

    DISCLAIMER: The contents of this report are not to be used for advertising , publication, or promotional purposes. Citation of trade names does not...flushing from nests by parental birds in response to a perceived threat may enhance pa- rental survival at the cost of reduced nestling survival...that frequent human activities near nests could adversely affect nestling survival and, therefore, reproductive success. ERDC/CERL SR-08-8 3

  5. Physiological Response and Habituation of Endangered Species to Military Training Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    expenditure were either based on non-continuous (doubly-labeled water , Nagy 1975) or non- physiological estimates (time-activity budgets, e.g... water method in estimating energy expenditure of animals in the wild (Bevan et al. 1995, Green at al. 2001), doubly labeled water provides average daily...vertebrates studied so far (Boersma 1987, Silverin et al. 1997, Wingfield et al. 1997, Wasser et al. 1997). The measurement of circulating levels of

  6. Moderating effect of gender on the prospective relation of physical activity with psychosocial outcomes and asthma control in adolescents: a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiggelman, D.; Ven, M.O.M. van de; Schayck, C.P. van; Engels, R.C.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Adolescents with asthma experience more psychosocial and physiological problems compared to their healthy peers. Physical activity (PA) might decrease these problems. This study was the first observational longitudinal study to examine whether habitual PA could predict changes in

  7. Correlates of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E; Reis, Rodrigo S; Sallis, James F

    2012-01-01

    that age, sex, health status, self-efficacy, and motivation are associated with physical activity. Ecological models take a broad view of health behaviour causation, with the social and physical environment included as contributors to physical inactivity, particularly those outside the health sector...... effective programmes will target factors known to cause inactivity. Research into correlates (factors associated with activity) or determinants (those with a causal relationship) has burgeoned in the past two decades, but has mostly focused on individual-level factors in high-income countries. It has shown......, such as urban planning, transportation systems, and parks and trails. New areas of determinants research have identified genetic factors contributing to the propensity to be physically active, and evolutionary factors and obesity that might predispose to inactivity, and have explored the longitudinal tracking...

  8. Physical Activity and Health: The Benefits of Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... State and Local Programs Related Topics Diabetes Nutrition Physical Activity and Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... Your Chances of Living Longer The Benefits of Physical Activity Regular physical activity is one of the most ...

  9. Walkability and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Rodrigo Siqueira; Hino, Adriano Akira Ferreira; Rech, Cassiano Ricardo; Kerr, Jacqueline; Hallal, Pedro Curi

    2013-01-01

    Background Evidence from developing countries is limited on how income level for a given neighborhood is related to physical activity among its residents. Purpose The goal of the study was to examine the association between walkability and physical activity outcomes, and the effect of income on the relationship between walkability and physical activity in adults. Methods The Spaces for Physical Activity in Adults Study (ESPACOS Project) took place in Curitiba, Brazil. Data were collected in 2010 in 32 census tracts selected to vary in income and walkability, as measured by GIS. Participants were 697 individuals aged 18–65 years (52.0% were women) randomly sampled from the selected neighborhoods. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to measure physical activity. All analyses were conducted in 2012. Results The proportion of those who walked for transportation for ≥150 minutes/week was 21.1% in low-walkability areas, and ranged from 33.5% to 35.0% in high-walkability areas. A total of 12.6% of residents were found to walk for leisure for ≥150 minutes/week; this result did not vary across quadrants of walkability and income level. The prevalence of leisure-time moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was 7.1–10.5 percentage points higher in high-compared to low-walkability areas. After adjusting for all individual confounders, walkability showed an independent association with walking for transport (OR=2.10, 95% CI=1.31, 3.37, p=0.002) and leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.57; 95% CI=1.06, 2.32; p=0.024). Neighborhood income level was independently associated with leisure-time MVPA (OR=1.70; 95% CI=1.06, 2.74, p=0.029). No association was found between walkability and walking for leisure. No interaction was found between walkability and neighborhood income level. Conclusions This study, among adults living in Curitiba, Brazil, confirms findings from studies of high-income countries showing that walkability is positively associated with

  10. Global physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hallal, Pedro C; Andersen, Lars Bo; Bull, Fiona C

    2012-01-01

    To implement effective non-communicable disease prevention programmes, policy makers need data for physical activity levels and trends. In this report, we describe physical activity levels worldwide with data for adults (15 years or older) from 122 countries and for adolescents (13-15-years......-income countries. The proportion of 13-15-year-olds doing fewer than 60 min of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity per day is 80·3% (80·1-80·5); boys are more active than are girls. Continued improvement in monitoring of physical activity would help to guide development of policies and programmes......-old) from 105 countries. Worldwide, 31·1% (95% CI 30·9-31·2) of adults are physically inactive, with proportions ranging from 17·0% (16·8-17·2) in southeast Asia to about 43% in the Americas and the eastern Mediterranean. Inactivity rises with age, is higher in women than in men, and is increased in high...

  11. Habitual exercise is associated with cognitive control and cognitive reappraisal success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Grace E; Cantelon, Julie A; Eddy, Marianna D; Brunyé, Tad T; Urry, Heather L; Mahoney, Caroline R; Kanarek, Robin B

    2017-12-01

    Habitual exercise is associated with enhanced domain-general cognitive control, such as inhibitory control, selective attention, and working memory, all of which rely on the frontal cortex. However, whether regular exercise is associated with more specific aspects of cognitive control, such as the cognitive control of emotion, remains relatively unexplored. The present study employed a correlational design to determine whether level of habitual exercise was related to performance on the Stroop test measuring selective attention and response inhibition, the cognitive reappraisal task measuring cognitive reappraisal success, and associated changes in prefrontal cortex (PFC) oxygenation using functional near-infrared spectroscopy. 74 individuals (24 men, 50 women, age 18-32 years) participated. Higher habitual physical activity was associated with lower Stroop interference (indicating greater inhibitory control) and enhanced cognitive reappraisal success. Higher habitual exercise was also associated with lower oxygenated hemoglobin (O 2 Hb) in the PFC in response to emotional information. However, NIRS data indicated that exercise was not associated with cognitive control-associated O 2 Hb in the PFC. Behaviorally, the findings support and extend the previous findings that habitual exercise relates to more successful cognitive control of neutral information and cognitive reappraisal of emotional information. Future research should explore whether habitual exercise exerts causal benefits to cognitive control and PFC oxygenation, as well as isolate specific cognitive control processes sensitive to change through habitual exercise.

  12. Promoting Physical Activity in Adapted Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Joonkoo; Beamer, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    The importance of physical activity has received considerable attention during the past decade. Physical education has been viewed as a cost-effective way to promote physical activity as a public health initiative. In fact, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that a "substantial percentage" of students' overall…

  13. Meta-Analyses of the Effects of Habitual Running on Indices of Health in Physically Inactive Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hespanhol Junior, Luiz Carlos; Pillay, Julian David; van Mechelen, Willem; Verhagen, Evert

    2015-10-01

    In order to implement running to promote physical activity, it is essential to quantify the extent to which running improves health. The aim was to summarise the literature on the effects of endurance running on biomedical indices of health in physically inactive adults. Electronic searches were conducted in October 2014 on PubMed, Embase, CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, PEDro, the Cochrane Library and LILACS, with no limits of date and language of publication. Randomised controlled trials (with a minimum of 8 weeks of running training) that included physically inactive but healthy adults (18-65 years) were selected. The studies needed to compare intervention (i.e. endurance running) and control (i.e., no intervention) groups. Two authors evaluated study eligibility, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias; a third author resolved any uncertainties. Random-effects meta-analyses were performed to summarise the estimates for length of training and sex. A dose-response analysis was performed with random-effects meta-regression in order to investigate the relationship between running characteristics and effect sizes. After screening 22,380 records, 49 articles were included, of which 35 were used to combine data on ten biomedical indices of health. On average the running programs were composed of 3.7 ± 0.9 sessions/week, 2.3 ± 1.0 h/week, 14.4 ± 5.4 km/week, at 60-90% of the maximum heart rate, and lasted 21.5 ± 16.8 weeks. After 1 year of training, running was effective in reducing body mass by 3.3 kg [95% confidence interval (CI) 4.1-2.5], body fat by 2.7% (95% CI 5.1-0.2), resting heart rate by 6.7 min(-1) (95% CI 10.3-3.0) and triglycerides by 16.9 mg dl(-1) (95% CI 28.1-5.6). Also, running significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 7.1 ml min(-1) kg(-1) (95% CI 5.0-9.1) and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol by 3.3 mg dl(-1) (95% CI 1.2-5.4). No significant effect was found for lean body mass, body mass index, total cholesterol and low

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... June 4, 2015 Content source: Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity , National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Search Form Controls Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Physical Activity Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 67 Data & Statistics Facts About Physical Activity Data, Trends and Maps Surveillance Systems Resources & Publications Reports Adults ... CDC’s Example StairWELL Stairwell Appearance Motivational Signs Installing Music Other Ideas to Consider Tracking Stair Usage Project ...

  17. Pre-cancer risk assessment in habitual smokers from DIC images of oral exfoliative cells using active contour and SVM analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Susmita; Sarkar, Ripon; Chatterjee, Kabita; Datta, Pallab; Barui, Ananya; Maity, Santi P

    2017-04-01

    Habitual smokers are known to be at higher risk for developing oral cancer, which is increasing at an alarming rate globally. Conventionally, oral cancer is associated with high mortality rates, although recent reports show the improved survival outcomes by early diagnosis of disease. An effective prediction system which will enable to identify the probability of cancer development amongst the habitual smokers, is thus expected to benefit sizable number of populations. Present work describes a non-invasive, integrated method for early detection of cellular abnormalities based on analysis of different cyto-morphological features of exfoliative oral epithelial cells. Differential interference contrast (DIC) microscopy provides a potential optical tool as this mode provides a pseudo three dimensional (3-D) image with detailed morphological and textural features obtained from noninvasive, label free epithelial cells. For segmentation of DIC images, gradient vector flow snake model active contour process has been adopted. To evaluate cellular abnormalities amongst habitual smokers, the selected morphological and textural features of epithelial cells are compared with the non-smoker (-ve control group) group and clinically diagnosed pre-cancer patients (+ve control group) using support vector machine (SVM) classifier. Accuracy of the developed SVM based classification has been found to be 86% with 80% sensitivity and 89% specificity in classifying the features from the volunteers having smoking habit. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Home For Patients Search FAQs Staying ... Exercise FAQ045, November 2016 PDF Format Staying Active: Physical Activity and Exercise Women's Health What are the benefits ...

  19. Physical activity and osteoarthritis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gates, L S; Leyland, K M; Sheard, S

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) is increasingly recognised as an important factor within studies of osteoarthritis (OA). However, subjective methods used to assess PA are highly variable and have not been developed for use within studies of OA, which creates difficulties when comparing and interpreting PA...... established via an international expert consensus meeting and modified Delphi exercise using a geographically diverse committee selected on the basis of individual expertise in physical activity, exercise medicine, and OA. Agreement was met for all aims of study: (1) The use of Metabolic Equivalent of Task...... (MET) minutes per week (MET-min/week) as a method for harmonising PA variables among cohorts; (2) The determination of methods for treating missing components of MET-min/week calculation; a value will be produced from comparable activities within a representative cohort; (3) Exclusion of the domain...

  20. Physical activity in elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Cvecka

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a multifactorial irreversible process associated with significant decline in muscle mass and neuromuscular functions. One of the most efficient methods to counteract age-related changes in muscle mass and function is physical exercise. An alternative effective intervention to improve muscle structure and performance is electrical stimulation. In the present work we present the positive effects of physical activity in elderly and a study where the effects of a 8-week period of functional electrical stimulation and strength training with proprioceptive stimulation in elderly are compared.

  1. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    David R Lloyd; David R Lloyd; Douglas J Medina; Larry W Hawk; Whitney D Fosco; Jerry B Richards

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We ar...

  2. The effects of physical activity and exercise on brain-derived neurotrophic factor in healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, T; Larsen, K T; Ried-Larsen, M

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to summarize the effects of physical activity and exercise on peripheral brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in healthy humans. Experimental and observational studies were identified from PubMed, Web of Knowledge, Scopus, and SPORT Discus. A total of 32 articles...... studies suggested an inverse relationship between the peripheral BDNF level and habitual physical activity or cardiorespiratory fitness. More research is needed to confirm the findings from the observational studies....

  3. Cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity in Luo, Kamba, and Maasai of rural Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, D.L.; Faurholt‐Jepsen, D.; Boit, M.K.

    2012-01-01

    Although habitual physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) and cardio‐respiratory fitness (CRF) are now well‐established determinants of metabolic disease, there is scarcity of such data from Africa. The aim of this study was to describe objectively measured PAEE and CRF in different ethnic...... populations of rural Kenya. A cross‐sectional study was done among 1,099 rural Luo, Kamba, and Maasai of Kenya. Participants were 17–68 years old and 60.9% were women. Individual heart rate (HR) response to a submaximal steptest was used to assess CRF (estimated VO2max). Habitual PAEE was measured...

  4. Barriers for recess physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....

  5. Knowledge of pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alex Pinheiro Gordia

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the knowledge and guidance given by pediatricians regarding physical activity in childhood and adolescence. Methods: A cross-sectional study involving a convenience sample of pediatricians (n=210 who participated in a national pediatrics congress in 2013. Sociodemographic and professional data and data regarding habitual physical activity and pediatricians’ knowledge and instructions for young people regarding physical activity were collected using a questionnaire. Absolute and relative frequencies and means and standard deviations were calculated. Results: Most pediatricians were females, had graduated from medical school more than 15 years ago, and had residency in pediatrics. More than 70% of the participants reported to include physical activity guidance in their prescriptions. On the other hand, approximately two-thirds of the pediatricians incorrectly reported that children should not work out and less than 15% answered the question about physical activity barriers correctly. With respect to the two questions about physical activity to tackle obesity, incorrect answers were marked by more than 50% of the pediatricians. Most participants incorrectly reported that 30 min should be the minimum daily time of physical activity in young people. Less than 40% of the pediatricians correctly indicated the maximum time young people should spend in front of a screen. Conclusions: In general, the pediatricians reported that they recommend physical activity to their young patients, but specific knowledge of this topic was limited. Programs providing adequate information are needed.

  6. pedometer-measured physical activity, self-reported physical activity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    between self-reported and pedometer-measured physical activity was also determined. Results. Average ... Methods. This was a cross-sectional study among employed South African adults. Participant ... acquired information on physical activity habits. Questions ..... How many days of monitoring predict physical activity and ...

  7. Involvement in Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Gavin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1,096 adolescents participated in 123 focus groups regarding the perceived outcomes of their involvement in sports and physical activity (PA. The groups, segmented by grade level, sex, and school types, were conducted in both public and private high schools in Montreal, Quebec. We sought to understand, through the participants’ own words, their perception of the outcome matrix of involvement in sports and PA. Focus group questions emphasized changes that adolescents associated with such engagement. In particular, participants were asked how sports and PA might influence behaviors, emotional states, personal characteristics, and other outcomes. Twelve themes were identified in the responses: Positive Health and Physical Changes (18.5%, Activity-Related Positive Emotions (15.6%, and Personal Learning (11.3% were most prevalent in the discussions. A cluster of deeper personal changes thematically described as Self-Identity, Autonomy, and Positive Character Development accounted for another 16.5% of the responses. Relatively few commentaries emphasized negative effects (7.1%. Converting the proportions of qualitative data into a quantitative index allowed us to analyze potential differences in emphasis according to sex, age, and school type. Though a few significant findings emerged, the larger pattern was of a uniform perceptual map across the variables for this adolescent sample. Implications drawn from this investigation highlight the need to clearly articulate concrete pathways to positive nonphysical changes (e.g., mood states, autonomy, positive character development from engagements in sports and PA.

  8. [Sport and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bria, S; Zeppilli, P

    2010-01-01

    A regular sport activity involves physical and psychological benefits helping to improve the quality of life at any age. This aspect is even more important in the developing age, when the sport takes on a role of training and education. In this context, instances directed to allow adolescent and young adults with heart disease to practice sports seem justified, and they're becoming more pressing since when the diagnostic and therapeutic advances, especially in cardiac surgery and in interventional hemodynamics, allow an increasing number of patients, previously allocated to physical inactivity, to lead an active lifestyle. However, we have to keep in mind that congenital heart disease population is varied, not only by the nature of the malformation, but also because in the same cardiopathy you can find subjects in "natural history" or after surgery and, between them, subjects treated with several techniques and different outcomes. This justifies the need for a close collaboration between sports doctors, cardiologists and heart surgeons, particularly in the management of the most difficult and delicate problems.

  9. Acute vascular effects of waterpipe smoking: Importance of physical activity and fitness status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alomari, Mahmoud A; Khabour, Omar F; Alzoubi, Karem H; Shqair, Dana M; Stoner, Lee

    2015-06-01

    While new forms of tobacco, including waterpipe (WP) smoking, continue to gain popularity, limited literature has examined the vascular health consequences. The purpose of the current study was to examine: (i) the acute WP-induced changes in vascular function; (ii) whether acute changes in vascular function are modified by lifestyle behaviors (habitual physical activity, physical fitness). Fifty three (22.7 y, 36% F, 23.4 kg/m(2)) otherwise healthy WP smokers were recruited. Strain-gauge plethysmography was used to measure forearm blood flow, vascular resistance, venous capacitance, and venous outflow at rest and following occlusion. Habitual physical activity was determined using the Arabic version of short-form international physical activity questionnaire, while physical fitness was assessed using the 6 min walk test and handgrip strength. Partial correlations were used to examine the relationships between post-smoking vascular function and lifestyle behaviors, controlling for pre-smoking vascular measures. (i) WP had a small effect on forearm post-occlusion blood flow (d = -0.19), a moderate effect on venous outflow (d = 0.30), and a moderate effect on post-occlusion vascular resistance (d = 0.32). (ii) Total habitual physical activity strongly correlated with resting blood flow (r = 0.50) and moderately with vascular resistance (r = -0.40). Handgrip strength moderately correlated with venous capacitance (r = 0.30) and post-occlusion blood flow (r = 0.30), while 6 min walked distance moderately correlated with resting venous capacitance (r = 0.30). Waterpipe smoking is associated with immediate changes in vascular function, which are exacerbated in individuals with low habitual physical activity and physical fitness levels in young otherwise healthy individuals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Food choice, appetite and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellisle, F

    1999-09-01

    Food choices and diet composition have been studied less often than energy intake in subjects with varying levels of physical activity. The reported effects of exercise on food choices are not fully consistent, especially on the short term. Type of exercise, intensity, duration can affect the results as well as subjects' characteristics (gender, age, previous training and fitness). A crucial role could also be played by psychological (chronic dieting, attitudes toward health and food, long-established food habits and preferences) and social (traditions, food availability, appropriate times and places) factors. In short-term intervention studies, where a meal is ingested a few minutes following a bout of exercise of varying duration and intensity, an increase in CHO intake is most often reported, while increased protein intake is an occasional observation. In long-term (several weeks) training interventions, intake is assessed from dietary records. Again CHO intake is augmented in exercised subjects as compared to controls, while that of saturated fats and cholesterol may also be affected. Epidemiological studies (without dietary or exercise intervention) often report that habitually active persons eat more and ingest more fruits and vegetables than less active peers. It is not known to what extent such food choices are driven by biological needs (e.g. replacement of glycogen) or elicited by social and psychological factors.

  11. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.

  12. Physical activity - preventive medicine (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physical activity contributes to health by reducing the heart rate, decreasing the risk for cardiovascular disease, and reducing ... loss that is associated with age and osteoporosis. Physical activity also helps the body use calories more efficiently, ...

  13. Tips for Starting Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Legislative Information Advisory & Coordinating Committees Strategic Plans & Reports Research Areas FAQs ... Starting Physical Activity Related Topics Section Navigation Tips to Help You Get Active ...

  14. Assessing and Increasing Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Camp, Carole M.; Hayes, Lynda B.

    2012-01-01

    Increasing physical activity is a crucial component of any comprehensive approach to combat the growing obesity epidemic. This review summarizes recent behavioral research on the measurement of physical activity and interventions aimed at increasing physical activity and provides directions for future research.

  15. Habituating alarming atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højlund, Marie

    This paper proposes embodied rhythmic sound habituation as a possible resource when designing contextualized technologies in critical atmospheres. The main contribution is collating the concept of rhythm as presented by Henri Lefebvre with the concept of sound habituation to help operationalize...... functionality for the staff, but are stressful for visitors and patients, as they are designed to demand attention even though they have no direct functional meaning to them. By introducing sounds from the ward, integrated in the furniture as simple sound sample triggers, KidKit invites children to become...... accustomed to the alarming sounds through rhythmic interaction in the waiting room, and bringing the furniture with them afterwards as a secure anchor, when entering the ward. This rhythmic habituation can enable the child to focus her attention on the meeting with the hospitalized relative....

  16. Physical Activity in the Classroom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Réol, Lise Andersen

    physical activity during each school day from 0th to 10th school year, as a tool to facilitate health, motivation and academic performance. A qualitative study on pupils in 6th grade (N=8) and teachers’ (N=3) experience of movement and physical activities in school gives support to the idea, that physical...... activities in school enhance positive emotions and support an inclusive and safe learning environment. Thought it does also point to the fact, that it is indeed not that simple. Teachers’ sport-specific educational competences, their own experience of well-being and fun related to physical activities...

  17. Physical activity and human health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Wojciechowska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The dynamic development of the automotive industry, transport, and the media means that human life has become much easier. At the same time, the comfortable living conditions have decreased physical activity. Biologically conditioned, the need of activity has been minimised by the ever-increasing pace of life. As a result, it may lead to the loss of physical and mental health. Active recreation is not only an excellent source of activity, but also a source of satisfaction. Youths and adults should therefore spend their free time primarily on various forms of physical activity. Aim of the research : To evaluate the physical fitness of students who regularly practice physical exercise, those who occasionally practice, and those not practicing any form of physical activity. Material and methods : In the research we used a questionnaire of the Ruffier test and an orthostatic test. The study involved a group of 15 people aged 20–25 years. Participation in the study was entirely voluntary and anonymous. The study group consisted only of women. Results obtained from the questionnaire survey were fully reflected during exercise tests performed. Results and conclusions: Only regularly practiced physical activity has an effect on our body. Regular exercise increases our body’s physical capacity. Activity is the best means of prevention of lifestyle diseases. Youths and adults should spend their free time mainly doing various forms of physical activity.

  18. Health-related aspects of objectively measured daily physical activity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dencker, Magnus; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physica...... activity. This review summarizes recently published studies that have used accelerometers to measure daily physical activity in children and related activity data to known risk factors for CVD.......It is well established that physical inactivity in adults is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. Whether daily physical activity level is related to risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in children has been debated. Furthermore, objective data on the habitual daily physical...... activity in children have at large been scarce in the literature. The main reason for this is the fact that daily physical activity is very difficult to measure in children. In recent years, a new device, the accelerometer, has emerged as a frequently used instrument for the measurement of daily physical...

  19. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David R Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE that links behavioral and neural based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009;Rankin et al., 2009. We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect ‘accelerated-HRE’. Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  20. Objectively Quantified Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Predicting Visceral Adiposity and Liver Fat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shelley E. Keating

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Epidemiologic studies suggest an inverse relationship between nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD, visceral adipose tissue (VAT, and self-reported physical activity levels. However, subjective measurements can be inaccurate and prone to reporter bias. We investigated whether objectively quantified physical activity levels predicted liver fat and VAT in overweight/obese adults. Methods. Habitual physical activity was measured by triaxial accelerometry for four days (n=82. Time spent in sedentary behavior (MET < 1.6 and light (MET 1.6 < 3, moderate (MET 3 < 6, and vigorous (MET 6 < 9 physical activity was quantified. Magnetic resonance imaging and spectroscopy were used to quantify visceral and liver fat. Bivariate correlations and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were performed. Results. There were no associations between physical activity or sedentary behavior and liver lipid. Sedentary behavior and moderate and vigorous physical activity accounted for just 3% of variance for VAT (p=0.14 and 0.003% for liver fat (p=0.96. Higher levels of VAT were associated with time spent in moderate activity (r=0.294, p=0.007, but there was no association with sedentary behavior. Known risk factors for obesity-related NAFLD accounted for 62% and 40% of variance in VAT and liver fat, respectively (p<0.01. Conclusion. Objectively measured levels of habitual physical activity and sedentary behavior did not influence VAT or liver fat.

  1. Habituation of exploratory activity in aged rats: effects of pyritinol Habituação da atividade exploratória em ratos idosos: efeitos do piritinol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto DeLucia

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine (Ach is a neurotransmitter considered to play a critical role in processes underlying behavior, learning, and memory. Pyritinol (pyrithioxine, Encephabolâ, PRT is a nootropic drug that increases cholinergic transmission in the central nervous system. Behavioral habituation following multiple exposures to an open field is an experimental paradigm frequently used to assess the cognitive actions of drugs. In this paradigm the decrease of exploratory activity as a function of repeated exposure to the same environment is taken as an index memory. In the present study, effects PRT administrated to aged rats in powder form added to the diet (200 mg /kg / day, p.o., for 14 days were evaluated in the habituation to an open field. A total of 18 aged rats were randomly assigned to one of two groups control (vehicle-treated rats, n = 8 and experimental group (PRT-treated rats, n = 10 and were used in the following procedure. In the exploratory task, the post-training treatment with PRT significantly decreased the number of total area crossings and rears when compared to the control group, indicating habituation. PRT treatment enhanced retention in the total number of area crossings and rears when compared with control animals. Taken together, the data of present study suggest that muscarinic cholinergic systems could be involved in the effect of PRT in habituation of exploratory activity to an open field in aged rats.A acetilcolina é um neurotransmissor que desempenha considerável papel crítico nos processos subjacentes ao comportamento, aprendizagem e memória. Piritinol (piritioxina, Encefabolâ, PRT é um fármaco nootrópico que aumenta a transmissão colinérgica no sistema nervoso central. Habituação comportamental seguida de múltipla exposição no campo aberto é um paradigma experimental freqüentemente usado na avaliação das ações cognitivas de fármacos. Neste paradigma, a diminuição da atividade exploratória em fun

  2. Physical activity extends life expectancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leisure-time physical activity is associated with longer life expectancy, even at relatively low levels of activity and regardless of body weight, according to a study by a team of researchers led by the NCI.

  3. Increasing Youth Physical Activity with Activity Calendars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckler, Seth

    2016-01-01

    Physical educators often struggle with ways to get their students to be active beyond the school day. One strategy to accomplish this is the use of physical activity calendars (PACs). The purpose of this article is to support the use of PACs and give practical advice for creating effective PACs.

  4. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Share Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, ... The table below lists examples of activities classified as moderate-intensity or vigorous-intensity based upon the ...

  5. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Compartir For more help with what counts as aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4: ... ways to understand and measure the intensity of aerobic activity: relative intensity and absolute intensity. Relative Intensity ...

  6. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists ... upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. Top of Page Moderate ...

  7. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for a breath. Absolute Intensity The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. ... or vigorous-intensity based upon the amount of energy used by the body while doing the activity. ...

  8. Physical Activity and Academic Achievement

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-12-09

    This podcast highlights the evidence that supports the link between physical activity and improved academic achievement. It also identifies a few actions to support a comprehensive school physical activity program to improve academic achievement.  Created: 12/9/2014 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 12/9/2014.

  9. Physical Activity and Your Heart

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes your heart rate to go up Walking, hiking, jogging, running Water aerobics or swimming laps Bicycling, skateboarding, rollerblading, and jumping rope Ballroom dancing and aerobic dancing Tennis, soccer, hockey, and basketball Benefits of Physical Activity Physical activity has many health ...

  10. Cancer, Physical Activity, and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Justin C.; Winters-Stone, Kerri; Lee, Augustine; Schmitz, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    This review examines the relationship between physical activity and cancer along the cancer continuum, and serves as a synthesis of systematic and meta-analytic reviews conducted to date. There exists a large body of epidemiologic evidence that conclude those who participate in higher levels of physical activity have a reduced likelihood of developing a variety of cancers compared to those who engage in lower levels of physical activity. Despite this observational evidence, the causal pathway underling the association between participation in physical activity and cancer risk reduction remains unclear. Physical activity is also a useful adjunct to improve the deleterious sequelae experienced during cancer treatment. These deleterious sequelae may include fatigue, muscular weakness, deteriorated functional capacity, including many others. The benefits of physical activity during cancer treatment are similar to those experienced after treatment. Despite the growing volume of literature examining physical activity and cancer across the cancer continuum, a number of research gaps exist. There is little evidence on the safety of physical activity among all cancer survivors, as most trials have selectively recruited participants. It is also unclear the specific dose of exercise needed that is optimal for primary cancer prevention or symptom control during and after cancer treatment. PMID:23720265

  11. Interdisciplinarity in Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Marcel; Spencer-Cavaliere, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that inquiry in adapted physical activity involves the use of different disciplines to address questions. It is often advanced today that complex problems of the kind frequently encountered in adapted physical activity require a combination of disciplines for their solution. At the present time, individual research…

  12. International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ and New Zealand Physical Activity Questionnaire (NZPAQ: A doubly labelled water validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Anthony

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate measurement of physical activity is a pre-requisite for monitoring population health and for evaluating effective interventions. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ is used as a comparable and standardised self-report measure of habitual physical activity of populations from different countries and socio-cultural contexts. The IPAQ has been modified to produce a New Zealand physical activity questionnaire (NZPAQ. The aim of this study was to validate the IPAQ and NZPAQ against doubly labelled water (DLW. Method: Total energy expenditure (TEE was measured over a 15-day period using DLW. Activity-related energy expenditure (AEE was estimated by subtracting the energy expenditure from resting metabolic rate and thermic effect of feeding from TEE. The IPAQ (long form and NZPAQ (short form were completed at the end of each 7-day period. Activity-related energy expenditure (IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE was calculated from each questionnaire and compared to DLWAEE. Results Thirty six adults aged 18 to 56 years (56% female completed all measurements. Compared to DLWAEE, IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE on average underestimated energy expenditure by 27% and 59%, respectively. There was good agreement between DLWAEE and both IPAQAEE and NZPAQAEE at lower levels of physical activity. However there was marked underestimation of questionnaire-derived energy expenditure at higher levels of activity. Conclusion Both the IPAQ and NZPAQ instruments have a demonstrated systematic bias toward underestimation of physical activity-related energy expenditure at higher levels of physical activity compared to DLW. Appropriate calibration factors could be used to correct for measurement error in physical activity questionnaires and hence improve estimation of AEE.

  13. Physics of solar activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1993-01-01

    The aim of the research activity was to increase our understanding of solar activity through data analysis, theoretical analysis, and computer modeling. Because the research subjects were diverse and many researchers were supported by this grant, a select few key areas of research are described in detail. Areas of research include: (1) energy storage and force-free magnetic field; (2) energy release and particle acceleration; (3) radiation by nonthermal electrons; (4) coronal loops; (5) flare classification; (6) longitude distributions of flares; (7) periodicities detected in the solar activity; (8) coronal heating and related problems; and (9) plasma processes.

  14. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The amount of energy used by the body per minute of activity. The table below lists examples ... of Page Moderate Intensity Walking briskly (3 miles per hour or faster, but not race-walking) Water ...

  15. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... aerobic activity, watch this video: Windows Media Player, 4:48 More videos Here are some ways to ... ePub file RIS file Page last reviewed: June 4, 2015 Page last updated: June 4, 2015 Content ...

  16. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, ... If you're doing vigorous-intensity activity, you will not be able to say more than a ...

  17. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... level of effort required by a person to do an activity. When using relative intensity, people pay ... State and Local Programs File Formats Help: How do I view different file formats (PDF, DOC, PPT, ...

  18. Measuring Physical Activity Intensity

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Recommendations & Guidelines Fact Sheets & Infographics Social Media Tools Community Strategies BE Active: Connecting Routes + Destinations Real-World ... Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs Funding LEGAL Policies Privacy FOIA No Fear Act OIG 1600 Clifton ...

  19. Habituation of reinforcer effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, David R; Medina, Douglas J; Hawk, Larry W; Fosco, Whitney D; Richards, Jerry B

    2014-01-09

    In this paper we propose an integrative model of habituation of reinforcer effectiveness (HRE) that links behavioral- and neural-based explanations of reinforcement. We argue that HRE is a fundamental property of reinforcing stimuli. Most reinforcement models implicitly suggest that the effectiveness of a reinforcer is stable across repeated presentations. In contrast, an HRE approach predicts decreased effectiveness due to repeated presentation. We argue that repeated presentation of reinforcing stimuli decreases their effectiveness and that these decreases are described by the behavioral characteristics of habituation (McSweeney and Murphy, 2009; Rankin etal., 2009). We describe a neural model that postulates a positive association between dopamine neurotransmission and HRE. We present evidence that stimulant drugs, which artificially increase dopamine neurotransmission, disrupt (slow) normally occurring HRE and also provide evidence that stimulant drugs have differential effects on operant responding maintained by reinforcers with rapid vs. slow HRE rates. We hypothesize that abnormal HRE due to genetic and/or environmental factors may underlie some behavioral disorders. For example, recent research indicates that slow-HRE is predictive of obesity. In contrast ADHD may reflect "accelerated-HRE." Consideration of HRE is important for the development of effective reinforcement-based treatments. Finally, we point out that most of the reinforcing stimuli that regulate daily behavior are non-consumable environmental/social reinforcers which have rapid-HRE. The almost exclusive use of consumable reinforcers with slow-HRE in pre-clinical studies with animals may have caused the importance of HRE to be overlooked. Further study of reinforcing stimuli with rapid-HRE is needed in order to understand how habituation and reinforcement interact and regulate behavior.

  20. Why Physical Activity Is Important (for Girls)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home Fitness Why physical activity is important Why physical activity is important You may wonder if being physically ... you are to be around. That's partly because physical activity gets your brain to make "feel-good" chemicals ...

  1. Physical Activity Improves Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It Works Healthy Workplace Food and Beverage Toolkit Physical activity improves quality of life Updated:Mar 2,2015 ... proven to improve both mental and physical health. Physical activity boosts mental wellness. Regular physical activity can relieve ...

  2. [Effects of exercise and physical activity on vital age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kiyoji; Matsuo, Tomoaki

    2009-07-01

    Advances in medical care have enabled many middle-aged and older adults to live for long periods of time. However, considerable variability is present among those people with regards to both longevity and physical health status. Physical inactivity is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, while exercise habituation is beneficial for the maintenance of good health and high vitality. The authors have developed the concept of so-called vital age for the assessment of health and functional status in middle-aged and older adults. The vital age is estimated using a variety of bio-medical, primarily cardiovascular risk factor parameters. Previous research has compared vital age between sedentary persons and those with obesity and chronic diseases and between sedentary persons and those with exercise habituation, and found that exercise habituation can certainly contribute to better physical vitality in previously sedentary persons as well as diseased persons.

  3. Physical activity, obesity and mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauman, Adrian E.; Grunseit, Anne C.; Rangul, Vegar

    2017-01-01

    Background: Most studies of physical activity (PA) epidemiology use behaviour measured at a single time-point. We examined whether 'PA patterns' (consistently low, consistently high or inconsistent PA levels over time) showed different epidemiological relationships for anthropometric and mortality...

  4. Physical activity and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhaskarabhatla, Krishna V; Birrer, Richard

    2005-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM), a metabolic syndrome consisting of two main groups, type 1 and 2, is characterized by absolute or relative insulin deficiency or insulin resistance. Individuals with DM take part in physical activity for health promotion, disease management, and or recreational or competitive sports. Several studies confirm the beneficial role of physical activity in favorably altering the prognosis of DM. Exercise as a therapeutic strategy has potential risks, too. Hence, sports medicine physicians caring for athletes with diabetes have several important responsibilities. Diabetic education; pre-participatory evaluation for vascular, neurological, retinal or joint disease; diabetic status and control; promotion of blood glucose self-monitoring; and individualized dietary, medication, and physical activity plans are essential to achieve safe and enjoyable outcomes in individuals with diabetes who are embarking on physical activity.

  5. Physical Activity and Pediatric Obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitchell, Jonathan A.; Dowda, Marsha; Pate, Russell R.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to determine whether moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary behavior (SB) were independently associated with body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) in children and adolescents. Methods Data from the International Children's Accelerometry Database...

  6. Epilepsy, physical activity and sports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carrizosa-Moog, Jaime

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available People with epilepsy are prone to be sedentary compared with the general population. The causes of inactivity are ignorance, prejudice, overprotection, fear and shame. There is no scientific evidence supporting a limitation of physical exercise in persons with epilepsy. The benefits of exercise in these patients are huge. Positive aspects are: physical conditioning, prevention of seizures, emotional wellbeing, social interaction, drug treatment adherence, osteoporosis prevention and better quality of life for patients and their families. Having in mind the individual characteristics, physical exercise should be prescribed and guided. Available evidence underlies the complementary therapeutic effects of physical activity with large positive results at a low cost. Sports or regular physical activity should be a standard indication for persons with epilepsy.

  7. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. Method A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. Results While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%, four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%. Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. Conclusion While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences

  8. Psychosocial factors underlying physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Juan; Middlestadt, Susan E; Ji, Cheng-Ye

    2007-09-19

    Given the increasing importance of obesity in China, prevention interventions encouraging physical activity by middle school students are needed. The purpose of this study is to illustrate how a rapid elicitation method can be used to identify salient consequences, referents, and circumstances about physical activity as perceived by middle school students and to provide suggestions for interventions and quantitative research. A theory-based qualitative study using a self-completion elicitation was conducted with 155 students from two middle schools in Beijing, China. Following the Theory of Planned Behavior, six open-ended questions asked students for their perceptions about performing physical activity at least 60 minutes each day: advantages of participating in physical activity; disadvantages of doing so; people who approve of participation; people who disapprove; things that make it easy; and things that make it hard. Content analysis revealed categories of salient consequences, reference groups, and circumstances. While the three most frequently mentioned advantages elicited from the students were physical health consequences (e.g., will strengthen my body (58.7%)), four of the salient advantages were not (e.g., will improve my grades (12.2%)). Parents were the most frequently mentioned social referent (42.6% as approving; 27.7% as disapproving) when students were asked who might approve or disapprove of their participation. Circumstances perceived to hinder daily physical activity included having too many assignments and not having enough time. While many of the beliefs about physical activity elicited from this study were similar to those found with students from England and the US, several were unique to these students from Beijing. The results of this qualitative research suggest that interventions to encourage physical activity among middle school students should address: perceived consequences of physical activity on academic achievement and other

  9. Kinaesthetic activities in physics instruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Jesper; Christiansen, Frederik V

    2016-01-01

    One of the major difficulties in learning physics is for students to develop a conceptual understanding of the core concepts of physics. Many authors argue that students’ conceptions of basic physical phenomena are rooted in basic schemas, originating in fundamental kinaesthetic experiences...... of being. We argue that this idea should be utilized in physics instruction, that kinaesthetic activities will provide useful entry point for students’ acquisition of the basic conceptions of physics, and that they can overcome the phenomenological gap between experiential and conceptual understanding. We...... discuss the nature of image schemas and focus particularly on one: effort-resistance-flow. This schema is fundamental not only in our everyday experience, but also in most of school physics. We show how enactment of a particular kinaesthetic model can support student understanding and intuition...

  10. Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Weight Breastfeeding Micronutrient Malnutrition State and Local Programs Physical Activity for a Healthy Weight Language: English Español (Spanish) ... calories are used in typical activities? Why is physical activity important? Regular physical activity is important for good ...

  11. Determining the amount of physical activity needed for long-term weight control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wier, L. T.; Ayers, G. W.; Jackson, A. S.; Rossum, A. C.; Poston, W. S.; Foreyt, J. P.

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate prospectively the influence of habitual physical activity on body weight of men and women and to develop a model that defines the role of physical activity on longitudinal weight change. DESIGN AND SETTING: Occupational cohort study conducted for a mean of 5.5 y. SUBJECTS: A total of 496 (341 male and 155 female) NASA/Johnson Space Center employees who completed the 3 month education component of the employee health-related fitness program and remained involved for a minimum of 2 y. MEASUREMENTS: Body weights were measured at baseline (T1) and follow-up (T2), and habitual physical activity was obtained from the mean of multiple ratings of the 11-point (0-10) NASA Activity Scale (NAS) recorded quarterly between T1 and T2. Other measures included age, gender, VO(2 max) obtained from maximal treadmill testing, body mass index (BMI), and body fat percentage. RESULTS: Multiple regression demonstrated that mean NAS, T1 weight, aging and gender all influence long-term T2 weight. T1 age was significant for the men only. Independently, each increase in mean NAS significantly (Pmen (b=-0.91 kg; 95% CI:-1.4 to-0.42 kg) and women (b=-2.14 kg; 95% CI:-2.93 to-1.35 kg). Mean NAS had a greater effect on T2 weight as T1 weight increased, and the relationship was dose-dependent. CONCLUSIONS: Habitual physical activity is a significant source of long-term weight change. The use of self-reported activity level is helpful in predicting long-term weight changes and may be used by health care professionals when counseling patients about the value of physical activity for weight control.

  12. Occupational Physical Activity Habits of UK Office Workers: Cross-Sectional Data from the Active Buildings Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Lee; Sawyer, Alexia; Gardner, Benjamin; Seppala, Katri; Ucci, Marcella; Marmot, Alexi; Lally, Pippa; Fisher, Abi

    2018-06-09

    Habitual behaviours are learned responses that are triggered automatically by associated environmental cues. The unvarying nature of most workplace settings makes workplace physical activity a prime candidate for a habitual behaviour, yet the role of habit strength in occupational physical activity has not been investigated. Aims of the present study were to: (i) document occupational physical activity habit strength; and (ii) investigate associations between occupational activity habit strength and occupational physical activity levels. A sample of UK office-based workers ( n = 116; 53% female, median age 40 years, SD 10.52) was fitted with activPAL accelerometers worn for 24 h on five consecutive days, providing an objective measure of occupational step counts, stepping time, sitting time, standing time and sit-to-stand transitions. A self-report index measured the automaticity of two occupational physical activities (“being active” (e.g., walking to printers and coffee machines) and “stair climbing”). Adjusted linear regression models investigated the association between occupational activity habit strength and objectively-measured occupational step counts, stepping time, sitting time, standing time and sit-to-stand transitions. Eighty-one per cent of the sample reported habits for “being active”, and 62% reported habits for “stair climbing”. In adjusted models, reported habit strength for “being active” were positively associated with average occupational sit-to-stand transitions per hour (B = 0.340, 95% CI: 0.053 to 0.627, p = 0.021). “Stair climbing” habit strength was unexpectedly negatively associated with average hourly stepping time (B = −0.01, 95% CI: −0.01 to −0.00, p = 0.006) and average hourly occupational step count (B = −38.34, 95% CI: −72.81 to −3.88, p = 0.030), which may reflect that people with stronger stair-climbing habits compensate by walking fewer steps overall. Results suggest that stair-climbing and

  13. Lower Electrodermal Activity to Acute Stress in Caregivers of People with Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Adaptive Habituation to Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Robledillo, Nicolás; Moya-Albiol, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Caring for a relative with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) entails being under chronic stress that could alter body homeostasis. Electrodermal activity (EDA) is an index of the sympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system related to emotionality and homeostasis. This study compares EDA in response to acute stress in the laboratory between…

  14. Renovated Parks Improve Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    We know that children who are physically active every day are less likely to develop chronic diseases as adults, including obesity. Dr. Sandy Slater, a researcher with the University of Illinois, Chicago Prevention Research Center, discusses how a park improvement project in Chicago helped engage communities to improve areas for play and activity.

  15. National Recommendations for Physical Activity and Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Rütten, Alfred; Pfeifer, Klaus; Banzer, Winfried; Ferrari, Nina; Füzéki, Eszter; Geidl, Wolfgang; Graf, Christine; Hartung, Verena; Klamroth, Sarah; Völker, Klaus; Vogt, Lutz; Abu-Omar, Karim; Burlacu, Ionuţ; Gediga, Günther; Messing, Sven

    2016-01-01

    Always and at any age, regular physical activity can act as a powerful elixir with a beneficial effect on health and well-being. The wide variety of health effects that physical activity can have, for example on our cardiovascular system, back and joints, is scientifically well proven. At the same time, we spend most of our time sitting – at school, at the office or in the car. Our bodies, however, want to be on the move! This fundamental instinct is deeply rooted in human nature and this bas...

  16. Kidney transplantation: a systematic review of interventional and observational studies of physical activity on intermediate outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdonald, Jamie Hugo; Kirkman, Danielle; Jibani, Mahdi

    2009-11-01

    Kidney transplant patients have decreased quality and longevity of life. Whether exercise can positively affect associated outcomes such as physical functioning, metabolic syndrome, kidney function, and immune function, has only been addressed in relatively small studies. Thus the aim of this systematic review was to determine effects of physical activity level on these intermediate outcomes in kidney transplant patients. We electronically and hand searched to identify 21 studies (6 retrospective assessments of habitual physical activity and 15 intervention studies including 6 controlled trials). After study quality assessment, intermediate outcomes associated with quality and longevity of life were expressed as correlations or percentage changes in addition to effect sizes. Habitual physical activity level was positively associated with quality of life and aerobic fitness and negatively associated with body fat (medium to large effect sizes). Exercise interventions also showed medium to large positive effects on aerobic capacity (10%-114% increase) and muscle strength (10%-22% increase). However, exercise programs had minimal or contradictory effects on metabolic syndrome and immune and kidney function. In kidney transplant patients, physical activity intervention is warranted to enhance physical functioning. Whether exercise impacts on outcomes associated with longevity of life requires further study.

  17. The influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure response to caffeine ingestion is affected by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares, Rogerio Nogueira; Schneider, Augusto; Valle, Sandra Costa; Schenkel, Paulo Cavalheiro

    2018-03-06

    This study aimed to investigate whether the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the blood pressure (BP) response to caffeine ingestion was affected by physical activity status and habitual caffeine consumption. Thirty-seven participants (19-50 years old) took place in the study and were categorized according to i) genotype: CYP1A2 (AA) "fast metabolizer", and CYP1A2 (AC) "slow metabolizer"; ii) physical activity level: sedentary (S) and physically active (A); and iii) caffeine consumption level: non-habitual caffeine consumer (NC) and habitual heavy caffeine consumer (C). All groups had BP assessed before (basal) and 1 hourh after (post) caffeine ingestion (6 mg·kg -1 ). It was observed that AC genotype individuals had increased basal-DBP and post-caffeine SBP when compared to AA individuals. Additionally, acute caffeine ingestion increased SBP only in the AC group. It was also found that physical activity only modulated the BP responses to acute caffeine ingestion in AC individuals. Furthermore, the results indicated that the habitual heavy caffeine consumers AC individuals had increased basal-DBP when compared to the AA ones. Our results suggest that the influence of CYP1A2 genotype in the basal and post-caffeine BP response to caffeine ingestion is modified by physical activity status and caffeine consumption level. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Motivating People To Be Physically Active. Physical Activity Intervention Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Bess H.; Forsyth, LeighAnn H.

    This book describes proven methods for helping people change from inactive to active living. The behavior change methods are useful for healthy adults as well as individuals with chronic physical and psychological conditions. The book describes intervention programs for individuals and groups and for workplace and community settings. Part 1,…

  19. Asthma & Physical Activity in the School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Asthma & Physical Activity in the School MAKING A DIFFERENCE Min: 5/ ... D. Chair, NAEPP School Subcommittee Working Group on Physical Activity and School American Medical Association Karen Huss, Ph. ...

  20. FastStats: Exercise or Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Exercise or Physical Activity Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data are ... adults aged 18 and over who met the Physical Activity Guidelines for aerobic physical activity: 51.7% Percent ...

  1. Inverse relationship between physical activity and arterial stiffness in adults with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donovan, Cuisle; Lithander, Fiona E; Raftery, Tara; Gormley, John; Mahmud, Azra; Hussey, Juliette

    2014-02-01

    Physical activity has beneficial effects on arterial stiffness among healthy adults. There is a lack of data on this relationship in adults with hypertension. The majority of studies which have examined physical activity and arterial stiffness have used subjective measures of activity. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between objectively measured habitual physical activity and arterial stiffness in individuals with newly diagnosed essential hypertension. Adults attending an outpatient hypertension clinic were recruited into this cross sectional study. Physical activity was measured using a triaxial accelerometer. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and augmentation index (AIx) were measured using applanation tonometry. Participant's full lipid profile and glucose were determined through the collection of a fasting blood sample. Fifty-three adults [51(14) years, 26 male] participated, 16 of whom had the metabolic syndrome. Inactivity was positively correlated with PWV (r = .53, P arterial stiffness among adults with hypertension.

  2. Consequences of Inadequate Physical Activity

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2018-03-27

    Listen as CDC Epidemiologist Susan Carlson, PhD, talks about her research, which estimates the percentage of US deaths attributed to inadequate levels of physical activity.  Created: 3/27/2018 by Preventing Chronic Disease (PCD), National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 3/27/2018.

  3. Daily Physical Activity Survey Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberta Education, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The intent of the Daily Physical Activity (DPA) Survey was to gather school-level information from teachers and principals regarding their perceptions of DPA, thus providing a greater understanding of DPA implementation in grades 1 to 9. This study aimed to help identify the many variables that influence the attainment of the DPA outcomes and…

  4. Metabolic benefits of physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Špela Volčanšek

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity is the most beneficial intervention in prevention and treatment of chronic diseases. Life style, which has become mostly sedentary, leads to growing incidence in obesity, what could cause the first so far reduction in life expectancy in developed countries.Physical activity reduces the chronic low-grade inflammation, which plays an important role in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and certain types of cancer. Regular physical activity exerts two anti-inflammatory effects: reduction of visceral fat, which produces the majority of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and production of myokines. It has been proposed that cytokines and other peptides that are produced by muscle fibers should be classified as myokines that exert autocrine, paracrine and endocrine effects. Myokines induce muscle hypertrophy and myogenesis, stimulate fat oxidation, improve insulin sensitivity and have an anti-inflammatory effect.  Therefore, skeletal muscle has been identified as a secretory organ and this provides the basis for understanding how muscles communicate with other organs, such as adipose tissue, liver, pancreas, gut, bones and brain. Physical inactivity leads to an altered myokine profile, associating sedentary life style with some chronic diseases.Physical activity is recommended as a tool for weight management and prevention of weight gain, for weight loss and for prevention of weight regain. High quality studies have confirmed the important impact of exercise on improving blood glucose control in diabetic patients, and on preventing or delaying the onset of type 2 diabetes in predisposed populations. Prescribing specific exercise tailored to individual's needs is an intervention strategy for health improvement. Physical fitness counteracts the detrimental effects of obesity reducing morbidity and mortality.

  5. Youth physical activity resource use and activity measured by accelerometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    To examine whether use of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. One hundred eleven adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported use of a physical activity resource (none /1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily (1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and (2) vigorous physical activity. Using a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources.

  6. Youth Physical Activity Resources Use and Activity Measured by Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Andréa L.; Colabianchi, Natalie

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To examine whether utilization of physical activity resources (eg, parks) was associated with daily physical activity measured by accelerometry. Methods 111 adolescents completed a travel diary with concurrent accelerometry. The main exposure was self-reported utilization of a physical activity resource (none/1+ resources). The main outcomes were total minutes spent in daily 1) moderate-vigorous physical activity and 2) vigorous physical activity. Results Utilizing a physical activity resource was significantly associated with total minutes in moderate-vigorous physical activity. African-Americans and males had significantly greater moderate-vigorous physical activity. Conclusions Results from this study support the development and use of physical activity resources. PMID:21204684

  7. Physics Laboratory technical activities, 1991. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gebbie, K.B.

    1992-02-01

    The report summarizes research projects, measurement method development, calibration and testing, and data evaluation activities that were carried out during calendar year 1991 in the NIST Physics Laboratory. These activities fall in the areas of electron and optical physics, atomic physics, molecular physics, radiometric physics, quantum metrology, ionizing radiation, time and frequency, quantum physics, and fundamental constants

  8. The effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.; Koning, M.; Beek, A.J. van der; Hildebrandt, V.H.; Bosscher, R.J.; Mechelen, W. van

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To critically review the literature with respect to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs on physical activity, physical fitness, and health. Data Sources: A search for relevant English-written papers published between 1980 and 2000 was conducted using MEDLINE, EMBASE,

  9. Increasing Physical Activity during the School Day through Physical Activity Classes: Implications for Physical Educators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adkins, Megan; Bice, Matt; Bartee, Todd; Heelan, Kate

    2015-01-01

    Across the nation schools are adopting health and wellness policies, specifically physical activity (PA) initiatives that aid healthy long-term lifestyles. Interest has been generated about the inclusion of physical activity classes to complement existing physical education classes. Furthermore, discussion has evolved as to if additional…

  10. Intermittent Exposure to Social Defeat and Open-field Test in Rats : Acute and Long-term Effects on ECG, Body Temperature and Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sgoifo, Andrea; Pozzato, Chiara; Meerlo, Peter; Costoli, Tania; Manghi, Massimo; Stilli, Donatella; Olivetti, Giorgio; Musso, Ezio

    2002-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of exposure to an intermittent homotypic stressor on: (i) habituation of acute autonomic responsivity (i.e. cardiac sympathovagal balance and susceptibility to arrhythmias), and (ii) circadian rhythmicity of heart rate, body temperature, and physical activity.

  11. A comparative biomechanical analysis of habitually unshod and shod runners based on a foot morphological difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Qichang; Fernandez, Justin; Fu, Weijie; Feng, Neng; Gu, Yaodong

    2015-08-01

    Running is one of the most accessible physical activities and running with and without footwear has attracted extensive attention in the past several years. In this study 18 habitually male unshod runners and 20 habitually male shod runners (all with dominant right feet) participated in a running test. A Vicon motion analysis system was used to capture the kinematics of each participant's lower limb. The in-shoe plantar pressure measurement system was employed to measure the pressure and force exerted on the pressure sensors of the insole. The function of a separate hallux in unshod runners is analyzed through the comparison of plantar pressure parameters. Owing to the different strike patterns in shod and unshod runners, peak dorsiflexion and plantarflexion angle were significantly different. Habitually shod runners exhibited a decreased foot strike angle (FSA) under unshod conditions; and the vertical average loading rate (VALR) of shod runners under unshod conditions was larger than that under shod conditions. This suggests that the foot strike pattern is more important than the shod or unshod running style and runners need to acquire the technique. It can be concluded that for habitually unshod runners the separate hallux takes part of the foot loading and reduces loading to the forefoot under shod conditions. The remaining toes of rearfoot strike (RFS) runners function similarly under unshod conditions. These morphological features of shod and unshod runners should be considered in footwear design to improve sport performance and reduce injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: The findings revealed that 64% of the participants were physically active both within the work and recreation domains and 65% of the participants had good physical activity promoting practices. Discussing physical activity and giving out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in ...

  13. Global recommendations on physical activity for health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... кий Español Global Strategy on Diet, Physical Activity and Health Menu Diet, Physical Activity & Health Global strategy development ... obesity Documents & publications Related links Global recommendations on physical activity for health WHO developed the "Global Recommendations on Physical Activity ...

  14. Physical activity and health promotion strategies among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    out information regarding physical activity were most common methods used in promotion of physical activity. Policies on ... highlighted. Conclusion: Although physiotherapists experience barriers to promoting physical activity, they have good physical activity .... workplace tended to vary from lack of books or articles on.

  15. Childhood asthma and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lochte, Lene; Nielsen, Kim G; Petersen, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents. The obj......BACKGROUND: Childhood asthma is a global problem affecting the respiratory health of children. Physical activity (PA) plays a role in the relationship between asthma and respiratory health. We hypothesized that a low level of PA would be associated with asthma in children and adolescents......; however, there was some heterogeneity among the studies. This review reveals a critical need for future longitudinal assessments of low PA, its mechanisms, and its implications for incident asthma in children. The systematic review was prospectively registered at PROSPERO (registration number: CRD...

  16. Physical activity and health benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Orsini, Nicola

    2008-01-01

    Physical activity (PA), due to its role in health promotion and disease prevention, is of particular interest to be investigated. The aims of this thesis were: to assess the associations between PA and different health outcomes (lower urinary tract symptoms, cancer incidence, and mortality) in the Cohort of Swedish Men (COSM); to perform a dose-response meta-analysis of published associations between walking and incidence of coronary heart disease (CHD); and to provide user-...

  17. Ways optimization physical activity students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilij Sutula

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: on the basis of the analysis of results of poll of students, first, to define structure and the importance of the factors influencing formation of motivation at them to sports and sports activity, secondly, to allocate possible subjects for extension of the maintenance of theoretical and methodical-practical components of sports formation of student's youth. Material and Methods: the study involved students of first and second courses of the Institute for training bodies and the Faculty of Law of the National University №9 Yaroslav the Wise and the students of the Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts and Zhytomyr State University named after Ivan Franko. Results: it is established that during training at national law university interests of students concerning factors which motivate them to sports and sports activity significantly change. The analyses data testify that a key factor which prevents students to be engaged in sports and sports activity, lack of free time is. It is proved that students consider necessary to receive information on the physical state. Conclusions: results of research allowed allocating the most significant factors which motivate students to be engaged in sports and sports activity. It is established subjects of theoretical and methodical and practical components of sports education which interest students of NLU and KNUCA and ZSU. It is shown that for students of Law University of importance topic of theoretical and methodological and practical components of physical education strongly depends on the year of their training.

  18. Homeostatic and non-homeostatic appetite control along the spectrum of physical activity levels: An updated perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaulieu, Kristine; Hopkins, Mark; Blundell, John; Finlayson, Graham

    2017-12-28

    The current obesogenic environment promotes physical inactivity and food consumption in excess of energy requirements, two important modifiable risk factors influencing energy balance. Habitual physical activity has been shown to impact not only energy expenditure, but also energy intake through mechanisms of appetite control. This review summarizes recent theory and evidence underpinning the role of physical activity in the homeostatic and non-homeostatic mechanisms controlling appetite. Energy intake along the spectrum of physical activity levels (inactive to highly active) appears to be J-shaped, with low levels of physical activity leading to dysregulated appetite and a mismatch between energy intake and expenditure. At higher levels, habitual physical activity influences homeostatic appetite control in a dual-process action by increasing the drive to eat through greater energy expenditure, but also by enhancing post-meal satiety, allowing energy intake to better match energy expenditure in response to hunger and satiety signals. There is clear presumptive evidence that physical activity energy expenditure can act as a drive (determinant) of energy intake. The influence of physical activity level on non-homeostatic appetite control is less clear, but low levels of physical activity may amplify hedonic states and behavioural traits favouring overconsumption indirectly through increased body fat. More evidence is required to understand the interaction between physical activity, appetite control and diet composition on passive overconsumption and energy balance. Furthermore, potential moderators of appetite control along the spectrum of physical activity, such as body composition, sex, and type, intensity and timing of physical activity, remain to be fully understood. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Occupational and leisure time physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2012-01-01

    Men with low physical fitness and high occupational physical activity are recently shown to have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality. The association between occupational physical activity with cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality may also depend on leisure...... time physical activity....

  20. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion

    OpenAIRE

    Richards, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Overview: A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity “lifestyle” phy...

  1. The Evolution of Physical Activity Promotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Elizabeth Ann

    2015-08-01

    A physically active lifestyle has numerous physical and mental health benefits for patients of all ages. Despite these significant benefits, a majority of Americans do not meet current physical activity guidelines. Health care providers, especially nurses, play a vital role in physical activity promotion. Over the past several decades, exercise and physical activity guidelines have evolved from a focus on structured, vigorous exercise to a focus on moderate-intensity "lifestyle" physical activity. The author updates nurses on physical activity guidelines and provides tips for promoting physical activity, with a focus on lifestyle activities such as walking to work. This article also addresses new research findings on the importance of decreasing sedentary and sitting time, even in physically active people.

  2. Fetal habituation in assisted conception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joy, Jolly; McClure, Neil; Hepper, Peter G; Cooke, Inez

    2012-06-01

    Neurodevelopment outcomes of children conceived by Assisted Reproductive Technology (ART)have been the subject of much recent attention. To date there are no reports of neurodevelopmental performance before birth in this group. To compare habituation (a measure of brain function) in fetuses conceived by assisted reproduction techniques (ART) with naturally conceived (NC) fetuses. Case control study. Women with singleton pregnancies matched for maternal age, parity and smoking were recruited in 2 groups: ART (n=20) and NC (n=20). Sound stimuli (250 Hz, 110 dB) at 10 second intervals lasting 2 s were administered to the fetus. The end point was habituation (cessation of movement for five consecutive stimuli) or a maximum of 30 stimuli. Responses of the fetus were observed with ultrasound at 28, 32 and 36 weeks' gestation, video-recorded and anonymised for analysis. At 28 weeks' gestation significantly more ART fetuses responded to sound of 250 Hz, 110 dB (p=0.02) but this difference did not persist at 32 and 36 weeks'. There was a significant increase in nonresponders as gestation advanced in the ART group. There was no difference in habituation or mean number of trials to habituate at all three gestations. ART fetuses demonstrated no differences in habituation suggesting that there is no neurodevelopment delay. However, a decrease in response to sound as gestation advances might be a harbinger for poor perinatal outcomes and needs exploration. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Physical activity in relation to selected physical health components ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the relation between physical activity and selected physical health components. A total of 9860 employees of a financial institution in South Africa, between the ages 18 and 64 (x̄ =35.3 ± 18.6 years), voluntary participated in the study. Health risk factors and physical activity was ...

  4. Physical activity promotion in business and industry: evidence, context, and recommendations for a national plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pronk, Nicolaas P

    2009-11-01

    The contemporary workplace setting is in need of interventions that effectively promote higher levels of occupational and habitual physical activity. It is the purpose of this paper to outline an evidence-based approach to promote physical activity in the business and industry sector in support of a National Physical Activity Plan. Comprehensive literature searches identified systematic reviews, comprehensive reviews, and consensus documents on the impact of physical activity interventions in the business and industry sector. A framework for action and priority recommendations for practice and research were generated. Comprehensive, multicomponent work-site programs that include physical activity components generate significant improvements in health, reduce absenteeism and sick leave, and can generate a positive financial return. Specific evidence-based physical activity interventions are presented. Recommendations for practice include implementing comprehensive, multicomponent programs that make physical activity interventions possible, simple, rewarding and relevant in the context of a social-ecological model. The business and industry sector has significant opportunities to improve physical activity among employees, their dependents, and the community at-large and to reap important benefits related to worker health and business performance.

  5. Habituation and sensitization in primary headaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The phenomena of habituation and sensitization are considered most useful for studying the neuronal substrates of information processing in the CNS. Both were studied in primary headaches, that are functional disorders of the brain characterized by an abnormal responsivity to any kind of incoming innocuous or painful stimuli and it’s cycling pattern over time (interictal, pre-ictal, ictal). The present review summarizes available data on stimulus responsivity in primary headaches obtained with clinical neurophysiology. In migraine, the majority of electrophysiological studies between attacks have shown that, for a number of different sensory modalities, the brain is characterised by a lack of habituation of evoked responses to repeated stimuli. This abnormal processing of the incoming information reaches its maximum a few days before the beginning of an attack, and normalizes during the attack, at a time when sensitization may also manifest itself. An abnormal rhythmic activity between thalamus and cortex, namely thalamocortical dysrhythmia, may be the pathophysiological mechanism subtending abnormal information processing in migraine. In tension-type headache (TTH), only few signs of deficient habituation were observed only in subgroups of patients. By contrast, using grand-average responses indirect evidence for sensitization has been found in chronic TTH with increased nociceptive specific reflexes and evoked potentials. Generalized increased sensitivity to pain (lower thresholds and increased pain rating) and a dysfunction in supraspinal descending pain control systems may contribute to the development and/or maintenance of central sensitization in chronic TTH. Cluster headache patients are chrarcterized during the bout and on the headache side by a pronounced lack of habituation of the brainstem blink reflex and a general sensitization of pain processing. A better insight into the nature of these ictal/interictal electrophysiological dysfunctions in primary

  6. Assessing physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Patricia; Marcus, Robin L

    2013-05-01

    Patients with CKD are characterized by low levels of physical functioning, which, along with low physical activity, predict poor outcomes in those treated with dialysis. The hallmark of clinical care in geriatric practice and geriatric research is the orientation to and assessment of physical function and functional limitations. Although there is increasing interest in physical function and physical activity in patients with CKD, the nephrology field has not focused on this aspect of care. This paper provides an in-depth review of the measurement of physical function and physical activity. It focuses on physiologic impairments and physical performance limitations (impaired mobility and functional limitations). The review is based on established frameworks of physical impairment and functional limitations that have guided research in physical function in the aging population. Definitions and measures for physiologic impairments, physical performance limitations, self-reported function, and physical activity are presented. On the basis of the information presented, recommendations for incorporating routine assessment of physical function and encouragement for physical activity in clinical care are provided.

  7. "Pushing" physical activity, and justice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Robert; Bracho, America; Cantero, Patricia; Glenn, Beth A

    2009-10-01

    There has been an increasing realization of the need for environmental interventions to increase physical activity levels in the population. Although promising, the impact of these strategies in reducing obesity-related disparities will be limited by the presence of inequities in the distribution of activity-related resources in the community. Advocacy efforts are critically needed to ensure that all communities benefit from environmental strategies being implemented. This paper describes two activist community-based organizations in Southern California, The City Project and Latino Health Access, and their successful efforts to mandate equitable access to public resources critical for reducing obesity-related disparities. Principles for equitable development of public land are also presented as well as lessons learned that can inform future advocacy efforts.

  8. Physics of Space Plasma Activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, N F

    2007-01-01

    This book provides a timely review of our present understanding of plasma phenomena in magnetized terrestrial and solar space plasmas. The author's emphasis is on the fluid and particle modeling and interpretation of observed active processes in space plasmas, i.e. 'the physical background of large plasma eruptions in space'. It is somewhat alarming for a plasma physicist to read that an emphasis on processes in spatially inhomogeneous plasmas means that the work '... excludes a considerable fraction of the available methods in space plasma physics, such as the theory of waves, instabilities and wave particle interactions on a homogeneous background', particularly in light of the fact that much of our knowledge of these plasmas is derived from observations of such waves. However, it is clear on reading the book that such a restriction is not a disadvantage, but allows the author to concentrate on the main theme of the book, namely the use of fluid and particle pictures to model the equilibrium and active states of space plasmas. There are many other books which cover the wave aspects of space plasmas, and would complement this book. The book's coverage is based on the extensive and profound research of the author and his colleagues in the area of fluid and particle modeling of space plasma structures. After an introduction to the physical setting of active plasmas, and a necessarily concise, but effective, discussion of the fluid and particle models to be used, the steady states of the magnetized plasmas of interest are treated, including the magnetosphere, solar plasmas and current sheets. Next the dynamics of unstable states is covered, including MHD and tearing instabilities, and nonlinear aspects, with a detailed discussion of magnetic reconnection. Finally, the models are applied to magnetospheric and solar observations. The book is attractively written and produced, and this reviewer managed to find a minimum number of errors. A particularly attractive

  9. Does weight status influence perceptions of physical activity barriers among African-American women?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genkinger, Jeanine M; Jehn, Megan L; Sapun, Marcella; Mabry, Iris; Young, Deborah Rohm

    2006-01-01

    Many African-American women fail to participate in regular physical activity. Weight status may influence physical activity barriers. This study examined the frequency and type of barriers. Participants in this study were enrolled in Project EXE-L (Exercising Ladies Excel), a six-month, church-based, randomized trial of moderate-intensity physical activity based in Baltimore city and county in Maryland. Participants were composed of African-American women who attended one of the participating churches, had friends who were church members, or who lived in neighborhoods surrounding one of the churches. Individuals who were between the ages of 25 and 70 years, were not regularly physically active (defined as not engaging in moderate-intensity activity more than three times per week), and were able to participate in moderate-intensity activity met eligibility criteria to participate in the trial. Barriers to physical activity were evaluated with the Steinhardt/Dishman Barriers for Habitual Physical Activity Scale at baseline. One hundred twenty women were classified as normal weight (body mass index [BMI]: or = 30 kg/m2). Obese participants were more likely to report "lack of motivation" as a barrier compared with normal-weight participants (63% vs 31%). Normal-weight and overweight participants were more likely to report no barriers compared with the obese (31%, 0%, 5%, respectively, P<.05). Barriers for African-American women may vary by BMI status. By defining these unique barriers, effective physical activity interventions can be developed.

  10. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  11. Physical Activity and Health in Preschool Children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Line Brinch

    Physical activity is beneficial in relation to several life style diseases and the association between physical activity and early predictors of life style diseases seem to be present already in preschool age. Since physical activity and other health behaviours are established during childhood...... and track from childhood into adult life, it is relevant to address physical activity already in the preschool age. The research in preschool children’s physical activity is relatively new, and because of methodological inconsistencies, the associations between physical activity and health are less clear...... in this age group. The objective of this thesis was to contribute to the knowledge base regarding physical activity in preschoolers; How active are preschoolers? Are activity levels related to specific settings during a typical week? And are the activity levels related to a range of health outcomes...

  12. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Kann, Dave H H; de Vries, Sanne I; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activ...

  13. Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe July 2014 Print this issue Health Capsule Physical Activity Helps Seniors Stay Mobile En español Send us your comments A carefully structured, moderate physical activity program helped vulnerable older people maintain their mobility. ...

  14. Evaluating a Model of Youth Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heitzler, Carrie D.; Lytle, Leslie A.; Erickson, Darin J.; Barr-Anderson, Daheia; Sirard, John R.; Story, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between social influences, self-efficacy, enjoyment, and barriers and physical activity. Methods: Structural equation modeling examined relationships between parent and peer support, parent physical activity, individual perceptions, and objectively measured physical activity using accelerometers among a…

  15. Differences in Physical Activity during School Recess

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgers, Nicola D.; Saint-Maurice, Pedro F.; Welk, Gregory J.; Siahpush, Mohammad; Huberty, Jennifer

    2011-01-01

    Background: School recess provides a daily opportunity for physical activity engagement. The purpose of this study was to examine physical activity levels during recess by gender, ethnicity, and grade, and establish the contribution of recess to daily school physical activity levels. Methods: Two hundred and ten children (45% boys) from grades 3…

  16. Promoting physical activity in socially vulnerable groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herens, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    Background: In the Netherlands, inequalities in physical activity behaviour go hand in hand with socioeconomic inequalities in health. To promote physical activity effectively and equitably, participatory community-based physical activity interventions seem promising and are

  17. Exposure to Air Pollutants During Physical Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ramos, C.A.

    2016-01-01

    The context for this thesis is the concern that people who practice physical activity are more susceptible to air pollution. For the studies presented here, three perspectives of physical activity were considered: in indoor, i) physical activity in fitness centers; in outdoor ii) the use of bicycle

  18. Putting Physical Activity on the Policy Agenda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Catherine B.; Mutrie, Nanette

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to outline why physical activity policy is important in terms of promoting population based increases in physical activity. The promotion of physical activity through public policy happens globally and nationally, however to be successful it should also happen at state and local levels. We outline the rationale for the…

  19. Associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in childrenand adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Silva, Gustavo; Andersen, Lars Bo; Aires, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of this study was to analyse the associations between sports participation, levels of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF). The study comprised 310 participants (183 girls and 127 boys) aged 11-18 years. Sports participation...... was assessed by questionnaire and habitual physical activity (PA) was measured objectively with accelerometers. The 20-m shuttle-run test was used to estimate CRF. Logistic regression analyses were carried out with CRF as the outcome. The odds ratio (OR) for being fit was greater for those who comply with60min...

  20. Physical activity and the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollmann, Wildor; Strüder, Heiko K; Tagarakis, Christos V M; King, Gerard

    2007-12-01

    Functional ageing processes are characterized by a loss of performance capabilities regarding coordination, flexibility, strength, speed, and endurance. The effects of ageing processes on the cardiovascular system and skeletal muscle are the foci of attention. After age 30, the maximum aerobic dynamic performance capacity decreases by an average of 8% per decade. The causes are mainly a reduction in the maximum cardiac output and decreases in capillarization and in the skeletal muscle mass. An improvement in the maximum oxygen uptake by 18% and in the aerobic-anaerobic threshold by 22% was achieved in untrained men aged 55-70 years, in a 12-week-long bicycle ergometer-training programme. The strength of the skeletal muscle decreases particularly after 50-60 years of age. The main cause is the reduction in the number of motor units and muscle fibres. Further, modifications of the endothelial function and the development of sarcopenia are of particular importance in ageing processes. General aerobic dynamic training can improve the endothelial function in old age and thus help prevent cardiovascular diseases. Strength training is most appropriate for the prevention of sarcopenia. Imaging techniques over the last 20 years have provided new findings on the influence and the significance of physical activity on the brain. We call this new interdisciplinary area 'Exercise Neuroscience'. Demands on coordination and aerobic dynamic endurance are suitable in counteracting age-related neuronal cellular loss, synapsis hypotrophy, and in improving neurogenesis and capillarization. Adjusted physical activity is thus capable of counteracting age-related changes and performance loss not only in the cardiovascular system but also in the brain.

  1. Effects of physical activity and inactivity on muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Bogdanis

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this review was to examine the mechanisms by which physical activity and inactivity modify muscle fatigue. It is well known that acute or chronic increases in physical activity result in structural, metabolic, hormonal, neural and molecular adaptations that increase the level of force or power that can be sustained by a muscle. These adaptations depend on the type, intensity and volume of the exercise stimulus, but recent studies have highlighted the role of high intensity, short duration exercise as a time-efficient method to achieve both anaerobic and aerobic/endurance type adaptations. The factors that determine the fatigue profile of a muscle during intense exercise include muscle fibre composition, neuromuscular characteristics high energy metabolite stores, buffering capacity, ionic regulation, capillarization and mitochondrial density. Muscle fiber type transformation during exercise training is usually towards the intermediate type IIA at the expense of both type I and type IIx myosin heavy chain isoforms. High intensity training results in increases of both glycolyic and oxidative enzymes, muscle capilarization, improved phosphocreatine resynthesis and regulation of K+, H+ and lactate ions. Decreases of the habitual activity level due to injury or sedentary lifestyle result in partial or even compete reversal of the adaptations due to previous training, manifested by reductions in fibre cross-sectional area, decreased oxidative capacity and capillarization. Complete immobilization due to injury results in markedly decreased force output and fatigue resistance. Muscle unloading reduces electromyographic activity and causes muscle atrophy and significant decreases in capillarization and oxidative enzymes activity. The last part of the review discusses the beneficial effects of intermittent high intensity exercise training in patients with different health conditions to demonstrate the powerful effect exercise on health and well

  2. Virtual reality jogging as a novel exposure paradigm for the acute urge to be physically active in patients with eating disorders: Implications for treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paslakis, Georgios; Fauck, Vanessa; Röder, Kathrin; Rauh, Elisabeth; Rauh, Manfred; Erim, Yesim

    2017-11-01

    The acute urge to be physically active is a relevant clinical phenomenon in patients suffering from eating disorders. In this study with n = 20 female patients with anorexia nervosa and n = 10 female patients with bulimia nervosa, a virtual reality (VR) jogging paradigm was applied as a novel highly immersive 3D exposure paradigm. Patients were asked to rate their acute urge to be physically active during the exposure procedure. A 10-item self-report questionnaire (smQ) was developed to capture the cognitive, emotional, and behavioral aspects of the acute urge to move. We hypothesized that exposure would lead to habituation of the urge to be physically active. We also hypothesized that leptin levels would be associated with the degree of the subjective urge to be physically active, while habituation would be associated with a decrease in stress hormones (α-amylase, cortisol, and cortisone in saliva). A statistically significant change in subjective scores in the smQ from baseline to postexposure was seen. Our novel VR paradigm may serve as a therapeutic tool for exposure and habituation of the urge of acutely engaging in physical activity in patients with eating disorders. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Influence of Physical Activities to Science Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RS Wilson DR. Constantino

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This study explored the physical activities of fifth and sixth graders that projected correlations to science performance and how these physical activities may be utilized for classroom purposes in the context of science-related play activities. Descriptive survey correlational design directed the data collection and analysis of the physical activities of purposively selected 133 fifth and sixth graders. Primarily, the study used a researcher-developed and validated instrument (Physical Activity Questionnaire [PAQ], and standard instruments: Philippine National Physical Activity Guide (PNPAG and General Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ. The latter classified the physical activities into five domains which directed the interpretation of the participants‟ responses. The Pearson-r Moment of Correlation described the level of correlation of the frequency of engagement to physical activities (limited to local and localized activities and the science grade of the respondents. Results show that each of the physical activity domains showed specific correlations to science performance of the respondents. For further research, enrichment of the relationship of the physical activities and the science performance may focus on possible moderating variables like economic status, and time allotment for physical activities.

  4. Impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariola Saulicz

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available To determine the impact of physical activity and fitness on the level of physical activity barriers (kinesiophobia in women of perimenopausal age, the study included 105 women between the ages of 48 and 58. A Baecke questionnaire was used to evaluate physical activity and a modified Fullerton test was used to evaluate the fitness level. The level of kinesiophobia was assessed using the Kinesiophobia Causes Scale questionnaire. A low level of habitual physical activity has a negative impact on the values of Biological Domain (r = –0.581, Psychological Domain (r = –0.451, and on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.577. Lower physical activity expressed by a lower score in the Fullerton test also has a negative impact on the level of kinesiophobia. Upper body flexibility (r = –0.434 has the strongest influence on the Biological Domain, whereas upper body strength (r = –0.598 has the greatest impact on the Psychological Domain. A low level of upper body strength also has the greatest impact on the Kinesiophobia Cause Scale total score (r = –0.507. Low levels of physical activity and fitness in women of perimenopausal age favour kinesiophobic attitudes and thereby increase the level of barriers against undertaking physical activity.

  5. Does HOPSports Promote Youth Physical Activity in Physical Education Classes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Stephanie T.; Shores, Kindal A.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated how a technological intervention, HOPSports (HOPS), impacted youth physical activity (PA) in a physical education (PE) class. Research indicates rising levels of youth television watching and video game use, physical inactivity, and related overweight. One approach to increase youth PA is to use technology-based…

  6. Generalized Habituation of Concept Stimuli in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faulkender, Patricia J.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    An evaluation of selective generalization of habituation on the basis of meaningful categories of stimuli. Also explored are the sex differences in conceptual generalization of habituation. Subjects were 36 toddlers with a mean age of 40 months. (SDH)

  7. The use of pedometers for monitoring physical activity in children and adolescents: measurement considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemes, Stacy A; Biddle, Stuart J H

    2013-02-01

    Pedometers are increasingly being used to measure physical activity in children and adolescents. This review provides an overview of common measurement issues relating to their use. Studies addressing the following measurement issues in children/adolescents (aged 3-18 years) were included: pedometer validity and reliability, monitoring period, wear time, reactivity, and data treatment and reporting. Pedometer surveillance studies in children/adolescents (aged: 4-18 years) were also included to enable common measurement protocols to be highlighted. In children > 5 years, pedometers provide a valid and reliable, objective measure of ambulatory activity. Further evidence is required on pedometer validity in preschool children. Across all ages, optimal monitoring frames to detect habitual activity have yet to be determined; most surveillance studies use 7 days. It is recommended that standardized wear time criteria are established for different age groups, and that wear times are reported. As activity varies between weekdays and weekend days, researchers interested in habitual activity should include both types of day in surveillance studies. There is conflicting evidence on the presence of reactivity to pedometers. Pedometers are a suitable tool to objectively assess ambulatory activity in children (> 5 years) and adolescents. This review provides recommendations to enhance the standardization of measurement protocols.

  8. Physical Activity of Children from Town Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Marija Joksimović; Vukosav Joksimović

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Physical activity is indispensable for normal physical, mental and social development of children. Insuffi cient physical activity is connected to increased frequency of a range of chronic non-contagious diseases occurring in the adult age (hypertension, diabetes and some form of carcinoma). Aim of Paper: It is to establish to what extent physical activity is represented as to school children. Material and Method: By using the method of conducting a poll among 200 children (100 ...

  9. Evidence-based intervention in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heath, Gregory W; Parra, Diana C; Sarmiento, Olga L

    2012-01-01

    Promotion of physical activity is a priority for health agencies. We searched for reviews of physical activity interventions, published between 2000 and 2011, and identified effective, promising, or emerging interventions from around the world. The informational approaches of community......-wide and mass media campaigns, and short physical activity messages targeting key community sites are recommended. Behavioural and social approaches are effective, introducing social support for physical activity within communities and worksites, and school-based strategies that encompass physical education......, classroom activities, after-school sports, and active transport. Recommended environmental and policy approaches include creation and improvement of access to places for physical activity with informational outreach activities, community-scale and street-scale urban design and land use, active transport...

  10. Physical Disability, Stigma, and Physical Activity in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barg, Carolyn J.; Armstrong, Brittany D.; Hetz, Samuel P.; Latimer, Amy E.

    2010-01-01

    Using the stereotype content model as a guiding framework, this study explored whether the stigma that able-bodied adults have towards children with a physical disability is reduced when the child is portrayed as being active. In a 2 (physical activity status) x 2 (ability status) study design, 178 university students rated a child described in…

  11. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity. Group as ... than a higher physical activity level can keep the blood pressure in check in Indian ... Female - PVO2 max = 50.513 + 1.589 (PA-R) –.

  12. Activities report in nuclear physics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, J. F. W.; Scholten, O.

    1987-01-01

    Experimental studies of giant resonances, nuclear structure, light mass systems, and heavy mass systems are summarized. Theoretical studies of nuclear structure, and dynamics are described. Electroweak interactions; atomic and surface physics; applied nuclear physics; and nuclear medicine are

  13. Normal physical activity obliterates the deleterious effects of high-caloric intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh-Madsen, Rikke; Pedersen, Maria; Solomon, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    A high-caloric intake combined with a sedentary lifestyle is an important player in the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The present study was undertaken to examine if the level of physical activity has impact on the metabolic effects of a high-caloric (+2,000 kcal/day) intake...... function with regard to capacity of attention. In conclusion, we find evidence to support that habitual physical activity may prevent pathophysiological symptoms associated with diet-induced obesity....... visceral fat compared to the active group. Following the two-week period, the inactive group also experienced a poorer glycaemic control, increased endogenous glucose production, decreased hepatic insulin extraction, increased baseline plasma levels of total cholesterol and LDL, and a decreased cognitive...

  14. Wpływ wysiłku fizycznego wybranych dyscyplin sportowych na habitualną postawę ciała = The effect of physical exercise on selected sports on habitual posture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mrozkowiak

    2016-10-01

      Słowa kluczowe: postawa habitualna, sport   Streszczenie Wstęp. Wpływ ćwiczeń fizycznych na rozwój osobniczy są funkcją jego intensywności i     długotrwałości. Celem podjętych badań jest wykazanie wpływu treningu sportowego właściwego danej dyscyplinie sportowej na habitualną postawę ciała sportowca Materiał, przedmiot metoda. Pomiarów 35 przestrzennych cech habitualnej postawy ciała dokonano wśród 151 zawodników judo, zapasów, piłki siatkowej, piłki nożnej i szermierki. metodą fotogrametryczną. Wyniki. Opisano postawę habitualną sportowca właściwą każdej dyscyplinie sportowej, określono istotność różnic z przyjętymi wielkościami cech postawy habitualnej osobników nie uprawiających sportu klasyfikowanego. Wnioski. (1 Stan zdrowia uprawiających sport kwalifikowany może zależeć od wiedzy, umiejętności i wrażliwości prowadzącego szkolenie sportowe. Istotnym kryterium oceny stosowanych obciążeń w sportach asymetrycznych może być diagnostyka postawy ciała, umożliwiająca korektę metod treningowych i stosowanych środków w jej ramach. Wskazane jest wprowadzenie wszechstronnego szkolenia zawodników i doskonalenia funkcjonalnej równowagi poszczególnych grup mięśniowych, szczególnie w dyscyplinach asymetrycznych, (2 Należy wprowadzić właściwą selekcje w naborze młodych adeptów klubów sportowych w oparciu o systematyczne badania lekarskie, (3 Zaburzenia statyki postawy ciała w wieku dojrzałego zawodnika mogą być  konsekwencją nie stosowania zasad treningu holistycznego i błędów w początkowym etapie szkolenia, błędów w rozgrzewce i braku ćwiczeń kształtujących nawyk postawy prawidłowej w jej ramach, (4 Zrealizowane badania nie dają pełnego obrazu zmian w postawie ciała po wpływem pracy charakterystycznej dla danej dyscypliny sportowej.     Keywords: habitual posture, sport   Summary   Admission. The impact of physical exercise on the development of the individual

  15. Blender Bikes: Blending Nutrition and Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Theresa M.; Smathers, Carol A.

    2018-01-01

    Many Americans do not meet the recommendations for diet and physical activity. A blender bike can be an effective tool when coupled with hands-on activities that reinforce health recommendations. We created "Blending Nutrition and Physical Activity: An Activity Guide for Use with Blender Bikes" to use when incorporating a blender bike…

  16. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borie, E.; Doll, P.; Rebel, H.

    1982-11-01

    This report surveys the activities in fundamental research from July 1, 1981 to June 30, 1982 at the three institutes of the KfK which are concerned with nuclear physics. The research program comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions, neutron physics, neutrino physics and physics at medium and higher energies. (orig.) [de

  17. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heeringa, W.; Voss, F.

    1988-02-01

    This report surveys the activities in basic research from July 1, 1986 to June 30, 1987 at the Institute for Nuclear Physics (IK) of the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. The research program of this institute comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions, neutron physics, neutrino physics and high energy physics, as well as detector technology. (orig.) [de

  18. Association Between Physical Activity and Proximity to Physical Activity Resources Among Low-Income, Midlife Women

    OpenAIRE

    Jilcott, Stephanie B; Evenson, Kelly R; Laraia, Barbara A; Ammerman, Alice S

    2006-01-01

    Introduction The association between levels of physical activity and perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources is unclear. Clarification is important so that future programs can intervene upon the measure with the greatest association. We examined correlations between perceived and objectively measured proximity to physical activity resources and then examined associations between both measures of proximity and objectively measured physical activity. Methods ...

  19. Does the benefit on survival from leisure time physical activity depend on physical activity at work?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holtermann, Andreas; Marott, Jacob Louis; Gyntelberg, Finn

    2013-01-01

    To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work.......To investigate if persons with high physical activity at work have the same benefits from leisure time physical activity as persons with sedentary work....

  20. Exergaming: Syncing Physical Activity and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Lisa; Higgins, John

    2010-01-01

    This article discusses exergaming, a groundbreaking type of video game which is creating a revolution in physical education. Exergaming combines physical activity and video gaming to create an enjoyable and appealing way for students to be physically active. An extremely popular choice in this genre is the music video/dance rhythm game (MVDG). One…

  1. Physical activity in physiotherapy and physical education high school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailova A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A term of health-related physical fitness became topical with four its components: aerobic and/or cardiovascular fitness, body composition, abdominal muscle strength and endurance, and lower back and hamstring flexibility. Complex evaluation of health-related physical fitness and physical activity (PA may show a wider insight in health promotion and disease prevention. The aim of this study was to evaluate physical activity relation to health-related physical fitness in Physiotherapy (PT and Physical Education (PE students. Final study sample consisted of 67 students (46 women and 21 men (aged 21.61 ± 0.71. All participants filled in International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Health-related physical testing included: 1 body composition evaluation, 2 abdominal muscles strength tests, 3 dynamometry, 4 hamstring muscles and m. quadratus lumborum elasticity evaluation tests, 5 bicycle ergometer test (anaerobic threshold, maximal oxygen consumption. Results showed that most students had normal body composition parameters (BMI, body fat, muscle mass, body water in both genders and study programs. Women were less physically active that men, and PA duration was higher in PE students. PT students had higher body composition values, lower cardiorespiratory fitness parameters and lower handgrip strength in both hands than PE students. Greater PA generally implies a higher level of health-related physical fitness. PA significantly positively affects body composition, upper m. rectus abdominisstrength, grip strength and aerobic capacity.

  2. Young people's participation in physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Stine Frydendal; Ottesen, Laila; Thing, Lone Friis

    regarding physical activity. 469 students participated in the survey. It is carried out through the online program SurveyXact. The data is processed in SPSS, and subsequently discussed. The primary results reveal that spare time jobs have a large impact on young people’s participation in physical activity......; Shame has an immense influence on the girls’ participation in physical activity; The offers regarding physical activity, provided by the school, appeal more to the boys and the students who are already physically active. Consequently, the students express a wish to have more influence on physical...... of young people today. This means that participation in physical activity cannot be discussed independently, but must always be viewed within the context of the lives of young people today....

  3. Doing physical activity – not learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jens-Ole

    2017-01-01

    Introduction In recent years there have been a raising critique concerning PE as a subject which is more concerned with keeping pupils physically active than insuring that they learn something (Annerstedt, 2008). In Denmark, this issue has been actualized in a new sense. In 2014, a new school...... reform with 45 minutes of daily physical activity was introduced to enhance the pupils’ health, well-being and learning capabilities. Instead of focusing on learning bodily skills, physical activities has become an instrument to improve learning in the academic subjects. Physical activities.......g. Biesta, 2010; Standal, 2015) I will argue that the focus on learning outcome and effects on physical activity has gone too far in order to reach the objectives. If the notion of ‘keeping pupils physically active’ is understood as a representation of the core quality of physical activity, it seems...

  4. Association between objectively measured physical activity, chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, Roland; Bruwer, Erna J; Hamer, Mark; de Ridder, J Hans; Malan, Leoné

    2017-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) attenuates chronic stress and age-related and cardiovascular disease risks, whereby potentially slowing telomere shortening. We aimed to study the association between seven-day objectively measured habitual PA, chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length. Study participants were African (N.=96) and Caucasian (N.=107) school teachers of the Sympathetic activity and Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Africans study. All lifestyle characteristics (including PA) were objectively measured. The general health questionnaire and serum cortisol were assessed as psychological and physical measures of chronic stress. Leukocyte telomere length was measured using the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Africans had significantly shorter telomeres (Pstress or telomere length. However, more time spent with light intensity PA time was significantly and independently correlated with lower waist circumference (r=-0.21, P=0.004); in turn, greater waist circumference was significantly associated shorter telomeres (β=-0.17 [-0.30, -0.03], P=0.017). Habitual PA of different intensity was not directly associated with markers of chronic stress and leukocyte telomere length in this biethnic cohort. However, our findings suggest that light intensity PA could contribute to lowered age-related disease risk and healthy ageing by facilitating maintenance of a normal waist circumference.

  5. Sleep homeostasis, habits and habituation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyazovskiy, Vladyslav V; Walton, Mark E; Peirson, Stuart N; Bannerman, David M

    2017-06-01

    The importance of sleep for behavioural performance during waking is long-established, but the underlying reasons and mechanisms remain elusive. Waking and sleep are associated with changes in the levels of GluA1 AMPAR subunit in synaptic membranes, while studies using genetically-modified mice have identified an important role for GluA1-dependent synaptic plasticity in a non-associative form of memory that underlies short-term habituation to recently experienced stimuli. Here we posit that sleep may play a role in dishabituation, which restores attentional capacity and maximises the readiness of the animal for learning and goal-directed behaviour during subsequent wakefulness. Furthermore we suggest that sleep disturbance may fundamentally change the nature of behaviour, making it more model-free and habitual as a result of reduced attentional capacity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  6. An overview of currently available methods and future trends for physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Kiško

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Methodological limitations make comparison of various instruments difficult, although the number of publications on physical activity assessment has extensively increased. Therefore, systematization of techniques and definitions is essential for the improvement of knowledge in the area. Objective: This paper systematically describes and compares up-to-date methods that assess habitual physical activity and discusses main issues regarding the use and interpretation of data collected with these techniques. Methods: A general outline of the measures and techniques described above is presented in review form, along with their respective definition, usual applications, positive aspects and shortcomings. Results and conclusions: The various factors to be considered in the selection of physical activity assessment methods include goals, sample size, budget, cultural and social/environmental factors, physical burden for the subject, and statistical factors, such as accuracy and precision. It is concluded that no single current technique is able to quantify all aspects of physical activity under free-living conditions, requiring the use of complementary methods. In not too distant future, devices will take advantage of consumer technologies, such as mobile phones, GPS devices. It is important to perform other activities, such as detecting and responding to physical activity in a real time, creating new opportunities in measurement, remote compliance monitoring, data-driven discovery and intervention.

  7. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W; Weng, Timothy B; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z; Wong, Chelsea N; Cooke, Gillian E; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P; Olson, Erin A; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F

    2016-05-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the default mode network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Fitness, but not physical activity, is related to functional integrity of brain networks associated with aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voss, Michelle W.; Weng, Timothy B.; Burzynska, Agnieszka Z.; Wong, Chelsea N.; Cooke, Gillian E.; Clark, Rachel; Fanning, Jason; Awick, Elizabeth; Gothe, Neha P.; Olson, Erin A.; McAuley, Edward; Kramer, Arthur F.

    2015-01-01

    Greater physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness are associated with reduced age-related cognitive decline and lower risk for dementia. However, significant gaps remain in the understanding of how physical activity and fitness protect the brain from adverse effects of brain aging. The primary goal of the current study was to empirically evaluate the independent relationships between physical activity and fitness with functional brain health among healthy older adults, as measured by the functional connectivity of cognitively and clinically relevant resting state networks. To build context for fitness and physical activity associations in older adults, we first demonstrate that young adults have greater within-network functional connectivity across a broad range of cortical association networks. Based on these results and previous research, we predicted that individual differences in fitness and physical activity would be most strongly associated with functional integrity of the networks most sensitive to aging. Consistent with this prediction, and extending on previous research, we showed that cardiorespiratory fitness has a positive relationship with functional connectivity of several cortical networks associated with age-related decline, and effects were strongest in the Default Mode Network (DMN). Furthermore, our results suggest that the positive association of fitness with brain function can occur independent of habitual physical activity. Overall, our findings provide further support that cardiorespiratory fitness is an important factor in moderating the adverse effects of aging on cognitively and clinically relevant functional brain networks. PMID:26493108

  9. Platelet responses to pharmacological and physiological interventions in middle-aged men with different habitual physical activity levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundberg Slingsby, Martina Helena; Gliemann, Lasse; Thrane, Mette Nørmark

    2018-01-01

    into 3 groups; untrained, moderately- and well-trained. Their platelet reactivity (agonist-induced %aggregation) was investigated in platelet rich plasma at rest and after inhibition with aspirin and ticagrelor and/or prostacyclin and nitric oxide added to the blood in vitro, and after physiological...... tests of vascular function; passive movement of the leg, flow-mediated dilation and one-leg knee-extensor exercise. Vascular function of the femoral artery (changes in arterial blood flow) was assessed by ultrasound doppler. RESULTS: Platelets from the well-trained subjects had lower basal reactivity......, a higher sensitivity to the anti-aggregatory effects of prostacyclin and were more potently inhibited by dual anti-platelet therapy compared to the untrained subjects. The moderately- and well-trained subjects had a superior vascular function compared to untrained subjects and their platelets were more...

  10. [Senior citizen's physical activity and welfare].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Maria da Silva; Chaves Maia, Eulália M

    2009-01-01

    This work analysed senior citizens' perception of needs and social values involved in taking physical activity for their own benefit. This study's main aim was to investigate social representations of 3rd age physical activity. This was a cross-sectional, interdisciplinary qualitative study, underpinned by theoretical-methodological social representation theory. A convenience, non-probabilistic, census-dependent method was used for obtaining the sam-ple of 62 people aged 50 to 78 from north-eastern Brazil. The data were collected by using the free word association technique and analysed by EVOC/2000 software. Analysing the replies led to three types of elements being identified which were related to the social representation of physical activity as attributed by the elderly: a psychological dimension (represented by happiness, well-being), a social dimension (dancing) and a biophysical dimension (gymnastics, water-gymnastics and health). The term 'happiness' stood out most in the word recall tests. When relating old age to the sample's social representation of physical activity, the study showed that physical activity assumed a preponderant role in the life of the elderly through cyclical appreciation-depreciation, social representation simultaneously and gradually acquiring 'life having more health and quality' from social representation. The subjects reported a positive association between physical activity, social interaction and well-being. The elderly also believed in physical activity's effects on physical-motor aspects and health. The social representation of physical activity by the group being studied was close to the physical activity's biopsychosocial dimension.

  11. The role of lean body mass and physical activity in bone health in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Fátima; Barrigas, Carlos; Vieira, Filomena; Santa-Clara, Helena; Homens, Pedro Mil; Fragoso, Isabel; Teixeira, Pedro J; Sardinha, Luís B

    2012-01-01

    In the context of physical education curricula, markers of physical fitness (e.g., aerobic capacity, muscular strength, flexibility, and body mass index or body fat) are usually evaluated in reference to health standards. Despite their possible mediating role in the relationship between weight-bearing or muscle forces and features of bone tissue, these attributes of fitness may not be the most relevant to predict skeletal health. It is therefore important to analyze the relative contribution of these factors to the variability in bone tissue of different parts of the skeleton, and to analyze it by gender, as sensitivity to mechanical loading can diverge for boys and girls. We compared the effects of habitual physical activity (PA) and lean mass, as surrogates of weight-bearing and muscle forces, and of physical fitness (aerobic and muscle capacity of lower and upper limbs) on bone mineral content (BMC) and size of total body, lumbar spine, femoral neck, and 1/3 radius in 53 girls and 64 boys from 7.9 to 9.7 years of age. After controlling for bone age, body mass, body height, and calcium intake, lean mass was the most important predictor of bone size and/or mineral in both genders (p  608 counts/min/day (~105 min/day of moderate and vigorous intensity) showed 13-20% more BMC than those with less physical activity, and girls with a lean mass >19 kg showed 12-19% more BMC than those with less lean mass. These findings suggest that lean mass was the most important predictor of bone size and/or mineralization in both genders, while habitual weight-bearing PA appears to positively impact on bone mineral in prepubertal boys and that both lean mass and PA need to be considered in physical education curricula and other health-enhancing programs.

  12. Leisure Time Physical Activity and Mortality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Nina Føns; Ekblond, Annette; Thomsen, Birthe Lykke

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Some studies indicate that a large part of the beneficial effect of physical activity on mortality is confined to a threshold effect of participation. METHODS: Self-reported physical activity was investigated in relation to all-cause mortality in the Danish Diet, Cancer and Health...... cohort, including 29,129 women and 26,576 men aged 50-64 years at baseline 1993-1997. Using Cox proportional hazards models we investigated the associations between mortality rate and leisure time physical activity by exploring 1) participation (yes/no) in each type of activity; 2) a simple dose...... in specific leisure time physical activities, but not with more time spent on those activities. This could suggest that avoiding a sedative lifestyle is more important than a high volume of activity. Nonparticipation in these types of physical activity may be considered as risk factors....

  13. Physical activity and obesity in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hills, Andrew P; Andersen, Lars Bo; Byrne, Nuala M

    2011-01-01

    Globally, obesity is affecting an increasing proportion of children. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of becoming overweight and obese in childhood and adolescence, and reducing the risk of obesity in adulthood. Puberty and the following adolescent period are acknowledged...... as particularly vulnerable times for the development of obesity due to sexual maturation and, in many individuals, a concomitant reduction in physical activity. In many Western settings, a large proportion of children and adolescents do not meet recommended physical activity guidelines and, typically, those who...... are more physically active have lower levels of body fat than those who are less active. Active behaviours have been displaced by more sedentary pursuits which have contributed to reductions in physical activity energy expenditure. Without appropriate activity engagement there is an increased likelihood...

  14. Active Canada 20/20: A physical activity plan for Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, John C; Faulkner, Guy; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Duggan, Mary; Tremblay, Mark S

    2016-03-16

    Physical inactivity is a pressing public health concern. In this commentary we argue that Canada's approach to increasing physical activity (PA) has been fragmented and has lacked coordination, funding and a strategic approach. We then describe a potential solution in Active Canada 20/20 (AC 20/20), which provides both a national plan and a commitment to action from non-government and public sectors with a view to engaging corporate Canada and the general public. It outlines a road map for initiating, coordinating and implementing proactive initiatives to address this prominent health risk factor. The identified actions are based on the best available evidence and have been endorsed by the majority of representatives in the relevant sectors. The next crucial steps are to engage all those involved in public health promotion, service provision and advocacy at the municipal, provincial and national levels in order to incorporate AC 20/20 principles into practice and planning and thus increase the PA level of every person in Canada. Further, governments, as well as the private, not-for-profit and philanthropic sectors, should demonstrate leadership and continue their efforts toward providing the substantial and sustained resources needed to recalibrate Canadians' habitual PA patterns; this will ultimately improve the overall health of our citizens.

  15. Barriers to Physical Activity on University Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jajat; Sultoni, K.; Suherman, A.

    2017-03-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students based on physical activity level. An internet-based survey was conducted. The participants were 158 University students from Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia. Barriers to Physical Activity Quiz (BPAQ) were used to assessed the factors that become barriers to physical activity in university students. IPAQ (short form) were used to assessed physical activity level. The results show there was no differences BPAQ based on IPAQ level. But when analyzed further based on seven factors barriers there are differences in factors “social influence and lack of willpower” based IPAQ level. Based on this it was concluded that the “influence from other and lack of willpower” an inhibiting factor on students to perform physical activity.

  16. Barriers to physical activity among working mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dombrowski, Jill J

    2011-04-01

    Working mothers experience several barriers to physical activity. If these barriers can be identified by occupational health nurses and they can partner with working mothers to reduce these perceived barriers, the health of these workers can be improved and chronic disease risk prevented. The purpose of this study was to measure the effect of self-regulatory efficacy on physical activity among working mothers and to describe specific barriers to physical activity. The Barriers Specific Self-Efficacy Scale (BARSE) and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey (KPAS) were used to measure the variables. Self-regulatory efficacy was found to be a strong predictor of physical activity in a diverse sample of working mothers who did not meet current recommendations for physical activity. Occupational health nurses can use these findings to design programs for groups and for counseling individuals. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Obesity and physical activity in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradinuk, Mia; Chanoine, Jean-Pierre; Goldman, Ran D

    2011-07-01

    What advice should I give parents of overweight children about physical activity? How can we encourage these children to become more physically active? The Canadian Paediatrics Society 2002 position statement on healthy living for children and youth, which is currently being revised, recommends that physicians advise children and adolescents to increase the time they spend on physical activities by at least 30 minutes a day, with at least 10 minutes involving vigorous activities, and that goals should be reset to reach at least 90 minutes a day of total physical activity. The extent to which children and youth are physically active is influenced by a multitude of complex, interrelated factors. Addressing physical inactivity and its contribution to childhood obesity requires a comprehensive and holistic approach.

  18. Biopsychosocial Benefits of Physical Activity in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Meydanlioglu

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Physical activity levels in children have been steadily decreasing in recent years. Reduced physical activity leads to numerous chronic diseases at an early age, particularly obesity. Lifelong participation in physical activity and maintenance of ideal bodyweight are highly effective in the prevention of chronic diseases such as obesity, cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, Type II diabetes, lung and colon cancers. At the same time physical activity increases self-confidence, self-esteem and academic achievement, and reduces symptoms of depression. Therefore, this study was designed to improve awareness of professional groups and families working with children and adolescents about physical activity benefits on children health, as well as psychosocial benefits and planned to offer suggestions for increasing physical activity levels of children. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2015; 7(2: 125-135

  19. Nearby outdoor environments and seniors physical activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Wang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available More than 60% of older Americans have sedentary lifestyles1 1 According to DHHS (1996. and are recommended more physical activities for health benefit. Nearby outdoor environments on residential sites may impact older inhabitants׳ physical activities there (defined as walking, gardening, yard work, and other outdoor physical activities on residential sites. This study surveyed 110 assisted-living residents in Houston, Texas, regarding their previous residential sites before moving to a retirement community and physical activities there. Twelve environmental features were studied under four categories (typology, motivators, function, and safety. Based on data availability, a subset of 57 sample sites was analyzed in Geographic Information Systems. Hierarchical linear modeling was applied to estimate physical activities as a function of the environments. Higher levels of physical activity were found to be positively related with four environmental features (transitional-areas, connecting-paths, walk-ability, and less paving.

  20. Break for Physical Activity: Incorporating Classroom-Based Physical Activity Breaks into Preschools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadsworth, Danielle D.; Robinson, Leah E.; Beckham, Karen; Webster, Kip

    2012-01-01

    Engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity is essential to lifelong health and wellness. Physical activity behaviors established in early childhood relate to physical activity behaviors in later years. However, research has shown that children are adopting more sedentary behaviors. Incorporating structured and planned physical activity…

  1. Effectiveness of School-Initiated Physical Activity Program on Secondary School Students' Physical Activity Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gråstén, Arto; Yli-Piipari, Sami; Watt, Anthony; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo

    2015-01-01

    Background: The promotion of physical activity and health has become a universal challenge. The Sotkamo Physical Activity as Civil Skill Program was implemented to increase students' physical activity by promoting supportive psychological and physical school environment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the…

  2. Physical Activity for Health and Longevity

    OpenAIRE

    Khoo, Selina; Müller, Andre Matthias

    2013-01-01

    International audience; The aging process is commonly associated with declines in health, cognitive function and well-being. However, lifestyle factors like diet, alcohol consumption, smoking and physical activity were repeatedly highlighted as predictors of a healthy aging process. However, recent research has shown that physical activity is the strongest predictor of health in older adults. Recent studies have confirmed the strong effect of physical activity on cardiovascular, metabolic, mu...

  3. Physical activity, physical disability, and osteoarthritic pain in older adults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HopmanRock, M.; Kraaimaat, F. W.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.

    1996-01-01

    The relationship between the frequency (chronic, episodic, and sporadic) of arthritic pain in the hip and/or knee, other illness-related variables, physical disability, and a physically active lifestyle was analyzed in community-living subjects aged 55 to 74 years (N = 306). We tested the hypothesis

  4. Physical Activity of Croatian Population: Cross-sectional Study Using International Physical Activity Questionnaire

    OpenAIRE

    Jurakić, Danijel; Pedišić, Željko; Andrijašević, Mirna

    2009-01-01

    Aim To determine the physical activity level of the Croatian population in different domains of everyday life. Methods A random stratified sample of 1032 Croatians aged 15 years and older was interviewed using the official Croatian long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Total physical activity and physical activity in each of the 4 life domains – work, transport, domestic and garden, and leisure-time – were estimated. Physical activit...

  5. Physical activity, body composition and physical fitness status of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... BMI for age and gender was used to classify the children as underweight, overweight or obese ... health crises associated with underweight and low levels of PA status in the children.

  6. Associations between neuromuscular function and levels of physical activity differ for boys and girls during puberty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudroff, Thorsten; Kelsey, Megan M; Melanson, Edward L; McQueen, Matthew B; Enoka, Roger M

    2013-08-01

    To compare the associations between neuromuscular performance and anthropometric characteristics with habitual levels of physical activity in boys and girls during the initial stages of puberty. In a cross-sectional study of 72 healthy children (39 boys and 33 girls) ranging in age from 8 to 14 years, sex differences in anthropometric and motor performance characteristics were compared at 3 Tanner stages (T1-T3). Outcome variables included dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry measurements of body composition, assessments of neuromuscular function, and levels of physical activity (steps/day) measured by accelerometry. Physical activity was lower in girls than boys at T2 and T3, but there was no sex difference at T1. Physical activity increased with Tanner stage for boys but did not differ between Tanner stages in girls. Physical activity at each Tanner stage was strongly associated (R(2) > 0.85) with neuromuscular characteristics for both boys and girls, but percentage of body fat also was associated with physical activity for T3 girls. The attenuated gains in neuromuscular function experienced by girls in early stages of puberty were strongly associated with lower levels of physical activity, whereas the increase in physical activity exhibited by boys was mostly related to increases in the strength and endurance of leg muscles. Because sedentary activity is a known contributor to the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes in youth, this study helps to identify possible contributors to decreases in physical activity in young girls and provides potential targets for early intervention. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Giulliano Destro Christofaro

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. Methods: The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years, and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire of parents (during childhood and adolescence and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents. Results: The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p < 0.001. The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR = 6.67 [CI = 1.94-22.79] more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. Conclusions: The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors.

  8. Adolescents' physical activity is associated with previous and current physical activity practice by their parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro; Andersen, Lars Bo; Andrade, Selma Maffei de; Barros, Mauro Virgílio Gomes de; Saraiva, Bruna Thamyres Ciccotti; Fernandes, Rômulo Araújo; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether parents' current and previous physical activity practice is associated with adolescents' physical activity. The sample was composed of 1231 adolescents (14-17 years), and 1202 mothers and 871 fathers were interviewed. Weight and height of the adolescents were measured. Self-reported parents' weight and height were obtained. The current and previous physical activity levels (Baecke's questionnaire) of parents (during childhood and adolescence) and adolescents' physical activity levels were obtained using a questionnaire. The magnitude of the associations between parent and adolescent physical activity levels was determined by binary logistic regression (adjusted by sex, age, and socioeconomic level of adolescents and education level of parents). The current physical activity practice by parents was associated with adolescents' physical activity (p<0.001). The physical activities reported by parents in their childhood and adolescence were also associated with higher physical activity levels among adolescents. Adolescents whose parents were both physically active in the past and present were six times (OR=6.67 [CI=1.94-22.79]) more likely to be physically active compared to adolescents with no parents who were physically active in the past. The current and previous physical activities of parents were associated with higher levels of physical activity in adolescents, even after controlling for confounding factors. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. The joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) in middle-aged and older males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michishita, Ryoma; Matsuda, Takuro; Kawakami, Shotaro; Tanaka, Satoshi; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Morito, Natsumi; Higaki, Yasuki

    2017-11-06

    This retrospective study evaluated the influence of the joint impact of habitual exercise and glycemic control on the incidence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) during a 6-year follow-up period in middle-aged and older males. The study population included 303 males without a history of cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal dysfunction, or dialysis treatment. Their lifestyle behaviors regarding exercise and physical activity were evaluated using a standardized self-administered questionnaire. The participants were divided into four categories according to the performance or non-performance of habitual exercise and the presence or absence of hyperglycemia. After 6 years, 32 subjects (10.6%) developed CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate exercise and hyperglycemic subjects (log-rank test: p exercise (HR = 2.82, 95% confidence of interval (CI) = 1.07-7.36, p = 0.034) and that in hyperglycemic subjects who did not perform habitual exercise (HR = 5.89, 95% CI = 1.87-16.63, p = 0.003) were significantly higher in comparison to the subjects with a NGT who performed habitual exercise. These results suggest that the habitual exercise and good glycemic control and their combination were associated with the incidence of CKD.

  10. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-06-01

    Our research indicated that 10-12-year-old children receiving two active Wii ™ (Nintendo ® ; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  11. Is Enhanced Physical Activity Possible Using Active Videogames?

    OpenAIRE

    Baranowski, Tom; Baranowski, Janice; O'Connor, Teresia; Lu, Amy Shirong; Thompson, Debbe

    2012-01-01

    Our research indicated that 10–12-year-old children receiving two active Wii™ (Nintendo®; Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase physical activity.

  12. Active Learning Strategies in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamustafaoglu, Orhan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine physics teachers' opinions about student-centered activities applicable in physics teaching and learning in context. A case study approach was used in this research. First, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 6 physics teachers. Then, a questionnaire was developed based on the data obtained…

  13. Physical Activity for the Autistic Child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, Robert E.

    1983-01-01

    Physical, cognitive, and social-emotional symptoms of autism are described, along with possible causes of the condition and treatments. A "theraplay" physical education program in Newark, Delaware, is discussed, where physical activities such as rhythm, body awareness, perceptual motor development, and swimming are used to engage…

  14. Physical activity of pregnant and postpartum women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Łosień

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the basic elements of a healthy lifestyle is regular physical activity. Nowadays, more and more women during pregnancy take up the topic of the impact of physical activity and diet on the child developing in the womb. The existence of birth schools allows you to prepare for delivery, obtain information on acceptable safe activity adapted to the health of the future mother and ways of rational nutrition. The silhouette of women during pregnancyis constantly changing. Literature often shows the subject of a decrease in self-esteem during this period, associated with hormonal changes, appearance, fatigue and limitation of time for self-development. In the literature, we find two different positions of women about the subject of physical activity during pregnancy. The first position speaks of virtually complete limitation of activity, the second is about taking minimal activity such as before pregnancy. The aim of the study: 1 What impact on physical well-being in pregnant women and postpartum is having, 2 Is there a relationship between physical activity and pregnancy? 3 Is there a relationship between physical activity and postpartum period?, 4 What is the most common motivation to undertake physical activity after delivery? Material and methods:57 women aged 18 to 47 participated in the study. The study used an original anonymous survey of 28 questions. The questions concerned, among others: pregnancy, postnatal period, physical activity during pregnancy and after delivery. Conclusions: Taking physical activity during pregnancy and after childbirth influences the increase of self-esteem and well-being of women. About 25% of women surveyed did not return to physical activity a year after delivery. The basic factors influencing the activity after childbirth are the desire to improve the appearance, well-being and return to fitness which they presented before delivery.

  15. Invited commentary: Physical activity, mortality, and genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Bouchard, Claude

    2007-08-01

    The importance of regular physical activity to human health has been recognized for a long time, and a physically active lifestyle is now defined as a major component of public health policies. The independent contribution of regular physical activity to lower morbidity and mortality rates is generally accepted, and the biologic mechanisms mediating these health effects are actively investigated. A few years ago, data from the Finnish Twin Registry suggested that genetic selection may account for some of the physical-activity-related benefits on mortality rates. However, results from the Swedish Twin Registry study reported by Carlsson et al. in the current issue of the Journal (Am J Epidemiol 2007;166:255-259) do not support the genetic selection hypothesis. In this commentary, the authors review the nature of the associations among physical activity level, fitness, and longevity, with special reference to the role of human genetic variation, and discuss potential reasons for different outcomes of these large twin studies.

  16. [Physical activity: positive impact on brain plasticity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achiron, Anat; Kalron, Alon

    2008-03-01

    The central nervous system has a unique capability of plasticity that enables a single neuron or a group of neurons to undergo functional and constructional changes that are important to learning processes and for compensation of brain damage. The current review aims to summarize recent data related to the effects of physical activity on brain plasticity. In the last decade it was reported that physical activity can affect and manipulate neuronal connections, synaptic activity and adaptation to new neuronal environment following brain injury. One of the most significant neurotrophic factors that is critical for synaptic re-organization and is influenced by physical activity is brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). The frequency of physical activity and the intensity of exercises are of importance to brain remodeling, support neuronal survival and positively affect rehabilitation therapy. Physical activity should be employed as a tool to improve neural function in healthy subjects and in patients suffering from neurological damage.

  17. REPRESENTATION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY DOMAINS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Autor

    the need to analyse elementary and middle school curricula to include educational activities ..... The Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (IBM, 2014), ..... A comparison of Web and print media for physical activity promotion among.

  18. Physical activity across the life-course

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evans, Adam Brian; Nistrup, Anne; Allen-Collinson, Jacquelyn

    2018-01-01

    The subjective, lived elements of old age in physical activity promotion are central in defining how older people ascribe meaning to experiences of being active. Many such meanings are developed throughout the life course. From a longitudinal perspective, although continuity theory can be helpful...... be interdependent with how others define them, and how they define others. We offer recommendations about how this shift in perspective can empower older people to be active agents within figurations of physical activity promotion....

  19. Jumpin' Jaguars: Encouraging Physical Activity After School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Heather E.; Rose, Stephanie A.; Small, Sarah R.; Perman, Jay

    2016-01-01

    Many afterschool physical activity programs and curricula are available, but evaluation of their effectiveness is needed. Well-marketed programs such as the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health (CATCH) Kids Club have shown limited effectiveness in increasing physical activity for participants in comparison to control groups.…

  20. Effectiveness of worksite physical activity counseling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Proper, K.I.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to describe the effectiveness of a particular worksite physical activity intervention involving individual counseling of workers. First, a summary of the existing literature is given as to the effectiveness of worksite physical activity programs. A strong evidence was

  1. Cultural Components of Physically Active Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickwood, Greg

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that a large majority of school-age children and adolescents are not active enough to gain the physical and psychological benefits associated with regular moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Schools can play a pivotal role in reversing this trend due to the time students spend in this setting. The purpose of this article is to…

  2. Physical Activity among Community College Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Sarah J.; Sturts, Jill R.; Ross, Craig M.

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory study provides insight into the perceived physical activity levels of students attending a Midwestern 2-year community college. Over 60% of respondents were classified as overweight or obese based on a BMI measurement. The majority of respondents were not participating regularly in physical activity to gain any health benefits,…

  3. Intensity versus duration of physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Adam Høgsbro; Kristiansen, Ole P; Marott, Jacob Louis

    2012-01-01

    To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS).......To explore the relative importance of leisure time physical activity (LTPA), walking and jogging on risk of developing the metabolic syndrome (MS)....

  4. Understanding Motivators and Barriers to Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patay, Mary E.; Patton, Kevin; Parker, Melissa; Fahey, Kathleen; Sinclair, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to understand the factors that influence physical activity among year-round residents in an isolated summer resort community. Specifically, we explored the personal, environmental, social, and culture-specific perceived motivators and barriers to physical activity. Participants were formally interviewed about their…

  5. Interdisciplinary Best Practices for Adapted Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Rick

    2016-01-01

    This article provides an introduction to the literature on interdisciplinary research. It then draws lessons from that literature for the field of adapted physical activity. It is argued that adapted physical activity should be a self-consciously interdisciplinary field. It should insist that research be performed according to recognized…

  6. Activity Report of Reactor Physics Division - 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Om Pal

    1998-01-01

    The research and development activities of the Reactor Physics Division of the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1997 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: nuclear data processing and validation, PFBR and KAMINI core physics, FBTR core physics, radioactivity and shielding and safety analysis. A list of publications of the Division and seminars delivered are included at the end of the report

  7. Peripheral bone mineral density and different intensities of physical activity in children 6-8 years old: the Copenhagen School Child Intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, H; Karlsson, K M; Hansen, S E

    2007-01-01

    -stimulating physical activity, we evaluated different definitions of vigorous physical activity. The boys had 3.2% higher distal forearm bone mineral content (BMC, P girls. They also carried out 9.7% more daily physical activity and spent 14.6-19.0% more...... time in vigorous physical activity (all P girls. In contrast, the girls had 3.8% higher calcaneal BMC (P boys. Both calcaneal and forearm BMD were significantly related to total time of daily physical activity as well......This study aimed to evaluate the association between objectively measured habitual physical activity and calcaneal and forearm bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)), one mechanically more loaded and one less loaded skeletal region, in children aged 6-8 years. BMD was measured in 297 boys and 265...

  8. Physical activity (PA) and the disablement process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz-Larsen, Kirsten; Rahmanfard, Naghmeh; Holst, Claus

    2012-01-01

    . Among older women, the association between RPA and incidence of disability was attenuated in analyses that controlled for baseline mobility function. Thus, the association between physical activity and mortality reflected processes different from those underlying a simple relation between physical...... activity, disability and mortality. Physical activity was an ubiquitous predictor of longevity, but only for women....... community-living persons, aged 75-83 years, we evaluated the 1021 who reported no disability in basic activities of daily living. Participants were followed for a median of 8.34 years in public registers to determine onset of disability and mortality. RPA predicted mortality in older women (HR=1.77, 95%CI=1...

  9. Association of insufficient physical activity with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity in individuals aged 50 years or more

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Ribeiro dos SANTOS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To analyze the association of insufficient physical activity in different domains with sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity in patients aged ³50 years. Methods: The sample consisted of 770 males and females. Sarcopenia was diagnosed when the individual had: (1 low muscle mass and muscle strength; or (2 low walking speed and low muscle mass; sarcopenic obesity was diagnosed when individuals were at risk of obesity and sarcopenia. Muscle mass was given by a predictive equation, and then the muscle mass index (in kg/m² was given by muscle mass divided by height squared. Muscle strength, in kg, was given by measuring handgrip strength with a digital dynamometer. The 4m walk test evaluated walking sped. Low muscle mass, muscle strength, and walking speed were defined as the respective values below the 25th percentile, and risk of obesity was defined as body mass index ³25kg/m2. Results: Habitual physical activity was investigated by a questionnaire. Insufficient leisure-time physical activity was associated with sarcopenia (OR=2.55; 95%CI=1.10-5.88. In addition, insufficient leisure-time physical activity (OR=4.75; 95%CI=1.64-13.72, leisure-time and commuting physical activities (OR=2.49; 95%CI=1.02-6.11, and habitual physical activity (OR=3.55; 95%CI=1.0-11.79 were associated with sarcopenic obesity. Conclusion: Insufficient physical activity is associated with sarcopenia or sarcopenic obesity in the study individuals aged ³50years.

  10. Association between physical activity levels and physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Laudani

    Full Text Available Maintaining adequate levels of physical activity is known to preserve health status and functional independence as individuals grow older. However, the relationship between determinants of physical activity (volume and intensity and physiological factors underlying mobility (cardio-respiratory fitness, neuromuscular function and functional abilities is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between objectively quantified physical activity and a spectrum of physiological factors underlying mobility in young, middle-aged and older individuals living in a city district. Experiments were carried out on 24 young (28 ± 2 years, 24 middle-aged (48 ± 2 years and 24 older (70 ± 3 years gender-matched volunteers. Physical activity was monitored by a wearable activity monitor to quantify volume and intensity of overall physical activity and selected habitual activities over 24 hours. Ventilatory threshold was assessed during an incremental cycling test. Torque, muscle fiber conduction velocity and agonist-antagonist coactivation were measured during maximal voluntary contraction of knee extensors and flexors. Ground reaction forces were measured during sit-to-stand and counter-movement jump. K-means cluster analysis was used to classify the participants' physical activity levels based on parameters of volume and intensity. Two clusters of physical activity volume (i.e., high and low volume and three clusters of physical activity intensity (i.e. high, medium and low intensity were identified in all participants. Cardio-respiratory fitness was associated with volume of overall physical activity as well as lying, sitting, standing, walking and stair climbing. On the other hand, neuromuscular function and functional abilities showed a significant association with intensity of overall physical activity as well as postural transition, walking and stair climbing. As a practical application, the relative role played by volume

  11. Motivation for physical activity of psychiatric patients when physical activity was offered as part of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, M

    2006-12-01

    This study examined motivation variables, self-determination and self-schema, in relation to physical activity, among psychiatric patients with experience with physical activity as part of their treatment. Participants were patients (N=109) from 15 psychiatric hospitals or day-care institutions. Data were collected by questionnaires. A positive relationship between physical activity level, positive experiences of the activity and higher degree of self-determination and exercise self-schema was expected. Intrinsically regulated motives (motivated by the experience of the activity in itself) were positively and significantly related to physical activity level and the experience of decrease in symptoms during physical activity, and extrinsically regulated motives were negatively correlated with physical activity level. Intrinsically regulated motives gave an odds ratio of 20.0 for being physically active rather than inactive. Holding an exercise self-schema gave an odds ratio of 6.1 for being physically active. The majority of the patients (57.4%) reported that physical activity decreased their illness symptoms, but a few (11.9%) reported negative effects. The findings demonstrated that psychiatric patients do not differ from the normal population in relation to motivational mechanisms, even if they may experience more barriers to physical activities because of their illness. Therefore, in trying to motivate psychiatric patients, it is important to make physical activity as intrinsically motivating as possible by focusing on the positive experiences of the activity itself, as well as helping to develop an exercise self-schema.

  12. History of body weight and physical activity of elderly women differing in current physical activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L E; Meijers, J H; Sol, P; Seidell, J C; van Staveren, W.A.

    Development of overweight and physical activity during life was studied retrospectively in a group of physically active and a group of sedentary elderly women. The two groups of elderly women were selected based on a validated physical activity questionnaire. A previous study on their current

  13. Dietary and Physical Activity Behaviors of Middle School Youth: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Lauren B.; Bryant, Carol A.; McDermott, Robert J.; Hefelfinger, Jennie A.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Obesity has become a national epidemic among youth. Declining physical activity and poor nutrition contribute to this epidemic. The purpose of this study was to obtain data on middle school students' physical activity and nutrition knowledge and practices. Methods: The Youth Physical Activity and Nutrition Survey was developed and…

  14. Effectiveness of physical activity intervention at workplace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Malińska

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one’s general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors’ intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2:277–301

  15. [Effectiveness of physical activity intervention at workplace].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malińska, Marzena

    2017-03-24

    A physical activity is a key factor contributing to the improvement and maintenance of one's general health. Although this issue is by no means limited to the workplace, it is precisely the work environment that can provide the basis for keeping and reinforcing more health-conscious attitudes and lifestyles, including programs promoting a physical activity. The paper presents an analysis of the literature on the effectiveness of physical activity intervention at the workplace. Particular attention is paid to the impact of the physical activity programs on musculoskeletal disorders, absenteeism, work ability, physical capacity and body weight of the participants. Given a marginal extent of programs of this kind in Poland, the authors' intention was to show the benefits resulting from implementation of and participation in such initiatives. Med Pr 2017;68(2):277-301. This work is available in Open Access model and licensed under a CC BY-NC 3.0 PL license.

  16. Physical Activity and the Prevention of Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Keith M.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2013-01-01

    As the worldwide prevalence of hypertension continues to increase, the primary prevention of hypertension has become an important global public health initiative. Physical activity is commonly recommended as an important lifestyle modification that may aid in the prevention of hypertension. Recent epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated a consistent, temporal, and dose-dependent relationship between physical activity and the development of hypertension. Experimental evidence from interventional studies have further confirmed a relationship between physical activity and hypertension as the favorable effects of exercise on blood pressure reduction have been well characterized in recent years. Despite the available evidence strongly supporting a role for physical activity in the prevention of hypertension, many unanswered questions regarding the protective benefits of physical activity in high-risk individuals, the factors that may moderate the relationship between physical activity and hypertension, and the optimal prescription for hypertension prevention remain. We review the most recent evidence for the role of physical activity in the prevention of hypertension and discuss recent studies that have sought to address these unanswered questions. PMID:24052212

  17. Pedometer determined physical activity tracks in African American adults: The Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Newton Robert L

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the number of pedometer assessment occasions required to establish habitual physical activity in African American adults. Methods African American adults (mean age 59.9 ± 0.60 years; 59 % female enrolled in the Diet and Physical Activity Substudy of the Jackson Heart Study wore Yamax pedometers during 3-day monitoring periods, assessed on two to three distinct occasions, each separated by approximately one month. The stability of pedometer measured PA was described as differences in mean steps/day across time, as intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC by sex, age, and body mass index (BMI category, and as percent of participants changing steps/day quartiles across time. Results Valid data were obtained for 270 participants on either two or three different assessment occasions. Mean steps/day were not significantly different across assessment occasions (p values > 0.456. The overall ICCs for steps/day assessed on either two or three occasions were 0.57 and 0.76, respectively. In addition, 85 % (two assessment occasions and 76 % (three assessment occasions of all participants remained in the same steps/day quartile or changed one quartile over time. Conclusion The current study shows that an overall mean steps/day estimate based on a 3-day monitoring period did not differ significantly over 4 – 6 months. The findings were robust to differences in sex, age, and BMI categories. A single 3-day monitoring period is sufficient to capture habitual physical activity in African American adults.

  18. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ) for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C; Cooper, Ashley R; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, ptravel behaviours and may be suitable for wider use. Its physical activity summary measures have comparable reliability and validity to those of similar existing questionnaires.

  19. Association between participation in social activity and physical fitness in community-dwelling older Japanese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haeuchi, Yuka; Honda, Takanori; Chen, Tao; Narazaki, Kenji; Chen, Sanmei; Kumagai, Shuzo

    2016-01-01

    Purpose This study aimed to examine the relationship between participation in social activity and both, composite and individual measures of physical fitness in community-dwelling older adults.Methods This study was conducted using baseline data from the Sasaguri Genkimon Study (SGS), a longitudinal cohort study conducted in 2011. Participants were 1,365 community-dwelling men and women aged 65 years or above, who did not require certified nursing care and who resided in Sasaguri, a town located east of the Fukuoka metropolitan area. Participation in social activity was assessed by asking participants whether they engaged in any of eight social activities. Physical fitness tests assessed participants' handgrip strength and knee extension strength as measures of muscle strength, and their one-leg standing time, 5-m maximum gait speed, and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate as measures of their physical performance. Multiple linear regression and logistic regression analyses were conducted to assess the relationship between participation in social activity and each measure of physical fitness, adjusting for sex; age; body mass index; socioeconomic status; solitary living; exercise, habitual drinking and smoking; accelerometer-measured, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity; cognitive function; instrumental activities of daily living; distress; social network; and comorbidities.Results A total of 83.6% of the participants were engaged in at least one social activity. After adjusting for potential confounders, engagement in social activity was positively associated with a higher composite physical fitness score, faster gait speed and 5-repetition sit-to-stand rate, and longer one-leg standing time (P=0.008, P=0.030, P=0.034, and P=0.009, respectively).Conclusion Participation in social activity was significantly associated with physical fitness, specifically those related to locomotive function. These associations were independent of various confounders including

  20. Physically active academic lessons in elementary children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomew, John B; Jowers, Esbelle M

    2011-06-01

    Although schools are an ideal location to conduct interventions that target children, the emphasis on standardized testing makes it difficult to implement interventions that do not directly support academic instruction. In response, physically active academic lessons have been developed as a strategy to increase physical activity while also addressing core educational goals. Texas I-CAN! is one incarnation of this approach. We will review the on-going research on the impact of these active lessons on: teacher implementation, child step count, child attention control, and academic performance. The collected studies support the impact of physically active academic lessons on each area of interest. If these data can be replicated, it suggests that teachers might find these lessons of benefit to their primary role as educators, which should ease dissemination of these and other physically active lessons in elementary schools. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [Doctor, physical activity at my age ?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutaz, Martial

    2017-04-19

    Engaging in regular and appropriate physical activity confers health benefits at any age. For seniors, swapping the role of « sedentary » for « someone who's on the move » offers much more substantial benefits than any medication, and notably even starting at a dose of 10-15 minutes per day ! Any physician who cares for elderly patients must pursue the objective of encouraging physical activity that is integrated into daily life (e.g. walking, gardening, shopping). This article consists of a literature review concerning the evidence for the benefits of physical activity in seniors in terms of quality of life, longevity, maintenance of functional independence, and prevention of cognitive decline.

  2. [Is physical activity an elixir?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacza, Gyöngyvér; Radák, Zsolt

    2013-05-19

    Physical exercise has systemic effects, and it can regulate all the organs. The relative maximal aerobic oxygen uptake (VO2max) could have been important in the evolution of humans, since higher VO2max meant better hunting abilities for the Stone Age man. However, it appears that high level of VO2max is also important today, in the 21st century to prevent cardiovascular diseases, cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. High level of VO2max is not just preventive against a wide spectrum of diseases, but it associated with better function of many organs. Relevant data suggest that high level of VO2max is a key factor in prevention of diseases and survival even at the modern civilized world.

  3. The active video games' narrative impact on children's physical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active video games (AVGs) capable of inducing physical activity offer an innovative approach to combating childhood obesity. Unfortunately, children's AVG game play decreases quickly, underscoring the need to identify novel methods for player engagement. Narratives have been demonstrated to influenc...

  4. Physical active rest in education of active personality of students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaycev V.P.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Meaningfulness of physical recreation is rotined in education of active personality of students. Research material is literary sources on this issue. Factors which influence on an educate function of personality of students are considered. Application of physical recreation is grounded for education of active personality of students. It is marked that physical recreation in pedagogical process decides educate, educational, health and social tasks. It positively influences on education of active personality of students. It is rotined that in education of active personality of students an important role is played by their research activity.

  5. Annual report on nuclear physics activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, R.; Bueche, G.; Fluegge, G.

    1982-02-01

    This report surveys the activities in fundamental research from July 1, 1980 to June 30, 1981 at the three institutes of the KfK which are concerned with nuclear physics. The research program comprises laser spectroscopy, nuclear reactions with light ions and physics at medium and higher energies. (orig.) [de

  6. Physical Activity and Adolescent Female Psychological Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Linda A.; Feltz, Deborah L.

    1991-01-01

    Relationships between self-reported past and present physical activity levels and self-image, sense of mastery, gender role identity, self-perceived physical ability, and self-perceived attractiveness were studied for 149 female high school sophomores, juniors, and seniors. Results are discussed in terms of adolescent emotional health. (SLD)

  7. Integrating Physical Activity into Academic Pursuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaus, Mark D.; Simpson, Cynthia G.

    2009-01-01

    Children of today may be the first generation in the United States in more than 200 years to have a life expectancy shorter than their parents. Low levels of fitness caused by physical inactivity and poor nutritional habits of many of today's youth may be a contributing factor. Combating low fitness levels with physical activity is of utmost…

  8. Physical activity patterns and risk of depression in young adulthood: a 20-year cohort study since childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKercher, Charlotte; Sanderson, Kristy; Schmidt, Michael D; Otahal, Petr; Patton, George C; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2014-11-01

    Little is known about how physical activity patterns during childhood and adolescence are associated with risk of subsequent depression. We examined prospective and retrospective associations between leisure physical activity patterns from childhood to adulthood and risk of clinical depression in young adulthood. Participants (759 males, 871 females) in a national survey, aged 9-15 years, were re-interviewed approximately 20 years later. Leisure physical activity was self-reported at baseline (1985) and follow-up (2004-2006). To bridge the interval between the two time-points, historical leisure activity from age 15 years to adulthood was self-reported retrospectively at follow-up. Physical activity was categorized into groups that, from a public health perspective, compared patterns that were least beneficial (persistently inactive) with those increasingly beneficial (decreasing, increasing and persistently active). Depression (major depressive or dysthymic disorder) was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview. Compared with those persistently inactive, males who were increasingly and persistently active had a 69 and 65 % reduced risk of depression in adulthood, respectively (all p active had a 51 % reduced risk of depression in adulthood (p = 0.01). Similar but non-significant trends were observed for leisure physical activity in females and historical leisure activity in males. Results excluded those with childhood onset of depression and were adjusted for various sociodemographic and health covariates. Findings from both prospective and retrospective analyses indicate a beneficial effect of habitual discretionary physical activity since childhood on risk of depression in young adulthood.

  9. Reactor physics activities in NEA member countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    This document is a compilation of National activity reports presented at the thirty-third Meeting of the NEA Committee on Reactor Physics, held at OECD Headquarters, Paris, from 15th - 19th October 1990

  10. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood ... values of SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR were higher among participants with low PA compared to those ..... nervous system is associated with abdominal visceral ...

  11. Childhood Obesity, Physical Activity, and Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemet, Dan

    2017-02-01

    As the incidence of childhood obesity increases, there is a need to promote leisure time physical activity. Traditional approaches to promote the population physical activity levels have shown at best moderate improvements. High percentage of children today carry a cell phone, thus the use of this portable device seems promising for enhancing physical activity. Pokémon Go, is a smartphone game that uses augmented reality, where players are incentivized to get out and walk significant distances to catch the Pokémon. Initial reports suggested increases in the number of steps that players performed, yet this effect of the game was not sustained. Incorporating physical activity into modern technology seems promising, clearly there is need to explore creative ways to achieve a longer term effect.

  12. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle behaviors like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan.

  13. Gene × physical activity interactions in obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmad, Shafqat; Rukh, Gull; Varga, Tibor V

    2013-01-01

    Numerous obesity loci have been identified using genome-wide association studies. A UK study indicated that physical activity may attenuate the cumulative effect of 12 of these loci, but replication studies are lacking. Therefore, we tested whether the aggregate effect of these loci is diminished...... in adults of European ancestry reporting high levels of physical activity. Twelve obesity-susceptibility loci were genotyped or imputed in 111,421 participants. A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated by summing the BMI-associated alleles of each genetic variant. Physical activity was assessed using self...... combined using meta-analysis weighted by cohort sample size. The meta-analysis yielded a statistically significant GRS × physical activity interaction effect estimate (Pinteraction  = 0.015). However, a statistically significant interaction effect was only apparent in North American cohorts (n = 39...

  14. Representation of physical activity domains and sedentary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... time at which the activity occurred and the presence of disability were considered. ... Health policy; Methods and materials of instruction; Public Health; School.

  15. Dieta habitual e fatores de risco para doenças cardiovasculares Habitual diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Cervato

    1997-06-01

    WHO and the risk factors (obesity, lipemic disorders and diabetes mellitus diagnosed by the Body Mass Index and biochemical measurements. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: It was observed that 60% of the population consume a diet with total energy below the estimated need and that the caloric contribution of carbohydrates was of 56%, of the lipids 29% and of the proteins 15%. However, by percentil analysis, the caloric contribuition of lipids and of proteins was far above the recommended levels to the detriment of the carbohydrates. Energy, caloric distribution and quantity of cholesterol were satisfactory in only 5% of diets. Among the risk factors for the cardiovascular disease studied, obesity was found to be present in 38% of individuals, lipemic disorders in 26% and diabetes mellitus in 5%. Preponderantly light physical activity together with unsatisfactory diet, both in qualitative as in quantitative terms, aggravated this scenario still further.

  16. [The association between socioeconomic indicators andadolescents'physical activity and health-related fitness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantino-Coledam, Diogo H; Ferraiol, Philippe Fanelli; Arruda, Gustavo Aires de; Pires-Júnior, Raymundo; Teixeira, Marcio; Greca, João Paulo de Aguiar; Oliveira, Arli Ramos de

    2013-01-01

    This study was aimed at analysing the association between socioeconomic indicators and adolescents' physical activity and health-related fitness. The study involved 716 adolescents from both genders whose age ranged from 10 to 18 years-old (46.8% male) who answered a questionnaire for estimating their habitual physical activity, socioeconomic status; two health-related physical fitness tests were also performed. The socioeconomic indicators analysed concerned their parents' educational level and the number of bathrooms, TVs, cars, housemaids, refrigerators and freezers in their homes. A positive association was found between paternal education (PR=1.61 (range 1.27-2.10) and 1.41 (1.10-1.83)) and housemaids (PR=1.97 (1.04-3.81) and 1.92 (1.05-3.52)) with recommended physical activity and leisure time physical activity, respectively. The number of cars (PR=1.48: 1.02-2.19) and freezers (PR=1.88: 1.12-3.18) was positively associated with leisure time physical activity and the number of TVs negatively so (PR=0.75: 0.63-0.89). The number of TVs (PR=0.80: 0.67-0.96) and cars (PR=0.70: 0.55-0.89) was negatively associated with cardiorespiratory fitness whilst paternal education (PR=1.17: 1.00-1.37) and the number of bathrooms in the home (PR=1.25: 1.02-1.54) were positively associated with muscular strength. Physical activity and health-related physical fitness were associated with socioeconomic status. However, such association depended on the socioeconomic indicator being analysed. Caution should be taken when analysing studies which use different socioeconomic indicators.

  17. Perceived climate in physical activity settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Diane L; Morrow, Ronald G; Collins, Karen E; Lucey, Allison B; Schultz, Allison M

    2010-01-01

    This study focused on the perceived climate for LGBT youth and other minority groups in physical activity settings. A large sample of undergraduates and a selected sample including student teachers/interns and a campus Pride group completed a school climate survey and rated the climate in three physical activity settings (physical education, organized sport, exercise). Overall, school climate survey results paralleled the results with national samples revealing high levels of homophobic remarks and low levels of intervention. Physical activity climate ratings were mid-range, but multivariate analysis of variation test (MANOVA) revealed clear differences with all settings rated more inclusive for racial/ethnic minorities and most exclusive for gays/lesbians and people with disabilities. The results are in line with national surveys and research suggesting sexual orientation and physical characteristics are often the basis for harassment and exclusion in sport and physical activity. The current results also indicate that future physical activity professionals recognize exclusion, suggesting they could benefit from programs that move beyond awareness to skills and strategies for creating more inclusive programs.

  18. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division - 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indira, R.

    1994-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Physics Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1993 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: Nuclear Data Processing and validation, Core Physics and Operation Studies, Reactor Kinetics and Safety analysis, Reactor Noise Analysis and Radiation Transport and Shielding Studies. List of publication is given at the end. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  19. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division-1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gopalakrishnan, V.

    1996-01-01

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Physics Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1995 are reported. The activity are arranged under the headings: Nuclear Data Processing and Validation, Core Physics and Operation Studies, Reactor Kinetics and Safety analysis, Reactor Noise Analysis and Radiation Transport and Shielding Studies. List of publication is given at the end. refs., figs., tabs

  20. Physical Activity, Aging, and Physiological Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harridge, Stephen D R; Lazarus, Norman R

    2017-03-01

    Human evolution suggests that the default position for health is to be physically active. Inactivity, by contrast, has serious negative effects on health across the lifespan. Therefore, only in physically active people can the inherent aging process proceed unaffected by disuse complications. In such individuals, although the relationship between age and physiological function remains complex, function is generally superior with health, well being, and the aging process optimized. ©2017 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  1. [Physical activities adapted to homeless people].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainguet, Brigitte

    2018-03-01

    Around ten homeless people were invited to take part in a programme of physical activities to improve their health status. Only motricity and walking pathways were followed assiduously for eight weeks. The assessment of the physical condition and quality of life showed an improvement in these areas, in particular for one of the participants. However, the lack of motivation and assiduity remains an obstacle to regular activity. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  2. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division - 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indira, R [ed.; Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    1994-12-31

    The research and development (R and D) activities of the Reactor Physics Division of Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR), Kalpakkam during 1993 are reported. The activities are arranged under the headings: Nuclear Data Processing and validation, Core Physics and Operation Studies, Reactor Kinetics and Safety analysis, Reactor Noise Analysis and Radiation Transport and Shielding Studies. List of publication is given at the end. (author). refs., figs., tabs.

  3. Female habitual self-mutilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A R; Conterio, K

    1989-03-01

    Data are presented on 240 female habitual self-mutilators. The typical subject is a 28-year-old Caucasian who first deliberately harmed herself at age 14. Skin cutting is her usual practice, but she has used other methods such as skin burning and self-hitting, and she has injured herself on at least 50 occasions. Her decision to self-mutilate is impulsive and results in temporary relief from symptoms such as racing thoughts, depersonalization, and marked anxiety. She now has or has had an eating disorder, and may be concerned about her drinking. She has been a heavy utilizer of medical and mental health services, although treatment generally has been unsatisfactory. In desperation over her inability to control her self-mutilative behavior this typical subject has attempted suicide by a drug overdose.

  4. Physical Activity and Body Mass Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C.; Wagner, Gregory R.; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J.; Buxton, Orfeu M.; Kenwood, Christopher T.; Sabbath, Erika L.; Hashimoto, Dean M.; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-01-01

    Background The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. Purpose This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Methods Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. Results In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02; 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56; 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR= 1.62; 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. Conclusions These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. PMID:24512930

  5. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittin, Jeri; Sorensen, Dina; Trowbridge, Matthew; Lee, Karen K; Breithecker, Dieter; Frerichs, Leah; Huang, Terry

    2015-01-01

    Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  6. Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeri Brittin

    Full Text Available Increasing children's physical activity at school is a national focus in the U.S. to address childhood obesity. While research has demonstrated associations between aspects of school environments and students' physical activity, the literature currently lacks a synthesis of evidence to serve as a practical, spatially-organized resource for school designers and decision-makers, as well as to point to pertinent research opportunities. This paper describes the development of a new practical tool: Physical Activity Design Guidelines for School Architecture. Its aims are to provide architects and designers, as well as school planners, educators, and public health professionals, with strategies for making K-12 school environments conducive to healthy physical activity, and to engage scientists in transdisciplinary perspectives toward improved knowledge of the school environment's impact. We used a qualitative review process to develop evidence-based and theory-driven school design guidelines that promote increased physical activity among students. The design guidelines include specific strategies in 10 school design domains. Implementation of the guidelines is expected to enable students to adopt healthier physical activity behaviors. The tool bridges a translational gap between research and environmental design practice, and may contribute to setting new industry and education standards.

  7. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division : 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanakrishnan, P.

    1991-01-01

    The major Research and Development and Project activities carried out during the year 1990 in Reactor Physics Division are presented in the form of summaries in this report. The various activities are organised under the following areas : (1) Nuclear Data Evaluation, Processing and Validation, (2) Core Physics and Analysis, (3) Reactor Kinetics and Safety Analysis, (4) Noise Analysis, and (5) Radiation Transport and Shielding. FBTR was restarted in July 1990 and the power was raised upto 500 kW. A number of low power physics experiments on reactivity coefficients, kinetics and noise, neutron flux and gamma dose in B cells, were performed, which are discussed in this report. (author). figs., tabs

  8. Start of the international tokamak physics activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.

    2001-01-01

    This newsletter comprises a summary on the start of the International Tokamak Physics activity (ITPA) by Dr. D. Campbell, Chair of the ITPA Co-ordinating Committee. As the ITER EDA drew to a close, it became clear that it was desirable to establish a new mechanism in order to promote the continued development of the physics basis for burning plasma experiments and to preserve the invaluable collaborations between the major international fusion communities which had been established through the ITER physics expert groups. As a result of the discussions of the representatives of the European Union, Japan, the Russian Federation and the United States the agreed principles for conducting the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) were elaborated and ITPA topical physics groups were organized

  9. International Centre for Theoretical Physics. Scientific Activities in 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-08-01

    The main activities and results of the ICTP during 1983 are reported, according to the following programme components: Physics and energy (Plasma physics; Non-conventional energy; Nuclear physics); Fundamental physics (Elementary particles and fundamental theory); Physics of the living state (Medical physics; Applications of physics to medicine and biology); Physics and technology (Condensed matter physics and related; Atomic, molecular and laser physics; Physics of communications); Mathematics (Applicable mathematics); Physics of the environment and of natural resources (Soil physics; Geophysics); other fields

  10. Healthy hearts--and the universal benefits of being physically active: physical activity and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Steven N; Morris, Jeremy N

    2009-04-01

    Although ancient thinkers suggested that physical activity is good for health, systematic research on the topic did not begin until the middle of the 20th century. Early reports showed that individuals in active occupations had lower rates of heart disease than individuals in sedentary occupations. Investigators then began to evaluate leisure-time physical activity and health and found similar results. Later research used objective measures of cardiorespiratory fitness as the exposure, and found even stronger associations with health outcomes. Recent research has extended the earlier findings on activity or fitness and heart disease to a wide variety of health outcomes. We now know that regular physical activity of 150 minutes/week of moderate intensity physical activity reduces the risk of numerous chronic diseases, preserves health and function (both physical and mental) into old age, and extends longevity. The current challenge is to develop programs and interventions to promote physical activity for all in our increasingly sedentary societies.

  11. Physical activity levels early after lung transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickerson, Lisa; Mathur, Sunita; Singer, Lianne G; Brooks, Dina

    2015-04-01

    Little is known of the early changes in physical activity after lung transplantation. The purposes of this study were: (1) to describe physical activity levels in patients up to 6 months following lung transplantation and (2) to explore predictors of the change in physical activity in that population. This was a prospective cohort study. Physical activity (daily steps and time spent in moderate-intensity activity) was measured using an accelerometer before and after transplantation (at hospital discharge, 3 months, and 6 months). Additional functional measurements included submaximal exercise capacity (measured with the 6-Minute Walk Test), quadriceps muscle torque, and health-related quality of life (measured with the Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey 36 [SF-36] and the St George's Respiratory Questionnaire). Thirty-six lung transplant recipients (18 men, 18 women; mean age=49 years, SD=14) completed posttransplant measurements. Before transplant, daily steps were less than a third of the general population. By 3 months posttransplant, the largest improvement in physical activity had occurred, and level of daily steps reached 55% of the general population. The change in daily steps (pretransplant to 3 months posttransplant) was inversely correlated with pretransplant 6-minute walk distance (r=-.48, P=.007), daily steps (r=-.36, P=.05), and SF-36 physical functioning (SF-36 PF) score (r=-.59, P=.0005). The SF-36 PF was a significant predictor of the change in physical activity, accounting for 35% of the variation in change in daily steps. Only individuals who were ambulatory prior to transplant and discharged from the hospital in less than 3 months were included in the study. Physical activity levels improve following lung transplantation, particularly in individuals with low self-reported physical functioning. However, the majority of lung transplant recipients remain sedentary between 3 to 6 months following transplant. The role of exercise

  12. Leisure-time physical activity in relation to occupational physical activity among women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekenga, Christine C; Parks, Christine G; Wilson, Lauren E; Sandler, Dale P

    2015-05-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the association between occupational physical activity and leisure-time physical activity among US women in the Sister Study. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 26,334 women who had been employed in their current job for at least 1 year at baseline (2004-2009). Occupational physical activity was self-reported and leisure-time physical activity was estimated in metabolic equivalent hours per week. Log multinomial regression was used to evaluate associations between occupational (sitting, standing, manually active) and leisure-time (insufficient, moderate, high) activity. Models were adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, geographic region, and body mass index. Only 54% of women met or exceeded minimum recommended levels of leisure-time physical activity (moderate 32% and high 22%). Women who reported sitting (prevalence ratio (PR)=0.82, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.92) or standing (PR=0.84, 95% CI: 0.75-0.94) most of the time at work were less likely to meet the requirements for high leisure-time physical activity than manually active workers. Associations were strongest among women living in the Northeast and the South. In this nationwide study, low occupational activity was associated with lower leisure-time physical activity. Women who are not active in the workplace may benefit from strategies to promote leisure-time physical activity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  13. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Gurven

    Full Text Available Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity.A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR, the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity.Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet

  14. Physical activity and modernization among Bolivian Amerindians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurven, Michael; Jaeggi, Adrian V; Kaplan, Hillard; Cummings, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Physical inactivity is a growing public health problem, and the fourth leading risk factor for global mortality. Conversely, indigenous populations living traditional lifestyles reportedly engage in vigorous daily activity that is protective against non-communicable diseases. Here we analyze physical activity patterns among the Tsimane, forager-horticulturalists of Amazonian Bolivia with minimal heart disease and diabetes. We assess age patterns of adult activity among men and women, test whether modernization affects activity levels, and examine whether nascent obesity is associated with reduced activity. A factorial method based on a large sample of behavioral observations was employed to estimate effects of age, sex, body mass index, and modernization variables on physical activity ratio (PAR), the ratio of total energy expenditure to basal metabolic rate. Accelerometry combined with heart rate monitoring was compared to the factorial method and used for nighttime sampling. Tsimane men and women display 24 hr physical activity level (PAL) of 2.02-2.15 and 1.73-1.85, respectively. Little time was spent "sedentary", whereas most activity was light to moderate, rather than vigorous. Activity peaks by the late twenties in men, and declines thereafter, but remains constant among women after the early teens. Neither BMI, fat free mass or body fat percentage are associated with PAR. There was no negative effect of modernization on physical activity. Tsimane display relatively high PALs typical of other subsistence populations, but of moderate intensity, and not outside the range of developed populations. Despite rapidly increasing socioeconomic change, there is little evidence that total activity has yet been affected. Overweight and obesity are more prevalent among women than men, and Spanish fluency is associated with greater obesity in women. The lack of cardiovascular disease among Tsimane is unlikely caused by activity alone; further study of diet, food intake and

  15. With or without pheromone habituation: possible differences between insect orders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, David Maxwell; Stringer, Lloyd D; Jiménez-Pérez, Alfredo; Walter, Gimme H; Sullivan, Nicola; El-Sayed, Ashraf M

    2018-06-01

    Habituation to sex pheromones is one of the key mechanisms in mating disruption, an insect control tactic. Male moths often show reduced sexual response after pre-exposure to female sex pheromone. Mating disruption is relatively rare in insect orders other than Lepidoptera. As a positive control we confirmed habituation in a moth (Epiphyas postvittana) using 24 h pre-exposure to sex pheromone to reduce subsequent activation behaviour. We then tested the impact of pre-exposure to sex or trail pheromone on subsequent behavioural response with insects from three other orders. Similar pre-exposure for 24 h to either sex pheromone [Pseudococcus calceolariae (Homoptera) and apple leaf curling midge Dasineura mali (Diptera), or trail pheromone of Argentine ants (Linepithema humile (Hymenoptera)], followed by behavioural assay in clean air provided no evidence of habituation after pre-exposure in these latter cases. The moths alone were affected by pre-exposure to pheromone. For pests without habituation, sustained attraction to a point source may make lure and kill more economical. Improved knowledge of behavioural processes should lead to better success in pest management and mechanisms should be investigated further to inform studies and practical efforts generally enhancing effectiveness of pheromone-based management. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Reliability and validity of the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ for assessing physical activity behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma J Adams

    Full Text Available No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ.The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA.In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59, cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61, walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48, cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35, moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47, vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63, and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56. The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60. In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, p<0.001, fair but non-significant agreement for moderate physical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09 and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05. Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean

  17. Physical activity patterns during pregnancy through postpartum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evenson Kelly R

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Realizing the importance of regular physical activity, particularly in the prevention of chronic diseases and unhealthy weight gain, it is important to study how physical activity changes during and after pregnancy using prospective study designs. The aim of this study was to describe the mode, duration, intensity, and changes in physical activity during pregnancy through one year postpartum among a cohort of women. Methods This study was part of the third Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Postpartum Study at the University of North Carolina Hospitals. A cohort of 471 women was followed at 17-22 and 27-30 weeks' gestation and at 3 and 12 months postpartum. The participants reported the mode, frequency, duration, and intensity of all physical activities that increased their breathing and heart rate in the past week. Results Overall physical activity for the cohort decreased from 17-22 weeks to 27-30 weeks of gestation, but rebounded up at 3 months postpartum and remained stable at 12 months postpartum. The mean MET h/wk values for each time point were 24.7 (standard deviation, SD 26.8, 19.1 (SD 18.9, 25.7 (SD 29.3, and 26.7 (SD 31.5. In postpartum, women reported more care-giving and recreational activity and less indoor household activity, as compared to their activity level during pregnancy. Conclusion For health benefits and weight management, health care professionals are encouraged to provide pregnant and postpartum women with information on recommendations of physical activity, particularly regarding the minimum duration and intensity level.

  18. The impact of physical activity on endothelial function in middle-aged and elderly subjects: the Ikaria study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siasos, Gerasimos; Chrysohoou, Christina; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Oikonomou, Evangelos; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes; Zaromitidou, Marina; Zisimos, Konstantinos; Marinos, Georgios; Mazaris, Savvas; Kampaksis, Manolis; Papavassiliou, Athanasios G; Pitsavos, Christos; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2013-01-01

    Exercise training and physical activity (PA) have substantial vascular and cardiac health benefits. Ikaria Island has been recognised as having one of the highest longevity rates worldwide and a high percentage of healthy ageing. We examined the relationship between endothelial function and levels of habitual PA to evaluate the factors related to healthy ageing in this population. The study was conducted on a subgroup population of the IKARIA study consisting of 185 middle-aged (40-65 years) and 142 elderly subjects (66-91 years). Endothelial function was evaluated by ultrasound measurement of flow-mediated dilatation (FMD). PA was evaluated using the shortened version of the self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Subjects in the low PA group (physically inactive and the rest as active. In the overall study population FMD was inversely associated with age (r=-0.24, pphysically active had higher FMD compared with the physically inactive. Physically active subjects in the middle-aged group showed higher FMD compared with the physically active elderly (p=0.008). However, there was no difference in FMD values between middle-aged inactive subjects and the elderly physically active (p=NS). The present study revealed that increased PA was associated with improved endothelial function in middle-aged subjects and that PA in elderly subjects can ameliorate the devastating effects of ageing on arterial wall properties.

  19. Defining Adapted Physical Activity: International Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzler, Yeshayahu; Sherrill, Claudine

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe international perspectives concerning terms, definitions, and meanings of adapted physical activity (APA) as (a) activities or service delivery, (b) a profession, and (c) an academic field of study. Gergen's social constructionism, our theory, guided analysis of multiple sources of data via qualitative…

  20. Canada's Physical Activity Guide: examining print-based material for motivating physical activity in the workplace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotnikoff, Ronald C; Todosijczuk, Ivan; Johnson, Steven T; Karunamuni, Nandini

    2012-01-01

    The authors conducted a secondary analysis on 202 adults from the Physical Activity Workplace Study. The aim of this analysis was to examine demographic characteristics associated with reading Canada's Physical Activity Guide (CPAG), being motivated by the guide, and whether participants in the Physical Activity Workplace Study who read the CPAG increased their physical activity levels over 1 year. Results revealed that less than 50% of participants read the full version of CPAG, and less than 10% were motivated by it. The CPAG also appears to be more appealing to and effective for women than for men. Although the CPAG had some influence in increasing mild physical activity levels in a workplace sample, there was also a decrease in physical activity levels among some members of the group. Overall, the effectiveness of CPAG was not substantial, and the findings of this analysis could help guide future targeted intervention materials and programs.

  1. Nutrition and physical activity for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosaeus, Ingvar; Rothenberg, Elisabet

    2016-05-01

    Sarcopenia, defined as loss of skeletal muscle mass and function, is associated with adverse outcomes such as physical disability, impaired quality of life and increased mortality. Several mechanisms are involved in the development of sarcopenia. Potentially modifiable factors include nutrition and physical activity. Protein metabolism is central to the nutritional issues, along with other potentially modifying nutritional factors as energy balance and vitamin D status. An increasing but still incomplete knowledge base has generated recent recommendations on an increased protein intake in the elderly. Several factors beyond the total amount of protein consumed emerge as potentially important in this context. A recent summit examined three hypotheses: (1) A meal threshold; habitually consuming 25-30 g protein at breakfast, lunch and dinner provides sufficient protein to effectively stimulate muscle protein anabolism; (2) Protein quality; including high-quality protein at each meal improves postprandial muscle protein synthesis; and (3) performing physical activity in close temporal proximity to a high-quality protein meal enhances muscle anabolism. Optimising the potential for muscle protein anabolism by consuming an adequate amount of high-quality protein at each meal, in combination with physical activity, appears as a promising strategy to prevent or delay the onset of sarcopenia. However, results of interventions are inconsistent, and well-designed, standardised studies evaluating exercise or nutrition interventions are needed before guidelines can be developed for the prevention and treatment of age-related sarcopenia.

  2. Perceived risk of osteoporosis: Restricted physical activities?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reventlow, Susanne

    2007-01-01

    Objective. To explore elderly women's physical activity in relation to their perception of the risk of osteoporosis. Design. Qualitative study using in-depth interviews. Setting. Informants were purposely selected from a Danish population-based, age-specific cohort study conducted in the county...... of Copenhagen with people born in 1936. Subjects. Women in their sixties. Results. Women who perceived a current risk of osteoporosis tended to reduce their physical activity in an attempt to reduce the risk of bone damage. This behaviour was related to the imagined fragility of the bones (the risk inside...... the body), and the actual situations (the risk outside the body), including places and activities. Knowledge of a reduced bone mass reinforced the women's uncertainty about what their bones could endure. Experiences managing physical activity without injury resulted in reinterpretations of their risk...

  3. Validation of a physical activity questionnaire to measure the effect of mechanical strain on bone mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemper, Han C G; Bakker, I; Twisk, J W R; van Mechelen, W

    2002-05-01

    Most of the questionnaires available to estimate the daily physical activity levels of humans are based on measuring the intensity of these activities as multiples of resting metabolic rate (METs). Metabolic intensity of physical activities is the most important component for evaluating effects on cardiopulmonary fitness. However, animal studies have indicated that for effects on bone mass the intensity in terms of energy expenditure (metabolic component) of physical activities is less important than the intensity of mechanical strain in terms of the forces by the skeletal muscles and/or the ground reaction forces. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ) used in the Amsterdam Growth and Health Longitudinal Study (AGAHLS) was applied to investigate the long-term effects of habitual physical activity patterns during youth on health and fitness in later adulthood. The PAQ estimates both the metabolic components of physical activities (METPA) and the mechanical components of physical activities (MECHPA). Longitudinal measurements of METPA and MECHPA were made in a young population of males and females ranging in age from 13 to 32 years. This enabled evaluation of the differential effects of physical activities during adolescence (13-16 years), young adulthood (21-28 years), and the total period of 15 years (age 13-28 years) on bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine, as measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) in males (n = 139) and females (n = 163) at a mean age of 32 years. The PAQ used in the AGAHLS during adolescence (13-16 years) and young adulthood (21-28 years) has the ability to measure the physical activity patterns of both genders, which are important for the development of bone mass at the adult age. MECHPA is more important than METPA. The highest coefficient of 0.33 (p PAQ was established by comparing PAQ scores during four annual measurements in 200 boys and girls with two other objective measures of physical activity: movement

  4. Reliability and Validity of the Transport and Physical Activity Questionnaire (TPAQ) for Assessing Physical Activity Behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Emma J.; Goad, Mary; Sahlqvist, Shannon; Bull, Fiona C.; Cooper, Ashley R.; Ogilvie, David

    2014-01-01

    Background No current validated survey instrument allows a comprehensive assessment of both physical activity and travel behaviours for use in interdisciplinary research on walking and cycling. This study reports on the test-retest reliability and validity of physical activity measures in the transport and physical activity questionnaire (TPAQ). Methods The TPAQ assesses time spent in different domains of physical activity and using different modes of transport for five journey purposes. Test-retest reliability of eight physical activity summary variables was assessed using intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and Kappa scores for continuous and categorical variables respectively. In a separate study, the validity of three survey-reported physical activity summary variables was assessed by computing Spearman correlation coefficients using accelerometer-derived reference measures. The Bland-Altman technique was used to determine the absolute validity of survey-reported time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). Results In the reliability study, ICC for time spent in different domains of physical activity ranged from fair to substantial for walking for transport (ICC = 0.59), cycling for transport (ICC = 0.61), walking for recreation (ICC = 0.48), cycling for recreation (ICC = 0.35), moderate leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.47), vigorous leisure-time physical activity (ICC = 0.63), and total physical activity (ICC = 0.56). The proportion of participants estimated to meet physical activity guidelines showed acceptable reliability (k = 0.60). In the validity study, comparison of survey-reported and accelerometer-derived time spent in physical activity showed strong agreement for vigorous physical activity (r = 0.72, pphysical activity (r = 0.24, p = 0.09) and fair agreement for MVPA (r = 0.27, p = 0.05). Bland-Altman analysis showed a mean overestimation of MVPA of 87.6 min/week (p

  5. Validation of reported physical activity for cholesterol control using two different physical activity instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Z Fan

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Amy Z Fan1, Sandra A Ham2, Shravani Reddy Muppidi3, Ali H Mokdad41Behavioral Surveillance Branch, Division of Adult and Community Health, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion; 2Physical Activity and Health Branch, Division of Nutrition, Physical Activity, and Obesity, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA; 3College of Public Health, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA; 4Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USAAbstract: The National Cholesterol Education Program recommends increasing physical activity to improve cholesterol levels and overall cardiovascular health. We examined whether US adults who reported increasing their physical activity to control or lower blood cholesterol following physician’s advice or on their own efforts had higher levels of physical activity than those who reported that they did not. We used data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003–2004, which implemented two physical activity assessment instruments. The physical activity questionnaire (PAQ assessed self-reported frequency, intensity, and duration of leisure-time, household, and transportation-related physical activity in the past month. Physical movement was objectively monitored using a waist accelerometer that assessed minute-by-minute intensity (counts of movement/minute during waking time over a 7-day period. We adjusted our analysis for age, gender, race/ethnicity, educational attainment, and body mass index. Participants who reported increasing physical activity to control blood cholesterol had more PAQ-assessed physical activity and more accelerometer-assessed active days per week compared to those who did not. However, there were no significant differences in cholesterol levels between comparison groups. These findings suggest that self-report of exercising

  6. Postprandial improvement in insulin sensitivity after a single exercise session in adolescents with low aerobic fitness and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Kevin R; Pratt, Lauren V; Teague, April M; Man, Chiara Dalla; Cobelli, Claudio

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the acute and residual impact of a single exercise bout on meal glucose control in adolescents with habitually low physical activity. Twelve adolescents (seven females/five males, 14 ± 2 yr) completed three trials. One trial [No Exercise (No Ex)] was completed after refraining from vigorous activity for ≥ 3 d. On the other two trials, a 45-min aerobic exercise bout at 75% peak heart rate was performed either 17-h Prior Day Exercise (Prior Day Ex) trial or 1-h Same Day Exercise (Same Day Ex) trial before consuming the test meal (2803 kJ, 45/40/15% energy as carbohydrate/fat/protein, respectively). Compared to No Ex, insulin sensitivity (SI) (minimal model analysis) was increased by 45% (p exercise in adolescents with habitually low physical activity and that the residual beneficial effect of exercise lasts at least 17 h. This finding highlights the plasticity of exercise responses in youth and the importance of daily exercise for metabolic health. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  7. Recommendations for physical activity for pregnant women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateja Videmšek

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Properly selected and prescribed physical activity during pregnancy has a favorable effects on the health of pregnant women and the fetus, and is excellent preparation for childbirth. Absolute and relative contraindications to exercise during pregnancy are well defined, as well as the warning signs to terminate exercise while pregnant. Knowledge of these is essential for physically active pregnant women and exercise professionals that work with pregnant women. Pregnant women should be moderately physically active every day of the week for at least 30 minutes. The term moderate is thoroughly and clearly defined in the guidelines. Resistance exercises during pregnancy are safe but it is advised to use light loads and a large number of repetitions (e.g. 15-20 repetitions. Strength exercises for the pelvic floor muscles deserves a special place during pregnancy. Appropriate forms of physical activity for pregnant women are walking and jogging, swimming and aquatic exercise, cycling, Pilates and yoga, aerobics, fitness and cross-country skiing. Certain forms of physical activity need special adjustments (alpine skiing, ice skating and rollerblading, racket sports, team ball games, horseback riding and scuba diving. 

  8. Nutrition and Physical Activity in CKD patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adamasco Cupisti

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Chronic kidney disease (CKD patients are at risk for protein-energy wasting, abnormal body composition and impaired physical capacity. These complications lead to increased risk of hospitalization, morbidity and mortality.In CKD patient as well as in healthy people, there is a close association between nutrition and physical activity. Namely, inadequate nutrient (energy intake impairs physical performance thus favoring a sedentary lifestyle: this further contributes to loss of muscle strength and mass, which limit the quality of life and rehabilitation of CKD patients. In CKD as well as in end-stage-renal-disease patients, regular physical activity coupled with adequate energy and protein intake counteracts protein-energy wasting and related comorbidity and mortality. In summary, exercise training can positively influence nutritional status and the perception of well-being of CKD patients and may facilitate the anabolic effects of nutritional interventions.

  9. Social influences on physical activity in Anglo- and Vietnamese-Australian adolescent males in a single sex school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Andrew N; Dollman, James

    2007-06-01

    Understanding factors that influence physical activity levels of adolescents can assist the design of more effective interventions. Social support is a consistent correlate of youth physical activity but few studies have examined this in different cultural settings. Male adolescents (n=180, age=13.58+/-0.97 years) from a metropolitan single sex private school participated in this study. Habitual physical activity was estimated using the 3-day physical activity recall (3dPAR), and aspects of social support to be physically active using a specifically designed questionnaire. Comparisons were made between Anglo-Australians (n=118), whose parents were both born in Australia, and Vietnamese-Australians (n=62), whose parents were both born in Vietnam. There was a trend towards higher physical activity among Anglo-Australians, particularly on weekends. Anglo-Australians reported significantly more parental and peer support across most items pertaining to these constructs. Among the whole sample, social support variables explained 5-12% of the total explained variance in physical activity, with items pertaining to father and best friend support emerging as the strongest and most consistent predictors in multiple regression models. Among Anglo-Australians, the prediction models were relatively weak, explaining 0-9% of the total explained variance in physical activity. Prediction models for physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians were much stronger, explaining 11-32% of the total explained variance, with father's support variables contributing consistently to these models. The strong paternal influence on physical activity among Vietnamese-Australians needs to be confirmed in more diverse population groups, but results from this study suggest that interventions promoting physical activity among adolescent boys need to take into account cultural background as a moderator of widely reported social influences.

  10. Is enhanced physical activity possible using active videogames?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our research indicated that 10– to 12-year-old children receiving two active Wii (TM)(Nintendo (R); Nintendo of America, Inc., Redmond, WA) console videogames were no more physically active than children receiving two inactive videogames. Research is needed on how active videogames may increase phys...

  11. Health benefits of physical activity: the evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Warburton, Darren E.R.; Nicol, Crystal Whitney; Bredin, Shannon S.D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary purpose of this narrative review was to evaluate the current literature and to provide further insight into the role physical inactivity plays in the development of chronic disease and premature death. We confirm that there is irrefutable evidence of the effectiveness of regular physical activity in the primary and secondary prevention of several chronic diseases (e.g., cardiovascular disease, diabetes, cancer, hypertension, obesity, depression and osteoporosis) and premature deat...

  12. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, Adrian; Craig, Cora L

    2005-08-24

    In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet). International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  13. The place of physical activity in the WHO Global Strategy on Diet and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Cora L

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In an effort to reduce the global burden of non-communicable disease, the World Health Organization released a Global Strategy for Diet and Physical Activity in May 2004. This commentary reports on the development of the strategy and its importance specifically for physical activity-related work of NGOs and researchers interested in increasing global physical activity participation. Sparked by its work on global efforts to target non-communicable disease prevention in 2000, the World Health Organization commissioned a global strategy on diet and physical activity. The physical activity interest followed efforts that had led to the initial global "Move for Health Day" in 2002. WHO assembled a reference group for the global strategy, and a regional consultation process with countries was undertaken. Underpinning the responses was the need for more physical activity advocacy; partnerships outside of health including urban planning; development of national activity guidelines; and monitoring of the implementation of the strategy. The consultation process was an important mechanism to confirm the importance and elevate the profile of physical activity within the global strategy. It is suggested that separate implementation strategies for diet and physical activity may be needed to work with partner agencies in disparate sectors (e.g. urban planning for physical activity, agriculture for diet. International professional societies are well situated to make an important contribution to global public health by advocating for the importance of physical activity among risk factors; developing international measures of physical activity and global impacts of inactivity; and developing a global research and intervention agenda.

  14. Activity report of Reactor Physics Division - 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keshavamurthy, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    This report highlights the progress of activities carried out during the year 1988 in Reactor Physics Division in the form of brief summaries. The topics are organised under the following subject categories:(1) nuclear data evaluation , processing and validation, (2) core physics and analysis, (3) reactor kinetics and safety analysis, (4) noise analysis and (5) radiation transport and shielding. List of publications by the members of the Division and the Reactor Physics Seminars held during the year 1988, is included at the end of report. (author). refs., figs., tabs

  15. Physical education, school physical activity, school sports and academic performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shephard Roy J

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this paper is to review relationships of academic performance and some of its determinants to participation in school-based physical activities, including physical education (PE, free school physical activity (PA and school sports. Methods Linkages between academic achievement and involvement in PE, school PA and sport programmes have been examined, based on a systematic review of currently available literature, including a comprehensive search of MEDLINE (1966 to 2007, PSYCHINFO (1974 to 2007, SCHOLAR.GOOGLE.COM, and ERIC databases. Results Quasi-experimental data indicate that allocating up to an additional hour per day of curricular time to PA programmes does not affect the academic performance of primary school students negatively, even though the time allocated to other subjects usually shows a corresponding reduction. An additional curricular emphasis on PE may result in small absolute gains in grade point average (GPA, and such findings strongly suggest a relative increase in performance per unit of academic teaching time. Further, the overwhelmingly majority of such programmes have demonstrated an improvement in some measures of physical fitness (PF. Cross-sectional observations show a positive association between academic performance and PA, but PF does not seem to show such an association. PA has positive influences on concentration, memory and classroom behaviour. Data from quasi-experimental studies find support in mechanistic experiments on cognitive function, pointing to a positive relationship between PA and intellectual performance. Conclusion Given competent providers, PA can be added to the school curriculum by taking time from other subjects without risk of hindering student academic achievement. On the other hand, adding time to "academic" or "curricular" subjects by taking time from physical education programmes does not enhance grades in these subjects and may be detrimental to health.

  16. Physical Activity and Heart Rate Variability in Older Adults: The Cardiovascular Health Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Miranda, Luisa; Sattelmair, Jacob; Chaves, Paulo; Duncan, Glen; Siscovick, David S; Stein, Phyllis K; Mozaffarian, Dariush

    2014-01-01

    Background Cardiac mortality and electrophysiologic dysfunction both increase with age. Heart rate variability (HRV) provides indices of autonomic function and electrophysiology that are associated with cardiac risk. How habitual physical activity (PA) among older adults prospectively relates to HRV, including nonlinear indices of erratic sinus patterns, is not established. We hypothesized that increasing levels of both total leisure-time activity and walking would be prospectively associated with more favorable time-domain, frequency-domain, and nonlinear HRV measures in older adults. Methods and Results We evaluated serial longitudinal measures of both PA and 24-hour Holter HRV over 5 years among 985 older US adults in the community-based Cardiovascular Health Study. After multivariable adjustment, greater total leisure-time activity, walking distance, and walking pace were each prospectively associated with specific, more favorable HRV indices, including higher 24-hour standard-deviation-of-all-normal-to-normal-intervals (SDNN, p-trend=0.009, 0.02, 0.06, respectively) and ultra-low-frequency-power (p-trend=0.02, 0.008, 0.16, respectively). Greater walking pace was also associated with higher short-term-fractal-scaling-exponent (p-trend=0.003) and lower Poincare ratio (p-trend=0.02), markers of less erratic sinus patterns. Conclusions Greater total leisure-time activity, as well as walking alone, were prospectively associated with more favorable and specific indices of autonomic function in older adults, including several suggestive of more normal circadian fluctuations and less erratic sinoatrial firing. Our results suggest potential mechanisms that might contribute to lower cardiovascular mortality with habitual PA later in life. PMID:24799513

  17. [The importance of physical activity and fitness for human health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandes, M

    2012-01-01

    The decline of physical activity is considered to play an important role in the deterioration of health predictors, such as overweight, and the associated increase of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. Therefore, most interventional strategies aim for increasing physical activity. Instead of physical activity, some studies use physical fitness as a key variable. Though physical fitness is influenced by genetic factors, physical fitness has to be developed by physical activity. As recent reports demonstrate the prospective associations between physical fitness and health and mortality, these associations are not reported for physical activity. Due to the fact that physical fitness-in contrast to physical activity-is evaluated with standardized laboratory measurements, it appears advisable to assess physical fitness for prospective health perspectives. Although physical fitness is determined by genetics, physical activity is the primary modifiable determinant for increasing physical fitness and should be aimed for to improve physical fitness in interventional strategies.

  18. Physical activity cardio-surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Stocka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Health Behaviors are one of the most important factors that determine health. Physical activity plays an important role in the prevention of diseases i.e. hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes type 2, stroke and overweight and obesity. In the study this in the clinic of cardiac surgery University Hospital # 1 in Bydgoszcz in the period from October to November 2016 uses the International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ.  Encouraging patients coronary artery bypass grafting for physical activity before the procedure should be to educate patients about the importance of traffic before the operations and promote health promoting behaviors i.e.. correct diet and maintain a proper body weight, control blood pressure and glucose levels, and appropriate form traffic adapted to the needs and capabilities of the patient.

  19. Activity-Based Introductory Physics Reform *

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Ronald

    2004-05-01

    Physics education research has shown that learning environments that engage students and allow them to take an active part in their learning can lead to large conceptual gains compared to those of good traditional instruction. Examples of successful curricula and methods include Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, RealTime Physics, Workshop Physics, Scale-Up, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs). RealTime Physics promotes interaction among students in a laboratory setting and makes use of powerful real-time data logging tools to teach concepts as well as quantitative relationships. An active learning environment is often difficult to achieve in large lecture sessions and Workshop Physics and Scale-Up largely eliminate lectures in favor of collaborative student activities. Peer Instruction, Just in Time Teaching, and Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) make lectures more interactive in complementary ways. This presentation will introduce these reforms and use Interactive Lecture Demonstrations (ILDs) with the audience to illustrate the types of curricula and tools used in the curricula above. ILDs make use real experiments, real-time data logging tools and student interaction to create an active learning environment in large lecture classes. A short video of students involved in interactive lecture demonstrations will be shown. The results of research studies at various institutions to measure the effectiveness of these methods will be presented.

  20. Are Preschool Children Active Enough? Objectively Measured Physical Activity Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardon, Greet M.; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse M. M.

    2008-01-01

    The present study aimed to describe accelerometer-based physical activity levels in 4- and 5-year-old children (N = 76) on 2 weekdays and 2 weekend days. The children were sedentary for 9.6 hr (85%) daily, while they engaged in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) for 34 min (5%). Only 7% of the children engaged in MVPA for 60 min per…

  1. Agreement of physical activity questionnaire with cardiorespiratory fitness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fatima Glaner

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Many health benefi ts are associated with physical activity level (PAL, but no standardized approaches to measurement exist, and comparisons and surveillance are problematic. The aim of this study was to verify the level ofagreement between the results of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ: short and the Habitual Physical Activity Questionnaire (HPAQ with true cardiorespiratory fi tness (VO2max, in order to classify young men and women ashaving PAL that is either adequate or inadequate for good health. A convenience sample was studied, composed of 105 young adults (43 male physical education students; 28 female physical education students; 34 males not studying physicaleducation. Both questionnaires were self-administered under the identical conditions. Values for VO2max were obtained using Cooper’s 12 min running test. Subjects were classifi ed as having PAL and VO2max that were adequate or inadequatefor good health. The cut off points used to defi ne adequate VO2max ≥44 ml/kg/min-1 for men and ≥33 ml/kg/min-1 for women. Agreement was assessed using a 2x2 contingency table. Percentage agreement ranged from 51.10% to 64.70% for theHPAQ and was 47.06% for the IPAQ. Agreement was higher for the HPAQ than for the IPAQ. Women overestimated their PAL by HPAQ and men underestimated their PAL by both questionnaires. The fi ndings of this study suggest that the HPAQ tends to be more accurate than the IPAQ. RESUMOMuitos benefícios à saúde são associados ao nível de atividade física (NAF, mas não existem medidas padronizadas para tal e, comparações e monitorações são difíceis. O propósito deste estudo foi verifi car a concordância do Questionário Internacional para Atividades Físicas (IPAQ – curto e do Questionário de Atividades Físicas Habituais (QAFH com a aptidão cardiorrespiratória (VO2max, para classifi car homens e mulheres jovens, com níveis de atividade física (NAF recomendado, ou não, para a sa

  2. The effects of stress on physical activity and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A; Sinha, Rajita

    2014-01-01

    -quality prospective research (≥ 7 on a 9-point scale) showed the same trend. Interestingly, some prospective studies (18.2 %) report evidence that PA was positively impacted by stress (behavioral activation). This should not be surprising as some individuals utilize exercise to cope with stress. Several other factors may moderate stress and PA relationships, such as stages of change for exercise. Habitually active individuals exercise more in the face of stress, and those in beginning stages exercise less. Consequently, stress may have a differential impact on exercise adoption, maintenance, and relapse. Preliminary evidence suggests that combining stress management programming with exercise interventions may allay stress-related reductions in PA, though rigorous testing of these techniques has yet to be produced. Overall, the majority of the literature finds that the experience of stress impairs efforts to be physically active. Future work should center on the development of a theory explaining the mechanisms underlying the multifarious influences of stress on PA behaviors.

  3. Boredom and Passion: Triggers of Habitual Entrepreneurship

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, Sabine; Neergaard, Helle

    . The case based, the study identifies eight factors, which contribute to consecutive venture creation. The findings suggest that boredom and passion are necessary conditions triggering habitual entrepreneurship. Other important mechanisms included the joy of discovering and exploiting an opportunity...

  4. Experimental Nuclear Physics Activity in Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiavassa, E.; de Marco, N.

    2003-04-01

    The experimental Nuclear Physics activity of the Italian researchers is briefly reviewed. The experiments, that are financially supported by the INFN, are done in strict collaboration by more than 500 INFN and University researchers. The experiments cover all the most important field of the modern Nuclear Physics with probes extremely different in energy and interactions. Researches are done in all the four National Laboratories of the INFN even if there is a deeper involvement of the two national laboratories expressly dedicated to Nuclear Physics: the LNL (Laboratorio Nazionale di Legnaro) and LNS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Sud) where nuclear spectroscopy and reaction dynamics are investigated. All the activities with electromagnetic probes develops in abroad laboratories as TJNAF, DESY, MAMI, ESFR and are dedicated to the studies of the spin physics and of the nucleon resonance; hypernuclear and kaon physics is investigated at LNF. A strong community of researchers work in the relativistic and ultra-relativistic heavy ions field in particular at CERN with the SPS Pb beam and in the construction of the ALICE detector for heavy-ion physics at the LHC collider. Experiments of astrophysical interest are done with ions of very low energy; in particular the LUNA accelerator facility at LNGS (Laboratorio Nazionale del Gran Sasso) succeeded measuring cross section at solar energies, below or near the solar Gamow peak. Interdisciplinary researches on anti-hydrogen atom spectroscopy and on measurements of neutron cross sections of interest for ADS development are also supported.

  5. Cardiovascular Reactivity, Stress, and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Jung eHuang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Psychological stress has been proposed as a major contributor to the progression of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Acute mental stress can activate the sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM axis, eliciting the release of catecholamines (NE and EPI resulting in the elevation of heart rate (HR and blood pressure (BP. Combined stress (psychological and physical can exacerbate these cardiovascular responses, which may partially contribute to the elevated risk of CVD and increased proportionate mortality risks experienced by some occupations (e.g., firefighting and law enforcement. Studies have supported the benefits of physical activity on physiological and psychological health, including the cardiovascular response to acute stress. Aerobically trained individuals exhibit lower sympathetic nervous system (e.g., HR reactivity and enhanced cardiovascular efficiency (e.g., lower vascular reactivity and decreased recovery time in response to physical and/or psychological stress. In addition, resistance training has been demonstrated to attenuate cardiovascular responses and improve mental health. This review will examine stress-induced cardiovascular reactivity and plausible explanations for how exercise training and physical fitness (aerobic and resistance exercise can attenuate cardiovascular responses to stress. This enhanced functionality may facilitate a reduction in the incidence of stroke and myocardial infarction. Finally, this review will also address the interaction of obesity and physical activity on cardiovascular reactivity and CVD.

  6. Physical performance in relation to menopause status and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, Dmitriy; Laakkonen, Eija K; Finni, Taija; Kokko, Katja; Kujala, Urho M; Aukee, Pauliina; Kovanen, Vuokko; Sipilä, Sarianna

    2018-05-21

    The aim of this study was to examine differences in physical performance (muscle power, muscle strength, aerobic capacity, and walking speed) across menopausal stages and potential of leisure physical activity (PA) to modify the impact of menopause on physical performance. In this cross-sectional study, women aged 47 to 55 were randomly selected from the Finnish National Registry and categorized as premenopausal (n = 233), perimenopausal (n = 381), or postmenopausal (n = 299) based on serum concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone and bleeding diary. Physical performance was measured by knee extension force, handgrip force, vertical jumping height, maximal walking speed, and 6-minute walking distance. PA level was assessed by self-report and categorized as low, moderate, or high. Multivariate linear regression modeling was used for data analysis. After including fat mass, height, PA, and education in the model, the postmenopausal women showed 12.0 N weaker (P women. There was no significant interaction between menopausal stage and PA on physical performance. The peri- and postmenopausal women with a high PA, however, showed better performance in the maximal knee extension strength and 6-minute walking test, and showed greater lower body muscle power than those with a low PA. Menopause status is associated with muscle strength and power, whereas the association between menopause status and mobility/walking is clearly weaker. A high leisure PA level provides more capacity to counteract the potential negative influence of menopausal factors on muscle function.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0 (CCBY-NC-ND), where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially without permission from the journal. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  7. Physical activity after retinal detachment surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovino, J A; Marcus, D F

    1984-08-15

    A prospective, randomized, masked clinical trial to assess the value of limited physical activity after scleral buckling surgery included 108 consecutive patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment randomly divided into two groups. The first group was encouraged to resume full physical activity immediately after hospital discharge. In the second group, bending, lifting, straining at stool, driving, sexual activity, lawnmowing, gardening, athletics, and returning to work were strictly forbidden for six weeks. A thorough evaluation of patient compliance was performed after six weeks. Six months after surgery the rates of reoperation and final reattachment percentages of the active and inactive groups showed no statistically significant difference (P greater than .05). Final visual acuity, measured one year after surgery, also identified no statistically significant difference between the groups (P greater than .05).

  8. Evaluation of methods to assess physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Nicole Y. J. M.

    Epidemiological evidence has accumulated that demonstrates that the amount of physical activity-related energy expenditure during a week reduces the incidence of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and all-cause mortality. To further understand the amount of daily physical activity and related energy expenditure that are necessary to maintain or improve the functional health status and quality of life, instruments that estimate total (TDEE) and physical activity-related energy expenditure (PAEE) under free-living conditions should be determined to be valid and reliable. Without evaluation of the various methods that estimate TDEE and PAEE with the doubly labeled water (DLW) method in females there will be eventual significant limitations on assessing the efficacy of physical activity interventions on health status in this population. A triaxial accelerometer (Tritrac-R3D, (TT)), an uniaxial (Computer Science and Applications Inc., (CSA)) activity monitor, a Yamax-Digiwalker-500sp°ler , (YX-stepcounter), by measuring heart rate responses (HR method) and a 7-d Physical Activity Recall questionnaire (7-d PAR) were compared with the "criterion method" of DLW during a 7-d period in female adults. The DLW-TDEE was underestimated on average 9, 11 and 15% using 7-d PAR, HR method and TT. The underestimation of DLW-PAEE by 7-d PAR was 21% compared to 47% and 67% for TT and YX-stepcounter. Approximately 56% of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the registration of body movement with accelerometry. A larger proportion of the variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} was explained by jointly incorporating information from the vertical and horizontal movement measured with the CSA and Tritrac-R3D (rsp2 = 0.87). Although only a small amount of variance in DLW-PAEE*kgsp{-1} is explained by the number of steps taken per day, because of its low cost and ease of use, the Yamax-stepcounter is useful in studies promoting daily walking. Thus, studies involving the

  9. [Effect of physical activity on age involution of functional abilities of humans].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miskotnykh, V V; Khodasevich, L S; Mel'tser, V L

    2012-01-01

    A survey of 433 healthy, mature- and middle-aged men with different modes of habitual daily physical activity was made. Depending on the modes of motor activity all the surveyed were divided into 4 groups, each of which has been ranked by the ten-year age interval. The assessment of functional status using automated hardware-software complex "AMSAT-Covert" to determine the level of maximum oxygen consumption, lipid peroxidation and activity of the antioxidant defense system was performed. Results of the study enabled the authors to formulate a provision under which to extend the period of active, creative longevity and increased life expectancy we need to review the approaches to the regulation of physical activity by rationally constructed motor mode as part of a comprehensive system of health protection. Exercises, not increasing the requirements to the functionality involved and not causing physiological changes should be included in the recommended motor mode, which are incomparably less than officially accepted in modern practice fitness training.

  10. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity...... for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, a systematic review was performed of research articles specifically investigating PA as a possible treatment of ED. The review included research on ED from physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases......Introduction The leading cause of erectile dysfunction (ED) is arterial dysfunction, with cardiovascular disease as the most common comorbidity. Therefore, ED is typically linked to a web of closely interrelated cardiovascular risk factors such as physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension...

  11. The activity of Moscow Engineering Physics Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levedev, L.

    1994-01-01

    Various information about Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI) structure and scientific activity are discussed. The four main faculties of MEPhI: the faculty of theoretical and experimental physics, the faculty of technical physics, the faculty of automatics and electronics and the faculty of cybernetics are being written in this report. The information about the research reactors and the scientific research laboratories is also presented. The participation of MEPhI in the state scientific technological programs such as 'High energy physics', 'High-temperature superconductivity', 'Controlled thermonuclear synthesis and plasma processes'. 'Informatization', 'Security of population and industrial objects on account of hazard of natural and technogenic accidents', 'Ecology of Russia', 'Synchrotron radiation and its application', 'Future technologies, machines and productions' and others are presented too. (author)

  12. Physical Activity to Improve Erectile Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gerbild, Helle; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Graugaard, Christian

    2018-01-01

    , and metabolic syndrome. Physical activity (PA) has proved to be a protective factor against erectile problems, and it has been shown to improve erectile function for men affected by vascular ED. This systematic review estimated the levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity......, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or manifest cardiovascular diseases. Aim To provide recommendations of levels of PA needed to decrease ED for men with physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases. Methods In accord with the Preferred Reporting Items...... intensity 4 times per week. Overall, weekly exercise of 160 minutes for 6 months contributes to decreasing erectile problems in men with ED caused by physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and/or cardiovascular diseases....

  13. Reproducibility and validity of the French version of the long international physical activity questionnaire in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinière, Lise; Lhommet, Claire; Caille, Agnes; Giraudeau, Bruno; Lecomte, Pierre; Couet, Charles; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Jacobi, David

    2011-08-01

    Increasing physical activity and decreasing sedentary time are cornerstones in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). However, there are few instruments available to measure physical activity in this population. We translated the long version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-L) into French and studied its reproducibility and validity in patients with T2DM. Reproducibility was studied by 2 telephone administrations, 8 days apart. Concurrent validity was tested against pedometry for 7 days during habitual life. One-hundred forty-three patients with T2DM were recruited (59% males; age: 60.9 ± 10.5 years; BMI: 31.2 ± 5.2 kg/m2; HbA1c: 7.4 ± 1.2%). Intraclass correlation coefficients (95% CI) for repeated administration (n = 126) were 0.74 (0.61-0.83) for total physical activity, 0.72 (0.57-0.82) for walking, and 0.65 (0.51-0.78) for sitting time. Total physical activity and walking (MET-min·week-1) correlated with daily steps (Spearman r = .24 and r = .23, respectively, P physical activity and sedentary time in patients with T2DM, confirming previous data in nonclinical populations.

  14. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY IN THE ELDERLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Matias

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The population awareness of the physical exercise’s benefits is widely diffused. These benefits are particularly important in the elderly because, with increasing age, there is a decline of the musculoskeletal system and the maximum oxygen consumption which reduces the functional fitness of the elderly and can often lead to a significant decline in the quality of life. Despite this awareness, a large part of the population remains sedentary. It is important to know what the barriers are, so they can be circumvented in order to increase the engagement of the elderly population in existing physical activity programs.Objectives: This study aims to identify some of the personal, behavioral and environmental barriers that prevent older adults to be physically active.

  15. The Effects of Stress on Physical Activity and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stults-Kolehmainen, Matthew A.; Sinha, Rajita

    2013-01-01

    to show an inverse association. 85.7 % of higher-quality prospective research (≥7 on a 9-point scale) showed the same trend. Interestingly, some prospective studies (18.2 %) report evidence that PA was positively impacted by stress (behavioral activation). This should not be surprising as some individuals utilize exercise to cope with stress. Several other factors may moderate stress and PA relationships, such as stages of change for exercise. Habitually active individuals exercise more in the face of stress, and those in beginning stages exercise less. Consequently, stress may have a differential impact on exercise adoption, maintenance, and relapse. Preliminary evidence suggests that combining stress management programming with exercise interventions may allay stress-related reductions in PA, though rigorous testing of these techniques has yet to be produced. Conclusions Overall, the majority of the literature finds that the experience of stress impairs efforts to be physically active. Future work should center on the development of a theory explaining the mechanisms underlying the multifarious influences of stress on PA behaviors. PMID:24030837

  16. Habituation as an adaptive shift in response strategy mediated by neuropeptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardiel, Evan L.; Yu, Alex J.; Giles, Andrew C.; Rankin, Catharine H.

    2017-08-01

    Habituation is a non-associative form of learning characterized by a decremented response to repeated stimulation. It is typically framed as a process of selective attention, allowing animals to ignore irrelevant stimuli in order to free up limited cognitive resources. However, habituation can also occur to threatening and toxic stimuli, suggesting that habituation may serve other functions. Here we took advantage of a high-throughput Caenorhabditis elegans learning assay to investigate habituation to noxious stimuli. Using real-time computer vision software for automated behavioral tracking and optogenetics for controlled activation of a polymodal nociceptor, ASH, we found that neuropeptides mediated habituation and performed an RNAi screen to identify candidate receptors. Through subsequent mutant analysis and cell-type-specific gene expression, we found that pigment-dispersing factor (PDF) neuropeptides function redundantly to promote habituation via PDFR-1-mediated cAMP signaling in both neurons and muscles. Behavioral analysis during learning acquisition suggests that response habituation and sensitization of locomotion are parts of a shifting behavioral strategy orchestrated by pigment dispersing factor signaling to promote dispersal away from repeated aversive stimuli.

  17. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    To, Quyen G; Chen, Ted T L; Magnussen, Costan G; To, Kien G

    2013-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of workplace interventions in improving physical activity. EBSCO research database (and all subdatabases). Articles were published from 2000 to 2010 in English, had appropriate designs, and measured employees' physical activity, energy consumption, and/or body mass index (BMI) as primary outcomes. Articles that did not meet the inclusion criteria were excluded. Data extracted included study design, study population, duration, intervention activities, outcomes, and results. Data were synthesized into one table. Results of each relevant outcome including p values were combined. Twelve (60%) of 20 selected interventions reported an improvement in physical activity level, steps, or BMI, and there was one slowed step reduction in the intervention group. Among these, 10 were less than 6 months in duration; 9 used pedometers; 6 applied Internet-based approaches; and 5 included activities targeting social and environmental levels. Seven of 8 interventions with pre-posttest and quasi-experimental controlled design showed improvement on at least one outcome. However, 7 of 12 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not prove effective in any outcome. Interventions that had less rigorous research designs, used pedometers, applied Internet-based approaches, and included activities at social and environmental levels were more likely to report being effective than those without these characteristics.

  18. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e/sup +/e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC.

  19. Advertising Content in Physical Activity Print Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardinal, Bradley J.

    2002-01-01

    Evaluated the advertising content contained in physical activity print materials. Analysis of print materials obtained from 80 sources (e.g., physicians' offices and fitness events) indicated that most materials contained some form of advertising. Materials coming from commercial product vendors generally contained more advertising than materials…

  20. Physical activity level among undergraduate students in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical activity level among undergraduate students in Terengganu, Malaysia using pedometer. N.A.M. Yusoff, S Ganeson, K.F. Ismail, H Juahir, M.R. Shahril, L.P. Lin, A Ahmad, S.W. Wafa, S Harith, R Rajikan ...

  1. Juvenile Obesity, Physical Activity, and Lifestyle Changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bar-Or, Oded

    2000-01-01

    Because many obese children become obese adults, the recent rapid increase in juvenile obesity poses a major public health challenge. Enhanced physical activity is a cornerstone in a multidisciplinary approach to preventing and treating juvenile obesity. Giving exercise recommendations focused for obese youth is critical. Cutting down on sedentary…

  2. Why Should I Be Physically Active?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... more physical activity to your daily routine. Making small changes in your lifestyle can make a big difference in your overall health. Here are some examples: • Take a walk for 10 or 15 minutes during your lunch break. • Take stairs instead of escalators and elevators. • ...

  3. Motivation and involvement toward physical activity among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates intrinsic and extrinsic factors that influence involvement of university students to participate in physical activity. 400 students comprising 200 men and 200 women were used as the main respondents were respond to the adapted Exercise Motivations Inventory questionnaire. It revealed that highest ...

  4. Physics Division activities report, 1986--1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This report summarizes the research activities of the Physics Division for the years 1986 and 1987. Areas of research discussed in this paper are: research on e + e/sup /minus// interactions; research on p/bar p/ interactions; experiment at TRIUMF; double beta decay; high energy astrophysics; interdisciplinary research; and advanced technology development and the SSC

  5. A physical activity questionnaire for the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorrips, L. E.; Ravelli, A. C.; Dongelmans, P. C.; Deurenberg, P.; van Staveren, W. A.

    1991-01-01

    A validated physical activity questionnaire for young adults was adapted and validated for use in free living, apparently healthy people, aged 63-80 yr. Test-retest reliability of the questionnaire on 29 participants was 0.89 as determined by Spearman's correlation coefficient. Further

  6. Trails and physical activity: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starnes, Heather A; Troped, Philip J; Klenosky, David B; Doehring, Angela M

    2011-11-01

    To provide a synthesis of research on trails and physical activity from the public health, leisure sciences, urban planning, and transportation literatures. A search of databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1980 and 2008. 52 studies were identified. The majority were cross-sectional (92%) and published after 1999 (77%). The evidence for the effects of trails on physical activity was mixed among 3 intervention and 5 correlational studies. Correlates of trail use were examined in 13 studies. Several demographic (eg, race, education, income) and environmental factors (eg, land-use mix and distance to trail) were related to trail use. Evidence from 31 descriptive studies identified several facilitators and barriers to trail use. Economic studies (n = 5) examining trails in terms of health or recreational outcomes found trails are cost-effective and produce significant economic benefits. There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating important factors that should be considered in promoting trail use, yet the evidence for positive effects of trails on physical activity is limited. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of trails on physical activity. In addition, trail studies that include children and youth, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities are a research priority.

  7. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip R A; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2015-01-05

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Segment of the Cochrane Register of Studies,The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, the British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORT Discus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.org; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA); the US Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were searched and we contacted experts in the field. The searches were updated to 16 January 2014, unrestricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials, quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised individuals from the same community were excluded. At least two review authors independently extracted the data and assessed the risk of bias. Each study was assessed for the setting, the number of included components

  8. Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    This study will assess physical activity and active transportation levels among ... the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale instrument (NEWS) for use in ... prix de la diplomatie scientifique de la part du gouvernement de l'Afrique du Sud. ... Dans le dernier numéro du bulletin de BRAS, lisez un message d'adieu de ...

  9. Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Assessment of Physical Activity and Active Transport Among School Children in Kenya, Nigeria, and Mozambique ... International Water Resources Association, in close collaboration with IDRC, is holding a webinar titled “Climate change and adaptive water management: Innovative solutions from the Global South”.

  10. Physical activity and the pelvic floor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nygaard, Ingrid E; Shaw, Janet M

    2016-02-01

    Pelvic floor disorders are common, with 1 in 4 US women reporting moderate to severe symptoms of urinary incontinence, pelvic organ prolapse, or fecal incontinence. Given the high societal burden of these disorders, identifying potentially modifiable risk factors is crucial. Physical activity is one such potentially modifiable risk factor; the large number of girls and women participating in sport and strenuous training regimens increases the need to understand associated risks and benefits of these exposures. The aim of this review was to summarize studies reporting the association between physical activity and pelvic floor disorders. Most studies are cross-sectional and most include small numbers of participants. The primary findings of this review include that urinary incontinence during exercise is common and is more prevalent in women during high-impact sports. Mild to moderate physical activity, such as brisk walking, decreases both the odds of having and the risk of developing urinary incontinence. In older women, mild to moderate activity also decreases the odds of having fecal incontinence; however, young women participating in high-intensity activity are more likely to report anal incontinence than less active women. Scant data suggest that in middle-aged women, lifetime physical activity increases the odds of stress urinary incontinence slightly and does not increase the odds of pelvic organ prolapse. Women undergoing surgery for pelvic organ prolapse are more likely to report a history of heavy work than controls; however, women recruited from the community with pelvic organ prolapse on examination report similar lifetime levels of strenuous activity as women without this examination finding. Data are insufficient to determine whether strenuous activity while young predisposes to pelvic floor disorders later in life. The existing literature suggests that most physical activity does not harm the pelvic floor and does provide numerous health benefits for

  11. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A.

    2016-01-01

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents. PMID:27347993

  12. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria del Mar Bibiloni

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12–17 years old. Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA, and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  13. Physical Activity and Beverage Consumption among Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bibiloni, Maria Del Mar; Özen, Asli Emine; Pons, Antoni; González-Gross, Marcela; Tur, Josep A

    2016-06-23

    This study assessed the relationship between physical activity and beverage consumption among adolescents with a population based cross-sectional survey was carried out in the Balearic Islands, Spain (n = 1988; 12-17 years old). Body composition, educational and income level, physical activity (PA), and beverage consumption and energy intake were assessed. Sixty-two percent of adolescents engaged in >300 min/week of PA. Boys were more active than girls, younger adolescents were more active than older counterparts, low parental income was associated with physical inactivity, and time spent watching TV (including, TV, Internet or handheld cellular devices) was inversely associated with PA practice. The average beverage intake of the studied adolescents was 0.9 L/day, higher in boys than in girls. Beverage intake was positively associated with PA practice, and the highest amount of energy intake from beverages was observed in active boys and girls. Most of the studied adolescent population met the PA recommendations. Gender, age, parental income, and time spent watching TV were significant determinants of PA. Type and amount of beverages drunk varied according to gender and PA, and general daily total beverage intake was lower than recommended adequate fluid intake. PA behavior should be considered when analyzing beverage consumption in adolescents.

  14. Physical terms and leisure time activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovičová, Ľubomíra; Siptáková, Mária; ŠtubÅa, Martin

    2017-01-01

    People have to educate not only in school but also outside it. One approach to acquire new knowledge are leisure activities such as hobby groups or camps. Leisure activities, more and more seem to be the appropriate form for informal learning of physics concepts. Within leisure activities pupils have the possibility to acquire new concepts in unusual and interesting way. It is possible to inspire their intrinsic motivation on the matter or the phenomenon which is the aim of all teachers. This article deals with the description of and insights on acquisition of the concept of uniform and non-uniform rectilinear movement during a physics camp where pupils had the opportunity to use modern technologies which are despite of modernization of education still unconventional teaching methods in our schools.

  15. Review of environmental physics activities in Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comsan, M.N.H.

    2005-01-01

    Efforts and activities in Egypt serving the environment went back to 1962. At that time simultaneously were established the Atomic Fallout Laboratory at the premises of Atomic Energy Establishment in Inshas, and the A ir Pollution Unit w ithin the premises of the National Research Centre in Dokki. Recent activities include: radiation monitoring, atmospheric physics, renewable energy pollution control, environmental impact, etc.The article aims at reviewing environmental physics activities in Egypt ; both on governmental and non-governmental scales.The environment is one of the most vital axes of development, so the deterioration of the environment represents a major danger threatening social and economic development, the sustainability of natural resources, and human health.Recognizing this major importance and necessity of the protection of environment and its vital role in our lives, governments all over the globe began to take larger steps towards a better and healthier environment

  16. Physical Activity Recognition from Smartphone Embedded Sensors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prudêncio, João; Aguiar, Ana; Roetter, Daniel Enrique Lucani

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquity of smartphones has motivated efforts to use the embedded sensors to detect various aspects of user context to transparently provide personalized and contextualized services to the user. One relevant piece of context is the physical activity of the smartphone user. In this paper, we...... propose a novel set of features for distinguishing five physical activities using only sensors embedded in the smartphone. Specifically, we introduce features that are normalized using the orientation sensor such that horizontal and vertical movements are explicitly computed. We evaluate a neural network...... classifier in experiments in the wild with multiple users and hardware, we achieve accuracies above 90% for a single user and phone, and above 65% for multiple users, which is higher that similar works on the same set of activities, demonstrating the potential of our approach....

  17. Longitudinal Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Physical Fitness in Preschoolers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Marja H; Henriksson, Pontus; Delisle Nyström, Christine; Henriksson, Hanna; Ortega, Francisco B; Pomeroy, Jeremy; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Cadenas-Sanchez, Cristina; Löf, Marie

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate longitudinal associations of objectively measured physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB) with body composition and physical fitness at a 12-month follow-up in healthy Swedish 4-yr-old children. The data from the population-based MINISTOP trial were collected between 2014 and 2016, and this study included the 138 children who were in the control group. PA and SB were assessed using the wrist-worn ActiGraph (wGT3x-BT) accelerometer during seven 24-h periods and, subsequently, defined as SB, light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, vigorous-intensity PA (VPA), and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA). Body composition was measured using air-displacement plethysmography and physical fitness (cardiorespiratory fitness, lower and upper muscular strength as well as motor fitness) by the PREFIT fitness battery. Linear regression and isotemporal substitution models were applied. Greater VPA and MVPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher fat-free mass index (FFMI) at 5.5 yr (P fitness, lower body muscular strength, and motor fitness at 12-month follow-up (P = 0.001 to P = 0.031). Substituting 5 min·d of SB, light-intensity PA, or moderate-intensity PA for VPA at the age of 4.5 yr were associated with higher FFMI, and with greater upper and lower muscular strength at 12-month follow-up (P fitness at 12-month follow-up. Our results indicate that promoting high-intensity PA at young ages may have long-term beneficial effects on childhood body composition and physical fitness, in particular muscular strength.

  18. [Effect of physical activity on functional performance].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaus, T

    2001-02-01

    Epidemiological studies clearly show a connection between physical activity and the occurrence of disabilities in old age. Physical exercise is possible and useful at every age. Numerous intervention trials have shown that training of endurance, strength and coordination has positive effects on the cardiovascular system, the lung, the musculo-skeletal system, metabolism and the immune system in elderly people. Even very frail elderly people can increase their muscle strength and functional capabilities by strength training. Group sessions may improve social interactions and additionally increase the quality of life.

  19. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Veasey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05. In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR. Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h, immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40, though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37 and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038. Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43. These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  20. Long working hours and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angrave, David; Charlwood, Andy; Wooden, Mark

    2015-08-01

    It is widely believed that persons employed in jobs demanding long working hours are at greater risk of physical inactivity than other workers, primarily because they have less leisure time available to undertake physical activity. The aim of this study was to test this hypothesis using prospective data obtained from a nationally representative sample of employed persons. Longitudinal data from the Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia Survey (93,367 observations from 17,893 individuals) were used to estimate conditional fixed effects logistic regression models of the likelihood of moderate or vigorous physical exercise for at least 30 min, at least four times a week. No significant associations between long working hours and the incidence of healthy levels of physical activity were uncovered once other exogenous influences on activity levels were controlled for. The odds of men or women who usually work 60 or more hours per week exercising at healthy levels were 6% and 11% less, respectively, than those of comparable persons working a more standard 35-40 h/week; however, neither estimate was significantly different from 0 at 95% CI. The findings suggest that there is no trade-off between long working hours and physical activity in Australia. It is argued that these findings are broadly consistent with previous research studies from Anglo-Saxon countries (where long working hours are pervasive) that employed large nationally representative samples. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  1. Physical activity and cardiovascular prevention: Is healthy urban living a possible reality or utopia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buscemi, Silvio; Giordano, Carla

    2017-05-01

    Favoring correct lifestyles is the most important measure to contrast cardiovascular diseases and the epidemic of high cardiovascular risk conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and hypertension. Lifestyle is a broad expression that includes diet, physical exercise, and psychological and socio-economic factors, each of which must be taken into due consideration because of their intertwining influences, which may be a barrier to healthy changes at both the individual and population levels. While physical activity has probably received less attention in the last decades, it is likely the most important among the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Improving the habitual physical activity level is an achievable goal, and even small improvements may have important favorable effects on health. Strategies at the population level have to be urgently taken, and involve not only public health, but also administrators and politicians, starting from a rethinking of our cities. Copyright © 2017 European Federation of Internal Medicine. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Recommendations for Physical Education Teacher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoxia; Gu, Xiangli; Zhang, Tao; Keller, Jean; Chen, Senlin

    2018-01-01

    Comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) aim to promote physical activity and healthy lifestyles among school-age children and adolescents. Physical educators are highly qualified individuals taking on the role of certified physical activity leaders. Physical education teacher education (PETE) programs should consider preparing…

  3. Beyond the Gym: Increasing Outside of School Physical Activity through Physical Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Stephen; Bycura, Dierdra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of physical education is to guide youngsters to become and remain physically active for life. Research on correlates and determinants of physical activity has shown the importance of developing intrinsic motivation in students so that they will choose to be physically active in their leisure time. When the physical education curriculum…

  4. Associations between physical activity parenting practices and adolescent girls' self-perceptions and physical activity intentions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebire, Simon J; Haase, Anne M; Montgomery, Alan A; McNeill, Jade; Jago, Russ

    2014-05-01

    The current study investigated cross-sectional associations between maternal and paternal logistic and modeling physical activity support and the self-efficacy, self-esteem, and physical activity intentions of 11- to 12-year-old girls. 210 girls reported perceptions of maternal and paternal logistic and modeling support and their self-efficacy, self-esteem and intention to be physically active. Data were analyzed using multivariable regression models. Maternal logistic support was positively associated with participants' self-esteem, physical activity self-efficacy, and intention to be active. Maternal modeling was positively associated with self-efficacy. Paternal modeling was positively associated with self-esteem and self-efficacy but there was no evidence that paternal logistic support was associated with the psychosocial variables. Activity-related parenting practices were associated with psychosocial correlates of physical activity among adolescent girls. Logistic support from mothers, rather than modeling support or paternal support may be a particularly important target when designing interventions aimed at preventing the age-related decline in physical activity among girls.

  5. Physical activity and abdominal obesity in youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, YoonMyung; Lee, SoJung

    2009-08-01

    Childhood obesity continues to escalate despite considerable efforts to reverse the current trends. Childhood obesity is a leading public health concern because overweight-obese youth suffer from comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease, conditions once considered limited to adults. This increasing prevalence of chronic health conditions in youth closely parallels the dramatic increase in obesity, in particular abdominal adiposity, in youth. Although mounting evidence in adults demonstrates the benefits of regular physical activity as a treatment strategy for abdominal obesity, the independent role of regular physical activity alone (e.g., without calorie restriction) on abdominal obesity, and in particular visceral fat, is largely unclear in youth. There is some evidence to suggest that, independent of sedentary activity levels (e.g., television watching or playing video games), engaging in higher-intensity physical activity is associated with a lower waist circumference and less visceral fat. Several randomized controlled studies have shown that aerobic types of exercise are protective against age-related increases in visceral adiposity in growing children and adolescents. However, evidence regarding the effect of resistance training alone as a strategy for the treatment of abdominal obesity is lacking and warrants further investigation.

  6. Does Daylight Savings Time encourage physical activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zick, Cathleen D

    2014-07-01

    Extending Daylight Savings Time (DST) has been identified as a policy intervention that may encourage physical activity. However, there has been little research on the question of if DST encourages adults to be more physically active. Data from residents of Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico, and Utah ages 18-64 who participated in the 2003-2009 American Time Use Survey are used to assess whether DST is associated with increased time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). The analysis capitalizes on the natural experiment created because Arizona does not observe DST. Both bivariate and multivariate analyses indicate that shifting 1 hour of daylight from morning to evening does not impact MVPA of Americans living in the southwest. While DST may affect the choices people make about the timing and location of their sports/recreational activities, the potential for DST to serve as a broad-based intervention that encourages greater sports/recreation participation is not supported by this analysis. Whether this null effect would persist in other climate situations is an open question.

  7. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Rachel C.; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F.; Kennedy, David O.; Tiplady, Brian; Stevenson, Emma J.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal) or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings. PMID:26184302

  8. Parental Influence on Young Children's Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheryl A. Zecevic

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Parents influence on their young children's physical activity (PA behaviours was examined in a sample of 102 preschool-aged children (54 boys. Questionnaires regarding family sociodemographics and physical activity habits were completed. Results showed that children who received greater parental support for activity (B=.78, P<.10 and had parents who rated PA as highly enjoyable (B=.69, P<.05 were significantly more likely to engage in one hour or more of daily PA. Being an older child (B=−.08, P<.01, having older parents (B=−.26, P<.01, and watching more than one hour of television/videos per day (B=1.55, P<.01 reduced the likelihood that a child would be rated as highly active. Children who received greater parental support for PA were 6.3 times more likely to be highly active than inactive (B=1.44, P<.05. Thus, parents can promote PA among their preschoolers, not only by limiting TV time but also by being highly supportive of their children's active pursuits.

  9. ASSESMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF SCHOOL CHILDREN

    OpenAIRE

    Himanshu Tripathi

    2017-01-01

    There is a need to find out the association between school-based physical activity, including physical education and academic performance among school-aged youth. To better understand these connections, this research paper first finds out the independent variables upon which academic performance depends. Study is from a range of physical activity contexts, including school-based physical education, recess, classroom-based physical activity and extracurricular physical activity. In his attempt...

  10. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Scholes

    Full Text Available The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ, used within the Health Survey for England (HSE at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults.Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150 minutes/week; inactivity (MVPA<30 minutes/week; and excessive sitting (≥540 minutes/weekday. Cross-sectional associations with health outcomes were compared across tertiles of MVPA and tertiles of sitting time using logistic regression with tests for linear trend.Compared with PASBAQ data, IPAQ-assessed estimates of sufficient aerobic activity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32-0.49, moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42-0.74, and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49-0.75. As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively.Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the differences in prevalence estimates

  11. Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness in school-aged children with developmental language disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Niet, Anneke G.; Hartman, Esther; Moolenaar, Ben J.; Smith, Joanne; Visscher, Chris

    2014-01-01

    Children with developmental language disorders (DLD) often experience difficulty in understanding and engaging in interactive behavior with other children, which may lead to reduced daily physical activity and fitness levels. The present study evaluated the physical activity and physical fitness

  12. Association between habitual dietary intake and lipoprotein subclass profile in healthy young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogl, L H; Pietiläinen, K H; Rissanen, A; Kangas, A J; Soininen, P; Rose, R J; Ala-Korpela, M; Kaprio, J

    2013-11-01

    Nutritional epidemiology is increasingly shifting its focus from studying single nutrients to the exploration of the whole diet utilizing dietary pattern analysis. We analyzed associations between habitual diet (including macronutrients, dietary patterns, biomarker of fish intake) and lipoprotein particle subclass profile in young adults. Complete dietary data (food-frequency questionnaire) and lipoprotein subclass profile (via nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy) were available for 663 subjects from the population-based FinnTwin12 study (57% women, age: 21-25 y). The serum docosahexaenoic to total fatty acid ratio was used as a biomarker of habitual fish consumption. Factor analysis identified 5 dietary patterns: "Fruit and vegetables", "Meat", "Sweets and desserts", "Junk food" and "Fish". After adjustment for sex, age, body mass index, waist circumference, physical activity, smoking status and alcohol intake, the "Junk food" pattern was positively related to serum triglycerides (r = 0.12, P = 0.002), a shift in the subclass distribution of VLDL toward larger particles (r = 0.12 for VLDL size, P consumption is related to favorable subclass distributions of VLDL and HDL, while junk food intake is associated with unfavorable alterations in the distribution of all lipoprotein subclasses independent of adiposity and other lifestyle factors. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Aspects of students' self-evaluation of their physical condition and motivation for physical activity

    OpenAIRE

    Avižonienė, Genovaitė; Gylienė, Rasa

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of the study is to establish how the students evaluate their physical condition and get involved into physical activity; make a research of physical status and physical capacity of the students; establish how adequate is a subjective self evaluation of physical condition and in what way it influences motivation for physical training and physical activity. The survey has showed that the results of majority of the students' physical condition are low, though 86,2% of the stud...

  14. Motivations associated with physical activity in young breast cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voege, Patricia; Bower, Julienne E; Stanton, Annette L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is associated with positive health outcomes in breast cancer survivors. However, factors that promote or discourage physical activity in this population are not fully understood. This cross-sectional study was designed to examine approach and avoidance motivations, barriers for exercise, and their association with physical activity in breast cancer survivors younger than 50 years old at time of diagnosis. Current physical activity levels, approach and avoidance motivations, and barriers to exercise were assessed through self-report questionnaires in young breast cancer survivors (N = 156). Results indicated that barriers to exercise were negatively associated with physical activity (p physical activity (p barriers (p physical activity (p = .91).

  15. Physical activity behavior and role overload in mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Butler, Frances R

    2015-01-01

    We examined physical activity stages of change, physical activity behavior, and role overload in different stages of motherhood in a predominantly Australian sample. Neither physical activity behavior, stages of physical activity change, nor role overload significantly differed across motherhood groups. Role overload was significantly higher for mothers in the contemplation, planning, and action stages of physical activity than in the maintenance stage of change. Role overload had a weak, although significant, negative correlation with leisure-time physical activity. We conclude that strategies focused upon reducing role overload or perceived role overload have only limited potential to meaningfully increase leisure-time physical activity in mothers.

  16. Associations between Socio-Motivational Factors, Physical Education Activity Levels and Physical Activity Behavior among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Weihong; Gao, Zan; Lodewyk, Ken

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationships between established socio-motivational factors and children's physical activity levels daily and during physical education classes. A total of 307 middle school students (149 boys, 158 girls) from a suburban public school in the Southern United States participated in this study. Participants completed…

  17. Neighborhood disadvantage, physical activity barriers, and physical activity among African American breast cancer survivors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antwan Jones

    2015-01-01

    Higher renter rates and individual barriers both contribute to lower levels of physical activity in African American breast cancer survivors. These data suggest that the potential for constant residential turnover (via rentership and perceived barriers may increase physical inactivity even where facilities may be available.

  18. Adolescent Physical Activity and Motivational Profiles While Keeping a Physical Activity Record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullmer, Matthew O.; Wilkinson, Carol; Prusak, Keven A.; Eggett, Dennis; Pennington, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the relationship between adolescents (N = 124) from physical education classes keeping a daily online leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) record and feelings of competence toward LTPA, motivational profiles toward LTPA, and LTPA behaviors. Method: A repeated measures ANCOVA was used to examine the relationships…

  19. Does Violent Crime Deter Physical Activity?

    OpenAIRE

    Janke, Katharina; Propper, Carol; Shields, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Crime has potentially important externalities. We investigate the relationship between recorded violent crime at the local area level and individuals’ participation in their local area through walking and physical activity. We use a sample of nearly 1 million people residing in over 320 local areas across England over the period 2005 to 2011. We show that concerns about personal safety co-move with police recorded violent crime. Our analysis controls for individual-level characteristics, no...

  20. The Relationship between Physical Activity and Productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-04-01

    had heart disease when they began running, and some denied the warning symptoms . Two Seattle studies also show that "vigorous exercise protects...MBA degree from Samford University completed in 1981. He has a wife, Celia , and a daughter Stephanie, age 10. v TABLE OF CONTENTS Preface...occupational setting. The literature also strongly indicates that physical activity reduces the risk of heart disease and illness and injury. These

  1. Workplace physical activity interventions: a systematic review

    OpenAIRE

    Dugdill, L; Brettle, A; Hulme, C; McCluskey, S; Long, AF

    2008-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to report a synopsis of a recent systematic review of the literature regarding the effectiveness of workplace physical activity interventions, commissioned by the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE). \\ud \\ud Design/methodology/approach – A search for English-language papers published between 1996 and 2007 was conducted using 12 relevant databases and associated grey literature. Search protocols and analysis regarding study quality as recommen...

  2. Autonomous motivation mediates the relation between goals for physical activity and physical activity behavior in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Michael J; Eyre, Emma Lj; Bryant, Elizabeth; Seghers, Jan; Galbraith, Niall; Nevill, Alan M

    2017-04-01

    Overall, 544 children (mean age ± standard deviation = 14.2 ± .94 years) completed self-report measures of physical activity goal content, behavioral regulations, and physical activity behavior. Body mass index was determined from height and mass. The indirect effect of intrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 162.27; 95% confidence interval [89.73, 244.70]), but not controlled motivation ( b = 5.30; 95% confidence interval [-39.05, 45.16]). The indirect effect of extrinsic goal content on physical activity was statistically significant via autonomous ( b = 106.25; 95% confidence interval [63.74, 159.13]) but not controlled motivation ( b = 17.28; 95% confidence interval [-31.76, 70.21]). Weight status did not alter these findings.

  3. Six Weeks Habituation of Simulated Barefoot Running Induces Neuromuscular Adaptations and Changes in Foot Strike Patterns in Female Runners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khowailed, Iman Akef; Petrofsky, Jerrold; Lohman, Everett; Daher, Noha

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 6-week training program of simulated barefoot running (SBR) on running kinetics in habitually shod (wearing shoes) female recreational runners. Material/Methods Twelve female runners age 25.7±3.4 years gradually increased running distance in Vibram FiveFingers minimal shoes over a 6-week period. The kinetic analysis of treadmill running at 10 Km/h was performed pre- and post-intervention in shod running, non-habituated SBR, and habituated SBR conditions. Spatiotemporal parameters, ground reaction force components, and electromyography (EMG) were measured in all conditions. Results Post-intervention data indicated a significant decrease across time in the habituation SBR for EMG activity of the tibialis anterior (TA) in the pre-activation and absorptive phase of running (Prunning, unhabituated SBR, and habituated SBR. Six weeks of SBR was associated with a significant decrease in the loading rates and impact forces. Additionally, SBR significantly decrease the stride length, step duration, and flight time, and stride frequency was significantly higher compared to shod running. Conclusions The findings of this study indicate that changes in motor patterns in previously habitually shod runners are possible and can be accomplished within 6 weeks. Non-habituation SBR did not show a significant neuromuscular adaptation in the EMG activity of TA and GAS as manifested after 6 weeks of habituated SBR. PMID:26166443

  4. Health benefits associated with exercise habituation in older Japanese men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kiyoji; Sakai, Tomoaki; Nakamura, Yoichi; Umeda, Noriko; Lee, Dong-Jun; Nakata, Yoshio; Hayashi, Yoichi; Akutsu, Tomomi; Okura, Tomohiro; Yamabuki, Keisuke

    2004-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of exercise habituation (3-32 years, mean 13.2 years) on physical vitality among five different groups. One hundred and two independent, community-dwelling elderly Japanese men, aged 64.6 +/- 6.6 years, were recruited as subjects. The vital age test battery consisted of various coronary heart disease risk factors and physical fitness elements. The results of analysis of variance revealed that vital age as an index of physical vitality was youngest in joggers (47.9 yr, N=18), intermediate in trekkers (55.8 yr, N=20) and walkers (59.1 yr, N=18), and oldest (69.6 yr, N=20) in patients with ischemic heart disease (IHD). The difference between chronological age and vital age was approximately 15 years (pexercising IHD patients. These results indicate that exercise habituation significantly affects the overall health status of most individuals, irrespective of mode of exercise. Among the three modes of exercise, jogging may be most beneficial. Furthermore, regularly exercising coronary patients may have physical vitality similar to that of sedentary men.

  5. Childhood temperament predictors of adolescent physical activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James A Janssen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Physical inactivity is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Many patterns of physical activity involvement are established early in life. To date, the role of easily identifiable early-life individual predictors of PA, such as childhood temperament, remains relatively unexplored. Here, we tested whether childhood temperamental activity level, high intensity pleasure, low intensity pleasure, and surgency predicted engagement in physical activity (PA patterns 11 years later in adolescence. Methods Data came from a longitudinal community study (N = 206 participants, 53% females, 70% Caucasian. Parents reported their children’s temperamental characteristics using the Child Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ when children were 4 & 5 years old. Approximately 11 years later, adolescents completed self-reports of PA using the Godin Leisure Time Exercise Questionnaire and the Youth Risk Behavior Survey. Ordered logistic regression, ordinary least squares linear regression, and Zero-inflated Poisson regression models were used to predict adolescent PA from childhood temperament. Race, socioeconomic status, and adolescent body mass index were used as covariates. Results Males with greater childhood temperamental activity level engaged in greater adolescent PA volume (B = .42, SE = .13 and a 1 SD difference in childhood temperamental activity level predicted 29.7% more strenuous adolescent PA per week. Males’ high intensity pleasure predicted higher adolescent PA volume (B = .28, SE = .12. Males’ surgency positively predicted more frequent PA activity (B = .47, SE = .23, OR = 1.61, 95% CI: 1.02, 2.54 and PA volume (B = .31, SE = .12. No predictions from females’ childhood temperament to later PA engagement were identified. Conclusions Childhood temperament may influence the formation of later PA habits, particularly in males. Boys with high temperamental activity level, high intensity

  6. Physical activity as a metabolic stressor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coyle, E F

    2000-08-01

    Both physical activity and diet stimulate processes that, over time, alter the morphologic composition and biochemical function of the body. Physical activity provides stimuli that promote very specific and varied adaptations according to the type, intensity, and duration of exercise performed. There is further interest in the extent to which diet or supplementation can enhance the positive stimuli. Prolonged walking at low intensity presents little metabolic, hormonal, or cardiovascular stress, and the greatest perturbation from rest appears to be from increased fat oxidation and plasma free fatty acid mobilization resulting from a combination of increased lipolysis and decreased reesterification. More intense jogging or running largely stimulates increased oxidation of glycogen and triacylglycerol, both of which are stored directly within the muscle fibers. Furthermore, these intramuscular stores of carbohydrate and fat appear to be the primary substrates for the enhanced oxidative and performance ability derived from endurance training-induced increases in muscle mitochondrial density. Weightlifting that produces fatigue in brief periods (ie, in 15-90 s and after 15 repetitive contractions) elicits a high degree of motor unit recruitment and muscle fiber stimulation. This is a remarkably potent stimulus for altering protein synthesis in muscle and increasing neuromuscular function. The metabolic stress of physical activity can be measured by substrate turnover and depletion, cardiovascular response, hormonal perturbation, accumulation of metabolites, or even the extent to which the synthesis and degradation of specific proteins are altered, either acutely or by chronic exercise training.

  7. [Vascular aging, arterial hypertension and physical activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt-Trucksäss, A; Weisser, B

    2011-11-01

    The present review delineates the significance of intima-media-thickness, arterial stiffness and endothelial function for vascular aging. There is profound evidence for an increase in intima-media-thickness and vascular stiffness not only during healthy aging but induced also by cardiovascular risk factors. There is a central role of arterial hypertension for this progression in both structural factors. In addition, both parameters are strongly associated with cardiovascular risk. Endothelial function measured as postischemic flow-mediated vasodilatation is a functional parameter which is decreased both in healthy aging and by cardiovascular risk factors. Physical activity modifies the influence of aging and risk factors on endothelial function. A positive influence of endurance exercise on vascular stiffness and endothelial function has been demonstrated in numerous studies. In long-term studies, regular physical activity has been shown to reduce the progression of intima-media-thickness. Thus, arterial hypertension accelerates vascular aging, while physical activity has a positive influence on a variety of vascular parameters associated with vascular aging. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  8. Physical activity school intervention: context matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guldager, J D; Andersen, P T; von Seelen, J; Leppin, A

    2018-06-01

    School-based interventions for increasing physical activity among children are widespread, however there is still a lack of knowledge about how school context factors are linked to implementation quality and effectiveness of programmes. The aim of this paper is to examine teacher-perceived effectiveness of a Danish national classroom-based health programme 'Active Around Denmark' and in particular, to investigate whether perceptions vary as a function of school social context factors. After completion of the programme all teachers (N = 5.892) received an electronic questionnaire. 2.097 completed the questionnaire (response rate 36%) and 1.781 datasets could be used for analysis. The teachers were asked about their perceptions of changes in children's attitudes towards and levels of physical activity after the competition. Our results indicated that certain contextual factors, such as schools' prioritization of health promotion, teachers' support by their school principal in implementation as well as teacher's satisfaction with the school' physical environment made a significant difference in teacher-perceived effectiveness. To conclude, teacher-perceived effectiveness of the health programme does vary as a function of school social context factors.

  9. Physical activity and its effects on reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redman, Leanne M

    2006-05-01

    The reproductive system is tightly coupled with energy balance, and thereby changes in the status of energy balance through changes in physical activity can impact on the reproductive system. In light of the new physical activity for health recommendations, it is therefore important to understand the inherent effects, both positive and negative, of physical activity on the reproductive system. At both extremes of the energy spectrum, disorders of chronic energy excess and energy deficiency are characterized by a wide range of reproductive disorders, including menstrual irregularity, anovulation, polycystic ovarian syndrome, and infertility in women, and erectile dysfunction and altered spermatogenesis in men. Although laboratory research indicates that individuals may be able to prevent or reverse reproductive disruptions, either by increasing energy expenditure in cases of energy excess or by dietary reform in cases of energy deficits, there is an acute need for applied research to confirm this idea and to identify mechanisms by which the availability of energy per se regulates reproductive function in humans.

  10. Striatal fast-spiking interneurons selectively modulate circuit output and are required for habitual behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Hare, Justin K; Li, Haofang; Kim, Namsoo; Gaidis, Erin; Ade, Kristen; Beck, Jeff; Yin, Henry; Calakos, Nicole

    2017-09-05

    Habit formation is a behavioral adaptation that automates routine actions. Habitual behavior correlates with broad reconfigurations of dorsolateral striatal (DLS) circuit properties that increase gain and shift pathway timing. The mechanism(s) for these circuit adaptations are unknown and could be responsible for habitual behavior. Here we find that a single class of interneuron, fast-spiking interneurons (FSIs), modulates all of these habit-predictive properties. Consistent with a role in habits, FSIs are more excitable in habitual mice compared to goal-directed and acute chemogenetic inhibition of FSIs in DLS prevents the expression of habitual lever pressing. In vivo recordings further reveal a previously unappreciated selective modulation of SPNs based on their firing patterns; FSIs inhibit most SPNs but paradoxically promote the activity of a subset displaying high fractions of gamma-frequency spiking. These results establish a microcircuit mechanism for habits and provide a new example of how interneurons mediate experience-dependent behavior.

  11. Physical activity effects on bone metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, E L; Gilligan, C

    1991-01-01

    The incidence of osteoporotic fractures rises exponentially with age and is increasing faster than the demographic increase in the aging population. Physical activity has great potential to reduce the risk for osteoporotic fractures. Three independent but interactive factors contribute to the risk of fractures: bone strength, the risk of falling, and the effectiveness of neuromuscular response that protects the skeleton from injury. Exercise can reduce fracture risk not only by preventing bone loss, but by decreasing the risk of falling and the force of impact by improving strength, flexibility, balance, and reaction time. Extreme inactivity causes rapid bone loss of up to 40%, while athletic activity results in bone hypertrophy of up to 40%. Exercise intervention programs have reduced bone loss or increased bone mass in both men and women of various ages and initial bone status. These benefits have been shown for arm bone mineral content, total body calcium, spine, calcium bone index, tibia, and calcaneus. In both middle-aged and elderly women, physical activity intervention reduced bone loss or increased bone mass. The mechanisms for maintenance of skeletal integrity rely on a cellular response to hormonal and mechanical load stimuli. Studies in animal models show that training affects cellular activity. In osteoporotics, cellular erosion is increased and mineral apposition rate (MAR) decreased compared with normal age-matched controls. In contrast to this, sows trained on a treadmill 20 min per day for 20 weeks had greater active periosteal surface, periosteal MAR, and osteonal MAR than untrained sows.

  12. Impact of an After-School Physical Activity Program on Youth's Physical Activity Correlates and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chaoqun; Gao, Zan; Hannon, James C.; Schultz, Barry; Newton, Maria; Jenson, William

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to examine the effect of a sports-based, after-school physical activity (PA) program on youth's physical activity PA levels and PA correlates. After the pretest, 130 youth were assigned to the intervention group (i.e., after-school PA group) or the comparison (i.e., no after-school PA group) group.…

  13. Physical activity and survival in breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Søgaard, Karen; Karlsen, Randi V

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Knowledge about lifestyle factors possibly influencing survival after breast cancer (BC) is paramount. We examined associations between two types of postdiagnosis physical activity (PA) and overall survival after BC. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We used prospective data on 959 BC survivors from...... the Diet, Cancer, and Health cohort, all enrolled before diagnosis. Self-reported PA was measured as time per activity, and estimated metabolic equivalent task (MET)-hours per week were summed for each activity. We constructed measures for household, exercise, and total PA. The association between...... from all causes during the study period. In adjusted analyses, exercise PA above eight MET h/week compared to lower levels of activity was significantly associated with improved overall survival (HR, 0.68; confidence interval [CI]: 0.47-0.99). When comparing participation in exercise to non...

  14. Comparison of the Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire and the Short-Form International Physical Activity Questionnaire: An Analysis of Health Survey for England Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholes, Shaun; Bridges, Sally; Ng Fat, Linda; Mindell, Jennifer S.

    2016-01-01

    Background The Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour Assessment Questionnaire (PASBAQ), used within the Health Survey for England (HSE) at 5-yearly intervals, is not included annually due to funding and interview-length constraints. Policy-makers and data-users are keen to consider shorter instruments such as the Short-form International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) for the annual survey. Both questionnaires were administered in HSE 2012, enabling comparative assessment in a random sample of 1252 adults. Methods Relative agreement using prevalence-adjusted bias-adjusted Kappa (PABAK) statistics was estimated for: sufficient aerobic activity (moderate-to-vigorous physical activity [MVPA] ≥150minutes/week); inactivity (MVPAactivity and inactivity were higher and lower, respectively; estimates of excessive sitting were higher. Demographic patterns in prevalence were similar. Agreement using PABAK statistics was fair-to-moderate for sufficient aerobic activity (0.32–0.49), moderate-to-substantial for inactivity (0.42–0.74), and moderate-to-substantial for excessive sitting (0.49–0.75). As with the PASBAQ, IPAQ-assessed MVPA and sitting each showed graded associations with mental well-being (women: P for trend = 0.003 and 0.004, respectively) and obesity (women: P for trend = 0.007 and 0.014, respectively). Conclusions Capturing habitual physical activity and sedentary behaviour through brief questionnaires is complex. Differences in prevalence estimates can reflect differences in questionnaire structure and content rather than differences in reported behaviour. Treating all IPAQ-assessed walking as moderate-intensity contributed to the differences in prevalence estimates. PASBAQ data will be used for population surveillance every 4 to 5 years. The current version of the Short-form IPAQ was included in HSE 2013–14 to enable more frequent assessment of physical activity and sedentary behaviour; a modified version with different item-ordering and

  15. Relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich-Jones, Linda; Lee, Jungwha; Semanik, Pamela; Cox, Cheryl; Dunlop, Dorothy; Chang, Rowland W

    2011-12-01

    To determine the relationship between beliefs, motivation, and worries about physical activity and physical activity participation in persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A cross-sectional study used baseline data from 185 adults with RA enrolled in a randomized clinical trial assessing the effectiveness of an intervention to promote physical activity. Data included patients' self-reported beliefs that physical activity can be beneficial for their disease, motivation for physical activity participation, worries about physical activity participation, and average daily accelerometer counts of activity over a week's time. Body mass index (BMI), sex, age, race, and disease activity were measured as potential statistical moderators of physical activity. Physical activity participation was greater for those with higher scores on scales measuring beliefs that physical activity is beneficial for their disease (P for trend = 0.032) and motivation for physical activity participation (P for trend = 0.007) when adjusted for age, sex, BMI, race, and disease activity. There was a positive but nonsignificant trend in physical activity participation in relation to worries. Stronger beliefs that physical activity can be helpful for managing disease and increased motivation to engage in physical activity are related to higher levels of physical activity participation. These data provide a preliminary empirical rationale for why interventions targeting these concepts should lead to improved physical activity participation in adults with RA. Copyright © 2011 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  16. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Paul J; Wijndaele, Katrien; Corder, Kirsten; Westgate, Kate; Ridgway, Charlotte L; Dunn, Valerie; Goodyer, Ian; Ekelund, Ulf; Brage, Soren

    2014-02-24

    Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0 ± 0.30 years), by 4 days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (physical activity/d). During awake hours (15.8 ± 0.9 hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517 min/d) and sedentary time (364 min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in less vigorous intensity physical activity

  17. Levels and patterns of objectively-measured physical activity volume and intensity distribution in UK adolescents: the ROOTS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Few studies have quantified levels of habitual physical activity across the entire intensity range. We aimed to describe variability in total and intensity-specific physical activity levels in UK adolescents across gender, socio-demographic, temporal and body composition strata. Methods Physical activity energy expenditure and minutes per day (min/d) spent sedentary and in light, moderate, and vigorous intensity physical activity were assessed in 825 adolescents from the ROOTS study (43.5% boys; mean age 15.0 ± 0.30 years), by 4 days of individually calibrated combined heart rate and movement sensing. Measurement days were classified as weekday or weekend and according to the three school terms: summer (April-July), autumn (September-December), and spring (January-March). Gender and age were self-reported and area-level SES determined by postcode data. Body composition was measured by anthropometry and bio-electrical impedance. Variability in physical activity and sedentary time was analysed by linear multilevel modelling, and logistic multilevel regression was used to determine factors associated with physical inactivity (physical activity/d). Results During awake hours (15.8 ± 0.9 hrs/d), adolescents primarily engaged in light intensity physical activity (517 min/d) and sedentary time (364 min/d). Boys were consistently more physically active and less sedentary than girls, but gender differences were smaller at weekends, as activity levels in boys dropped more markedly when transitioning from weekday to weekend. Boys were more sedentary on both weekend days compared to during the week, whereas girls were more sedentary on Sunday but less sedentary on Saturday. In both genders light intensity physical activity was lower in spring, while moderate physical activity was lower in autumn and spring terms, compared to the summer term; sedentary time was also higher in spring than summer term. Adolescents with higher fatness engaged in less

  18. Comparison of two different physical activity monitors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baer David J

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the relationships between physical activity (PA and disease has become a major area of research interest. Activity monitors, devices that quantify free-living PA for prolonged periods of time (days or weeks, are increasingly being used to estimate PA. A range of different activity monitors brands are available for investigators to use, but little is known about how they respond to different levels of PA in the field, nor if data conversion between brands is possible. Methods 56 women and men were fitted with two different activity monitors, the Actigraph™ (Actigraph LLC; AGR and the Actical™ (Mini-Mitter Co.; MM for 15 days. Both activity monitors were fixed to an elasticized belt worn over the hip, with the anterior and posterior position of the activity monitors randomized. Differences between activity monitors and the validity of brand inter-conversion were measured by t-tests, Pearson correlations, Bland-Altman plots, and coefficients of variation (CV. Results The AGR detected a significantly greater amount of daily PA (216.2 ± 106.2 vs. 188.0 ± 101.1 counts/min, P Conclusion Although activity monitors predict PA on the same scale (counts/min, the results between these two brands are not directly comparable. However, the data are comparable if a conversion equation is applied, with better results for log-transformed data.

  19. Workplace pedometer interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne L A; Cumpston, Miranda; Peeters, Anna; Clemes, Stacy A

    2013-04-30

    The World Health Organization and the World Economic Forum have recommended further research to strengthen current knowledge of workplace health programmes, particularly on effectiveness and using simple instruments. A pedometer is one such simple instrument that can be incorporated in workplace interventions. To assess the effectiveness of pedometer interventions in the workplace for increasing physical activity and improving subsequent health outcomes. Electronic searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (671 potential papers), MEDLINE (1001), Embase (965), CINAHL (1262), OSH UPDATE databases (75) and Web of Science (1154) from the earliest record to between 30th January and 6th February 2012 yielded 3248 unique records. Reference lists of articles yielded an additional 34 papers. Contact with individuals and organisations did not produce any further records. We included individual and cluster-randomised controlled trials of workplace health promotion interventions with a pedometer component in employed adults. The primary outcome was physical activity and was part of the eligibility criteria. We considered subsequent health outcomes, including adverse effects, as secondary outcomes. Two review authors undertook the screening of titles and abstracts and the full-text papers independently. Two review authors (RFP and MC) independently completed data extraction and risk of bias assessment. We contacted authors to obtain additional data and clarification. We found four relevant studies providing data for 1809 employees, 60% of whom were allocated to the intervention group. All studies assessed outcomes immediately after the intervention had finished and the intervention duration varied between three to six months. All studies had usual treatment control conditions; however one study's usual treatment was an alternative physical activity programme while the other three had minimally active controls. In general, there was high risk of bias mainly

  20. Perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity: two primary-care physical activity prescription programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Asmita; Schofield, Grant M; Kolt, Gregory S; Keogh J, W L

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity differed based on allocation to 2 different types of primary-care activity-prescription programs (pedometer-based vs. time-based Green Prescription). Eighty participants from the Healthy Steps study completed a questionnaire that assessed their perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor analysis was carried out to identify common themes of barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Factor scores were then used to explore between-groups differences for perceived barriers, benefits, and motives based on group allocation and demographic variables. No significant differences were found in factor scores based on allocation. Demographic variables relating to the existence of chronic health conditions, weight status, and older age were found to significantly influence perceived barriers, benefits, and motives for physical activity. Findings suggest that the addition of a pedometer to the standard Green Prescription does not appear to increase perceived motives or benefits or decrease perceived barriers for physical activity in low-active older adults.

  1. Community wide interventions for increasing physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Philip Ra; Francis, Daniel P; Soares, Jesus; Weightman, Alison L; Foster, Charles

    2011-04-13

    Multi-strategic community wide interventions for physical activity are increasingly popular but their ability to achieve population level improvements is unknown. To evaluate the effects of community wide, multi-strategic interventions upon population levels of physical activity. We searched the Cochrane Public Health Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, MEDLINE in Process, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS, PsycINFO, ASSIA, The British Nursing Index, Chinese CNKI databases, EPPI Centre (DoPHER, TRoPHI), ERIC, HMIC, Sociological Abstracts, SPORTDiscus, Transport Database and Web of Science (Science Citation Index, Social Sciences Citation Index, Conference Proceedings Citation Index). We also scanned websites of the EU Platform on Diet, Physical Activity and Health; Health-Evidence.ca; the International Union for Health Promotion and Education; the NIHR Coordinating Centre for Health Technology (NCCHTA) and NICE and SIGN guidelines. Reference lists of all relevant systematic reviews, guidelines and primary studies were followed up. We contacted experts in the field from the National Obesity Observatory Oxford, Oxford University; Queensland Health, Queensland University of Technology, the University of Central Queensland; the University of Tennessee and Washington University; and handsearched six relevant journals. The searches were last updated to the end of November 2009 and were not restricted by language or publication status. Cluster randomised controlled trials, randomised controlled trials (RCT), quasi-experimental designs which used a control population for comparison, interrupted time-series (ITS) studies, and prospective controlled cohort studies (PCCS) were included. Only studies with a minimum six-month follow up from the start of the intervention to measurement of outcomes were included. Community wide interventions had to comprise at least two broad strategies aimed at physical activity for the whole population. Studies which randomised

  2. Habituation and adaptation of the vestibuloocular reflex: a model of differential control by the vestibulocerebellum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, H.; Cohen, B.; Raphan, T.; Waespe, W.

    1992-01-01

    We habituated the dominant time constant of the horizontal vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) of rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys by repeated testing with steps of velocity about a vertical axis and adapted the gain of the VOR by altering visual input with magnifying and reducing lenses. After baseline values were established, the nodulus and ventral uvula of the vestibulocerebellum were ablated in two monkeys, and the effects of nodulouvulectomy and flocculectomy on VOR gain adaptation and habituation were compared. The VOR time constant decreased with repeated testing, rapidly at first and more slowly thereafter. The gain of the VOR was unaffected. Massed trials were more effective than distributed trials in producing habituation. Regardless of the schedule of testing, the VOR time constant never fell below the time constant of the semicircular canals (approximately 5 s). This finding indicates that only the slow component of the vestibular response, the component produced by velocity storage, was habituated. In agreement with this, the time constant of optokinetic after-nystagmus (OKAN) was habituated concurrently with the VOR. Average values for VOR habituation were obtained on a per session basis for six animals. The VOR gain was adapted by natural head movements in partially habituated monkeys while they wore x 2.2 magnifying or x 0.5 reducing lenses. Adaptation occurred rapidly and reached about +/- 30%, similar to values obtained using forced rotation. VOR gain adaptation did not cause additional habituation of the time constant. When the VOR gain was reduced in animals with a long VOR time constant, there were overshoots in eye velocity that peaked at about 6-8 s after the onset or end of constant-velocity rotation. These overshoots occurred at times when the velocity storage integrator would have been maximally activated by semicircular canal input. Since the activity generated in the canals is not altered by visual adaptation, this finding indicates that the gain

  3. International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste: Scientific activities in 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-10-01

    The document contains three parts. Part I is a review of the Scientific activities in 1988 with a statistical digest. Part II describes the scientific programme in Fundamental physics, Condensed matter, Atomic and molecular physics, Mathematics, Physics and energy, Physics and environment, Physics of the living state, Applied physics, Adriatico research conferences. Part III lists the publications issued in 1988. Tabs

  4. Rockets: Physical science teacher's guide with activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, Gregory L.; Rosenberg, Carla R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    This guide begins with background information sections on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practical rocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry are based on Isaac Newton's three laws of motion. These laws explain why rockets work and how to make them more efficient. The background sections are followed with a series of physical science activities that demonstrate the basic science of rocketry. Each activity is designed to be simple and take advantage of inexpensive materials. Construction diagrams, materials and tools lists, and instructions are included. A brief discussion elaborates on the concepts covered in the activities and is followed with teaching notes and discussion questions. The guide concludes with a glossary of terms, suggested reading list, NASA educational resources, and an evaluation questionnaire with a mailer.

  5. Behavior change stages related to physical activity in adolescents from Santa Catarina: prevalence and associated factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Aragoni da Silva

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: Verify the prevalence and sociodemographic and economic factors associated with behavior change stages for habitual physical activity practice in adolescents from Santa Catarina. Methods: Secondary analysis of a study on the Behavior of Adolescents from Santa Catarina (CompAC 2. Cross-sectional school-based study of 6,529 high-school students (males, n=2,903 from the state of Santa Catarina public education system in 2011, aged 15 to 19 years. Multinomial logistic regression (crude and adjusted was used to measure the association. Results: The highest and lowest prevalence rates were found in the maintenance (43.9% and precontemplation stages (7.0%, respectively. The stages of action, preparation and contemplation showed similar results: 16.2%; 17.0% and 15.6%; respectively. Male adolescents show higher prevalence in the maintenance stage in relation to females and these show a higher prevalence in preparation, contemplation and precontemplation. All the assessed variables (gender, age, area of residence, employment status, family income, maternal education and school grade, with the exception of school shift, were associated with at least one of the stages. Conclusions: A large proportion of adolescents are in the pre-adoption stages and most of these have the intention to start regular physical activity. With the exception of school shift, the assessed variables were associated with stages in different ways, showing different profiles in relation to sociodemographic and economic characteristics in each subgroup.

  6. Motivation and physical activity in individuals with severe mental illness

    OpenAIRE

    Farholm, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Avhandling (doktorgrad) - Norges idrettshøgskole, 2017 There is increasing evidence for physical activity having a positive impact on physical and mental health, as well as on illness symptoms in individuals with severe mental illness (SMI). However, individuals with SMI experience several barriers related to physical activity that makes it difficult for them to take advantage of the benefits associated with physical activity. One barrier consistently reported to impede physical activity i...

  7. Engaging Middle School Students in Physical Education and Physical Activity Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doolittle, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    With school-based physical activity emerging as a public health issue, it is more important than ever to understand what keeps children and adolescents interested and participating in physical education and physical activity. As the research on physical activity patterns indicates, the middle school years may be a watershed moment in the lives of…

  8. Activity report of Reactor Physics Section - 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, T.M.

    1986-01-01

    This Activity Report contains brief summaries of different studies made in Reactor Physics Section during the year 1985. These are presented under the headings Nuclear Data Processing and Validation, Reactor Design and Analysis, Safety and Noise Analysis, Radiation Transport and Shielding, Reactor Physics Experiments and Statistical Physics. The work on nuclear data during this period comprises primarily of validation of data of 232 Th and 233 U as a part of participation in the Co-ordinated Research Programme (CRP) under IAEA research contract. The most significant event during 1985 at this centre has been the first criticality of FBTR (Fast Breeder Test Reactor), which was achieved on the 18th of October. Reactor Physics Section has played a key role in this event by carrying out the first approach to criticality with fuel loading in a safe manner and conducting some low power reactor physics experiments which are discussed. The studies made in the field reactor safety and shielding are also connected mainly with the FBTR problems in addition to some work on the PFBR (Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor) detailed design of which has been just started. Studies pertaining to the other two Co-ordinated Research Programmes (CRP) under IAEA contract, namely (1) on the comparative assessment of processing techniques for the analysis of sodium boiling noise detection and, (2) on the contribution of advanced reactors to energy supply have been continued during this year. At the end of this report, a list of publications made by the members of the section and also the sectional seminars held during this period is included. (author)

  9. Physical activity modulates corticospinal excitability of the lower limb in young and old adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanlouei, Hamidollah; Sundberg, Christopher W; Smith, Ashleigh E; Kuplic, Andrew; Hunter, Sandra K

    2017-08-01

    Aging is associated with reduced neuromuscular function, which may be due in part to altered corticospinal excitability. Regular physical activity (PA) may ameliorate these age-related declines, but the influence of PA on corticospinal excitability is unknown. The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of age, sex, and PA on corticospinal excitability by comparing the stimulus-response curves of motor evoked potentials (MEP) in 28 young (22.4 ± 2.2 yr; 14 women and 14 men) and 50 old adults (70.2 ± 6.1 yr; 22 women and 28 men) who varied in activity levels. Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to elicit MEPs in the active vastus lateralis muscle (10% maximal voluntary contraction) with 5% increments in stimulator intensity until the maximum MEP amplitude. Stimulus-response curves of MEP amplitudes were fit with a four-parameter sigmoidal curve and the maximal slope calculated (slope max ). Habitual PA was assessed with tri-axial accelerometry and participants categorized into either those meeting the recommended PA guidelines for optimal health benefits (>10,000 steps/day, high-PA; n = 21) or those not meeting the guidelines ( 0.05), suggesting that habitual PA influenced the excitability of the corticospinal tract projecting to the lower limb similarly in both young and old adults. These findings provide evidence that achieving the recommended PA guidelines for optimal health may mediate its effects on the nervous system by decreasing corticospinal excitability. NEW & NOTEWORTHY Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to determine whether achieving the recommended 10,000 steps/day for optimal health influenced the excitability of the corticospinal tract projecting to the knee extensor muscles. Irrespective of age and sex, individuals who achieved >10,000 steps/day had lower corticospinal excitability than those who performed Physical activity involving >10,000 steps/day may mediate its effects on the nervous system by decreasing

  10. Sport and physical activity for mental health

    CERN Document Server

    Carless, David

    2010-01-01

    With approximately 1 in 6 adults likely to experience a significant mental health problem at any one time (Office for National Statistics), research into effective interventions has never been more important. During the past decade there has been an increasing interest in the role that sport and physical activity can play in the treatment of mental health problems, and in mental health promotion. The benefits resulting from physiological changes during exercise are well documented, including improvement in mood and control of anxiety and depression. Research also suggests that socio-cultural a

  11. Children's Physical Activity Behavior during School Recess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Troelsen, Jens

    2016-01-01

    participated in go-along group interviews, and recess behavior was observed using an ethnographical participant observation approach. All data were analyzed separated systematically answering the Five W Questions. Children were categorized into Low, Middle and High physical activity groups and these groups...... quantitative GPS and accelerometer measurements with qualitative go-along group interviews and participant observations. Data were collected during three weekdays in a public school in Denmark. Eighty-one children (47 girls) wore an accelerometer (ActiGraph GT3X) and GPS (QStarz BT-Q1000xt), sixteen children...

  12. Authorships of habitual bodies dancing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Susanne

    Dance is a mandatory part of physical education in Denmark and in this context imitation and improvisation are often used as if they are to be understood as dichotomies. In this paper I focus on analyzing how the students’ experience of the authorships of their dance-movements – whether improvise...

  13. Expectations Regarding Aging, Physical Activity, and Physical Function in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breda, Aili I.; Watts, Amber S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined how expectations regarding aging (ERA) influence physical activity participation and physical function. Method: We surveyed 148 older adults about their ERA (ERA-38), health-promoting lifestyles (HPLP-II), and self-rated health (RAND-36). We tested the mediating effect of physical activity on the relationships between ERA and physical function. Results: Positive expectations were associated with more engagement in physical activity (B = 0.016, p physical function (B = 0.521, p Physical activity mediated the relationship between ERA and physical function (B = 5.890, p physically active lifestyles in older adults and may influence health outcomes, such as physical function. Future research should evaluate whether attempts to increase physical activity are more successful when modifications to ERA are also targeted. PMID:28491915

  14. Empowering youth sport environments: Implications for daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity and adiposity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally A.M. Fenton

    2017-12-01

    Conclusion: Fostering more empowering youth sport environments may hold implications for the prevention of excess adiposity, through encouraging higher habitual MVPA engagement. Findings may inform the optimal design of youth sport settings for MVPA promotion, and contribute towards associated healthy weight maintenance amongst youth active in this context. Longitudinal and intervention studies are required to confirm these results.

  15. The effects of periodic interruptions of physical activities on the physical capacities of adult active women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Patrícia; Wanderley, Fabio da Silva; Rebelatto, José Rubens

    2009-01-01

    Physical activity programs adapted to the elderly have been proposed with the purpose of minimizing the alterations provoked by aging. These programs usually present break periods of more than 30 days, at least once a year. The aim of this study was to verify if 30-day interruptions cause alterations in the acquisition of physical capacities for senescent women. The study was longitudinal in design, 125 senescent women completed a physical activity program consisting of stretching, aerobic resistance, strength, power and resistance exercises; coordination, agility and flexibility activities; respiratory and relaxation exercises during almost 2 years. Two periods were selected, containing four evaluations with two activities' interruption periods in between the measurements. The main outcome measures were manual pressing strength, flexibility, dynamic balance and physical conditioning (VO2max). During the program there was an increasing tendency for the muscular strength and the VO2max. A significant improvement in flexibility was noted (pprogram, the dynamic balance showed significant difference (pactivities in both studied periods were not enough to significantly alter the values of physical capacities of senescent active women.

  16. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  17. Physical education in schools, sport activity and total physical activity in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Missaki Nakamura

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2013v15n5p517 Less than half of adolescents reach the recommended300 minutes per week of physical activity (PA. Physical educationclasses and sports participation provideopportunities for adolescents to accumulate moretime for PA practice; however, littleis known about the influence of these variables onthe level of total physical activity ofadolescents. The aim of this study was toinvestigate the association between the practiceof physical education (PE in schools and sportsactivities (SA with the practice oftotal PA of adolescents. The study wascross-sectional and involved 467 adolescents ofhigh school (15.8 ± 0.9 years-old from the city ofRio Claro, in the State of São Paulo. Participants completed the Physical ActivityQuestionnaire to Older Children (PAQ-Cand questions related to the practice of PE and SAin schools. We performed a logisticregression with p<0.05 using SPSS. Girls hadlower prevalence of PA than boys, 9.4% and26.8%, respectively. Boys who did not participateof PE classes (OR=0.25, CI95%=0.09-0.66 and SA in schools (OR=0.34, CI95%=0.12-0.95were less likely to be active in PAthan boys who practiced these activities. Theparticipation in PE classes or engagementin some SA were positively associated with thepractice of total PA in boys.

  18. Daily Physical Activity and Life Satisfaction across Adulthood

    OpenAIRE

    Maher, Jaclyn P.; Pincus, Aaron L.; Ram, Nilam; Conroy, David E.

    2015-01-01

    Physical activity is considered a valuable tool for enhancing life satisfaction. However, the processes linking these constructs likely differ across the adult lifespan. In older adults the association between physical activity and life satisfaction appears to involve usual levels of physical activity (i.e., a between-person association driven by differences between more and less active people). In younger adults the association has consistently been based on day-to-day physical activity (i.e...

  19. African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences - Vol 19 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical, Health Education, Recreation and Dance. ... Adiposity and physical activity among children in countries at different stages of the physical ... The world in turmoil: Promotion of peace and international understanding ...

  20. Physical activity in spondyloarthritis: a systematic review

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O’Dwyer, Tom

    2014-10-01

    Physical activity (PA) is associated with numerous health-related benefits among adults with chronic diseases and the general population. As the benefits are dose-dependent, this review aims to establish the PA levels of adults with spondyloarthritis and to compare these to the general population. Electronic databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, EMBASE, MEDLINE\\/PubMed, PEDro, AMED, CINAHL) were systematically searched from inception to May 2014 using medical subject headings and keywords. This was supplemented by searching conference abstracts and hand-searching reference lists of included studies. Eligible studies were randomized controlled trials and observational studies of adults with SpA in which free-living PA or energy expenditure levels were measured. Subjects less than 18 years or with juvenile-onset SpA were excluded. Outcomes included objective and self-report measurements. Two reviewers independently screened studies for inclusion and assessed methodological quality using the Cochrane risk of bias tool and the RTI item bank. From the 2,431 records reviewed, nine studies involving 2,972 participants were included. This review focused on qualitative synthesis. Meta-analyses were not undertaken due to differences in study design, measurement tools, and participant characteristics. This heterogeneity, coupled with the risk of bias inherent in the included observational studies, limits the generalizability of findings. Objective measurements suggest PA levels may be lower among adults with spondyloarthritis than in healthy population controls. Self-reported PA and self-reported rates of adherence to PA recommendations varied largely across studies; higher disease activity was associated with lower self-reported PA levels. Physical activity levels may be lower in adults with axial spondyloarthritis, with higher disease activity associated with lower PA levels.