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Sample records for habitation house disenno

  1. Housing Habits and Their Implications for Life-Cycle Consumption and Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Wagner, Sebastian

    formation for housing consumption, which leads to optimal decisions closer in line with empirical observations. Our model can explain (i) that stock investments are low or zero for many young agents and then gradually increasing over life, (ii) that the housing expenditure share is age- and wealth......We set up and solve a rich life-cycle model of household decisions involving consumption of both perishable goods and housing services, stochastic and unspanned labor income, stochastic house prices, home renting and owning, stock investments, and portfolio constraints. The model features habit......-dependent, (iii) that perishable consumption is more sensitive to wealth and income shocks than housing consumption, and (iv) that non-housing consumption is hump-shaped over life....

  2. Housing Habits and Their Implications for Life-Cycle Consumption and Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Wagner, Sebastian

    formation for housing consumption, which leads to optimal decisions closer in line with empirical observations. Our model can explain (i) that stock investments are low or zero for many young agents and then gradually increasing over life, (ii) that the housing expenditure share is age- and wealth......We set up and solve a rich life-cycle model of household decisions involving consumption of both perishable goods and housing services, stochastic and unspanned labor income, stochastic house prices, home renting and owning, stock investments, and portfolio constraints. The model features habit......-dependent, (iii) that perishable consumption is more sensitive to wealth and income shocks than housing consumption, and (iv) that non-housing consumption is hump-shaped over life....

  3. Housing pattern and food habit of the Mro-tribe community in Bangladesh: A forest dependence perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Shaheed Hossain Chowdhury; Md. Danesh Miah

    2003-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted on the housing pattern and food habit of the Mro tribe in Bandarban region, Bangladesh, highlighting their indigenous knowledge. The study was carried out with respect to three income groups. A total of 36 households (12 from each income groups) were assessed using different participatory appraisals through semi-structured questionnaires. A special type of indigenous knowledge on housing pattern and food habit was explored in the Mro community, which correspond to the severe dependence on forest resources.

  4. Retrofitting of Energy Habitability in Social Housing: A Case Study in a Mediterranean Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Fernández-Agüera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of the residential sector in Spain is obsolete, with inadequate conditions of comfort and high energy consumption. For this reason most of the potential for improving energy efficiency lies in the existing residential sector, which requires upgrading to meet the quantitative and qualitative changes required at present. This study of specific cases aimed at establishing general criteria for action has been prompted by the difficulty in proposing general intervention strategies. This paper presents a case study for the energy retrofit of 68 social housing units in Cordoba (Spain evaluating their energy consumption, with a view to improving the building’s energy balance and indoor thermal comfort, on which user comfort depends.

  5. Des habitations à bon marché au Việt Nam. La question du logement social en situation coloniale Public Housing Projects in Việt Nam: the Problem of Habitation in a Colonial Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Herbelin

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La crise du logement dans les grandes villes du Việt Nam est récurrente pendant toute la colonisation. Elle touche les Européens, mais surtout les populations locales qui vivent en majorité dans des habitats précaires. A partir des années 1920, face à l’ampleur de la situation, le gouvernement général décide d’adapter dans la colonie les récentes lois françaises en faveur du logement social. Si quelques prototypes d’habitations à bon marché vont être mis en place par la municipalité de Hanoi dans les années 1930, ce n’est que dans les années 1950, pour répondre à la crise sociale que les politiques de logement vont commencer à être significatives. Entre inertie et projets enthousiastes, les politiques de logement révèlent les contradictions du système colonial face à un problème aussi crucial que complexe, mettant en jeu différents acteurs à différents niveaux : le gouvernement général d’Indochine, la résidence supérieure du Tonkin, les municipalités, les associations privées et dans une moindre mesure les sociétés de construction. Du point de vue architectural, les projets mis en place sont des créations hybrides qui montrent une volonté manifeste de s’adapter au style de vie vietnamien.During the colonial period, the main cities of Việt Nam periodically experienced social housing crises. While Europeans did not remain immune from the consequences of a lack of adequate housing, local populations, who constituted the majority in these makeshift constructs, were most deeply affected. Beginning in the 1920s, faced with the urgency of this problem, the general government sought to adapt contemporaneous French laws in favor of social housing to the local colonial situation. Even though some prototypes of affordable housing were constructed by the Hanoi municipality in the 1930s, it was only in the 1950s that government efforts began to have a significant impact. The politics of housing, and

  6. Habitability in large cities of Andalusia. Housing neighborhood / La habitabilidad en las ciudades de Andalucía: Del barrio a la vivienda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Egea Jiménez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This article is based on the approach of the Right to the City and the concept of habitability and research is part of the living conditions of disadvantaged people. cartographic-social analysis in Andalusia. The aim is to analyze the living conditions of the population in the provincial capitals of Andalusia (Spain in two space areas: one nearest, neighborhood; and another more intimate, housing. The results lead one to think that the traits that characterize the habitability level of these elds is full of nuances, so that generalizations are not always “at hand”, but if there is a relationship between the spatial location and levels greater than or lower socio-housing disadvantage. Este artículo se apoya en el enfoque del Derecho a la Ciudad y en el concepto de habitabilidad y se enmarca en la investigación Condiciones de habitabilidad de la población desfavorecida. Análisis cartográfico-social en Andalucía. El objeto es analizar las condiciones de vida de la población en las capitales de provincia de Andalucía (España en dos ámbitos espaciales: uno más próximo, el barrio; y otro más íntimo, la vivienda. Los resultados conducen a pensar que los rasgos que caracterizan el nivel habitabilidad de estos ámbitos está lleno de matices, de manera que las generalizaciones no siempre están “a la mano”, pero si hay una relación entre la ubicación espacial y los niveles de mayor o menor desventaja socio-habitacional.

  7. Health Complaints Associated with Poor Rental Housing Conditions in Arkansas: The Only State Without a Landlord’s Implied Warranty of Habitability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bachelder

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Arkansas is the only U.S. state that does not have a landlord’s implied warranty of habitability, meaning tenants have a requirement for maintaining their rental properties at certain habitability standards, but landlords are not legally required to contribute to those minimum health and safety standards. This project assessed the possibility that this lack of landlord responsibility affects tenants’ perceived health. Using surveys and interviews, we collected self-reported data on the prevalence and description of problems faced by renters who needed household repairs from their landlords. Of almost 1000 renters, one third of them had experienced a problem with their landlord making needed repairs; and one-quarter of those had a health issue they attributed to their housing conditions. Common issues included problems with plumbing, heating or cooling systems, and pest or rodent control. Reported health problems included elevated stress levels, breathing problems, headaches, high blood pressure and bites or infections. Hispanic respondents and those with less than a high school education were both significantly more likely to report problems with their landlords not making repairs as requested. The data suggest that the lack of landlord requirements may negatively impact the condition of rental properties, and therefore may negatively impact the health of Arkansas renters.

  8. Damage caused to houses and equipment by underground nuclear explosions; Degats dus aux explosions nucleaires souterraines sur les habitations et les equipements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delort, F.; Guerrini, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France). Centre d' Etudes

    1969-07-01

    A description is given of the damaged caused to various structures, buildings, houses, mechanical equipment and electrical equipment by underground nuclear explosions in granite. For each type of equipment or building are given the limiting distances for a given degree of damage. These distances have been related to a parameter characterizing the movement of the medium; it is thus possible to generalize the results obtained in granite, for different media. The problem of estimating the damage caused at a greater distance from the explosion is considered. (authors) [French] Les degats sur diverses structures, constructions, habitations, equipements mecaniques et materiels electriques provoques par des explosions nucleaires souterraines dans le granite sont decrits. On a indique pour chaque type de materiel ou de construction, les distances limites correspondant a un degre de gravite de dommage observe. Ces distances ont ete reliees a un parametre caracterisant le mouvement du milieu, permettant ainsi de generaliser les resultats obtenus dans le granite, a differents milieux. Le probleme de la prevision des degats en zone lointaine a ete aborde. (auteurs)

  9. Habitability, energy and environment: a holistic proposal for housing in Mexico; Habitabilidad, energia y medioambiente: una propuesta holistica para la vivienda en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triana Espinosa, J. A. [ATPAE (Mexico); Montes Jimenez, J. C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper emphasizes the indivisibly dynamic interrelationship among the energy concepts, ecology, economy, comfort and well-being that must be considered while integrally evaluating the housing cost. It points out the importance of incorporating the ecological accountability into the conventional economy studies to quantify the energetic and the ecological costs of the construction materials employed, the environmental conditioning and the buildings` maintenance, performing a life cycle analysis on the real estate and the component materials. It is proposed the immediate and radical change of mentality of the promoters, designers, constructors, salesmen, buyers and dwellers towards the incorporation of criteria that, above all, have in mind the peoples` dignity granting the housing the quality of habitability. Through the art and the science ecological design, particularly with the bioclimatic approach it proposes to take advantage, utilize and obtain the benefits of the geographical and climatological characteristics of the region. With the same design criteria, it promotes the utilization of the construction materials available in the region, non contaminant, of low energetic intensity and appropriate thermal inertia, suitable for the environment in consideration, always towards more and more reusable, recyclable and biodegradable materials. It is recommended that the future designs tend to the bio-harmonic concept of housing, considering that this has as primary and final objective the person`s integral well-being in the physical, psychic and spiritual aspects; that provide him with a healthy environment that favors his development in harmony with the environment. It insists in the respect and recognition of the ancestral construction techniques which admit that man is a part of a macrocosms with whom it must interact holistically. Some indicators or parameters are proposed for the energetic, ecological, economic, and social evaluation of the housing quality

  10. Habitability, energy and environment: a holistic proposal for housing in Mexico; Habitabilidad, energia y medioambiente: una propuesta holistica para la vivienda en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triana Espinosa, J. A. [ATPAE (Mexico); Montes Jimenez, J. C. [Comision Federal de Electricidad (Mexico)

    1997-12-31

    This paper emphasizes the indivisibly dynamic interrelationship among the energy concepts, ecology, economy, comfort and well-being that must be considered while integrally evaluating the housing cost. It points out the importance of incorporating the ecological accountability into the conventional economy studies to quantify the energetic and the ecological costs of the construction materials employed, the environmental conditioning and the buildings` maintenance, performing a life cycle analysis on the real estate and the component materials. It is proposed the immediate and radical change of mentality of the promoters, designers, constructors, salesmen, buyers and dwellers towards the incorporation of criteria that, above all, have in mind the peoples` dignity granting the housing the quality of habitability. Through the art and the science ecological design, particularly with the bioclimatic approach it proposes to take advantage, utilize and obtain the benefits of the geographical and climatological characteristics of the region. With the same design criteria, it promotes the utilization of the construction materials available in the region, non contaminant, of low energetic intensity and appropriate thermal inertia, suitable for the environment in consideration, always towards more and more reusable, recyclable and biodegradable materials. It is recommended that the future designs tend to the bio-harmonic concept of housing, considering that this has as primary and final objective the person`s integral well-being in the physical, psychic and spiritual aspects; that provide him with a healthy environment that favors his development in harmony with the environment. It insists in the respect and recognition of the ancestral construction techniques which admit that man is a part of a macrocosms with whom it must interact holistically. Some indicators or parameters are proposed for the energetic, ecological, economic, and social evaluation of the housing quality

  11. Innovative housing '93, proceedings. Volume 1: Technology innovations. L'habitation a la fine pointe '93, comptes rendus. Tome 1: Innovations technologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A conference was held to create an international forum for the promotion of more energy-efficient and environmentally responsible housing. Papers were presented on energy efficient housing technology, environmental impacts of energy efficient housing, electrical energy efficiency, advanced building envelopes, advanced mechanical systems, and indoor environmental control. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 38 papers from this compendium.

  12. Habitability of the population in housing and cities in Europe and Latin America / Habitabilidad de la población en viviendas y ciudades de Europa y América Latina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Sánchez González

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Habitability is essential reason for architecture and urbanism. Despite concerns about the living space, the current reality of housing design and urban areas is far from achieving that long-awaited end, and is relegated to an accessory, superfluous and consumer term. In this paper some research that address theoretical and methodological of this subject are synthesized. La habitabilidad es razón esencial de la arquitectura y el urbanismo. A pesar de la preocupación por el espacio habitable, la realidad actual del diseño de viviendas y espacios urbanos dista mucho de alcanzar ese fin ansiado, y queda relegado a un término accesorio, superfluo y de consumo. En este texto se sintetizan algunas investigaciones que abordan de forma teórica y metodológica esta temática.

  13. Innovative housing '93, proceedings. Volume 3: Applications and demonstrations. L'habitation a la fine pointe '93, comptes rendus. Tome 3: Applications et demonstrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A conference was held with the objective of creating an international forum for the promotion of more energy efficient and environmentally responsible housing. A compilation is presented of papers presented at the conference stream dedicated to applications and demonstrations. Topics of the papers included international low-rise demonstration projects, healthy housing and advanced houses, multi-storey applications, industrialized building systems, and applications in cold and hot climates. Specific innovations included use of solar heating, recycled materials, high levels of thermal insulation, renewable energies, high-efficiency windows, and advanced structural components. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 34 papers from this compendium.

  14. Habitable Trinity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James M. Dohm

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N, an ocean (H and O, and a landmass (supplier of nutrients accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  15. Habitable Trinity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    James M. Dohm; Shigenori Maruyama

    2015-01-01

    Habitable Trinity is a newly proposed concept of a habitable environment. This concept indicates that the coexistence of an atmosphere (consisting largely of C and N), an ocean (H and O), and a landmass (supplier of nutrients) accompanying continuous material circulation between these three components driven by the Sun is one of the minimum requirements for life to emerge and evolve. The life body consists of C, O, H, N and other various nutrients, and therefore, the presence of water, only, is not a sufficient condition. Habitable Trinity environment must be maintained to supply necessary components for life body. Our Habitable Trinity concept can also be applied to other planets and moons such as Mars, Europa, Titan, and even exoplanets as a useful index in the quest for life-containing planetary bodies.

  16. LA VIGA HUECA HABITABLE Y OTRAS EXPERIENCIAS DE PREFABRICACIÓN EN VIVIENDA DE GO–DB / The habitable box beam and other housing prefabrication experiences in GO-DB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Cortina Maruenda

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available RESUMEN En los albores de la industria aplicada a la arquitectura en España, el estudio GO-DB Arquitectos Asociados, realizó 8 viviendas experimentales (1967-1969 como cierre a una primera etapa de investigación propia. Inspiradas en las dovelas de los puentes de hormigón prefabricado, haciendo suya la idea de Le Corbusier de que los ingenieros construyen en su tiempo, realizaron una serie de ensayos que concluyó con las 8 viviendas que protagonizan este artículo. Con un presupuesto muy ajustado consiguieron realizar una pequeña factoría "in situ" para por medio de una cadena de montaje, producir los Elementos Modulares que bajo el concepto de la Viga Hueca Habitable conformarían cada una de las viviendas. Cada cinco horas se podía montar una vivienda de diez módulos, casi como aparcar coches o hacer una construcción con los bloques de madera de arce de Froebel a los que Wright fue tan aficionado. Este artículo, explicará además, basándose en las publicaciones y escritos del propio estudio, cual fue el proceso y las ideas teóricas que sustentaron este proyecto que abonó el campo para posteriores investigaciones en prefabricación. SUMMARY At the dawn of the industry applied to architecture in Spain, the studio of GO-DB Associated Architects constructed eight experimental dwellings (1967-1969 as the finalization of a first stage of their research. Inspired by the sections of precast concrete bridges, adopting the idea of Le Corbusier that engineers built in his era, the studio completed a series of trials that ended with the eight dwellings featured in this article.With a very tight budget they made a small "in-situ" factory which, by means of an assembly line, produced the Modular Elements that, under the concept of The Habitable Box Beam, made up each of the homes. A dwelling of ten modules could be assembled every five hours, almost like parking cars or making a construction with the Froebel maple blocks so beloved by Wright

  17. Innovative housing '93, proceedings. Volume 4: Programs. L'habitation a la fine pointe '93, comptes rendus. Tome 4: Programmes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A conference was held to create an international forum for the promotion of more energy-efficient and environmentally responsible housing and for an exchange of ideas among researchers, planners, designers, builders, and program managers. A compilation is presented of papers presented at the conference in the category of energy efficiency programs, describing technology transfer and education programs, implementation of standards, demand side management and retrofit programs, R-2000 and other energy-efficient construction programs, and international research and development programs. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 39 papers from this compilation.

  18. Habit persistence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinther Møller, Stig

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses an iterated GMM approach to estimate and test the consumption based habit persistence model of Campbell and Cochrane (1999) on the US stock market. The empirical evidence shows that the model is able to explain the size premium, but fails to explain the value premium. Further...

  19. Exoplanet habitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet's surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  20. Exoplanet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seager, Sara

    2013-05-01

    The search for exoplanets includes the promise to eventually find and identify habitable worlds. The thousands of known exoplanets and planet candidates are extremely diverse in terms of their masses or sizes, orbits, and host star type. The diversity extends to new kinds of planets, which are very common yet have no solar system counterparts. Even with the requirement that a planet’s surface temperature must be compatible with liquid water (because all life on Earth requires liquid water), a new emerging view is that planets very different from Earth may have the right conditions for life. The broadened possibilities will increase the future chances of discovering an inhabited world.

  1. El dispositivo habitable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Roche, P. M.

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains the main concepts supporting the project "Habitar el Dispositivo" which was awarded a prize in the International Competition "25 Bioclimatical Houses" promoted by the "Instituto Tecnológico de Energías Renovables of Tenerife " and organized by the "Colegio de Arquitectos de Canarias" and sponsored by the "International Union of Architects". As opposed to bioclimatical houses which are the result of adding bioclimatical devices to an architectural project, the integration of bioclimatical and architectural concepts in a livable device is proposed. A digital model of the project was built to analyze sunlight and shadow behavior and computer simulations permitted to determine thermal performance. Average thermal satisfaction was 89.75 % during typical summer and winter 24 hour periods.

    Se presentan los conceptos fundamentales que respaldan la propuesta "Habitar el Dispositivo", premiada en el Concurso Internacional "25 Viviendas Bioclimáticas" promovido por el "Instituto Tecnológico de Energías Renovables del Cabildo de Tenerife", organizado por el "Colegio de Arquitectos de Canarias" y homologado por la "Unión Internacional de Arquitectos". Al contrario de la solución de añadir dispositivos a un proyecto de arquitectura, la propuesta integra conceptos bioclimáticos y arquitectónicos en un dispositivo habitable. Un modelo digital de la edificación permitió estudiar su volumetría y soleamiento en diferentes períodos del año, mientras que su comportamiento térmico se analizó con un programa de simulación en régimen dinámico. El promedio de personas satisfechas en días típicos de verano e invierno fue del 89,75 %.

  2. Psychology of Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Rünger, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    As the proverbial creatures of habit, people tend to repeat the same behaviors in recurring contexts. This review characterizes habits in terms of their cognitive, motivational, and neurobiological properties. In so doing, we identify three ways that habits interface with deliberate goal pursuit: First, habits form as people pursue goals by repeating the same responses in a given context. Second, as outlined in computational models, habits and deliberate goal pursuit guide actions synergistically, although habits are the efficient, default mode of response. Third, people tend to infer from the frequency of habit performance that the behavior must have been intended. We conclude by applying insights from habit research to understand stress and addiction as well as the design of effective interventions to change health and consumer behaviors.

  3. Healthy Sleep Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Sleep Apnea Testing CPAP Healthy Sleep Habits Healthy Sleep Habits Your behaviors during the day, and especially ... team at an AASM accredited sleep center . Quick Sleep Tips Follow these tips to establish healthy sleep ...

  4. Hot house bad house

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Shaun Azzopardi met up with a team of researchers led by Eur. Ing. Charles Yousif to take the concrete block to the next level. It is more exciting than it sounds. Photography by Dr Edward Duca. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/hot-house-bad-house/

  5. Evolution of galaxy habitability

    OpenAIRE

    Gobat, R.; Hong, S. E.

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, and how it evolves with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone (known as habitability) depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type...

  6. On the Habitability of Aquaplanets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando Cardenas

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available An Aquatic Habitability Index is proposed, based on Quantitative Habitability Theory, and considering a very general model for life. It is a primary habitability index, measuring habitability for phytoplankton in the first place. The index is applied to some case studies, such as the habitability changes in Earth due to environmental perturbations caused by asteroid impacts.

  7. Teenagers Media Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Laurence R.

    This study attempted to determine what media most effectively communicated to teenagers, how the media habits of Florida teenagers compared with those in other states, and how the media habits of journalism students compared with those not in journalism. A total of 430 students from Florida high schools and 457 from high schools in other states…

  8. Physical characterization of the short-lived radon 222 derivatives in a house: comparison between model and the experiment; Caracterisation physique des derives a vie courte du Radon-222 dans une habitation: comparaison modele-experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huet, C.; Tymen, G. [Universite de Bretagne Occidentale, Lab. de Recherches Appliquees Atmosphere, 29 - Brest (France); Michielsen, N.; Boulaud, D. [CEA/Saclay, Inst. de Protection et de Surete Nucleaire, IPSN/DPEA/SERAC, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2000-07-01

    The radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas coming from the uranium 238 channel. It is present in soils and building materials. After exhalation it produces derivatives which may stick to the aerosols of the ambient air and be inhaled by the human. To understand this gas behavior in a house, two methods are possible: the in situ measurements and the physical phenomena simulation. The authors compare both possibilities. (A.L.B.)

  9. Changing circumstances, disrupting habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Witt, Melissa Guerrero; Tam, Leona

    2005-06-01

    The present research investigated the mechanisms guiding habitual behavior, specifically, the stimulus cues that trigger habit performance. When usual contexts for performance change, habits cannot be cued by recurring stimuli, and performance should be disrupted. Thus, the exercising, newspaper reading, and TV watching habits of students transferring to a new university were found to survive the transfer only when aspects of the performance context did not change (e.g., participants continued to read the paper with others). In some cases, the disruption in habits also placed behavior under intentional control so that participants acted on their current intentions. Changes in circumstances also affected the favorability of intentions, but changes in intentions alone could not explain the disruption of habits. Furthermore, regardless of whether contexts changed, nonhabitual behavior was guided by intentions.

  10. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  11. Innovative housing '93, proceedings. Volume 2: Planning and design innovations. L'habitation a la fine pointe '93, comptes rendus. Tome 2: Innovations en planification et conception

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    A conference was held to create an international forum for the promotion of more energy-efficient and environmentally responsible housing. At the conference session focusing on planning and design innovations, papers were presented on ecosystem approaches to cities, sustainable community planning, district heating and cogeneration potential, regional and urban energy management, energy efficient communities, passive solar design, innovative unit and site design, regulatory and policy approaches, standards, life cycle costing, building codes for promoting energy efficiency, and examples of innovative planning. Separate abstracts have been prepared for 14 papers from this conference session.

  12. Etiology of oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayardo, R E; Mejia, J J; Orozco, S; Montoya, K

    1996-01-01

    The pedodontic admission histories of 1600 Mexican children were analyzed, to determine general epidemiologic factors or oral habits, as well as their relationship with identifiable biopsychosociologic factors. Fifty-six percent of the children gave evidence of an oral habit, with significant predisposition among female patients, single children, subjects in poor physical health (particularly from allergies), as well as children with histories of chronic health problems. Oral habits should be considered a major health hazard because of their high incidence. Successful treatment requires a multidisciplinary approach to the basic cause of the problem.

  13. Housing Assistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma Baker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In Australia, an increasing number of households face problems of access to suitable housing in the private market. In response, the Federal and State Governments share responsibility for providing housing assistance to these, mainly low-income, households. A broad range of policy instruments are used to provide and maintain housing assistance across all housing tenures, for example, assisting entry into homeownership, providing affordability assistance in the private rental market, and the provision of socially owned and managed housing options. Underlying each of these interventions is the premise that secure, affordable, and appropriate housing provides not only shelter but also a number of nonshelter benefits to individuals and their households. Although the nonshelter outcomes of housing are well acknowledged in Australia, the understanding of the nonshelter outcomes of housing assistance is less clear. This paper explores nonshelter outcomes of three of the major forms of housing assistance provided by Australian governments—low-income mortgage assistance, social housing, and private rent assistance. It is based upon analysis of a survey of 1,353 low-income recipients of housing assistance, and specifically measures the formulation of health and well-being, financial stress, and housing satisfaction outcomes across these three assistance types. We find clear evidence that health, finance, and housing satisfaction outcomes are associated with quite different factors for individuals in these three major housing assistance types.

  14. Your Child's Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as before falling to sleep or quietly listening to music. Some habits may be leftovers from ... THIS TOPIC First Aid: Nosebleeds Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Teaching Your Child Self-Control Temper Tantrums How Can ...

  15. Habitability: CAMELOT 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alequin, W.; Barragan, A.; Carro, M.; Garcia, F.; Gonzalez, I.; Mercado, J. A.; Negron, N.; Lopez, D.; Rivera, L. A.; Rivera, M.

    1990-01-01

    During 1988 to 1989 the NASA/USRA Advanced Design Program sponsored research and design efforts aimed at developing habitability criteria and at defining a habitability concept as a useful tool in understanding and evaluating dwellings for prolonged stays in extraterrestrial space. The Circulating Auto sufficient Mars-Earth Luxurious Orbital Transport (CAMELOT) was studied as a case in which the students would try to enhance the quality of life of the inhabitants by applying architectural design methodology. The study proposed 14 habitability criteria considered necessary to fulfill the defined habitability concept, which is that state of equilibrium that results from the interaction between components of the Individual Architecture Mission Complex, which allows a person to sustain physiological homeostatis, adequate performance, and acceptable social relationships. Architecture, design development, refinements and revisions to improve the quality of life, new insights on artificial gravity, form and constitution problems, and the final design concept are covered.

  16. Damaging oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results.

  17. Food Habits Database (FHDBS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NEFSC Food Habits Database has two major sources of data. The first, and most extensive, is the standard NEFSC Bottom Trawl Surveys Program. During these...

  18. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  19. Consumption Habits and Humps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus; Seifried, Frank Thomas

    2017-01-01

    We show that the optimal consumption of an individual over the life cycle can have the hump shape (inverted U-shape) observed empirically if the preferences of the individual exhibit internal habit formation. In the absence of habit formation, an impatient individual would prefer a decreasing...... consumption path over life. However, because of habit formation, a high initial consumption would lead to high required consumption in the future. To cover the future required consumption, wealth is set aside, but the necessary amount decreases with age which allows consumption to increase in the early part...... of life. At some age, the impatience outweighs the habit concerns so that consumption starts to decrease. We derive the optimal consumption strategy in closed form, deduce sufficient conditions for the presence of a consumption hump, and characterize the age at which the hump occurs. Numerical examples...

  20. High on habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica R. F Hilário

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The neural circuits involved in learning and executing goal-directed actions, which are governed by action-outcome contingencies and sensitive to changes in the expected value of the outcome, have been shown to be different from those mediating habits, which are less dependent on action-outcome relations and changes in outcome value. Extended training, different reinforcement schedules, and substances of abuse have been shown to induce a shift from goal-directed performance to habitual performance. This shift can be beneficial in everyday life, but can also lead to loss of voluntary control and compulsive behavior, namely during drug seeking in addiction. Although the brain circuits underlying habit formation are becoming clearer, the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation are still not understood. Here, we review a recent study where Hilario et al. established behavioral procedures to investigate habit formation in mice in order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying habit formation. Using those procedures, and a combination of genetic and pharmacological tools, the authors showed that endocannabinoid signaling is critical for habit formation.

  1. Adhoco - a remote-control system that permits the reduction of energy consumption in housing; Adhoco - Systeme de domotique sans-fil autoadaptif permettant une reduction importante de la consommation energetique dans les habitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillemin, A.; Schumann, T.

    2006-07-01

    This final report published by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) reports on a pilot project which tested an automatic control system for houses and apartments which was to make large energy savings possible by the use of an adaptive system. This system was installed in two apartments. The resulting savings of approximately 25% for heating energy and between 30% and 60% for artificial lighting are discussed. These figures are reported to be close to those obtained in a recent reference implementation (conducted in 2003 at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne) which looked at the situation in offices. The electrical consumption necessary for the operation of the system is looked at and compared with amount of energy saved. Further advantages of the system, including increased comfort and safety, support for elderly people, and the provision of remote control functions, are examined and commented on.

  2. Modelling and experimental study of the behavior of radon and radon decay products in an enclosure. Application to houses; Modelisation et etude experimentale du comportement du radon et de ses descendants dans une enceinte confinee. Application a une habitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouronnec, A.M.

    1995-02-03

    Since the eighties, more and more studies were performed about radon and its decay products in houses with one of the aim being the estimation of the dose received by their inhabitants. Then, the principal objective of this work is to describe the behaviour of radon and its decay products within a dwelling. In the first part to the report, a few definitions are given and data from literature give an idea of indoor radon and radon decay products activities and/or size distribution. Aspects of dosimetry are presented too. In the second part of the work, a mathematical model, called `PRADDO` of Physic of Radon and radon Decay products in Domestic environment is developed on the basis of the classical model written by Jacobi in 1972. On the one hand, it has to predict radon decay products activities in systems consisting in one or more enclosure(s), from radon activity and from ambient aerosol concentration and size distribution. On the other hand, one part of the model is assigned to study the influence of the entry model parameters variation on the calculated quantities. Then, in the third part of the work, two experimental studies are realised in order to compare measurements to modelization. The first experimentation is a laboratory work, made on the test bench ICARE from IPSN, and the second one consists in describing the basement of an occupied house from Brittany. In the two cases, the comparison between experiments and modelling shows a good agreement if particles are present in the air, but any conclusion is made when is no aerosol in the enclosure. (author). 158 refs., 81 figs., 42 tabs.

  3. Age aspects of habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safonova, M.; Murthy, J.; Shchekinov, Yu. A.

    2016-04-01

    A `habitable zone' of a star is defined as a range of orbits within which a rocky planet can support liquid water on its surface. The most intriguing question driving the search for habitable planets is whether they host life. But is the age of the planet important for its habitability? If we define habitability as the ability of a planet to beget life, then probably it is not. After all, life on Earth has developed within only ~800 Myr after its formation - the carbon isotope change detected in the oldest rocks indicates the existence of already active life at least 3.8 Gyr ago. If, however, we define habitability as our ability to detect life on the surface of exoplanets, then age becomes a crucial parameter. Only after life had evolved sufficiently complex to change its environment on a planetary scale, can we detect it remotely through its imprint on the atmosphere - the so-called biosignatures, out of which the photosynthetic oxygen is the most prominent indicator of developed (complex) life as we know it. Thus, photosynthesis is a powerful biogenic engine that is known to have changed our planet's global atmospheric properties. The importance of planetary age for the detectability of life as we know it follows from the fact that this primary process, photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones, and is sensitive to the particular thermal conditions of the planet. Therefore, the onset of photosynthesis on planets in habitable zones may take much longer time than the planetary age. The knowledge of the age of a planet is necessary for developing a strategy to search for exoplanets carrying complex (developed) life - many confirmed potentially habitable planets are too young (orbiting Population I stars) and may not have had enough time to develop and/or sustain detectable life. In the last decade, many planets orbiting old (9-13 Gyr) metal-poor Population II stars have been discovered. Such planets had had

  4. Narrowing the definition of "dwelling" under the Fair Housing Act

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wong, Karen

    2009-01-01

    .... Courts have applied the Fair Housing Act to any residence--defined by one court as "a temporary or permanent dwelling place, abode or habitation to which one intends to return as distinguished...

  5. Changing your sleep habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects they may have on your sleep. Find ways to manage stress. Learn about relaxation techniques, such as guided imagery, listening to music, or practicing yoga or meditation. Listen to your body when it tells you to slow down or take a break. Change Your Bedtime Habits Your bed is for sleeping. ...

  6. FIRST HABITABLE PLANET DISCOVEREO

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    20 light years away from our solar system, there is a planet called "Gliese 581d" which has conditions that could support Earth-like life, including possible oceans and rainfall. On May. 19, 20l 1, the planet has been the first to be officially declared habitable by French scientists.

  7. Car-use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Berit Thorup; Thøgersen, John

    2008-01-01

    It is often claimed that many drivers use their private car rather habitually. The claim gains credibility from the fact that travelling to many everyday destinations fulfils all the prerequisites for habit formation: it is recurring, performed under stable circumstances and produces rewarding co...

  8. Healthy habits for weight loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000733.htm Healthy habits for weight loss To use the sharing features on this page, ... to think about it. People who succeed at weight loss, turn healthy eating into a habit. These healthy ...

  9. American Houses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张梦华

    2004-01-01

    American houses usually have private kitchens,a living room and sometimes separate areas for eating and watching television,A house usually has its own mailbox,a yard with plants or perhaps a lawn,and a place to store garbage out of sight.

  10. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  11. The Habitable Zone Gallery

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, Stephen R

    2012-01-01

    The Habitable Zone Gallery (www.hzgallery.org) is a new service to the exoplanet community which provides Habitable Zone (HZ) information for each of the exoplanetary systems with known planetary orbital parameters. The service includes a sortable table with information on the percentage of orbital phase spent within the HZ, planetary effective temperatures, and other basic planetary properties. In addition to the table, we also plot the period and eccentricity of the planets with respect to their time spent in the HZ. The service includes a gallery of known systems which plot the orbits and the location of the HZ with respect to those orbits. Also provided are animations which aid in orbit visualization and provide the changing effective temperature for those planets in eccentric orbits. Here we describe the science motivation, the under-lying calculations, and the structure of the web site.

  12. Pathways Towards Habitable Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Kipping, David M; Campanella, Giammarco; Schneider, Jean; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2009-01-01

    The search for life outside of the Solar System should not be restricted to exclusively planetary bodies; large moons of extrasolar planets may also be common habitable environments throughout the Galaxy. Extrasolar moons, or exomoons, may be detected through transit timing effects induced onto the host planet as a result of mutual gravitational interaction. In particular, transit timing variations (TTV) and transit duration variations (TDV) are predicted to produce a unique exomoon signature, which is not only easily distinguished from other gravitational perturbations, but also provides both the period and mass of an exomoon. Using these timing effects, photometry greater or equal to that of the Kepler Mission is readily able to detect habitable-zone exomoons down to 0.2 Earth masses and could survey up to 25,000 stars for 1 Earth-mass satellites. We discuss future possibilities for spectral retrieval of such bodies and show that transmission spectroscopy with JWST should be able to detect molecular species...

  13. Effective Physics Study Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettili, Nouredine

    2011-04-01

    We discuss the methods of efficient study habits and how they can be used by students to help them improve learning physics. In particular, we deal with ideas pertaining to the most effective techniques needed to help students improve their physics study skills. These ideas were developed as part of Project IMPACTSEED (IMproving Physics And Chemistry Teaching in SEcondary Education), an outreach grant funded by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education. This project is motivated by a major pressing local need: A large number of high school physics teachers teach out of field. In the presentation, focus on topics such as the skills of how to develop long term memory, how to improve concentration power, how to take class notes, how to prepare for and take exams, how to study scientific subjects such as physics. We argue that the student who conscientiously uses the methods of efficient study habits will be able to achieve higher results than the student who does not; moreover, a student equipped with the proper study skills will spend much less time to learn a subject than a student who has no good study habits. The underlying issue here is not the quantity of time allocated to the study efforts by the student, but the efficiency and quality of actions. This work is supported by the Alabama Commission on Higher Education as part of IMPACTSEED grant.

  14. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  15. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Strong Again Rebuilding America’s Infrastructure Repeal and Replace Obamacare Standing Up For Our Law Enforcement Community Trade ... People Petitions Contact the White House Get Involved Obamacare: Share Your Story Getting Americans Back to Work ...

  16. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  17. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  18. Computer codes for evaluation of control room habitability (HABIT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stage, S.A. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)

    1996-06-01

    This report describes the Computer Codes for Evaluation of Control Room Habitability (HABIT). HABIT is a package of computer codes designed to be used for the evaluation of control room habitability in the event of an accidental release of toxic chemicals or radioactive materials. Given information about the design of a nuclear power plant, a scenario for the release of toxic chemicals or radionuclides, and information about the air flows and protection systems of the control room, HABIT can be used to estimate the chemical exposure or radiological dose to control room personnel. HABIT is an integrated package of several programs that previously needed to be run separately and required considerable user intervention. This report discusses the theoretical basis and physical assumptions made by each of the modules in HABIT and gives detailed information about the data entry windows. Sample runs are given for each of the modules. A brief section of programming notes is included. A set of computer disks will accompany this report if the report is ordered from the Energy Science and Technology Software Center. The disks contain the files needed to run HABIT on a personal computer running DOS. Source codes for the various HABIT routines are on the disks. Also included are input and output files for three demonstration runs.

  19. SMEs’ Purchasing Habits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre S. Ozmen

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Although micro companies overpower the small and medium enterprise (SME segment, generalizations are often with medium size companies, and therefore, there are many unknowns, especially when it comes to its buying behavior. Conformist studies and industry practices assume SMEs to be “normative” or “conservative” buyers; however, this hypothesis is untested. This article aims to scrutinize the reality, and proposes a unified model that rejects pre-containerization in buying behavior typologies, as well as selectiveness in terms of audience type, whether it is corporate, SME, or consumer. While replacing researchers’ perceptions with the audience’s, the model yields actual knowledge that can lead to audience’s beliefs in lieu of the opposite, which is used to mislead stakeholders. The study shows that SMEs also buy like individuals and spend in a similar way to consumers’, including not only “normative” and “conservative” but also “negligent” and “impulse” zones. From the research-implications perspective, future studies by behaviorists can explore why SMEs purchase in this way. Marketers may benefit from the finding that SMEs buy like individuals. In addition, SMEs may want to be conscious of their purchasing habits, and—utilizing the newly introduced “risk score” frontier—policymakers should assess the consequences of these habits at the macro level.

  20. Circumbinary Habitability Niches

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, Paul A; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo A; Clark, Joni M

    2014-01-01

    Binaries could provide the best niches for life in the galaxy. Though counterintuitive, this assertion follows directly from stellar tidal interaction theory and the evolution of lower mass stars. There is strong evidence that chromospheric activity of rapidly rotating young stars may be high enough to cause mass loss from atmospheres of potentially habitable planets. The removal of atmospheric water is most critical. Tidal breaking in binaries could help reduce magnetic dynamo action and thereby chromospheric activity in favor of life. We call this the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM), that we suggest allows for water retention at levels comparable to or better than Earth. We discuss novel advantages that life may exploit, in these cases, and suggest that life may even thrive on some circumbinary planets. We find that while many binaries do not benefit from BHM, high quality niches do exist for various combinations of stars between 0.55 and 1.0 solar masses. For a given pair of stellar masses, BHM operate...

  1. Habitable planet finder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditto, Thomas D.

    2012-09-01

    A notional space telescope configuration is presented that addresses issues of angular resolution, spectral bandwidth and rejection of host star glare by means of a double dispersion architecture. The telescope resolves angle by wavelength. In an earlier embodiment for surveys, a primary objective grating telescope architecture was shown to acquire millions of objects in one observation cycle, one wave length at a time. The proposed HPF can detect exquisite spectral signatures out of millions of wavelengths in albedos - one exoplanetary system at a time. Like its predecessor, the new HPF telescope has a ribbon-shaped flat gossamer membrane primary objective that lends itself to space deployment, but the preferred embodiment uses a holographic optical element rather than a plane grating. The HOE provides an improvement in efficiency at select wavelength bands. The considerable length of the membrane can be in the 100 meter class providing angular resolution sufficient to resolve planets in the habitable zone and also spectral resolution sufficient to earmark habitability. A novel interferometric secondary spectrograph rejects host star glare. However, the architecture cannot disambiguate multiple stellar sources and may require unprecedented focal lengths in the primary objective to isolate one system at a time.

  2. Habit and context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Jaeger, S. R.

    Although research into contextual influences on food/beverage choices is increasing, limited knowledge exists about the relative impact context variables and to which degree these factors interact with each other. Habit is also acknowledged as being important in shaping food/beverage choices......, but like the influence of context, quantification of its importance is lacking. To contribute to a closing of this gap, we analyse food dairy data from 100+ New Zealand consumers quantitatively with a variance component analysis. Food diaries, recording the eating occasion, beverages and meal food...... among the context factors studied. For instance hot beverages were more likely to be consumed at breakfast, while alcoholic beverages were strongly related to dinner meals. Beer/wine was considerably more likely to be consumed outside home or in on-premise locations in the presence of friends or family...

  3. Breaking car use habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Møller, Berit Thorup

    2008-01-01

    Based on calls for innovative ways of reducing car traffic and research indicating that car driving is often the result of habitual decision-making and choice processes, this paper reports on a field experiment designed to test a tool aimed to entice drivers to skip the habitual choice of the car...... and consider using-or at least trying-public transport instead. About 1,000 car drivers participated in the experiment either as experimental subjects, receiving a free one-month travelcard, or as control subjects. As predicted, the intervention had a significant impact on drivers' use of public transport...... and it also neutralized the impact of car driving habits on mode choice. However, in the longer run (i.e., four months after the experiment) experimental subjects did not use public transport more than control subjects. Hence, it seems that although many car drivers choose travel mode habitually, their final...

  4. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2010-01-01

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  5. House Slaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Rising house prices in China’s major cities is a major headache for people taking a first step on the property ladder and has led to a growing number sacrificing quality of life just to have a home of their own Closely watching the family’s spend- ing a

  6. The evolution of galaxy habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Gobat, R

    2016-01-01

    We combine a semi-analytic model of galaxy evolution with constraints on circumstellar habitable zones and the distribution of terrestrial planets to probe the suitability of galaxies of different mass and type to host habitable planets, as well as its evolution with time. We find that the fraction of stars with terrestrial planets in their habitable zone ("habitability") depends only weakly on galaxy mass, with a maximum around 4e10 Msun. We estimate that 0.7% of all stars in Milky Way type galaxies to host a terrestrial planet within their habitable zone, consistent with the value derived from Kepler observations. On the other hand, the habitability of passive galaxies is slightly but systematically higher, unless we assume an unrealistically high sensitivity of planets to supernovae. We find that the overall habitability of galaxies has not changed significantly in the last ~8 Gyr, with most of the habitable planets in local disk galaxies having formed ~1.5 Gyr before our own solar system. Finally, we expe...

  7. Habiter un quartier RDP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marine Suteau

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Cet article porte sur les processus de différentiation et d’appropriation socio-spatiale dans un  quartier d’habitat social issu des programmes de Reconstruction et de Développement (RDP post-apartheid. Situé dans lesplaines sableuses du Cap, le quartier périphérique de Delft South pose le débat de l’évolution des quartiers RDP dans les villes sud-africaines. Dans le contexte post-apartheid, les stratégies d’accès à la propriété et les résistances locales participent à la production de territoires appropriés, différenciés et revendiqués. Les communautés de rues, fondées sur les solidarités mixtes de voisinage, illustrent les recompositions socio-spatiales en quartier RDP.This article focuses on a socio-spatial analysis of territorial change in Cape Town over timewith the study of Delft South as  a post-apartheid  low-cost housing development program. It asks how successful or not RDP programs have been in South African cities. It argues that social differentiation is in process. In the post-apartheid, strategies to access housing and social movements are producing socio-spatial territories. Through housing and socio-spatial networks inherited from street committees, Delft South may constitute a complex peripheral space with the creation of specific racially mixed neighborhoods.

  8. Astrophysical Conditions for Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Guedel, M; Erkaev, N; Kasting, J; Khodachenko, M; Lammer, H; Pilat-Lohinger, E; Rauer, H; Ribas, I; Wood, B E

    2014-01-01

    With the discovery of hundreds of exoplanets and a potentially huge number of Earth-like planets waiting to be discovered, the conditions for their habitability have become a focal point in exoplanetary research. The classical picture of habitable zones primarily relies on the stellar flux allowing liquid water to exist on the surface of an Earth-like planet with a suitable atmosphere. However, numerous further stellar and planetary properties constrain habitability. Apart from "geophysical" processes depending on the internal structure and composition of a planet, a complex array of astrophysical factors additionally determine habitability. Among these, variable stellar UV, EUV, and X-ray radiation, stellar and interplanetary magnetic fields, ionized winds, and energetic particles control the constitution of upper planetary atmospheres and their physical and chemical evolution. Short- and long-term stellar variability necessitates full time-dependent studies to understand planetary habitability at any point ...

  9. Health Habit: A Concept Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opalinski, Andra S; Weglicki, Linda S; Gropper, Sareen S

    2017-05-25

    The aim of this article is to provide clarity of the concept of health habit. Using Walker and Avant's (1983; 2010) method for conducting a concept analysis, the authors identify the attributes and characteristics of health habit, its theoretical and practical application to nursing, and sample cases to further illustrate the concept. Empirical and conceptual literature was used to inform this concept analysis. Articles and one book from 1977 to 2014 were reviewed from PsycINFO, Medline, Cumulative Index to Nursing Health Literature (CINAHL), Science Direct, EBSCOhost and Web of Science. Offering a clear definition and conceptual model of health habit provide the foundation to identify/develop appropriate measures of the concept and guide further investigation of understanding the development and sustainability of healthy habits. Additional research is needed to test the conceptual relationships between health habits and outcome variables as they apply to different groups across the age continuum. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Portfolio Optimization under Habit Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Naryshkin, Roman

    2008-01-01

    The "standard" Merton formulation of optimal investment and consumption involves optimizing the integrated lifetime utility of consumption, suitably discounted, together with the discounted future bequest. In this formulation the utility of consumption at any given time depends only on the amount consumed at that time. However, it is both theoretically and empirically reasonable that an individuals utility of consumption would depend on past consumption history. Economists term this "Habit Formation". We introduce a new formulation of habit formation which allows non-addictive consumption patterns for a wide variety of utility specification. In this paper we construct a simple mathematical description of this habit formation and present numerical solutions. We compare the results with the standard ones and draw insights obtained from the habit formation. The consumption path tends to increase with time and be less sensitive to the market fluctuations, which perfectly reflects the existence of habit persistenc...

  11. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Evans, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet's semi-major axis to the location of its host star's "habitable zone," the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an "eccentricity-albedo degeneracy" for the habitability of transiti...

  12. Housing Gap

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Measures to cool down China's red-hot housing market are sweeping the country. The State Council, China's cabinet, issued a circular in late May announcing an increase in the minimum down payment for a new apartment larger than 90 square meters to 30 percent from 20 percent and imposing a transaction tax on properties resold within five years of purchase, among others. One of the aims, according to the cir-

  13. THE HABIT OF CURIOSITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CARLA CESARE

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Curiosity is commonly referred to as a way of being, or an object of curiosity. How curiosity is part of our daily lives, how we engage with curiosity intellectually has a long and interesting history. Since the sixteenth century it has been manifest in cabinets of curiosity, museums and curio cabinets; exercises in collecting, self-reflection and discovery. However, the end of the twentieth-century has altered our sense of the world, through the speed and accessibility of information leaving a changed relationship with wonder. This paper discusses the role of curiosity in research as a “habit of curiosity”, (Benedict 2001, 2 a method for discovery. It reviews its historical manifestations and concerns, locating it through objects and actions, and questions what new meanings the twenty-first century brings with it. Is curiosity at risk? Is it still risky? The relationship between the individual and their interior and exterior socio-cultural landscape continually creates new meanings for knowledge and how we achieve it. This shadowy landscape of our curiosity has not lost meaning intellectually, but it in our shrinking, globalized world how we engage with it requires a new investigation.

  14. [Oral habits. Etiology and treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanou-Kouvelas, K; Kouvelas, N

    1988-01-01

    Oral habits have been described by psychologists and psychyatrists as psychodynamic phenomena. Dentists are concerned with oral habits because of the detrimental consequences they have in the oral facial system. The dentist who is in a position to confront a child with an oral habit in order to treat his dentinofacial problems is required to be aware of the psychological background of his patient as well as of the conditions under which the children do the habit in order to overcome emotional difficulties. The dentist should also search into the child's family to find out what the causes of the child's oral habit maybe. For the treatment of an oral habit the dentist should ensure both the child's and the family's cooperation and he should be aware of the advantages and disadvantages of every available method for treatment. Methods of treatment are: Use of orthodontic appliances: This method has the disadvantage that disturbs the child's psychological need for the habit, it can be interpreted as a punishment, it is visible and it causes speaking difficulties. It should be applied only in cooperation with the child. Behavioristic technique: This method aims to reinforce the child's positive behavior according to the Skinnerian principle: stimulus-response-reward. It has fast results but it is a conditioned treatment. Psychoanalytic method: It could solve the problem of the child's primary need for the oral habit in a radical manner. However it is practically impossible to be applied in Dentistry. Behavior modification according to ego psychology. With this method we attempt to analyse and understand the psychological cause of an oral habit.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  15. Study Habits on English Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gao Feng

    2013-01-01

    Currently, China gradual y focuses on the development of local English education in order to expand its influence to the world. The essay wil analyze the situation of English education in China and explain the importance of study habits to English education. Meanwhile, some advices for Chinese education changes wil be given. According to the essay, it can be found that study habit is essential for further English education. China cannot be stick to its English education strategy al the time because Chinese students rely too much on the teaching strategies instead of their own study habits.

  16. Tidal Constraints on Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N; Heller, Rene

    2009-01-01

    We review how tides may impact the habitability of terrestrial-like planets. If such planets form around low-mass stars, then planets in the circumstellar habitable zone will be close enough to their host stars to experience strong tidal forces. We discuss 1) decay of semi-major axis, 2) circularization of eccentric orbits, 3) evolution toward zero obliquity, 4) fixed rotation rates (not necessarily synchronous), and 5) internal heating. We briefly describe these effects using the example of a 0.25 solar mass star with a 10 Earth-mass companion. We suggest that the concept of a habitable zone should be modified to include the effects of tides.

  17. Galactic Habitable Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, A.; Mao, S.; Kawata, D.

    2014-03-01

    The fossil record shows that the Earth has experienced several mass extinctions over the past 500 million years1, and it has been suggested that there is a periodicity in extinction events on timescales of tens1 and/or hundreds of millions of years. Various hypotheses have been proposed to explain the cause of the mass extinctions, including the suggestion that the Earth's ozone layer may have been destroyed by intense radiation from a nearby supernovae2- 3, exposing the Earth's surface to damaging UV radiation. Recent observations of cores taken from the ocean floor revealed atoms of a very rare isotope of iron (60Fe) believed to have arrived on Earth around 2 million years ago as fallout from a nearby supernovae4. Astronomical evidence for that past supernovae was recently found in the debris of a young cluster of massive stars5, by tracing its past orbit, putting it at the right place at the right time to explain the mild extinction event. Here we report new high-resolution (both in space and time) N-body chemodynamical simulations (carried out with our novel code GCD+6) of the evolution of a model Milky Way Galaxy, tracing the orbit of èsun-like' stars over a 500 million year period, checking the proximity to supernovae throughout the history of the orbit and comparing the times when this occurs with past mass extinctions on Earth. We additionally explain the important effects of the spiral arm pattern, radial migration of stars and Galactic chemistry on habitability.

  18. Northern Fur Seal Food Habits

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on northern fur seal rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1987 to present....

  19. 8 HABITS OF INFLUENTIAL PEOPLE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Travis Bradberry

    2017-01-01

    .... It's a labour of love that influential people pursue behind the scenes, every single day. And while what people are influenced by changes with the season, the unique habits of influential people remain constant...

  20. Characterizing Habitable Exo-Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2009-01-01

    We discuss the possibility of screening the atmosphere of exomoons for habitability. We concentrate on Earth-like satellites of extrasolar giant planets (EGP) which orbit in the Habitable Zone of their host stars. The detectability of exomoons for EGP in the Habitable Zone has recently been shown to be feasible with the Kepler Mission or equivalent photometry using transit duration observations. Using the Earth itself as a proxy we show the potential and limits of spectroscopy to detect biomarkers on an Earth-like exomoon and discuss effects of tidal locking for such potential habitats. Transmission spectroscopy of exomoons is a unique potential tool to screen them for habitability in the near future.

  1. Growth habit of polar crystals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Using coordination polyhedron rule, growth habit of polar crystals such as ZnO, ZnS and SiO2 is investigated. It shows that the growth rates in the positive and negative polar axis directions are different. The theoretical growth habit of ZnO crystal is hexagonal prism and the growth rates of its various faces are:V{0001}>V{0111}-->V{0110}->V{0111}->V{0001}-. The growth habit of ZnS crystal is tetrahedron and its growth rates of different crystal faces are: V{111}>V{001}>V{001} =V{100} =. The growth rate relationship between positive and negative polar axis directions of SiO2 crystal V[1120]-->V[1120]-.is These results are in agreement with the growth habits observed under hydrothermal conditions. The different growth rates between positive and negative polar axis directions cannot be explained by PBC theory.

  2. Cosmological aspects of planetary habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Shchekinov, Yu A; Murthy, J

    2014-01-01

    The habitable zone (HZ) is defined as the region around a star where a planet can support liquid water on its surface, which, together with an oxygen atmosphere, is presumed to be necessary (and sufficient) to develop and sustain life on the planet. Currently, about twenty potentially habitable planets are listed. The most intriguing question driving all these studies is whether planets within habitable zones host extraterrestrial life. It is implicitly assumed that a planet in the habitable zone bears biota. However along with the two usual indicators of habitability, an oxygen atmosphere and liquid water on the surface, an additional one -- the age --- has to be taken into account when the question of the existence of life (or even a simple biota) on a planet is addressed. The importance of planetary age for the existence of life as we know it follows from the fact that the primary process, the photosynthesis, is endothermic with an activation energy higher than temperatures in habitable zones. Therefore on...

  3. Comparative Habitability of Transiting Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass-radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  4. COMPARATIVE HABITABILITY OF TRANSITING EXOPLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, Rory; Meadows, Victoria S.; Evans, Nicole, E-mail: rory@astro.washington.edu [Astronomy Department, University of Washington, Box 951580, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Exoplanet habitability is traditionally assessed by comparing a planet’s semimajor axis to the location of its host star’s “habitable zone,” the shell around a star for which Earth-like planets can possess liquid surface water. The Kepler space telescope has discovered numerous planet candidates near the habitable zone, and many more are expected from missions such as K2, TESS, and PLATO. These candidates often require significant follow-up observations for validation, so prioritizing planets for habitability from transit data has become an important aspect of the search for life in the universe. We propose a method to compare transiting planets for their potential to support life based on transit data, stellar properties and previously reported limits on planetary emitted flux. For a planet in radiative equilibrium, the emitted flux increases with eccentricity, but decreases with albedo. As these parameters are often unconstrained, there is an “eccentricity-albedo degeneracy” for the habitability of transiting exoplanets. Our method mitigates this degeneracy, includes a penalty for large-radius planets, uses terrestrial mass–radius relationships, and, when available, constraints on eccentricity to compute a number we call the “habitability index for transiting exoplanets” that represents the relative probability that an exoplanet could support liquid surface water. We calculate it for Kepler objects of interest and find that planets that receive between 60% and 90% of the Earth’s incident radiation, assuming circular orbits, are most likely to be habitable. Finally, we make predictions for the upcoming TESS and James Webb Space Telescope missions.

  5. Contribution of oral habits to dental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrlich, J; Hochman, N; Yaffe, A

    1992-04-01

    Oral habits or parafunction may contribute to dental, periodontal, or neuromuscular damage. Such habits, of which the patient is often unaware, may cause considerable damage. Habits may be occlusal or non-occlusal, and may affect the dentition and/or the oral soft tissues. Drawing a patient's attention to the damage caused by some habits of which he or she is unaware often leads to cessation, whereas with certain conscious habits, such as nail or finger biting, success is much more limited.

  6. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  7. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  8. Personalizing a Service Robot by Learning Human Habits from Behavioral Footprints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Li

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available For a domestic personal robot, personalized services are as important as predesigned tasks, because the robot needs to adjust the home state based on the operator's habits. An operator's habits are composed of cues, behaviors, and rewards. This article introduces behavioral footprints to describe the operator's behaviors in a house, and applies the inverse reinforcement learning technique to extract the operator's habits, represented by a reward function. We implemented the proposed approach with a mobile robot on indoor temperature adjustment, and compared this approach with a baseline method that recorded all the cues and behaviors of the operator. The result shows that the proposed approach allows the robot to reveal the operator's habits accurately and adjust the environment state accordingly.

  9. Habitability in the Local Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    Long term habitability on the surface of planets has as a prerequisite a minimum availability of elements to build rocky planets, their atmospheres, and for life sustaining water. They must be within the habitable zone and avoid circumstances that cause them to lose their atmospheres and water. However, many astrophysical sources are hazardous to life on the surfaces of planets. Planets in harsh environments may require strong magnetic fields to protect their biospheres from high energy particles from the host star(s). Planets in harsh environments may additionally require a strong astrosphere to be sufficiently able to deflect galactic cosmic-rays. Supernovae (SNe) play a central role in the habitability of planets in the disks of star forming galaxies. Currently, the SNe rate maintains a relativistic galactic wind shielding planets in the disk from extragalactic cosmic rays. However, if the density of SNe in the disk of the galaxy were significantly higher, as it was 6-8 GYA, the frequency of nearby catastrophic events and often prolonged harsh environment may have strongly constrained life in the early history of the Milky Way. Active galactic nuclei (AGN) may remain quiescent for hundreds of millions of years only to activate for some time due extraordinary accretion episode due to for instance a galactic merger. The starburst galaxy M82 is currently undergoing a merger, probably strongly compromising habitability within that galaxy. The giant elliptical M87 resides in the center of the Virgo supercluster and has probably consumed many such spiral galaxies. We show that super-Eddington accretion onto the supermassive black hole in M87, even for a short while, could compromise the habitability for a large portion of the central supercluster. We discuss environments where these effects may be mitigated.

  10. The rules of coherence and other habits

    CERN Document Server

    Solis, M R C

    2003-01-01

    Physics and mathematics are difficult enough without the aditional burden of bad habits. In this article, we examine some helpful habits that tend to be underemphasized by many physics teachers (mainly because they seem so obvious!).

  11. 24 CFR 982.609 - Congregate housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Congregate Housing § 982.609 Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. (a) HQS standards for... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Housing quality standards. 982.609 Section 982.609 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and...

  12. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    OpenAIRE

    Reji Abraham; Geetha Kamath; Jasmeet Singh Sodhi; Sonia Sodhi; Chandki Rita; Sai Kalyan, S.

    2013-01-01

    Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA), designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle ret...

  13. Bowel habits after bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potoczna, Natascha; Harfmann, Susanne; Steffen, Rudolf; Briggs, Ruth; Bieri, Norman; Horber, Fritz F

    2008-10-01

    Disordered bowel habits might influence quality of life after bariatric surgery. Different types of bariatric operations-gastric banding (AGB), Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), or biliopancreatic diversion (BPD)-might alter bowel habits as a consequence of the surgical procedure used. Whether change in bowel habits affects quality of life after AGB, RYGB, or BPD differently is unknown. The study group contained 290 severely obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery between August 1996 and September 2004 [BPD: n = 103, 64.1% women, age 43 +/- 1 years (mean +/- SEM), BMI 53.9 +/- 0.9 kg/m(2), weight 153.4 +/- 2.9 kg; Roux-en-Y gastric bypass: n = 126, 73.0% women, age 43 +/- 1 years, BMI 44.2 +/- 0.3 kg/m(2), weight 123.8 +/- 1.5 kg; adjustable gastric banding (AGB): n = 61, 57.4% women, age 44 +/- 1 years, BMI 49.9 +/- 0.5 kg/m(2), weight 146.1 +/- 2.0 kg). Changes in bowel habits, flatulence, flatus odor, and effects on social life were estimated at least 4 months after surgery using a self-administered questionnaire. Fecal consistency changed significantly after surgery. Loose stools and diarrhea were more frequent after BPD and RYGB (P flatus affecting social life was more frequent after BPD than after either RYGB or AGB (P flatus frequency increased after BPD and RYGB, and patients were more bothered by their malodorous flatus than after AGB (all P Flatus severity score was highest in BPD, intermediate in RYGB, and lowest in AGB patients (all P < 0.001), a difference that was not influenced by frequency of metabolic syndrome before and after surgery. Moreover, observation period after surgery had no influence on overall results of bowel habits. Subsore quality of life bariatric analysis and reporting outcome system (BAROS) scores were largely similar between all three groups. However, flatulence severity score correlated inversely with quality of life estimated by BAROS in BPD and RYGB, but not in AGB patients. The type of bariatric surgery affects bowel

  14. Small to average output energy supply that do not burden the environment or resources with one-family houses to multiple-family dwelling; Alimentation d'habitations uni- et multi-familiales avec une energie qui ne greve ni l'environnement ni les ressources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomfield, D.P. [Analytic Power Corporation (United States); Hartan, J.; Robner, I.; Wieschebrink, G. [VNG, Verbundnetz Gas AG (Germany)

    2000-07-01

    The rapid development of the general technical, economic and political conditions leads to a new point of view towards the domestic application of natural gas. The economical aspect of an in-house gas point may still be improved for instance by decentralization of energy conversion facilities by use of state-of-the-art technologies. Within the framework of various research projects the VNG Verbundnetz Gas Aktiengesellschaft Leipzig has proved its technological feasibility by its ERDGASHAUS (i.e. 'Natural Gas House') concept. This concept integrates all domestic energy conversion processes. (authors)

  15. The Comfort Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Tine Steen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Daniels, Ole

    This report describes the results of the Comfort Houses measuring programme conducted by Aalborg University in the period 2008 to 2011. The results from the houses included in the project are examined in detail in 8 house-specific reports. All house-specific reports referred to in this report can...

  16. Widen the Belt of Habitability!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Möhlmann, D.

    2012-06-01

    Among the key-parameters to characterize habitability are presence or availability of liquid water, an appropriate temperature range, and the time scale of reference. These criteria for habitability are discussed and described from the point of view of water- and ice-physics, and it is shown that liquid water may exist in the sub-surfaces of planetary bodies like Mars, and possibly of inner asteroids and internally heated ice-moons. Water can remain fluid there also at temperatures far below the "canonical" 0 °C. This behaviour is made possible as a consequence of the freezing point depression due to salty solutes in water or "brines", as they can be expected to exist in nature more frequently than pure liquid water. On the other hand, low temperatures cause a slowing down of chemical processes, as can be described by Arrhenius's relation. The resulting smaller reaction rates probably will have the consequence to complicate the detection of low-temperature life processes, if they exist. Furthermore, the adaptation potential of life is to be mentioned in this context as a yet partially unknown process. Resulting recommendations are given to improve the use of criteria to characterize habitable conditions.

  17. Do habits always override intentions? Pitting unhealthy snacking habits against snack-avoidance intentions

    OpenAIRE

    Gardner, Benjamin; Corbridge, Sharon; McGowan, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Background Habit is defined as a process whereby an impulse towards behaviour is automatically initiated upon encountering a setting in which the behaviour has been performed in the past. A central tenet of habit theory is that habit overrides intentional tendencies in directing behaviour, such that as habit strength increases, intention becomes less predictive of behaviour. Yet, evidence of this effect has been methodologically limited by modelling the impact of positively-correlated habits ...

  18. 24 CFR 982.618 - Shared housing: Housing quality standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Types Shared Housing § 982.618 Shared housing: Housing quality standards. (a) Compliance with HQS. The... the unit available for use by the assisted family under its lease, meets the housing quality standards... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Housing...

  19. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    percentage of the people living in these estates are tenants and cannot afford to pay for the ... developments, prospective house occupiers should be determined first in order to obtain relevant ... researchers putting the figure for housing ... materials to type of building design (Adedeji & ... schemes have become profit driven.

  20. House Price, House Quality and Economic Growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, P.; Boelhouwer, P.J.

    2010-01-01

    The literature on housing markets suggest that periods of economic growth are characterised by a demand for better housing quality and increasing prices. The basic principles of the theory are that the short-run price fluctuations occur due to market imperfection, while over the long term, causality

  1. Housing of Hobson's Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    2010-01-01

    This paper looks at policies implemented to improve troubled housing estates during more than two decades. Based on evaluations of implemented programmes and case studies the paper provides a basis for discussing a number of questions: • Why do we have troubled housing estates? • What...... is the definition of troubled housing estates? • Who lives on troubled housing estates? • Who owns and manages the troubled housing estates? • What have been the reasons behind improvement programmes for troubled housing estates? • What kind of improvement programmes have been implemented and with what kind...... of results? • Have improvement programmes changed the position of the estates on the local housing markets? • What are the changes in policies and results? • What are the perspectives for policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates?...

  2. How to Teach Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wysocki, Joseph L.

    1977-01-01

    A list of topics and related field experiences accompany this description of an introductory undergraduate course on housing and society. Topics and community experiences are also outlined for a graduate course in advanced housing and interior design. (TA)

  3. Housing Inventory Count

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This report displays the data communities reported to HUD about the nature of their dedicated homeless inventory, referred to as their Housing Inventory Count (HIC)....

  4. Host Star Evolution for Planet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallet, Florian; Charbonnel, Corinne; Amard, Louis

    2016-11-01

    With about 2000 exoplanets discovered within a large range of different configurations of distance from the star, size, mass, and atmospheric conditions, the concept of habitability cannot rely only on the stellar effective temperature anymore. In addition to the natural evolution of habitability with the intrinsic stellar parameters, tidal, magnetic, and atmospheric interactions are believed to have strong impact on the relative position of the planets inside the so-called habitable zone. Moreover, the notion of habitability itself strongly depends on the definition we give to the term "habitable". The aim of this contribution is to provide a global and up-to-date overview of the work done during the last few years about the description and the modelling of the habitability, and to present the physical processes currently includes in this description.

  5. Habitable worlds with no signs of life

    CERN Document Server

    Cockell, Charles S

    2013-01-01

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in studies of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided) and planets with life, where the concentration of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pi...

  6. Dietary habits and esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palladino-Davis, A G; Mendez, B M; Fisichella, P M; Davis, C S

    2015-01-01

    Cancer of the esophagus is an underestimated, poorly understood, and changing disease. Its overall 5-year survival is less than 20%, even in the United States, which is largely a function of a delay in diagnosis until its more advanced stages. Additionally, the epidemiologic complexities of esophageal cancer are vast, rendering screening and prevention limited at best. First, the prevalence of esophageal cancer is unevenly distributed throughout the world. Second, the two histological forms (squamous cell and adenocarcinoma) vary in terms of their geographic prevalence and associated risk factors. Third, some populations appear at particular risk for esophageal cancer. And fourth, the incidence of esophageal cancer is in continuous flux among groups. Despite the varied prevalence and risks among populations, some factors have emerged as consistent associations while others are only now becoming more fully recognized. The most prominent, scientifically supported, and long-regarded risk factors for esophageal cancer are tobacco, alcohol, and reflux esophagitis. Inasmuch as the above are regarded as important risk factors for esophageal cancer, they are not the sole contributors. Dietary habits, nutrition, local customs, and the environment may be contributory. Along these lines, vitamins, minerals, fruits, vegetables, meats, fats, salted foods, nitrogen compounds, carcinogens, mycotoxins, and even the temperature of what we consume are increasingly regarded as potential etiologies for this deadly although potentially preventable disease. The goal of this review is to shed light on the less known role of nutrition and dietary habits in esophageal cancer.

  7. Tidal Limits to Planetary Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Greenberg, Richard; Raymond, Sean N

    2009-01-01

    The habitable zones of main sequence stars have traditionally been defined as the range of orbits that intercept the appropriate amount of stellar flux to permit surface water on a planet. Terrestrial exoplanets discovered to orbit M stars in these zones, which are close-in due to decreased stellar luminosity, may also undergo significant tidal heating. Tidal heating may span a wide range for terrestrial exoplanets and may significantly affect conditions near the surface. For example, if heating rates on an exoplanet are near or greater than that on Io (where tides drive volcanism that resurface the planet at least every 1 Myr) and produce similar surface conditions, then the development of life seems unlikely. On the other hand, if the tidal heating rate is less than the minimum to initiate plate tectonics, then CO_2 may not be recycled through subduction, leading to a runaway greenhouse that sterilizes the planet. These two cases represent potential boundaries to habitability and are presented along with th...

  8. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price b

  9. Dutch house price fundamentals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; de Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price

  10. Situation-Based Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Presentation of urban housing research on flexible housing types in the Copenhagen Region: Theoretical background, methodology, analyse of spatial organization, interviews and results. Cases: Pærehaven in Ølby, Køge and M-house in Ørestad, Copenhagen...

  11. ISS Habitability Data Collection and Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaxton, Sherry (Principal Investigator); Greene, Maya; Schuh, Susan; Williams, Thomas; Archer, Ronald; Vasser, Katie

    2017-01-01

    Habitability is the relationship between an individual and their surroundings (i.e. the interplay of the person, machines, environment, and mission). The purpose of this study is to assess habitability and human factors on the ISS to better prepare for future long-duration space flights. Scheduled data collection sessions primarily require the use of iSHORT (iPad app) to capture near real-time habitability feedback and analyze vehicle layout and space utilization.

  12. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Authorities - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Public Housing was established to provide decent and safe rental housing for eligible low-income families, the elderly, and persons with disabilities. Public housing...

  13. Habit Breaking Appliance for Multiple Corrections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reji Abraham

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tongue thrusting and thumb sucking are the most commonly seen oral habits which act as the major etiological factors in the development of dental malocclusion. This case report describes a fixed habit correcting appliance, Hybrid Habit Correcting Appliance (HHCA, designed to eliminate these habits. This hybrid appliance is effective in less compliant patients and if desired can be used along with the fixed orthodontic appliance. Its components can act as mechanical restrainers and muscle retraining devices. It is also effective in cases with mild posterior crossbites.

  14. Inadequate housing in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franklin Obeng-Odoom

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two themes are evident in housing research in Ghana. One involves the study of how to increase the number of dwellings to correct the overall housing deficit, and the other focuses on how to improve housing for slum dwellers. Between these two extremes, there is relatively little research on why the existing buildings are poorly maintained. This paper is based on a review of existing studies on inadequate housing. It synthesises the evidence on the possible reasons for this neglect, makes a case for better maintenance and analyses possible ways of reversing the problem of inadequate housing.

  15. Dutch house price fundamentals

    OpenAIRE

    Haffner, M.E.A.; De Vries, P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses house price developments in the Netherlands, specifically focussing on the question whether current house prices in the Dutch owner-occupied market are likely to decrease. We analyse three aspects of the question based on a literature review: (1) whether there is a house price bubble ready to burst; (2) whether house prices will decline in response to the credit crisis that started in 2007; and (3) whether it is likely that house prices will decrease as a result of reform...

  16. [Zoonosis transmission risk factors according to population habits inIlha Solteira city, Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Ortiz, Iván A; Leite, Maurício A

    2011-06-01

    Determining conditions regarding possible zoonosis transmission risk based on Ilha Solteira-São Paulo citizens' habits aimed at establishing concrete recommendations for the corresponding local authorities to reduce some risk factors. 100 focalized interviews were held on Ilha Solteira's urban perimeter during April 2008. The people interviewed were adults who lived or worked in houses in the study area. This research found a significant number of cat and/or dog owners who allowed their pets to stay in internal areas of their houses. They did not define a specific place for animals to defecate and/or urinate or did not arrange appropriate final disposal of such waste. Local authorities must make greater efforts at educating Ilha Solteira pets' owners and providing them with information and encouraging greater citizen commitment and awareness to improve habits related to caring for pets/animal sand reducing zoonosis transmission risk factors.

  17. Tides, planetary companions, and habitability: Habitability in the habitable zone of low-mass stars

    CERN Document Server

    Van Laerhoven, Christa; Greenberg, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Earth-scale planets in the classical habitable zone (HZ) are more likely to be habitable if they possess active geophysics. Without a constant internal energy source, planets cool as they age, eventually terminating tectonic activity and rendering the planet sterile to life. However, for planets orbiting low-mass stars, the presence of an outer companion could generate enough tidal heat in the HZ planet to prevent such cooling. The range of mass and orbital parameters for the companion that give adequate long-term heating of the inner HZ planet, while avoiding very early total desiccation, is probably substantial. We locate the ideal location for the outer of a pair of planets, under the assumption that the inner planet has the same incident flux as Earth, orbiting example stars: a generic late M dwarf ($T_{eff}=2670 K$) and the M9V/L0 dwarf DEN1048. Thus discoveries of Earth-scale planets in the HZ zone of old small stars should be followed by searches for outer companion planets that might be essential for ...

  18. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  19. Housing Data Base for Sustainable Housing Provision

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    ATBU Journal of Environmental Technology 10, 1, June 20 I 7. 53 ... (Adedayo, 2013). It was the expectation of ... factor responsible for the increase in housing demand in the city centres as .... many architects simply discuss with the client.

  20. Moodulmaja Passion House = "Passion House" modular home

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2015-01-01

    Moodulmaja Passion House. Arhitektuuri sihtkapitali innovatsioonipreemia 2013 kvaliteetse disaini ja perspektiivika arendustegevuse oskusliku sidumise eest. Arhitekt Eero Endjärv (Arhitekt11), sisearhitekt Hannelore Kääramees (Arhitekt11)

  1. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  2. Terminology for houses and house remains

    OpenAIRE

    Rosberg, Karin

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain lucidity, it is essential to choose adequate terminology when speaking of prehistoric houses. The understanding of house construction requires a terminology with a focus on construction. Very often, archaeologists instead use a terminology with a focus on the remains, and use an inadequate terminology for constructions, indicating that they do not fully consider how the constructions work. The article presents some suggestions for adequate construction terminology.

  3. By force of habit: On the formation and maintenance of goal-directed habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, U.N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine how goal-directed habits are formed and established. Specifically, the focus was on the cognitive mechanism underlying habits and the role of habits in guiding goal-directed behavior. In daily life we perform all kinds of behaviors to attain specific goals in

  4. By force of habit: On the formation and maintenance of goal-directed habits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danner, U.N.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to examine how goal-directed habits are formed and established. Specifically, the focus was on the cognitive mechanism underlying habits and the role of habits in guiding goal-directed behavior. In daily life we perform all kinds of behaviors to attain specific goals in ab

  5. Plate tectonics, habitability and life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spohn, Tilman; Breuer, Doris

    2016-04-01

    The role of plate tectonics in defining habitability of terrestrial planets is being increasingly discussed (e.g., Elkins-Tanton, 2015). Plate tectonics is a significantly evolved concept with a large variety of aspects. In the present context, cycling of material between near surface and mantle reservoirs is most important. But increased heat transport through mixing of cold lithosphere with the deep interior and formation of continental crust may also matter. An alternative mechanism of material cycling between these reservoirs is hot-spot volcanism combined with crust delamination. Hot-spot volcanism will transport volatiles to the atmosphere while delamination will mix crust, possibly altered by sedimentation and chemical reactions, with the mantle. The mechanism works as long as the stagnant lithosphere plate has not grown thicker than the crust and as long as volcanic material is added onto the crust. Thermal evolution studies suggest that the mechanism could work for the first 1-2 Ga of planetary evolution. The efficiency of the mechanism is limited by the ratio of extrusive to intrusive volcanism, which is thought to be less than 0.25. Plate tectonics would certainly have an advantage by working even for more evolved planets. A simple, most-used concept of habitability requires the thermodynamic stability of liquid water on the surface of a planet. Cycling of CO2between the atmosphere, oceans and interior through subduction and surface volcanism is an important element of the carbonate-silicate cycle, a thermostat feedback cycle that will keep the atmosphere from entering into a runaway greenhouse. Calculations for a model Earth lacking plate tectonics but degassing CO2, N, and H2O to form a surface ocean and a secondary atmosphere (Tosi et al, 2016) suggest that liquid water can be maintained on the surface for 4.5Ga. The model planet would then qualify as habitable. It is conceivable that the CO2 buffering capability of its ocean together with silicate

  6. Exoplanets Detection, Formation, Properties, Habitability

    CERN Document Server

    Mason, John W

    2008-01-01

    This edited, multi-author volume will be an invaluable introduction and reference to all key aspects in the field of exoplanet research. The reviews cover: Detection methods and properties of known exoplanets, Detection of extrasolar planets by gravitational microlensing. The formation and evolution of terrestrial planets in protoplanetary and debris disks. The brown dwarf-exoplanet connection. Formation, migration mechanisms and properties of hot Jupiters. Dynamics of multiple exoplanet systems. Doppler exoplanet surveys. Searching for exoplanets in the stellar graveyard. Formation and habitability of extra solar planets in multiple star systems. Exoplanet habitats and the possibilities for life. Moons of exoplanets: habitats for life. Contributing authors: •Rory Barnes •David P. Bennett •Jian Ge •Nader Haghighipour •Patrick Irwin •Hugh Jones •Victoria Meadows •Stanimir Metchev •I. Neill Reid •George Rieke •Caleb Scharf •Steinn Sigurdsson

  7. Habitability Properties of Circumbinary Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shevchenko, Ivan I.

    2017-06-01

    It is shown that several habitability conditions (in fact, at least seven such conditions) appear to be fulfilled automatically by circumbinary planets of main-sequence stars (CBP-MS), whereas on Earth, these conditions are fulfilled only by chance. Therefore, it looks natural that most of the production of replicating biopolymers in the Galaxy is concentrated on particular classes of CBP-MS, and life on Earth is an outlier, in this sense. In this scenario, Lathe’s mechanism for the tidal “chain reaction” abiogenesis on Earth is favored as generic for CBP-MS, due to photo-tidal synchronization inherent to them. Problems with this scenario are discussed in detail.

  8. Disrupting the habit of interviewing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eileen Honan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper contributes to the growing domain of ‘post-qualitative’ research and experiments with a new (representational form to move away from traditional and clichéd descriptions of research methods. In this paper, I want to interrogate the category of interview, and the habit of interviewing, to disrupt the clichés, so as to allow thinking of different ways of writing/speaking/representing the interactions between researcher and researched that will breathe new life into qualitative inquiries. I will attempt to flatten and shred, destabilise and disrupt our common-sense ideas about interview, including those held most sacred to the qualitative community, that of anonymity and confidentiality, as well as the privilege of the ‘transcript’ in re-presenting interview data.

  9. The Feeding Habits of Mesosauridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Rivaldo R.; Ferigolo, Jorge; Bajdek, Piotr; Piñeiro, Graciela

    2017-03-01

    Mesosauridae comprises the oldest known aquatic amniotes which lived in Gondwana during the Early Permian. Previous work in the Uruguayan mesosaur-bearing Mangrullo Formation suggested that mesosaurids lived in an inland water body, inferred as moderately hypersaline, with exceptional preservational conditions that justified describing these strata as a Fossil-Lagerstätte. Exquisitely preserved articulated mesosaur skeletons, including gastric content and associated coprolites, from the Brazilian Iratí Formation in the State of Goiás (central-western Brazil) indicate excellent conditions of preservation, extending the Konservat-Lagerstätte designation to both units in the Paraná Basin. The near-absence of more resistant fossil remains, like actinopterygian and temnospondyl bones, demonstrates the faunistic poverty of the mesosaur-bearing “salty sea”. Our studies of the alimentary habits of mesosaurids through the use of stereoscopic microscopy, light and electronic microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry suggest that the diet of mesosaurids was predominantly composed of pygocephalomorph crustaceans (possibly not exceeding 20 mm in length). However, the presence of bones and bone fragments of small mesosaurs in the gastric content, cololites, coprolites, and possible regurgitalites may also indicate cannibalistic and/or scavenging habits. Cannibalism is relatively common among vertebrates, particularly during conditions of environmental stress, like food shortage. Likewise, the apparent abundance of pygocephalomorph crustacean fossils in the Iratí and Mangrullo Formations, outside and within the studied gastric, cololite, and coprolite contents, might have to do with environmental stress possibly caused by volcanic activity, in particular ash spread into the basin during the Early Permian. In this context, casual necrophagy on the dead bodies of small mesosaurs and large pygocephalomorphs might have been an alternative alimentary behavior adopted for survival

  10. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziszewska-Zielina, Elżbieta; Gleń, Monika

    2014-11-01

    The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one's own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  11. Studies of the Prefabricated Housing Construction Market in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radziszewska-Zielina Elżbieta

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The directions of development of the construction market are not only related to the need to own one’s own home but also to increasing functional and economic requirements and conditions of sustainable development. The perception and understanding of prefabrication in housing construction are undoubtedly starting to change. Sustainable construction criteria may constitute a significant turning point and support for the development of new prefabricated housing construction technologies. Entrepreneurs are slowly perceiving an opportunity for the development of prefabrication in the construction market. The implementation and popularisation of ready-made homes will undoubtedly constitute a favourable change in the Polish construction market; however, this will require a modification of habits. This article presents an historical analysis of the development of the prefabricated housing construction market as well as an attempt to answer questions concerning the future of prefabrication in housing construction in Poland based on the conducted studies.

  12. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  13. The Online Reading Habits of Malaysian Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abidin, Mohammad Jafre Bin Zainol; Pourmohammadi, Majid; Varasingam, Nalini A/P; Lean, Ooi Choon

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to ascertain the differences in online reading habits between genders and investigate the relationship between socio-economic status and online reading habits. Using a questionnaire, a quantitative approach was administered to 240 Form-Four students from four secondary schools in Penang Island, Malaysia. Findings…

  14. The 5 Habits of Effective PLCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easton, Lois Brown

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the knowledge and skills that professional learning community members need to create a habit out of their desire. Habits serve educators as signposts of progress toward achieving their desires. They are interim indicators of a professional learning community's success. Ultimately, of course, professional learning communities…

  15. Genetic Influences on Adolescent Eating Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Kevin M.; Flores, Tori; Boutwell, Brian B.; Gibson, Chris L.

    2012-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research shows that variation in eating habits and food consumption is due to genetic and environmental factors. The current study extends this line of research by examining the genetic contribution to adolescent eating habits. Analysis of sibling pairs drawn from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health)…

  16. The Leisure Reading Habits of Urban Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes-Hassell, Sandra; Rodge, Pradnya

    2007-01-01

    Research indicates that there is a strong relationship between leisure reading and school achievement, but the leisure reading habits of urban adolescents have rarely been studied. From their investigation of the leisure reading habits of 584 urban minority middle school students, the authors identify these key findings: (1) More than two-thirds…

  17. Experiences of habit formation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lally, Phillippa; Wardle, Jane; Gardner, Benjamin

    2011-08-01

    Habit formation is an important goal for behaviour change interventions because habitual behaviours are elicited automatically and are therefore likely to be maintained. This study documented experiences of habit development in 10 participants enrolled on a weight loss intervention explicitly based on habit-formation principles. Thematic analysis revealed three themes: Strategies used to support initial engagement in a novel behaviour; development of behavioural automaticity; and selecting effective cues to support repeated behaviour. Results showed that behaviour change was initially experienced as cognitively effortful but as automaticity increased, enactment became easier. Habits were typically formed in work-based contexts. Weekends and vacations temporarily disrupted performance due to absence of associated cues, but habits were reinstated on return to work. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  18. UV Habitable Zones Further Constrain Possible Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-02-01

    Where should we search for life in the universe? Habitable zones are traditionallydetermined based on the possibility of liquid water existing on a planet but ultraviolet (UV) radiation also plays a key role.The UV Habitable ZoneSchematic showing how the traditional habitable zones location and width changes around different types of stars. The UV habitable zone also hasdifferent locations and widths depending on the mass and metallicity of the star. [NASA/Kepler Mission/Dana Berry]Besides the presence of liquid water, there are other things life may need to persist. For life as we know it, one important elementis moderate UV radiation: if a planet receives too little UV flux, many biological compounds cant be synthesized. If it receives too much, however, then terrestrial biological systems (e.g. DNA) can be damaged.To determinethe most likely place to findpersistent life, we should therefore look for the region where a stars traditional habitable zone, within which liquid water is possible, overlaps with its UV habitable zone, within which the UV flux is at the right level to support life.Relationship between the stellar mass and location of the boundaries of the traditional and UV habitable zones for a solar-metallicity star. din and dout denote inner and outer boundaries, respectively. ZAMS and TMS denote when the star joins and leaves the main sequence, respectively. The traditional and UV habitable zones overlap only for stars of 11.5 solar masses. [Adapted from Oishi and Kamaya 2016]Looking for OverlapIn a recent study, two scientists from the National Defense Academy of Japan, Midori Oishi and Hideyuki Kamaya, explored howthe location of this UV habitable zone and that of its overlap with the traditional habitable zone might be affected by a stars mass and metallicity.Oishi and Kamaya developed a simple evolutional model of the UV habitable zone in stars in the mass range of 0.084 solar masses with metallicities of roughly solar metallicity (Z=0.02), a

  19. Dynamics and Habitability in Binary Star Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Eggl, Siegfried; Pilat-Lohinger, Elke

    2014-01-01

    Determining planetary habitability is a complex matter, as the interplay between a planet's physical and atmospheric properties with stellar insolation has to be studied in a self consistent manner. Standardized atmospheric models for Earth-like planets exist and are commonly accepted as a reference for estimates of Habitable Zones. In order to define Habitable Zone boundaries, circular orbital configurations around main sequence stars are generally assumed. In gravitationally interacting multibody systems, such as double stars, however, planetary orbits are forcibly becoming non circular with time. Especially in binary star systems even relatively small changes in a planet's orbit can have a large impact on habitability. Hence, we argue that a minimum model for calculating Habitable Zones in binary star systems has to include dynamical interactions.

  20. 75 FR 4100 - Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-26

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Multifamily Housing, Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan-Single Family Housing and Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing (AFHM) Plan... lists the following information: Title of Proposal: Affirmative Fair Housing, Marketing (AFHM) Plan...

  1. The teaching house officer.

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffman, F. J.

    1986-01-01

    Although medical students on clinical ward rotations receive a large part of their education from house officers, very often house officers themselves have had little formal preparation as teachers. Because students and teachers work closely together under special conditions, unique educational situations are created where much more than factual information is conveyed. Although some house officers are "natural" teachers, others find such activities uncomfortable or burdensome. Most people, h...

  2. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    OpenAIRE

    M. Sitar; K. Krajnc

    2008-01-01

    Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949). It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the projec...

  3. The architects house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Welling, Helen

    2007-01-01

    The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings for every......The architects house is an article on Edward Heiberg's own house built in 1924. Edward Heiberg was a strong advocate of functionalism, and of the notion that hitherto individualistic and emotional architecture should be replaced by an objective function-based architecture with dwellings...

  4. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    Social housing is a cornerstone in the Danish welfare society and is accessible for all households. By law, social housing must be rented at cost rents, which are based on historical costs; rents do not respond to market forces. Social housing aims to provide good standard, secure and affordable...... for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  5. Low energy houses and passive houses - common questions; Laagenergihus och passivhus - vanliga fraagestaellningar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikander, Eva; Samuelson, Ingemar; Gustavsson, Thorbjoern; Ruud, Svein; Larsson, Krister; Hiller, Carolina; Werner, Goesta; Gabrielii, Kristina

    2009-07-01

    , the building sector needs to adjust in terms of knowledge, resources and production methods, in order to be able to produce low-energy houses or passive houses with the necessary quality level. Another aspect concerned with buildings having very low energy demands for operation and heating is that occupants and their habits become increasingly important in determining the energy demand. It may become necessary in the future to pay more attention to their attitudes and awareness if we are further to reduce energy use in our buildings

  6. Quality of Informal Housing: Contributions from University Outreach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Ramos Calonge

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this article is to reflect on the quality and habitable conditions of informal housing and to propose two ways of contributing to its improvement from university outreach. Two outreach exercises carried out by the School of Habitat Sciences from La Salle University are explained, together with two organizations dedicated to work for the improvement of the living conditions of the vulnerable population. One of them involves integral improvement actions in a neighborhood, which led to conducting remodeling and construction work accompanied by social workers and psychologists; the other one was to design new training methodologies for foremen; each case includes particular reflections and, in the end, general reflections and conclusions inherent to the quality and habitability of informal housing. It is concluded, in general terms, that the quality and habitability of affordable, informal housing is poor, and it is highlighted that the first step for improving it must be taken by the user or owner, based on their appropriation of habitat, either at the individual, family or community level; in other words, better living conditions will only be achieved when the owner and the community decide so.

  7. Healthy eating habits protect against temptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Ying; Wood, Wendy; Monterosso, John

    2016-08-01

    Can healthy food-choice habits protect people against temptations of consuming large portion sizes and unhealthy foods? In two studies, we show that the answer is yes, good habits serve this protective role, at least in contexts in which people are not deliberating and thus fall back on habitual responses. In the first study, participants trained with unhealthy habits to approach eating chocolate, but not those trained with healthy habits, succumbed to temptation and ate more chocolates when their self-control resources were depleted. Study 2 extended and clarified these findings by demonstrating the role of environmental cues in eliciting healthy habits when self-control resources are depleted. Participants who had been trained to choose carrots habitually to a pictorial stimulus (i.e., habit cue) subsequently resisted choosing M&Ms as long as the cue was present. This effect of habit cues on healthy food choices suggests the usefulness of manipulating such cues as a means of meeting self-regulatory goals such as portion control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. The role of habit in compulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, Claire M; Robbins, Trevor W; Sahakian, Barbara J; van den Heuvel, Odile A; van Wingen, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Compulsivity has been recently characterized as a manifestation of an imbalance between the brain׳s goal-directed and habit-learning systems. Habits are perhaps the most fundamental building block of animal learning, and it is therefore unsurprising that there are multiple ways in which the development and execution of habits can be promoted/discouraged. Delineating these neurocognitive routes may be critical to understanding if and how habits contribute to the many faces of compulsivity observed across a range of psychiatric disorders. In this review, we distinguish the contribution of excessive stimulus-response habit learning from that of deficient goal-directed control over action and response inhibition, and discuss the role of stress and anxiety as likely contributors to the transition from goal-directed action to habit. To this end, behavioural, pharmacological, neurobiological and clinical evidence are synthesised and a hypothesis is formulated to capture how habits fit into a model of compulsivity as a trans-diagnostic psychiatric trait.

  9. Diapering habits: a global perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thaman, Lauren A; Eichenfield, Lawrence F

    2014-11-01

    There are tremendous variations in diapering practices, reflecting varying cultural practices and regional difference. Around the world, more than 134 million babies are born each year, a rate of 255 births per minute or 4.3 births each second. While global population growth has been steadily declining from its peak in 1963, several regions, including the Middle East and Sub-Saharan Africa, continue to maintain high birth rates. Though the essential needs of infants are largely similar, family habits and practices during early years of life vary dramatically. This article surveys data documenting variations in diaper frequency, types, and duration of use internationally, including age of toilet training. These factors may influence diaper rash and skin health of infants and young children. Much of this data was collected as part of analysis of the international commercial diaper market, evaluated and organized as part of an international initiative on Global Infant Skin Care, and presented to a panel of experts for critique and commentary in a symposium held in December, 2013. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Habitability from a microbial point of view

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westall, Frances; Loizeau, Damien; Foucher, Frédéric; Bost, Nicolas; Bertrand, Marylène; Vago, Jorge; Kminek, Gerhard

    2014-05-01

    We examine here the definition of habitability from the point of view of primitive, anaerobic microorganisms noting that the conditions of habitability are different for the appearance of life, for established life, and for life in dormant mode [1]. Habitability in this sense is clearly distinguished from the 'prebiotic world' that precedes the appearance of life. The differences in the conditions of habitability necessary for life to appear, for life to flourish and for dormant life entrain differences in spatial and temporal scales of habitability. For the origin of life, the ingredients carbon molecules, water, nutrients and energy need to be present on time scales applicable for the origin of life (105 to a few 106 y ?), necessitating the spatial scales of a minimum of ~100 km. Established life can take advantage of short-lived habitats (hours, days) to much longer lived ones on spatial scales of 100s μm to cm-m, whereas dormant life can survive (but not metabolise) in extreme environments for very long periods (perhaps up to millions of years) at microbial spatial scales (100s μm - mms). Thus, it is not necessary for the whole of a planet of satellite to be habitable. But the degree of continued habitability will have a strong influence on the possibility of organisms to evolve. For a planet such as Mars, for instance, microbial habitability was (perhaps still is) at different times and in different places. Habitable conditions conducive to the appearance of life, established life and possibly even dormant life could co-exist at different locations. Reference: [1] F. Westall, D. Loizeau, F. Foucher, N. Bost, M. Bertrand, J. Vago, & G. Kminek, Astrobiology 13:9, 887-897 (2013).

  11. House Prices and Taxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads

    This paper is the first to consider a large scale natural experiment to estimate the effect of taxes on house prices. We find that a 1 percentage-point increase in income tax rates lead to a drop in house prices of at most 2.2%. This corresponds to a tax capitalization for the average household o...

  12. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None

  13. Ndebele Inspired Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Nicole

    2012-01-01

    The house paintings of the South African Ndebele people are more than just an attempt to improve the aesthetics of a community; they are a source of identity and significance for Ndebele women. In this article, the author describes an art project wherein students use the tradition of Ndebele house painting as inspiration for creating their own…

  14. Dream house in Australia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Asgaard

    2004-01-01

    This first book in the Utzon Library, which deals with Utzon's own houses, contains a number of drawings that have not previously been published. This is especially true of the four projects for his house in Bayview, Sydney, which unfortunately never got past the drawing stage, as Utzon had left ...

  15. Sustainable housing in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Hal, A.

    1998-01-01

    There is considerable variation in the extent to which environmental measures are adopted in housing construction in various European countries. Whereas sustainable housing is dearly part of day-to-day building practice in some countries, in others the topic seldom receives serious attention. None o

  16. The Effects of Housing Status, Stability and the Social Contexts of Housing on Drug and Sexual Risk Behaviors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson-Gomez, Julia; McAuliffe, Timothy; Quinn, Katherine

    2017-02-27

    Research on the relationship between housing instability and HIV risk has often focused on two different conceptions of stability. In one conceptualization, housing stability is defined according to physical location with homeless or unstably housed individuals defined as those who reside in places not meant for human habitation or in emergency shelters. The other conceptualization has defined housing stability as individuals' degree of transience, often operationalized as the number of moves or evictions a person has had within a specified amount of time. Less studied has been the social context of living situation, e.g. living with other drug users, conflict over living expenses, or having to have sex in order to stay. This paper uses data from 392 low-income residents in Hartford, CT to explore how people in different housing situations-including those who are housed and homeless-experience housing stability, feelings of security in their homes, and the social context of their housing. We then explore how these varied measures of housing context affect drug use frequency and sexual risk. Results show that participants who are homeless feel more overall housing instability in terms of number of moves and negative reasons for moving. Those who were doubled up with family or friends were more likely to experience conflict over household expenses and more likely to live with drug users. Among homeless and housed, hard drug use was associated with experiencing violence in the place where they lived, perceiving greater housing stability, having moved for a positive reason, doubling up, and longer periods of homelessness, while number of moves and longer prison sentence predicted sexual risk. Among the housed, living with other drug users was associated with more hard drug use, while contributing money toward household expenses was associated with less hard drug use. Two significant interactions were associated with sexual risk among the housed. Those with longer

  17. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Slaug, Bjørn; Brandt, Åse

    2010-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients and their home environments. The instrument was translated...... from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently from each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  18. Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Tina; Brandt, Åse

    2009-01-01

    Development and reliability testing of the Nordic Housing Enabler – an instrument for accessibility assessment of the physical housing. Tina Helle & Åse Brandt University of Lund, Health Sciences, Faculty of Medicine (SE) and University College Northern Jutland, Occupational Therapy department (DK......). Danish Centre for Assistive Technology. Abstract. For decades, accessibility to the physical housing environment for people with functional limitations has been of interest politically, professionally and for the users. Guidelines and norms on accessible housing design have gradually been developed......, however, the built environment shows serious deficits when it comes to accessibility. This study addresses development of a content valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of inter-rater reliability, when used in occupational therapy practice. The instrument was translated from...

  19. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    Sustainable Housing Design. Integrating technical and housing quality aspects of sustainable architecture in civil engineering education. Summary An integrated design approach to sustainable architecture is outlined that combines concerns for zero energy building, good indoor climate and adequate...... phases. The outcome shows that integrated design further solutions where sustainable urban forms of settlement can be highly energy efficient while also attractive from a user perspective. Key words: Sustainable architecture, integrated design, zero-energy-housing, dense urban living. 1. Introduction...... constructions, private and public outdoor space, housing, urban and architectural quality. The educational framework, curriculum and inte-grated design methods are preconditions for optimizing a design process where technical criteria, functional concerns and housing quality are addressed from the initial...

  20. Gestation group housing of sows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoolder, H.A.M.; Vermeer, H.M.

    2015-01-01

    Group housing of gestating sows is currently replacing individual housing systems around the world. Modern group housing systems allow performance in groups to be equal to that in individual housing systems. A crucial element in the success of a housing system is the way in which it deals with

  1. Rethinking Space Design Standards Toward Quality Affordable Housing In Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishak Nor Haniza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Provision of affordable housing is important to low- and middle-income population. A fit form of house will not only fulfil a basic human need for shelter, but it also contributes to physical and psychological well-being of the occupants. Excellent quality and affordable housing is an indication of a high quality of life. While writings exist on various aspects of the quality of affordable housing in Malaysia, discussion regarding space and design standards has scarcely been given any serious academic attention. Standards concerning residential development usually cover different aspects or stages of the development process. They can include planning standards, design standards, space standards and technical construction standards. The main concern of this paper is on space and design standards specifically. Space standard can be defined as a set of framework which dictates fixed internal space minimums. Meanwhile, design standard indicates design guidelines to ensure the functionality, comfortability and habitability of the house. This paper is concerned exclusively with indoor spaces of a house excluding external circulation spaces and service facilities (in case of strata housing. Its interest is in internal space as an aspect of housing quality. It can be concluded that one of the way forward will be to find the balance between providing adequate minimum spaces for resident satisfactions and having economic values for housing developers. This paper may be used as a valuable reference for authorities and policy makers to better address the best housing space design standards that would benefit not only the occupants, but also the local government and developers alike.

  2. The Habitation Lab: Using a Design Approach to Foster Innovation for Sustainable Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Femenías

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available This article describes a first step towards a strategy for using living labs as a means to foster innovation and develop new concepts of sustainable living from an architectural point of view. The overall aim is to enable truly sustainable living through radically reduced energy and resource use thus addressing both environmental and social aspects of sustainability. Earlier research has shown that contemporary housing developments, including those with a sustainable profile, do not profoundly question modern lifestyles and consumption, which is a necessity to overcome limitations of a technological focus on environmental efficiency in construction. Thus, we see an opportunity for the discipline of architecture to engage in current investments in living lab facilities in order to push innovation in the field of sustainable housing. We introduce the concept of a "Habitation Lab", which will provide an arena for radical and high-risk design experimentation between users, building-sector actors, and academia, and we describe a case study of a planned Habitation Lab within a living lab facility where traditional solutions for daily living and habitation are questioned and new architectural innovations are explored and evaluated. The idea of using experimental activities in the field of housing is not new, and we argue that new investments should build on earlier experiences to avoid perpetuating misconceptions and repeating past failures. Furthermore, to ensure the dissemination and uptake of results, the design of the Habitation Lab should consider the innovation and learning trajectories of the building sector. We propose a transdisciplinary setting to provide a neutral arena for value creation and to increase the distribution of experiences.

  3. A Volcanic Hydrogen Habitable Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Ramses M.; Kaltenegger, Lisa

    2017-03-01

    The classical habitable zone (HZ) is the circular region around a star in which liquid water could exist on the surface of a rocky planet. The outer edge of the traditional N2–CO2–H2O HZ extends out to nearly ∼1.7 au in our solar system, beyond which condensation and scattering by CO2 outstrips its greenhouse capacity. Here, we show that volcanic outgassing of atmospheric H2 can extend the outer edge of the HZ to ∼2.4 au in our solar system. This wider volcanic-hydrogen HZ (N2–CO2–H2O–H2) can be sustained as long as volcanic H2 output offsets its escape from the top of the atmosphere. We use a single-column radiative-convective climate model to compute the HZ limits of this volcanic hydrogen HZ for hydrogen concentrations between 1% and 50%, assuming diffusion-limited atmospheric escape. At a hydrogen concentration of 50%, the effective stellar flux required to support the outer edge decreases by ∼35%–60% for M–A stars. The corresponding orbital distances increase by ∼30%–60%. The inner edge of this HZ only moves out ∼0.1%–4% relative to the classical HZ because H2 warming is reduced in dense H2O atmospheres. The atmospheric scale heights of such volcanic H2 atmospheres near the outer edge of the HZ also increase, facilitating remote detection of atmospheric signatures.

  4. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Developments - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The general location of an entire Public Housing Development. A distinct address is chosen to represent the general location of an entire Public Housing Development,...

  5. On the Habitability of Our Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Loeb, Abraham

    2016-01-01

    Is life most likely to emerge at the present cosmic time near a star like the Sun? We consider the habitability of the Universe throughout cosmic history, and conservatively restrict our attention to the context of "life as we know it" and the standard cosmological model, LCDM. The habitable cosmic epoch started shortly after the first stars formed, about 30 Myr after the Big Bang, and will end about 10 Tyr from now, when all stars will die. We review the formation history of habitable planets and find that unless habitability around low mass stars is suppressed, life is most likely to exist near 0.1 solar mass stars ten trillion years from now. Spectroscopic searches for biosignatures in the atmospheres of transiting Earth-mass planets around low mass stars will determine whether present-day life is indeed premature or typical from a cosmic perspective.

  6. Alaska Steller Sea Lion Food Habits Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains food habits samples, usually scats, collected opportunistically on Steller sea lion rookeries and haulouts in Alaska from 1985 to present....

  7. Marine Mammal Food Habits Reference Collections

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Mammal Laboratory (NMML) Food Habits Reference Collection, containing over 8000 specimens of cephalopod beaks and fish bones and otoliths, is...

  8. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillermo Gonzalez

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe.

  9. Habitability of Planets Orbiting Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Barnes, Rory; Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Heller, Rene; Jackson, Brian; Lopez-Morales, Mercedes; Tanner, Angelle; Gomez-Perez, Natalia; Ruedas, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Terrestrial planets are more likely to be detected if they orbit M dwarfs due to the favorable planet/star size and mass ratios. However, M dwarf habitable zones are significantly closer to the star than the one around our Sun, which leads to different requirements for planetary habitability and its detection. We review 1) the current limits to detection, 2) the role of M dwarf spectral energy distributions on atmospheric chemistry, 3) tidal effects, stressing that tidal locking is not synonymous with synchronous rotation, 4) the role of atmospheric mass loss and propose that some habitable worlds may be the volatile-rich, evaporated cores of giant planets, and 5) the role of planetary rotation and magnetic field generation, emphasizing that slow rotation does not preclude strong magnetic fields and their shielding of the surface from stellar activity. Finally we present preliminary findings of the NASA Astrobiology Institute's workshop "Revisiting the Habitable Zone." We assess the recently-announced planet ...

  10. Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_161640.html Women Reaching Equality in Dubious Habit: Drinking Females also ... 25, 2016 MONDAY, Oct. 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Women have made major strides towards equality with men, ...

  11. The basic principles of habit formation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Everything you ever achieve in life is up to yon. The only limits you actually have are those placed by your own imagination. Therefore, take complete control of your life by consciously choosing the habits you develop.

  12. Setting the Stage for Habitable Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Our understanding of the processes that are relevant to the formation and maintenance of habitable planetary systems is advancing at a rapid pace, both from observation and theory. The present review focuses on recent research that bears on this topic and includes discussions of processes occurring in astrophysical, geophysical and climatic contexts, as well as the temporal evolution of planetary habitability. Special attention is given to recent observations of exoplanets and their host stars and the theories proposed to explain the observed trends. Recent theories about the early evolution of the Solar System and how they relate to its habitability are also summarized. Unresolved issues requiring additional research are pointed out, and a framework is provided for estimating the number of habitable planets in the Universe. PMID:25370028

  13. Canvasback Food Habits in Chesapeake Bay

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Food habits analyses were conducted on the gullet and gizzards of 153 canvasbacks (Aythya valisineria) collected at night from eight major wintering areas in...

  14. Teaching Your Child Healthy Hair Care Habits

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... public", "mcat1=de12", ]; for (var c = 0; c Teaching your child healthy hair care habits Many common ... your hair. Damaged hair looks and feels unhealthy. Teaching your child how to shampoo Healthy hair care ...

  15. SOME SLAUGHTER-HOUSE RATES OF HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vlasta Mandić

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Nowdays horses are raised and used almost only for sport and recreation and, of course, for meat production. With the possibility of buying fresh horse meat and products based on horse meat, new eating habits have been acquired. The number of horses in the Republic of Croatia has been decreasing continually, which can result in import rather than in export of horse meat, unless a proper and a good breeding plan for horse meat production is made soon. In existing small private slaughter-houses, together with other animals, horses are slaughtered but in a very small number (just to meet the needs of the market. As those horses are of different genetic bases, (mostly cold blooded and cross-bred as well as of different age, sex and physical shape, the slaughter-house yield greatly varies. Due to some injuries, blindenss or lameness horses are killed coercively as to gain minimal profit. In distinction from other animals where the percentage of carcass yield is very high, sloughter-house yield of horse carcass is not high due to a small number of killed animals

  16. Exploring snacking habits of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Jihane W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that adolescents have the highest prevalence of unsatisfactory nutritional status and unstructured eating patterns. They also recognized the importance of snacks in the eating habits of this population group. The purpose of this study was to investigate the snacking habits of undergraduate college students, and their correlations with the populationâ s general eating practices and response to nutrition education Two hundred eighty four students taking a nutr...

  17. Exploring snacking habits of college students

    OpenAIRE

    Hanania, Jihane W.

    1989-01-01

    Previous research has revealed that adolescents have the highest prevalence of unsatisfactory nutritional status and unstructured eating patterns. They also recognized the importance of snacks in the eating habits of this population group. The purpose of this study was to investigate the snacking habits of undergraduate college students, and their correlations with the populationâ s general eating practices and response to nutrition education Two hundred eighty four students taking a nutr...

  18. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per...

  19. Habitable worlds with no signs of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S

    2014-04-28

    'Most habitable worlds in the cosmos will have no remotely detectable signs of life' is proposed as a biological hypothesis to be tested in the study of exoplanets. Habitable planets could be discovered elsewhere in the Universe, yet there are many hypothetical scenarios whereby the search for life on them could yield negative results. Scenarios for habitable worlds with no remotely detectable signatures of life include: planets that are habitable, but have no biosphere (Uninhabited Habitable Worlds); planets with life, but lacking any detectable surface signatures of that life (laboratory examples are provided); and planets with life, where the concentrations of atmospheric gases produced or removed by biota are impossible to disentangle from abiotic processes because of the lack of detailed knowledge of planetary conditions (the 'problem of exoplanet thermodynamic uncertainty'). A rejection of the hypothesis would require that the origin of life usually occurs on habitable planets, that spectrally detectable pigments and/or metabolisms that produce unequivocal biosignature gases (e.g. oxygenic photosynthesis) usually evolve and that the organisms that harbour them usually achieve a sufficient biomass to produce biosignatures detectable to alien astronomers.

  20. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  1. Housing Affordability Data System (HADS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Housing Affordability Data System (HADS) is a set of files derived from the 1985 and later national American Housing Survey (AHS) and the 2002 and later Metro...

  2. National Center for Healthy Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Resources Search NCHH Resources Ask NCHH Blog Building Materials and Products Consumer Survey Healthcare Financing How Can We Help You? Additional Resources Healthy Housing Clearinghouse Healthy Housing Links Healthy Housing Videos Lead ...

  3. The Housing Bubble Fact Sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Dean Baker

    2005-01-01

    This paper explains the basic facts about the current housing market. It lays out the evidence that the rise in housing prices constitutes a housing bubble - and explains what can be expected when it inevitably collapses.

  4. Make the High School Library a "Habit" for Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowling, Barbara L.

    2012-01-01

    How long does it take to form a habit? Recent research done at the University College London by Phillippa Lally and colleagues suggest it takes an average of sixty-six days to form a new habit. Other research indicates that rewards make habits easier to form, but it takes repetition to form a habit. A literature review conducted for Pearson…

  5. Developing Good Habits of Learning English from Senior One

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄益琴

    2009-01-01

    Senior one is the most important period of the whole senior stage, it h necessary for students to form good habits of learning at the beginning. Based on the discussion of necessity of forming good habits, this paper talks about the methods of cultivating students' good habits of learning and concludes that good habits can benefit them a lot.

  6. Appropriate Strategies for Rural Houses In Northwest China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Quan; LIU Jia-ping; LU Xiao-hui; YANG Liu

    2009-01-01

    To avoid the old road of urban development with high consumption and high pollution,this paper took the houses in a village near Yinchuan(a typical city of Northwest China)as an exemplary proiect to explore the appropriate strategies in the arid cold climate for the sustainable devdopment in rural undeveloped areas Northwest China.Firstly,all houses were designed according to the principles of passive solar heating.Second-ly,optimized biomass energy technologies such as biogas pit and straw gasification stove were utilized for cooking or heating.Last but not the least important,the ecological building materials such as earth,straw bale,fly ash were used to construct houses,which improves the indoor thermal comfort and meanwhile lowers the negative impact on the environment.Low costs,easy accessibility and habitants'inclination were taken into account in the process of design.

  7. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2013-03-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project.

  8. Rental Housing Finance Survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The purpose of the RHFS is to provide current and continuous measure of the financial health and property characteristics of single-family and multifamily rental...

  9. State Housing Revival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donovan, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Government funded housing for people in need is a challenge many countries face around the world. This research investigates how to sustainably regenerate post-war suburban state housing in New Zealand, in particular, the suburb of Glen Innes in Auckland. Reviving the community and regenerating...... the buildings is essential for improving the overall quality of the neighbourhoods both socially and physically. Achieving this in a holistic sustainable manner illustrates that there are alternatives to demolition and new builds, as the answer to the current housing shortage problems. New Zealand is confronted...... with the dilemma of what to do with existing government-funded housing which are no longer socially or physically suitable for the current demographic. New Zealand has a large cultural diversity with many new immigrants from the Pacific Islands and Asia. There is a need for culturally flexible and inclusive...

  10. Gingerbread-House Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emenaker, Charles E.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a sixth-grade interdisciplinary geometry unit based on Charles Dickens's "A Christmas Carol". Focuses on finding area, volume, and perimeter, and working with estimation, decimals, and fractions in the context of making gingerbread houses. (ASK)

  11. Legislative Districts - House Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This layer represents the Arkansas State House of Representatives district boundaries adopted by the Arkansas Board of Apportionment on July 29, 2011. The Board of...

  12. In-house (disability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safak Pavey

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In May 2007 UNHCR established an internal working group to look at developing in-house policies for people with disabilities both for the benefit of people of concern to us and for staff members.

  13. Rotating housing turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allouche, Erez; Jaganathan, Arun P.

    2016-10-11

    The invention is a new turbine structure having a housing that rotates. The housing has a sidewall, and turbine blades are attached to a sidewall portion. The turbine may be completely open in the center, allowing space for solids and debris to be directed out of the turbine without jamming the spinning blades/sidewall. The turbine may be placed in a generator for generation of electrical current.

  14. In a Private House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexei Volkov

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article features the advantages of living in a private house, such as feeling of privacy and safety and redistribution of roles between spouses, which have a positive impact on the family relationships, housekeeping and raising children. Besides, living in the country allows to cut down expenses: energy efficiency of present-day building materials enables to build a warm private house with minimum expenditure on warming, and with the possibility to freely regulate the heating system.

  15. No Full House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Housing provident funds are plagued by non-use and embezzlement Embezzlement on a grand scale is sending shock waves through the Chinese provident fund industry. During 2005, a host of incidents were made public, with several serious cases involving funds of over 100 million yuan ($12.5 million). Recently, Liu Xiangyang, Director of Hengyang Housing Provident Fund Center in central China's Hunan Province, was charged with the embezzlement of 253 mil

  16. Energy Analysis of a Student-Designed Solar House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Wermager

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings from an undergraduate research project concerning the energy efficiency, consumption, and generation of a 1000 ft2 (92.9 m2 solar house. The results were compared to a home of similar size and layout, built using traditional construction methods. The solar house was modeled after the Chameleon House: Missouri University of Science and Technology’s 2013 entry in the U.S. Department of Energy Solar Decathlon. The efficiency of the design was analyzed using Energy-10 Version 1.8 software. For this comparison, a fictional American couple was created and a breakdown of their energy-use habits was recorded to accurately depict the magnitude of energy consumption. A 71% energy savings was forecasted using the Energy-10 software through the incorporation of various energy-conserving strategies in the home’s design. In addition, if a 9.1 kW photovoltaic array is also installed on a home of this size, it is possible to fully offset the energy consumption of the home. The forecasted energy usage and production detailed in this report shall be used for analyzing the integrity of the design of the Chameleon House as well as future solar houses constructed by the Missouri S&T Solar House Team.

  17. Passive houses in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halse, Andreas

    2008-12-15

    The paper analyzes the introduction of passive houses in the Norwegian house market. Passive houses are houses with extremely low levels of energy consumption for heating, and have not yet been built in Norway, but have started to enter the market in Germany and some other countries. The construction sector is analyzed as a sectoral innovation system. The different elements of the innovation system are studied. This includes government agencies, producers, consumers, finance and education. The analysis shows that passive and low-energy houses are on the verge of market breakthrough. This can partly be explained by economic calculations, and partly by processes of learning and change in the institutional set-up of the sector. The construction sector is a sector characterized by low innovative intensity and little interaction between different agents. Those working to promote passive houses have to some extent managed to cope with these challenges. This has happened by breaking away from the traditional focus of Norwegian energy efficiency policies on technology and the economically rational agents, by instead focusing on knowledge and institutional change at the level of the producers. (Author)

  18. The Nordic Housing Enabler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, T.; Nygren, C.; Slaug, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument was transla......This study addresses development of a content-valid cross-Nordic version of the Housing Enabler and investigation of its inter-rater reliability when used in occupational therapy rating situations, involving occupational therapists, clients, and their home environments. The instrument...... was translated from the original Swedish version of the Housing Enabler, and adapted according to accessibility norms and guidelines for housing design in Sweden, Denmark, Finland, and Iceland. This iterative process involved occupational therapists, architects, building engineers, and professional translators......, resulting in the Nordic Housing Enabler. For reliability testing, the sampling strategy and data collection procedures used were the same in all countries. Twenty voluntary occupational therapists, pair-wise but independently of each other, collected data from 106 cases by means of the Nordic Housing...

  19. The power of habits: Unhealthy snacking behaviour is primarily predicted by habit strength.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhoeven, A.A.C.; Adriaanse, M.A.; Evers, C.; De Ridder, D.T.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objective. Although increasing evidence shows the importance of habits in explaining health behaviour, many studies still rely solely on predictors that emphasize the role of conscious intentions. The present study was designed to test the importance of habit strength in explaining unhealthy snackin

  20. A New Look at Habits and the Habit-Goal Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Wendy; Neal, David T.

    2007-01-01

    The present model outlines the mechanisms underlying habitual control of responding and the ways in which habits interface with goals. Habits emerge from the gradual learning of associations between responses and the features of performance contexts that have historically covaried with them (e.g., physical settings, preceding actions). Once a…

  1. Habitable Climates: The Influence of Eccentricity

    CERN Document Server

    Dressing, Courtney D; Scharf, Caleb A; Raymond, Sean N

    2010-01-01

    Radiative equilibrium studies that place Earth-like exoplanets on different circular orbits from the parent star do not fully sample the range of plausible habitability conditions in planetary systems. In the outer regions of the habitable zone, the risk of transitioning into a globally frozen "snowball" state poses a threat to the habitability. Here, we use a one-dimensional energy balance climate model (EBM) to examine how obliquity, spin rate, orbital eccentricity, and the fraction of the surface covered by ocean might influence the onset of such a snowball state. Since, for constant semimajor axis, the annual mean stellar irradiation scales with (1-e^2)^(-1/2), one might expect the greatest habitable semimajor axis to scale as (1-e^2)^(-1/4). We find that this standard simple ansatz provides a reasonable lower bound on the outer boundary of the habitable zone, but the influence of both obliquity and ocean fraction can be profound in the context of planets on eccentric orbits. For planets with eccentricity...

  2. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  3. Deciphering spectral fingerprints of habitable exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenegger, Lisa; Selsis, Frank; Fridlund, Malcolm; Lammer, Helmut; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Léger, Alain; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Paresce, Francesco; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    We discuss how to read a planet's spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have advanced to a level where we now have the capability to find planets of less than 10 Earth masses (M(Earth)) (so-called "super Earths"), which may be habitable. How can we characterize those planets and assess whether they are habitable? This new field of exoplanet search has shown an extraordinary capacity to combine research in astrophysics, chemistry, biology, and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understanding our place in the Universe. The results of a first-generation mission will most likely generate an amazing scope of diverse planets that will set planet formation, evolution, and our planet into an overall context.

  4. Deciphering Spectral Fingerprints of Habitable Extrasolar Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L; Fridlund, M; Lammer, H; Beichman, Ch; Danchi, W; Eiroa, C; Henning, T; Herbst, T; Léger, A; Liseau, R; Lunine, J; Paresce, F; Penny, A; Quirrenbach, A; Roettgering, H; Schneider, J; Stam, D; Tinetti, G; White, G J

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss how we can read a planets spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. After a decade rich in giant exoplanet detections, observation techniques have now reached the ability to find planets of less than 10 MEarth (so called Super-Earths) that may potentially be habitable. How can we characterize those planets and assess if they are habitable? The new field of extrasolar planet search has shown an extraordinary ability to combine research by astrophysics, chemistry, biology and geophysics into a new and exciting interdisciplinary approach to understand our place in the universe. The results of a first generation mission will most likely result in an amazing scope of diverse planets that will set planet formation, evolution as well as our planet in an overall context.

  5. Geophysical and atmospheric evolution of habitable planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammer, Helmut; Selsis, Frank; Chassefière, Eric; Breuer, Doris; Griessmeier, Jean-Mathias; Kulikov, Yuri N; Erkaev, Nikolai V; Khodachenko, Maxim L; Biernat, Helfried K; Leblanc, Francois; Kallio, Esa; Lundin, Richard; Westall, Frances; Bauer, Siegfried J; Beichman, Charles; Danchi, William; Eiroa, Carlos; Fridlund, Malcolm; Gröller, Hannes; Hanslmeier, Arnold; Hausleitner, Walter; Henning, Thomas; Herbst, Tom; Kaltenegger, Lisa; Léger, Alain; Leitzinger, Martin; Lichtenegger, Herbert I M; Liseau, René; Lunine, Jonathan; Motschmann, Uwe; Odert, Petra; Paresce, Francesco; Parnell, John; Penny, Alan; Quirrenbach, Andreas; Rauer, Heike; Röttgering, Huub; Schneider, Jean; Spohn, Tilman; Stadelmann, Anja; Stangl, Günter; Stam, Daphne; Tinetti, Giovanna; White, Glenn J

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of Earth-like habitable planets is a complex process that depends on the geodynamical and geophysical environments. In particular, it is necessary that plate tectonics remain active over billions of years. These geophysically active environments are strongly coupled to a planet's host star parameters, such as mass, luminosity and activity, orbit location of the habitable zone, and the planet's initial water inventory. Depending on the host star's radiation and particle flux evolution, the composition in the thermosphere, and the availability of an active magnetic dynamo, the atmospheres of Earth-like planets within their habitable zones are differently affected due to thermal and nonthermal escape processes. For some planets, strong atmospheric escape could even effect the stability of the atmosphere.

  6. Environmental Signatures for Habitability: What to Measure and How to Rank the Habitability Potential of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Eigenbrode, Jennifer L.; Mahaffy, Paul M.; Steele, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    The environmental signatures for habitability are not necessarily biosignatures, even though on Earth, they are definitive proof of habitability. It is the constant overprint of the chemical signatures of life that makes it difficult to recognize the chemical and physical properties of a potentially habitable environment as distinct from an inhabited one. Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) will soon embark on a mission to Mars to assess its past or present habitability, so it is useful to examine how we measure habitability on Earth and prepare for how that approach may differ for Mars. This exercise includes: (a) articulation of fundamental assumptions about habitability, (b) an inventory of factors that affect habitability, (c) development of metrics, measurement approach and implementation, and (d) a new classification scheme for planetary habitability that goes beyond the binary "yes" or "no." There may be dozens of factors that affect habitability and they can be weighted as a function of specific environment. However a robotic, in situ investigation even on Earth has constraints that prevent the measurement of every environmental factor, so metrics must be reduced to the most relevant subset, given available time, cost, technical feasibility and scientific importance. Many of the factors could be measured with a combination of orbital data and the MSL payload. We propose that, at a minimum, a designation of high habitability potential requires the following conditions be met: (a) thermally stable with respect to extremes and frequency of fluctuation, (b) has more than one energy source, (c) sufficient chemical diversity to make compounds with covalent and hydrogen bonding, (d) can moderate ionizing radiation enough to allow a stable or evolving pool of organic molecules, (e) must have water or other high quality polar solvent, (f) must be able to renew chemical resources (e.g., plate tectonics, volcanism or something else we haven't envisioned). A measurement

  7. Influence of the socialist ideology on the conception of multi-family housing: New urban landscape and the typological models of housing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ristić-Trajković Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper explores the ideological influences in the period of the socialist system on the new urban landscape, and also on design of the typological models of residential units built in Belgrade. After the Second World War, one of the main policy goals of socialism was to solve the housing problems of Belgrade, by building the modern, serially manufactured and economical housing architecture. The period of intensive construction of housing architecture of Belgrade in the period of socialist self-management is primarily related to the achieved quality of housing in this period in terms of environment humanization and functional organization of housing units. This paper explores new concepts and principles of housing architecture with the emphasis on the impact of spatial-functional apartment transformation on the family lifestyle and the formation of a new socialist culture of dwelling. Since the problem of housing is interdisciplinary, the transformation is studied out through detecting the relations of cause and effect among ideological social changes, culture of habitation, technical and technological criteria and functional-spatial house structure. The modern housing urbanism and architecture has become a representation of social, political, economic, demographic and cultural changes of the period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR36034 i br. OI179048

  8. Social Housing Provision in Copenhagen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsenkova, Sasha; Vestergaard, Hedvig

    The paper provides an overview of trends and processes of change affecting new social housing provision in Denmark with a focus on Copenhagen. The local responses are reviewed within the context of changes to the unitary national housing system that functions with a robust range of private and non......-profit housing providers, and a wide range of fiscal and regulatory instruments enhancing the competitive performance of the social housing sector. The research analyses recent housing policy measures and their impact on new social housing provision in Copenhagen. The emphasis is on the mix of housing policy...... instruments implemented in three major policy domains-fiscal, financial and regulatory-to promote the production of new social housing. The system of new social housing provision is examined as a dynamic process of interaction between public and private institutions defining housing policy outcomes...

  9. Stishovite: Thermal Dependence of the Crystal Habit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sclar, C B; Carrison, L C; Cocks, G G

    1964-05-15

    The crystal habit of stishovite changes with the temperature of crystallization at a pressure of about 120 kb. Below 600 degrees C it is bipyramidal; between 600 degrees and 900 degrees C it is granular; and above 900 degrees C it is acicular. This temperature dependence of the crystal habit of stishovite may constitute a highpressure geological thermometer which could indicate limiting values for the peak temperatures that prevailed at craters of meteoritic origin in highly siliceous rocks. It suggests that natural acicular stishovite from the rim sandstone at Meteor Crater, Arizona, crystallized at temperatures above 900 degrees C.

  10. The Five Habits of the Master Thinker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randolph H. Pherson

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Often analysts will observe that they do not have enough time to use Structured Analytic Techniques. When presented with this challenge by analysts in the UK Cabinet Office, the author came up with the following response: Develop these five habits when you have time so that when time is short you have developed a capacity to use them instinctively. This article describes the Five Habits of the Master Thinker in detail, reviews how they were selected, and explores how they can most easily be inculcated into how an analyst processes information.

  11. Analysis of the electric shock incident relations to bad habits in consumption; Analise da ocorrencia de choques eletricos relacionados a maus habitos de consumo de energia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkokebas Junior, B. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Nucleo de Seguranca e Higiene do Trabalho (NSHT)]|[Universidade Catolica de Pernambuco (UNICAP), Recife, PE (Brazil)]. E-mail: barkokebas@smartsat.com.br; Veras, J.C. [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Programa de Pos-graduacao em Engenharia de Producao (PPGEP)]. E-mail: julianansht@upe.poli.br.; Souza, S.S.B. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Nucleo de Seguranca e Higiene do Trabalho (NSHT)]. E-mail: julianansht@upe.poli.br; Moraes, W.L.; Coelho, F.G.L. [Universidade de Pernambuco (UPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Escola Politecnica (POLI)]. E-mail: wilkernsht@upe.poli.br; fabianonsht@upe.poli.br; Souza, L.A.

    2004-07-01

    This article analyzes the occurrence of electric shocks in houses and its relationship with the bad habits of energy consumption in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, identifying the factors that deflagrate them, and generating indicators that allow preventive actions for combating the accidents in homes.

  12. Domotics Project Housing Block.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morón, Carlos; Payán, Alejandro; García, Alfonso; Bosquet, Francisco

    2016-05-23

    This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  13. Domotics Project Housing Block

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morón

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This document develops the study of an implementation project of a home automation system in a housing placed in the town of Galapagar, Madrid. This house, which is going to be occupied by a four-member family, consists of 67 constructed square meters distributed in lounge, kitchen, three bedrooms, bath, bathroom and terrace, this being a common arrangement in Spain. Thus, this study will allow extracting conclusions about the adequacy of the home automation in a wide percentage of housing in Spain. In this document, three house automation proposals are developed based on the requirements of the client and the different home automation levels that the Spanish House and Building Automation Association has established, besides two parallel proposals relating to the safety and the technical alarms. The mentioned proposed systems are described by means of product datasheets and descriptions, distribution plans, measurements, budgets and flow charts that describe the functioning of the system in every case. An evaluation of each system is included, based on other studies conclusions on this matter, where expected energy savings from each design, depending on the current cost of lighting, water and gas, as well as the expected economic amortization period is evaluated.

  14. The book house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Niels Henrik; Agger, Steen

    1989-01-01

    The BOOK HOUSE (and its predecessor, the BOOK AUTOMAT) are computer systems aimed at supporting library users in finding fiction. They are examples of systems using a cognitive work analysis as the basis for design and evaluation - and build on studies of the information retrieval task using actual...... user-librarian negotiations. These studies led to the identification of a set of strategies for searching and retrieving literature as well as a mutri-kimensional framework for classifying fiction. Both of these have been necessary prerequisites for the design of the BOOK HOUSE, a flexible on-line data...... base retrieval system for novice users - both adults and children. The use of icons within a spatial metaphor to facilitate direct manipulation of the displayed objects on the screen forms the basis for the interface in guiding the users' navigation in the BOOK HOUSE. This report, one of three...

  15. Situation based housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duelund Mortensen, Peder; Welling, Helen; Wiell Nordberg, Lene

    2007-01-01

    of approaches to these goals. This working paper reviews not only a selection of new housing types, but also dwellings from the past, which each contain an aspect of changeability. Our study is based on information from users in the selected housing schemes, gathered from questionnaires, information about...... personal furnishing and zoning as well as interviews. The study is also based on analyses of the architectural configurations of space, light and materiality. Our main question is: can the goal of architectural quality be maintained together with greater possibilities for individual development...... research results will be employed to create a categorization of housing suitable for changing life conditions and with a strong emphasis on high architectural quality...

  16. New electronic habit reminder for the management of thumb-sucking habit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinath Krishnappa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for intervention of nonnutritive sucking habits include counseling, positive reinforcement, calendar with rewards, adhesive bandage, bitter nail polish, long sleeves, and appliance therapy. All these methods have been reported in the literature with variable success rates. We present a case of an 8-year-old child with thumb-sucking habit successfully managed in a short period of 5 months by a new electronic habit reminder, an extraoral appliance which was designed to overcome the disadvantages associated with intraoral appliances.

  17. GREEN CORE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NECULAI Oana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The Green Core House is a construction concept with low environmental impact, having as main central element a greenhouse. The greenhouse has the innovative role to use the biomass energy provided by plants to save energy. Although it is the central piece, the greenhouse is not the most innovative part of the Green Core House, but the whole building ensemble because it integrates many other sustainable systems as "waste purification systems", "transparent photovoltaic panels" or "double skin façades".

  18. Reading Habit Promotion in ASEAN Libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sangkaeo, Somsong

    This paper describes the activities of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) libraries have undertaken to promote reading by increasing awareness among their people. First, factors limiting reading habits in ASEAN libraries are addressed, including: we are not a reading society, but a chatting society; the management of "3…

  19. Habitability of planets around red dwarf stars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, M J; Doyle, L R; Joshi, M M; Haberle, R M

    1999-08-01

    Recent models indicate that relatively moderate climates could exist on Earth-sized planets in synchronous rotation around red dwarf stars. Investigation of the global water cycle, availability of photosynthetically active radiation in red dwarf sunlight, and the biological implications of stellar flares, which can be frequent for red dwarfs, suggests that higher plant habitability of red dwarf planets may be possible.

  20. Newspaper Readership Habits in the Black Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbons, R. Arnold

    This is a report of a survey conducted to determine newspaper readership habits of persons living within the circulation of the "Amsterdam News," a black weekly published in New York City. The survey was conducted with the purpose of increasing advertising revenues and assisting the management of the "Amsterdam News" with…

  1. Listening Habits of iPod Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Michael; Marozeau, Jeremy; Cleveland, Sandra

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To estimate real-environment iPod listening levels for listeners in 4 environments to gain insight into whether average listeners receive dosages exceeding occupational noise exposure guidelines as a result of their listening habits. Method: The earbud outputs of iPods were connected directly into the inputs of a digital recorder to make…

  2. Habitable planets around the star Gl 581?

    CERN Document Server

    Selsis, Franck; Levrard, B; Paillet, J; Ribas, I; Delfosse, X

    2007-01-01

    Radial velocity surveys are now able to detect terrestrial planets at habitable distance from M-type stars. Recently, two planets with minimum masses below 10 Earth masses were reported in a triple system around the M-type star Gliese 581. Using results from atmospheric models and constraints from the evolution of Venus and Mars, we assess the habitability of planets Gl 581c and Gl 581d and we discuss the uncertainties affecting the habitable zone (HZ) boundaries determination. We provide simplified formulae to estimate the HZ limits that may be used to evaluate the astrobiological potential of terrestrial exoplanets that will hopefully be discovered in the near future. Planets Gl 581c and 'd' are near, but outside, what can be considered as the conservative HZ. Planet 'c' receives 30% more energy from its star than Venus from the Sun, with an increased radiative forcing caused by the spectral energy distribution of Gl 581. Its habitability cannot however be positively ruled out by theoretical models due to u...

  3. [Smoking habit among workers in Campania region].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, U; Napolano, F; Boggia, B; Esposito, A; Lettieri, M; Nigro, E; Visciglio, L; Farinaro, E

    2007-01-01

    Smoking is still now the main avoidable cause of disease, disability and mortality in industrialized countries. This habit is still very common in workplaces, where anti-smoke efforts seem to be less incisive than among general populations. The study analyzed the diffusion of smoke habit in 8111 male workers in Campania region, employed in different work activities (white collars, blue collars, drivers, cleaning civil servants, porters), so as to evaluate work related features, affecting its assumption and maintenance. Among all workers, smokers prevalence (42.7%) was higher than national male population. Percentages of smokers were highest among drivers (60.7%) and civil servants (52.5%), slightly lower among industry workers (47.3%) and lower among white collars (36.4%). The highest prevalence were found in 41-50 years age group (46.8%), but only among white collars aging was associated with higher smokers prevalence. Lower education degrees and two working variables, shifts and handwork, have been related with significantly smoking habit assumption. Results emphasized that health promotional programs are necessary to reduce smoke habit among workers, particularly among professionally and culturally unqualified subgroups.

  4. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product...

  5. Relationship of Study Habits with Mathematics Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odiri, Onoshakpokaiye E.

    2015-01-01

    The study examined the relationship of study habits of students and their achievement in mathematics. The method used for the study was correlation design. A sample of 500 students were randomly selected from 25 public secondary schools in Delta Central Senatorial District, Delta State, Nigeria. Questionnaires were drawn to gather data on…

  6. On the radius of habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Alibert, Yann

    2013-01-01

    The conditions that a planet must fulfill to be habitable are not precisely known. However, it is comparatively easier to define conditions under which a planet is very likely not habitable. Finding such conditions is important as it can help select, in an ensemble of potentially observable planets, which ones should be observed in greater detail for characterization studies. Assuming, as in the Earth, that the presence of a C-cycle is a necessary condition for long-term habitability, we derive, as a function of the planetary mass, a radius above which a planet is likely not habitable. We compute the maximum radius a planet can have to fulfill two constraints: surface conditions compatible with the existence of liquid water, and no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met. We compute internal structure models of planets, using a five-layer model (core, inner mantle, outer mantle, ocean, and atmosphere), for different mas...

  7. [Nutritional habits, sleep and sexual life].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Georges; Vlatkovic, Dejan; Abraham, Livia

    2015-12-09

    Eating habits not only include nourishment, but also an emotional outlet, which can encompass the intensity of appetit, food preferences. Food in general could be perhaps the underline cause for conflicts within the couple. Surprisingly, eating could take priority over sexuality.

  8. Stability of habitable exomoons of circumbinary planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satyal, Suman; Haghighipour, Nader; Quarles, Billy

    2015-12-01

    Among the currently known Kepler circumbinary planets, three, namely Kepler-453b, Kepler-16b, and Kepler-47c are in the binary habitable zone (HZ). Given the large sizes of these planets, it is unlikely that they would be habitable. However, similar to the giant planets in our solar system, these planets may have large moons, which orbit their host planets while in the HZ. These exomoons, if exist, present viable candidates for habitability. As a condition for habitability, the planet-moon system has to maintain its orbital stability for long time. Usually, the empirical formula by Holeman & Wiegert (1999) is used as a measure of orbital stability in circumbinary systems. However, this formula was obtained by assuming planets to be test particles and therefore does not include possible perturbation of the planet on the binary. In this work, we present results of more realistic calculations of stability of circumbinary planets where the interactions between planets and their central binaries are taken into account. We map the region of stability, which in this case will be specific to each system, and determine the range of the orbital parameters of the moons for which their orbits will be long-term stable.

  9. Reading Habits and Attitudes of UMSKAL Undergraduates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shameem Ahmed

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Effective reading is essential for success in acquiring a foreign language (Mikulecky 2008. Students have to read a wide range of textbooks and related materials at the tertiary level. Lack of adequate reading habit is, therefore, bound to impede students’ progress towards mastery of a foreign language. This study investigated reading habits and attitudes on reading of the undergraduate students attending ESL courses at a public university in Malaysia. For data collection, a 35 item questionnaire based on the Adult Survey of Reading Attitude (ASRA from the work of Smith (1991 were designed and administered on around 314 students. The questionnaire investigated the students’ general habit, preferences, and attitude towards reading. This study was based on the following research questions: What are the reading habits of these undergraduate students? What are the attitudes of these students to reading as a useful language learning skill? What are the reading preferences of these undergraduate students? The research findings through qualitative analysis revealed that the undergraduate students had an overall positive attitude towards reading in spite of their minimal enjoyment of it and the resulting anxieties and difficulties they face. Based on the findings, few recommendations were made to improve reading among those undergraduates.

  10. Planetary science: Bypassing the habitable zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2017-08-01

    In our own solar system, Venus is too hot, Mars is too cold and Earth is just right. Simulations show that making an icy planet habitable is not as simple as melting its ice: many icy bodies swing from too cold to too hot, bypassing just right.

  11. Tidal obliquity evolution of potentially habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Barnes, Rory

    2011-01-01

    Stellar insolation has been used as the main constraint on a planet's habitability. However, as more Earth-like planets are discovered around low-mass stars (LMSs), a re-examination of the role of tides on the habitability of exoplanets has begun. Those studies have yet to consider the misalignment between a planet's rotational axis and the orbital plane normal, i.e. the planetary obliquity. We apply two equilibrium tide theories to compute the obliquity evolution of terrestrial planets orbiting in the habitable zones around LMSs. The time for the obliquity to decrease from an Earth-like obliquity of 23.5 deg to 5 deg, the 'tilt erosion time', is compared to the traditional insolation habitable zone (IHZ) as a function of semi-major axis, eccentricity, and stellar mass. We also compute tidal heating and equilibrium rotation caused by obliquity tides. The Super-Earth Gl581d and the planet candidate Gl581g are studied as examples for tidal processes. Earth-like obliquities of terrestrial planets in the IHZ arou...

  12. Habitable zone limits for dry planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Yutaka; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Sleep, Norman H; Zahnle, Kevin J

    2011-06-01

    Most discussion of habitable planets has focused on Earth-like planets with globally abundant liquid water. For an "aqua planet" like Earth, the surface freezes if far from its sun, and the water vapor greenhouse effect runs away if too close. Here we show that "land planets" (desert worlds with limited surface water) have wider habitable zones than aqua planets. For planets at the inner edge of the habitable zone, a land planet has two advantages over an aqua planet: (i) the tropics can emit longwave radiation at rates above the traditional runaway limit because the air is unsaturated and (ii) the dry air creates a dry stratosphere that limits hydrogen escape. At the outer limits of the habitable zone, the land planet better resists global freezing because there is less water for clouds, snow, and ice. Here we describe a series of numerical experiments using a simple three-dimensional global climate model for Earth-sized planets. Other things (CO(2), rotation rate, surface pressure) unchanged, we found that liquid water remains stable at the poles of a low-obliquity land planet until net insolation exceeds 415 W/m(2) (170% that of modern Earth), compared to 330 W/m(2) (135%) for the aqua planet. At the outer limits, we found that a low-obliquity land planet freezes at 77%, while the aqua planet freezes at 90%. High-obliquity land and aqua planets freeze at 58% and 72%, respectively, with the poles offering the last refuge. We show that it is possible that, as the Sun brightens, an aqua planet like Earth can lose most of its hydrogen and become a land planet without first passing through a sterilizing runaway greenhouse. It is possible that Venus was a habitable land planet as recently as 1 billion years ago.

  13. Housing price forecastability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bork, Lasse; Møller, Stig Vinther

    2012-01-01

    We examine US housing price forecastability using a common factor approach based on a large panel of 122 economic time series. We …nd that a simple three-factor model generates an explanatory power of about 50% in one-quarter ahead in-sample forecasting regressions. The predictive power of the mo...

  14. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  15. The Helpful House

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    Many everyday tasks are difficult—even impossible for people confined to wheelchairs.Now a unique house near Baltimore,Md., demonstrates how technology can make a building truly accessible. Developed by Volunteers for Medical Engineering in conjunction with several nonprofit organizations, Future Home takes advantage of off-the-shelf electronic controls that operate nearly all electrical and mechanical systems.

  16. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  17. Housing Design: A Manual

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leupen, B.; Mooij, H.

    2011-01-01

    This manual sheds light on every aspect of designing housing. The organization of the living space and the residential building is dealt with systematically, from the breadth, depth, stacking, access to dwellings and the urban ensemble. This revised edition has been expanded with 20 new exemplary pr

  18. Poultry housing and husbandry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elson, H A

    2010-08-01

    1. In order to conduct this anniversary review, 10 excellent papers were carefully selected from the 148 available papers published on housing and husbandry in British Poultry Science (BPS) over the past 50 years. 2. The 10 selected papers on this subject covered mainly the housing and husbandry of laying hens, but two of them dealt with various aspects of broiler production. 3. Aspects of housing considered included a wide range of intensive and extensive systems of broiler and egg production. Specific topics included the effects of husbandry system on bird welfare, including skeletal damage in laying hens and contact dermatitis in broiler chickens, as well as the design and management of nest boxes, perches, feeders and drinkers, conventional laying cages (CCs), furnished laying cages (FCs) and non-cage systems (NCs). 4. A variety of the findings in these and related papers have enlightened our understanding of many aspects of poultry housing and husbandry; most of them have found application in the poultry industry and thus improved its efficiency.

  19. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, D.

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  20. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  1. Schuepfen house, Schuepfen, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zweifel, G.

    1999-07-01

    This row (terrace) house, incorporates a PV-powered closed-loop solar system constructed in 1985. It was rebuilt 10 years later to incorporate a water storage tank for domestic hot water production in the summer. The system delivers 2600 kWh of heat per year, saving approximately 450 kg of wood and 1200 kWh of electricity. (author)

  2. Social Housing in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig; Scanlon, Kath J

    2014-01-01

    for the individual associations as well as each housing estate. In principle, each estate and the association it belongs to must balance its books. An important feature of the sector is the build-up of a funding system which makes it possible to support the financing of major renovations and energy measures as well...

  3. Housing First i Danmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benjaminsen, Lars; Dyrby, Therese Marie; Enemark, Morten Holm

    at borgeren får en intensiv social støtte i hverdagen. De evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder, der er anvendes sammen med Housing First-tilgangen er Critical Time Intervention (CTI), Intensive Case Management (ICM) og Assertive Community Treatment (ACT). Rapporten beskriver erfaringer omkring de ledelsesmæssige......Rapporten er en evaluering af arbejdet med at udbrede og forankre Housing First-indsatsen og tre evidensbaserede bostøttemetoder. Hovedprincippet i Housing First er, at udsatte borgere, der er endt i hjemløshed, får et permanent sted at bo allerede i starten af et indsatsforløb, samtidig med...... og organisatoriske rammer, målgruppen for indsatserne og om de konkrete indsatser i kommunerne. Evalueringen viser, at både borgere og kommuner har gode erfaringer med Housing First, men at især manglen på billige og passende boliger er en alvorlig barriere for udbredelsen af indsatsen. Evalueringen...

  4. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  5. Sanaa and density housing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Rui

    2012-01-01

    According to Green Metropolis wrote by David Owen, living smaller, closer, and driving less are the keys to sustainability. We should live more like Manhattan. This thesis analyses Gifu Kitagata Apartment Building designed by Sanaa studio, from architectural design aspect, as a great example to attract more people choose small apartments instead of big houses.

  6. Housing, neighbourhoods and interventions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karin Wittebrood; Matthieu Permentier; with contributions from Fenne Pinkster

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Wonen, wijken en interventies Current Dutch neighbourhood policy is aimed at improving the position of 'priority neighbourhoods'. How successful is the policy proving? Does restructuring and the sale of social housing help? Does increasing the amount of green space and building

  7. The Children's House

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peller, Lili E.

    2013-01-01

    Lili Peller's "The Children's House" essay begins where Maria Montessori left off in her description of space articulations. Peller does not name Montessori specifically as she always had a desire to become independent in her own right as a neo-Freudian child analyst. But the Haus Der Kinder founded in summer of 1922 suggests a total…

  8. Doll's House Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, Bob

    2009-01-01

    School physics rarely stands still for long. Environmental physics is now an option in some post-16 courses in England. The physics of environments, and in particular the built environment, offers a recognizable context in which to see the applications of physics at work. This article considers how a model doll's house might be used to help…

  9. Haunted by Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeece, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Two fourth-grade teachers presented the idea of using the author's art class to inspire the students to write creatively. The theme of scary stories needed an art project to match. The author immediately had a favorite lesson in mind. By putting a small twist on one of her standard "Frank Lloyd Wright House" projects, scary plans began to take…

  10. [Children outside house

    OpenAIRE

    Smithson, John Snowden, fl 1903

    2003-01-01

    Showing a row of children seated on the floor outside a house. Smithson has pencilled the following lecture notes: '12. Number of children. Volcanic rock. Afterwards tree tattooing - waist to knee not all done at once - sign of manhood - those not tattooed considered of no account'.

  11. Assisted Housing - Public Housing Buildings - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The approximate physical location of each individual Public Housing Building. If the building has more than one entrance or street address, the address of the...

  12. Control on Housing Segregation:Housing Modes and Public Policies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>1. Housing segregation:advocating or controlling?The phenomenon of housing segregation has become more and more obvious in Chinese cities in recent years; however, there is no agreement on whether it should

  13. Sustainable Housing Renewal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sitar

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Following the already proved models the sustainable planning culture is endangering several methods directed towards the needs of tenants in the existing post-war housing stock. The case-study of our project is the renewal of the multi stored building in the housing estate Metalna, Maribor/Tezno (1949. It is based on the sustainable renovation principle for the quality of sustainable housing in functional, technological and environmental point of view. According to it, the idea of the project was to improve the functionality of the building as well as of individual housing units. One of the main goals was to introduce the variety of space and typology of individual housing units. Beside, there was an intention to rebuild and redesign the green area, especially the problems of parking and playground for children. On the other hand, the project is introducing the low-energy renovation principle including new technologies, structural elements and materials. Two scenarios of technological renewal were suggested. The first one was a classical one using additional thermal insulation of the building envelope and fitting of new structural elements such as windows, doors, balconies, windbreaks etc. (Renewal 1. The second scenario, however, included the sunspace construction used as a new passive solar structural element, modifying the envelope (Renewal 2. The energy efficiency of the suggested scenarios were calculated according to the procedures given in EN 832 standard considering the attached sunspace as integral part of the building in first case and as a passive solar object adjacent to the thermal envelope of the building in the second case. The results show that the last case yields the most energy efficient renewal of the existing residential building.

  14. Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet KidsHealth > For Parents > Healthy Habits for TV, Video ... negative effects that violent video games can have. Internet Safety Become computer literate. Learn how to block ...

  15. Astrophysical, Geochemical, Geophysical and Biological Limits on Planet Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lineweaver, C.

    2014-03-01

    For life forms like us, the most important feature of the Earth is its habitability. Understanding habitability and using that knowledge to locate the nearest habitable planet may be crucial for our survival as a species. Over the past decade, expectations that the universe could be filled with habitable planets have been bolstered by the increasingly large overlap between terrestrial environments known to harbor life and the variety of environments on newly detected rocky exoplanets. The inhabited and uninhabited regions on Earth tell us that temperature and the presence of water are the main constraints that can be used in a habitability classification scheme for rocky planets. Our compilation and review of recent exoplanet detections suggests that the fraction of stars with planets is ~ 100%, and that the fraction with rocky planets may be comparably large. We review extensions to the circumstellar habitable zone including an abiogenesis habitable zone and the galactic habitable zone.

  16. Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dietary Habits and Nutritional Status of Rural School Age Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. ... Nigerian Journal of Nutritional Sciences ... on children's family characteristics, parents' socio-economic characteristics; and their dietary habits.

  17. Factors Impacting Habitable Volume Requirements: Results from the 2011 Habitable Volume Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, M.; Whitmire, A.; Otto, C.; Neubek, D. (Editor)

    2011-01-01

    This report documents the results of the Habitable Volume Workshop held April 18-21, 2011 in Houston, TX at the Center for Advanced Space Studies-Universities Space Research Association. The workshop was convened by NASA to examine the factors that feed into understanding minimum habitable volume requirements for long duration space missions. While there have been confinement studies and analogs that have provided the basis for the guidance found in current habitability standards, determining the adequacy of the volume for future long duration exploration missions is a more complicated endeavor. It was determined that an improved understanding of the relationship between behavioral and psychosocial stressors, available habitable and net habitable volume, and interior layouts was needed to judge the adequacy of long duration habitat designs. The workshop brought together a multi-disciplinary group of experts from the medical and behavioral sciences, spaceflight, human habitability disciplines and design professionals. These subject matter experts identified the most salient design-related stressors anticipated for a long duration exploration mission. The selected stressors were based on scientific evidence, as well as personal experiences from spaceflight and analogs. They were organized into eight major categories: allocation of space; workspace; general and individual control of environment; sensory deprivation; social monotony; crew composition; physical and medical issues; and contingency readiness. Mitigation strategies for the identified stressors and their subsequent impact to habitat design were identified. Recommendations for future research to address the stressors and mitigating design impacts are presented.

  18. Families Should Cultivate Children’s Good Habits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    "HABITS—character—fate," this is the summary of Mr. Li, head of the senior high group of the No. 35 High School in Beijing, who has been teaching for dozens of years. He believes the habits that a person cultivates will finally decide his fate. In other words, the most important factor in determining a person’s fate is not his disposition, but his habits. Habits can help change one’s disposition. An ancient admonition says, "The habits

  19. Suggestions of Policy Direction to Improve the Housing Quality in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miyeon Park

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Following the recent global climate changes, many countries, including developed nations, are announcing greenhouse gas (GHG reduction targets and are actively participating in reducing GHG. Therefore, the role of the building sector on reducing GHG is being emphasized, and the establishment of policy structures for both making environmentally friendly capacity compulsory and improving the housing quality is being demanded. South Korea is also developing a policy for improving housing quality, but in order to achieve more competitive growth, this must be preceded by an analysis of current policy status within various countries on improving housing quality. This study aims to suggest direction about policies that will improve the housing quality in South Korea. For this, the policies of major countries were able to categorize and compare according to three major categories (performance, function, and aesthetics, and seven factors (safety, durability, cost and maintenance, response to residents’ needs, habitability, energy saving, and building design regarding housing quality. As a result, from the performance aspect, policy directions were suggested for safe housing, the urban environment, regeneration of quality stock, and the usage of existing stock; from the functional aspect, policies for improving housing quality that responds to the aging population and energy saving housing were suggested; from the aesthetic aspect, housing designs that consider the urban environment were suggested.

  20. FEMA Housing Assistance Renters - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Renters The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  1. FEMA Housing Assistance Owners - API

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — This dataset lists aggregated, non-PII dataset of FEMA Housing Assistance Program for House Owners The data was generated by FEMA's ECIM (Enterprise Coordination...

  2. Allergy-Proof Your House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vent moisture outside. Temperature and humidity. Hot, humid houses are breeding grounds for dust mites and mold. ... Smoking. Don't allow smoking anywhere inside your house. References Allergens and irritants. National Institute of Environmental ...

  3. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  4. HUD Approved Housing Counseling Agencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD sponsors housing counseling agencies throughout the country that can provide advice on buying a home, renting, defaults, foreclosures, and credit issues. This...

  5. Multifamily Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  6. Public Housing Physical Inspection Scores

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Real Estate Assessment Center conducts physical property inspections of properties that are owned, insured or subsidized by HUD, including public housing and...

  7. Geology and Habitability of Terrestrial Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Fishbaugh, Kathryn E; Raulin, François; Marais, David J; Korablev, Oleg

    2007-01-01

    Given the fundamental importance of and universal interest in whether extraterrestrial life has developed or could eventually develop in our solar system and beyond, it is vital that an examination of planetary habitability goes beyond simple assumptions such as, "Where there is water, there is life." This book has resulted from a workshop at the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) in Bern, Switzerland (5-9 September 2005) that brought together planetary geologists, geophysicists, atmospheric scientists, and biologists to discuss the multi-faceted problem of how the habitability of a planet co-evolves with the geology of the surface and interior, the atmosphere, and the magnetosphere. Each of the six chapters has been written by authors with a range of expertise so that each chapter is itself multi-disciplinary, comprehensive, and accessible to scientists in all disciplines. These chapters delve into what life needs to exist and ultimately to thrive, the early environments of the young terrestrial pl...

  8. Formation, Habitability, and Detection of Extrasolar Moons

    CERN Document Server

    Heller, René; Kipping, David; Limbach, Mary Anne; Turner, Edwin; Greenberg, Richard; Sasaki, Takanori; Bolmont, Émeline; Grasset, Olivier; Lewis, Karen; Barnes, Rory; Zuluaga, Jorge I

    2014-01-01

    The diversity and quantity of moons in the Solar System suggest a manifold population of natural satellites exist around extrasolar planets. Of peculiar interest from an astrobiological perspective, the number of sizable moons in the stellar habitable zones may outnumber planets in these circumstellar regions. With technological and theoretical methods now allowing for the detection of sub-Earth-sized extrasolar planets, the first detection of an extrasolar moon appears feasible. In this review, we summarize formation channels of massive exomoons that are potentially detectable with current or near-future instruments. We discuss the orbital effects that govern exomoon evolution, we present a framework to characterize an exomoon's stellar plus planetary illumination as well as its tidal heating, and we address the techniques that have been proposed to search for exomoons. Most notably, we show that natural satellites in the range of 0.1 - 0.5 Earth mass (i) are potentially habitable, (ii) can form within the c...

  9. Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire - Infant Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cláudia Castro; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Pinto, Tiago Miguel

    2017-08-23

    This study proposed a version of the Children's Sleep Habits Questionnaire for infants under 12 months (CSHQ-I). The sample was comprised of 299 infants, aged between 2 weeks and 12 months. Exploratory factor analysis revealed four subscales: Bedtime Resistance, Sleep Anxiety, Positive Sleep Habits, and Daytime Sleepiness. The CSHQ-I total scale presented good test-retest reliability and internal consistency. The CSHQ-I also showed good concurrent validity, with significant associations found between the CSHQ-I total scale and subscales and a measure of infant sleep-wake behaviors. The present study suggested the CSHQ-I as a reliable instrument to assess sleep problems in infants during the first year of life. Copyright © 2017 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. UV habitable zones around M stars

    CERN Document Server

    Buccino, Andrea P; Mauas, Pablo J D

    2007-01-01

    During the last decade, there was a paradigm-shift in order to consider terrestrial planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars, as suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Here we analyze the influence of UV boundary conditions to three planetary systems around dM (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020). We apply our model of UV habitable zone (UV-HZ) (Buccino et al. 2006) to these cases and show that during the quiescent UV output there would not be enough UV radiation within the LW-HZ in order to trigger biogenic processes. We also analyze the cases of two other M flare stars and show that the flares of moderate intensity could provide the necessary energy to trigger those biogenic processes, while the strong flares not necessary rule-out the possibility of life-bearing planets.

  11. Nutritive and nonnutritive sucking habits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgeon-O'Brien, H; Lachapelle, D; Gagnon, P F; Larocque, I; Maheu-Robert, L F

    1996-01-01

    The habit of sucking is the first coordinated muscular activity of the infant. There are essentially two forms of sucking: the nutritive form which provides essential nutrients, while non-nutritive sucking insures a feeling of warmth and a sense of security. This review gives a description of the anatomy and physiology of sucking together with the influence of breastfeeding and bottle-feeding (conventional or orthodontic nipples) on the dentofacial structures of the infant. Factors involved in the choice of feeding are also discussed. Children who do not have access to unrestricted breastfeeding or bottle-fed children may satisfy their instinctive sucking urge with a pacifier. This paper presents the different types of pacifiers (conventional or orthodontic) along with the beneficial effects provided by pacifiers. Detrimental effects caused by incorrect use of pacifiers or digit-sucking habits are also summarized. Health professionals should inform expectant mothers about the dentofacial advantages of breastfeeding.

  12. A population-based Habitable Zone perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Zsom, Andras

    2015-01-01

    What can we tell about exoplanet habitability if currently only the stellar properties, planet radius, and the incoming stellar flux are known? A planet is in the Habitable Zone (HZ) if it harbors liquid water on its surface. The HZ is traditionally conceived as a sharp region around stars because it is calculated for one planet with specific properties. Such an approach is limiting because the planets' atmospheric and geophysical properties, which influence the presence of liquid water on the surface, are currently unknown but expected to be diverse. A statistical HZ description is outlined which does not favor one planet type. Instead the stellar and planet properties are treated as random variables and a continuous range of planet scenarios are considered. Various probability density functions are assigned to each random variable, and a combination of Monte Carlo sampling and climate modeling is used to generate synthetic exoplanet populations with known surface climates. Then, the properties of the liquid...

  13. Smoking habits among pregnant Danish women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesmodel, Ulrik; Olsen, Sjurdur Frodi

    1999-01-01

    , particularly among women smoking > or = 10 cigarettes/day. CONCLUSIONS: Information on smoking habits could be accurately obtained retrospectively independent of recall time and the pregnancy outcomes studied here. Accuracy diminished with increasing alcohol intake, particularly among heavy smokers.......STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare recall of smoking habits during pregnancy 0.5-3 years after delivery across groups defined by recall time (5 six month periods) and pregnancy outcome (pre-eclampsia, pregnancy induced hypertension, intrauterine growth retardation, preterm or post-term delivery compared...... with controls). DESIGN: Case-control nested in cohort study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: A subsample of 503 women from a cohort of 6347 women established between 1989 and 1991 in Aarhus University Hospital. MAIN RESULTS: Measures of agreement between concurrent and retrospective data on smoking status varied...

  14. Literacy Mediation in Neighbourhood Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between staff in Neighbourhood Houses, and the socially and educationally disadvantaged community members who visit Neighbourhood Houses, have been viewed through many lenses, including community development, social support, caring and compassion. This paper looks at Neighbourhood Houses as sites of pedagogical practice. More…

  15. Renovation of social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Stina Rask; Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    an understanding of the built environment as a spatial continuum that is in constant alteration. When we engage in the renovation of a building, we inevitably enter into a dialogue with this continuum. The motivation to alter an existing building may be decay and change in the use, or, as has been the case...... in the renovation of social housing. Methodologically, this hypothesis is investigated by re-reading the task of energy renovation through the lens of tectonic architectural theory. Specifically, Eduard Sekler’s etymological distinction between structure, construction, and tectonics is developed as a framework...... for addressing the spatial implications and potentials of technical initiatives in contemporary energy renovations within the continuum described by Scott. The framework is applied in two case studies of recent energy renovations of social housing dwellings. Finally, the paper discusses whether the technical...

  16. Approaching the Macuti House

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sollien, Silje Erøy

    2011-01-01

    and flow of trade acrosss the Indian Ocean. Today the regional port is in Nacala, provincial capital is Nampula, and the only economic future for Ilha, currently a small sleepy city of ca 18.000 people on the island and 45.000 in the municipal district, seems to be tourism development. The little island...... for a strategy to intervene in the "macuti neighbourhoods", conserve the built environment and improve living conditions for the generally poor population living in crowded conditions with lack of suitable urban infrastructure. The macuti house, a type of semi-urban Swahili one story house built of mangrove...... "Moçambicanidade", an official cultural policy of strengthening a national identity. Now parts of "the community" in Ilha with cultural links northwards, may see new tourism routes along old trading routes and a new academic interest in the Indian Ocean as a cultural space, as an opportunity to redefine themselves...

  17. Patient and house officer attitudes on physician attire and etiquette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, J J; Lee, T H; Percelay, J M; Fitz, J G; Goldman, L

    1987-01-02

    To study patient preferences on physician attire and etiquette, we interviewed 200 patients on the general medical services of teaching hospitals in Boston and San Francisco. Of these 200 patients, 65% believed physicians should wear a white coat, 27% believed physicians should not wear tennis shoes, 52% believed physicians should not wear blue jeans, 37% believed male physicians should wear neckties, and 34% believed female physicians should wear dresses or skirts. Forty percent of patients wanted physicians to address them by first name, but only 10% of patients wanted to address their physicians by first name. A concurrent mailed survey of 74 medical house staff members at the two hospitals revealed wide variability in physicians' attire and in how patients were addressed at each institution. Thus, many house officers had habits that were less formal than a substantial portion of their patients preferred.

  18. Cellular Automation of Galactic Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Vukotic, Branislav

    2010-01-01

    We present a preliminary results of our Galactic Habitable Zone (GHZ) 2D probabilistic cellular automata models. The relevant time-scales (emergence of life, it's diversification and evolution influenced with the global risk function) are modeled as the probability matrix elements and are chosen in accordance with the Copernican principle to be well-represented by the data inferred from the Earth's fossil record. With Fermi's paradox as a main boundary condition the resulting histories of astrobiological landscape are discussed.

  19. Habitable Exoplanet Imager Optical Telescope Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H. Philip

    2017-01-01

    Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is a concept for a mission to directly image and characterize planetary systems around Sun-like stars. In addition to the search for life on Earth-like exoplanets, HabEx will enable a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. HabEx is one of four mission concepts currently being studied for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey.

  20. Nutritional habits in Italian university students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adele Anna Teleman

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. RESULTS: 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p < 0.05. 27.7% of females eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day, compared to 12.0% of males (p < 0.05. Eccessive coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p < 0.05. DISCUSSION: This study showed that the eating habits of young adults do not follow national recommendations. Less than 50% of university students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. CONCLUSION: Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  1. SLEEP HABITS AMONG FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Neera; Varun; Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Sleep is part of the rhythm of life; without a good sleep the mind is less adaptive, mood is altered and the body loses the ability to refresh. The sleep-wake cycle of medical students is quite different and sleep deprivation, poor sleep quality, occurrence of napping episodes during the day. This study was designed to assess sleep habits in first year medical students. MATERIAL AND METHODS Participants of this study were healthy medical students of first year MBBS course of S...

  2. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  3. [House dust mite allergy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrard, A; Pichler, C

    2012-04-01

    House dust mites can be found all over the world where human beings live independent from the climate. Proteins from the gastrointestinal tract- almost all known as enzymes - are the allergens which induce chronic allergic diseases. The inhalation of small amounts of allergens on a regular base all night leads to a slow beginning of the disease with chronically stuffed nose and an exercise induced asthma which later on persists. House dust mites grow well in a humid climate - this can be in well isolated dwellings or in the tropical climate - and nourish from human skin dander. Scales are found in mattresses, upholstered furniture and carpets. The clinical picture with slowly aggravating complaints leads quite often to a delayed diagnosis, which is accidently done on the occasion of a wider spectrum of allergy skin testing. The beginning of a medical therapy with topical steroids as nasal spray or inhalation leads to a fast relief of the complaints. Although discussed in extensive controversies in the literature - at least in Switzerland with the cold winter and dry climate - the recommendation of house dust mite avoidance measures is given to patients with good clinical results. The frequent ventilation of the dwelling with cold air in winter time cause a lower indoor humidity. Covering encasings on mattresses, pillow, and duvets reduces the possibility of chronic contact with mite allergens as well as the weekly changing the bed linen. Another option of therapy is the specific immunotherapy with extracts of house dust mites showing good results in children and adults. Using recombinant allergens will show a better quality in diagnostic as well as in therapeutic specific immunotherapy.

  4. LIGHT*HOUSE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Nielsen, Benjamin; Madsen, Jesper V;

    Med udgangspunkt i det konkrete byggeprojekt Light*house, der skal opføres på Århus havn, er der i projektet foretaget en række analyser til bestemmelse af de geotekniske egenskaber for den fede tertiære ler fra søvindmergel-formationen, som findes på lokaliteten til stor dybde. Søvindmerglens...

  5. Predicting fruit consumption: cognitions, intention, and habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brug, Johannes; de Vet, Emely; de Nooijer, Jascha; Verplanken, Bas

    2006-01-01

    To study predictors of fruit intake in a sample of 627 adults. Potential predictors of fruit intake were assessed at baseline, and fruit intake was assessed at two-week follow-up with self-administered questionnaires distributed by e-mail. The study was conducted among Dutch adult members of an Internet research panel. A random sample of 627 adults aged 18-78. Attitudes, subjective norms, self-efficacy, expected pros and cons, habit strength, intention, and fruit intake. Fruit intake was assessed with a validated food-frequency questionnaire. Hierarchical linear and logistic regression analyses. Alpha strength were significantly associated with the intention to eat two or more servings of fruit per day. Age, intentions, and habit strength were significant predictors of consumption of two or more servings of fruit per day. The results confirm that Theory of Planned Behavior constructs predict fruit intake, and that habit strength and different self-efficacy expectations may be additional determinants relevant to fruit intake. Because habitual behavior is considered to be triggered by environmental cues, fruit promotion interventions should further explore environmental change strategies.

  6. On the probability of habitable planets

    CERN Document Server

    Forget, Francois

    2012-01-01

    In the past 15 years, astronomers have revealed that a significant fraction of the stars should harbor planets and that it is likely that terrestrial planets are abundant in our galaxy. Among these planets, how many are habitable, i.e. suitable for life and its evolution? These questions have been discussed for years and we are slowly making progress. Liquid water remains the key criterion for habitability. It can exist in the interior of a variety of planetary bodies, but it is usually assumed that liquid water at the surface interacting with rocks and light is necessary for the emergence of a life able to modify its environment and evolve. A first key issue is thus to understand the climatic conditions allowing surface liquid water assuming a suitable atmosphere. This have been studied with global mean 1D models which has defined the "classical habitable zone", the range of orbital distances within which worlds can maintain liquid water on their surfaces (Kasting et al. 1993). A new generation of 3D climate...

  7. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, James A.

    1988-01-01

    A theoretical model for evaluating human spatial habitability (HuSH) in the proposed U.S. Space Station is developed. Optimizing the fitness of the space station environment for human occupancy will help reduce environmental stress due to long-term isolation and confinement in its small habitable volume. The development of tools that operationalize the behavioral bases of spatial volume for visual kinesthetic, and social logic considerations is suggested. This report further calls for systematic scientific investigations of how much real and how much perceived volume people need in order to function normally and with minimal stress in space-based settings. The theoretical model presented in this report can be applied to any size or shape interior, at any scale of consideration, for the Space Station as a whole to an individual enclosure or work station. Using as a point of departure the Isovist model developed by Dr. Michael Benedikt of the U. of Texas, the report suggests that spatial habitability can become as amenable to careful assessment as engineering and life support concerns.

  8. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, Jack S.; Palmer, Paul I.; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S.

    2017-02-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. To illustrate our model, we use a cool Y dwarf atmosphere, such as WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, whose 4.5-5.2 μm spectrum shows absorption features consistent with water vapor and clouds. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment, we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Based on a previously defined statistical approach, we infer that there are of the order of 109 cool Y brown dwarfs in the Milky Way, and likely a few tens of these objects are within 10 pc from Earth. Our work also has implications for exploring life in the atmospheres of temperate gas giants. Consideration of the habitable volumes in planetary atmospheres significantly increases the volume of habitable space in the galaxy.

  9. Nutritional habits in Italian university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teleman, Adele Anna; de Waure, Chiara; Soffiani, Valentina; Poscia, Andrea; Di Pietro, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Dietary habits have been indicated by research as key elements in both disease pathogenesis and prevention and health promotion. We analyzed data collected from Italian university students regarding consumption of fruits, vegetables, fast-foods, sweets, energizing drinks, and coffee, average number of eating episodes per day and regularity of breakfast habits. 44% of the university student population eats in average at least 1 portion of fruit per day. 22.5% eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. 8.5% eats in average 5 times per day with 48.6% declaring an average of 3 eating episodes per day. 11.3% consumes eccessive amounts of caffeine. 49.1% of the females reaches the recommended consumption of fruit, compared to only 33.8% of males (p coffee drinkers pass from 8.9% in the 18-21 age group to 16% in the 25-30 year old age group (p students eats at least 1 portion of fruit per day and less than 1 out of 4 eats at least 2 portions of vegetables per day. Less than 10% of the students eats in average 5 times per day and more than 1 out of 3 does not have breakfast regularly every morning. Interventions targeting university students are required in order to increase their knowledge on healthy eating habits and to ameliorate their dietary behaviours.

  10. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

  11. Habitability Concept Models for Living in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrino, M.

    2002-01-01

    As growing trends show, living in "space" has acquired new meanings, especially considering the utilization of the International Space Station (ISS) with regard to group interaction as well as individual needs in terms of time, space and crew accommodations. In fact, for the crew, the Spaced Station is a combined Laboratory-Office/Home and embodies ethical, social, and cultural aspects as additional parameters to be assessed to achieve a user centered architectural design of crew workspace. Habitability Concept Models can improve the methods and techniques used to support the interior design and layout of space architectures and at the same time guarantee a human focused approach. This paper discusses and illustrates some of the results obtained for the interior design of a Habitation Module for the ISS. In this work, two different but complementary approaches are followed. The first is "object oriented" and based on Video Data (American and Russian) supported by Proxemic methods (Edward T. Hall, 1963 and Francesca Pregnolato, 1998). This approach offers flexible and adaptive design solutions. The second is "subject oriented" and based on a Virtual Reality environment. With this approach human perception and cognitive aspects related to a specific crew task are considered. Data obtained from these two approaches are used to verify requirements and advance the design of the Habitation Module for aspects related to man machine interfaces (MMI), ergonomics, work and free-time. It is expected that the results achieved can be applied to future space related projects.

  12. No Snowball on Habitable Tidally Locked Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checlair, Jade; Menou, Kristen; Abbot, Dorian S.

    2017-08-01

    The TRAPPIST-1, Proxima Centauri, and LHS 1140 systems are the most exciting prospects for future follow-up observations of potentially inhabited planets. All of the planets orbit nearby M-stars and are likely tidally locked in 1:1 spin-orbit states, which motivates the consideration of the effects that tidal locking might have on planetary habitability. On Earth, periods of global glaciation (snowballs) may have been essential for habitability and remote signs of life (biosignatures) because they are correlated with increases in the complexity of life and in the atmospheric oxygen concentration. In this paper, we investigate the snowball bifurcation (sudden onset of global glaciation) on tidally locked planets using both an energy balance model and an intermediate-complexity global climate model. We show that tidally locked planets are unlikely to exhibit a snowball bifurcation as a direct result of the spatial pattern of insolation they receive. Instead, they will smoothly transition from partial to complete ice coverage and back. A major implication of this work is that tidally locked planets with an active carbon cycle should not be found in a snowball state. Moreover, this work implies that tidally locked planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone with low CO2 outgassing fluxes will equilibrate with a small unglaciated substellar region rather than cycling between warm and snowball states. More work is needed to determine how the lack of a snowball bifurcation might affect the development of life on a tidally locked planet.

  13. Study of television viewing habits in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Sharmila Banerjee; Gupta, Yogita; Aneja, Satinder

    2014-11-01

    Previous studies from developing countries have reported that Television (TV) viewing, if excessive and of poor quality has a proven negative influence on child health. Indian studies on this subject are few. The present study aimed at determining TV viewing habits of children and their families as well as parental perspectives on the impact of TV on child health using a provider completed indigenously developed questionnaire in Hindi. The study group comprised of 109 children attending a government hospital who belonged predominantly to lower socio-economic strata with poor maternal literacy. It was observed that 100 % children watched excessive TV (> 2 h daily), with majority viewing unsupervised and low quality content. There were minimal parental restrictions and no active discussion regarding contents. Negative impact was found on play, hobbies, sleep hygiene and eating habits in most children. Most parents were unaware of unhealthy viewing and the associated deleterious effects. As pediatricians we need to enquire about TV viewing habits routinely and educate parents about appropriate TV viewing.

  14. The detectability of habitable exomoons with Kepler

    CERN Document Server

    Awiphan, Supachai

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the detectability of habitable exomoons orbiting around giant planets in M-dwarf systems using Transit Timing Variations (TTVs) and Transit Timing Durations (TDVs) with Kepler-class photometry is investigated. Light curves of systems with various configurations were simulated around M-dwarf hosts of mass 0.5 Msun and radius 0.55 Rsun. Jupiter-like giant planets which offer the best potential for hosting habitable exomoons were considered with rocky super-Earth-mass moons. The detectability is measured by using the phase-correlation between TTV and TDV signals. Since the TDV signal is typically weaker than the TTV signal, confirmation of an exomoon detection will depend on being able to detect a TDV signal. We find that exomoons around planets orbiting within the habitable zone of an M-dwarf host star can produce both detectable TTV and TDV signatures with Kepler-class photometry. While aliasing between the planet period and moon period may hinder exomoon detection, we also find some strong corr...

  15. Everyday life and habits in connection to technology

    OpenAIRE

    Jensen, Natalie Madeleine; Jørgensen, Anna Neerup; Majchrzak, Izabela; Lauridsen, Line Hoffmeyer; Arabi, Sara Albu; Joensen, Saskia van Dam; Nielsen, Simone Barnekow

    2015-01-01

    Our project concerns the topics everyday life and habits in connection to technology. With the focal point on everyday life and habits, we branch out to subjects concerning a modern life with technology and what that entails for our everyday life and habits. In our project we will delve into a thorough explanation on what everyday life is and how it is connected to habits, how a habit becomes an addiction and how those subjects are related to way we use technology in the Western society i...

  16. Assessing Habitability: Lessons from the Phoenix Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoker, Carol R.

    2013-01-01

    The Phoenix mission's key objective was to search for a habitable zone. The Phoenix lander carried a robotic arm with digging scoop to collect soil and icy material for analysis with an instrument payload that included volatile mineral and organic analysis(3) and soil ionic chemistry analysis (4). Results from Phoenix along with theoretical modeling and other previous mission results were used to evaluate the habitability of the landing site by considering four factors that characterize the environments ability to support life as we know it: the presence of liquid water, the presence of an energy source to support metabolism, the presence of nutrients containing the fundamental building blocks of life, and the absence of environmental conditions that are toxic to or preclude life. Phoenix observational evidence for the presence of liquid water (past or present) includes clean segregated ice, chemical etching of soil grains, calcite minerals in the soil and variable concentrations of soluble salts5. The maximum surface temperature measured was 260K so unfrozen water can form only in adsorbed films or saline brines but warmer climates occur cyclically on geologically short time scales due to variations in orbital parameters. During high obliquity periods, temperatures allowing metabolism extend nearly a meter into the subsurface. Phoenix discovered 1%w/w perchlorate salt in the soil, a chemical energy source utilized by a wide range of microbes. Nutrient sources including C, H, N, O, P and S compounds are supplied by known atmospheric sources or global dust. Environmental conditions are within growth tolerance for terrestrial microbes. Summer daytime temperatures are sufficient for metabolic activity, the pH is 7.8 and is well buffered and the projected water activity of a wet soil will allow growth. In summary, martian permafrost in the north polar region is a viable location for modern life. Stoker et al. presented a formalism for comparing the habitability of

  17. Habitability in the Solar System and New Planetary Missions

    CERN Document Server

    Laine, Pauli Erik

    2013-01-01

    Definition of habitability depends on the organisms under consideration. One way to determine habitability of some environment is to compare its certain parameters to environments where extremophilic micro-organisms thrive on Earth. We can also define more common habitability criteria from the life as we know it. These criteria include basic elements, liquid water and an energy source. We know that some locations in our Solar System provide at least some of these limits and criteria. This article describes the aims and technical specifications of some planetary missions, such as NASAs MSL in 2012, ESAs ExoMars missions in 2016 and 2018, and JUICE in 2033. These missions will explore habitability of Mars, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. Here we compare defined habitability criteria to instrumentation documentation to determine whether these missions could validate the habitability of Mars and those Jovian moons. These missions have about 13 habitability assessment related instruments for Mars, 3 for Europa, 5 f...

  18. Habitability Assessment at Gale Crater: Implications from Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Pamela G.; Archer, D.; Atreya, S.; Blake, D.; Coll, P.; delaTorre, M.; Edgett, K.; Eigenbrode, J.; Fisk, M.; Freissent, C.; Franz, H.; Glavin, D. P.; Gomez, F.; Haberle, R.; Hamilton, V.; Jones, J.; Kah, L.; Leshin, L.; Mchaffy, P. M.; McAdam, A.; McKay, C.; Navarro-Gonzalez, R.; Steele, A.; Stern, J.; Treiman, A.

    2013-01-01

    Mars Science Laboratory has made measurements that contribute to our assessment of habitability potential at Gale Crater. Campaign organization into a consistent set of measurable parameters allows us to rank the relative habitability potential of sites we study, ultimately laying a foundation for a global context inclusive of past and future Mars mission observations. Chemical, physical, geological and geographic attributes shape environments. Isolated measurements of these factors may be insufficient to deem an environment habitable, but the sum of measurements can help predict locations with greater or lesser habitability potential. Metrics for habitability assessment based on field work at sites sharing features analogous to Mars have previously been suggested. Grouping these metrics helps us to develop an index for their application to habitability assessment. The index is comprised of the weighted values for four groups of parameters, the habitability threshold for each is to be determined.

  19. A Model of Housing Quality Determinants (HQD for Affordable Housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afaq Hyder Chohan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research identifies the design quality determinants and parameters for affordable housing in a developing metropolis, Karachi, Pakistan. The absence of quality housing in Karachi has resulted in a variety of factors including policy failure, violation of bylaws, housing scarcity and more low quality housing. The combination of these factors has resulted in poor housing design and construction and has lowered the overall quality of housing. Homeowners (end-users experience unplanned maintenance and repairs. This study provides a design quality model for use as a survey tool among professionals and endusers. This study resulted in a table of 24 quality determinants marked as Housing Quality Determinants (HQD grouped into eight sections. This research concludes that the existing design quality of affordable housing in Karachi could be enhanced by resolving problems related to design, construction, services, site development, neighbourhood and sustainability. The HQD model provides a platform for developing quality indicators of housing design and an opportunity for local and international design and construction professionals to rethink design in the context of housing quality. This article provides the development of the HQD framework (model.

  20. Habitability of the TRAPPIST-1 System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-04-01

    The recent discovery of seven Earth-sized, terrestrial planets around an M dwarf star was met with excitement and optimism. But how habitable are these planets actually likely to be? A recent study of these planets likely climates may provide an answer to this question.An Optimistic OutlookIn February of this year, the TRAPPIST-1 system was announced: seven roughly Earth-sized, transiting, terrestrial planets all orbiting their host ultracool dwarf star within a distance the size of Mercurys orbit. Three of the planets were initially declared to be in the stars habitable zone and scientists speculated that even those outside the habitable zone could potentially still harbor liquid water making the system especially exciting.In Wolfs simulations, the surface temperature (solid lines) of TRAPPIST-1d grows to more than 380K in just 40 years. [Adapted from Wolf 2017]The planets were labeled as temperate because all seven have equilibrium temperatures that are under 400K. Since liquid water requires a surface temperature of 273-373K, this certainly seems promising!Finding Realistic TemperaturesBut theres a catch: equilibrium temperatures are not actual measurements of the planets surface temperature, theyre just very rudimentary estimates based on how much light the planet receives. To get a better estimate of the real temperature of the planet and therefore assess its habitability you need advanced climate modeling of the planet that include factors like the greenhouse effect and planetary albedo.In Wolfs simulations, the surface temperature of TRAPPIST-1f plummets rapidly even when modeled with dense carbon dioxide atmosphere (purple line). The bottom panel shows the corresponding rapid growth of sea-ice on the surface oceans for the different atmospheric models. [Wolf 2017]To that end, scientist Eric Wolf (University of Colorado Boulder) has conducted state-of-the-art 3D climate calculations for the three center-most planets planets d, e, and f in the TRAPPIST-1

  1. Does intrinsic motivation strengthen physical activity habit? Modeling relationships between self-determination, past behaviour, and habit strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Benjamin; Lally, Phillippa

    2013-10-01

    Habit formation is thought to aid maintenance of physical activity, but little research is available into determinants of habit strength aside from repeated performance. Previous work has shown that intrinsically motivated physical activity, underpinned by inherent satisfaction derived from activity, is more likely to be sustained. We explored whether this might reflect a tendency for self-determined activity to become more strongly habitual. A sample of 192 adults aged 18-30 completed measures of motivational regulation, intention, behaviour, and habit strength. Results showed that self-determined regulation interacted with past behaviour in predicting habit strength: prior action was more predictive of habit strength among more autonomously motivated participants. There was an unexpected direct effect of self-determined regulation on habit strength, independently of past behaviour. Findings offer possible directions for future habit formation work.

  2. Proceedings of Concept House

    OpenAIRE

    Eekhout, M.

    2005-01-01

    At the TU Delft, faculty of Architecture, a new research group is active since January 2004, with the first PhD student starting at September 1 st 2004 onwards. The group is regularly growing and will exist for 5 years: up to 2010. The aim of the research group is to do a preliminary marketing first, to design, develop and research new Concept Houses, to build and test them as prototypes, to do a final marketing for use in the Netherlands and in Western Europe and to prepare the actual produc...

  3. Vigander house, Stavanger, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rostvik, H. [Sunlab/ABB, Stavanger (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Twenty solar buildings have been constructed in the Stavanger region, the majority with facade or roof- integrated solar air systems for space heating and/or heating of domestic hot water. The Vigander house is a typical example of architectural integration of a solar facade collector coupled to a hollow concrete floor heat distribution system. The concrete floor is 44 m{sup 2}. The system has been in uninterrupted service since 1989. The total additional costs for the whole system were US $2500 (ECU 2270). The occupants are extremely positive about the system. (author)

  4. House to house, shelter to shelter: experiences of black women seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Patty R; Laughon, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Locating safe and affordable housing is a vital step for women who decide to leave their abuser. Without housing, many women, particularly those who live in poverty, are forced to remain in abusive relationships, accept inadequate or unsafe housing, or become homeless (Menard, 2001; Moses, 2010). Women who choose to leave their abusers are faced with multiple barriers in establishing their independence such as limited financial resources, mental illness, and the lack of affordable housing (Botein & Hetling, 2010), putting them at risk of revictimization. This pilot study explores the narratives of Black mothers currently residing at an emergency intimate partner violence shelter to discover their experiences in seeking housing after leaving abusive relationships with a focus on housing instability and mental health. Utilizing a qualitative descriptive design, four major themes emerged: (a) unstable/insecure housing over time, (b) limited support,

  5. [Relation between food habits and nutritional status of preschool children in a rural community].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coello, M P; Pérez-Gil, S E; Batrouni Kerkebe, L

    1986-12-01

    Food habits in regard to the nutritional status of preschool children and their socioeconomic situation were analyzed in this research. The study was carried out in Cuetzalan, State of Puebla; all families were studied and, besides the presence of a preschool child in the home, both father and mother should also be living in the same house. Forty children considered as well nourished and 40 malnourished in the opposite case, were selected, taking the limits of the Gómez classification. In order to define socioeconomic differences between the two groups, the sample population was divided into different levels, with the following results. The socioeconomic level of the well-nourished children did correlate with a good living standard of their families; in the other case, families with a low socioeconomic status, presented more nutritional problems. A questionnaire was applied to every mother selected. This included two items: a) In the first case, we tried to assess the mother's attitude towards food habits and children's illnesses. b) In the second case, the mother's knowledge concerning pregnancy, breast feeding, feeding of the child during the first year of life, taboos, beliefs and other aspects which could be related to nutrition. On the whole, the main objective of this study was attained, because significant differences were found between these two groups. Firstly, a good relationship between food habits and good nutritional status of the children was found. Secondly, mother with well-nourished children had better food habits and better socioeconomic status than mothers having children with poor health status, and therefore, of a lower socioeconomic status.

  6. Allying health care and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Lillian

    2005-01-01

    There is a wealth of evidence that health is inextricably linked to housing. For instance, research has shown that those in substandard housing have poorer health outcomes than other groups, and they often must forgo costly medication in order to pay for housing. Further, the health care and housing concerns faced by the underserved often compound one another--people with poor health often have trouble maintaining housing, and those with substandard homes, in turn, often have trouble maintaining their health. Three groups are especially vulnerable to the health care risks associated with housing issues: children, seniors, and the chronically homeless. As the research suggests, substandard housing is a contributing factor to the U.S. health care crisis. Therefore, as part of its efforts to reform the nation's health care system, the ministry should address housing issues as well. Seven Catholic health systems are doing this through the Strategic Health Care Partnership. The partnership, in collaboration with Mercy Housing, enables the seven organizations to work together to create healthy communities. The partnership's key goal is to increase access to affordable housing and health care. Just providing homes often is not enough, however. A holistic approach, through which supportive services are offered to the underserved, is most effective.

  7. The Possibility of Multiple Habitable Worlds Orbiting Binary Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, P. A.

    2014-03-01

    Are there planetary systems for which there is life on multiple worlds? Where are these fruitful planetary systems and how do we detect them? In order to address these questions; conditions which enable life and those that prevent or destroy it must be considered. Many constraints are specific to planetary systems, independent of the number of worlds in habitable zones. For instance, life on rocky planets or moons likely requires the right abundance of volatiles and radiogenic elements for prolonged geologic activity. Catastrophic sterilization events such as nearby supernovae and gamma-ray bursts affect entire planetary systems not just specific worlds. Giant planets may either enhance or disrupt the development of complex life within a given system. It might be rare for planetary systems to possess qualities that promote life and lucky enough to avoid cataclysm. However, multiple habitable planets may provide enhanced chances for advanced life to develop. The best predictor of life on one habitable zone planet might be the presence of life on its neighbor as panspermia may occur in planetary systems with several habitable worlds. Circumbinary habitability may go hand in hand with habitability of multiple worlds. The circumstances in which the Binary Habitability Mechanism (BHM) operates are reviewed. In some cases, the early synchronization of the primary's rotation with the binary period results in a reduction of XUV flux and stellar winds. Main sequence binaries with periods in the 10-50 days provide excellent habitable environments, within which multiple worlds may thrive. Planets and moons in these habitable zones need less magnetic protection than their single star counterparts. Exomoons orbiting a Neptune-like planet, within a BHM protected habitable zone, are expected to be habitable over a wide range of semimajor axes due to a larger planetary Hill radius. A result confirmed by numerical orbital calculations. Binaries containing a solar type star with a

  8. Tenants’ experiences and satisfaction with renovated and energy retrofitted social housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Henrik Nellemose; Jensen, Ole Michael

    studied and verified. The objective of the present project was to evaluate tenants’ experiences and satisfaction with renovated and energy retrofitted social housing. A questionnaire was developed that included questions about perceived indoor climate, possible co-benefits, the renovation process, various...... construction-related measures as well as questions on changed habits after the renovation. The questionnaire was distributed in two large settlements of social housing erected in the 1960s, one representing a case of comprehensive renovation and another representing a case of more moderate renovation...

  9. [Healthy housing and healthy environments as a strategy for health promotion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Simone Cynamon; Bodstein, Regina; Kligerman, Débora Cynamon; Marcondes, Willer Baumgarten

    2007-01-01

    In this article, Healthy Housing is discussed as a potential field of knowledge and practices to be applied in the Health Promotion strategy and as an instrument in a larger discussion of problems in health and living standards. The development and consolidation of Health Promotion is presented focusing the discussion on two fields of action: healthy public policies and the establishment of healthy environments. The concepts of habitability and ambience are presented as a path conducive to reflection and the development of closer ties between Health Promotion and Healthy Housing.

  10. Habit formation: implications for alcoholism research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Tousa, David; Grahame, Nicholas

    2014-06-01

    Characteristics of individuals with severe alcohol use disorders include heightened cue sensitivity, compulsive seeking, craving, and continued alcohol use in the face of negative consequences. Animal models are useful for understanding behavioral and neurological mechanisms underlying problematic alcohol use. Seeking of operant reinforcers including alcohol is processed by two mechanisms, commonly referred to as "goal-directed" (action-outcome) and "habitual" (stimulus-response). As substance use disorders are characterized by continued use regardless of unfavorable outcomes, it is plausible that drug use causes an unnatural disruption of these mechanisms. We present a critical analysis of literature pertaining to behavioral neuroscience alcoholism research involving habit formation. Traditionally, when operant behavior is unaffected by a loss of subjective value of a reinforcer (devaluation), the behavior is considered habitual. Acquisition of instrumental behavior requires corticostriatal mechanisms that depend heavily on the prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum, whereas practiced behavior is more predominantly controlled by the dorsal striatum. Dopaminergic signaling is necessary for the neurological adaptations involved in stimulus-response action, and drugs of abuse appear to facilitate habitual behavior through high levels of dopamine release. Evidence suggests that the use of alcohol as a reinforcer expedites habit formation, and that a history of alcohol use produces alterations in striatal morphology, aids habit learning for non-psychoactive reinforcers, and promotes alcohol drinking despite aversive adulterants. In this review, we suggest directions for future alcoholism research that seeks to measure action made despite a devalued outcome, including procedural modifications and genotypic, pharmacological, or neurological manipulations. Most alcoholism models currently in use fail to reach substantial blood ethanol concentrations, a shortcoming that

  11. New Moon water, exploration, and future habitation

    CERN Document Server

    Crotts, Arlin

    2014-01-01

    Explore Earth's closest neighbor, the Moon, in this fascinating and timely book and discover what we should expect from this seemingly familiar but strange, new frontier. What startling discoveries are being uncovered on the Moon? What will these tell us about our place in the Universe? How can exploring the Moon benefit development on Earth? Discover the role of the Moon in Earth's past and present; read about the lunar environment and how it could be made more habitable for humans; consider whether continued exploration of the Moon is justified; and view rare Apollo-era photos and film still

  12. Cosmic Initial Condition for a Habitable Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of chaotic inflationary scenario, a natural question regarding the eternal bubble production is that what is the essential condition to have a universe being habitable ? In this work we investigate the minimum amount of e-folding for the inflationary area that results in the large scale structure formation at least in the linear regime. We extended this question to the sufficient condition of having enough initial baryonic asymmetry for the formation of the stars, planets and consequently life in the universe.

  13. Characterizing Habitable Extrasolar Planets using Spectral Fingerprints

    CERN Document Server

    Kaltenegger, L

    2009-01-01

    The detection and characterization of Earth-like planet is approaching rapidly thanks to radial velocity surveys (HARPS), transit searches (Corot, Kepler) and space observatories dedicated to their characterization are already in development phase (James Webb Space Telescope), large ground based telescopes (ELT, TNT, GMT), and dedicated space-based missions like Darwin, Terrestrial Planet Finder, New World Observer). In this paper we discuss how we can read a planets spectrum to assess its habitability and search for the signatures of a biosphere. Identifying signs of life implies understanding how the observed atmosphere physically and chemically works and thus to gather information on the planet in addition to the observing its spectral fingerprint.

  14. The Fine Structure Constant and Habitable Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, $\\alpha$. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts $\\alpha^{-1}$ to be $145\\pm 50$. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be $145\\pm9$. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  15. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-08-01

    We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively providing a route to probe ultra-high energy physics with upcoming advances in planetary science.

  16. Polar Growth Habit of KABO Crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The polar growth habit of KABO crystal was discussed by the growth-units model of anionic coordination-polyhedra (ACP), and the relationship between stabilities of incorporation of those growth-units into various group faces and their corresponding morphologies was studied. It is put forward that the growth interface of crystal will be concave when negative plane is used as growth interface. Concave growth interface is very unfavorable for the quality of the crystal, because it is unsuitable for the transfer of the latent heat and impurities released during the deposition.

  17. The fine structure constant and habitable planets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandora, McCullen

    2016-01-01

    © 2016 IOP Publishing Ltd and Sissa Medialab srl .We use the existence of habitable planets to impose anthropic requirements on the fine structure constant, α. To this effect, we present two considerations that restrict its value to be very near the one observed. The first, that the end product...... of stellar fusion is iron and not one of its neighboring elements, restricts α-1 to be 145± 50. The second, that radiogenic heat in the Earth's interior remains adequately productive for billions of years, restricts it to be 145±9. A connection with the grand unified theory window is discussed, effectively...

  18. Genetics of growth habit and development of new coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd) varieties with trailing habit and bright color.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Phuong; Quesenberry, Kenneth; Clark, David

    2008-01-01

    A high level of genetic variability for growth habit types is observed in tetraploid, cultivated coleus (Solenostemon scutellarioides (L.) Codd). Very few cultivars with trailing habit exist, and those that are available generally have dark green or purple foliage color. Coleus with trailing growth habit is desirable as it increases its utility for use in hanging baskets, mixed containers, and as ground cover. There is a lack of published information on the genetic mechanism controlling growth habit and the development of new trailing types with orange colors. Two commercial cultivars, "Red Trailing Queen" (RQ) with trailing habit and "Sedona" (S) with upright stature, were selfed and crossed (RQ x S) to produce self and F(1) populations. F(2) populations were produced by selfing plants in the F(1) population. For each population analyzed, growth habit was rated on a visual 1-5 phenotypic scale, where 1 = upright, 2 = semi-upright, 3 = prostrate, 4 = semitrailing, and 5 = trailing. Genotypes were assigned to each phenotype, assuming that upright was dominant to trailing. In this study, growth habit was observed to be controlled by a single gene (U) with additive effects, with upright growth habit designated with a UUUU genotype and trailing growth habit designated with a uuuu genotype. In addition, foliage color was rated on a visual 1-5 phenotypic scale, and purple foliage color was found to be dominant to yellow-orange color. Several new coleus selections with trailing growth habit and orange foliage color were successfully developed.

  19. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results.

  20. Exploring New Potentials in Preventing Unhealthy Computer Habits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Tobias; Grønbæk, Kaj

    2013-01-01

    Each day millions of computer users experience pains due to unhealthy computer habits. Research in this field mainly focuses on encouraging users to take breaks and correct their posture. This paper shows that unhealthy computer habits calls for new sensing solutions. Based on a design process...... including experts in the field of computer-related injuries, The Habit-Aware Mouse prototype was developed. It provides high-accuracy sensing of whether a user's fingers are hovering above the mouse. This kind of hovering is known to cause pains in the forearm. The integration of trans-parent sensing...... in existing products enables medical researchers to gain new insights on unhealthy habits. The Habit-Aware Mouse is a diagnostic sensing tool to get detailed knowledge about the user's unhealthy computer habits. Sensing is the first step to enable feedback, preventing injuries from finger hovering....

  1. Habitable Exoplanet Imager Optical Telescope Concept Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, H Philip

    2017-01-01

    The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) is one of four missions under study for the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal Survey. Its goal is to directly image and spectroscopically characterize planetary systems in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars. Additionally, HabEx will perform a broad range of general astrophysics science enabled by 100 to 2500 nm spectral range and 3 x 3 arc-minute FOV. Critical to achieving the HabEx science goals is a large, ultra-stable UV/Optical/Near-IR (UVOIR) telescope. The baseline HabEx telescope is a 4-meter off-axis unobscured three-mirror-anastigmatic, diffraction limited at 400 nm with wavefront stability on the order of a few 10s of picometers. This paper summarizes the opto-mechanical design of the HabEx baseline optical telescope assembly, including a discussion of how science requirements drive the telescope's specifications, and presents analysis that the baseline telescope structure meets its specified tolerances.

  2. UV habitable zones around M stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buccino, Andrea P.; Lemarchand, Guillermo A.; Mauas, Pablo J. D.

    2007-12-01

    During the last decade there was a change in paradigm, which led to consider that terrestrial-type planets within liquid-water habitable zones (LW-HZ) around M stars can also be suitable places for the emergence and evolution of life. Since many dMe stars emit large amount of UV radiation during flares, in this work we analyze the UV constrains for living systems on Earth-like planets around dM stars. We apply our model of UV habitable zone (UV-HZ; Buccino, A.P., Lemarchand, G.A., Mauas, P.J.D., 2006. Icarus 183, 491-503) to the three planetary systems around dM stars (HIP 74995, HIP 109388 and HIP 113020) observed by IUE and to two M-flare stars (AD Leo and EV Lac). In particular, HIP 74995 hosts a terrestrial planet in the LW-HZ, which is the exoplanet that most resembles our own Earth. We show, in general, that during the quiescent state there would not be enough UV radiation within the LW-HZ to trigger the biogenic processes and that this energy could be provided by flares of moderate intensity, while strong flares do not necessarily rule-out the possibility of life-bearing planets.

  3. Inflatable habitation for the lunar base

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M.

    1992-01-01

    Inflatable structures have a number of advantages over rigid modules in providing habitation at a lunar base. Some of these advantages are packaging efficiency, convenience of expansion, flexibility, and psychological benefit to the inhabitants. The relatively small, rigid cylinders fitted to the payload compartment of a launch vehicle are not as efficient volumetrically as a collapsible structure that fits into the same space when packaged, but when deployed is much larger. Pressurized volume is a valuable resource. By providing that resource efficiently, in large units, labor intensive external expansion (such as adding additional modules to the existing base) can be minimized. The expansive interior in an inflatable would facilitate rearrangement of the interior to suite the evolving needs of the base. This large, continuous volume would also relieve claustrophobia, enhancing habitability and improving morale. The purpose of this paper is to explore some of the aspects of inflatable habitat design, including structural, architectural, and environmental considerations. As a specific case, the conceptual design of an inflatable lunar habitat, developed for the Lunar Base Systems Study at the Johnson Space Center, is described.

  4. Eating habits of children and adolescents from rural regions depending on gender, education, and economic status of parents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kołłątaj, Witold; Sygit, Katarzyna; Sygit, Marian; Karwat, Irena Dorota; Kołłątaj, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    The proper lifestyle of a child, including proper eating habits, should be monitored to ensure proper physical and psychological development. This applies particularly to rural areas which are economically, socially and educationally backward. The study included 1,341 rural schoolchildren and adolescents aged 9-13 years (734 females, 607 males). The representative survey research was conducted in 2008, making use of an original survey questionnaire. The results showed that the majority of respondents eat improperly. 83.2% of them have regular breakfast, and 62.6% have regular light lunch. Most respondents do not eat more than 4 meals a day (usually 3-4). It is worrying that the consumption of sweets is high (34.9% of the surveyed group eat them regularly), whereas fruit and vegetable consumption is low. In this study, relationships between types of diet and such descriptive variables as gender, parents' educational status, and economic situation of the households are described. In families where the parents have a higher education and the household situation is good, the eating habits are much better. The list of poor dietary habits of pupils from rural schools includes skipping breakfast and/or light lunch, high consumption of sweets and low consumption of fruit and vegetables. There are correlations between improper dietary habits and gender of the children and adolescents, educational status of parents, economic situation of households, and housing conditions.

  5. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  6. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  7. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  8. Challenges for Large Housing Estates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Hedvig

    This paper examines policies and improvement programmes implemented to improve troubled housing estates during three decades. It is based on evaluations of implemented programmes conducted for the Danish ministry of housing and the National Building Fund as well as similar studies from other...... European countries. Case studies illustrate local developments and outcomes and are the base for questioning the original identification of problems and thus the chosen solutions. Perspectives for current policy initiatives in the field of troubled housing estates are discussed in a general housing market...

  9. Social Housing: wood prefabrication techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiziana Ferrante

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Student housing, a particular and quite significant part of social housing, and innovation in processing and production of industrial building components made of a material (wood not adequately inquired: two fields of research that have been explored for a long time allowing here to share and compare experiences gained thus far. By a selection of samples of wooden student housing in Europe we have documented the performances of this material and we have underlined, at the same time, through what happens abroad, the need of an organic national social housing plan that can meet an unsatisfied demand and boost the construction industry during this particular stage of economic crisis.

  10. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...... and the urgency of the sale also affect the average discount: Discounts are larger when house prices contract, in thin markets where demand is lower, and when the sale is more likely to be a fire sale because of financial or liquidity constraints. Late fire sales are more likely when the house price...... forced sales lead to fire sale discounts....

  11. Who now handles social housing provision - the role and performance of housing associations:

    OpenAIRE

    Veronica Coatham

    1995-01-01

    In Britain, Housing Associations are organizations whose prime objectives are to develop and manage housing for people in housing need and who are on low incomes. They are sometimes referred to as the “voluntary housing sector” or the “third arm” of rented housing provisions, separate from private sector landlords and rented housing provided by statutory local (municipal) housing authorities. This article discusses the role of housing associations in the UK housing market.

  12. Good Study Habits-The key to learning English

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨明

    2013-01-01

    Learning a language is slow and cumulative. No one can learn a language in 24 hours as many advertisements promise you. In fact, people work all their lives to learn languages. So it is important for all the people to develop study habits because de⁃veloping good habits in learning English will greatly increase studying efficiency and give twice the result with half the effort. In other words, good study habits are the keys to learning English.

  13. The Benefits of Developing Habits of Mind to English Learners

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈颖

    2007-01-01

    In ordinary human life,something can be two different things at the same time. Habit can also be a theory and a solution. In this thesis I will introduce the reasons why we should develop habits of mind and the benefits to English learners. In this way English learners can master some better learning methods and scientific habits of mind to direct and improve their English learning.

  14. A Critical Review of Habit Learning and the Basal Ganglia

    OpenAIRE

    Seger, Carol A.; Spiering, Brian J.

    2011-01-01

    The current paper briefly outlines the historical development of the concept of habit learning and discusses its relationship to the basal ganglia. Habit learning has been studied in many different fields of neuroscience using different species, tasks, and methodologies, and as a result it has taken on a wide range of definitions from these various perspectives. We identify five common but not universal, definitional features of habit learning: that it is inflexible, slow or incremental, unco...

  15. Subsidized Housing, Public Housing, and Adolescent Violence and Substance Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leech, Tamara G. J.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the separate relationships of public housing residence and subsidized housing residence to adolescent health risk behavior. Data include 2,530 adolescents aged 14 to 19 who were children of the National the Longitudinal Study of Youth. The author used stratified propensity methods to compare the behaviors of each…

  16. Sustainable Housing Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauring, Gert Michael

    2016-01-01

    especially for the A&D architectural program and its intention of combining architectural and engineering skills in design work where ‘artistic learning, the creation of ideas, and an ability to see new possibilities and be creative become just as important parameters as the ability to identify problems....... Thus, if one wants to realistically solve the issue of sustainable housing design one must address the intertwined aspects of building construction, urban density and neighborhood qualities which calls for an interdisciplinary design approach. This paper tells of a thoroughly tested civil engineering...... education program at university master level dealing with the complex issue of combining zero energy building with dense urban living for children families. 2. Methodology The students are recommended to use the Integrated Design Process-method as described by Mary-Ann Knudstrup, that has been developed...

  17. Radionuclides in house dust

    CERN Document Server

    Fry, F A; Green, N; Hammond, D J

    1985-01-01

    Discharges of radionuclides from the British Nuclear Fuel plc (BNFL) reprocessing plant at Sellafield in Cumbria have led to elevated concentrations radionuclides in the local environment. The major routes of exposure of the public are kept under review by the appropriate Government departments and monitoring is carried out both by the departments and by BNFL itself. Recently, there has been increasing public concern about general environmental contamination resulting from the discharges and, in particular, about possible exposure of members of the public by routes not previously investigated in detail. One such postulated route of exposure that has attracted the interest of the public, the press and Parliament arises from the presence of radionuclides within houses. In view of this obvious and widespread concern, the Board has undertaken a sampling programme in a few communities in Cumbria to assess the radiological significance of this source of exposure. From the results of our study, we conclude that, alt...

  18. Lenherr house, Schwyz, Switzerland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filleux, C.

    1999-07-01

    This house includes an unusual window collector as the outer glazing of a sun space that covers the entire south facade. Thus, the living area behind the sun space is buffered from heat losses as well as sheltered from the overheating which can occur in rooms directly behind large areas of glazing. The combination of sun space and window collector reduces the heating load by approximately 30%. The collector heated air is channelled through insulated hollow core floors and walls by fans. The stored heat is later passively released to the rooms. This closed-loop charging-radiant discharging solar system also reduces the heating load by 30%, making a 60% overall reduction. (author)

  19. Frei house, Nueziders, Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, S.

    1999-07-01

    The Frei house incorporates an air collector, a rock bed and hollow-core constructions for storage and distribution, leaving a requirement for only 17 kWh/m{sup a} (kWh/m{sup 2} per annum) for auxiliary heat in an average season. The system has minimal technical equipment, simple controls and only one fan. The back-draught dampers are self-operating. Another attribute is the high level of thermal comfort provided by the radiant heat from the hypocausts and murocausts. A wood stove in the cellar can supply hot air to the hypo/ murocausts if required. The larger part of the domestic hot water is solar heated by a heat exchanger in the duct from the air collector. (author)

  20. Ideas about housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2009-01-01

    settled at the age of 30-35, and the last generation has yet to settle. In the course of this research project, it is of interest to examine the modern family home offered to each generation by the architects drawing houses at that time. Therefore the following periods of time span was investigated: 1950...... competition provides the architects a possibility to reflect on the current social patterns, and to propose suitable spaces. In this light, the competition proposals represent the visions and dreams of the architects to the contemporary society. “For most of the 20th century, design competitions have been......-55, 1970-75 and 1990-95. The purpose of the research is to explore the relationship between the physical space and the social patterns taking place in the modern family home during the investigated time frames....

  1. House While Woman Grows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şengül Öymen Gür

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Discourses on woman/space relations boomed in the 90s. The fundamental reason was to give support to the Feminist Movement. This trend which has had feeble effect on architectural design remained controversial. The comprehensive research expounded in this article which was based on an open-ended questionnaire that targeted at determining the gender roles at home, applied to female subjects who simulated the national demographics, clearly demonstrated that the home experience of an average Turkish woman basically consists of kitchens; the female who runs the house does not really have a place for herself at home. However she does not perceive her restrained, secondary role an issue worthy of struggling to change and she grants spaces for recreation and study to the male. The well-established civil laws conducive for equality has not changed this disturbing situation and do not seem to do so in the near future.

  2. Towards parsimony in habit measurement: testing the convergent and predictive validity of an automaticity subscale of the Self-Report Habit Index

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gardner, Benjamin; Abraham, Charles; Lally, Phillippa; de Bruijn, Gert-Jan

    2012-01-01

    .... Drawing on recent theorising suggesting that automaticity is the 'active ingredient' of habit-behaviour relationships, we tested whether an automaticity-specific SRHI subscale could capture habit...

  3. Exploring the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in the deciduous dentition

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes-Freire, Gabriela Mesquita; Cárdenas, Abel Belizario Cahuana; Suarez de Deza, José Enrique Espasa; Ustrell-Torrent, Josep Maria; Oliveira,Luciana Butini; Boj Quesada JR, Joan Ramon

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to explore the association between feeding habits, non-nutritive sucking habits, and malocclusions in deciduous dentition. Methods A cross-sectional observational survey was carried out in 275 children aged 3 to 6 years and included clinical evaluations of malocclusions and structured interviews. Statistical significance for the association between feeding habits and the development of malocclusion was determined using chi-square and Fisher’s exact tests. In additi...

  4. Is the House Price Movement Explaining the Pattern of Consumption: The Case of U.K.?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Makram Bellalah

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper was to investigate whether the historical perspective of house price movements could help to explain the recent pattern of consumption in the UK. In addition to this, tests of this study evaluated how strong the correlation between those variables within a specific period of time could be. This paper also attempted to investigate to which extent the current crisis, well-known as the subprime market crash, could affect future expectations about house prices and consumer habits, considering the following three housing market hypotheses: 1 a wealth effect (Muellbauer & Murphy, 1990: an expected increase in house prices raises the desired level of expenditure; 2 the lower credit constraints, the higher consumption (King & Pagano, 1990; and 3 common causality model: factors such as changes in expected income growth, tax changes or changes in credit market conditions lead to increases in both household expenditure and house prices. Our findings about the coincidence of house prices and consumption during the last two decades had corroborated the hypothesis that an increase in house prices movements could help to explain the followed pattern of consumption.

  5. Exoplanet Habitability: Effects of Planetesimal Carbon Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Torrence; Mousis, Olivier; Lunine, Jonathan; Madhusudhan, Nikku

    2014-05-01

    We explore the effects of reported differences in C/O values for exoplanet host stars on the composition of planetesimals formed beyond the snow line in these systems. Since the value of C/O in a planet forming nebula has a strong effect on amount of oxygen available for water ice in an oxidizing nebula, exoplanet systems for host stars with C/O greater than the solar value may have planetesimals with very little or no water ice. We have estimated the composition of volatile and refractory material in extrasolar planetesimals using a set of stars with a wide range of measured C/O abundances (Johnson et al. ApJ. 757(2), 192, 2012). The volatile ice content of planetesimals in these systems varies significantly with C/O, controlled primarily by the availability of O for H2O ice condensation. Systems with C/O less than the solar value (C/O = 0.55) should have very water ice rich planetesimals, while water ice mass fraction decreases rapidly with increasing C/O until only ices of CO and CO2 are left in significant proportions. If a significant fraction of C is in the form of refractory CHON particles, C and O are removed from the gas phase and the condensates for super-solar C/O values will be water-poor mixtures of silicates and metal, carbon, and carbon-bearing volatile ices, depending on temperature. For very carbon-rich systems, oxidizing conditions cannot be sustained beyond about C/O=1, due to the oxygen sequestered in solid silicates, oxides and CHON, for refractory C fractions within the Pollack et al. range of 0.4 - 0.7 (ApJ. 421, 615, 1994). These results have implications for assessing the habitability of exoplanets since they constrain the amount of water available beyond the snow line for dynamical delivery to inner planets, depending on the host star's C/O in the circumstellar nebula. Thus one the key chemical ingredients for habitability may be in short supply in carbon-rich, oxygen-poor systems even if planets exist in the 'habitable zone'. TVJ

  6. Smart Houses and Uncomfortable Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alm, Norman; Arnott, John

    2015-01-01

    In order for smart houses to achieve acceptance from potential beneficiaries they will need to match the users' expectation that their house is also their home, with the sense of privacy and control that this implies. Designers of this technology will need to be aware of findings in this regard from fields such as architecture and design ethnography.

  7. Unitary Housing Regimes in Transition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bengtsson, Bo; Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    to the Danish and Swedish housing regimes are analysed and the responses and outcomes in terms of policy change and/or institutional continuity (path dependence) are compared. Overall, the more decentralized Danish housing regime seems to have resisted pressures for change and retrenchment better so far than...

  8. Fire Sales and House Prices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Meisner Nielsen, Kasper

    We exploit a natural experiment in Denmark to investigate when forced sales lead to fire sale discounts. Forced sales result from sudden deaths of house owners in an institutional environment in which beneficiaries are forced to settle the estate, and hence sell the house, within 12 months. We...

  9. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  10. Renewal of Postwar Housing Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech-Danielsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    This paper assesses Danish postwar housing architecture in relation to the concept of ‘everyday tectonics’. It is argued that the extensive criticism of the architecture of the postwar housing developments is probably linked to their tectonic qualities, but that, to an even higher degree, it is a...

  11. Quality assurance for passive houses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, H.J.; Mlecnik, E.

    2009-01-01

    For newly built houses national ambitions prescribe increasing levels of energy performances, even including achieving net zero energy or carbon neutral houses. This is in large contrast with the lack of quality in many building processes. The building regulations, processes and control will have to

  12. Studies on Dutch Housing Corporations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenstra, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    One third of all dwellings in the Netherlands is owned by housing corporations. These are privately governed institutions executing a public task (social housing). Recently, corporations have received negative attention due to various incidents (such as fraud and excessive risk-taking). This put pre

  13. The Philosophy of University Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, James A.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines a stated philosophy of university housing and the philosophy's effect on the facilitation of the personal and intellectual growth of students residing in the residence halls and the development of a sense of community. This particular philosophy governs the housing operations at Southern Illinois University at Carbondale.…

  14. Nutritional knowledge and dietary habits survey in high school population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milosavljević, Dragana; Mandić, Milena L; Banjari, Ines

    2015-03-01

    During adolescence, young people are in a sensitive transition period when they gradually take over the responsibility for their own eating habits, health attitudes and behaviours and create lifelong habits so it is essential that they adopt healthy habits according to dietary recommendations. Knowledge is one of the factors necessary for the changes in dietary habits. The'objective of this study was to gain insight in nutritional knowledge and dietary habits of adolescents. The sample included 117 adolescents aged 17-19 years. Self-administered, anonymous questionnaire, representing modified version of General Nutrition Knowledge Questionnaire was used to assess general characteristics, nutritional knowledge about nutrients, dietary recommendations, sources of nutrients, diet-disease relationship, and dietary habits. Less than one third of adolescents showed satisfactory knowledge, but boys, adolescents from rural environment and overweight adolescents showed significantly lower knowledge unlike others. Meal skipping was present habit, especially for breakfast consumption. Especially high consumption of meat and meat products was noted for boys, while fruit and vegetables for girls. Fad dieting was quite practiced habit, especially in girls and overweight adolescents. Among girls, high consumption of sweets was confirmed, while boys showed high consumption of soft drinks. Television presents the main source of infor- mation about nutrition for adolescents. Collected data shows similarity with other research in Europe and North America that confirm strong influence of globalization and fast spread of unhealthy habits. The results pointed out weak spots in nutritional knowledge and revealed unhealthy eating habits. This information is necessary for the development of new approaches to modulate their knowledge and consequently act on their behaviour. Behavioral changes would include higher number of meals per day, regular breakfast consumption, higher intake of fish

  15. Housing Welfare Policies in Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lotte

    2013-01-01

    that the institutional differences between the Swedish model of municipal ownership and the Danish model of independent cooperative social housing associations provides different sources of resistance to the prospective dismantlement of social housing as we know it. The fifth section presents the recent Danish reform......It is commonplace to refer to the Nordic countries of Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and Iceland as a distinctive and homogenous welfare regime. As far as social housing is concerned, however, the institutional heritage of the respective countries significantly frames the ways in which social...... housing is understood, regulated and subsidized, and, in turn, how housing regimes respond to the general challenges to the national welfare states. The paper presents a historical institutionalist approach to understanding the diversity of regime responses in the modern era characterized by increasing...

  16. Lifeboat habitability and effects on human subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, Jonathan T.; Simoes Re, Antonio J. [National Research Council of Canada: Institute for Ocean Technology, St. John' s, Newfoundland and Labrador (Canada)], email: Jonathan.power@nrc.ca, email: Antonio.simoesre@nrc.ca

    2010-07-01

    When an accident occurs offshore, lifeboats are the principal means used to evacuate shipping and offshore industries. However, in the International Maritime Organization Lifesaving Appliances code, no criteria are established as to habitability and the effects on human of those evacuation craft. The aim of this project was to study the impact of prolonged occupancy on the human body. This study was carried out in a SOLAS lifeboat in Conception Bay with 2 persons on-board wearing immersion suit systems; measurements of their skin temperature, deep body temperature and heart rate while doing their tasks were conducted. Results showed that when the lifeboat is sealed, the thermal comfort is quickly reduced with occupants sweating. This study highlighted that hatches and immersions suits should be kept open when possible to reduce the thermal strain on the occupants and that properly designed ventilation systems should be installed in lifeboats.

  17. Organic products: consumption habits and perceptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dacinia-Crina Petrescu

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to determine consumption habits and perceptions onecological food products. The main results are: 85% of the respondents perceive the dominantcharacteristic organic food “healthy”; more than half of the respondents (60% states to have no orlittle trust in sellers claims about a product being eco in the absence of organic label; half of therespondents declare they spent less than 50 lei (0-11.11 Euro on organic food and 40% of therespondents declare they spent between 51-200 lei (11.12-44.44. Euro on organic food; almost 20%of the sample bought organic cereals, fruits, vegetables and dairy and almost 10% bought biscuits,meat, oil during the last year; 80% of the respondents are willing to pay for 1 liter of organic milk upto 44% more compared to supermarket price and 80% more compared to small farmers’ price.

  18. The quantitative modelling of human spatial habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, J. A.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the quantitative assessment of human spatial habitability is presented in the space station context. The visual aspect assesses how interior spaces appear to the inhabitants. This aspect concerns criteria such as sensed spaciousness and the affective (emotional) connotations of settings' appearances. The kinesthetic aspect evaluates the available space in terms of its suitability to accommodate human movement patterns, as well as the postural and anthrometric changes due to microgravity. Finally, social logic concerns how the volume and geometry of available space either affirms or contravenes established social and organizational expectations for spatial arrangements. Here, the criteria include privacy, status, social power, and proxemics (the uses of space as a medium of social communication).

  19. Eating habits and subjective well-being

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schnettler, Berta Lorena; Miranda, Horacio; Lobos, Germán

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to distinguish and characterize university student typologies according to their life satisfaction and satisfaction with their food-related life. An online survey was applied between June and August 2013 in five state universities in Chile, to 369 university students...... (mean age = 20.9 years, SD = 2.27). The survey included the Health-related Quality of Life Index-4 (HRQOL), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Satisfaction with Food-related Life Scale (SWFL), as well as questions about the place of residence, importance of food for well-being, frequency of meals...... with higher levels of life satisfaction and satisfaction with food-related life live with their parents, eat at home more frequently, report fewer health problems, have healthful eating habits and consider food very important for their well-being. Although it is necessary to promote or improve the campaigns...

  20. Cosmic initial conditions for a habitable universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2017-09-01

    Within the framework of an eternal inflationary scenario, a natural question regarding the production of eternal bubbles is the essential conditions required to have a universe capable of generating life. In either an open or a closed universe, we find an anthropic lower bound on the amount of e-folding in the order of 60 for the inflationary epoch, which results in the formation of large-scale structures in both linear and non-linear regimes. We extend the question of the initial condition of the universe to the sufficient condition in which we have enough initial dark matter and baryonic matter asymmetry in the early universe for the formation of galactic halos, stars, planets and consequently life. We show that the probability of a habitable universe is proportional to the asymmetry of dark and baryonic matter, while the cosmic budget of baryonic matter is limited by astrophysical constraints.

  1. Habitable Climates: The Influence of Obliquity

    CERN Document Server

    Spiegel, David S; Scharf, Caleb A

    2008-01-01

    Without the stabilizing influence of the Moon, the Earth's obliquity could vary significantly. Extrasolar terrestrial planets with the potential to host life may therefore have large obliquities or be subject to strong obliquity variations. We revisit the habitability of oblique planets with an energy balance climate model (EBM) allowing for dynamical transitions to ice-covered snowball states as a result of ice-albedo feedback. Despite the great simplicity of our EBM, it captures reasonably well the seasonal cycle of global energetic fluxes at Earth's surface. It also performs satisfactorily against a full-physics climate model of a highly oblique Earth, in an unusual regime of circulation dominated by heat transport from the poles to the equator. Climates on oblique terrestrial planets can violate global radiative balance through much of their seasonal cycle, which limits the usefulness of simple radiative equilibrium arguments. High obliquity planets have severe climates, with large amplitude seasonal vari...

  2. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Zuluaga, Jorge I; Cuartas-Restrepo, Pablo; Poveda, German

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for ...

  3. Atmospheric Habitable Zones in Y Dwarf Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Yates, Jack S; Biller, Beth; Cockell, Charles S

    2016-01-01

    We use a simple organism lifecycle model to explore the viability of an atmospheric habitable zone (AHZ), with temperatures that could support Earth-centric life, which sits above an environment that does not support life. We illustrate this idea using the object WISE J085510.83-0714442.5, which is a cool, free-floating brown dwarf. We allow organisms to adapt to their atmospheric environment (described by temperature, convection, and gravity) by adopting different growth strategies that maximize their chance of survival and proliferation. We assume a constant upward vertical velocity through the AHZ. We found that the organism growth strategy is most sensitive to the magnitude of the atmospheric convection. Stronger convection supports the evolution of more massive organisms. For a purely radiative environment we find that evolved organisms have a mass that is an order of magnitude smaller than terrestrial microbes, thereby defining a dynamical constraint on the dimensions of life that an AHZ can support. Ba...

  4. A Maximum Radius for Habitable Planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibert, Yann

    2015-09-01

    We compute the maximum radius a planet can have in order to fulfill two constraints that are likely necessary conditions for habitability: 1- surface temperature and pressure compatible with the existence of liquid water, and 2- no ice layer at the bottom of a putative global ocean, that would prevent the operation of the geologic carbon cycle to operate. We demonstrate that, above a given radius, these two constraints cannot be met: in the Super-Earth mass range (1-12 Mearth), the overall maximum that a planet can have varies between 1.8 and 2.3 Rearth. This radius is reduced when considering planets with higher Fe/Si ratios, and taking into account irradiation effects on the structure of the gas envelope.

  5. Creating Affordable Housing through self-management:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    The paper presents a case on self-management in the Danish social housing sector as a way of providing affordable housing. It is based on an evaluation of a Danish concept for affordable housing, Social Housing Plus (“AlmenBolig+”). The concept was introduced in 2007, and so far app 1.400 housing...

  6. Habitability from the Surface to the Deep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, A. D.; Schmidt, R.; Dahlquist, G. R.; Foster, J.; Dillard, M.

    2016-12-01

    Merging aqueous geochemical parameters of habitability with microbial identity and activity will help determine microbial contributions to observed water-rock reactions in surface to deep environments. To determine habitability for microbial life and decipher mechanisms by which microbes survive and perform chemical reactions, over one hundred sites in diverse geological and geochemical environs have been sampled for aqueous geochemistry, mineralogy, and microbial identity and activity. Sites ranged from surficial creeks and rivers to the flooded mine shafts beneath to hydrothermal features in the caldera of a supervolcano 250 km distant; these environments contain metal scarcity, extreme anoxia, and wide variations in metal, organic carbon, and oxygen scarcity, respectively. Aqueous geochemistry included in situ measurement of temperature, pH, conductivity, and dissolved oxygen by meters; field spectrophotometry for redox active species; and synchronous sample collection and preservation for water isotopes, major cations and anions, trace elements, and dissolved inorganic and organic carbon, and more. Concurrent collection and preservation of planktonic and sediment biomass at each site will allow for microbial community identification and assessment of microbial activity. DNA extraction and PCR amplification using universal, eukaryotic, bacterial, and archaeal small subunit ribosomal RNA gene primers yielded products for sequencing. For many of the aqueous geochemical parameters analyzed, including Li and B, concentrations in flooded mine shafts fell on a continuum directly between local surface waters and those resulting from hydrothermal alteration suggesting an intermediate level of water-rock interaction in flooded mine shaft habitats. Concentrations of Li and B ranged from low micromolal in surface waters to millimolal in thermal waters. Other elements - Fe, Mn, Zn, and As included - were enriched in anoxic mine shafts by three to four orders of magnitude

  7. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, J. I.; Salazar, J. F.; Cuartas-Restrepo, P.; Poveda, G.

    2014-06-01

    In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ), defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ) depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet) how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  8. A Pragmatic Path to Investigating Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo, R. T.; Bagenal, F.; Barr, A. C.; Bills, B. G.; Blaney, D. L.; Blankenship, D. D.; Connerney, J. E.; Kurth, W. S.; McGrath, M. A.; Moore, J. M.; Prockter, L. M.; Senske, D. A.; Smith, D. E.; Garner, G. J.; Magner, T. J.; Cooke, B. C.; Mallder, V.; Crum, R.

    2011-12-01

    Assessment of Europa's habitability will progress via a comprehensive investigation of Europa's subsurface ocean, chemical composition, and internal dynamical processes. The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (JEO) mission concept is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget. Thus, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider more pragmatic Europa mission options. In its preliminary findings, the ESDT embraces a science scope and instrument complement comparable to the science "floor" for JEO, but with a radically different mission implementation. The ESDT is studying a two-element mission architecture, in which two relatively low-cost spacecraft would fulfill the Europa science objectives. An envisioned Europa orbital element would carry only a very small geophysics payload, addressing those investigations that are best carried out from Europa orbit. An envisioned separate multiple Europa flyby element (in orbit about Jupiter) would emphasize remote sensing. This mission architecture would provide for a subset of radiation-shielded instruments (all relatively low mass, power, and data rate) to be delivered into Europa orbit by a modest spacecraft, saving on propellant and other spacecraft resources. More resource-intensive remote sensing instruments would achieve their science objectives through a conservative multiple-flyby approach, which is better suited to handle larger masses and higher data volumes. Separation of the payload into two spacecraft elements, phased in time, would permit costs to be spread more uniformly over multiple years, avoiding an excessively high peak in the funding profile. Implementation of each spacecraft would be greatly simplified compared to previous Europa mission concepts, minimizing new development while achieving the key Europa science objectives. We

  9. The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafuente, B.; Stone, N.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED) is a central, high quality, long-term searchable repository for archiving and collaborative sharing of astrobiologically relevant data, including, morphological, textural and contextural images, chemical, biochemical, isotopic, sequencing, and mineralogical information. The aim of AHED is to foster long-term innovative research by supporting integration and analysis of diverse datasets in order to: 1) help understand and interpret planetary geology; 2) identify and characterize habitable environments and pre-biotic/biotic processes; 3) interpret returned data from present and past missions; 4) provide a citable database of NASA-funded published and unpublished data (after an agreed-upon embargo period). AHED uses the online open-source software "The Open Data Repository's Data Publisher" (ODR - http://www.opendatarepository.org) [1], which provides a user-friendly interface that research teams or individual scientists can use to design, populate and manage their own database according to the characteristics of their data and the need to share data with collaborators or the broader scientific community. This platform can be also used as a laboratory notebook. The database will have the capability to import and export in a variety of standard formats. Advanced graphics will be implemented including 3D graphing, multi-axis graphs, error bars, and similar scientific data functions together with advanced online tools for data analysis (e. g. the statistical package, R). A permissions system will be put in place so that as data are being actively collected and interpreted, they will remain proprietary. A citation system will allow research data to be used and appropriately referenced by other researchers after the data are made public. This project is supported by the Science-Enabling Research Activity (SERA) and NASA NNX11AP82A, Mars Science Laboratory Investigations. [1] Nate et al. (2015) AGU, submitted.

  10. The Habitable Zone of Inhabited Planets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. I. Zuluaga

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we discuss and illustrate the hypothesis that life substantially alters the state of a planetary environment and therefore, modifies the limits of the HZ as estimated for an uninhabited planet. This hypothesis lead to the introduction of the Habitable Zone for Inhabited Planets (hereafter InHZ, defined here as the region where the complex interaction between life and its abiotic environment is able to produce plausible equilibrium states with the necessary physical conditions for the existence and persistence of life itself. We support our hypothesis of an InHZ with three theoretical arguments, multiple evidences coming from observations of the Earth system, several conceptual experiments and illustrative numerical simulations. Conceptually the diference between the InHZ and the Abiotic HZ (AHZ depends on unique and robust properties of life as an emergent physical phenomenon and not necesarily on the particular life forms bearing in the planet. Our aim here is to provide conceptual basis for the development of InHZ models incorporating consistently life-environment interactions. Although previous authors have explored the effects of life on habitability there is a gap in research developing the reasons why life should be systematically included at determining the HZ limits. We do not provide here definitive limits to the InHZ but we show through simple numerical models (as a parable of an inhabited planet how the limits of the AHZ could be modified by including plausible interactions between biota and its environment. These examples aim also at posing the question that if limits of the HZ could be modified by the presence of life in those simple dynamical systems how will those limits change if life is included in established models of the AHZ.

  11. Interior Structure and Habitability of Ocean Worlds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vance, S.; Bills, B. G.; Cammarano, F.; Panning, M. P.; Stähler, S. C.

    2016-12-01

    Earth's habitability depends critically on its interior structure and dynamics. Global redox cycles rely on Earth's mantle for continued flux of reduced materials (e.g., Hayes and Waldbauer 2006). Similarly, the habitability of ocean worlds must be understood in terms of their interior structure and evolution (Zolotov and Shock 2004, Hand et al. 2009, Nimmo and Pappalardo 2016, Vance et al. 2016). Combined seismology, gravity, and magnetic investigations may be able to distinguish between a hot active interior and a cold dead one. To evaluate such investigations, we are developing detailed models of interior density, elastic and anelastic structure, and associated seismic sources and signatures, building on prior work (Cammarano et al. 2006). We will present self-consistent 1-D structural models for ocean world interiors that use available thermodynamic data for fluids, ices, and rocks. Cammarano, F., V. Lekic, M. Manga, M. Panning, and B. Romanowicz (2006). Long-period seismology on Europa: 1. Physically consistent interior models. Journal of Geophysical Research, E12009:doi:10.1029/2006JE002710. Hand, K. P., C. Chyba, J. Priscu, R. Carlson, and K. Nealson (2009). Astrobiology and the Potential for Life on Europa, page 589. Arizona University Press. Hayes, J. M. and J. R. Waldbauer (2006). The carbon cycle and associated redox processes through time. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 361(1470):931-950. Nimmo, F. and R. T. Pappalardo (2016). Ocean Worlds in the Outer Solar System. Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:10.1002/2016JE005081 Vance, S. D., K. P. Hand, and R. T. Pappalardo (2016). Geophysical controls of chemical disequilibria in Europa. Geophysical Research Letters, doi:10.1002/2016GL068547. Zolotov, M. Y. and E. L. Shock (2004). A model for low-temperature biogeochemistry of sulfur, carbon, and iron on Europa. Journal of Geophysical Research-Planets, 109(E6):E06003.

  12. Habitability of enceladus: planetary conditions for life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Christopher D; Liang, Mao-Chang; Yung, Yuk L; Kirschivnk, Joseph L

    2008-08-01

    The prolific activity and presence of a plume on Saturn's tiny moon Enceladus offers us a unique opportunity to sample the interior composition of an icy satellite, and to look for interesting chemistry and possible signs of life. Based on studies of the potential habitability of Jupiter's moon Europa, icy satellite oceans can be habitable if they are chemically mixed with the overlying ice shell on Myr time scales. We hypothesize that Enceladus' plume, tectonic processes, and possible liquid water ocean may create a complete and sustainable geochemical cycle that may allow it to support life. We discuss evidence for surface/ocean material exchange on Enceladus based on the amounts of silicate dust material present in the Enceladus' plume particles. Microphysical cloud modeling of Enceladus' plume shows that the particles originate from a region of Enceladus' near surface where the temperature exceeds 190 K. This could be consistent with a shear-heating origin of Enceladus' tiger stripes, which would indicate extremely high temperatures ( approximately 250-273 K) in the subsurface shear fault zone, leading to the generation of subsurface liquid water, chemical equilibration between surface and subsurface ices, and crustal recycling on a time scale of 1 to 5 Myr. Alternatively, if the tiger stripes form in a mid-ocean-ridge-type mechanism, a half-spreading rate of 1 m/year is consistent with the observed regional heat flux of 250 mW m(-2) and recycling of south polar terrain crust on a 1 to 5 Myr time scale as well.

  13. Women's housing conditions in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefali, M K

    1996-01-01

    This news article describes women's housing conditions, housing policy, and pilot programs to house poor women in Bangladesh. Although Bangladesh has a constitution that reinforces the equal status of women, in practice, men dominate and patrilineal customs determine inheritance and property rights. Religious affiliation also determines land tenure and inheritance. Muslim women can inherit 12.5% of their husband's property if there are children. 25% is inherited if wives are without children. Hindu women without sons can inherit their husband's property, but not parental property. Many families refuse to release property to women without a fight. Women, regardless of ownership of land, rarely control or use their land. The custom of requiring men to maintain wives during the marriage, and daughters until marriage, creates obstacles to women's decision making about property. Without collateral and other security women are unable to secure bank loans. Many women are also constrained by the requirement of male consent or guarantees for bank transactions. Banks do not have a gender responsive criteria for selecting loan recipients. The government does not provide sufficient housing to satisfy the growing housing needs due to population growth. Some housing is available from slum landlords. A National Housing Policy was formulated in 1993. Priority would be given to the housing needs of low income women in urban areas and women-headed households with income below the poverty line. The policy does not address the underlying factors that prevent equal access to housing for women. The government prepared a Human Settlement and Urban Development proposal for the Habitat II conference. The plan did not address gender issues. Special efforts are being made by nongovernmental groups to meet the housing needs of professional women and for some disadvantaged women.

  14. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  15. Turning shopping habits of young consumers into green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Bialkova, Svetlana; van 't Erve, Sanne; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; Pruyn, Adriaan T.H.; Bigné, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Consumers have strong shopping habits, and although being aware of sustainable issues, they hardly do green shopping. Therefore, a challenging question is: how to break the old shopping habits and turn those into green? The current study addresses this question looking at barriers and potential

  16. On the habitability of exoplanets orbiting Proxima Centauri

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Madeleine; Rodriguez, Lien

    2014-01-01

    We apply a mathematical model for photosynthesis to quantitatively assess the habitability of a hypothetical planet orbiting Proxima Centauri, inside the so called habitability zone. Results suggest significant viability for primary biological productivity, provided living organisms have evolved to reach the ability of using infrared light for photosynthesis.

  17. Exercise habit formation in new gym members: a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Navin; Rhodes, Ryan E

    2015-08-01

    Reasoned action approaches have primarily been applied to understand exercise behaviour for the past three decades, yet emerging findings in unconscious and Dual Process research show that behavior may also be predicted by automatic processes such as habit. The purpose of this study was to: (1) investigate the behavioral requirements for exercise habit formation, (2) how Dual Process approach predicts behaviour, and (3) what predicts habit by testing a model (Lally and Gardner in Health Psychol Rev 7:S137-S158, 2013). Participants (n = 111) were new gym members who completed surveys across 12 weeks. It was found that exercising for at least four bouts per week for 6 weeks was the minimum requirement to establish an exercise habit. Dual Process analysis using Linear Mixed Models (LMM) revealed habit and intention to be parallel predictors of exercise behavior in the trajectory analysis. Finally, the habit antecedent model in LLM showed that consistency (β = .21), low behavioral complexity (β = .19), environment (β = .17) and affective judgments (β = .13) all significantly (p < .05) predicted changes in habit formation over time. Trainers should keep exercises fun and simple for new clients and focus on consistency which could lead to habit formation in nearly 6 weeks.

  18. Dietary Habits Prone to Lifestyle-Related Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, M.; Uyama, O.; Kaji, H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate relations among dietary habits, bone mineral density (BMD), visceral fat area (VFA), and arterial stiffness and recommend better dietary habits. Methods: One hundred and six men and 381 women (aged 18-84) received a health checkup and answered questionnaires, with subsequent measurements of BMD (speed of sound), VFA…

  19. Using Habit Reversal to Decrease Filled Pauses in Public Speaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, Carolyn; Miltenberger, Raymond G.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of simplified habit reversal in reducing filled pauses that occur during public speaking. Filled pauses consist of "uh," "um," or "er"; clicking sounds; and misuse of the word "like." After baseline, participants received habit reversal training that consisted of…

  20. Duty, Habit, and Meaning: Different Faces of Adherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretchmar, R. Scott

    2001-01-01

    All elements of an active lifestyle need not be meaningful. Good active habits of living can be generated without significant reliance on excitement or other kinds of notable meaning. The development of active living habits depend partly on enlightened social policy, but such policies are rare in the United States. Consequently, kinesiologists…

  1. Computer Habits and Behaviours among Young Children in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karuppiah, Nirmala

    2015-01-01

    This exploratory research project was aimed at developing baseline data on computer habits and behaviours among preschool children in Singapore. Three sets of data were collected from teachers, parents and children which are (1) why and how young children use computers; (2) what are the key physical, social and health habits and behaviours of…

  2. Survival of habitable planets in unstable planetary systems

    CERN Document Server

    Carrera, Daniel; Johansen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Many observed giant planets lie on eccentric orbits. Such orbits could be the result of strong scatterings with other giant planets. The same dynamical instability that produces giant planet scatterings can also alter the orbits of terrestrial planets. For example, a habitable rocky planet in the system can be ejected or transported to an orbit outside the habitable zone. Therefore, there is a link between observed giant planets and the habitability of smaller planets in the system. We say that a habitable planet has resilient habitability if it is able to avoid ejections and collisions and its orbit remains inside the habitable zone. Here we model the orbital evolution of rocky planets in planetary systems where giant planets become dynamically unstable. We measure the resilience of habitable planets as a function of the observed, present-day masses and orbits of the giant planets. We find that the survival rate of habitable planets depends strongly on the giant planet architecture. Systems with three Jupite...

  3. Food habits and food preferences of white and coloured South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    privaat

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 29, 2001. 1. Food habits ... that were identified in the food habits and preferences of these groups ... fast, but enjoyed a substantial midmorning snack. ...... Food beliefs and food choices in adoles- cents. ... Risk Factor Study (CORIS) population. South ...

  4. Making Ethics a Habit in Your Family Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terkel, Susan Neiburg

    1993-01-01

    Suggests family activities related to moral values: (1) instilling the giving habit; (2) using stories and games to trigger moral reflection; (3) encouraging earth ethics; (4) developing the moral opinion habit; (5) making moral reminders part of the home decor; (6) using every opportunity to teach; and (7) sharing holidays with others. (GLR)

  5. Turning shopping habits of young consumers into green

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, Svetlana; Erve, van 't Sanne; Hoof, van Joris; Pruyn, Ad; Bigné, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Consumers have strong shopping habits, and although being aware of sustainable issues, they hardly do green shopping. Therefore, a challenging question is: how to break the old shopping habits and turn those into green? The current study addresses this question looking at barriers and potential stim

  6. MAGNETIC SHIELDING OF EXOMOONS BEYOND THE CIRCUMPLANETARY HABITABLE EDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heller, René [McMaster University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Hamilton, ON L8S 4M1 (Canada); Zuluaga, Jorge I., E-mail: rheller@physics.mcmaster.ca, E-mail: jzuluaga@fisica.udea.edu.co [FACom - Instituto de Física - FCEN, Universidad de Antioquia, Calle 70 No. 52-21, Medellín (Colombia)

    2013-10-20

    With most planets and planetary candidates detected in the stellar habitable zone (HZ) being super-Earths and gas giants rather than Earth-like planets, we naturally wonder if their moons could be habitable. The first detection of such an exomoon has now become feasible, and due to observational biases it will be at least twice as massive as Mars. However, formation models predict that moons can hardly be as massive as Earth. Hence, a giant planet's magnetosphere could be the only possibility for such a moon to be shielded from cosmic and stellar high-energy radiation. Yet, the planetary radiation belt could also have detrimental effects on exomoon habitability. Here we synthesize models for the evolution of the magnetic environment of giant planets with thresholds from the runaway greenhouse (RG) effect to assess the habitability of exomoons. For modest eccentricities, we find that satellites around Neptune-sized planets in the center of the HZ around K dwarf stars will either be in an RG state and not be habitable, or they will be in wide orbits where they will not be affected by the planetary magnetosphere. Saturn-like planets have stronger fields, and Jupiter-like planets could coat close-in habitable moons soon after formation. Moons at distances between about 5 and 20 planetary radii from a giant planet can be habitable from an illumination and tidal heating point of view, but still the planetary magnetosphere would critically influence their habitability.

  7. Thumb Sucking: Help Your Child Break the Habit

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the process. References Nowak AJ, et al. Oral habits and orofacial development in children. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed July 8, 2015. Ask your dentist about thumb, finger and pacifier habits. American Academy of Pediatric Dentistry. http://www.aapd. ...

  8. Primary School Teacher Candidates' Geometric Habits of Mind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köse, Nilu¨fer Y.; Tanisli, Dilek

    2014-01-01

    Geometric habits of mind are productive ways of thinking that support learning and using geometric concepts. Identifying primary school teacher candidates' geometric habits of mind is important as they affect the development of their future students' geometric thinking. Therefore, this study attempts to determine primary school teachers' geometric…

  9. Habit formation and consumption of energy for heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth-Petersen, Søren

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we ask if consumption of energy for space heating by households is habit forming. A model of intertemporal consumption allocation allowing for habit-forming preferences is estimated on a register-based panel data set with high quality information about consumption of natural gas...

  10. Paternal smoking habits affect the reproductive life span of daughters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fukuda, Misao; Fukuda, Kiyomi; Shimizu, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    The present study assessed whether the smoking habits of fathers around the time of conception affected the period in which daughters experienced menstrual cycles (i.e., the reproductive life span). The study revealed that the smoking habits of the farther shortened the daughters' reproductive li...

  11. Effects of impurities on growth habit of KDP crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effects of metaphosphate, boric acid and quaternary ammonium cations with different concentration on the growth habit of KDP crystal are reported. The results are analyzed and discussed, which show that the effects of different impurities on the growth habit of KDP are not the same. It is due to the different adsorption mechanism of the impurities.

  12. Intergenerational and Urban-Rural Health Habits in Chinese Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Cao, Haijun; Lieber, Eli

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To explore intergenerational health habits and compare differences between urban and rural families. Methods: A total of 2500 families with children ages 6-18 in China were surveyed regarding their health habits. Results: Urban families reported significantly greater food variety and more time exercising (for fathers and children) than…

  13. HOUSING INSURANCE IN ROMANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLOREA IANC MARIA MIRABELA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Last few years have shown that Romania is not protected from the consequences of climate change. It is clear that type flood events may cause social problems and losses is difficult financing from public resources, especially in the context of the existence of budget constraints. The only viable system to cope with such disasters is insurance system that has the ability to spread risks by reinsurance Natural disasters - earthquakes, floods, landslides - are just some of the risks that may threaten your home. And if natural disasters can seem distant danger, think as fires, floods caused by broken pipes or theft of household goods are trouble can happen anytime to anyone. To protect yourself in such unpleasant situations, whose frequency is unfortunately on the rise, it is necessary to be assured. Thus, you will be able to recover losses in the event that they occur. The house is undoubtedly one of the most important assets we own. Therefore, the Romans began to pay increasingly more attention to domestic insurance products. Since 2011, voluntary home insurance, life insurance with, were the most dynamic segments of the market.

  14. Smart (Domotic houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Felipe Herrera Quintero

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The advance of telecomunications via the use of Internet has led to IP network integration. Many networks have been working successfully and have been fundamental for many areas in measuring the automation of data, thus allowing researchers and professionals to have a wider view of production in various sectors. Remote control has been developed throught technological innovation making an enviroment consisting of human interaction based on telecommunications and control systems ever more tangible. Technological development has led to an infinite range of everyday deveices being remotely controlled via Internet, the human voice, a cell-phone or normal phone keyboard or a PALM, pocket PC or desktop computer. Amongst the new activities which can be controlled in a person's house via a PDA (Personal Digital Assistant would be the degree of illumination; such activities are defined as being domotic. The word domotic refers to integrating several areas of knowledge such as telecommunications, electronics, informatics and electricity to improve human beings' quality of life, thus aiding Colombian society's growth.

  15. Expanding and Improving the Search for Habitable Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Mandell, Avi M

    2007-01-01

    This review focuses on recent results in advancing our understanding of the location and distribution of habitable exo-Earth environments. We first review the qualities that define a habitable planet/moon environment. We extend these concepts to potentially habitable environments in our own Solar System and the current and future searches for biomarkers there, focusing on the primary targets for future exploratory missions: Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. We examine our current knowledge on the types of planetary systems amenable to the formation of habitable planets, and review the current state of searches for extra-solar habitable planets as well as expected future improvements in sensitivity and preparations for the remote detection of the signatures of life outside our Solar System.

  16. Housing Choice Voucher Program Support Division (PSD)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Housing Choice Voucher (HCV) Program Management Programmatic Report for April to June 2010. This is inofrmation collected from Housing Authorities across the nation...

  17. Housing Policy in Ghana: The Feasible Paths

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-01

    May 1, 2014 ... University for Development Studies, Wa Campus, Ghana ... Keywords: Housing Policy, Housing Finance, Planning Controls, Housing Research, Ghana ...... How To Motivate Faster Growth in Colombia: The Leading Sector.

  18. CoC Housing Inventory Count Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Continuum of Care (CoC) Homeless Assistance Programs Housing Inventory Count Reports are a snapshot of a CoC’s housing inventory, available at the national and state...

  19. L’Habitation Beauséjour : une plantation martiniquaise remarquable et pérenne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurent-Christian Ursulet

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Aux Antilles françaises les anciennes propriétés de colons ne se nomment pas plantations mais « habitations », espace et mode de vie étant différents de ceux d’Amérique Latine, du Sud des Etats-Unis, ou des Grandes Antilles. L’Habitation Beauséjour, située sur des terres propices aux cultures d’exportation, dans le nord de la Martinique, est un exemple remarquable de domaine colonial qui a conservé une structure traditionnelle avec plantations, bâtiments principaux d’habitation, bâtiments de production, aménagement hydraulique, logements pour le personnel. Au cœur des rapports d’exploitation qu’engendrent les sociétés de type colonial, nous nous trouvons à Beauséjour devant une demeure créole dont la structure n’a pas varié de façon fondamentale au cours de son histoire.In French West-Indies, the old colonial estates are not called plantations, but “habitations”, because the geographic space as well as the way of life differed here from the vast plantations of Latin America, Southern United States and Greater Antilles. The « Habitation Beauséjour » situated on land that is good for growing export crops, in northern Martinique, is an instructive exemple of colonial estate preserving a traditional structure with plantations, main buildings, production buildings, hydraulic land-scaping, and buildings for housing and use of employees. The « Habitation Beauséjour » is more than many others a Creole estate with a persistent structure that has remained unchanged over its history and through the change due to the end of the exploitive relations generated by colonial societies.

  20. Housing and Health: The relationship between housing conditions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okanlawon

    2011-10-22

    Oct 22, 2011 ... Department of Architecture, Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, P. M. B. ... that the quality of housing can make a big difference in the extent of, and costs related to, ... the survey and the subsequent analyses of data.

  1. Housing authority of Baltimore City-Public Housing Energy Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, T. S. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    The NASA/Baltimore Applications Project operating at the Goddard Space Flight Center was called upon by the Housing Authority of Baltimore City to consider the problems of providing low cost public housing because of increased energy costs and suggest methods for correction and alleviation. The first step chosen was to elicit as many different options for solution as possible through means of a Public Housing Energy Workshop held in Easton, Md. in September 1980. A final role for the Workshop was a listing and qualifying of each alternative as to its suitability and cost. Specific areas were examined by three panels: (1) Systems, (2) Conservation and Motivation, and (3) Fuels. Each panel was made up of persons from differing but appropriate backgrounds; membership was not restricted to housing people alone. A summary of their deliberations is given - it will be used as a stepping stone to further selection and implementation of alternatives.

  2. The demise of compound houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jørgen; Eskemose Andersen, Jørgen

    2006-01-01

    and the neighbourhood unity is a challenge for urban planners. However they represent good value for money, cost little to build, suit traditional inheritence patterns, allow independent life at low cost and allow sharing of services with a finite and known group (albeit within a potential conflictive domain). Compound...... of compound housing and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of life within such housing in Kumasi. Issues of privacy, image and communal life are usually cited by occupants dissatiesfied with life in compound houses, and the difficulty of extending them without spoiling the open spaces...

  3. Investigating Socioscientific Issues via Scientific Habits of Mind: Development and Validation of the Scientific Habits of Mind Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calik, Muammer; Coll, Richard Kevin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe the Scientific Habits of Mind Survey (SHOMS) developed to explore public, science teachers' and scientists' understanding of habits of mind (HoM). The instrument contained 59 items, and captures the seven SHOM identified by Gauld. The SHOM was validated by administration to two cohorts of pre-service science teachers:…

  4. Architectural Strategies of Transformation to Modern Housing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2015-01-01

    This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark......This dissertation addresses the topic of sustainable transformation of Modern housing in Denmark...

  5. A Pragmatic Path to Investigating Europa's Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappalardo; Bengenal; Bar; Bills; Blankenship; Connerney; Kurth; McGrath; Moore; Prockter; Senske; Smith; Garner; Magner; Hibbard; Cooke

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of Europa's habitability, as an overarching science goal, will progress via a comprehensive investigation of Europa's subsurface ocean, chemical composition, and internal dynamical processes, The National Research Council's Planetary Decadal Survey placed an extremely high priority on Europa science but noted that the budget profile for the Jupiter Europa Orbiter (1EO) mission concept is incompatible with NASA's projected planetary science budget Thus, NASA enlisted a small Europa Science Definition Team (ESDT) to consider more pragmatic Europa mission options, In its preliminary findings (May, 2011), the ESDT embraces a science scope and instrument complement comparable to the science "floor" for JEO, but with a radically different mission implementation. The ESDT is studying a two-element mission architecture, in which two relatively low-cost spacecraft would fulfill the Europa science objectives, An envisioned Europa orbital element would carry only a very small geophysics payload, addressing those investigations that are best carried out from Europa orbit An envisioned separate multiple Europa flyby element (in orbit about Jupiter) would emphasize remote sensing, This mission architecture would provide for a subset of radiation-shielded instruments (all relatively low mass, power, and data rate) to be delivered into Europa orbit by a modest spacecraft, saving on propellant and other spacecraft resources, More resource-intensive remote sensing instruments would achieve their science objectives through a conservative multiple-flyby approach, that is better situated to handle larger masses and higher data volumes, and which aims to limit radiation exposure, Separation of the payload into two spacecraft elements, phased in time, would permit costs to be spread more uniformly over mUltiple years, avoiding an excessively high peak in the funding profile, Implementation of each spacecraft would be greatly simplified compared to previous Europa mission

  6. Atmospheric escape, redox evolution, and planetary habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catling, D. C.; Zahnle, K. J.

    2011-12-01

    Through the greenhouse effect, the presence and composition of an atmosphere is critical for defining a (conventional) circumstellar habitable zone in terms of planetary surface temperatures suitable for liquid water. Lack of knowledge of planetary atmospheres is likely to frustrate attempts to say with any certainty whether detected terrestrial-sized exoplanets may or may not be habitable. Perhaps an underappreciated role in such considerations is the evolutionary effect of atmospheric escape for determining atmospheric composition or whether an atmosphere exists in the first place. Whether atmospheres exist at all on planets is demonstrably connected to the effect of integrated atmospheric escape. When we observe our own Solar System and transiting exoplanets, the existence of an atmosphere is clearly delineated by a relative vulnerability to thermal escape and impact erosion. The prevalence of thermal escape as a key evolutionary determinant for the presence of planetary atmosphere is shown by a relationship between the relative solar (or stellar) heating and the escape velocity. Those bodies with too much stellar heating and too smaller escape velocity end up devoid of atmospheres. Impact erosion is evident in the relationship between impact velocity and escape velocity. Escape due to impacts is particularly important for understanding the large differences in the atmospheres of giant planet moons, such as Ganymede versus Titan. It is also significant for Mars-sized planets. The oxidation state of atmospheres is important for some theories of the origin of life (where an early reducing atmosphere is helpful for organic synthesis) and the evolution of advanced life (where free molecular oxygen is the best source of high energy metabolism). Surfaces on some relatively small planets and moons are observed to have evolved to an oxidized state, which theory and observation can explain through atmospheric escape. There are several examples in the Solar System where a

  7. Effect of smoking habits on sleep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.G. Conway

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of smoking habits on sleep, data from 1492 adults referred to the Sleep Institute were accessed and divided into 3 categories of smoking status: current, former and non-smokers. Categories of pack-years (<15 and ≥15 defined smoking severity. The association of smoking status and smoking severity with sleep was analyzed for sleep parameters, especially apnea and hypopnea index (AHI ≥5, more than 5% of total sleep time (TST spent with oxyhemoglobin saturation (SaO2 <90%, and arousal index. The arousal index was higher among current (21 ± 17 and former smokers (20 ± 17 than non-smokers (17 ± 15; P < 0.04. Former smokers had a higher percent of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (9 ± 18 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.04. Former smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher AHI (22 ± 24 vs 16 ± 21; P < 0.05 and arousal index (22 ± 19 vs 18 ± 15; P < 0.05. Current smokers with pack-years ≥15 compared to <15 exhibited higher arousal index (23 ± 18 vs 18 ± 16; P < 0.05 and percent of TST at SaO2 <90% (11 ± 17 vs 6 ± 13; P < 0.05. Smoking status and pack-years were not associated with AHI ≥5 on logistic regression analysis, but current smokers with pack-years ≥15 were 1.9 times more likely to spend more than 5% of TST at SaO2 <90% than non-smokers (95%CI = 1.21-2.97; P = 0.005. The variability of arousal index was influenced by gender, AHI and current smokers with pack-years ≥15 (all P < 0.01. Smoking habits seem to be associated with arousal and oxyhemoglobin desaturation during sleep, but not with AHI. The effect was more pronounced in current than former smokers.

  8. BoundaryOther_HOUS2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The House district lines for this layer were determined from maps posted on the Vermont Legislature website (http://www.leg.state.vt.us/reports/02redistricting/),...

  9. Ad Hoc Housing at Hofstra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckman, Ronald

    1982-01-01

    To meet an increased demand for campus housing, Hofstra University (New York) converted double dormitory rooms to triples. Specially designed furniture allowing each student personal space was the key to acceptance by the students. (Author/MLF)

  10. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  11. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface)—a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team—to rehabilitate 418 low-income multifamily rental apartments located at 14 properties in Georgia (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zones 2–4). These 22-year-old units with individual utility meters were arranged in row house or townhouse style. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, which partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide; this housing includes more than 14,000 existing multifamily housing developments. In 2012, more than $100 million in grants and loans were allocated for that purpose.

  12. NPScape Metric GIS Data - Housing

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — NPScape housing metrics are calculated using outputs from the Spatially Explicit Regional Growth Model. Metric GIS datasets are produced seamlessly for the United...

  13. Housing and energy in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob; Grupe Larsen, Vibeke; Kragh, Mikkel

    2010-01-01

      This paper examines the historical background, current context and future challenges for housing energy consumption in Denmark. There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth...... in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations in the movement from an industrial to a knowledge based society. In new housing it is shown that electricity consumption now dominates the total primary energy consumption, and that as a consequence traditional heat saving...... paradigms are relatively less effective, and can result in overheating and rising electricity consumption. At the same time, climate change concerns show that rising temperatures will in the future result in a falling heat demand and increasing cooling demand in housing. With this background, a theoretical...

  14. Indoor Air Quality Test House

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In order to enable studies of a range of indoor air quality and ventilation issues, EL maintains a highly instrumented three-bedroom test house. Previous...

  15. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  16. The House that NASA Built

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    Tech House, located at NASA's Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia, is a demonstration project in which aerospace and commercial building technology are combined to produce an energy-efficient home. Advanced technology offers savings to the family in utility costs and energy conservation. Solar panels on the roof of tech house provide the principal energy saving. They capture the sun's rays to heat water in pipes that run through the solar collectors. The heated water is then stored in a large, well insulated underground tank. A heat exchanger extracts beat from the water and blows it through ducts to warm the house. Tech House is well insulated for energy savings. The principal insulation is fireproof Tripolymer foam which is sprayed onto walls and ceilings in thicknesses up to six inches.

  17. Chapter Houses, Navajo Nation, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This GIS dataset contains point features representing Chapter Houses in the Navajo Nation. Chapter Name is included in the Attributes. This dataset contains 111...

  18. House passes resolution on occupation

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2005-01-01

    Venemaalt Baltimaade okupeerimise tunnistamist nõudva resolutsiooni vastuvõtmisest USA Kongressi Esindajate Kojas Leedu päritolu kongressmani John Shimkuse eestvedamisel. Vt. ka resolutsiooni teksti "House Concurrent Resolution 128" lk. 14

  19. Customer habits and the Datourway strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talabos István

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The different funds of European Union - ISPA, PHARE, SAPARD - ensured the possibility not only to work out developing projects, but also they provided possibility to realize them. These funds' aim was rural development, spatial development, development of economy but tourism has never been nominated. After the year of 2004 tourism received attention and several funds of European Union aimed at development of infrastructure for tourism, development of thematic routes, development of accommodation, etc. There were several strategies prepared for the Danube, and the Datourway project had its special name: Transnational Strategy for the Sustainable Territorial Development of the Danube Area with special regard to Tourism. The Danube is undervalued from the tourism point of view. In the participating countries the capitals, seaside, beaches, mountains are considered real attractions and it means that the tourism strategy for the Danube is a challenging task. The final and main outcome is not only the strategy for tourism considering the customer habits, but an Investment Guide Book pointing out the common values of destination and attraction development together with 'best practices' common projects for the different types of regions too, in order to serve the development of Danube Region.

  20. Incentive or habit learning in amphibians?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén N Muzio

    Full Text Available Toads (Rhinella arenarum received training with a novel incentive procedure involving access to solutions of different NaCl concentrations. In Experiment 1, instrumental behavior and weight variation data confirmed that such solutions yield incentive values ranging from appetitive (deionized water, DW, leading to weight gain, to neutral (300 mM slightly hypertonic solution, leading to no net weight gain or loss, and aversive (800 mM highly hypertonic solution leading to weight loss. In Experiment 2, a downshift from DW to a 300 mM solution or an upshift from a 300 mM solution to DW led to a gradual adjustment in instrumental behavior. In Experiment 3, extinction was similar after acquisition with access to only DW or with a random mixture of DW and 300 mM. In Experiment 4, a downshift from DW to 225, 212, or 200 mM solutions led again to gradual adjustments. These findings add to a growing body of comparative evidence suggesting that amphibians adjust to incentive shifts on the basis of habit formation and reorganization.

  1. Prospects for Extrasolar "Earths" in Habitable Zones

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, B W; Sleep, P N

    2005-01-01

    We have shown that Earth-mass planets could survive in variously restricted regions of the habitable zones (HZs) of most of a sample of nine of the 102 main-sequence exoplanetary systems confirmed by 19 November 2003. In a preliminary extrapolation of our results to the other systems, we estimate that roughly a half of these systems could have had an Earth-mass planet confined to the HZ for at least the most recent 1000 Ma. The HZ migrates outwards during the main-sequence lifetime, and so this proportion varies with stellar age. About two thirds of the systems could have such a planet confined to the HZ for at least 1000 Ma at sometime during the main-sequence lifetime. Clearly, these systems should be high on the target list for exploration for terrestrial planets. We have reached this conclusion by launching putative Earth-mass planets in various orbits and following their fate with mixed-variable symplectic and hybrid integrators. Whether the Earth-mass planets could form in the HZs of the exoplanetary sy...

  2. Habitability & Astrobiology Research in Mars Terrestrial Analogues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foing, Bernard

    2014-05-01

    We performed a series of field research campaigns (ILEWG EuroMoonMars) in the extreme Utah desert relevant to Mars environments, and in order to help in the interpretation of Mars missions measurements from orbit (MEX, MRO) or from the surface (MER, MSL), or Moon geochemistry (SMART-1, LRO). We shall give an update on the sample analysis in the context of habitability and astrobiology. Methods & Results: In the frame of ILEWG EuroMoonMars campaigns (2009 to 2013) we deployed at Mars Desert Research station, near Hanksville Utah, a suite of instruments and techniques [A, 1, 2, 9-11] including sample collection, context imaging from remote to local and microscale, drilling, spectrometers and life sensors. We analyzed how geological and geochemical evolution affected local parameters (mineralogy, organics content, environment variations) and the habitability and signature of organics and biota. Among the important findings are the diversity in the composition of soil samples even when collected in close proximity, the low abundances of detectable PAHs and amino acids and the presence of biota of all three domains of life with significant heterogeneity. An extraordinary variety of putative extremophiles was observed [3,4,9]. A dominant factor seems to be soil porosity and lower clay-sized particle content [6-8]. A protocol was developed for sterile sampling, contamination issues, and the diagnostics of biodiversity via PCR and DGGE analysis in soils and rocks samples [10, 11]. We compare the 2009 campaign results [1-9] to new measurements from 2010-2013 campaigns [10-12] relevant to: comparison between remote sensing and in-situ measurements; the study of minerals; the detection of organics and signs of life. Keywords: field analogue research, astrobiology, habitability, life detection, Earth-Moon-Mars, organics References [A] Foing, Stoker & Ehrenfreund (Editors, 2011) "Astrobiology field Research in Moon/Mars Analogue Environments", Special Issue of International

  3. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Wallner

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP, mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP, mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP, monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP, mono-(2-ethylhexyl phthalate (MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate (5OH-MEHP, mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (5oxo-MEHP, mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl phthalate (5cx-MEPP, and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching.

  4. Phthalate Metabolites, Consumer Habits and Health Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallner, Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Hutter, Hans-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Phthalates are multifunctional chemicals used in a wide variety of consumer products. The aim of this study was to investigate whether levels of urinary phthalate metabolites in urine samples of Austrian mothers and their children were associated with consumer habits and health indicators. Within an Austrian biomonitoring survey, urine samples from 50 mother-child pairs of five communities (two-stage random stratified sampling) were analysed. The concentrations of 14 phthalate metabolites were determined, and a questionnaire was administered. Monoethyl phthalate (MEP), mono-n-butyl phthalate (MnBP), mono-isobutyl phthalate (MiBP), monobenzyl phthalate (MBzP), mono-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl) phthalate (5OH-MEHP), mono-(2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl) phthalate (5oxo-MEHP), mono-(5-carboxy-2-ethylpentyl) phthalate (5cx-MEPP), and 3-carboxy-mono-propyl phthalate (3cx-MPP) could be quantified in the majority of samples. Significant correlations were found between the use of hair mousse, hair dye, makeup, chewing gum, polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles and the diethyl phthalate (DEP) metabolite MEP. With regard to health effects, significant associations of MEP in urine with headache, repeated coughing, diarrhoea, and hormonal problems were observed. MBzP was associated with repeated coughing and MEHP was associated with itching. PMID:27428989

  5. Hydrogen Greenhouse Planets Beyond the Habitable Zone

    CERN Document Server

    Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2011-01-01

    We show that collision-induced absorption allows molecular hydrogen to act as an incondensible greenhouse gas, and that bars or tens of bars of primordial H2-He mixtures can maintain surface temperatures above the freezing point of water well beyond the "classical" habitable zone defined for CO2 greenhouse atmospheres. Using a 1-D radiative-convective model we find that 40 bars of pure H2 on a 3 Earth-mass planet can maintain a surface temperature of 280K out to 1.5AU from an early-type M dwarf star and 10 AU from a G-type star. Neglecting the effects of clouds and of gaseous absorbers besides H2, the flux at the surface would be sufficient for photosynthesis by cyanobacteria (in the G star case) or anoxygenic phototrophs (in the M star case). We argue that primordial atmospheres of one to several hundred bars of H2-He are possible, and use a model of hydrogen escape to show that such atmospheres are likely to persist further than 1.5 AU from M stars, and 2 AU from G stars, assuming these planets have protect...

  6. Formando planetas habitables en estrellas M3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugaro, A.; de Elía, G. C.; Brunini, A.

    2016-08-01

    Studies of stellar evolution allow us to infer that the low-mass stars are the most abundant in the galaxy. In the present investigation, we analyze the formation of planetary systems without gas giants around M3-type stars, which have a mass of 0.29 M. In particular, we are interested in studying the terrestrial-like planet formation processes and water delivery in the Habitable Zone (HZ) of those systems. To develop this investigation, we assume massive protoplanetary disks for such stars, which have 5 of the mass of the central star. Once defined the working disk, we use a semi-analytical model, which is able to determine the distribution of planetary embryos and planetesimals at the end of the gaseous phase. Then, these distributions are used as initial conditions for running -body simulations. Due to the stochastic nature of the accretion process, we carry out ten -body simulations in order to analyze the evolution of the planetary systems after the gas dissipation. Our results suggest the efficient formation of terrestrial-like planets in the HZ with a wide range of masses and water contents. The planets formed in the HZ of the system have masses between 0.07 M and 0.15 M and final water contents between 5.4 and 29 by mass. The physical properties of the terrestrial-like planets formed in the HZ of our simulations suggest that they should be able to retain a permanent and substantial atmosphere.

  7. [Quitting the tobacco habit in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, A; Hernández, I; Alvarez-Dardet, C

    1991-06-29

    The tendencies in the cessation from smoking and their determinants provide useful information to developed preventive policies and to predict the evolution of diseases associated with cigarette consumption. Spain is one of the European countries with more prevalent smoking habits in the general population, and thus the study of factors determining cessation from smoking is particularly relevant. The socioeconomic, demographic and health-related variables associated with the cessation from smoking were evaluated using the data bank from the National Health Survey carried out by the Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo in 1987, which includes interviews to 29,647 individuals above 16 years of age. The data were analyzed by the calculation of the quit ratio standardized for age. The quit ratio is influenced by age and sex; it is higher among women and it increases with age. The results are questionable regarding the relation with educational level, family income and occupation. The smokers of less than 10 or more than 25 cigarettes/day are those with a higher quit ratio. The quit ratio is also higher in individuals with health problems, a higher rate of use of health services and in those without usual alcohol consumption. The profile of the individuals who quit smoking in Spain has specific features when compared with other countries, particularly regarding the higher quit rate among women and the lack of a linear correlation with indicators of socioeconomic level.

  8. Liquid Water Restricts Habitability in Extreme Deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockell, Charles S; Brown, Sarah; Landenmark, Hanna; Samuels, Toby; Siddall, Rebecca; Wadsworth, Jennifer

    2017-04-01

    Liquid water is a requirement for biochemistry, yet under some circumstances it is deleterious to life. Here, we show that liquid water reduces the upper temperature survival limit for two extremophilic photosynthetic microorganisms (Gloeocapsa and Chroococcidiopsis spp.) by greater than 40°C under hydrated conditions compared to desiccated conditions. Under hydrated conditions, thermal stress causes protein inactivation as shown by the fluorescein diacetate assay. The presence of water was also found to enhance the deleterious effects of freeze-thaw in Chroococcidiopsis sp. In the presence of water, short-wavelength UV radiation more effectively kills Gloeocapsa sp. colonies, which we hypothesize is caused by factors including the greater penetration of UV radiation into hydrated colonies compared to desiccated colonies. The data predict that deserts where maximum thermal stress or irradiation occurs in conjunction with the presence of liquid water may be less habitable to some organisms than more extreme arid deserts where organisms can dehydrate prior to being exposed to these extremes, thus minimizing thermal and radiation damage. Life in extreme deserts is poised between the deleterious effects of the presence and the lack of liquid water. Key Words: Deserts-Extremophiles-Stress-High temperatures-UV radiation-Desiccation. Astrobiology 17, 309-318.

  9. Data Sharing in Astrobiology: the Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bristow, T.; Lafuente Valverde, B.; Keller, R.; Stone, N.; Downs, R. T.; Blake, D. F.; Fonda, M.; Pires, A.

    2016-12-01

    Astrobiology is a multidisciplinary area of scientific research focused on studying the origins of life on Earth and the conditions under which life might have emerged elsewhere in the universe. The understanding of complex questions in astrobiology requires integration and analysis of data spanning a range of disciplines including biology, chemistry, geology, astronomy and planetary science. However, the lack of a centralized repository makes it difficult for astrobiology teams to share data and benefit from resultant synergies. Moreover, in recent years, federal agencies are requiring that results of any federally funded scientific research must be available and useful for the public and the science community. Astrobiology, as any other scientific discipline, needs to respond to these mandates. The Astrobiology Habitable Environments Database (AHED) is a central, high quality, long-term searchable repository designed to help the community by promoting the integration and sharing of all the data generated by these diverse disciplines. AHED provides public and open-access to astrobiology-related research data through a user-managed web portal implemented using the open-source software The Open Data Repository's (ODR) Data Publisher [1]. ODR-DP provides a user-friendly interface that research teams or individual scientists can use to design, populate and manage their own databases or laboratory notebooks according to the characteristics of their data. AHED is then a collection of databases housed in the ODR framework that store information about samples, along with associated measurements, analyses, and contextual information about field sites where samples were collected, the instruments or equipment used for analysis, and people and institutions involved in their collection. Advanced graphics are implemented together with advanced online tools for data analysis (e.g. R, MATLAB, Project Jupyter-http://jupyter.org). A permissions system will be put in place so that

  10. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    2000-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas study is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast—whose data form the basis of this wind atlas—is placed. The article will describe an experiment where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guidelines as to the use of the WAsP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  11. The mast on the house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Landberg, L.

    1997-01-01

    An often encountered problem when preparing the basic input data for a wind atlas is the correction for the influence of the house or hut on which the mast - whose data forms the basis of this wind atlas - is placed. The paper will describe an experiment, where this problem has been addressed....... The knowledge gained will be used to give guide-lines as to the use of the WASP program to correct the observations. Should the house/hut simply be treated as an extension of the mast, should the house/hut be treated as a hill with speed-up effects, or should the house/hill be ignored completely? The paper...... will show that the house/hut should indeed be treated as a hill with speed-up effects. Placing meteorological masts on houses or huts is common practice in quite a few countries in the world. The problem is therefore one which most people involved in detailed wind resource assessment will face sooner...

  12. CD-HPF: New habitability score via data analytic modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, K.; Saha, S.; Agrawal, S.; Safonova, M.; Routh, S.; Narasimhamurthy, A.

    2016-10-01

    The search for life on the planets outside the Solar System can be broadly classified into the following: looking for Earth-like conditions or the planets similar to the Earth (Earth similarity), and looking for the possibility of life in a form known or unknown to us (habitability). The two frequently used indices, Earth Similarity Index (ESI) and Planetary Habitability Index (PHI), describe heuristic methods to score habitability in the efforts to categorize different exoplanets (or exomoons). ESI, in particular, considers Earth as the reference frame for habitability, and is a quick screening tool to categorize and measure physical similarity of any planetary body with the Earth. The PHI assesses the potential habitability of any given planet, and is based on the essential requirements of known life: presence of a stable and protected substrate, energy, appropriate chemistry and a liquid medium. We propose here a different metric, a Cobb-Douglas Habitability Score (CDHS), based on Cobb-Douglas habitability production function (CD-HPF), which computes the habitability score by using measured and estimated planetary input parameters. As an initial set, we used radius, density, escape velocity and surface temperature of a planet. The values of the input parameters are normalized to the Earth Units (EU). The proposed metric, with exponents accounting for metric elasticity, is endowed with analytical properties that ensure global optima, and scales up to accommodate finitely many input parameters. The model is elastic, and, as we discovered, the standard PHI turns out to be a special case of the CDHS. Computed CDHS scores are fed to K-NN (K-Nearest Neighbor) classification algorithm with probabilistic herding that facilitates the assignment of exoplanets to appropriate classes via supervised feature learning methods, producing granular clusters of habitability. The proposed work describes a decision-theoretical model using the power of convex optimization and

  13. Promoting Behavior-Based Energy Efficiency in Military Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; EL Malone; RE Lundgren

    1999-09-07

    The U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) helps agencies reduce the cost of doing business through energy efficiency, water conservation, and the use of solar and other renewable energy. As a large energy user, the U.S. military has been one of the government sectors of focus. Several military installations have shown substantial energy savings in past years. Most of these efficiency projects, however, have focused primarily on physical upgrades, technologies, and purchasing habits. Furthermost projects have focused on administrative and operational areas of energy use. Military residential housing, in particular, has received little formal attention for energy efficiency involving behaviors of the residents themselves. Behavior-based change is a challenging, but potentially fruitful area for energy conservation programs. However, behavioral change involves links with values, social networks and organizations, and new ways of thinking about living patterns. This handbook attempts to fill a gap by offering guidance for promoting such efforts.

  14. Chiral habit selection on nanostructured epitaxial quartz films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carretero-Genevrier, Adrián; Gich, Martí; Picas, Laura; Sanchez, Clément; Rodriguez-Carvajal, Juan

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the crystallization of enantiomorphically pure systems can be relevant to diverse fields such as the study of the origins of life or the purification of racemates. Here we report on polycrystalline epitaxial thin films of quartz on Si substrates displaying two distinct types of chiral habits that never coexist in the same film. We combine Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) analysis and computer-assisted crystallographic calculations to make a detailed study of these habits of quartz. By estimating the surface energies of the observed crystallites we argue that the films are enantiomorphically pure and we briefly outline a possible mechanism to explain the habit and chiral selection in this system.

  15. Housing ownership and affordability among low-income society in the poorest sub-district of Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianingrum, Lulut

    2017-03-01

    The Government has intervened to deal with various affordable public housing programs, as well as financing programs for Low Income society in Indonesia. The characteristics of this society in each region are so diverse, that made the housing programs for this social segment uneasy in reaching the right target. Regulation of Housing and Settlement No. 2/2001 has mandated that the State are obliged to implement a habitable public housing for people, especially for the low income society. The purpose of this study is exploring the low-income residents' preferences and affordability of home ownership for their families in the poorest sub-district of Semarang. Aspects of studies include family conditions, financing, location, housing type and price. The research used a descriptive method to analyze a set of questionnaire data, distributed to low income residents in Sub district Tanjungmas, which isthe poorest sub district in Semarang. The results showed that the respondents developed a vision of home ownership by saving their money for the allocated housing budget and taking a bank installment. They tended to plan to get a house in their current neighborhood or nearby or anywhere else with the same price range. They really understood that, in order to get a better home and neighborhood they have to pay for higher prices. Therefore, their housing criteria or standards were set based on the quality of life in their current residential area, and should be located in a township (kampung).

  16. Habitability issues for long-term habitation in space ship; Uchusen no kankyo to choki kyoju

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, S. [Nagoya University, Nagoya (Japan). Research Institute of Environmental Medicine

    1999-04-05

    The International Space Station which will start its actual operation in 2004, provides a big step for human beings to expand their habitation territory into space, since it should play a role as a junction port for future shuttle missions between our Earth and the lunar base and also for manned exploration toward Mars. In the present paper, cuurent status of environmental conditions of the space ship and some risks and difficulty which onboard crews may face during their long stay are viewed from biomedical points. (author)

  17. Active house: A contemporary housing model for flood affected population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stratimirović Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of architectural knowledge in the struggle for a better future can be seen in the attitude that a good design or a good architectural solution, does not belong solely to the privileged ones as an improvement of the basic requirements, rather quite the opposite, that it is created as a response to a need. The goal of physical and emotional wellbeing, combined with a long term strategy for reducing the negative impact of the built environment by converting it into a positive influence upon the natural ecosystem, brings together and advances bioclimatic principles, architectural design and sustainable construction in the contemporary housing model dubbed the Active House. The Active House Workshop was held, as part of a wider student initiative New Housing Models for Flood Affected Population, at the University of Belgrade - Faculty of Architecture. The purpose of the campaign was to provide help to flood affected communities and assistance in efforts for repairing buildings in Serbia, hit by the severe floods of May 2014. Students came up with nine design solutions for small family homes, which incorporate the principles of Active House into existing construction techniques. In an architectural context, when concerning repair work after flooding, the need to consider problems related to contemporary living conditions through the ‘active’ category is seen in a new understanding of nature which allows the replacement of a passive restoration model, with an active models for designing in interaction with the environment.

  18. Use of Roud Wood in Kaingáng Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Dias Silva

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work has the purpose of describing and analyzing the evolutionary habitation process of the Kaingáng. Its main focus is the typological reading of the shelters as well as the registration of the wooden building system used in the construction of the houses in the “Äpucaraninha” Reserve, located in a district of Londrina. The research proceeds with the elaboration of the genealogy of the kaingáng’s habitation through the consultation to the published historical reports and their chronological organization. The data collection within the group was accomplished through informal interviews, photographic survey and in loco observations. Aspects related to the use of the round wood as well as the other elements that are part of the construction, were verified at this stage. The raw material used in every building system is obtained in the Reserve itself, being the wood used not only in the structure but also in the sealing. The connections are made through fittings and fastenings with liana. In spite of the mixture of values and meanings that the Kaingáng community experiences through the contact with other cultures, traditional aspects related to the building of the “traditional house” are preserved, with no domain of other techniques by most of the group. The registration intends to contribute towards the identification and understanding of important issues related to the spaces built by the man.

  19. United States housing, fourth quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    In the beginning of 2013, the U.S. housing construction market indicated increases in all sectors; yet, by the fourth quarter’s end, only housing under construction improved. Moderation and declines are to be expected in the fourth quarter, as winter is setting in. Permits, starts, housing under construction, completions, and new and existing house sales all exceeded...

  20. Tracking Changes in European Housing Finance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Jens; Whitehead, Christine

    2016-01-01

    The article discusses the changing trends in the housing finance industry of Europe. The article further mentions that the modus operandi of the industry has remained stable amid economic fluctuations in the overall housing sector between 1990-2015. Moreover, the need to reduce the public spending...... on housing is considered as one of the reasons for introducing private housing finance....

  1. 24 CFR 954.103 - Housing strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Housing strategy. 954.103 Section... INDIAN HOME PROGRAM Applying for Assistance § 954.103 Housing strategy. Grantees are not required to submit a housing strategy to receive HOME funds. However, the application must demonstrate how...

  2. Cosmological Aspects of Habitability of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchekinov, Yu. A.; Safonova, M.; Murphy, J.

    2014-10-01

    Habitable zone (HZ) defines the region around a start within which planets may support liquid water at their surfaces, which is supposed to be the necessary factor for origination and development of life on the planet. Currently we know about 30 planets inside HZ. The most interesting question is that of possibility of existence of complex life on the planets. As several space-based project aimed at searching of traces of life at exoplanets are presently being worked out, the problem of elaboration of criteria for selection out of the list of planets inside HZ those which most probably host life acquires supreme importance. It is usually implicitly assumed that planets inside HZ may host life, not taking into consideration such an important factor as the planet age. On the other hand the crucial importance of the factor meets the eye immediately. In fact, if we consider a life similar to that on the Earth, it is obvious, that planets younger than 1 Gyr can hardly bear even primitive life-forms because life needs time to originate and develop. Moreover, as a part of biochemical and metabolic processes are endothermic, and, therefore, threshold, the process of life origination may prove extremely sensitive even to tiny HZ parameter variations. Still a most of the discovered planets are known to orbit young stars (stellar population I), no older than several mullions of years. So a considerable number of planets sure HZ inhabitants may prove too young to be really inhabitable. On the other hand, 12-13 Gyr old planetary systems (population II) may happen to be more probable bearers of life. In spite of the fact that such systems are, in the average more distant from us that the population I stars, estimations of possibility of direct detection of traces of metabolism on those systems are quite optimistic, if we bear in mind planetary systems of old law-mass K-stars.

  3. Numerical quantification of habitability in serpentinizing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som, S.; Alperin, M. J.; Hoehler, T. M.

    2012-12-01

    The likely presence of liquid water in contact with olivine-bearing rocks on Mars, the detection of serpentine minerals and of methane emissions possibly consistent with serpentinization, and the observation of serpentine-associated methane-cycling communities on Earth have all led to excitement over the potential of such systems to host life on Mars, even into the present day. However, the habitability of subsurface serpentinizing systems on Mars does not necessarily follow from these qualitative observations. In particular, while the production of H2 during serpentinization could provide methanogens with a needed substrate, the alkaline conditions and corresponding potential for carbon limitation that arise in concert are negatives against which H2 supply must be balanced. We considered this balance via a coupled geochemical-bioenergetic model that weighs the outputs of serpentinization against the metabolic requirements of methanogenesis, in an energetic frame of reference. Serpentinization is modeled using the "Geochemist's Workbench" (GWB) whereby ultramafic harzburgite rocks are reacted with oxygen and sulfate depleted seawater. Reaction kinetics are not explicitly considered, but comparable effects of partial reaction are approximated by assuming post-reaction dilution of equilibrated fluids. The output of GWB serves as the input to the bioenergetic model, which calculates methanogenic energy yields based on spherically-symmetrical diffusion of substrates to a cell followed by reaction at the diffusion-limited rate. Membrane selectivity for substrate transport is explicitly considered. Results will be report updates for two scenarios: (i) High temperature serpentinization followed by cooling and transport of equilibrated fluid to a lower temperature regime accessible to biology; (ii) Serpentinization within the biologically-tolerated range of temperatures. Such coupled models demonstrate that environmental variability with respect to both water-rock reaction

  4. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    in Denmark, Finland, Norway and Sweden are ethnically segmented with high concentrations of immigrants in some forms of tenures (especially social/public housing) and low concentrations in others. The paper shows that the spatial distribution of immigrants is strongly connected with the tenure composition...... of immigrants in social/public housing.......Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  5. [Evolution of knowledge and oral hygiene habits in primary schoolchildren].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias Guerra, José Antonio; Fernández Calvo, María Teresa; Barrón Sinde, Julio; Bartolomé Lozano, María

    2013-01-01

    To analyze the evolution of knowledge and habits to oral hygiene children and adolescents in Palencia (Spain). A descriptive study of trend. The population of students from grade 5 of primary education between 2001/11 of the Palencia. Questionnaire data are collected knowledge and habits of the Oral Health Program, which are analyzed descriptively. The trend has been improving knowledge until 2006/07, after stagnating (p <0.05). In habits, increase students declare brushing teeth three times a day (p <0.05). There is a decrease in the consumption of candies between hours from 2004/2005, from 50,3% to 38,2% in 2010/11. The results of the program seem to be positive. Increasing knowledge and improving habits related to oral health health they stimulate to continuing being employed at this line. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. The Food and nesting Habits of the Bald Eagle

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This report summarizes the observations of the author who watched a bald eagle and studied its food habits at two nests. At the time of the report, the bald eagle...

  7. GIS Technology: Resource and Habitability Assessment Tool Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This is a one-year project to apply a GIS analysis tool to new orbital data for lunar resource assessment and martian habitability identification.  We used...

  8. Artificial Selection for Determinate Growth Habit in Soybean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determinacy is an agronomically important trait associated with the domestication in soybean (Glycine max). Most soybean cultivars are classifiable into indeterminate and determinate growth habit, while Glycine soja, the wild progenitor of soybean, is indeterminate. Indeterminate (Dt1) and determina...

  9. Analysis of Food And Feeding Habits of Catfish ( Bagrus bayad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of Food And Feeding Habits of Catfish ( Bagrus bayad, Macropterus ( Daget>/i>) in River ... Nigerian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ... The regression coefficient (b) and correlation coefficient (r) of gut length to fish length were ...

  10. Physical fitness, nutritional habits and daily locomotive action of 12 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical fitness, nutritional habits and daily locomotive action of 12-year-old children with different body mass ... South African Journal of Sports Medicine ... They were divided according to their BMI into normal, overweight or obese children.

  11. NMDA receptors in dopaminergic neurons are crucial for habit learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lei Phillip; Li, Fei; Wang, Dong; Xie, Kun; Wang, Deheng; Shen, Xiaoming; Tsien, Joe Z

    2011-12-22

    Dopamine is crucial for habit learning. Activities of midbrain dopaminergic neurons are regulated by the cortical and subcortical signals among which glutamatergic afferents provide excitatory inputs. Cognitive implications of glutamatergic afferents in regulating and engaging dopamine signals during habit learning, however, remain unclear. Here, we show that mice with dopaminergic neuron-specific NMDAR1 deletion are impaired in a variety of habit-learning tasks, while normal in some other dopamine-modulated functions such as locomotor activities, goal-directed learning, and spatial reference memories. In vivo neural recording revealed that dopaminergic neurons in these mutant mice could still develop the cue-reward association responses; however, their conditioned response robustness was drastically blunted. Our results suggest that integration of glutamatergic inputs to DA neurons by NMDA receptors, likely by regulating associative activity patterns, is a crucial part of the cellular mechanism underpinning habit learning.

  12. Eating Habits, Nutritional Status and Portion Sizes in the Elderly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eating Habits, Nutritional Status and Portion Sizes in the Elderly Population of ... to their diet and they very often have inadequate dietary intake and misconceptions ... is rather unsatisfactory with a large proportion of obese independent of sex.

  13. PHYSICAL ACTIVITY AND EATING HABITS IN UNIVERSITY PROFESSORS: LITERATURE REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Luiz Rodrigues Munaro

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, university professors engage in academic tasks often stressful and sedentary behaviors, making the practice of physical activity and healthier eating habits. The aim of this study was to review the literature Brazilian studies on physical activity and eating habits of university professors .The search was conducted between March and May 2013, in electronic databases. For the delimitation of the study, was used as descriptors: Physical Activity, University Teachers and Eating Habits. At the end of the article selection process, remaining 06 studies that have been described and discussed in the text. And all of a descriptive nature, with small samples with some robust and consistent methodology. The selected studies, regardless of their qualities, point to the need of this population to engage in more physical activity and healthy eating habits programs.

  14. The Influence of Volcanic Aerosols on Planetary Habitability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Howard; Horton, Daniel Ethan

    2017-01-01

    On rocky planetary bodies such as Proxima Centuri b, the detection of sulphate aerosols may indicate volcanism and tectonic activity; ingredients hypothesized to be necessary for planetary habitability. However, due to the effect of atmospheric aerosols on a planet’s energy balance, coupled with eruption constituent and frequency uncertainties, the potential impact of volcanic activity on planetary habitability remains unresolved. Here, we employ multi-column climate models in conjunction with a parameter space approach to test the effect of volcanic aerosols on planetary climate with various climate sensitivities. Preliminary results indicate that volcanic activity could provide a means of extending the inner edge of the habitable zone (IHZ), depending on eruption constituents and frequency. Previous work using transit spectra simulations have demonstrated the possibility of detecting transient aerosols of volcanic origin. Our work investigates the range of habitability implications detection of such aerosols would imply.

  15. The Habitable Zone of the Binary System Kepler-16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Sarah; Cuntz, Manfred

    2017-01-01

    We report on the current results and envisioned future work from our study of the binary star system Kepler-16, which consists of a K-type main-sequence star and an M dwarf as well as a circumbinary Saturnian planet, Kepler-16b. We focus on the calculation of the location and extent of the habitable zone while considering several criteria for both the inner and outer boundaries previously given in the literature. In particular, we investigate the impact of the two stellar components (especially Kepler-16A) as well as of the system’s binarity regarding the provision of circumbinary habitability. Another aspect of our work consists in a careful assessment of how the extent of the system’s habitable zone is impacted by the relative uncertainties of the stellar and system parameters. Finally, we comment on the likelihood of habitable objects in the system by taking into account both radiative criteria and the need of orbital stability.

  16. Incidence of behavior's habits in the cardiovascular disease prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carpi-Ballester, Amparo; Zurriaga-Llorens, Rosario; Gonzalez-Navarro, Pilar; Marzo-Campos, Juan C; Buunk, Abraham P

    2007-01-01

    .... Theory of Planed Behavior is a prevailing model in the study of health. Using this theoretical framework, the objective of this descriptive study is to test the impact of behavioral habits on preventive behaviours of cardiovascular disease...

  17. The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The association of demographic variables and dietary habits on body mass ... socio-demographic variables, weight, height, frequency of physical activity, and food ... in Korea should focus on reducing the intake of meat and high energy foods.

  18. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... alcohol abuse, gambling and even compulsive use of computers and social media. Dr. Russell Poldrack, a neurobiologist ... they can replace a bad habit, even drug addiction, with another behavior, like exercising. "It doesn't ...

  19. Relationship between sleep habits, anthropometric characteristics and lifestyle habits in adolescents with intellectual disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanhelst, J; Bui-Xuan, G; Fardy, P S; Mikulovic, J

    2013-09-01

    The aim was to explore the relationship between sleep habits and overweight/obesity, physical activity and sedentary behaviours in French adolescents with intellectual disabilities. This observational study was conducted on 535 French adolescents with intellectual deficiency. Sleep habits were analyzed and related to anthropometric measures, physical activity and sedentary behaviours. The study was conducted using a self-administered questionnaire. Adolescents completed the questionnaire during an interview with the principle investigator. Sleep timing behaviour was classified into 4 sleep patterns: Early-bed/Early-rise, Early-bed/Late-rise, Late-bed/Late-rise, and Late-bed/Early-rise. Of 573 eligible participants, 125 were excluded because of missing data on age, weight or height. The number of participants identified in each of the four sleep patterns was as follows: Early-bed/Early-rise, N=59 (15.4%), Early-bed/Late-rise, N=164 (43%), Late-bed/Early-rise, N=56 (15%), Late-bed/Late-rise N=102 (27%). Adolescents who woke up early were more active than those from the late rise group (padolescents who are sedentary was higher in late rise vs. early rise subjects (padolescents with intellectual deficiency. Sleep behaviours should be considered in planning health promotion strategies.

  20. Adventure of Architecture Example of Housing and Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asasoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing and the concept of space associated with this requirement are among the initial attitudes towards the human reign over the nature. The dawn of the structured environment found life with this approach within the nature. Both, housing and the housing design process overlap with the historical development of modern man, and is covered within the concept of architecture today. The contribution made by culture within this period is yet another undeniable fact. While the interaction between architecture and culture are moving forward thereby leaving traces in every era throughout the history, the culture of housing and housing design exhibits a parallel attitude which is a subsidiary, yet a highly title with a close human relationship. Culture and architecture are two closely interacting aspects which are drawing the borders of each other from time to time, hinting at quality and quantity, and evaluating such. Quite naturally, the structure which is in a deep relationship with mankind is in an exchange with all physical, social and economic qualities of the human. These qualities are fundamental determinants of the concept of culture as a human trait. The process of architecture which is usually defined as a sequence of eras that involve social movements, impulses and trends, sometimes kept moving ahead in the pursuit of individual leadership and styles. The concerns regarding the solution of space problems, setting up /designing venues and arranging the environment in line with the requirements brought up increasingly complex issues and stacks of solutions which follow such problems. It is this dynamic structure which forms the basis of the architectural problem to date. Starting with the housing and residential concepts, this study brings a critical view on the application samples and methods of the relationship between architecture and culture in terms of our country in particular while putting emphasis on the architectural venture of the

  1. Sustainable housing stock of housing corporations; Woningcorporaties verduurzamen bestaande voorraad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Helm, F.; Muller, G. [DOZ Energieregie, Zoetermeer (Netherlands)

    2011-05-15

    Together with the Dutch government, housing corporations have formulated their sustainability ambitions in the covenant 'Energy saving housing corporations'. The covenant also focuses on living expenses. But what do these targets mean in practise? To what extent is it financially sound and what does it contribute?. [Dutch] Woningcorporaties hebben samen met de Nederlandse overheid hun duurzaamheidsambities geformuleerd in het convenant 'Energiebesparing corporatiesector'. Hierin wordt tevens aandacht besteed aan de woonlasten. Maar wat betekenen deze doelstellingen in de praktijk? Welke wijze en mate is financieel verantwoord en wat draagt het bij?.

  2. The reading habits of parents of preschool children

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The reading habits of parents of preschool children are very important for development of reading literacy. The role of parents in reading is very high. It is important that parents often read for themselves and for their children regardless of age, sex and education. With reading they are giving the children an example and attach great importance to reading. An important factor is the frequency of library visits and dealing with books. On the reading habits of parents have important influenc...

  3. The Inhabitance Paradox: how habitability and inhabitancy are inseparable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldblatt, C.

    2015-12-01

    The dominant paradigm in assigning "habitability" to terrestrial planets is to define a circumstellar habitable zone: the locus of orbital radii in which the planet is neither too hot nor too cold for life as we know it. One dimensional climate models have put theoretically impressive boundaries on this: a runaway greenhouse or water loss at the inner edge (Venus), and low-latitude glaciation followed by formation of CO2 clouds at the outer edge. A cottage industry now exists to "refine" the definition of these boundaries each year to the third decimal place of an AU. Using exactly that kind of model, I'll show that the different climate states can overlap very substantially and that "snowball Earth", temperate climate and a post-runaway climate can all be stable under the same solar flux. Furthermore, the radial extent of the temperature climate band is very narrow for pure water atmospheres. The width of the habitable zone is determined by the atmospheric inventories of di-nitrogen and carbon dioxide. Yet Earth teaches us that these abundances are very heavily influenced (perhaps even controlled) by biology. This is paradoxical: the habitable zone seeks to define the region a planet should be capable of harbouring life; yet whether the planet is inhabited will determine whether the climate may be habitable at any given distance from the star. This matters, because future life detection missions may use habitable zone boundaries in mission design. A historical view of solar system exploration helps frame the problem; robotic exploration of the outer solar system revealed the un-imagined nature of the Jovian and Saturnian moons, whilst showing that the Venusian jungle died long ago. Prediction will fall to data but the unexpected may emerge. To soften that fall we should revise the paradigm of habitability to acknowledge that habitability depends on inhabitance; for life as we know it is a planetary scale--and planet dominating--phenomenon.

  4. Nutritional Habits & Knowledge in the Division I Collegiate Football Player

    OpenAIRE

    Hale, Mallory

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Athlete’s nutritional habits and knowledge can directly affect their performance. The purpose of this study is to investigate the nutritional habits and knowledge of the Division I collegiate football player. Methods: The participants of this study are male Division I college football players at Utah State University. The athletes included 45 players ranging from 18-26 and include freshman through seniors. Results: Over eighty six percent of the athletes were unaware that a ...

  5. NUTRITION HABITS AND FOOD CONSUMPTION FREQUENCIES OF MEDICAL FACULTY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNAL, Ayşe Emel; GÜRTEKİN, Başak; Özel, Sevda; ERBİL, Suna; AYVAZ, Özkan; Güngör, Günay

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective: Medical faculty students may develop irregular eating habits for reasons such as their social – economic situations, adaptation to faculty life, dormitory or their new environment.  As a result, some students eventually ignore their basic food requirements and have a diet that is cabohydrate, saturated fat and cholesterol rich. Our aim was to search the nutritional habits and food consumption of medical faculty students in order to provide a healthy diet advice.Material and...

  6. NUTRITION HABITS AND FOOD CONSUMPTION FREQUENCIES OF MEDICAL FACULTY STUDENTS

    OpenAIRE

    ÖNAL, Ayşe Emel; GÜRTEKİN, Başak; ÖZEL, Sevda; ERBİL, Suna; AYVAZ, Özkan; Güngör, Günay

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACTObjective: Medical faculty students may develop irregular eating habits for reasons such as their social – economic situations, adaptation to faculty life, dormitory or their new environment.  As a result, some students eventually ignore their basic food requirements and have a diet that is cabohydrate, saturated fat and cholesterol rich. Our aim was to search the nutritional habits and food consumption of medical faculty students in order to provide a healthy diet advice.Material and...

  7. Habit and Heterogeneity in the Youthful Demand for Alcohol

    OpenAIRE

    Moore, Michael J.; Philip J. Cook

    1995-01-01

    Observed patterns of youthful drinking indicate substantial persistence. This paper analyzes how much of that persistence reflects the actual development of a habit, and how much is due to unobserved aspects of the individual and the environment. The role of restrictions on alcohol availability, both in the current period and in adolescence, is also explored. We find that much of the observed persistence represents habit formation, and not unobserved characteristics. Consequently, restriction...

  8. Habits: bridging the gap between personhood and personal identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils-Frederic eWagner

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In philosophy, the criteria for personhood (PH at a specific point in time (synchronic, and the necessary and sufficient conditions of personal identity (PI over time (diachronic are traditionally separated. Hence, the transition between both timescales of a person’s life remains largely unclear. Personal habits reflect a decision-making (DM process that binds together synchronic and diachronic timescales. Despite the fact that the actualization of habits takes place synchronically, they presuppose, for the possibility of their generation, time in a diachronic sense. The acquisition of habits therefore rests upon PI over time; that is, the temporal extension of personal decisions is the necessary condition for the possible development of habits. Conceptually, habits can thus be seen as a bridge between synchronic and diachronic timescales of a person’s life. In order to investigate the empirical mediation of this temporal linkage, we draw upon the neuronal mechanisms underlying DM; in particular on the distinction between internally and externally guided DM. Externally guided DM relies on external criteria at a specific point in time (synchronic; on a neural level, this has been associated with lateral frontal and parietal brain regions. In contrast, internally guided DM is based on the person’s own preferences that involve a more longitudinal and thus diachronic timescale, which has been associated with the brain’s intrinsic activity. Habits can be considered to reflect a balance between internally and externally guided DM, which implicates a particular temporal balance between diachronic and synchronic elements, thus linking two different timescales. Based on such evidence, we suggest a habit-based neurophilosophical approach of PH and PI by focusing on the empirically-based linkage between the synchronic and diachronic elements of habits. By doing so, we propose to link together what philosophically has been described and analyzed

  9. Eating attitudes anda habits on adolescents in the Pilsen region

    OpenAIRE

    CÍROVÁ, Vanda

    2016-01-01

    This bachelor thesis deals with the eating habits of pupils at elementary schools and of the third-year students of high school. The theoretical part deals with the definition of teenagers and adolescents eating habits and attitudes, the principles of a healthy diet, fluid intake, the most common eating disorders, metabolic disorders and obesity. The practical part contains the research carried out at selected elementary and secondary schools. Results are compared by gender, education level a...

  10. Pre-competition habits and injuries in Taekwondo athletes

    OpenAIRE

    Su Choung Young; Shearer Heather; Kazemi Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past decade, there has been heightened interest in injury rates sustained by martial arts athletes, and more specifically, Taekwondo athletes. Despite this interest, there is a paucity of research on pre-competition habits and training of these athletes. The purpose of this pilot study was to assess training characteristics, competition preparation habits, and injury profiles of Taekwondo athletes. Methods A retrospective survey of Canadian male and female Taekwon...

  11. A genealogical map of the concept of habit

    OpenAIRE

    Barandiaran, Xabier E.; Ezequiel Alejandro Di Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The notion of information processing has dominated the study of the mind for over six decades. However, before the advent of cognitivism, one of the most prominent theoretical ideas was that of Habit. This is a concept with a rich and complex history, which is again starting to awaken interest, following recent embodied, enactive critiques of computationalist frameworks. We offer here a very brief history of the concept of habit in the form of a genealogical network-map. This serves to provi...

  12. Nutritional habits and cognitive performance of older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidou, Anastasia; Cartie, Mario

    2015-06-01

    Healthy nutritional habits, including drinking plenty of water and maintaining hydration, are fundamental components for sustaining life, health and wellbeing. Evidence has suggested that certain dietary patterns and lifestyles could help delay the ageing process and reduce the risk of Alzheimer's disease. This article explores the potential association between nutritional habits and the cognitive performance of older adults and identifies research gaps that could be filled by future studies on healthy ageing.

  13. Magnetic constraints on the habitability of exoearths and exomoons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuluaga, J. I.

    2013-05-01

    Surface habitability of planetary environments is essentially constrained by two basic and related conditions: 1) the existence of a thick enough atmosphere and 2) proper levels of insolation or other sources of energy able to guarantee the right temperatures required for the existence of surface liquid water. It is customary to assume that the first condition (an atmosphere) is always fulfilled and to focus on the physical factors limiting the second one (insolation or energy sources). Now it is widely accepted that magnetic fields play a central role into determining if a planet is able to preserve a dense enough atmosphere or the right content of volatiles required for habitability. Hence the fulfillment of the first condition could strongly depend on the existence of a relatively strong intrinsic or extrinsic magnetic field. In the Solar System Venus and Mars provide examples of planets that, though located inside the Radiative Habitable Zone (RHZ), lack a protective magnetic field and have lost their inventory of water or most of their early atmospheric content by a combination of thermal and non-thermal atmospheric losses. We present here a review of the role that magnetic fields would have at constraining the habitability of planetary environments, both in the case of Earth-like planets and super-Earths (exoearths) and for the case of exomoons around giant planets in the RHZ of their host stars. In the first case we found that magnetic properties constraining habitability strongly dependent on planetary mass and composition. We present preliminary results of the case of already discovered potentially habitable exoearths and Kepler candidates. In the case of potentially habitable exomoons we found that magnetic protection together with conditions of tidal heating and illumination, constraints the possible range of exomoons planetocentric orbits. Also in this case we present results concerning the magnetic constraints to habitability of hypotetical exomoons of

  14. [Occupational stress, coping styles and eating habits among Polish employees].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potocka, Adrianna; Mościcka, Agnieszka

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to analyze potential relations between occupational stress, coping styles and ing habits. Questionnaires administered to 160 public administration employees allowed for assessing eating habits, occupational stress and coping styles. The eating habits correlated with work stress (ro-Spearman's = 0.17-0.29). More unhealthy eating patterns were observed in employees characterized by a higher level of stress. Such stressors as overload, lack of control over work and inappropriate work organization were especially related to poorer eating habits. Among the analyzed coping styles, focusing on emotions (ro-S = 0.19) and searching for emotional support most significantly correlated with poorer eating behaviors (ro-S = 0.16). There were statistically significant differences in eating habits, depending on the level of job stress (U = 1583.50, p eating more than those with a medium level of job stress. The relationship between subjective assessment of job stress, coping and eating habits has been confirmed. Taking into account the role of stress and coping, as the potential determinants of eating patterns in humans, more attention should be paid to education and promotion of knowledge about the relationship between stress and human eating behaviors to prevent obesity and eating disorders.

  15. [Obesity, eating habits and nutritional knowledge among school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triches, Rozane Márcia; Giugliani, Elsa Regina Justo

    2005-08-01

    To evaluate the association between obesity and eating habits and nutritional knowledge among schoolchildren. Weight and height were measured in 573 schoolchildren of public schools in two cities of State of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern Brazil. Obesity was defined as Body Mass Index above the 95th percentile based on the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) criteria. Eating habits and nutrition knowledge were evaluated using a self-administered questionnaire. Simple and adjusted logistic regression models were used to assess associations. Obesity among children was found to be associated with limited nutrition knowledge and unhealthy eating and habits. These children were five times more likely to be obese (OR=5.3;1.1-24.9). The level of knowledge affects the association between obesity and eating habits, and there's reason to suspect that children who have more nutrition knowledge report habits known to be healthier but not necessarily the ones they actually practice. Taking into account children's level of knowledge, unhealthy habits were strongly associated to obesity.

  16. Habitable Planets Eclipsing Brown Dwarfs: Strategies for Detection and Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Belu, Adrian R; Raymond, Sean N; Pallé, Enric; Street, Rachel; Sahu, D K; Von Braun, Kaspar; Bolmont, Emeline; Figueira, Pedro; Anupama, G C; Ribas, Ignasi

    2013-01-01

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting brown dwarfs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (PHZ out). Habitable planets with PHZ out shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g. 8-10 hrs) can be screened with 100 percent completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous brown dwarfs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g. from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved - 3 telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known brown dwarfs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5 +5.6-1.4 and 56 +31-13 percent, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that bro...

  17. Habitable Planets Eclipsing Brown Dwarfs: Strategies for Detection and Characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belu, Adrian R.; Selsis, Franck; Raymond, Sean N.; Pallé, Enric; Street, Rachel; Sahu, D. K.; von Braun, Kaspar; Bolmont, Emeline; Figueira, Pedro; Anupama, G. C.; Ribas, Ignasi

    2013-05-01

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs (BDs) represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper, we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting BDs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (P HZ out). Habitable planets with P HZ out shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g., 8-10 hr) can be screened with 100% completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous BDs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g., from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved three telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known BDs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5^{+5.6}_{-1.4}% and 56^{+31}_{-13}%, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that BDs within 5-10 pc are characterizable for potential biosignatures with a 6.5 m space telescope using ~1% of a five-year mission's lifetime spread over a contiguous segment only one-fifth to one-tenth of this duration.

  18. HABITABLE PLANETS ECLIPSING BROWN DWARFS: STRATEGIES FOR DETECTION AND CHARACTERIZATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belu, Adrian R.; Selsis, Franck; Raymond, Sean N.; Bolmont, Emeline [Universite de Bordeaux, LAB, UMR 5804, F-33270, Floirac (France); Palle, Enric [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna (Spain); Street, Rachel [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740 Cortona Drive, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Sahu, D. K.; Anupama, G. C. [Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Von Braun, Kaspar [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, California Institute of Technology, MC 100-22, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Figueira, Pedro [Centro de Astrofisica, Universidade do Porto, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto (Portugal); Ribas, Ignasi, E-mail: belu@obs.u-bordeaux1.fr [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5, parell, 2a pl., E-08193 Bellaterra (Spain)

    2013-05-10

    Given the very close proximity of their habitable zones, brown dwarfs (BDs) represent high-value targets in the search for nearby transiting habitable planets that may be suitable for follow-up occultation spectroscopy. In this paper, we develop search strategies to find habitable planets transiting BDs depending on their maximum habitable orbital period (P{sub HZ{sub out}}). Habitable planets with P{sub HZ{sub out}} shorter than the useful duration of a night (e.g., 8-10 hr) can be screened with 100% completeness from a single location and in a single night (near-IR). More luminous BDs require continuous monitoring for longer duration, e.g., from space or from a longitude-distributed network (one test scheduling achieved three telescopes, 13.5 contiguous hours). Using a simulated survey of the 21 closest known BDs (within 7 pc) we find that the probability of detecting at least one transiting habitable planet is between 4.5{sup +5.6}{sub -1.4}% and 56{sup +31}{sub -13}%, depending on our assumptions. We calculate that BDs within 5-10 pc are characterizable for potential biosignatures with a 6.5 m space telescope using {approx}1% of a five-year mission's lifetime spread over a contiguous segment only one-fifth to one-tenth of this duration.

  19. Incidence of oral habits in children with mixed dentition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosnjak, Andrija; Vućićević-Boras, Vanja; Miletić, Ivana; Bozić, Darko; Vukelja, Milko

    2002-09-01

    Recognition and elimination of an oral habit is of utmost importance in the treatment of periodontal disease. It is not probable that the influence of such a factor can lead to the alteration of gingival dimension, but a cofactor role of oral habits in the development of gingival recession has been acclaimed. The purpose of this study was to present cross-sectional data from an epidemiological study performed in two urban settlements in Zagreb, Croatia. The study was performed in 1025 children, in an attempt to try and discover the incidence of oral habits in children with mixed dentition, aged from 6 to 11 years. About 33.37% of the screened population exhibited oral habits, such as nail and object biting, non-nutritive sucking, simple tongue thrusting and lip or cheek biting. Chi-square test analysis showed no statistically significant differences between sex and age groups, a result that does not exclude the oral habits from aetiology of the periodontal pathology. We can conclude that oral habits are a frequent finding, although the cause relation to periodontitis has yet to be cleared completely.

  20. Frequency of parafunctional oral habits in patients with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, A O L; Guimarães, A S; Ciamponi, A L; Marie, S K N

    2007-05-01

    Cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most frequent conditions encountered in the daily practice of dentists who treat special-needs patients and it seems that parafunctional oral habits are often present in such individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate the frequency of occurrence of parafunctional habits in individuals with CP. Sixty-five patients with CP were evaluated through a questionnaire and clinical observation, regarding the following habits: pacifier-sucking, finger-sucking, biting objects, tongue interposition, and bruxism. The results showed that nine (13.8%) patients presented with pacifier-sucking, four (6.1%) showed finger-sucking, 12 (18.4%) had the habit of biting objects, 27 (41.5%) presented with tongue interposition, and 24 (36.9%) had eccentric bruxism. The significance of the presence of oral parafunctional habits in individuals with CP, revealed in this study, justifies the need to establish protocols for adequate prevention and clinical intervention in order to minimize the deleterious consequences that may result from such habits.

  1. Sleep habits and circadian preference in Italian children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Paolo M; Bruni, Oliviero; Lucidi, Fabio; Ferri, Raffaele; Violani, Cristiano

    2007-06-01

    Sleep habits and circadian preference (morningness/eveningness, M/E) have been extensively analyzed in adolescents and young adults, while few studies were conducted on children and early adolescents. Aim of the present study was to investigate the developmental changes of circadian preference and to analyze its relationship with sleep habits, sleep problems and circadian preference in a large sample by means of a school-based survey. One thousand seventy-three participants (50.8% boys and 49.2% girls; mean age = 10.6; range = 8-14 years), recruited from four schools randomly extracted within the district of Rome, completed a modified version of School Sleep Habits Survey developed by Carskadon et al. The questionnaire included items about sleep habits during schooldays and weekends; a Sleepiness Scale; a Sleep-Wake Problems Behaviour Scale; a Morningness/Eveningness scale. The results show a consistent age-related change in sleep habits, particularly in the weekends. The difference in sleep duration between schooldays and weekends increases linearly with age. No gender difference was observed in morningness/eveningness, while a significant linear increase in evening preference was found with increasing ages. M/E total scores correlated significantly with both self-reported sleep/wake problems and daytime sleepiness indicating a higher prevalence of sleep complaints in evening-type subjects. Overall, the present results support the existence of consistent age-related changes in sleep habits and M/E dimension in the 8- to 14-year age range.

  2. Dental arch diameters and relationships to oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aznar, T; Galán, A F; Marín, I; Domínguez, A

    2006-05-01

    The objective was to analyze variations in dental arch width in relation to oral habits. Maxillary and mandibular intercanine and intermolar distance were determined in relation to certain oral habits in 1297 children (ages 3 to 6 years). After an oral examination, the parents of each child completed a questionnaire about oral habits, including the use of a dummy or a bottle (or both), finger sucking, mouth breathing, breast- or bottle-feeding, and duration of these habits. Data were subjected to statistical analysis by the chi-square test for qualitative variables and analysis of variance for quantitative variables with homogeneous variances. Statistical significance was P habits, the maxillary intercanine distance was less in children who used a dummy, especially one of a round design (P = .003). The maxillary intercanine distance was also less in children who breathed through their mouth (P = .002). In most cases, dummy use and mouth breathing were associated with a reduction in the intercanine distance in the maxillary arch. A dummy habit leads to a reduction in maxillary arch width, and mouth breathing causes a reduction in the size of both arches.

  3. Cultivation techniques of Anoectochilus roxburghii in plastic green houses%金线莲大棚栽培技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗辉

    2015-01-01

    介绍金线莲的形态特征、生长习性,从建棚栽植、田间管理、病虫害防治,总结了金线莲大棚栽培技术.%In this paper,the morphological characteristics and growth habit were introduced and its cultiVation techniques in plastic green houses were summarized from the aspects of shed construction and planting,field management and pest control.

  4. Social housing solutions for Rome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana Cangelli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Research today should focus on building a fairer and more sustainable longterm development model, compared to the present situation, capable of effectively meeting the political, economic, market and social demands. Social housing encompasses all these elements and is currently in a phase of applied experimentation. For some time now universities have been usefully contributing to furthering the issue of social housing and the time is now ripe to apply the results produced by the large number of researches in this field. The aim of the paper is to provide an overview of the design process and the environmental features of the Master Plan relating to a significant Social Housing project in the area of Collina Muratella, in Rome, within the framework of a research project commissioned to the DATA Department of La Sapienza University of Rome by the construction firm Lamaro Appalti Unipersonale spa.

  5. Problems of house arrest application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail Vladimirovich Kolesnikov

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the position of house arrest in the system of preventive measures and to identify the main problems of criminal procedural regulation that prevent its broader use during the preliminary investigation and trial. Methods dialectical approach to the analysis of social phenomena allowing to view them in static and dynamic aspect evolutionarysynergetic paradigm providing the opportunity to explore the phenomenon under investigation with respect to the system subordinate and coordinating relationships within the system. Dialectical approach and the evolutionarysynergetic paradigm determined the choice of specific methods of research historical comparative law comparative formallegal statistical. Results the problems arising with application of house arrest are grouped by author depending on the structure of the provisions of Article 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of the Russian Federation. The first group of problems includes the determination of the location of the accused suspect under house arrest and the scope of the legal restrictions imposed. The second group includes the establishment of terms of house arrest and their subsequent renewal or change of the preventive measure. The third group is the identification of persons to which the house arrest will be the best preventive measure. The results of the study allow to make proposals to change the current wording of Art. 107 of the CriminalProcedural Code of Russia. Scientific novelty a comprehensive study of current state of the normativelegal regulation of house arrest in the context of its practical application. Practical value the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in scientific and pedagogical activity when considering questions about the nature of preventive measures related to the restraint of personal liberty of the accused. nbsp

  6. Building healthy eating habits in childhood: a study of the attitudes, knowledge and dietary habits of schoolchildren in Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Kazi Enamul Hoque; Megat Ahmad Kamaluddin; Ahmad Zabidi Abdul Razak; Afiq Athari Abdul Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have increased rapidly in incidence to become a global issue today. Overweight and obesity problems are significantly linked to unhealthy dietary patterns, physical inactivity and misperception of body image. This study aimed to determine whether Malaysian children build healthy eating habits from childhood. Methods A survey on eating habits was conducted among primary school students in standards 4 to 6 in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. The findings of the...

  7. Architectural Qualities in Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    In recent years in Denmark there has been an increasing focus on implementing passive and active strategies in buildings to fulfil low energy demands like for example the Passive House Standard. From a technical rational perspective, plenty of pilot projects and commercial projects have shown...... that it is possible to build this type of houses, but the knowledge and discussion about the architectural quality in the buildings is hardly present. The question is if the strategies for optimising energy use and indoor environment collide with the architectural qualities of buildings. This paper brings forth...

  8. Sheltered housing compared to independent housing in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, Pascalle M A; Hamers, Jan P H; Groot, Wim; Spreeuwenberg, Cor

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With elderly people desiring to live independently as long as possible, traditional homes for the elderly are increasingly being transformed into sheltered accommodations. In order to assess the importance of housing for frail elderly people, elderly people at risk for institutionalizati

  9. Sheltered housing compared to independent housing in the community

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.M.A. van Bilsen; J.P.H. Hamers; W. Groot; C. Spreeuwenberg

    2008-01-01

    Background: With elderly people desiring to live independently as long as possible, traditional homes for the elderly are increasingly being transformed into sheltered accommodations. In order to assess the importance of housing for frail elderly people, elderly people at risk for institutionalizati

  10. The Housing Development NGOs offering Housing Education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 29, 2001. 28 .... efforts are not reinforced through group structures and ... mate aim should be to improve the quality of life of the community. ... NGOs furthermore have the freedom to work in politi- .... housing stock and support community development.

  11. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  12. Assisted Housing - Housing Choice Vouchers by Tract - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development’s (HUD) Housing Choice Voucher Program (HCVP) is the federal government's major program for assisting very...

  13. [A longitudinal study on dietary habits and the primary socialization of these habits in young children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vereecken, C A

    2010-01-01

    The Family Influences on Food Intake study (FIFI), is a longitudinal study on dietary habits of young children and the primary socialization of these habits during childhood and during the transition into adolescence. Special attention is paid to the development, validation and feasibility of instruments measuring as well dependent as independent variables useful for large scale surveys. Parents of preschool children from the first year (+/-3 years of age) of 56 school departments were asked to complete a self-administered questionnaire biennially. Data of 862 children was available for the first measurement (2008). A web based dietary record tool was developed to investigate the relative validity of the Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ) used in the study. Two hundred and seventeen parents completed the online tool for three non-consecutive days. The feasibility of the online data collection is investigated and the reported intake is compared with the FFQ estimates. Associations between nutritional knowledge and attitudes of the children's mothers and dietary patterns of the children (FFQ) are investigated as well as relations between parent and child characteristics and fruit and vegetable intake. Additionally, 70 teachers completed a questionnaire on their attitudes towards the school food policy. The teachers' responses are compared with responses of parents from a previous study. Finally, the feasibility of an animated web based fruit and vegetables preferences tool, to be used in the follow up surveys, has been investigated in 4-6 years old (n=139 for fruit and n=135 for vegetables). The findings are summarized in the present paper.

  14. Effects of extreme obliquity variations on the habitability of exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J C; Barnes, R; Domagal-Goldman, S; Breiner, J; Quinn, T R; Meadows, V S

    2014-04-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 10(8) years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.

  15. Quantitative estimates of the surface habitability of Kepler-452b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Laura; Vladilo, Giovanni; Murante, Giuseppe; Provenzale, Antonello

    2017-09-01

    Kepler-452b is currently the best example of an Earth-size planet in the habitable zone of a sun-like star, a type of planet whose number of detections is expected to increase in the future. Searching for biosignatures in the supposedly thin atmospheres of these planets is a challenging goal that requires a careful selection of the targets. Under the assumption of a rocky-dominated nature for Kepler-452b, we considered it as a test case to calculate a temperature-dependent habitability index, h050, designed to maximize the potential presence of biosignature-producing activity. The surface temperature has been computed for a broad range of climate factors using a climate model designed for terrestrial-type exoplanets. After fixing the planetary data according to the experimental results, we changed the surface gravity, CO2 abundance, surface pressure, orbital eccentricity, rotation period, axis obliquity and ocean fraction within the range of validity of our model. For most choices of parameters, we find habitable solutions with h050 > 0.2 only for CO2 partial pressure p_CO_2 ≲ 0.04 bar. At this limiting value of CO2 abundance, the planet is still habitable if the total pressure is p ≲ 2 bar. In all cases, the habitability drops for eccentricity e ≳ 0.3. Changes of rotation period and obliquity affect the habitability through their impact on the equator-pole temperature difference rather than on the mean global temperature. We calculated the variation of h050 resulting from the luminosity evolution of the host star for a wide range of input parameters. Only a small combination of parameters yields habitability-weighted lifetimes ≳2 Gyr, sufficiently long to develop atmospheric biosignatures still detectable at the present time.

  16. Effects of Extreme Obliquity Variations on the Habitability of Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, J. C.; Barnes, R.; Domagal-Goldman, S.; Breiner, J.; Quinn, T. R.; Meadows, V. S.

    2014-01-01

    We explore the impact of obliquity variations on planetary habitability in hypothetical systems with high mutual inclination. We show that large-amplitude, high-frequency obliquity oscillations on Earth-like exoplanets can suppress the ice-albedo feedback, increasing the outer edge of the habitable zone. We restricted our exploration to hypothetical systems consisting of a solar-mass star, an Earth-mass planet at 1 AU, and 1 or 2 larger planets. We verified that these systems are stable for 108 years with N-body simulations and calculated the obliquity variations induced by the orbital evolution of the Earth-mass planet and a torque from the host star. We ran a simplified energy balance model on the terrestrial planet to assess surface temperature and ice coverage on the planet's surface, and we calculated differences in the outer edge of the habitable zone for planets with rapid obliquity variations. For each hypothetical system, we calculated the outer edge of habitability for two conditions: (1) the full evolution of the planetary spin and orbit and (2) the eccentricity and obliquity fixed at their average values. We recovered previous results that higher values of fixed obliquity and eccentricity expand the habitable zone, but we also found that obliquity oscillations further expand habitable orbits in all cases. Terrestrial planets near the outer edge of the habitable zone may be more likely to support life in systems that induce rapid obliquity oscillations as opposed to fixed-spin planets. Such planets may be the easiest to directly characterize with space-borne telescopes.

  17. HABITABILITY OF EXOMOONS AT THE HILL OR TIDAL LOCKING RADIUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinkel, Natalie R.; Kane, Stephen R., E-mail: natalie.hinkel@gmail.com [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Caltech, MS 100-22, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Moons orbiting extrasolar planets are the next class of object to be observed and characterized for possible habitability. Like the host-planets to their host-star, exomoons have a limiting radius at which they may be gravitationally bound, or the Hill radius. In addition, they also have a distance at which they will become tidally locked and therefore in synchronous rotation with the planet. We have examined the flux phase profile of a simulated, hypothetical moon orbiting at a distant radius around the confirmed exoplanets {mu} Ara b, HD 28185 b, BD +14 4559 b, and HD 73534 b. The irradiated flux on a moon at its furthest, stable distance from the planet achieves its largest flux gradient, which places a limit on the flux ranges expected for subsequent (observed) moons closer in orbit to the planet. We have also analyzed the effect of planetary eccentricity on the flux on the moon, examining planets that traverse the habitable zone either fully or partially during their orbit. Looking solely at the stellar contributions, we find that moons around planets that are totally within the habitable zone experience thermal equilibrium temperatures above the runaway greenhouse limit, requiring a small heat redistribution efficiency. In contrast, exomoons orbiting planets that only spend a fraction of their time within the habitable zone require a heat redistribution efficiency near 100% in order to achieve temperatures suitable for habitability. This means that a planet does not need to spend its entire orbit within the habitable zone in order for the exomoon to be habitable. Because the applied systems comprise giant planets around bright stars, we believe that the transit detection method is most likely to yield an exomoon discovery.

  18. A review on weaknesses and strengths of delivering Mehr housing project in terms of achieving economical goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Karshenasan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Housing is one of the most important sections of development in a country and its economic importance has put it in the center of attention. It can cause rise and depression of habitation by its extended economic aspects. Mehr Housing plan is a state run housing project in most cities started 2007 in Iran to protect and provide cheap housing for poor people and young couples. Mehr housing project by its large scale and wide dimensions can affect the society’s economy. Therefore, to investigate weaknesses and strengths of this project in terms of economic and applying necessary reformation can increase the success probability of this project. For this purpose, this study assess the weaknesses and strengths of Mehr housing of province of Khorram Abad in Iran for achieving economic goals and also presents solutions to better access to these goals. Time scope of the present study is 6 months of 2011 and the second 3 months of 2012. The methodology is applicable in terms of goal and is descriptive survey in terms of nature. In this study, a combined method of interviewing to experts and distributing a questionnaire among the applicants of Mehr housing has been used for data collecting. Among strengths of Khorram Abad in economic section, employment and urban landfill pattern reformation can be implied. In addition, among weaknesses of this project are lack of proper first design and technical justification of the project and use of only 2 shabby fabrics.

  19. House Prices and Public Debt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjedsted Nielsen, Mads; Rzeznik, Aleksandra

    By using the 2002 case of fraud in the Danish municipality Farum by then mayor Peter Brixtofte as an exogenous shock to public debt of 1 billion DKK, I estimate the effect of public debt on house prices. I find that the average home ownership lost about 570,000 DKK or as much as 29% of the averag...

  20. Housing, Neighborhoods, and Children's Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellen, Ingrid Gould; Glied, Sherry

    2015-01-01

    In theory, improving low-income families' housing and neighborhoods could also improve their children's health, through any number of mechanisms. For example, less exposure to environmental toxins could prevent diseases such as asthma; a safer, less violent neighborhood could improve health by reducing the chances of injury and death, and by…