WorldWideScience

Sample records for habitat-specialist mediterranean narrow

  1. Gene flow connects coastal populations of a habitat specialist, the Clapper Rail Rallus crepitans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coster, Stephanie S.; Welsh, Amy B.; Costanzo, Gary R.; Harding, Sergio R.; Anderson, James T.; Katzner, Todd

    2018-01-01

    Examining population genetic structure can reveal patterns of reproductive isolation or population mixing and inform conservation management. Some avian species are predicted to exhibit minimal genetic differentiation among populations as a result of the species high mobility, with habitat specialists tending to show greater fine‐scale genetic structure. To explore the relationship between habitat specialization and gene flow, we investigated the genetic structure of a saltmarsh specialist with high potential mobility across a wide geographic range of fragmented habitat. Little variation among mitochondrial sequences (620 bp from ND2) was observed among 149 individual Clapper Rails Rallus crepitans sampled along the Atlantic coast of North America, with the majority of individuals at all sampling sites sharing a single haplotype. Genotyping of nine microsatellite loci across 136 individuals revealed moderate genetic diversity, no evidence of bottlenecks, and a weak pattern of genetic differentiation that increased with geographic distance. Multivariate analyses, Bayesian clustering and an AMOVA all suggested a lack of genetic structuring across the North American Atlantic coast, with all individuals grouped into a single interbreeding population. Spatial autocorrelation analyses showed evidence of weak female philopatry and a lack of male philopatry. We conclude that high gene flow connecting populations of this habitat specialist may result from the interaction of ecological and behavioral factors that promote dispersal and limit natal philopatry and breeding‐site fidelity. As climate change threatens saltmarshes, the genetic diversity and population connectivity of Clapper Rails may promote resilience of their populations. This finding helps inform about potential fates of other similarly behaving saltmarsh specialists on the Atlantic coast.

  2. Prisoners in their habitat? Generalist dispersal by habitat specialists: a case study in southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Centeno-Cuadros

    Full Text Available Habitat specialists inhabiting scarce and scattered habitat patches pose interesting questions related to dispersal such as how specialized terrestrial mammals do to colonize distant patches crossing hostile matrices. We assess dispersal patterns of the southern water vole (Arvicola sapidus, a habitat specialist whose habitat patches are distributed through less than 2% of the study area (overall 600 km² and whose populations form a dynamic metapopulational network. We predict that individuals will require a high ability to move through the inhospitable matrix in order to avoid genetic and demographic isolations. Genotypes (N = 142 for 10 microsatellites and sequences of the whole mitochondrial Control Region (N = 47 from seven localities revealed a weak but significant genetic structure partially explained by geographic distance. None of the landscape models had a significant effect on genetic structure over that of the Euclidean distance alone and no evidence for efficient barriers to dispersal was found. Contemporary gene flow was not severely limited for A. sapidus as shown by high migration rates estimates (>10% between non-neighbouring areas. Sex-biased dispersal tests did not support differences in dispersal rates, as shown by similar average axial parent-offspring distances, in close agreement with capture-mark-recapture estimates. As predicted, our results do not support any preferences of the species for specific landscape attributes on their dispersal pathways. Here, we combine field and molecular data to illustrate how a habitat specialist mammal might disperse like a habitat generalist, acquiring specific long-distance dispersal strategies as an adaptation to patchy, naturally fragmented, heterogeneous and unstable habitats.

  3. Investigating genetic diversity and habitat dynamics in Plantago brutia (Plantaginaceae), implications for the management of narrow endemics in Mediterranean mountain pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, A; Bernardo, L; Gargano, D; Palermo, A M; Peruzzi, L; Musacchio, A

    2009-11-01

    Many factors have contributed to the richness of narrow endemics in the Mediterranean, including long-lasting human impact on pristine landscapes. The abandonment of traditional land-use practices is causing forest recovery throughout the Mediterranean mountains, by increasing reduction and fragmentation of open habitats. We investigated the population genetic structure and habitat dynamics of Plantago brutia Ten., a narrow endemic in mountain pastures of S Italy. Some plants were cultivated in the botanical garden to explore the species' breeding system. Genetic diversity was evaluated based on inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) polymorphisms in 150 individuals from most of known stands. Recent dynamics in the species habitat were checked over a 14-year period. Flower phenology, stigma receptivity and experimental pollinations revealed protogyny and self-incompatibility. With the exception of very small and isolated populations, high genetic diversity was found at the species and population level. amova revealed weak differentiation among populations, and the Mantel test suggested absence of isolation-by-distance. Multivariate analysis of population and genetic data distinguished the populations based on genetic richness, size and isolation. Landscape analyses confirmed recent reduction and isolation of potentially suitable habitats. Low selfing, recent isolation and probable seed exchange may have preserved P. brutia populations from higher loss of genetic diversity. Nonetheless, data related to very small populations suggest that this species may suffer further fragmentation and isolation. To preserve most of the species' genetic richness, future management efforts should consider the large and isolated populations recognised in our analyses.

  4. The predictability of phytophagous insect communities: host specialists as habitat specialists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Müller

    Full Text Available The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local environmental conditions, i.e. habitat conditions, whereas assemblages of host-plant generalists should depend also on regional processes. Our study aimed at ranking the importance of local environmental factors and species composition of the vegetation for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moth assemblages with either a narrow or a broad host range. Our database consists of 351,506 specimens representing 820 species of nocturnal Macrolepidoptera sampled between 1980 and 2006 using light traps in 96 strict forest reserves in southern Germany. Species were grouped as specialists or generalists according to the food plants of the larvae; specialists use host plants belonging to one genus. We used predictive canonical correspondence and co-correspondence analyses to rank the importance of local environmental factors, the species composition of the vegetation and the role of host plants for predicting the species composition of host-plant specialists and generalists. The cross-validatory fit for predicting the species composition of phytophagous moths was higher for host-plant specialists than for host-plant generalists using environmental factors as well as the composition of the vegetation. As expected for host-plant specialists, the species composition of the vegetation was a better predictor of the composition of these assemblages than the environmental variables. But surprisingly, this difference for specialized insects was not due to the occurrence of their host plants. Overall, our study supports the idea that owing to evolutionary constraints in finding a host, host-plant specialists and host-plant generalists follow two different models of

  5. Habitat-related specialization of lateral-line system morphology in a habitat-generalist and a habitat-specialist New Zealand eleotrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderpham, J P; Nakagawa, S; Senior, A M; Closs, G P

    2016-04-01

    An investigation of intraspecific habitat-related patterns of variation in oculoscapular lateral-line superficial neuromasts (SN) identified a decrease in the ratio of total SNs to pores, and a trend towards decreased asymmetry in SNs in the habitat-generalist common bully Gobiomorphus cotidianus from fluvial habitats compared to lacustrine habitats, suggesting habitat-related phenotypic variability. A greater ratio of pores to SNs, as well as less variation in the total number and asymmetry of SNs observed in the fluvial habitat-specialist redfin bully Gobiomorphus huttoni may provide further evidence of variations in the oculoscapular lateral-line morphology of fluvial habitat G. cotidianus individuals serving as adaptations to more turbulent environments. © 2016 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  6. Too hot to trot? evaluating the effects of wildfire on patterns of occupancy and abundance for a climate-sensitive habitat-specialist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varner, Johanna; Lambert, Mallory S.; Horns, Joshua J.; Laverty, Sean; Dizney, Laurie; Beever, Erik; Dearing, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    Wildfires are increasing in frequency and severity as a result of climate change in many ecosystems; however, effects of altered disturbance regimes on wildlife remain poorly quantified. Here, we leverage an unexpected opportunity to investigate how fire affects the occupancy and abundance of a climate-sensitive habitat specialist, the American pika (Ochotona princeps). We determine the effects of a fire on microclimates within talus and explore habitat factors promoting persistence and abundance in fire-affected habitat. During the fire, temperatures in talus interstices remained below 19°C, suggesting that animals could have survived in situ. Within 2 years, pikas were widely distributed throughout burned areas and did not appear to be physiologically stressed at severely burned sites. Furthermore, pika densities were better predicted by topographic variables known to affect this species than by metrics of fire severity. This widespread distribution may reflect quick vegetation recovery and the fact that the fire did not alter the talus microclimates in the following years. Together, these results highlight the value of talus as a thermal refuge for small animals during and after fire. They also underscore the importance of further study in individual species’ responses to typical and altered disturbance regimes.

  7. The effects of island forest restoration on open habitat specialists: the endangered weevil Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily D. Fountain

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Human alteration of islands has made restoration a key part of conservation management. As islands are restored to their original state, species interactions change and some populations may be impacted. In this study we examine the coxella weevil, (Hadramphus spinipennis Broun and its host-plant Dieffenbach’s speargrass (Aciphylla dieffenbachii Kirk, which are both open habitat specialists with populations on Mangere and Rangatira Islands, Chathams, New Zealand. Both of these islands were heavily impacted by the introduction of livestock; the majority of the forest was removed and the weevil populations declined due to the palatability of their host-plant to livestock. An intensive reforestation program was established on both islands over 50 years ago but the potential impacts of this restoration project on the already endangered H. spinipennis are poorly understood. We combined genetic and population data from 1995 and 2010–2011 to determine the health and status of these species on both islands. There was some genetic variation between the weevil populations on each island but little variation within the species as a whole. The interactions between the weevil and its host-plant populations appear to remain intact on Mangere, despite forest regeneration. A decline in weevils and host-plant on Rangatira does not appear to be caused by canopy regrowth. We recommend that (1 these populations be monitored for ongoing effects of long-term reforestation, (2 the cause of the decline on Rangatira be investigated, and (3 the two populations of weevils be conserved as separate evolutionarily significant units.

  8. Fisheries in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. PAPACONSTANTINOU

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to give a description of the Mediterranean fisheries, and its level of exploitation and to address the main questions dealing with its management. The Mediterranean is a semi-enclosed marine area with generally narrow continental shelves. The primary production of the Mediterranean is among the lowest in the world (26-50g C m-2 y-1. The Mediterranean fisheries can be broken down into three main categories: small scale fisheries, trawling and seining fisheries, which operated on demersal, small pelagic and large pelagic resources. After a general description of the state of the resources in the different areas of the Mediterranean it is concluded that (a the overall pictures from the western to the eastern Mediterranean are not considerably different, (b the total landings in the Mediterranean have been increased the last decades, and (c from the perspective of stock assessment, the very few available time series data show stable yield levels. In general fisheries management in the Mediterranean is at a rela- tively early stage of development, judging by the criteria of North Atlantic fisheries. Quota systems are generally not applied, mesh-size regulations usually are set at low levels relative to scientific advice, and effort limitation is not usually applied or, if it is, is not always based on a formal resource assessment. The conservation/management measures applied by the Mediterranean countries can be broadly separated into two major categories: those aiming to keep the fishing effort under control and those aiming to make the exploitation pattern more rational. The most acute problems in the management of the Mediterranean resources are the multispecificity of the catches and the lack of reliable official statistics.

  9. Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000110.htm Mediterranean diet To use the sharing features on this page, ... and other health problems. How to Follow the Diet The Mediterranean diet is based on: Plant-based ...

  10. Narrow dibaryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kajdalov, A.B.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental data on np interactions indicating to existence of narrow resonances in pp-system are discussed. Possible theoretical interpretations of these resonances are given. Experimental characteristics of the dibaryon resonances with isospin I=2 are considered

  11. The Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawanshi, Vandana

    2017-04-01

    Learning is always a joyful experience for any human being and must always remain so. Children are happiest when they learn through play. The philosophy of my life is to keep encouraging children to think beyond they could achieve easily. I understand children are adaptive to change and take things with an open mind. They are ready to experiment new things and dare to dream big. I am fortunate to be a teacher by profession and thus I always attempt experimenting, observing and participating with other children and adults. Education is not about moulding children the way you think they should be. It is about organizing the natural longing in a human being to know. From birth children are active participants in building their own understanding. I always prepare the environment to help each child build on what they already know. It is such a great pleasure to observe every young kid become excited and curious to know when we teach them. Std 8 Geography the students are very excited to learn about this continent, with the help of Videos and a wall map the Political map of Europe with its countries shown I introduced the topic by asking 'If given a chance which place they would like to visit in Europe' , students are familiar with the countries of their favourite football players and happily pointed out their destination. The Mediterranean Region is a paradise the scenic beauty, the climate, the food along with a variety of fruits which are totally different from Asia increased the curiosity among the students. With the help of case study of the Mediterranean Sea the students were able to research and present the history, the adventure sports the aquatic life and the twenty three beautiful islands located in the Mediterranean Sea. Photos and videos helped me to explain the Mediterranean Sea The Formation of the Mediterranean Sea ( Youtube Video) which is otherwise completely enclosed by land. (The evaporating Mediterranean Sea - BBC (Video) Gibraltar Breach.mov . The

  12. Jihadism, Narrow and Wide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sedgwick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    The term “jihadism” is popular, but difficult. It has narrow senses, which are generally valuable, and wide senses, which may be misleading. This article looks at the derivation and use of “jihadism” and of related terms, at definitions provided by a number of leading scholars, and at media usage....... It distinguishes two main groups of scholarly definitions, some careful and narrow, and some appearing to match loose media usage. However, it shows that even these scholarly definitions actually make important distinctions between jihadism and associated political and theological ideology. The article closes...

  13. Correlates of Narrow Bracketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Alexander; Nafziger, Julia

    We examine whether different phenomena of narrow bracketing can be traced back to some common characteristic and whether and how different phenomena are related. We find that making dominated lottery choices or ignoring the endowment when making risky choices are related phenomena and are both as...

  14. Narrow beam neutron dosimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenci, M Sutton

    2004-01-01

    Organ and effective doses have been estimated for male and female anthropomorphic mathematical models exposed to monoenergetic narrow beams of neutrons with energies from 10(-11) to 1000 MeV. Calculations were performed for anterior-posterior, posterior-anterior, left-lateral and right-lateral irradiation geometries. The beam diameter used in the calculations was 7.62 cm and the phantoms were irradiated at a height of 1 m above the ground. This geometry was chosen to simulate an accidental scenario (a worker walking through the beam) at Flight Path 30 Left (FP30L) of the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The calculations were carried out using the Monte Carlo transport code MCNPX 2.5c.

  15. Narrow, duplicated internal auditory canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, T. [Servico de Neurorradiologia, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Avenida Torrado da Silva, 2801-951, Almada (Portugal); Shayestehfar, B. [Department of Radiology, UCLA Oliveview School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States); Lufkin, R. [Department of Radiology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California (United States)

    2003-05-01

    A narrow internal auditory canal (IAC) constitutes a relative contraindication to cochlear implantation because it is associated with aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve or its cochlear branch. We report an unusual case of a narrow, duplicated IAC, divided by a bony septum into a superior relatively large portion and an inferior stenotic portion, in which we could identify only the facial nerve. This case adds support to the association between a narrow IAC and aplasia or hypoplasia of the vestibulocochlear nerve. The normal facial nerve argues against the hypothesis that the narrow IAC is the result of a primary bony defect which inhibits the growth of the vestibulocochlear nerve. (orig.)

  16. Flooding correlations in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S. H.; Baek, W. P.; Chang, S. H.

    1999-01-01

    Heat transfer in narrow gap is considered as important phenomena in severe accidents in nuclear power plants. Also in heat removal of electric chip. Critical heat flux(CHF) in narrow gap limits the maximum heat transfer rate in narrow channel. In case of closed bottom channel, flooding limited CHF occurrence is observed. Flooding correlations will be helpful to predict the CHF in closed bottom channel. In present study, flooding data for narrow channel geometry were collected and the work to recognize the effect of the span, w and gap size, s were performed. And new flooding correlations were suggested for high-aspect-ratio geometry. Also, flooding correlation was applied to flooding limited CHF data

  17. Narrow n anti n resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogdanova, L.N.; Dalkarov, O.D.; Kerbikov, B.O.; Shapiro, I.S.

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the problem of quasinuclear states in systems of nucleons and antinucleons is reviewed. The theoretical predictions are compared with experimental data on narrow meson resonances near N anti N threshold which appeared in 1971-74

  18. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people of Mediterranean origin — including Sephardic Jews, Arabs, Greeks, Italians, Armenians and Turks. But it may affect ... attacks, you'll likely feel normal. Symptom-free periods may be as short as a few days ...

  19. Coal in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sore, J.C.; Coiffard, J.

    1992-01-01

    Mediterranean countries are not traditionally coal producers. In France, the main mines were located in the North and East, and belonged to the great coal fields of northern Europe. Spain is a modest producer (ten million tonnes), as is Turkey with its three million tonnes. The only way most of these mines can stand up to international competition is by an array of protectionistic measures and subsidies. This state of affairs has marked events of quite another nature, as it relates to energy economics. That is, coal has taken on increasing importance in the energy supplies of all the countries of the Mediterranean zone over the past twenty years. In this article, we set out by describing coke supply for the Mediterranean ensemble, and then go on to analyze the development aspects of coal for electrical production, the future of Mediterranean lignite, and the supply of imported coal. 4 refs., 11 figs., 3 tabs

  20. QSOs with narrow emission lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldwin, J.A.; Mcmahon, R.; Hazard, C.; Williams, R.E.

    1988-01-01

    Observations of two new high-redshift, narrow-lined QSOs (NLQSOs) are presented and discussed together with observations of similar objects reported in the literature. Gravitational lensing is ruled out as a possible means of amplifying the luminosity for one of these objects. It is found that the NLQSOs have broad bases on their emission lines as well as the prominent narrow cores which define this class. Thus, these are not pole-on QSOs. The FWHM of the emission lines fits onto the smoothly falling tail of the lower end of the line-width distribution for complete QSO samples. The equivalent widths of the combined broad and narrow components of the lines are normal for QSOs of the luminosity range under study. However, the NLQSOs do show ionization differences from broader-lined QSOs; most significant, the semiforbidden C III/C IV intensity ratio is unusually low. The N/C abundance ratio in these objects is found to be normal; the Al/C abundance ratio may be quite high. 38 references

  1. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brach, Juliane

    2007-01-01

    The EU and 12 countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) engaged in 1995 in the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP) in political, economic and cultural matters with the aim to foster cooperation, stability and prosperity around the Mediterranean Basin. The Economic and Financial...... and the past performance of the EFP. It analyses the association agreements, economic cooperation and financial assistance, discusses the major obstacles, and outlines the potential of the EFP to shape the European Neighborhood Policy....

  2. Oil spill preparedness in the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorigne, E.M.; Wong, K.V.

    1993-01-01

    Over 15% of the world's consumption of crude oil and refined products is shipped through the Mediterranean Sea each year. The sea is one of the most polluted areas in the world and has areas of high risk for oil spills, notably those places where there is a very narrow passage between coasts or islands. The region also needs to modernize its ports by developing more deballasting facilities, since a large percentage of spill accidents happens during terminal operations. Release of oily wastes from ships is also significant. The World Bank Global Environment Facility trust fund is working on a project to help the southwest Mediterranean countries modernize reception facilities for ballast water, bilge water, and oily waste water. The Regional Marine Pollution Emergency Response Center (REMPEC) in Malta acts as the coordinating center for regional contingency planning for oil spill response. The cost of the port facilities modernization program and oil spill contingency plan implementation for the Mediterranean is estimated at US$444 million. An allocation of costs is suggested which will help those countries needing more financial aid to implement the proposed programs. In the long run, the cost of these programs will be much lower than that of a massive oil spill cleanup. 7 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  3. Familial Mediterranean Fever

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adem Kucuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Familial Mediterranean Fever is an autosomal recessive inherited disease with a course of autoinflammation, which is characterized by the episodes of fever and serositis. It affects the populations from Mediterranean basin. Genetic mutation of the disease is on MEFV gene located on short arm of Chromosome 16. The disease is diagnosed based on clinical evaluation. Amyloidosis is the most important complication. The only agent that decreases the development of amyloidosis and the frequency and severity of the episodes is colchicine, which has been used for about 40 years. In this review, we aimed to discuss especially the most recent advances about Familial Mediterranean Fever which is commonly seen in our population.

  4. Mediterranean, our sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markaki, Foteini

    2017-04-01

    My school (1o EPAL Ymittos -Athens, Greece) is a technical school of secondary education and throughout this school year being drafted a program of environmental education. The main theme is the Mediterranean Sea, the biggest closed sea extending between three continents. Topics studied: 1. Biodiversity and the risks threat. 2. The geophysics that characterize (earthquakes, volcanoes explosions, etc). 3. The Mediterranean Sea as environment anthropogenesis, a mosaic of other cultures and even place current notions of social phenomena (refugees). Pedagogical Objectives: Cognitive/Enviromental: 1. To investigate and understand the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea and the risks to threaten and phenomena that characterize. 2. To understand the position of the Mediterranean Sea in the land and the role of the historical, cultural and social human environment. 3. To come in contact with texts literary, social, articles on the Mediterranean. Psychomotor: 1. To work together and collect information for the Mediterranean Sea. 2. Experiential approach to the natural environment. 3. Develop critical thinking. 4. Undertake responsibilities for the presentation of the program. Emotional: 1. To feel joy from participation in the program. 2. Being sensitized and configure attitudes and actions of respect towards the environment. Methodology implementation: Teamwork. Interdisciplinary - holistic to dissemination of program recordings to courses curriculum. Study in the field. Gathering information from newspapers, magazines, internet, maps, and photographs. Experiential method- Project. Assessment methods and self-assessment. Fields of courses: Greek language- History- Biology- Chemistry- Technology Dissemination of results: Make a page of social media (facebook), a blog, enhancing environmental awareness via video, make an electronic poster.

  5. The Mediterranean basin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomas, Carmen; Sanchez Sanchez, Juan Jose; Barbaro, A.

    2008-01-01

    The X-chromosome has valuable characteristics for population genetic studies. In order to investigate the genetics of the human Mediterranean populations further, we developed a 25 X-chromosome SNP-multiplex typing system. The system was based on PCR multiplex amplification and subsequent multipl...

  6. Narrow gap electronegative capacitive discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, E.; Lieberman, M. A.; Lichtenberg, A. J. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Sciences, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Narrow gap electronegative (EN) capacitive discharges are widely used in industry and have unique features not found in conventional discharges. In this paper, plasma parameters are determined over a range of decreasing gap length L from values for which an electropositive (EP) edge exists (2-region case) to smaller L-values for which the EN region connects directly to the sheath (1-region case). Parametric studies are performed at applied voltage V{sub rf}=500 V for pressures of 10, 25, 50, and 100 mTorr, and additionally at 50 mTorr for 1000 and 2000 V. Numerical results are given for a parallel plate oxygen discharge using a planar 1D3v (1 spatial dimension, 3 velocity components) particle-in-cell (PIC) code. New interesting phenomena are found for the case in which an EP edge does not exist. This 1-region case has not previously been investigated in detail, either numerically or analytically. In particular, attachment in the sheaths is important, and the central electron density n{sub e0} is depressed below the density n{sub esh} at the sheath edge. The sheath oscillations also extend into the EN core, creating an edge region lying within the sheath and not characterized by the standard diffusion in an EN plasma. An analytical model is developed using minimal inputs from the PIC results, and compared to the PIC results for a base case at V{sub rf}=500 V and 50 mTorr, showing good agreement. Selected comparisons are made at the other voltages and pressures. A self-consistent model is also developed and compared to the PIC results, giving reasonable agreement.

  7. Commercial refining in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Packer, P.

    1999-01-01

    About 9% of the world's oil refining capacity is on the Mediterranean: some of the world's biggest and most advanced refineries are on Sicily and Sardinia. The Mediterranean refineries are important suppliers to southern Europe and N. Africa. The article discusses commercial refining in the Mediterranean under the headings of (i) historic development, (ii) product demand, (iii) refinery configurations, (iv) refined product trade, (v) financial performance and (vi) future outlook. Although some difficulties are foreseen, refining in the Mediterranean is likely to continue to be important well into the 21st century. (UK)

  8. The European Union's Mediterranean Policy in the Context of the "Arab Spring"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victoria A. Latkina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the policy of the European Union aimed at the export of its democratic values, acquis communautaire and governance models to the neighbour countries in the Southern Mediterranean. The process of Europeanization reflects a particular case of global megatrend -democratization which in its turn positioned as democracy promotion through soft power instruments. From the EU point of view the goal of the Barcelona process launched in 1995 was to construct Euro-Mediterranean Partnership and common identity in order to promote democratic transitions in Southern Mediterranean. While the EU Foreign Policy in the Mediterranean region was historically conditioned by the security interests of the European Union, it suffered from securitization/democratization dilemma. The article analyses the process of external Europeanization in the Southern Mediterranean as a regional dimension of global democratization process in the context of Union for the Mediterranean development before and after the Arab Spring and new approach in the framework of the ENP Partnership for Democracy and Shared Prosperity with the Southern Mediterranean. The article proposes that the lack of political strategic vision in the EU toward the Arab democratic transition during 2011-2013 narrows its role as a transformative democratic power, hinders Europeanization/ democratization process in the macro-region of North Africa and Middle East and presents the EU with a new dilemma - to continue its traditional democratization policy or to shift towards a more pragmatic approach to cooperating with new Arab regimes.

  9. Mediterranean Environmental Acoustic Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-07-01

    Salinity Diagrams for Adriatic Basin 441 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED SOL V4LOITY -MI-OWITE a*0 Z= a3 80 8540 850 WO OoW am6 KM40TE - - TECC3ATWK M* I a...wo ...~....... .. . no0 372 374 376 -70 380 382 364 386 383 ൦ SSAZAW M.). 7360 364 !30 La !. O A- CC# .7 .L,sTAut (t...±,-= ~20 - 0= Sol 153. AEEA...Vol. 14, art. 3 5. Jesperson, P. 1923. On the quantity of macroplankton in the2 h-. Mediterranean Sea and the Atlantic. Report on the Danish Oceano

  10. Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-01-01

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  11. Mediterranean fruit fly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1983-12-31

    The Mediterranean Fruit Fly (Medfly, Ceratitis capitata), widespread in most tropical and subtropical area, lays eggs under the skin of fruit. Its larvae feed on the pulp, causing tremendous losses for agriculture. Insecticides, besides being hazardous for the environment, have proven too slow for effective pest control (eradication in 20 generations). This training film demonstrates in 7 detailed steps how the Sterile Insect Technique (SIT) can lead to elimination of the insect population within 6 generations. It shows different stages of breeding and describes the sterilization of pupae by exposure to gamma rays provided by a cobalt 60 source

  12. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Chu, Junhao

    2010-01-01

    Narrow gap semiconductors obey the general rules of semiconductor science, but often exhibit extreme features of these rules because of the same properties that produce their narrow gaps. Consequently these materials provide sensitive tests of theory, and the opportunity for the design of innovative devices. Narrow gap semiconductors are the most important materials for the preparation of advanced modern infrared systems. Device Physics of Narrow Gap Semiconductors offers descriptions of the materials science and device physics of these unique materials. Topics covered include impurities and defects, recombination mechanisms, surface and interface properties, and the properties of low dimensional systems for infrared applications. This book will help readers to understand not only the semiconductor physics and materials science, but also how they relate to advanced opto-electronic devices. The last chapter applies the understanding of device physics to photoconductive detectors, photovoltaic infrared detector...

  13. Mediterranean Way of Competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Kovacic

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean area have a special concept of competitiveness topic. Normally is that region not so industrial and knowledge based oriented as a North Europe.That countries can't reach the same development level as the north one. Lisbon's and Goethenburg's strategies create the main framework of development programme. Mediterranean programme is such a case. European internal market has forced the EU countries to increase competitiveness. The economic prosperity of countries is associated with their ability to generate or attract economic activities which are able to increase income by performing well on themarket. Financial crisis in the EU has changed the look on the competitiveness research. Economy in the main countries has to find way of recovery. Former giants of the financial world have found themselves suddenly facing bankruptcy.Inevitably, the crisis is also having an effect on households and businesses - economic growth has slowed sharply and in some EU countries unemployment has begun to increase for the first time in several years. Form that perspective we have to find the right solution of European competitiveness.

  14. The changing Mediterranean Sea — a sensitive ecosystem?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turley, Carol M.

    1999-08-01

    I was asked to present a keynote paper on the socio-economic aspects of oceanographic research in the Mediterranean Sea in the Session on From Oceanographic Science to Policy at the International Conference on Progress in Oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea, Rome November 1997. The session was unique in that it included papers from oceanographers, social scientists and economists. For this reason I have aimed this paper towards, what I consider to be, social and economic issues that may have important oceanographic outcomes and vice versa. I have attempted to express them in a manner that can be understood by economists, social scientists, policy makers and oceanographers alike. The Mediterranean is highly populated and the greatest tourist destination in the world, both of which are predicted by UNEP to rise substantially in the future. Its blue waters, however, include some of the most extreme oligotrophic waters in the world such that it is only capable of supplying 50% of its requirements for fish. The relatively clear, pigment poor surface waters of the Mediterranean have a general increasing oligotrophy eastward with substantially lower phytoplankton, benthic and fish production in the eastern basin. The Mediterranean Sea is highly sensitive to climatic changes; it has high evaporation rates, low land runoff from few rivers and seasonal rains resulting in a deficit in its hydrological balance. This has worsened with the damming of rivers such as the Nile. Nutrient depleted Atlantic water flows into the Mediterranean through the narrow Strait of Gibraltar and exits after circulating the basin with nearly 10% more salt content. This hydrological imbalance may have far-reaching consequences in the Atlantic, producing similar climate changes in Northern Europe, to that seen during the last glaciation, and may be linked to a hydrological deficit in the Mediterranean Sea resulting from a decline in the Nile outflow. The basin-wide circulation, hot-dry and

  15. Topographic control on the nascent Mediterranean outflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasser, M.; Pelegrí, J. L.; Nash, J. D.; Peters, H.; García-Lafuente, J.

    2011-12-01

    Data collected during a 12-day cruise in July 2009 served to examine the structure of the nascent Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) immediately west of the Espartel Sill, the westernmost sill in the Strait of Gibraltar. The MOW is characterized by high salinities (>37.0 and reaching 38.3) and high velocities (exceeding 1 m s-1 at 100 m above the seafloor), and follows a submerged valley along a 30 km stretch, the natural western extension of the strait. It is approx. 150 m thick and 10 km wide, and experiences a substantial drop from 420 to 530 m over a distance of some 3 km between two relatively flat regions. Measurements indicate that the nascent MOW behaves as a gravity current with nearly maximal traveling speed; if this condition is maintained, then the maximum MOW velocity would decrease slowly with distance from the Espartel Sill, remaining significantly high until the gravity current excess density is only a small fraction of its original value. The sharp pycnocline between the Mediterranean and the overlying North Atlantic Central waters is dynamically unstable, particularly where the flow interacts with the 100 m decrease in bottom depth. Here, subcritical gradient Richardson numbers coincide with the development of large interfacial undulations and billows. The very energetic downslope flow is likely responsible for the development of a narrow V-shaped channel downstream of the seafloor drop along the axis of the submerged valley, this probably being the very first erosional scour produced by the nascent MOW. The coincidence of subcritical gradient Richardson numbers with relatively high turbidity values above the channel flanks suggests it may be undergoing upstream erosion.

  16. Alkalinity of the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Anke; Wallace, Douglas W.R.; Körtzinger, Arne

    2007-01-01

    Total alkalinity (AT) was measured during the Meteor 51/2 cruise, crossing the Mediterranean Sea from west to east. AT concentrations were high (∼2600 μmol kg−1) and alkalinity-salinity-correlations had negative intercepts. These results are explained by evaporation coupled with high freshwater AT inputs into coastal areas. Salinity adjustment of AT revealed excess alkalinity throughout the water column compared to mid-basin surface waters. Since Mediterranean waters are supersaturated with r...

  17. Highly Tunable Narrow Bandpass MEMS Filter

    KAUST Repository

    Hafiz, Md Abdullah Al

    2017-07-07

    We demonstrate a proof-of-concept highly tunable narrow bandpass filter based on electrothermally and electrostatically actuated microelectromechanical-system (MEMS) resonators. The device consists of two mechanically uncoupled clamped-clamped arch resonators, designed such that their resonance frequencies are independently tuned to obtain the desired narrow passband. Through the electrothermal and electrostatic actuation, the stiffness of the structures is highly tunable. We experimentally demonstrate significant percentage tuning (~125%) of the filter center frequency by varying the applied electrothermal voltages to the resonating structures, while maintaining a narrow passband of 550 ± 50 Hz, a stopband rejection of >17 dB, and a passband ripple ≤ 2.5 dB. An analytical model based on the Euler-Bernoulli beam theory is used to confirm the behavior of the filter, and the origin of the high tunability using electrothermal actuation is discussed.

  18. Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates

    CERN Document Server

    Oosthuizen, Patrick H

    2013-01-01

    Natural Convective Heat Transfer from Narrow Plates deals with a heat transfer situation that is of significant practical importance but which is not adequately dealt with in any existing textbooks or in any widely available review papers. The aim of the book is to introduce the reader to recent studies of natural convection from narrow plates including the effects of plate edge conditions, plate inclination, thermal conditions at the plate surface and interaction of the flows over adjacent plates. Both numerical and experimental studies are discussed and correlation equations based on the results of these studies are reviewed.

  19. A naturally narrow positive-parity Θ+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, Carl E.; Carone, Christopher D.; Kwee, Herry J.; Nazaryan, Vahagn

    2004-01-01

    We present a consistent color-flavor-spin-orbital wave function for a positive-parity Θ + that naturally explains the observed narrowness of the state. The wave function is totally symmetric in its flavor-spin part and totally antisymmetric in its color-orbital part. If flavor-spin interactions dominate, this wave function renders the positive-parity Θ + lighter than its negative-parity counterpart. We consider decays of the Θ + and compute the overlap of this state with the kinematically allowed final states. Our results are numerically small. We note that dynamical correlations between quarks are not necessary to obtain narrow pentaquark widths

  20. Narrow Escape of Interacting Diffusing Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agranov, Tal; Meerson, Baruch

    2018-03-01

    The narrow escape problem deals with the calculation of the mean escape time (MET) of a Brownian particle from a bounded domain through a small hole on the domain's boundary. Here we develop a formalism which allows us to evaluate the nonescape probability of a gas of diffusing particles that may interact with each other. In some cases the nonescape probability allows us to evaluate the MET of the first particle. The formalism is based on the fluctuating hydrodynamics and the recently developed macroscopic fluctuation theory. We also uncover an unexpected connection between the narrow escape of interacting particles and thermal runaway in chemical reactors.

  1. Narrow linewidth pulsed optical parametric oscillator

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Tunable narrow linewidth radiation by optical parametric oscillation has many applications, particularly in spectroscopic investigation. In this paper, different techniques such as injection seeding, use of spectral selecting element like grating, grating and etalon in combination, grazing angle of incidence, entangled cavity ...

  2. Evolution of deformation velocity in narrowing for Zircaloy 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetlin, P R [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Metalurgica; Okuda, M Y [Goias Univ., Goiania (Brazil). Inst. de Matematica e Fisica

    1980-09-01

    Some studies on the deformation instability in strain shows that the differences in this instability may lead to localized narrowing or elongated narrowing, for Zircaloy-2. The variation of velocity deformation with the narrowing evolution is expected to be different for these two cases. The mentioned variation is discussed, a great difference in behavior having been observed for the case of localized narrowing.

  3. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventi...

  4. [Endemic zoonosis in Mediterranean area].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenga, Concettina; Pugliese, Michela

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean is historically considered an area of high concentration of zoonoses. Mediterranean countries socio-economic features have favoured, over time, the onset of different types of zoonosis. Many of these may affect many occupational categories, first of all farmers, people working in abattoirs and processing products of animal origin. New farming activities and technologies have generated new occupational and zoonotic risks. These changes have influenced zoonosis epidemiology and have led to a gradual decrease in the number of diseases and to a reduction of some biological risks. However, brucellosis, Q fever, bovine tuberculosis cystic echinococcosis remain a strong example of zoonosis and a real risk, in the Mediterranean area especially. Therefore, an interdisciplinary collaboration between Veterinary Service, Public Health and Occupational medicine is necessary in order to plan territorial prevention.

  5. Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U 238 were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)

  6. Analytical approximations for wide and narrow resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suster, Luis Carlos; Martinez, Aquilino Senra; Silva, Fernando Carvalho da [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-graduacao de Engenharia. Programa de Engenharia Nuclear]. E-mail: aquilino@lmp.ufrj.br

    2005-07-01

    This paper aims at developing analytical expressions for the adjoint neutron spectrum in the resonance energy region, taking into account both narrow and wide resonance approximations, in order to reduce the numerical computations involved. These analytical expressions, besides reducing computing time, are very simple from a mathematical point of view. The results obtained with this analytical formulation were compared to a reference solution obtained with a numerical method previously developed to solve the neutron balance adjoint equations. Narrow and wide resonances of U{sup 238} were treated and the analytical procedure gave satisfactory results as compared with the reference solution, for the resonance energy range. The adjoint neutron spectrum is useful to determine the neutron resonance absorption, so that multigroup adjoint cross sections used by the adjoint diffusion equation can be obtained. (author)

  7. Dose evaluation of narrow-beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, Shinichi

    1999-01-01

    Reliability of the dose from the narrow photon beam becomes more important since the single high-dose rate radiosurgery becoming popular. The dose evaluation for the optimal dose is difficult due to absence of lateral electronic equilibrium. Data necessary for treatment regimen are TMR (tissue maximum ratio), OCR (off center ratio) and S c,p (total scatter factor). The narrow-beam was 10 MV X-ray from Varian Clinac 2100C equipped with cylindrical Fischer collimator CBI system. Detection was performed by Kodak XV-2 film, a PTW natural diamond detector M60003, Scanditronics silicon detector EDD-5 or Fujitec micro-chamber FDC-9.4C. Phantoms were the water equivalent one (PTW, RW3), water one (PTW, MP3 system) and Wellhofer WP600 system. Factors above were actually measured to reveal that in the dose evaluation of narrow photon beam, TMR should be measured by micro-chamber, OCR, by film, and S c,p , by the two. The use of diamond detector was recommended for more precise measurement and evaluation of the dose. The importance of water phantom in the radiosurgery system was also shown. (K.H.)

  8. Electron correlations in narrow band systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, R.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of the electron correlations in narrow bands, such as d(f) bands in the transition (rare earth) metals and their compounds and the impurity bands in doped semiconductors is studied. The narrow band systems is described, by the Hubbard Hamiltonian. By proposing a local self-energy for the interacting electron, it is found that the results are exact in both atomic and band limits and reduce to the Hartree Fock results for U/Δ → 0, where U is the intra-atomic Coulomb interaction and Δ is the bandwidth of the noninteracting electrons. For the Lorentzian form of the density of states of the noninteracting electrons, this approximation turns out to be equivalent to the third Hubbard approximation. A simple argument, based on the mean free path obtained from the imaginary part of the self energy, shows how the electron correlations can give rise to a discontinous metal-nonmetal transition as proposed by Mott. The band narrowing and the existence of the satellite below the Fermi energy in Ni, found in photoemission experiments, can also be understood. (Author) [pt

  9. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  10. Implementing a Mediterranean-Style Diet Outside the Mediterranean Region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen J; Parletta, Natalie

    2018-05-04

    Populations surrounding the Mediterranean basin have traditionally reaped health benefits from a Mediterranean diet (MedDiet), which may benefit Westernized countries plagued by chronic disease. But is it feasible to implement beyond the Mediterranean? To answer this question, we present evidence from randomized controlled trials that achieved high dietary compliance rates with subsequent physical and mental health benefits. In the 1960s, the Seven Countries Study identified dietary qualities of Mediterranean populations associated with healthy aging and longevity. The PREDIMED study confirmed reductions in CVD-related mortality with a MedDiet; a meta-analysis in over 4.7 million people showed reduced mortality, CVD-related mortality, and reduced risk of Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease. Continually emerging research supports the MedDiet's benefits for chronic diseases including metabolic syndrome, cancers, liver disease, type 2 diabetes, depression, and anxiety. We summarize components of studies outside the Mediterranean that achieved high compliance to a Med-style diet: dietitian led, dietary education, goal setting, mindfulness; recipe books, meal plans, and food checklists; food hampers; regular contact between volunteers and staff through regular cooking classes; clinic visits; and recipes that are simple, palatable, and affordable. The next step is testing the MedDiet's feasibility in the community. Potential obstacles include access to dietetic/health care professionals, high meat intake, pervasive processed foods, and fast food outlets. For Western countries to promote a Med-style diet, collective support from government, key stakeholders and policy makers, food industry, retailers, and health professionals is needed to ensure the healthiest choice is the easiest choice.

  11. Postfire chaparral regeneration under mediterranean and non-mediterranean climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, Jon E.; Fotheringham, Connie J.; Rundel, Philip W.

    2012-01-01

    This study compares postfire regeneration and diversity patterns in fire-prone chaparral shrublands from mediterranean (California) and non-mediterranean-type climates (Arizona). Vegetation sampling was conducted in tenth hectare plots with nested subplots for the first two years after fire. Floras in the two regions were compared with Jaccard's Index and importance of families and genera compared with dominance-diversity curves. Although there were 44 families in common between the two regions, the dominant families differed; Poaceae and Fabaceae in Arizona and Hydrophyllaceae and Rosaceae in California. Dominance diversity curves indicated in the first year a more equable distribution of families in Arizona than in California. Woody plants were much more dominant in the mediterranean climate and herbaceous plants more dominant in the bimodal rainfall climate. Species diversity was comparable in both regions at the lowest spatial scales but not at the tenth hectare scale. Due to the double growing season in the non-mediterranean region, the diversity for the first year comprised two different herbaceous floras in the fall and spring growing seasons. The Mediterranean climate in California, in contrast, had only a spring growing season and thus the total diversity for the first year was significantly greater in Arizona than in California for both annuals and herbaceous perennials. Chaparral in these two climate regimes share many dominant shrub species but the postfire communities are very different. Arizona chaparral has both a spring and fall growing season and these produce two very different postfire floras. When combined, the total annual diversity was substantially greater in Arizona chaparral.

  12. Mediterranean Diet and Diabetes: Prevention and Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgoulis, Michael; Kontogianni, Meropi D.; Yiannakouris, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present review is to examine current scientific knowledge on the association between the Mediterranean diet and diabetes mellitus (mostly type 2 diabetes). A definition of the Mediterranean diet and the tools widely used to evaluate adherence to this traditional diet (Mediterranean diet indices) are briefly presented. The review focuses on epidemiological data linking adherence to the Mediterranean diet with the risk of diabetes development, as well as evidence from interventional studies assessing the effect of the Mediterranean diet on diabetes control and the management of diabetes-related complications. The above mentioned data are explored on the basis of evaluating the Mediterranean diet as a whole dietary pattern, rather than focusing on the effect of its individual components. Possible protective mechanisms of the Mediterranean diet against diabetes are also briefly discussed. PMID:24714352

  13. PON1 and Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Lou-Bonafonte

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet has been proven to be highly effective in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1 has been implicated in the development of those conditions, especially atherosclerosis. The present work describes a systematic review of current evidence supporting the influence of Mediterranean diet and its constituents on this enzyme. Despite the differential response of some genetic polymorphisms, the Mediterranean diet has been shown to exert a protective action on this enzyme. Extra virgin olive oil, the main source of fat, has been particularly effective in increasing PON1 activity, an action that could be due to low saturated fatty acid intake, oleic acid enrichment of phospholipids present in high-density lipoproteins that favor the activity, and increasing hepatic PON1 mRNA and protein expressions induced by minor components present in this oil. Other Mediterranean diet constituents, such as nuts, fruits and vegetables, have been effective in modulating the activity of the enzyme, pomegranate and its compounds being the best characterized items. Ongoing research on compounds isolated from all these natural products, mainly phenolic compounds and carotenoids, indicates that some of them are particularly effective, and this may enhance the use of nutraceuticals and functional foods capable of potentiating PON1 activity.

  14. [Mediterranean diet: not only food].

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Vico, Letizia; Agostini, Susanna; Brazzo, Silvia; Biffi, Barbara; Masini, Maria Luisa

    2012-09-01

    The proposal of a Mediterranean way of life is much more than advise how to eat. The Mediterranean Diet, a model of Sustainable Diet, is an example of how to combine personal choices, economic, social and cultural rights, protective of human health and the ecosystem. There is in fact fundamental interdependence between dietary requirements, nutritional recommendations, production and consumption of food. In literature studies and nutritional and epidemiological monitoring activities at national and international level have found a lack of adherence to this lifestyle, due to the spread of the economy, lifestyles of the Western type and globalization of the production and consumption. To encourage the spread of a culture and a constant practice of the Mediterranean Diet, there are some tools that are presented in this article. The Mediterranean Diet Pyramid in addition to the recommendations on the frequency and portions of food, focuses on the choice of how to cook and eat food. The "Double Food Pyramid" encourages conscious food choices based on "healthy eating and sustainability. All the nutrition professionals and dietitians in particular should be constantly striving to encourage the adoption of a sustainable and balanced nutrition.

  15. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Struck, Aaron F.; Carr, Carrie M.; Shah, Vinil; Hesselink, John R.; Haughton, Victor M.

    2016-01-01

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  16. Cervical spinal canal narrowing in idiopathic syringomyelia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struck, Aaron F. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Neurology, Boston, MA (United States); Carr, Carrie M. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, MN (United States); Shah, Vinil [University of California San Francisco, Department of Radiology, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hesselink, John R. [University of California San Diego, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Haughton, Victor M. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Radiology, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-08-15

    The cervical spine in Chiari I patient with syringomyelia has significantly different anteroposterior diameters than it does in Chiari I patients without syringomyelia. We tested the hypothesis that patients with idiopathic syringomyelia (IS) also have abnormal cervical spinal canal diameters. The finding in both groups may relate to the pathogenesis of syringomyelia. Local institutional review boards approved this retrospective study. Patients with IS were compared to age-matched controls with normal sagittal spine MR. All subjects had T1-weighted spin-echo (500/20) and T2-weighted fast spin-echo (2000/90) sagittal cervical spine images at 1.5 T. Readers blinded to demographic data and study hypothesis measured anteroposterior diameters at each cervical level. The spinal canal diameters were compared with a Mann-Whitney U test. The overall difference was assessed with a Friedman test. Seventeen subjects were read by two reviewers to assess inter-rater reliability. Fifty IS patients with 50 age-matched controls were studied. IS subjects had one or more syrinxes varying from 1 to 19 spinal segments. Spinal canal diameters narrowed from C1 to C3 and then enlarged from C5 to C7 in both groups. Diameters from C2 to C4 were narrower in the IS group (p < 0.005) than in controls. The ratio of the C3 to the C7 diameters was also smaller (p = 0.004) in IS than controls. Collectively, the spinal canal diameters in the IS were significantly different from controls (Friedman test p < 0.0001). Patients with IS have abnormally narrow upper and mid cervical spinal canal diameters and greater positive tapering between C3 and C7. (orig.)

  17. Volume dips; spot price ranges narrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1994-01-01

    This article is the September 1994 uranium market summary. Volume in the spot concentrates market fell below 1 million lbs U3O8. In total, twelve deals took place compared to 28 deals in August. Of the twelve deals, three took place in the spot concentrates market, two took place in the medium and long-term market, three in the conversion market, and four in the enrichment market. Restricted prices weakened, but unrestricted prices firmed slightly. The enrichment price range narrowed a bit

  18. f-band narrowing in uranium intermetallics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, B.D.; Litterst, F.J.; Malik, S.K.; Kierstead, H.A.; Crabtree, G.W.; Kwok, W.; Lam, D.J.; Mitchell, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    Although the discovery of heavy fermion behavior in uranium compounds has attracted a great deal of attention, relatively little work has been done which is sufficiently systematic to allow an assessment of the relationship of such behavior to more common phenomena, such as mixed valence, narrow-band effects, etc. In this paper we report bulk property measurements for a number of alloys which form a part of such a systematic study. The approach has been to take relatively simple and well-understood materials and alter their behavior by alloying to produce heavy fermion or Kondo behavior in a controlled way

  19. Itinerant ferromagnetism in the narrow band limit

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, S H

    2000-01-01

    It is shown that in the narrow band, strong interaction limit the paramagnetic state of an itinerant ferromagnet is described by the disordered local moment state. As a result, the Curie temperature is orders of magnitude lower than what is expected from the large exchange splitting of the spin bands. An approximate analysis has also been carried out for the partially ordered state, and the result explains the temperature evolvement of the magnetic contributions to the resistivity and low-energy optical conductivity of CrO sub 2.

  20. Critical unpairing currents in narrow niobium films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gershenzon, M.E.; Gubankov, V.N.

    1979-01-01

    Investigated are the dependences of critical currents of narrow ( with the width of W=0.5-15 μm) superconducting niobium films on temperature and a magnetic field. The proposed method of film production with the width of the 1μm order and with small edge inhomogeneities ((<=500 A) permitted to realize the Ginsburg-Landau unpairing currents in the wide range of temperatures. The correct comparison with the theory showed that the unpairing currents are observed if W(< or approximately) 2delta, where delta is the effective depth of the penetration of the perpendicular magnetic field

  1. Narrow electron injector for ballistic electron spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kast, M.; Pacher, C.; Strasser, G.; Gornik, E.

    2001-01-01

    A three-terminal hot electron transistor is used to measure the normal energy distribution of ballistic electrons generated by an electron injector utilizing an improved injector design. A triple barrier resonant tunneling diode with a rectangular transmission function acts as a narrow (1 meV) energy filter. An asymmetric energy distribution with its maximum on the high-energy side with a full width at half maximum of ΔE inj =10 meV is derived. [copyright] 2001 American Institute of Physics

  2. Narrow-Bicliques: Cryptanalysis of Full IDEA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khovratovich, D.; Leurent, G.; Rechberger, C.

    2012-01-01

    We apply and extend the recently introduced biclique framework to IDEA and for the first time describe an approach to noticeably speed-up key-recovery for the full 8.5 round IDEA.We also show that the biclique approach to block cipher cryptanalysis not only obtains results on more rounds, but also...... extended with ways to allow for a significantly reduced data complexity with everything else being equal. For this we use available degrees of freedom as known from hash cryptanalysis to narrow the relevant differential trails. Our cryptanalysis is of high computational complexity, and does not threaten...

  3. Narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McEwan, T.E.

    1996-01-01

    A narrow field electromagnetic sensor system and method of sensing a characteristic of an object provide the capability to realize a characteristic of an object such as density, thickness, or presence, for any desired coordinate position on the object. One application is imaging. The sensor can also be used as an obstruction detector or an electronic trip wire with a narrow field without the disadvantages of impaired performance when exposed to dirt, snow, rain, or sunlight. The sensor employs a transmitter for transmitting a sequence of electromagnetic signals in response to a transmit timing signal, a receiver for sampling only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while excluding all other electromagnetic signals in response to a receive timing signal, and a signal processor for processing the sampled direct RF path electromagnetic signal and providing an indication of the characteristic of an object. Usually, the electromagnetic signal is a short RF burst and the obstruction must provide a substantially complete eclipse of the direct RF path. By employing time-of-flight techniques, a timing circuit controls the receiver to sample only the initial direct RF path of the electromagnetic signal while not sampling indirect path electromagnetic signals. The sensor system also incorporates circuitry for ultra-wideband spread spectrum operation that reduces interference to and from other RF services while allowing co-location of multiple electronic sensors without the need for frequency assignments. 12 figs

  4. Dosimetry of narrow band UVB treatments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goode, D.H.; Mannering, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    Full text: For many years psoriasis has been treated with broad band UVB lamps. These lamps have a bell shaped spectrum which peaks at 305 nm and extends from 280 nm to 350 nm. However research with monochromatic UV radiation has shown that wavelengths between 300 nm and 320 nm are the most efficacious for clearing psoriasis while wavelengths below 305 nm are most effective for producing the undesirable side effect of erythema (sunburn). In response to these findings Philips developed a narrow band UVB tube in which a large fraction of the output was confined to a narrow peak (bandwidth 2.5 nm) situated at 311 nm. Christchurch Hospital replaced broad band UVB with narrow band treatments in August 1995 and as this required UV exposures to be substantially increased new protocols had to be developed. Three aspects needed to be addressed. These were translating the dose from broad band to narrow band for current patients, determining the initial dose for new patients and developing a formula for increasing subsequent exposures to both types of patient. To translate doses the spectral irradiance (μW/cm 2 /nm) that would fall on the patient was measured in both the old broad band and the new narrow band treatment units and from this UV doses were calculated. All doses were expressed in mJ/cm 2 of unweighted UV over the range 250 nm to 400 nm. The erythemal effectiveness of the two units were compared by using the CIE 1987 curve to express doses in terms of the equivalent exposure of monochromatic 297 nm radiation. It was found that an exposure of 3.96 mJ/cm 2 from the broad band FS40 tubes and 12.79 mJ/cm 2 from the narrow band TL/01 tubes were both equivalent to 1.00 mJ/cm 2 of monochromatic 297 nm radiation so when transferring patients all broad band doses needed to be increased by a factor of 3.2. Before transferring any patients this factor was confirmed by conducting two minimal erythema dose (MED) tests on a normal subject, one in each unit. For new patients a

  5. A methodology to enlarge narrow stability windows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Ewerton M.P.; Pastor, Jorge A.S.C.; Fontoura, Sergio A.B. [Pontificia Univ. Catolica do Rio de Janeiro (PUC-Rio), RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Civil. Grupo de Tecnologia e Engenharia de Petroleo

    2004-07-01

    The stability window in a wellbore design is defined by the difference between fracture pressure and collapse pressure. Deep water environments typically present narrow stability windows, because rocks have low strength due to under-compaction process. Often also, horizontal wells are drilled to obtain a better development of reservoirs placed in thin layers of sandstone. In this scenario, several challenges are faced when drilling in deep water. The traditional approach for predicting instabilities is to determine collapses and fractures at borehole wall. However, the initiation of rupture does not indicate that the borehole fails to perform its function as a wellbore. Thus, a methodology in which the stability window may be enlarged is desirable. This paper presents one practical analytical methodology that consists in allowing wellbore pressures smaller than the conventional collapse pressure, i.e., based upon failure on the borehole wall. This means that a collapse region (shear failure) will be developed around the borehole wall. This collapse region is pre-defined and to estimate its size is used a failure criterion. The aforementioned methodology is implemented in a user-friendly software, which can perform analyses of stress, pore pressure, formation failure, mud weight and mud salinity design for drilling in shale formations. Simulations of a wellbore drilling in a narrow stability window environment are performed to demonstrate the improvements of using the methodology. (author)

  6. Narrow resonances and short-range interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelman, Boris A.

    2009-01-01

    Narrow resonances in systems with short-range interactions are discussed in an effective field theory (EFT) framework. An effective Lagrangian is formulated in the form of a combined expansion in powers of a momentum Q 0 | 0 --a resonance peak energy. At leading order in the combined expansion, a two-body scattering amplitude is the sum of a smooth background term of order Q 0 and a Breit-Wigner term of order Q 2 (δε) -1 which becomes dominant for δε 3 . Such an EFT is applicable to systems in which short-distance dynamics generates a low-lying quasistationary state. The EFT is generalized to describe a narrow low-lying resonance in a system of charged particles. It is shown that in the case of Coulomb repulsion, a two-body scattering amplitude at leading order in a combined expansion is the sum of a Coulomb-modified background term and a Breit-Wigner amplitude with parameters renormalized by Coulomb interactions.

  7. Fire regime in Mediterranean ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biondi, Guido; Casula, Paolo; D'Andrea, Mirko; Fiorucci, Paolo

    2010-05-01

    The analysis of burnt areas time series in Mediterranean regions suggests that ecosystems characterising this area consist primarily of species highly vulnerable to the fire but highly resilient, as characterized by a significant regenerative capacity after the fire spreading. In a few years the area burnt may once again be covered by the same vegetation present before the fire. Similarly, Mediterranean conifer forests, which often refers to plantations made in order to reforest the areas most severely degraded with high erosion risk, regenerate from seed after the fire resulting in high resilience to the fire as well. Only rarely, and usually with negligible damages, fire affects the areas covered by climax species in relation with altitude and soil types (i.e, quercus, fagus, abies). On the basis of these results, this paper shows how the simple Drossel-Schwabl forest fire model is able to reproduce the forest fire regime in terms of number of fires and burned area, describing whit good accuracy the actual fire perimeters. The original Drossel-Schwabl model has been slightly modified in this work by introducing two parameters (probability of propagation and regrowth) specific for each different class of vegetation cover. Using model selection methods based on AIC, the model with the optimal number of classes with different fire behaviour was selected. Two different case studies are presented in this work: Regione Liguria and Regione Sardegna (Italy). Both regions are situated in the center of the Mediterranean and are characterized by a high number of fires and burned area. However, the two regions have very different fire regimes. Sardinia is affected by the fire phenomenon only in summer whilst Liguria is affected by fires also in winter, with higher number of fires and larger burned area. In addition, the two region are very different in vegetation cover. The presence of Mediterranean conifers, (Pinus Pinaster, Pinus Nigra, Pinus halepensis) is quite spread in

  8. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi’s Warbler Locustella luscinioides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neto, J. M.; Arroyo, J. L.; Bargain, B.; Monrós, J. S.; Mátrai, N.; Procházka, Petr; Zehtindjiev, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 6 (2012), e38497 E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Cross-species amplification * Iberian glacial refugium * Extra-pair paternity * Population-structure * Genetic differentiation * Microsatellite loci * Software * Mitochondrial diversification * Bird Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.730, year: 2012

  9. Phylogeography of a habitat specialist with high dispersal capability: the Savi's Warbler Locustella luscinioides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio M Neto

    Full Text Available In order to describe the influence of Pleistocene glaciations on the genetic structure and demography of a highly mobile, but specialized, passerine, the Savi's Warbler (Locustella luscinioides, mitochondrial DNA sequences (ND2 and microsatellites were analysed in c.330 individuals of 17 breeding and two wintering populations. Phylogenetic, population genetics and coalescent methods were used to describe the genetic structure, determine the timing of the major splits and model the demography of populations. Savi's Warblers split from its sister species c.8 million years ago and have two major haplotype groups that diverged in the early/middle Pleistocene. One of these clades originated in the Balkans and is currently widespread, showing strong evidence for population expansion; whereas the other is restricted to Iberia and remained stable. Microsatellites agreed with a genetic break around the Pyrenees, but showed considerable introgression and a weaker genetic structure. Both genetic markers showed an isolation-by-distance pattern associated with the population expansion of the eastern clade. Breeding populations seem to be segregated at the wintering sites, but results on migratory connectivity are preliminary. Savi's Warbler is the only known migratory bird species in which Iberian birds did not expand beyond the Pyrenees after the last glaciation. Despite the long period of independent evolution of western and eastern populations, complete introgression occurred when these groups met in Iberia. Mitochondrial sequences indicated the existence of refugia-within-refugia in the Iberian Peninsula during the last glacial period, which is surprising given the high dispersal capacity of this species. Plumage differences of eastern subspecies seemed to have evolved recently through natural selection, in agreement with the glacial expansion hypothesis. This study supports the great importance of the Iberian Peninsula and its role for the conservation of genetic variation.

  10. The Predictability of Phytophagous Insect Communities: Host Specialists as Habitat Specialists

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, J.; Stadler, J.; Jarzabek-Müller, A.; Hacker, H.; Braak, ter C.J.F.; Brandl, R.

    2011-01-01

    The difficulties specialized phytophagous insects face in finding habitats with an appropriate host should constrain their dispersal. Within the concept of metacommunities, this leads to the prediction that host-plant specialists should sort into local assemblages according to the local

  11. Bird communities of the arctic shrub tundra of Yamal: habitat specialists and generalists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasiliy Sokolov

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ratio of habitat generalists to specialists in birds has been suggested as a good indicator of ecosystem changes due to e.g. climate change and other anthropogenic perturbations. Most studies focusing on this functional component of biodiversity originate, however, from temperate regions. The Eurasian Arctic tundra is currently experiencing an unprecedented combination of climate change, change in grazing pressure by domestic reindeer and growing human activity. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we monitored bird communities in a tundra landscape harbouring shrub and open habitats in order to analyse bird habitat relationships and quantify habitat specialization. We used ordination methods to analyse habitat associations and estimated the proportions of specialists in each of the main habitats. Correspondence Analysis identified three main bird communities, inhabiting upland, lowland and dense willow shrubs. We documented a stable structure of communities despite large multiannual variations of bird density (from 90 to 175 pairs/km(2. Willow shrub thickets were a hotspot for bird density, but not for species richness. The thickets hosted many specialized species whose main distribution area was south of the tundra. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: If current arctic changes result in a shrubification of the landscape as many studies suggested, we would expect an increase in the overall bird abundance together with an increase of local specialists, since they are associated with willow thickets. The majority of these species have a southern origin and their increase in abundance would represent a strengthening of the boreal component in the southern tundra, perhaps at the expense of species typical of the subarctic zone, which appear to be generalists within this zone.

  12. Fish stock assessments in the Mediterranean: state of the art

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordi Lleonart

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean fisheries are characterised by fragmented fleets, usually composed by relatively small vessels, use of a large number of landing sites, multi-species catches and low CPUEs. Fish are commercialised mainly fresh and the prices are relatively high. These factors make it difficult and expensive to get extensive and reliable data time series and to get biological samples. Most of the fish caught in the Mediterranean are the recruits (0-1 year old of the main target species. Since the recruitment is much more uncertain than the abundance of the adult stages, the assessments are also more uncertain. Furthermore, no TAC or adaptive management is in place, so the administrations do not require monitoring in order to manage the fisheries. The continental shelf is narrow (with some exceptions and there are few stocks shared between two or more countries. Consequently, the international management structures have not been sufficiently enforced, and until recently no regular assessments were made by international working groups. These characteristics have led to a situation in which most of the assessments have been done in the framework of scientific projects, and therefore do not have continuity in time. The results of these assessments have rarely been incorporated in management.

  13. Analysis of narrow effects in pp annihilations

    CERN Document Server

    Defoix, C

    1972-01-01

    The author describes briefly some methods of analysis that final states involving a number of like particles require. A first method consists of separating two competing channels to minimize the reflections due to the undesirable one. Later techniques of analysis lead to the isolation of the only channel of interest and circumvention of the problems of background and reflections due to irrelevant final states. Generally, all these processes are based on the presence of a narrow and identified resonance, for example the eta /sup 0/ or omega /sup 0/ ( to pi /sup +/ pi /sup -/ pi /sup 0/). To be efficient, it is necessary that the observed width of such a basic resonance not be increased too much by experimental errors. (6 refs).

  14. Search for narrow four-baryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Badelek, B.

    1981-01-01

    Highly excited (4.10 2 ) four-baryon resonances have been searched for in the missing-mass spectrum of the reaction π - + 4 He → π - + X at 5 GeV/c in the region of small four-momentum transfer (0.005 2 ), where one of the decay products of the X is either proton or deuteron or triton. No resonance signal is seen in the mass spectrum of X. Within our limited acceptance, the cross section for the production of a narrow (GAMMA approx. 20 MeV/c 2 ) four-baryon state with mass 4.9 GeV/c 2 is estimated to be smaller than approx. 100 nb. (orig.)

  15. Active Brownian motion in a narrow channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ao, X.; Ghosh, P. K.; Li, Y.; Schmid, G.; Hänggi, P.; Marchesoni, F.

    2014-12-01

    We review recent advances in rectification control of artificial microswimmers, also known as Janus particles, diffusing along narrow, periodically corrugated channels. The swimmer self-propulsion mechanism is modeled so as to incorporate a nonzero torque (propulsion chirality). We first summarize the effects of chirality on the autonomous current of microswimmers freely diffusing in channels of different geometries. In particular, left-right and upside-down asymmetric channels are shown to exhibit different transport properties. We then report new results on the dependence of the diffusivity of chiral microswimmers on the channel geometry and their own self-propulsion mechanism. The self-propulsion torque turns out to play a key role as a transport control parameter.

  16. Mediterranean Diet: Choose This Heart-Healthy Diet Option

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifestyle Nutrition and healthy eating The heart-healthy Mediterranean diet is a healthy eating plan based on typical ... Mediterranean-style cooking. Here's how to adopt the Mediterranean diet. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're looking ...

  17. Persistent Acacia savannas replace Mediterranean sclerophyllous forests in South America

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouw, van de P.; Echeverria, C.; Rey-Benayas, J.M.; Holmgren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are global hotspots of biodiversity threaten by human disturbances. Growing evidence indicates that regeneration of Mediterranean forests can be halted under certain circumstances and that successional stages can become notoriously persistent. The Mediterranean

  18. Prototypical versus contemporary Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizza, W; De Gara, L; Antonelli Incalzi, R; Pedone, C

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the evolution of the Mediterranean Diet (MD) in a delimited area of Southern Italy, by comparing the diet adopted 60-70 years ago (Prototypical Mediterranean Diet, PMD) with the contemporary one (Contemporary Mediterranean Diet, CMD), and to verify to what extent they fitted the recommendations of the Italian and the USDA dietary guidelines. We recruited a total of 106 participants, divided in two groups. PMD group included 52 women aged >80 years, with a good cognitive function and full independence in basic and instrumental activities of daily living. CMD group included 20 men and 34 women aged 50-60 years. Food intake was assessed by administering the EPIC food frequency questionnaire to each participant, and an additional survey to the PMD subjects only. Both PMD and CMD showed adequate intakes of macronutrients, although some deficiencies related to micronutrient requirements were evident. CMD showed a slightly greater use of animal products, processed and sugary foods, and higher intakes of simple sugars, animal proteins (49.6 vs 28.3 g/day), animal lipids (37.8 vs 20.1 g/day), saturated fats (25.0 vs 15.8 g/day) and cholesterol (305.0 vs 258.5 g/day). PMD showed many similarities to the original version of the MD in terms of macronutrients distribution and food choices. The documented evolution of the dietary habits over a 70 years timespan suggests that nowadays Mediterranean regions adhere less strictly to the original MD, although nutrients intakes are adequate to LARN and USDA recommendations. Copyright © 2016 European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Wind energy in Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1991-01-01

    In its examination of wind energy potential in the Mediterranean Basin, this paper provides brief notes on the Basin's geography; indicates power production and demand; describes the area's wind characteristics and wind monitoring activities; illustrates wind velocity distributions; estimates local wind power production potential; reviews the Basin's wind energy marketing situation and each bordering country's wind energy programs; surveys installed wind energy farms; and assesses national research and commercialization efforts

  20. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Dailianis, T.; Akyol, O.; Babali, N.; Bariche, M.; Crocetta, F.; Gerovasileiou, V.; Chanem, R.; Gökoğlu, M.; Hasiotis, T.; Izquierdo Muñoz, Andrés; Julian, D.; Katsanevakis, S.; Lipez, L.; Mancini, E.; Mytilineou, Ch.

    2016-01-01

    This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the A...

  1. Cardiac manifestations of Familial Mediterranean fever

    OpenAIRE

    Alsarah, Ahmad; Alsara, Osama; Laird-Fick, Heather S.

    2017-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is autoinflammatory disorder characterized by sporadic attacks of fever, peritonitis, pleuritis, and arthritis. It is mainly seen in patients from Mediterranean origins, but it is now reported more frequently in Europe and North America due to immigration. To analyze the data on the cardiovascular manifestations in FMF patients, we searched PubMed using the terms “Familial Mediterranean Fever” or “FMF” in combination with other key words including “cardiovas...

  2. Mercury bioaccumulation in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinnirella S.

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study details mercury pollution within the food chain of the Mediterranean by analysing the most comprehensive mercury dataset available for biota and water measurements. In this study we computed a bioaccumulation factor (BAF for datasets in the existing mercury-related scientific literature, in on-going programs, and in past measurement campaigns. Preliminary results indicate a major lack of information, making the outcome of any assessment very uncertain. Importantly, not all marine eco-regions are (or have ever been covered by measurement campaigns. Most lacking is information associated with the South-Eastern part of the Mediterranean, and in several eco-regions it is still impossible to reconstruct a trophic net, as the required species were not accounted for when mercury measurements were taken. The datasets also have additional temporal sampling problems, as species were often not sampled systematically (but only sporadically during any given sampling period. Moreover, datasets composed of mercury concentrations in water also suffer from similar geographic limitations, as they are concentrated in the North-Western Mediterranean. Despite these concerns, we found a very clear bioaccumulation trend in 1999, the only year where comprehensive information on both methylmercury concentrations in water and biota was available.

  3. The effect of narrow provider networks on health care use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwood, Alicia; Lo Sasso, Anthony T

    2016-12-01

    Network design is an often overlooked aspect of health insurance contracts. Recent policy factors have resulted in narrower provider networks. We provide plausibly causal evidence on the effect of narrow network plans offered by a large national health insurance carrier in a major metropolitan market. Our econometric design exploits the fact that some firms offer a narrow network plan to their employees and some do not. Our results show that narrow network health plans lead to reductions in health care utilization and spending. We find evidence that narrow networks save money by selecting lower cost providers into the network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. NATO's Mediterranean Dialogue: Challenges and Prospects

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cayan, Umit

    2003-01-01

    .... The new security concerns in the southern Mediterranean region terrorism, economic disparities, demographic imbalances, the potential for social and political instability, and the proliferation...

  5. The Mediterranean diet: health and science

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2012-01-01

    .... It discusses the Mediterranean diet in the light of recent developments in nutritional biochemistry, disease mechanisms and epidemiological studies, and also provides advice on nutrition policies...

  6. Gaia and the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth J. Hsü

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Earth is a self-organizing system liking a living organism. Lovelock proposed Gaia as a metaphor to designate the check and balance ofterrestrial temperatures: the Earth is never too hot so that the ocean could boil, and the Earth is never too cold that the ocean could freeze from top to bottom. Hsü proposed that Gaia is endothermic because the life on Earth has been alternate successions of air-conditioners and heaters which evolved and deactivate or reinforce the terrestial greenhouse of carbon dioxide in atmosphere. When Earth was heating up too much, the air-conditioneers, such as anaerobic bacteria, cyanobacteria, skeletal organisms and trees, and finally calcareous plankton, went to work to bring the terrestrial temperature down. When the Earth was freezing at times of continental glaciation, heaters went to work, such as methanogenic bacteria, Ediacaran faunas, tundra and desert plants, and now Homo sapiens. Gaia has to have other organs to keep the self-organizing system vital. This paper presents a postulate that the Miocene Mediterranean Sea acted as Gaia´s kidney. The steady influx of dissolved ions and debris into the ocean causes inevitable increase of ocean´s salinity. The fossil and geochemicl records indicate that the ocean has never been too saline nor too brackish for the survival of normal marine organisms: the salinity ranged from about 32 to 36 pro mil during the last billion years. Ocean-drilling cruises to the Mediterranean discovered a very large salt formation, deposited during some 5 million years ago when the Mediterranean dried up. A study of the geochemical balance of the oceans indicates that the deposition of very large salt bodies in isolated basins such as the Miocene Mediterranean every 100 million years or so. The saline giants have the function of Gaia´s kidney. With periodical removals of the salt ions and the heavy metals from seawater, the world´s ocean have been rendered forever habitable. Gaia

  7. Properties of Narrow line Seyfert 1 galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakshit, Suvendu; Stalin, Chelliah Subramonian; Chand, Hum; Zhang, Xue-Guang

    2018-04-01

    Narrow line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) galaxies constitute a class of active galactic nuclei characterized by the full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the Hα broad emission line 10 pixel-1. A strong correlation between the Hα and Hα emission lines is found both in the FWHM and flux. The nuclear continuum luminosity is found to be strongly correlated with the luminosity of Hα, Hα and [O III] emission lines. The black hole mass in NLSy1 galaxies is lower compared to their broad line counterparts. Compared to BLSy1 galaxies, NLSy1 galaxies have a stronger FeII emission and a higher Eddington ratio that place them in the extreme upper right corner of the R4570 - λEdd diagram. The distribution of the radio-loudness parameter (R) in NLSy1 galaxies drops rapidly at R>10 compared to the BLSy1 galaxies that have powerful radio jets. The soft X-ray photon index in NLSy1 galaxies is on average higher (2.9 ± 0.9) than BLSy1 galaxies (2.4 ± 0.8). It is anti-correlated with the Hα width but correlated with the FeII strength. NLSy1 galaxies on average have a lower amplitude of optical variability compared to their broad lines counterparts. These results suggest Eddington ratio as the main parameter that drives optical variability in these sources.

  8. Thermoelectricity in correlated narrow-gap semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomczak, Jan M.

    2018-05-01

    We review many-body effects, their microscopic origin, as well as their impact on thermoelectricity in correlated narrow-gap semiconductors. Members of this class—such as FeSi and FeSb2—display an unusual temperature dependence in various observables: insulating with large thermopowers at low temperatures, they turn bad metals at temperatures much smaller than the size of their gaps. This insulator-to-metal crossover is accompanied by spectral weight-transfers over large energies in the optical conductivity and by a gradual transition from activated to Curie–Weiss-like behaviour in the magnetic susceptibility. We show a retrospective of the understanding of these phenomena, discuss the relation to heavy-fermion Kondo insulators—such as Ce3Bi4Pt3 for which we present new results—and propose a general classification of paramagnetic insulators. From the latter, FeSi emerges as an orbital-selective Kondo insulator. Focussing on intermetallics such as silicides, antimonides, skutterudites, and Heusler compounds we showcase successes and challenges for the realistic simulation of transport properties in the presence of electronic correlations. Further, we explore new avenues in which electronic correlations may contribute to the improvement of thermoelectric performance.

  9. Thermal tuning On narrow linewidth fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Peiqi; Liu, Tianshan; Gao, Xincun; Ren, Shiwei

    2010-10-01

    At present, people have been dedicated to high-speed and large-capacity optical fiber communication system. Studies have been shown that optical wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) technology is an effective means of communication to increase the channel capacity. Tunable lasers have very important applications in high-speed, largecapacity optical communications, and distributed sensing, it can provide narrow linewidth and tunable laser for highspeed optical communication. As the erbium-doped fiber amplifier has a large gain bandwidth, the erbium-doped fiber laser can be achieved lasing wavelength tunable by adding a tunable filter components, so tunable filter device is the key components in tunable fiber laser.At present, fiber laser wavelength is tuned by PZT, if thermal wavelength tuning is combined with PZT, a broader range of wavelength tuning is appearance . Erbium-doped fiber laser is used in the experiments,the main research is the physical characteristics of fiber grating temperature-dependent relationship and the fiber grating laser wavelength effects. It is found that the fiber laser wavelength changes continuously with temperature, tracking several temperature points observed the self-heterodyne spectrum and found that the changes in spectra of the 3dB bandwidth of less than 1kHz, and therefore the fiber laser with election-mode fiber Bragg grating shows excellent spectral properties and wavelength stability.

  10. The Mediterranean Plastic Soup: synthetic polymers in Mediterranean surface waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suaria, Giuseppe; Avio, Carlo G.; Mineo, Annabella; Lattin, Gwendolyn L.; Magaldi, Marcello G.; Belmonte, Genuario; Moore, Charles J.; Regoli, Francesco; Aliani, Stefano

    2016-11-01

    The Mediterranean Sea has been recently proposed as one of the most impacted regions of the world with regards to microplastics, however the polymeric composition of these floating particles is still largely unknown. Here we present the results of a large-scale survey of neustonic micro- and meso-plastics floating in Mediterranean waters, providing the first extensive characterization of their chemical identity as well as detailed information on their abundance and geographical distribution. All particles >700 μm collected in our samples were identified through FT-IR analysis (n = 4050 particles), shedding for the first time light on the polymeric diversity of this emerging pollutant. Sixteen different classes of synthetic materials were identified. Low-density polymers such as polyethylene and polypropylene were the most abundant compounds, followed by polyamides, plastic-based paints, polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene and polyvinyl alcohol. Less frequent polymers included polyethylene terephthalate, polyisoprene, poly(vinyl stearate), ethylene-vinyl acetate, polyepoxide, paraffin wax and polycaprolactone, a biodegradable polyester reported for the first time floating in off-shore waters. Geographical differences in sample composition were also observed, demonstrating sub-basin scale heterogeneity in plastics distribution and likely reflecting a complex interplay between pollution sources, sinks and residence times of different polymers at sea.

  11. Scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Romem

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean is one of the most cyclogenetic regions in the world. The cyclones are concentrated along its northern coasts and their tracks are oriented more or less west-east, with several secondary tracks connecting them to Europe and to North Africa. The aim of this study is to examine scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones, based on five selected winter seasons (October–March. We detected the cyclones subjectively using 6-hourly Sea-Level Pressure maps, based on the NCAR/NCEP reanalysis archive.

    HMSO (1962 has shown that most Mediterranean cyclones (58% enter the Mediterranean from the Atlantic Ocean (through Biscay and Gibraltar, and from the south-west, the Sahara Desert, while the rest are formed in the Mediterranean Basin itself. Our study revealed that only 13% of the cyclones entered the Mediterranean, while 87% were generated in the Mediterranean Basin. The entering cyclones originate in three different regions: the Sahara Desert (6%, the Atlantic Ocean (4%, and Western Europe (3%.

    The cyclones formed within the Mediterranean Basin were found to generate under the influence of external cyclonic systems, i.e. as "daughter cyclones" to "parent cyclones" or troughs. These parent systems are located in three regions: Europe (61%, North Africa and the Red Sea (34.5% and the Mediterranean Basin itself (4.5%. The study presents scenarios in the development of Mediterranean cyclones during the winter season, emphasizing the cyclogenesis under the influence of various external forcing.

    The large difference with respect to the findings of HMSO (1962 is partly explained by the dominance of spring cyclones generating in the Sahara Desert, especially in April and May that were not included in our study period.

  12. Narrow Networks on the Individual Marketplace in 2017.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polski, Daniel; Weiner, Janet; Zhang, Yuehan

    2017-09-01

    This Issue Brief describes the breadth of physician networks on the ACA marketplaces in 2017. We find that the overall rate of narrow networks is 21%, which is a decline since 2014 (31%) and 2016 (25%). Narrow networks are concentrated in plans sold on state-based marketplaces, at 42%, compared to 10% of plans on federally-facilitated marketplaces. Issuers that have traditionally offered Medicaid coverage have the highest prevalence of narrow network plans at 36%, with regional/local plans and provider-based plans close behind at 27% and 30%. We also find large differences in narrow networks by state and by plan type.

  13. The seasonal characteristics of the breeze circulation at a coastal Mediterranean site in South Italy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, S.; Pasqualoni, L.; Sempreviva, Anna Maria

    2010-01-01

    We present a study on the characteristics of the sea breeze flow at a coastal site located in the centre of the Mediterranean basin at the southern tip of Italy. This study is finalized to add new data on breeze circulations over a narrow peninsula and present a unique experimental coastal site...... at about 600 m from the coastline in a flat open area at the foot of a mountain chain located in a region of complex orography. We study the seasonal behaviour of the sea-land breeze circulation by analysing two years of hourly data of wind speed and direction, temperature, radiation and relative humidity...

  14. Traffic at risk in Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilardo, U.; Mureddu, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Mediterranean Sea represents only about 0.7% of the planet's total water surface area, yet it is host to as much as one-quarter of the world's total maritime oil traffic. Statistics indicate that from 47 to 77,000 tonnes of crude oil are now being released annually into the Sea through accidental spills; and over the last decade, its tourism dependent coastlines have been fouled by the highest levels of tar contamination in the world. Oil carrier traffic, routed within the Sea's already overcrowded shipping lanes, is intense and this traffic is expected to increase, as a result of rises in world energy demand, to levels of from 7 to 8 million barrels a day. It has been estimated that, at the end of 1992, 90% of all large tankers operating in this area, will have reached a service life of 15-16 years which is very close to the average recommended life cycle limit of 15-20 years. Only 20% of the world's 3,000 tankers are currently equipped with double bottomed hulls. This paper uses these and other facts and figures to argue that the risks of future severe oil tanker accidents in the Mediterranean Sea are high, and that these must be countered with the development of a new set of stricter marine traffic safety regulations at the Italian, national, as well as, European level

  15. Climatic change in Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manos, A.

    1991-01-01

    United Nations Environmental Program (UNEP) studies on forecasted greenhouse climatic effects on the Mediterranean coastal and marine ecosystems and regional socio-economic framework have indicated the need for a concerted plan of protective and remedial action. The studies considered rises of 1.5 degrees in ambient temperature and 20 centimeters in sea level occurring before the year 2025. A regional, as opposed to a global area, study approach was adopted since the severity of climatic effects is expected to vary greatly from one part of the world to another. The specific areas investigated were the Po River Delta and Venezia Lagoon in Italy, the Nile Delta, Camargue, the Ebro Delta, the Tunisian National Park area, and the Thermaicos Gulf in Greece. The rise in average temperature is expected to negatively effect Mediterranean agricultural production and the coastal and marine ecosystems due to prolonged periods of drought and exceptional rainfall. It is suggested that a system of dikes be constructed to protect the coastal areas which are heavily dependent on tourism and agriculture

  16. Continuous sea-level reconstructions beyond the Pleistocene: improving the Mediterranean sea-level method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, K.; Rohling, E. J.; Amies, J.

    2017-12-01

    Sea-level (SL) reconstructions over glacial-interglacial timeframes are critical for understanding the equilibrium response of ice sheets to sustained warming. In particular, continuous and high-resolution SL records are essential for accurately quantifying `natural' rates of SL rise. Global SL changes are well-constrained since the last glacial maximum ( 20,000 years ago, ky) by radiometrically-dated corals and paleoshoreline data, and fairly well-constrained over the last glacial cycle ( 150 ky). Prior to that, however, studies of ice-volume:SL relationships tend to rely on benthic δ18O, as geomorphological evidence is far more sparse and less reliably dated. An alternative SL reconstruction method (the `marginal basin' approach) was developed for the Red Sea over 500 ky, and recently attempted for the Mediterranean over 5 My (Rohling et al., 2014, Nature). This method exploits the strong sensitivity of seawater δ18O in these basins to SL changes in the relatively narrow and shallow straits which connect the basins with the open ocean. However, the initial Mediterranean SL method did not resolve sea-level highstands during Northern Hemisphere insolation maxima, when African monsoon run-off - strongly depleted in δ18O - reached the Mediterranean. Here, we present improvements to the `marginal basin' sea-level reconstruction method. These include a new `Med-Red SL stack', which combines new probabilistic Mediterranean and Red Sea sea-level stacks spanning the last 500 ky. We also show how a box model-data comparison of water-column δ18O changes over a monsoon interval allows us to quantify the monsoon versus SL δ18O imprint on Mediterranean foraminiferal carbonate δ18O records. This paves the way for a more accurate and fully continuous SL reconstruction extending back through the Pliocene.

  17. Mg2BIV: Narrow Bandgap Thermoelectric Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Ho

    2018-05-01

    Thermoelectric materials can convert thermal energy directly into electric energy and vice versa. The electricity generation from waste heat via thermoelectric devices can be considered as a new energy source. For instance, automotive exhaust gas and all industrial processes generate an enormous amount of waste heat that can be converted to electricity by using thermoelectric devices. Magnesium compound Mg2BIV (BIV = Si, Ge or Sn) has a favorable combination of physical and chemical properties and can be a good base for the development of new efficient thermoelectrics. Because they possess similar properties to those of group BIV elemental semiconductors, they have been recognized as good candidates for thermoelectric applications. Mg2Si, Mg2Ge and Mg2Sn with an antifluorite structure are narrow bandgap semiconductors with indirect band gaps of 0.77 eV, 0.74 eV, and 0.35 eV, respectively. Mg2BIV has been recognized as a promising material for thermoelectric energy conversion at temperatures ranging from 500 K to 800 K. Compared to other thermoelectric materials operating in the similar temperature range, such as PbTe and filled skutterudites, the important aspects of Mg2BIV are non-toxic and earth-abundant elements. Based on classical thermoelectric theory, the material factor β ( m* / m e)3/2μκ L -1 can be utilized as the criterion for thermoelectric material selection, where m* is the density-of-states effective mass, me is the mass of an electron, μ is the carrier mobility, and κL is the lattice thermal conductivity. The β for magnesium silicides is 14, which is very high compared to 0.8 for iron silicides, 1.4 for manganese silicides, and 2.6 for silicon-germanium alloys. In this paper, basic phenomena of thermoelectricity and transport parameters for thermoelectric materials were briefly introduced, and thermoelectric properties of Mg2BIV synthesized by using a solid-state reaction were reviewed. In addition, various Mg2BIV compounds were discussed

  18. Q2 anti Q2 states with relatively narrow widths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Seiji.

    1978-09-01

    Using the mass formulas which correctly predict the mass of mesons and baryons the mass of diquark states is computed. From this mass spectrum the existance of the observed narrow baryonia and wide baryonia can be naturally understood. Other relatively narrow Q 2 anti Q 2 states are predicted to exist. (orig.) [de

  19. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  20. COENOLOGICAL SHIFT FOLLOWING FERTILIZATION IN MEDITERRANEAN GRASSLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALESSANDRO SERAFINI SAULI

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available In Rome both meadows of CentraI-European affinity and Mediterranean dry grasslands are presento We studied a site (Parco Regionale Urbano de] Pineto in Rome with very diverse vegetation, where species belonging to both coenologica] groups oceur. Wc fertilized a grassland with a combination of phosphorus (P and nitrogen (N. After fertilization diagDostie species of Helianthemetea guttati (Thcrophytes dccrease while species of MolinioArrhenatheretea (Hemicriptophytes increase. In a climate as that of Rome, transition between Mediterranean (with summer drought and Central European (without summer drought, nutrients availability modulates the distribution of vegetation Classes with respectively Mediterranean or Central-Europe affinities.

  1. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCulloch, Malcolm; Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro; Montagna, Paolo; Mortimer, Graham

    2010-01-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short (∼ 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had Δ 14 C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 ± 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had Δ 14 C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T isol ) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low Δ 14 C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at ∼ 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds on the continental slopes being draped in

  2. Proliferation and demise of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean during the Younger Dryas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCulloch, Malcolm [ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, School of Earth and Environment, The University of Western Australian, Crawley, 6009, Western Australia (Australia); Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia); Taviani, Marco; Lopez Correa, Matthias; Remia, Alessandro [ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Montagna, Paolo [LSCE, Av. de la Terrasse, 91198 Gif-sur-Yvette, France, ISMAR-CNR, via Gobetti 101, I-40129 Bologna (Italy); Mortimer, Graham [Research School of Earth Sciences, Australian National University, Canberra, 0200 (Australia)

    2010-07-01

    Uranium-series and radiocarbon ages are reported for deep-sea corals Madrepora oculata, Desmophyllum dianthus, Lophelia pertusa and Caryophyllia smithii from the Mediterranean Sea. U-series dating indicates that deep-sea corals have persisted in the Mediterranean for over 480, 000 years, especially during cool inter-stadial periods. The most prolific period of growth however appears to have occurred within the Younger Dryas (YD) period from 12, 900 to 11, 700 years BP followed by a short ({approx} 330 years) phase of post-YD coral growth from 11, 230 to 10, 900 years BP. This indicates that deep-sea corals were prolific in the Mediterranean not only during the return to the more glacial-like conditions of the YD, but also following the rapid deglaciation and transition to warmer conditions that followed the end of the YD. Surprisingly, there is a paucity Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) coral ages, implying they were largely absent during this period when cold-water conditions were more prevalent. Radiocarbon ages show that the intermediate depth waters of the Mediterranean generally had {Delta}{sup 14}C compositions similar to surface waters, indicating that these waters were extremely well ventilated. The only exception is a narrow period in the YD (12, 500 {+-} 100 years BP) when several samples of Lophelia pertusa from the Ionian Sea had {Delta}{sup 14}C values falling significantly below the marine curve. Using a refined approach, isolation ages (T{sub isol}) of 300 years to 500 years are estimated for these intermediate (800-1000 m) depth waters relative to surface marine waters, indicating a reduction or absence of deep-water formation in the Ionian and adjacent Adriatic Seas during the YD. Contrary to previous findings, we find no evidence for widespread intrusion of low {Delta}{sup 14}C Atlantic waters into the Mediterranean. Prolific growth of deep-sea corals in the Mediterranean ended abruptly at {approx} 10, 900 years BP, with many of the coral-bearing mounds

  3. Metagenomes of Mediterranean coastal lagoons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghai, Rohit; Hernandez, Claudia Mella; Picazo, Antonio; Mizuno, Carolina Megumi; Ininbergs, Karolina; Díez, Beatriz; Valas, Ruben; DuPont, Christopher L; McMahon, Katherine D; Camacho, Antonio; Rodriguez-Valera, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Coastal lagoons, both hypersaline and freshwater, are common, but still understudied ecosystems. We describe, for the first time, using high throughput sequencing, the extant microbiota of two large and representative Mediterranean coastal lagoons, the hypersaline Mar Menor, and the freshwater Albufera de Valencia, both located on the south eastern coast of Spain. We show there are considerable differences in the microbiota of both lagoons, in comparison to other marine and freshwater habitats. Importantly, a novel uncultured sulfur oxidizing Alphaproteobacteria was found to dominate bacterioplankton in the hypersaline Mar Menor. Also, in the latter prokaryotic cyanobacteria were almost exclusively comprised by Synechococcus and no Prochlorococcus was found. Remarkably, the microbial community in the freshwaters of the hypertrophic Albufera was completely in contrast to known freshwater systems, in that there was a near absence of well known and cosmopolitan groups of ultramicrobacteria namely Low GC Actinobacteria and the LD12 lineage of Alphaproteobacteria.

  4. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar; Trichopoulou, Antonia

    2017-11-08

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet's (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as "Mediterranean" an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  5. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia

    2016-01-01

    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the trends

  6. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Colella

    Full Text Available In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity. Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication. Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the "good environmental status" (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020 and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I and coastal (i.e., Case II waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens's method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However

  7. Ozone climatology over western Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pibiri, G.; Randaccio, P.; Serra, A.; Sollai, A.

    1984-01-01

    A preliminary climatology of atmospheric ozone over Western Mediterranean Sea is given by analysis of the upper observations of O 3 carried out at Cagliari-Elmas station from 1968 to 1976. Some peculiarities are here illustrated and discussed

  8. Report on the Mediterranean Solar Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-01-01

    The first part of this report presents the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) as an ambitious political initiative which aims at creating a better context for the Northern (Mediterranean) countries which are looking for a secure energy supply, and for the Southern and Eastern (Mediterranean) countries where demand is strongly increasing. It highlights the fact that the cost of this plan is indeed important but still limited regarding the regional scale. Its success therefore needs projects with sufficient profitability to attract investors and to be realised within an adapted law environment. The report also outlines that the plan needs a regional vision and a cooperative approach between North and South, that it will have a strong impact of electric interconnections all around the Mediterranean Sea, and that its governance needs to be clarified to maintain the political momentum created by its co-presidents

  9. HVDC interconnection submarine link in Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manzoni, Giancarlo; Cova, Bruno; Pincella, Claudio; Rebolini, Massimo; Ricci, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    The technology evolution of direct current energy transmission offer new perspectives for the exchange of energy with South side of Mediterranean Area: for Italy are new opportunity for energy import [it

  10. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    OpenAIRE

    C?zar, Andr?s; Sanz-Mart?n, Marina; Mart?, Elisa; Gonz?lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, B?rbara; G?lvez, Jos? ?.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Copyright: © 2015 Cózar et al. Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by ...

  11. Distribution of transuranic nuclides in Mediterranean ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.; Fukai, R.

    1982-01-01

    For the comprehensive understanding of the behaviour of transuranic elements in the marine environment, the knowledge on the distribution of these elements in various components of marine ecosystems is essential. Since the Mediterranean Sea is considered a sufficiently self-contained system, our approach for studying the processes controlling the transuranic cycling in the sea has been to follow, step by step, the redistribution of plutonium and americium in different components of the marine environment, taking Mediterranean ecosystems as examples. While the studies in the past years have supplied quantitative information on the inputs of plutonium and americium into the Mediterranean from atmospheric fallout and rivers as well as on their behaviour in the Mediterranean water column, only scattered data have been made available so far on the occurrence of the transuranic nuclides in the Mediterranean marine biota or sediments. In order to fill up this information gap, biological and sediment samples were collected from the northwestern Mediterranean region during 1975-1978 for the transuranic measurements. The results of these determinations are given in the present report

  12. Are narrow mesons, baryons and dibaryons evidence for multiquark states?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatischeff, B.; Yonnet, J.

    2000-01-01

    Several narrow structures have been progressively observed since the last fifteen years, in di-baryonic invariant mass spectra or in missing mass spectra. More recently, narrow structures were observed in baryonic and now in mesonic mass spectra. Since these small peaks appear at fixed masses, independently of the experiment, they are associated with real states. There is no room to explain these states within classical nuclear physics taking into account baryonic and mesonic degrees of freedom. An interpretation is proposed, which associate these narrow structures with two coloured quark clusters. (authors)

  13. What's in a name? Expiratory tracheal narrowing in adults explained

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leong, P.; Bardin, P.G.; Lau, K.K.

    2013-01-01

    Tracheomalacia, tracheobronchomalacia, and excessive dynamic airway collapse are all terms used to describe tracheal narrowing in expiration. The first two describe luminal reduction from cartilage softening and the latter refers to luminal reduction from exaggerated posterior membrane movement. Expiratory tracheal narrowing is a frequent occurrence that can cause symptoms of airway obstruction, such as dyspnoea, wheeze, and exercise intolerance. The accurate diagnosis and quantification of expiratory tracheal narrowing has important aetiological, therapeutic, and prognostic implications. The reference standard for diagnosis has traditionally been bronchoscopy; however, this method has significant limitations. Expiratory tracheal disorders are readily detected by four-dimensional dynamic volume multidetector computed tomography (4D-CT), an emerging, non-invasive method that will potentially enable detection and quantification of these conditions. This review discusses the morphological forms of expiratory tracheal narrowing and demonstrates the utility of 4D-CT in the diagnosis, quantification, and treatment of these important conditions

  14. Single frequency narrow linewidth 2 micron laser, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — NASA needs narrow linewidth lasers in the 1.5 or 2 micron wavelength regime for coherent Lidar applications. The laser should be tunable by several nm and frequency...

  15. Subglottic cysts and asymmetrical subglottic narrowing on neck radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holinger, L.D.; Torium, D.M.; Anandappa, E.C.

    1988-01-01

    The congenital subglottic hemangioma typically appears as an asymmetric subglottic narrowing or mass on frontal neck radiograph. Therefore, soft tissue neck radiography has been advocated as a definitive non-operative approach for diagnosing these lesions. However, we have noted similar asymmetric subglottic narrowing in patients with acquired subglottic cysts. These retention cysts occur following long-term intubation in the neonate. The mechanism probably involves subglottic fibrosis which obstructs glands with subsequent cyst formation. Acquired subglottic cysts typically appear as an asymmetric narrowing on frontal or lateral soft tissue neck radiographs. These lesions may produce airway compromise but are effectively treated by forceps or laser removal. Acquired subglottic cysts must be included in the differential diagnosis of asymmetric subglottic narrowing. The definitive diagnosis is made by direct laryngoscopy, not soft tissue neck radiograph. (orig.)

  16. THE TREATMENT OF OPEN- AND NARROW-ANGLE GLAUCOMA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1971-04-10

    Apr 10, 1971 ... glaucoma will be considered: narrow-angle glaucoma. (acute glaucoma) and ... emotional or a physical crisis. The pain is in the distribu- .... ness, not increased pressure, haunts people suffering from glaucoma'.' The saga of ...

  17. Comment on the narrow structure reported by Amaryan et al

    OpenAIRE

    Anghinolfi, M.; Ball, J.; Baltzell, N. A.; Battaglieri, M.; Bedlinskiy, I.; Bellis, M.; Biselli, A. S.; Bookwalter, C.; Boiarinov, S.; Bosted, P.; Burkert, V. D.; Carman, D. S.; Celentano, A.; Chandavar, S.; Cole, P. L.

    2012-01-01

    The CLAS Collaboration provides a comment on the physics interpretation of the results presented in a paper published by M. Amaryan et al. regarding the possible observation of a narrow structure in the mass spectrum of a photoproduction experiment.

  18. Narrow band interference cancelation in OFDM: Astructured maximum likelihood approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sohail, Muhammad Sadiq; Al-Naffouri, Tareq Y.; Al-Ghadhban, Samir N.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a maximum likelihood (ML) approach to mitigate the effect of narrow band interference (NBI) in a zero padded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ZP-OFDM) system. The NBI is assumed to be time variant and asynchronous

  19. Narrow Framing and Long-Term Care Insurance

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Gottlieb; Olivia S. Mitchell

    2015-01-01

    We propose a model of narrow framing in insurance and test it using data from a new module we designed and fielded in the Health and Retirement Study. We show that respondents subject to narrow framing are substantially less likely to buy long-term care insurance than average. This effect is distinct from, and much larger than, the effects of risk aversion or adverse selection, and it offers a new explanation for why people underinsure their later-life care needs.

  20. The Mediterranean: A Corrupting Sea? A Review-Essay on Ecology and History, Anthropology and Synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Peter Fibiger

    2004-01-01

    Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity......Historie, Mediterranean pre-industrial history, The Mediterranean, Ecological History, Economic History, Pre-industrial History, Finley, Ancient trade, Mediterranean unity...

  1. Ocular Biometrics of Myopic Eyes With Narrow Angles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Gabriel T; Wen, Joanne C; Su, Daniel Hsien-Wen; Stinnett, Sandra; Asrani, Sanjay

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the ocular biometrics between myopic patients with and without narrow angles. Patients with a stable myopic refraction (myopia worse than -1.00 D spherical equivalent) were prospectively recruited. Angle status was assessed using gonioscopy and biometric measurements were performed using an anterior segment optical coherence tomography and an IOLMaster. A total of 29 patients (58 eyes) were enrolled with 13 patients (26 eyes) classified as having narrow angles and 16 patients (32 eyes) classified as having open angles. Baseline demographics of age, sex, and ethnicity did not differ significantly between the 2 groups. The patients with narrow angles were on average older than those with open angles but the difference did not reach statistical significance (P=0.12). The central anterior chamber depth was significantly less in the eyes with narrow angles (P=0.05). However, the average lens thickness, although greater in the eyes with narrow angles, did not reach statistical significance (P=0.10). Refractive error, axial lengths, and iris thicknesses did not differ significantly between the 2 groups (P=0.32, 0.47, 0.15). Narrow angles can occur in myopic eyes. Routine gonioscopy is therefore recommended for all patients regardless of refractive error.

  2. Acquisition and visualization techniques for narrow spectral color imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, László; García, Rafael; Basa, János; Hegedüs, Ramón

    2013-06-01

    This paper introduces a new approach in narrow-band imaging (NBI). Existing NBI techniques generate images by selecting discrete bands over the full visible spectrum or an even wider spectral range. In contrast, here we perform the sampling with filters covering a tight spectral window. This image acquisition method, named narrow spectral imaging, can be particularly useful when optical information is only available within a narrow spectral window, such as in the case of deep-water transmittance, which constitutes the principal motivation of this work. In this study we demonstrate the potential of the proposed photographic technique on nonunderwater scenes recorded under controlled conditions. To this end three multilayer narrow bandpass filters were employed, which transmit at 440, 456, and 470 nm bluish wavelengths, respectively. Since the differences among the images captured in such a narrow spectral window can be extremely small, both image acquisition and visualization require a novel approach. First, high-bit-depth images were acquired with multilayer narrow-band filters either placed in front of the illumination or mounted on the camera lens. Second, a color-mapping method is proposed, using which the input data can be transformed onto the entire display color gamut with a continuous and perceptually nearly uniform mapping, while ensuring optimally high information content for human perception.

  3. Intramyocardial arterial narrowing in dogs with subaortic stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, T; Jönsson, L; Pedersen, H D

    2004-09-01

    Earlier studies have described intramyocardial arterial narrowing based on hyperplasia and hypertrophy of the vessel wall in dogs with subaortic stenosis (SAS). In theory, such changes might increase the risk of sudden death, as they seem to do in heart disease in other species. This retrospective pathological study describes and quantifies intramyocardial arterial narrowing in 44 dogs with naturally occurring SAS and in eight control dogs. The majority of the dogs with SAS died suddenly (n=27); nine had died or been euthanased with signs of heart failure and eight were euthanased without clinical signs. Dogs with SAS had significantly narrower intramyocardial arteries (Pdogs. Male dogs and those with more severe hypertrophy had more vessel narrowing (P=0.02 and P=0.02, respectively), whereas dogs with dilated hearts had slightly less pronounced arterial thickening (P=0.01). Arterial narrowing was not related to age, but fibrosis increased with age (P=0.047). Dogs that died suddenly did not have a greater number of arterial changes than other dogs with SAS. This study suggests that most dogs with SAS have intramyocardial arterial narrowing and that the risk of dying suddenly is not significantly related to the overall degree of vessel obliteration.

  4. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel Ángel; Hershey, Maria Soledad; Zazpe, Itziar

    2017-01-01

    Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet) nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes. PMID:29117146

  5. Transferability of the Mediterranean Diet to Non-Mediterranean Countries. What Is and What Is Not the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ángel Martínez-González

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence has verified the Mediterranean diet’s (MedDiet nutritional adequacy, long-term sustainability, and effectiveness for preventing hard clinical events from cardiovascular disease (CVD, as well as increasing longevity. This article includes a cumulative meta-analysis of prospective studies supporting a strong inverse association between closer adherence to the MedDiet and the incidence of hard clinical events of CVD. The MedDiet has become an increasingly popular topic of interest when focusing on overall food patterns rather than single nutrient intake, not only in Mediterranean countries, but also globally. However, several myths and misconceptions associated with the traditional Mediterranean diet should be clearly addressed and dispelled, particularly those that label as “Mediterranean” an eating pattern that is not in line with the traditional Mediterranean diet. The transferability of the traditional MedDiet to the non-Mediterranean populations is possible, but it requires a multitude of changes in dietary habits. New approaches for promoting healthy dietary behavior consistent with the MedDiet will offer healthful, sustainable, and practical strategies at all levels of public health. The following article presents practical resources and knowledge necessary for accomplishing these changes.

  6. Mediterranean milk and milk products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinrichs, Jörg

    2004-03-01

    Milk and dairy products are part of a healthy Mediterranean diet which, besides cow's milk, also consists of sheep's, goat's and buffalo's milk--alone or as a mixture---as raw material. The fat and protein composition of the milk of the various animal species differs only slightly, but in every case it has a high priority in human nutrition. The milk proteins are characterized by a high content of essential amino acids. Beyond that macromolecules,which have various biological functions, are available or may be formed by proteolysis in milk. Taking this into consideration, the technology of different well-known Italian and German cheese types is presented and the differences as well as correspondences regarding nutrition are discussed. Especially Ricotta and Mascarpone are discussed in detail. Ricotta represents a special feature as this cheese is traditionally made of whey and cream. Thus the highly valuable whey proteins which contain a higher amount of the amino acids lysine, methionine and cysteic acid in comparison to casein and, additionally, to soy protein, are made usable for human nutrition. Finally, it is pointed out on the basis of individual examples that technologies to enrich whey proteins in cheese are already available and in use. Thus, the flavor of low fat cheese is improved and the nutritional value is increased.

  7. Saline agriculture in Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Salinization is increasingly affecting world's agricultural land causing serious yield loss and soil degradation. Understanding how we could improve crop productivity in salinized environments is therefore critical to meet the challenging goal of feeding 9.3 billion people by 2050. Our comprehension of fundamental physiological mechanisms in plant salt stress adaptation has greatly advanced over the last decades. However, many of these mechanisms have been linked to salt tolerance in simplified experimental systems whereas they have been rarely functionally proven in real agricultural contexts. In-depth analyses of specific crop-salinity interactions could reveal important aspects of plant salt stress adaptation as well as novel physiological/agronomic targets to improve salinity tolerance. These include the developmental role of root vs. shoot systems respect to water-ion homeostasis, morphological vs. metabolic contributions to stress adaptation, developmental processes vs. seasonal soil salinity evolution, residual effects of saline irrigation in non-irrigated crops, critical parameters of salt tolerance in soil-less systems and controlled environments, response to multiple stresses. Finally, beneficial effects of salinization on qualitative parameters such as stress-induced accumulation of high nutritional value secondary metabolites should be considered, also. In this short review we attempted to highlight the multifaceted nature of salinity in Mediterranean agricultural systems by summarizing most experimental activity carried out at the Department of Agricultural Engineering and Agronomy of University of Naples Federico II in the last few years.

  8. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    In Mediterranean basin, woodlands grazing still continue to be important commercial owners' benefits. These owners manage woodlands vegetations as if they were not at risk of degradation and declining. Frequently, no temporally grazing set-aside is taken into account to avoid overgrazing of annual and perennial vegetations. Although less common, in the northern shore of Mediterranean basin undergrazing might increase the frequency and the number of catastrophic forest fires. This under/over grazing regime occurs in the Mediterranean basin woodlands with contrasted differences on land property rights, local economies and government livestock policy incentives. Spain and Tunisia are examples of these Mediterranean livestock contrasts. Most of Spanish Mediterranean woodlands and livestock herds are large private ownerships and owners could maintain their lands and livestock herds properties on the basis of moderate cash-income compensation against land revaluation and exclusive amenity self-consumption. The later is less tangible benefit and it could include family land legacy, nature enjoyment, country stile of life development, social status and so on. In public woodlands, social and environmental goals -as they are cultural heritage, biodiversity loss mitigation, soil conservation and employment- could maintain market unprofitable woodlands operations. Last three decades Spanish Mediterranean woodlands owners have increased the livestock herds incentivized by government subsidies. As result, grazing rent is pending on the level of European Union and Spanish government livestock subsidies. In this context, Spanish Mediterranean woodlands maintain a high extensive livestock stoking population, which economy could be called fragile and environmentally unsustainable because forest degradation and over/under grazing practices. Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands are state properties and livestock grazing is practice as a free private regimen. Livestock herds are small herd

  9. Taking the pulse of the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterberg, C.

    1977-01-01

    The staff at the International Laboratory of Marine Radioactivity in Monaco realized that they were favourably located to ?take the pulse of the Mediterranean? and begin an enquiry into its health. Practically all of the radioactivity in the water and sediments could be attributed to world-wide fallout from the nuclear tests of the 1960's. Unable to find enough radioactivity in the Mediterranean to work with in a meaningful way, the laboratory imported sediments from the Bikini-Eniwetok sites of the American thermonuclear tests, and sediments from the Irish Sea near the Windscale effluent pipe to do their experiments. Other experiments were carried out with relatively innocuous, short half-lived 237 Pu, made especially for the laboratory in Japan and in the USA. A proposal was made to the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to monitor the levels of chlorinated hydrocarbons and heavy elements in the Mediterranean. This report briefly discusses that work. Three sets of studies were carried out by the Monaco group to assess the current levels of pollutants in the Mediterranean: 1) Radioactivity; 2) Chlorinated hydrocarbons (DDT's and polychlorinated biphenyls); 3) Heavy elements. As stated earlier, measurements showed that radioactivity in the ocean off Monaco is quite low, indicating that there are no major sources of radionuclides reaching the open ocean other than fallout. Polychlorinated biphenyls were measured by gas-chromatography. The results of this study were being published (Marine Pollution Bulletin, 1977) but it can be said that the data are not much different than that for the Atlantic Ocean and Saragasso Sea. The western Mediterranean is clearly higher in PCB's than the eastern Mediterranean, but not unduly so. Less can be said about the trace or heavy elements because the patterns are so variable. Atomic absorption spectrometry is used to detect and measure most trace elements. For the lower levels that appear in seawater, chemical

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (July 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. DAILIANIS

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This contribution forms part of a series of collective articles published regularly in Mediterranean Marine Science that report on new biodiversity records from the Mediterranean basin. The current article presents 51 geographically distinct records for 21 taxa belonging to 6 Phyla, extending from the western Mediterranean to the Levantine. The new records, per country, are as follows: Spain: the cryptogenic calcareous sponge Paraleucilla magna is reported from a new location in the Alicante region. Algeria: the rare Atlanto-Mediterranean bivalve Cardium indicum is reported from Annaba. Tunisia: new distribution records for the Indo-Pacific lionfish Pterois miles from Zembra Island and Cape Bon. Italy: the ark clam Anadara transversa is reported from mussel cultures in the Gulf of Naples, while the amphipod Caprella scaura and the isopods Paracerceis sculpta and Paranthura japonica are reported as associated to the –also allochthonous–bryozoan Amathia verticillata in the Adriatic Sea; in the latter region, the cosmopolitan Atlantic tripletail Lobotes surinamensisis also reported, a rare finding for the Mediterranean. Slovenia: a new record of the non-indigenous nudibranch Polycera hedgpethi in the Adriatic. Greece: several new reports of the introduced scleractinian Oculina patagonica, the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatina, the blunthead puffer Sphoeroides pachygaster (all Atlantic, and the lionfish Pterois miles (Indo-Pacific suggest their ongoing establishment in the Aegean Sea; the deepest bathymetric record of the invasive alga Caulerpa cylindracea in the Mediterranean Sea is also registered in the Kyklades, at depths exceeding 70 m. Turkey: new distribution records for two non indigenous crustaceans, the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Atlantic origin and the moon crab Matuta victor (Indo-Pacific origin from the Bay of Izmir and Antalya, respectively; in the latter region, the Red Sea goatfish Parupeneus forsskali, is also reported

  11. The features of a "Mediterranean" Bioethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Salvino

    2012-11-01

    Even if somebody considers inappropriate any geographic adjective for Bioethics, nevertheless we think that there are some specific features of "Mediterranean" Bioethics that could distinguish it from a "Northern-European and Northern-American" one. First of all we must consider that medical ethics was born and grew in Mediterranean area. First by the thought of great Greek philosophers as Aristotle (that analyse what ethics is), then by Hippocrates, the "father" of medical ethics. The ethical pattern of Aristotle was based on "virtues" and their practice. In this perspective we can already note a strong difference with actual North-European or American principialist ethics. But a second consideration concerns the role that great Mediterranean religions (Judaism, Christianity and Islam) had in the construction of the ethical thought especially on the matter of life and its respect. So, in our pluralistic and multicultural society is absolutely necessary to rescue an approach that considers both "lungs" of ethical thought (Mediterranean and Northern one) and highlights the role that Mediterranean Ethics still has in this way.

  12. A CHF Model in Narrow Gaps under Saturated Boiling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suki; Kim, Hyeonil; Park, Cheol

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have paid a great attention to the CHF in narrow gaps due to enormous industrial applications. Especially, a great number of researches on the CHF have been carried out in relation to nuclear safety issues such as in-vessel retention for nuclear power plants during a severe accident. Analytical studies to predict the CHF in narrow gaps have been also reported. Yu et al. (2012) developed an analytical model to predict the CHF on downward facing and inclined heaters based on the model of Kandlikar et al. (2001) for an upward facing heater. A new theoretical model is developed to predict the CHF in narrow gaps under saturated pool boiling. This model is applicable when one side of coolant channels or both sides are heated including the effects of heater orientation. The present model is compared with the experimental CHF data obtained in narrow gaps. A new analytical CHF model is proposed to predict CHF for narrow gaps under saturated pool boiling. This model can be applied to one-side or two-sides heating surface and also consider the effects of heater orientation on CHF. The present model is compared with the experimental data obtained in narrow gaps with one heater. The comparisons indicate that the present model shows a good agreement with the experimental CHF data in the horizontal annular tubes. However, it generally under-predicts the experimental data in the narrow rectangular gaps except the data obtained in the gap thickness of 10 mm and the horizontal downward facing heater

  13. Mediterranean climate and some tropical teleconnections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpert, P.; Price, C.; Krichak, S.; Saaroni, H.; Osetinsky, I.; Barkan, J.; Kishcha, P.; Ziv, B.

    2006-01-01

    Some strong natural fluctuations of climate in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region are shown to be connected to the major tropical systems, e.g., El Ni no Southern Oscillation, South Asian Monsoon and hurricanes. Modelling of the severe floods suggests a relation to tropical hurricanes. For a specific event, high-resolution modelling of the severe flood on December 3-5, 2001 in Israel suggests a relation to hurricane Olga. In order to understand the factors governing the Eastern Mediterranean climate variability in the summer season, the relationship between extreme summer temperatures and the South Asian Monsoon was examined. Other tropical factors, like the Red Sea Trough system and the Saharan dust, also contribute to the Mediterranean climate variability

  14. Genesis and maintenance of "Mediterranean hurricanes"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Emanuel

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclonic storms that closely resemble tropical cyclones in satellite images occasionally form over the Mediterranean Sea. Synoptic and mesoscale analyses of such storms show small, warm-core structure and surface winds sometimes exceeding 25ms-1 over small areas. These analyses, together with numerical simulations, reveal that in their mature stages, such storms intensify and are maintained by a feedback between surface enthalpy fluxes and wind, and as such are isomorphic with tropical cyclones. In this paper, I demonstrate that a cold, upper low over the Mediterranean can produce strong cyclogenesis in an axisymmetric model, thereby showing that baroclinic instability is not necessary during the mature stages of Mediterranean hurricanes.

  15. Electricity, development and cooperation in mediterranean basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabra, J.

    1992-01-01

    Energy consumption along the southern rim of the Mediterranean basin is increasing much more quickly than on the northern side, in accordance with the different industrialization and urbanization rates. Over the last two decades, electric power consumption has been increasing throughout the basin at a rate exceeding not only that of total energy consumption but even that of the economy itself. The various electric power development strategies the countries of the Mediterranean have developed differ widely depending on the available energy resources they have. Power distribution systems are a strategic element of co-operation in the Mediterranean basin. Though all of these strategies involve cost trade-offs between diversification of energy sources, domestic supply and environmental protection, difficulties exist that may curtail the development of these programs. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  16. Measurements of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballestra, S.; Holm, E.; Fukai, R.

    1976-01-01

    In order to supplement the baseline data on the distribution of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, which have already been reported, further measurements were carried out on sea water samples collected during 1974-75 cruises. In 1974 profile collections were conducted at a station approximately 50 km south of Monaco in addition to surface sampling at a few stations, while surface waters were taken from several stations covering wider regions of the western Mediterranean during the 1975 cruises. The measurement of 238 Pu as well as 241 Am were for the first time successful on the 1975 samples. These data are considered valuable as the basis for understanding transuranic biogeochemistry in the Mediterranean environment

  17. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panza, G F [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy) and Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy); Raykova, R [Geophysical Institute of BAS, Sofia (Bulgaria) and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Sezione Bologna, Bologna (Italy); Carminati, E; Doglioni, C [Dipartimento di Scienze della Terra, Universita degli Studi di Trieste, Trieste (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  18. Upper mantle flow in the western Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panza, G.F.; Raykova, R.; Carminati, E.; Doglioni, C.

    2006-07-01

    Two cross-sections of the western Mediterranean Neogene-to-present backarc basin are presented, in which geological and geophysical data of the Transmed project are tied to a new shear-wave tomography. Major results are i) the presence of a well stratified upper mantle beneath the older African continent, with a marked low-velocity layer between 130-200 km of depth; ii) the dilution of this layer within the younger western Mediterranean backarc basin to the north, and iii) the easterly raising of a shallower low-velocity layer from about 140 km to about 30 km in the Tyrrhenian active part of the backarc basin. These findings suggest upper mantle circulation in the western Mediterranean backarc basin, mostly easterly-directed and affecting the boundary between upper asthenosphere (LVZ) and lower asthenosphere, which undulates between about 180 km and 280 km. (author)

  19. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Turco

    Full Text Available Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value. These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011 and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011. Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF, which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%, except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  20. Decreasing Fires in Mediterranean Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turco, Marco; Bedia, Joaquín; Di Liberto, Fabrizio; Fiorucci, Paolo; von Hardenberg, Jost; Koutsias, Nikos; Llasat, Maria-Carmen; Xystrakis, Fotios; Provenzale, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Forest fires are a serious environmental hazard in southern Europe. Quantitative assessment of recent trends in fire statistics is important for assessing the possible shifts induced by climate and other environmental/socioeconomic changes in this area. Here we analyse recent fire trends in Portugal, Spain, southern France, Italy and Greece, building on a homogenized fire database integrating official fire statistics provided by several national/EU agencies. During the period 1985-2011, the total annual burned area (BA) displayed a general decreasing trend, with the exception of Portugal, where a heterogeneous signal was found. Considering all countries globally, we found that BA decreased by about 3020 km2 over the 27-year-long study period (i.e. about -66% of the mean historical value). These results are consistent with those obtained on longer time scales when data were available, also yielding predominantly negative trends in Spain and France (1974-2011) and a mixed trend in Portugal (1980-2011). Similar overall results were found for the annual number of fires (NF), which globally decreased by about 12600 in the study period (about -59%), except for Spain where, excluding the provinces along the Mediterranean coast, an upward trend was found for the longer period. We argue that the negative trends can be explained, at least in part, by an increased effort in fire management and prevention after the big fires of the 1980's, while positive trends may be related to recent socioeconomic transformations leading to more hazardous landscape configurations, as well as to the observed warming of recent decades. We stress the importance of fire data homogenization prior to analysis, in order to alleviate spurious effects associated with non-stationarities in the data due to temporal variations in fire detection efforts.

  1. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Mediterranean Energy Perspectives 2011 provides insights into the energy situation today and over the next two decades in the Mediterranean region. Its detailed data and analyses are of interest to stakeholders on both the supply and demand sides of the energy equation. This is the third edition in the MEP series, which highlights the extensive work of OME (Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie). This outlook draws upon the expertise of OME and its members. MEP 2011 provides a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in the Mediterranean. It presents data ranging from the early days of the region's energy industry to the situation today and an outlook to 2030, based on OME's supply and demand model, the Mediterranean Energy Model. Current efforts related to renewable energy sources and energy efficiency are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Mediterranean energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the region. MEP 2011 presents: - A description of the Mediterranean countries in a global context. - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Mediterranean energy sector. - Energy demand to 2030, including two cases: the Conservative and Proactive Scenarios. - Trends in past, present and future oil and natural gas production and development. - Existing and planned oil and gas infrastructure. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments in innovative and renewable energy sources. - In-depth analysis of energy efficiency measures and policies. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. MEP 2011 has been prepared by a joint-team of OME experts supported by related companies and independent expertise. Bringing this expertise together provides an important reference for industry analysts and investors who wish to get a complete picture of the energy industry and markets in the Mediterranean, the way they operate and their long

  2. THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET: A HISTORY OF HEALTH

    OpenAIRE

    Altomare, R.; Cacciabaudo, F.; Damiano, G.; Palumbo, V.; Gioviale, M.; Bellavia, M.; Tomasello, G.; Lo Monte, A.

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean tradition offers a cousine rich in colors, aromas and memories, which support the taste and the spirit of those who live in harmony with nature. Everyone is talking about the Mediterranean diet, but few are those who do it properly, thus generating a lot of confusion in the reader. And so for some it coincides with the pizza, others identified it with the noodles with meat sauce, in a mixture of pseudo historical traditions and folklore that do not help to solve the question...

  3. Multilayer Photonic Crystal for Spectral Narrowing of Emission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhanfang LIU

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Multilayer colloidal crystal has been prepared by the layer-by-layer deposition of silica microspheres on a glass slide. Each layer is a slab consisting of a fcc close-packed colloidal arrays. By properly choosing the sizes of spheres, the whole spectral feature of multilayer colloidal crystal can be tuned. Here, we engineered a multilayer superlattice structure with an effective passband between two stop bands. This gives a strong narrowing effect on emission spectrum. With the stop bands at the shortwave and longwave edges of emission spectrum, the passband in the central wavelength region can be regarded as a strong decrease of suppression effect and enhancement of a narrow wavelength region of emission. The spectral narrowing modification effect of suitably engineered colloidal crystals shows up their importance in potential application as optical filters and lasing devices.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.23.3.16320

  4. CT demonstration of pharyngeal narrowing in adult obstructive sleep apnea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohlman, M.E.; Haponik, E.F.; Smith, P.L.; Allen, R.P.; Bleecker, E.R.; Goldman, S.M.

    1983-01-01

    Sleep apnea is a major cause of daytime hypersomnolence. Among the proposed etiologies, focal obstruction of the airways at the level of the pharynx has been suggested but not proven. Using computed tomography, the cross-sectional area of the airway can be readily assessed. Thirty-three adults with clinically proven sleep apnea and 12 normal adults underwent systematic computed tomography of the neck. Significant airway narrowing was demonstrated in all the patients with obstructive sleep apnea, whereas no such narrowing was seen in the controls. In 11, the narrowing was at a single level, whereas in 22 patients two or more levels were affected. This study has shown that a structurally abnormal airway may serve as an anatomic substrate for the development of sleep apnea. On the basis of this evidence, uvulopalatopharyngoplasty has been performed in two patients with relief of symptoms in one

  5. Pressure Fluctuation Characteristics of Narrow Gauge Train Running Through Tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Masahiro; Sakuma, Yutaka

    Pressure fluctuations on the sides of narrow (1067 mm) gauge trains running in tunnels are measured for the first time to investigate the aerodynamic force acting on the trains. The present measurements are compared with earlier measurements obtained with the Shinkansen trains. The results are as follows: (1) The aerodynamic force, which stems from pressure fluctuations on the sides of cars, puts the energy into the vibration of the car body running through a tunnel. (2) While the pressure fluctuations appear only on one of the two sides of the trains running in double-track tunnels, the fluctuations in opposite phase on both sides in single-track tunnels. (3) The on-track test data of the narrow gauge trains show the same tendency as those of the Shinkansen trains, although it is suggested that the pressure fluctuations develop faster along the narrow gauge trains than the Shinkansen trains.

  6. MRI of surgically created pulmonary artery narrowing in the dog

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, R.J.; Rocchini, A.P.; Bove, E.L.; Chenevert, T.L.; Gubin, B. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). Dept. of Radiology)

    1989-11-01

    Narrowing of the pulmonary arteries was created surgically in twelve dogs. In six of the dogs the narrowing was central (main pulmonary artery), and in the remaining six the narrowing was located peripherally at the hilar level of the right pulmonary artery beyond the pericardial reflection. MRI and angiography were performed in all dogs. MRI clearly delineated the site of the pulmonary band and the caliber of the pulmonary artery at the site of the band in all dogs (N=6). MRI was not able to visualize any of the stenosis of the right pulmonary arteries at the hila, beyond the pericardial reflection. In addition, optimal imaging planes to depict each segment of the central pulmonary arteries were determined. The capability to image in oblique planes is essential in evaluating the morphology of the central pulmonary arteries. (orig.).

  7. MRI of surgically created pulmonary artery narrowing in the dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, R.J.; Rocchini, A.P.; Bove, E.L.; Chenevert, T.L.; Gubin, B.

    1989-01-01

    Narrowing of the pulmonary arteries was created surgically in twelve dogs. In six of the dogs the narrowing was central (main pulmonary artery), and in the remaining six the narrowing was located peripherally at the hilar level of the right pulmonary artery beyond the pericardial reflection. MRI and angiography were performed in all dogs. MRI clearly delineated the site of the pulmonary band and the caliber of the pulmonary artery at the site of the band in all dogs (N=6). MRI was not able to visualize any of the stenosis of the right pulmonary arteries at the hila, beyond the pericardial reflection. In addition, optimal imaging planes to depict each segment of the central pulmonary arteries were determined. The capability to image in oblique planes is essential in evaluating the morphology of the central pulmonary arteries. (orig.)

  8. Narrow-width mechanism of a=5 Ξ-state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumagai-Fuse, I.; Akaishi, Y.

    1995-04-01

    Narrow-width mechanism of ≡ 5 H is discussed by calculating conversion widths to all its possible decay channels. Since the conversion processes have small reaction Q values, the three- and four- body decays are strongly suppressed owing to small phase volumes available. Decay widths to the two-body channels are significantly reduced by the distortion of emitted-particle waves. This mechanism brings about a narrow width of ≡ 5 H. The total width is estimated to be 0.87 MeV, in which the largest contribution comes from the decay into the Λ 4 H * +Λ channel. (author)

  9. Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    Mediterranean diet and the metabolic syndrome

    Background: The metabolic syndrome refers to a clustering of risk factors including
    abdominal obesity, hyperglycaemia, low HDL-cholesterol, hypertriglyceridaemia,
    and hypertension and it is a risk factor for diabetes mellitus type

  10. The Historical Construction of the Mediterranean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenech, Dominic; Pace, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    Ideas about what the Mediterranean is, was or is imagined to be abound, and the debate over definition continues to intrigue scholars more than ever, especially as the region’s heightened newsworthiness in recent years has forced the protagonists of world affairs to turn their attention to it...

  11. [Familial Mediterranean fever: not to be missed

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenkel, J.; Bemelman, F.J.; Potter van Loon, B.J.; Simon, A.

    2013-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is common among Turkish and Moroccan migrants. We describe three patients with FMF. A 3-year-old girl with recurrent fever and abdominal pain who was diagnosed early with FMF and treated effectively with colchicine. An adolescent girl who required interleukin

  12. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Có zar, André s; Sanz-Martí n, Marina; Martí , Elisa; Gonzá lez-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bá rbara; Gá lvez, José Á .; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  13. How can we improve Mediterranean cropping systems?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benlhabib, O.; Yazar, A.; Qadir, M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Mediterranean region, crop productivity and food security are closely linked to the adaptation of cropping systems to multiple abiotic stresses. Limited and unpredictable rainfall and low soil fertility have reduced agricultural productivity and environmental sustainability. For this reason...... the tested interventions, incorporation of crop residues coupled with supplementary irrigation showed a significantly positive effect on crop productivity, yield stability and environmental sustainability....

  14. Palaeoceanography of the interglacial eastern Mediterranean Sea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marino, G.

    2008-01-01

    The sensitivity of the present interglacial climate to the ongoing anthropogenic-driven increase of atmospheric greenhouse gas poses a fundamental concern to modern society. The Mediterranean region is responding with a distinct change towards drier and warmer conditions, which affects also the

  15. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Cózar

    Full Text Available Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2, as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled, are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  16. Durum wheat quality prediction in Mediterranean environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toscano, P.; Gioli, B.; Genesio, L.

    2014-01-01

    Durum wheat is one of the most important agricultural crops in the Mediterranean area. In addition to yield, grain quality is very important in wheat markets because of the demand for high-quality end products such as pasta, couscous and bulgur wheat. Grain quality is directly affected by several...

  17. Global air pollution crossroads over the Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveld, J; Berresheim, H; Borrmann, S; Crutzen, P J; Dentener, F J; Fischer, H; Feichter, J; Flatau, P J; Heland, J; Holzinger, R; Korrmann, R; Lawrence, M G; Levin, Z; Markowicz, K M; Mihalopoulos, N; Minikin, A; Ramanathan, V; De Reus, M; Roelofs, G J; Scheeren, H A; Sciare, J; Schlager, H; Schultz, M; Siegmund, P; Steil, B; Stephanou, E G; Stier, P; Traub, M; Warneke, C; Williams, J; Ziereis, H

    2002-01-01

    The Mediterranean Intensive Oxidant Study, performed in the summer of 2001, uncovered air pollution layers from the surface to an altitude of 15 kilometers. In the boundary layer, air pollution standards are exceeded throughout the region, caused by West and East European pollution from the north.

  18. Mediterranean climate change and Indian Ocean warming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoerling, M.; Eischeid, J.; Hurrel, J.

    2006-01-01

    General circulation model (GCM) responses to 20. century changes in sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and greenhouse gases are diagnosed, with emphasis on their relationship to observed regional climate change over the Mediterranean region. A major question is whether the Mediterranean region's drying trend since 1950 can be understood as a consequence of the warming trend in tropical SSTs. We focus on the impact of Indian Ocean warming, which is itself the likely result of increasing greenhouse gases. It is discovered that a strong projection onto the positive polarity of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index characterizes the atmospheric response structure to the 1950-1999 warming of Indian Ocean SSTs. This influence appears to be robust in so far as it is reproduced in ensembles of experiments using three different GCMs. Both the equilibrium and transient responses to Indian Ocean warming are examined. Under each scenario, the latitude of prevailing mid latitude westerlies shifts poleward during the November-April period. The consequence is a drying of the Mediterranean region, whereas northern Europe and Scandinavia receive increased precipitation in concert with the poleward shift of storminess. The IPCC (TAR) 20. century coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations forced by observed greenhouse gas changes also yield a post-1950 drying trend over the Mediterranean. We argue that this feature of human-induced regional climate change is the outcome of a dynamical feedback, one involving Indian Ocean warming and a requisite adjustment of atmospheric circulation systems to such ocean warming

  19. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (June 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. SIOKOU

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns records of species that have extended their distribution in the Mediterranean Sea. The finding of the rare brackish angiosperm Althenia filiformis in the island of Cyprus is interesting since its insertion in the Red Data Book of the Flora of Cyprus is suggested. The following species enriched the flora or fauna lists of the relevant countries: the red alga Sebdenia dichotoma (Greece, the hydrachnid mite Pontarachna adriatica (Slovenia, and the thalassinid Gebiacantha talismani (Turkey. Several alien species were recorded in new Mediterranean localities. The record of the burrowing goby Trypauchen vagina in the North Levantine Sea (Turkish coast, suggests the start of spreading of this Lessepsian immigrant in the Mediterranean Sea. The findings of the following species indicate the extension of their occurrence in the Mediterranean Sea: the foraminifer Amphistegina lobifera (island of Zakynthos, Greece, the medusa Cassiopea andromeda (Syria, the copepod Centropages furcatus (Aegean Sea, the decapod shrimp Melicertus hathor (island of Kastellorizo, Greece, the crab Menoethius monoceros (Gulf of Tunis, the barnacles Balanus trigonus, Megabalanus tintinnabulum, Megabalanus coccopoma and the bivalves Chama asperella, Cucurbitula cymbium (Saronikos Gulf, Greece.

  20. Screening of three Mediterranean phenylketonuria mutations in ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    as the most frequent mutation (Dahri et al. 2010). The. E280K mutation was also reported in Mediterranean popu- lations (Guldberg et al. 1993). Since Tunisia is a Mediter- ranean country, patients with PKU are presumed to have these mutations. The aim of this study was to assess prevalence of the three above mutations ...

  1. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J. Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á.; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region. PMID:25831129

  2. Plastic Accumulation in the Mediterranean Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Cózar, Andrés

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  3. Plastic accumulation in the Mediterranean sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cózar, Andrés; Sanz-Martín, Marina; Martí, Elisa; González-Gordillo, J Ignacio; Ubeda, Bárbara; Gálvez, José Á; Irigoien, Xabier; Duarte, Carlos M

    2015-01-01

    Concentrations of floating plastic were measured throughout the Mediterranean Sea to assess whether this basin can be regarded as a great accumulation region of plastic debris. We found that the average density of plastic (1 item per 4 m2), as well as its frequency of occurrence (100% of the sites sampled), are comparable to the accumulation zones described for the five subtropical ocean gyres. Plastic debris in the Mediterranean surface waters was dominated by millimeter-sized fragments, but showed a higher proportion of large plastic objects than that present in oceanic gyres, reflecting the closer connection with pollution sources. The accumulation of floating plastic in the Mediterranean Sea (between 1,000 and 3,000 tons) is likely related to the high human pressure together with the hydrodynamics of this semi-enclosed basin, with outflow mainly occurring through a deep water layer. Given the biological richness and concentration of economic activities in the Mediterranean Sea, the affects of plastic pollution on marine and human life are expected to be particularly frequent in this plastic accumulation region.

  4. Offshore wind mapping Mediterranean area using SAR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    2013-01-01

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface, for example from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR), provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean Sea, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with...

  5. Iron Age Mediterranean Chronology : A Reply

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruins, Hendrik J.; Nijboer, Albert J.; van der Plicht, Johannes

    2011-01-01

    This article is a reply to the preceding rejoinder by Fantalkin et al., which they wrote in response to our article concerning radiocarbon dates of Iron Age sites in the Mediterranean region measured at Groningen (van der Plicht et al. 2009). We do not agree with much of their criticism. Our reply

  6. Mediterranean energy transition: 2040 scenario. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Jannet Allal, Houda; Guarrera, Lisa; Karbuz, Sohbet; Menichetti, Emanuela; Lescoeur, Bruno; El Agrebi, Hassen; Harrouch, Hamdi; Campana, Dominique; Greaume, Francois; Bedes, Christelle; Bolinches, Christine; Meraud, Thierry; Tappero, Denis; Bosseboeuf, Didier; Lechevin, Bruno; Abaach, Hassan; Damasiotis, Markos; Darras, Marc; Hajjaji, Mourad; Keramane, Abdenour; Khalfallah, Ezzedine; Mourtada, Adel; Osman, Nejib

    2016-06-01

    The stakes of embarking upon a Mediterranean Energy Transition is essential for countries from both shores of the Mediterranean, especially taking into account the increasing demographics (+105 million by 2040) and the fast growing energy demand in an increasingly constrained context both in terms of energy availability and environmental impacts of conventional energy sources uses. There is a huge, but yet untapped, potential for energy efficiency and renewable energy sources, especially in the South Mediterranean region. By improving energy efficiency and deploying renewables on a large scale, the Mediterranean region would reduce tensions on energy security for importing countries, improve opportunities for exporting ones and reduce energy costs and environmental damages for the whole region. Embarking on an energy transition path will also help improve social welfare in the region and contribute to job creation, among other positive externalities. OME regularly conducts prospective works to 2040, assessing the impact of prolonging current energy trends. Under this Business-As-Usual or so-called 'Conservative' Scenario the situation would evolve critically on all counts over the next 25 years: doubling of energy demand and tripling of electricity consumption, soaring infrastructure and import bills (+443 GW to be installed and doubling of the fossil-fuel imports) and a critical rise in carbon emissions (+45%). Such a scenario, based essentially on fossil fuels, would put further strain on the environment and exacerbate geopolitical tensions in the region. A change of energy trajectory is therefore necessary for all Mediterranean countries to help change current trends and to increase efforts promoting energy efficiency and renewable energies. In this context, MEDENER and OME, based on the 2030-2050 visions of ADEME and the prospective tools of OME, have decided to jointly investigate a Mediterranean Energy Transition Scenario, an ambitious scenario that

  7. The Argument for a Narrow Conception of 'Religious Autonomy'

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Lisbet

    2015-01-01

    This article argues for a both horizontal and vertical narrow concept of collective freedom of Religion. The most recent ECtHR judgments as well as the US Supreme Court Hosanna-Tabor case leads theory to establish religious autonomy based on parallel legal roders. Nordic theory has been based...

  8. Predicting soil nitrogen content using narrow-band indices from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Optimal fertiliser applications for sustainable forest stand productivity management, whilst protecting the environment, is vital. This study estimated soil nitrogen content using leaf-level narrow-band vegetation indices derived from a hand-held 350–2 500 nm spectroradiometer. Leaf-level spectral data were collected and ...

  9. Nonstationary Narrow-Band Response and First-Passage Probability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krenk, Steen

    1979-01-01

    The notion of a nonstationary narrow-band stochastic process is introduced without reference to a frequency spectrum, and the joint distribution function of two consecutive maxima is approximated by use of an envelope. Based on these definitions the first passage problem is treated as a Markov po...

  10. Free-Molecular Gas Flow in Narrow (Nanoscale) Channel

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Levdansky, V.V.; Roldugin, V.I.; Žďanov, V.M.; Ždímal, Vladimír

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 87, č. 4 (2014), s. 802-814 ISSN 1062-0125 Grant - others:BRFFI(BY) T12P-018; RFBR(RU) 12-08-90009 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : narrow channels * free-molecular gas flow * surface diffusion Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  11. Experimental Study on Critical Power in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae-Joon; Ha, Kwang-Soon; Kim, Sang-Baik; Kim, Hee-Dong; Jeong, Ji-Hwan

    2002-01-01

    An experimental study of critical heat flux in gap (CHFG) has been performed to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in a hemispherical narrow gap. The objectives of the CHFG test are to measure critical power from a critical heat removal rate through the hemispherical narrow gap using distilled water with experimental parameters of system pressure and gap width. The CHFG test results have shown that a countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) brings about local dryout at the small edge region of the upper part and finally global dryout in a hemispherical narrow gap. Increases in the gap width and pressure lead to an increase in critical power. The measured values of critical power are lower than the predictions made by other empirical CHF correlations applicable to flat plate, annuli, and small spherical gaps. The measured data on critical power in the hemispherical narrow gaps have been correlated using nondimensional parameters with a range of approximately ±20%. The developed correlation has been expanded to apply the spherical geometry using the Siemens/KWU correlation

  12. Career Attainment among Healthcare Executives: Is the Gender Gap Narrowing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branin, Joan Julia

    2009-01-01

    Health care occupations are expected to be among the fastest growing professions in the next ten years. With such incredible growth expected in employment and wages, and with women's participation in the industry remaining strong, are women in the health care industry, particularly those in health care administration, experiencing a narrowing of…

  13. Narrow-Band Imaging: Clinical Application in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Barbeiro

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Narrow-band imaging is an advanced imaging system that applies optic digital methods to enhance endoscopic images and improves visualization of the mucosal surface architecture and microvascular pattern. Narrow-band imaging use has been suggested to be an important adjunctive tool to white-light endoscopy to improve the detection of lesions in the digestive tract. Importantly, it also allows the distinction between benign and malignant lesions, targeting biopsies, prediction of the risk of invasive cancer, delimitation of resection margins, and identification of residual neoplasia in a scar. Thus, in expert hands it is a useful tool that enables the physician to decide on the best treatment (endoscopic or surgical and management. Current evidence suggests that it should be used routinely for patients at increased risk for digestive neoplastic lesions and could become the standard of care in the near future, at least in referral centers. However, adequate training programs to promote the implementation of narrow-band imaging in daily clinical practice are needed. In this review, we summarize the current scientific evidence on the clinical usefulness of narrow-band imaging in the diagnosis and characterization of digestive tract lesions/cancers and describe the available classification systems.

  14. Note: Folded optical system for narrow forward looking probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou, Hsuan-Chao; Hah, Dooyoung; Kim, Jeonghwan; Feldman, M.

    2014-01-01

    An optical system is described in which a laser beam makes three passes through a single graded index lens, forming a focus along the optic axis. It has important applications in endoscopic probes, where the forward looking characteristic permits the avoidance of obstacles and the narrow structure makes it minimally invasive

  15. Modeling of air flow through a narrow crack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trojek, T.; Cechak, T.; Moucka, L.; Fronka, A.

    2004-01-01

    Radon transport in dwellings is governed to a significant extent by pressure differences and properties of transport pathways. A model of air flow through narrow cracks was created in order to facilitate prediction of air velocity and air flow. Theoretical calculations, based on numerical solution of a system of differential equations, were compared with measurements carried out on a window crack. (P.A.)

  16. Measurements of Narrow Mg II Associated Absorption Doublets with ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The measurement of the variations of absorption lines over time is a good method to study the physical conditions of absorbers. In this paper, we measure the variations of the line strength of 36 narrow Mg II2796, 2803 associated absorption doublets, which are imprinted on 31 quasar spectra with two ...

  17. Japanese VLBI Network Observations of a Gamma-Ray Narrow ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Astrophys. Astr. (2014) 35, 215–218 c Indian Academy of Sciences. Japanese VLBI Network Observations of a Gamma-Ray. Narrow-Line Seyfert 1 Galaxy 1H 0323+342. Kiyoaki Wajima1,∗. , Kenta Fujisawa2, Masaaki Hayashida3. & Naoki Isobe4. 1Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences,.

  18. Extrinsic stretching narrowing and anterior indentation of the rectosigmoid junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulman, A.; Fataar, S.

    1979-01-01

    Thirty-five cases of extrinsic narrowing or anterior indentation of the rectosigmoid junction (RSJ) have been studied. The RSJ lies directly behind the pouch of Douglas which is a favoured site for peritoneal metastasis, abscess and endometriosis. Any space-occupying lesion of sufficient size at this site will indent the anterior aspects of the RSJ. Causes include distension or tumour of the ileum or sigmoid colon, gross ascites (when the patient is erect), and tumours below the pelvic peritonium, such as gynaecological neoplasm and internal iliac artery aneurysm. When a desmoplastic metastasis in the pouch of Douglas infiltrates the outer layers of the RSJ, the fibrosis produces an eccentric shortening on its anterior aspect, which in turn causes a pleating of the mucosa with the folds radiating towards the shortened area. This is also seen with primary pelvic carcinomas directly adherent to the rectum, endometriosis with repeated bleeding and increasing eccentric, submucosal fibrosis, and chronic abscess in the pouch of Douglas. Not all extrinsic narrowing of the RSJ are pathological. One case of anterior indentation followed operation for rectal prolapse. Ten additional cases showed narrowing due to a technical artefact air-distended colon rising into the upper abdomen to cause stretching at the RSJ. As with ascites, this narrowing due to 'high-rise sigmoid' disappeared when the patients became recumbent and the colonic air redistributed. (author)

  19. Narrow coherent effects in πNN-dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, A.E.; Obrant, G.Z.

    1990-01-01

    Coherent effect production is considered in πNN-dynamics with resonant pion-nucleon interaction via Brueckner theory and Faddev equations. It is shown that the narrow energy and final momentum dependence can arise in the inelastic S-wave πd-scattering. The energy dependence peculiarities can have a width an order magnitude less than πN-resonance one

  20. A "Narrowing of Inquiry" in American Moral Psychology and Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Michael J.; Slife, Brent D.

    2013-01-01

    We explore the possibility that a priori philosophical commitments continue to result in a narrowing of inquiry in moral psychology and education where theistic worldviews are concerned. Drawing from the theories of Edward L. Thorndike and John Dewey, we examine naturalistic philosophical commitments that influenced the study of moral psychology…

  1. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. CROCETTA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records” of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided per countries, listed according to a Mediterranean west-east geographic position. New biodiversity data are reported for 7 different countries, although one species hereby reported from Malta is overall new for the entire Mediterranean basin, and is presumably present also in Israel and Lebanon (see below in Malta. Italy: the rare native fish Gobius kolombatovici is first reported from the Ionian Sea, whilst the alien jellyfish Rhopilema nomadica and the alien fish Oplegnathus fasciatus are first reported from the entire country. The presence of O. fasciatus from Trieste is concomitantly the first for the entire Adriatic Sea. Finally, the alien bivalve Arcuatula senhousia is hereby first reported from Campania (Tyrrhenian Sea. Tunisia: a bloom of the alien crab Portunus segnis is first reported from the Gulf of Gabes, from where it was considered as casual. Malta: the alien flatworm Maritigrella fuscopunctata is first recorded from the Mediterranean Sea on the basis of 25 specimens. At the same time, web researches held possible unpublished records from Israel and Lebanon. The alien crab P. segnis, already mentioned above, is first formally reported from Malta based on specimens collected in 1972. Concomitantly, the presence of Callinectes sapidus in Maltese waters is excluded since based on misidentifications. Greece: the Atlantic northern brown shrimp Penaeus atzecus, previously known from the Ionian Sea from sporadic records only, is now well established in Greek and international Ionian waters. The alien sea urchin Diadema setosum is reported from the second time from Greece, and its first record date from the country is backdated to 2010 in Rhodes Island. The alien lionfish Pterois miles is first reported from Greece and

  2. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (October, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. KATSANEVAKIS

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of alien and native species respectively. The new records of alien species include: the red alga Asparagopsis taxiformis (Crete and Lakonicos Gulf (Greece; the red alga Grateloupia turuturu (along the Israeli Mediterranean shore; the mantis shrimp Clorida albolitura (Gulf of Antalya, Turkey; the mud crab Dyspanopeus sayi (Mar Piccolo of Taranto, Ionian Sea; the blue crab Callinectes sapidus (Chios Island, Greece; the isopod Paracerceis sculpta (northern Aegean Sea, Greece; the sea urchin Diadema setosum (Gökova Bay, Turkey; the molluscs Smaragdia souverbiana, Murex forskoehlii, Fusinus verrucosus, Circenita callipyga, and Aplysia dactylomela (Syria; the cephalaspidean mollusc Haminoea cyanomarginata (Baia di Puolo, Massa Lubrense, Campania, southern Italy; the topmouth gudgeon Pseudorasbora parva (Civitavecchia, Tyrrhenian Sea; the fangtooth moray Enchelycore anatine (Plemmirio marine reserve, Sicily; the silver-cheeked toadfish Lagocephalus sceleratus (Saros Bay, Turkey; and Ibiza channel, Spain; the Indo-Pacific ascidian Herdmania momusin Kastelorizo Island (Greece; and the foraminiferal Clavulina multicam erata (Saronikos Gulf, Greece. The record of L. sceleratus in Spain consists the deepest (350-400m depth record of the species in the Mediterranean Sea. The new records of native species include: first record of the ctenophore Cestum veneris in Turkish marine waters; the presence of Holothuria tubulosa and Holothuria polii in the Bay of Igoumenitsa (Greece; the first recorded sighting of the bull ray Pteromylaeus bovinus in Maltese waters; and a new record of the fish Lobotes surinamensis from Maliakos Gulf.

  3. Erosion and Land Degradation in Mediterranean areas as a adaptive response to Mediterranean agriiculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imeson, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The motivation for this session is the statement or claim that Mediterranean areas are sensitive to erosion and desertification. One result of the LEDDRA Approach, which is applying the Complex Adaptive (CAS)paradigm at study sites in Mediterranean Spain, Greece and Italy is that there is just a single socio-environmental system in which land degradation is being caused by the actions of people and the Mediterranean soils have co-eveolved with people under the influence of fire and grazing. They are therefore resilient, and this was demonstrated by Naveh and Thornes. Also the Medalus field sites showed very low rates of erosion. With examples from different Mediterranean landscapes, it is considered that Mediterranean landscapes went through an initial phase of being sensitive to erosion which ended up with the original soils before ploughing or deforestation, being eroded from most of the areas, In some places these are found. LEDDRA The Leddra approach is to consider different states which are separated by transitions. The first state is that of the deforestaion and destruction of the forest that took place 6000 10000 years ago, in the Eastern and Northern Mediterranean, and 2000 to 4,000 years ago in large areas of the Western Mediterranean, and 100 to 400 years ago in California. Australia, New Zealand and Chile. The second state involves appropriating and settling the land from indigenous people and introducing cattle and sheep and Mediterranean crops. The current state of desertification is one in which erosion occurs because of the use of specific cultivation methods and subsidies for irrigating and producing crops outside of their range. In the Mediterranean landscape State, such as found near Santiago in Chile and in Crete, society gains many cultural benefits from grazing. However, the consequences of this are that the whole ecosystem is maintained in an arid state, so that areas in Crete receiving 800-1100 mm rainfall have a semi arid vegetation, instead

  4. Picarola margalefii, gen. et sp. nov., a new planktonic coccolithophore from NW Mediterranean waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lluïsa Cros

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available A coccolithophore which is referred to a new genus Picarola gen. nov. and described as a new species Picarola margalefii sp. nov., has been observed from the NW Mediterranean. The description of the new species is based on Scanning Electronic Microscopy (SEM observations. The coccoliths of Picarola margalefii sp. nov. are muroliths that have a narrow high rim and a central area with a cross and an elongate four-sided central process. Energy dispersive X-ray microanalyses confirmed their calcareous nature. The relation between the new genus and the genera Papposphaera Tangen, Vexillarius Jordan et Chamberlain, and Turrilithus Jordan et al., is discussed. The coccolithophore Picarola margalefii gen. et sp. nov., is dedicated to Dr. Ramon Margalef.

  5. Narrow power deposition profiles on the JET divertor target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lingertat, J.; Laux, M.; Monk, R.

    2001-01-01

    One of the key unresolved issues in the design of a future fusion reactor is the power handling capability of the divertor target plates. Earlier we reported on the existence of narrow power deposition profiles in JET, obtained mainly from Langmuir probe measurements. We repeated these measurements in the MkI, MkII and MkIIGB divertor configurations with an upgraded probe system, which allowed us to study the profile shape in more detail. The main results of this study are: In NB heated discharges the electron temperature and power flux at the outer target show a distinct peak of ∼5 mm half-width near the separatrix strike point. The corresponding profiles on the inner target do not show a similar feature. The height of the narrow peak increases with NB heating power and decreases with deuterium and impurity gas puffing. Ion orbit losses are suggested as a possible explanation of the observed profile shape

  6. Experimental research on flow instability in vertical narrow annuli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Geping; QIU Suizheng; SU Guanghui; JIA Dounan

    2007-01-01

    A narrow annular test section of 1.5mm gap and 1800mm length was designed and manufactured, with good tightness and insulation. Experiments were carried out to investigate characteristics of flow instability of forced-convection in vertical narrow annuli. Using distilled water as work fluid, the experiments were conducted at pressures of 1.0~3.0 MPa, mass flow rates of 3.0~25 kg/h, heating power of 3.0~ 6.5kW and inlet fluid temperature of 20 ℃, 40 ℃ or 60℃. It was found that flow instability occured with fixed inlet condition and heating power when mass flow rate was below a special value. Effects of inlet subcooling, system pressure and mass flow rate on the system behavior were studied and the instability region was given.

  7. Coulomb and nuclear excitations of narrow resonances in 17Ne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Marganiec

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available New experimental data for dissociation of relativistic 17Ne projectiles incident on targets of lead, carbon, and polyethylene targets at GSI are presented. Special attention is paid to the excitation and decay of narrow resonant states in 17Ne. Distributions of internal energy in the O15+p+p three-body system have been determined together with angular and partial-energy correlations between the decay products in different energy regions. The analysis was done using existing experimental data on 17Ne and its mirror nucleus 17N. The isobaric multiplet mass equation is used for assignment of observed resonances and their spins and parities. A combination of data from the heavy and light targets yielded cross sections and transition probabilities for the Coulomb excitations of the narrow resonant states. The resulting transition probabilities provide information relevant for a better understanding of the 17Ne structure.

  8. Period effects, cohort effects, and the narrowing gender wage gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-11-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use age-period-cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Study on CHF in a Hemispherical Narrow Gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, J.H.; Park, R.J.; Kang, K.H.; Kim, S.B.; Kim, H.D.

    1999-01-01

    As a part of the SONATA-IV program, KAERI is conducting an experimental investigation of critical heat flux(CHF) in hemispherical narrow gaps. A visualization experiment, VISU-II, was done as the first step to get a visual observation of the flow behaviour inside a hemispherical gap and to understand the CHF-triggering mechanism. It was observed that the counter-current flow limitation (CCFL) phenomenon prevented water from wetting the heater surface and induced CHF. The CHFG (Critical Heat Flux in Gap) test is now being performed to measure the CHF and to investigate the inherent cooling mechanism in hemispherical narrow gaps. Temperature measurements over the heater surface show that the two-phase flow behaviour inside the gaps could be quite different from the other usual CHF experiments. The measured CHF points are lower than the predictions by existing empirical correlations based on the data measured with small-scale horizontal plates and vertical annulus. (authors)

  10. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effects. While gains in female wages contributed to declines in the gender wage gap for cohorts born before 1950, for later cohorts the narrowing of the gender wage gap is primarily a result of declines in male wages. PMID:24090861

  11. Benefits of the Mediterranean diet beyond the Mediterranean Sea and beyond food patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-10-14

    Abundant and growing evidence has accrued to demonstrate that the traditional Mediterranean diet is likely to be the ideal dietary pattern for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. A landmark randomized trial (PREDIMED) together with many well-conducted long-term observational prospective cohort studies support this causal effect.A new, large British cohort study by Tong et al. assessing the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease was recently published in BMC Medicine. Using a superb methodology, they followed-up 23,902 participants for 12.2 years on average and observed several thousand incident cases.The results of this cohort study showed a significant beneficial effect of the Mediterranean diet on cardiovascular events. These findings support the transferability of this dietary pattern beyond the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The authors provided measures of population impact in cardiovascular prevention and estimated that 19,375 cases of cardiovascular death would be prevented each year in the UK by promoting the Mediterranean Diet.Please see related article: http://bmcmedicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12916-016-0677-4 .

  12. New technology for the control of narrow-gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoniou, I.; Bozhevolnov, V.; Melnikov, Yu.; Yafyasov, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present the results of the year work in the frame of the EU ESPRIT Project 28890 NTCONGS 'New technology for the control of narrow-gap semiconductors'. This work has involved both theoretical and experimental study, as well as the development of new specific equipment, towards the creation of a new generation of nanoelectronic devices able to operate at 77 K and even at room temperature

  13. US images encoding envelope amplitude following narrow band filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommer, F.G.; Stern, R.A.; Chen, H.S.

    1986-01-01

    Ultrasonic waveform data from phantoms having differing scattering characteristics and from normal and cirrhotic human liver in vivo were recorded within a standardized dynamic range and filtered with narrow band filters either above or below the mean recorded ultrasonic center frequency. Images created by mapping the amplitudes of received ultrasound following such filtration permitted dramatic differentiation, not discernible in conventional US images, of phantoms having differing scattering characteristics, and of normal and cirrhotic human livers

  14. Elongational viscosity of narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Anders; Almdal, Kristoffer; Rasmussen, Henrik Koblitz

    2003-01-01

    Transient and steady elongational viscosity has been measured for two narrow molar mass distribution polystyrene melts of molar masses 200 000 and 390 000 by means of a filament stretching rheometer. Total Hencky strains of about five have been obtained. The transient elongational viscosity rises...... above the linear viscoelastic prediction at intermediate strains, indicating strain hardening. The steady elongational viscosities are monotone decreasing functions of elongation rate. At elongation rates larger than the inverse reptation time, the steady elongational viscosity scales linearly...

  15. Cervical spinal canal narrowing and cervical neurologi-cal injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Ling

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Cervical spinal canal narrowing can lead to injury of the spinal cord and neurological symptoms in-cluding neck pain, headache, weakness and parasthesisas. According to previous and recent clinical researches, we investigated the geometric parameters of normal cervical spinal canal including the sagittal and transverse diameters as well as Torg ratio. The mean sagittal diameter of cervical spinal canal at C 1 to C 7 ranges from 15.33 mm to 20.46 mm, the mean transverse diameter at the same levels ranges from 24.45 mm to 27.00 mm and the mean value of Torg ratio is 0.96. With respect to narrow cervical spinal canal, the following charaterstics are found: firstly, extension of the cervical spine results in statistically significant stenosis as compared with the flexed or neutral positions; secondly, females sustain cervical spinal canal narrowing more easily than males; finally, the consistent narrowest cervical canal level is at C 4 for all ethnicity, but there is a slight variation in the sagittal diameter of cervical spinal stenosis (≤14 mm in Whites, ≤ 12 mm in Japanese, ≤13.7 mm in Chinese. Narrow sagittal cervical canal diameter brings about an increased risk of neurological injuries in traumatic, degenerative and inflam-matory conditions and is related with extension of cervical spine, gender, as well as ethnicity. It is hoped that this re-view will be helpful in diagnosing spinal cord and neuro-logical injuries with the geometric parameters of cervical spine in the future. Key words: Spinal cord injuries; Spinal stenosis; Trauma, nervous system

  16. Generation of narrow peaks in spectroscopy of charged particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dubbers, Dirk, E-mail: dubbers@physi.uni-heidelberg.de; Schmidt, Ulrich, E-mail: ulrich.schmidt@physi.uni-heidelberg.de

    2016-11-21

    In spectroscopy of charged particles, narrow peaks may appear in continuous spectra if magnetic transport of the particles is involved. These artefacts, which so far have escaped the attention of investigators, can develop whenever geometric detection efficiency is less than 100%. As such peaks may be misinterpreted as new physics, their generation is investigated, both analytically and experimentally, for various detector configurations, including those used in searches for the spontaneous decay of the vacuum in heavy-ion collisions.

  17. The 1987 Whittier Narrows, California, earthquake: A Metropolitan shock

    OpenAIRE

    Hauksson, Egill; Stein, Ross S.

    1989-01-01

    Just 3 hours after the Whittier Narrows earthquake struck, it became clear that a heretofore unseen geological structure was seismically active beneath metropolitan Los Angeles. Contrary to initial expectations of strike-slip or oblique-slip motion on the Whittier fault, whose north end abuts the aftershock zone, the focal mechanism of the mainshock showed pure thrust faulting on a deep gently inclined surface [Hauksson et al., 1988]. This collection of nine research reports spans the spectru...

  18. Analysis of ultra-narrow ferromagnetic domain walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, Catherine; Paul, David

    2012-01-10

    New materials with high magnetic anisotropy will have domains separated by ultra-narrow ferromagnetic walls with widths on the order of a few unit cells, approaching the limit where the elastic continuum approximation often used in micromagnetic simulations is accurate. The limits of this approximation are explored, and the static and dynamic interactions with intrinsic crystalline defects and external driving elds are modeled. The results developed here will be important when considering the stability of ultra-high-density storage media.

  19. Three-Prong Distribution of Massive Narrow QCD Jets

    CERN Document Server

    Field, Matan; Kosower, David A; Mannelli, Lorenzo; Perez, Gilad

    2013-01-01

    We study the planar-flow distributions of narrow, highly boosted, massive QCD jets. Using the factorization properties of QCD in the collinear limit, we compute the planar-flow jet function from the one-to-three splitting function at tree-level. We derive the leading-log behavior of the jet function analytically. We also compare our semi-analytic jet function with parton-shower predictions using various generators.

  20. CLIMATIC SIGNALS FROM INTRA-ANNUAL DENSITY FLUCTUATION FREQUENCY IN MEDITERRANEAN PINES AT A REGIONAL SCALE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrica eZalloni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as Intra-Annual Density Fluctuations (IADFs. IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait. and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 11 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain and 4 in Portugal, P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain and 4 in Portugal, and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution.

  1. Climatic Signals from Intra-annual Density Fluctuation Frequency in Mediterranean Pines at a Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalloni, Enrica; de Luis, Martin; Campelo, Filipe; Novak, Klemen; De Micco, Veronica; Di Filippo, Alfredo; Vieira, Joana; Nabais, Cristina; Rozas, Vicente; Battipaglia, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Tree rings provide information about the climatic conditions during the growing season by recording them in different anatomical features, such as intra-annual density fluctuations (IADFs). IADFs are intra-annual changes of wood density appearing as latewood-like cells within earlywood, or earlywood-like cells within latewood. The occurrence of IADFs is dependent on the age and size of the tree, and it is triggered by climatic drivers. The variations of IADF frequency of different species and their dependence on climate across a wide geographical range have still to be explored. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of age, tree-ring width and climate on IADF formation and frequency at a regional scale across the Mediterranean Basin in Pinus halepensis Mill., Pinus pinaster Ait., and Pinus pinea L. The analyzed tree-ring network was composed of P. pinea trees growing at 10 sites (2 in Italy, 4 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), P. pinaster from 19 sites (2 in Italy, 13 in Spain, and 4 in Portugal), and P. halepensis from 38 sites in Spain. The correlations between IADF frequency and monthly minimum, mean and maximum temperatures, as well as between IADF frequency and total precipitation, were analyzed. A significant negative relationship between IADF frequency and tree-ring age was found for the three Mediterranean pines. Moreover, IADFs were more frequent in wider rings than in narrower ones, although the widest rings showed a reduced IADF frequency. Wet conditions during late summer/early autumn triggered the formation of IADFs in the three species. Our results suggest the existence of a common climatic driver for the formation of IADFs in Mediterranean pines, highlighting the potential use of IADF frequency as a proxy for climate reconstructions with geographical resolution. PMID:27200052

  2. Environmental niche conservatism explains the accumulation of species richness in Mediterranean-hotspot plant genera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeels, Alexander; Cardillo, Marcel

    2017-03-01

    The causes of exceptionally high plant diversity in Mediterranean-climate biodiversity hotspots are not fully understood. We asked whether a mechanism similar to the tropical niche conservatism hypothesis could explain the diversity of four large genera (Protea, Moraea, Banksia, and Hakea) with distributions within and adjacent to the Greater Cape Floristic Region (South Africa) or the Southwest Floristic Region (Australia). Using phylogenetic and spatial data we estimated the environmental niche of each species, and reconstructed the mode and dynamics of niche evolution, and the geographic history, of each genus. For three genera, there were strong positive relationships between the diversity of clades within a region and their inferred length of occupation of that region. Within genera, there was evidence for strong evolutionary constraint on niche axes associated with climatic seasonality and aridity, with different niche optima for hotspot and nonhotspot clades. Evolutionary transitions away from hotspots were associated with increases in niche breadth and elevated rates of niche evolution. Our results point to a process of "hotspot niche conservatism" whereby the accumulation of plant diversity in Mediterranean-type ecosystems results from longer time for speciation, with dispersal away from hotspots limited by narrow and phylogenetically conserved environmental niches. © 2017 The Author(s). Evolution © 2017 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  3. Transdisciplinary Challenges for Sustainable Management of Mediterranean Landscapes in the Global Information Society

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zev Naveh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The present chaotic transformation from the industrial to the global information society is accelerating the ecological, social and economic unsustainability. The rapidly growing unsustainable, fossil energy powered urbanindustrial technosphere and their detrimental impacts on nature and human well-being are threatening the solar energy powered natural and seminatural biosphere landscapes and their vital ecosystem services. A sustainability revolution is therefore urgently needed, requiring a shift from the „fossil age“ to the „solar age“ of a new world economy, coupled with more sustainable lifestyles and consumption patterns. The sustainable future of viable multifunctional biosphere landscapes of the Mediterranean Region and elsewhere and their biological and cultural richness can only be ensured by a post-industrial symbiosis between nature and human society. For this purpose a mindset shift of scientists and professionals from narrow disciplinarity to transdisciplinarity is necessary, dealing with holistic land use planning and management, in close cooperation with land users and stakeholders. To conserve and restore the rapidly vanishing and degrading Mediterranean uplands and highest biological ecological and cultural landscape ecodiversity, their dynamic homeorhetic flow equilibrium, has to be maintained by continuing or simulating all anthropogenic processes of grazing, browsing by wild and domesticated ungulates. Catastrophic wildfires can be prevented only by active fire and fuel management, converting highly inflammable pine forests and dense shrub thickets into floristically enriched, multi- layered open woodlands and recreation forests.

  4. Present status of heat transfer in narrow gap rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudo, Yukio; Kaminaga, Masanori

    1990-01-01

    In the safety evaluation for research nuclear reactors, at the time of abnormal transient change and accidents, after the tripping of a primary coolant pump, such event that the flow direction of coolant in a core reverses from steady downward flow to rising flow is supposed. In this case, the coexisting convection field, in which free convection and forced convection coexist, arises in place of forced convection, and especially in the research reactors using plate type fuel like JRR-3, it is important to grasp the heat transfer characteristics in the coexisting convection field in a narrow channel. Jackson et al. proposed the heat transfer correlation equation which can be applied to wide conditions including the coexisting convection zone, but its applicability to a narrow channel has not been confirmed. Based on the experimental results, in this study, the effect that the decrease of gap exerts to the convection heat transfer characteristics reported so far was investigated. The experiment and the results are reported. In this experiment on the coexisting convection zone in a narrow gap, the effect of main flow acceleration arose sufficiently large as compared with the effect of buoyancy, and heat transfer was promoted. (K.I.)

  5. Electron correlations in narrow energy bands: modified polar model approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Didukh

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The electron correlations in narrow energy bands are examined within the framework of the modified form of polar model. This model permits to analyze the effect of strong Coulomb correlation, inter-atomic exchange and correlated hopping of electrons and explain some peculiarities of the properties of narrow-band materials, namely the metal-insulator transition with an increase of temperature, nonlinear concentration dependence of Curie temperature and peculiarities of transport properties of electronic subsystem. Using a variant of generalized Hartree-Fock approximation, the single-electron Green's function and quasi-particle energy spectrum of the model are calculated. Metal-insulator transition with the change of temperature is investigated in a system with correlated hopping. Processes of ferromagnetic ordering stabilization in the system with various forms of electronic DOS are studied. The static conductivity and effective spin-dependent masses of current carriers are calculated as a function of electron concentration at various DOS forms. The correlated hopping is shown to cause the electron-hole asymmetry of transport and ferromagnetic properties of narrow band materials.

  6. Heavy drinking, impulsivity and attentional narrowing following alcohol cue exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hicks, Joshua A; Fields, Sherecce; Davis, William E; Gable, Philip A

    2015-08-01

    Research shows that alcohol-related stimuli have the propensity to capture attention among individuals motivated to consume alcohol. Research has further demonstrated that impulsive individuals are especially prone to this type of attentional bias. Recently, it is suggested that alcohol cue exposure can also produce a general narrowing of attention consistent with the activation of approach motivational states. Based on previous models of addiction and recent research on the activation of approach motivational states, we predicted that impulsive individuals would demonstrate a constriction of attentional focus in response to alcohol cue exposure. Participants (n = 392) completed a task assessing attentional breadth in response to alcohol and non-alcohol cues, followed by measures of alcohol use and impulsivity. The findings revealed that impulsivity scores predicted narrowing of attentional scope following the presentation of alcohol cues for heavier drinkers but not for light drinkers. These results suggest that impulsive individuals who drink more heavily demonstrate a narrowing of attention in the presence of alcohol-related incentive cues. Implications for how these findings might account for the link between impulsivity and alcohol use and misuse are discussed.

  7. Experimental study on occupant evacuation in narrow seat aisle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Shenshi; Lu, Shouxiang; Lo, Siuming; Li, Changhai; Guo, Yafei

    2018-07-01

    Narrow seat aisle is an important area in the train car interior due to the large passenger population, however evacuation therein has not gained enough concerns. In this experimental study, the occupant evacuation of the narrow seat aisle area is investigated, with the aisle width of 0.4-0.6 m and the evacuation direction of forward and backward. The evacuation behaviors are analyzed based on the video record, and the discussion is carried out in the aspect of evacuation time, crowdedness, evacuation order, and aisle conflicts. The result shows that with the increasing aisle width, total evacuation time and the average specific evacuation rate decrease. The aisle is crowded for some time, with a large linear occupant densities. The evacuation order of each occupant is mainly related to the seat position. Moreover, it is found that the aisle conflicts can be well described by Burstedde's model. This study gives a useful benchmark for evacuation simulation of narrow seat aisle, and provides reference to safety design of seat area in train cars.

  8. Laser linewidth narrowing using transient spectral hole burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiel, Charles W.; Cone, Rufus L. [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59715 (United States); Böttger, Thomas, E-mail: tbottger@usfca.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 2130 Fulton Street, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94117 (United States)

    2014-08-01

    We demonstrate significant narrowing of laser linewidths by high optical density materials with inhomogeneously broadened absorption. As a laser propagates through the material, the nonlinear spectral hole burning process causes a progressive self-filtering of the laser spectrum, potentially reaching values less than the homogeneous linewidth. The transient spectral hole dynamically adjusts itself to the instantaneous frequency of the laser, passively suppressing laser phase noise and side modes over the entire material absorption bandwidth without the need for electronic or optical feedback to the laser. Wide bandwidth laser phase noise suppression was demonstrated using Er{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and LiNbO{sub 3} at 1.5 μm by employing time-delayed self-heterodyne detection of an external cavity diode laser to study the spectral narrowing effect. Our method is not restricted to any particular wavelength or laser system and is attractive for a range of applications where ultra-low phase noise sources are required. - Highlights: • We demonstrate significant laser linewidths narrowing by high optical density materials. • Nonlinear spectral hole burning causes progressive self-filtering of laser spectrum. • Filter dynamically adjusts itself to the instantaneous frequency of the laser. • Demonstrated at 1.5 μm in Er{sup 3+} doped Y{sub 2}SiO{sub 5} and LiNbO{sub 3}. • Linewidth filtering is not restricted to any particular wavelength or laser system.

  9. Photonic bandgap narrowing in conical hollow core Bragg fibers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, Fahri Emre; Yildirim, Adem; Kanik, Mehmet [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Bayindir, Mehmet, E-mail: bayindir@nano.org.tr [UNAM-National Nanotechnology Research Center, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Institute of Materials Science and Nanotechnology, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey); Department of Physics, Bilkent University, 06800 Ankara (Turkey)

    2014-08-18

    We report the photonic bandgap engineering of Bragg fibers by controlling the thickness profile of the fiber during the thermal drawing. Conical hollow core Bragg fibers were produced by thermal drawing under a rapidly alternating load, which was applied by introducing steep changes to the fiber drawing speed. In conventional cylindrical Bragg fibers, light is guided by omnidirectional reflections from interior dielectric mirrors with a single quarter wave stack period. In conical fibers, the diameter reduction introduced a gradient of the quarter wave stack period along the length of the fiber. Therefore, the light guided within the fiber encountered slightly smaller dielectric layer thicknesses at each reflection, resulting in a progressive blueshift of the reflectance spectrum. As the reflectance spectrum shifts, longer wavelengths of the initial bandgap cease to be omnidirectionally reflected and exit through the cladding, which narrows the photonic bandgap. A narrow transmission bandwidth is particularly desirable in hollow waveguide mid-infrared sensing schemes, where broadband light is coupled to the fiber and the analyte vapor is introduced into the hollow core to measure infrared absorption. We carried out sensing simulations using the absorption spectrum of isopropyl alcohol vapor to demonstrate the importance of narrow bandgap fibers in chemical sensing applications.

  10. Novel structural flexibility identification in narrow frequency bands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J; Moon, F L

    2012-01-01

    A ‘Sub-PolyMAX’ method is proposed in this paper not only for estimating modal parameters, but also for identifying structural flexibility by processing the impact test data in narrow frequency bands. The traditional PolyMAX method obtains denominator polynomial coefficients by minimizing the least square (LS) errors of frequency response function (FRF) estimates over the whole frequency range, but FRF peaks in different structural modes may have different levels of magnitude, which leads to the modal parameters identified for the modes with small FRF peaks being inaccurate. In contrast, the proposed Sub-PolyMAX method implements the LS solver in each subspace of the whole frequency range separately; thus the results identified from a narrow frequency band are not affected by FRF data in other frequency bands. In performing structural identification in narrow frequency bands, not in the whole frequency space, the proposed method has the following merits: (1) it produces accurate modal parameters, even for the modes with very small FRF peaks; (2) it significantly reduces computation cost by reducing the number of frequency lines and the model order in each LS implementation; (3) it accurately identifies structural flexibility from impact test data, from which structural deflection under any static load can be predicted. Numerical and laboratory examples are investigated to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method. (paper)

  11. Joint Space Narrowing in Patients With Pisotriquetral Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ten Berg, Paul W L; Heeg, Erik; Strackee, Simon D; Streekstra, Geert J

    2017-09-01

    Patients with suspected pisotriquetral osteoarthritis may show joint space narrowing. However, the extent of joint space narrowing and its deviation from the joint space width (JSW) in normal anatomy is unknown. In this pathoanatomic study, we therefore compared the JSW in the pisotriquetral joint between osteoarthritic patient wrists and healthy wrists. We reviewed preoperative computed tomography (CT) scans of 8 wrists of patients with ulnar-sided wrist pain who underwent a pisiformectomy with confirmed pisotriquetral osteoarthritis at surgery. We also reviewed CT scans of 20 normal wrists from healthy volunteers serving as control group. Three-dimensional CT models of the pisiform and triquetrum were obtained from both affected and normal wrists, after which the minimum JSW was calculated in an automated fashion. In the patient group, the median (interquartile range) of the minimum JSW was 0.1 mm (0.0-0.2), and in the control group, 0.8 mm (0.3-0.9) ( P = .007). We showed that the pisotriquetral joint space in osteoarthritic patient wrists was significantly narrowed compared with healthy wrists. These results suggest that JSW evaluation has a potential diagnostic value in the work-up of patients with suspected pisotriquetral osteoarthritis. This is an interesting area for future clinical research, especially because no gold standard for diagnosing pisotriquetral osteoarthritis has been established yet.

  12. High prevalence of narrow angles among Filipino-American patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seider, Michael I; Sáles, Christopher S; Lee, Roland Y; Agadzi, Anthony K; Porco, Travis C; Weinreb, Robert N; Lin, Shan C

    2011-03-01

    To determine the prevalence of gonioscopically narrow anterior chamber angles in a Filipino-American clinic population. The records of 122 consecutive, new, self-declared Filipino-American patients examined in a comprehensive ophthalmology clinic in Vallejo, California were reviewed retrospectively. After exclusion, 222 eyes from 112 patients remained for analysis. Data were collected for anterior chamber angle grade as determined by gonioscopy (Shaffer system), age, sex, manifest refraction (spherical equivalent), intraocular pressure, and cup-to-disk ratio. Data from both eyes of patients were included and modeled using standard linear mixed-effects regression. As a comparison, data were also collected from a group of 30 consecutive White patients from the same clinic. After exclusion, 50 eyes from 25 White patients remained for comparison. At least 1 eye of 24% of Filipino-American patients had a narrow anterior chamber angle (Shaffer grade ≤ 2). Filipino-American angle grade significantly decreased with increasingly hyperopic refraction (P=0.007) and larger cup-to-disk ratio (P=0.038). Filipino-American women had significantly decreased angle grades compared with men (P=0.028), but angle grade did not vary by intraocular pressure or age (all, P≥ 0.059). Narrow anterior chamber angles are highly prevalent in Filipino-American patients in our clinic population.

  13. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Hoffman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts, and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  14. [Familial Mediterranean fever - first experiences in Slovakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dallos, Tomáš; Gálová, Lucia Lukáčiková; Macejková, Eva; Sedlačko, Jozef; Toplak, Nataša; Debeljak, Maruša; Sargsyan, Hasmik; Ilenčíková, Denisa; Kovács, László

    2014-01-01

    Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) is the most prevalent genetically determined autoinflammatory disease. FMF significantly decreases the quality of life and limits life expectancy due to the development of amyloidosis in affected individuals. Prevalence of FMF is highest in the south-eastern Mediterraneans. In other parts of the world, its occurance is often restricted to high-risk ethnic groups. In Central Europe, experience with FMF is scarse to none, as in the case of Slovakia, where no cases have been reported, so far. Herein we report the first five patients (3 adults and 2 children, 4 native Slovaks) in whom the diagnosis of FMF could be confirmed in Slovakia. Our experience demonstrates that FMF does occur in low-risk populations in Central Europe. Due to low prevalence and lack of experience, FMF diagnosis may be significantly delayed (4.5-30 years) and undiagnosed cases are to be expected in our population.

  15. Quinoa's potential in the Mediterranean region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavini, A.; Pulvento, C.; d'Andria, R.

    2014-01-01

    Willd.), which was grown in field trials in several Mediterranean countries, to study the effects of drought and salinity on yield and other characters. Drought stress during the vegetative growth stage leads to deep root development, and without stress conditions for the rest of the growing season...... allowed the plant to be able to optimize its photosynthesis and carbon translocation. Stress during seed filling recorded the lowest yields. The influence of organic matter on yield was more important under deficit irrigation than under full irrigation. The interaction between relative water content......The climate of Mediterranean region will become drier and hotter, with increased problems of soil salinity. A possible alternative to minimize the effects of climate change is to introduce species with better tolerance to salt and drought stresses. One of the options is quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa...

  16. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-09-17

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties.

  17. Early Spring Dust over the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) observed this large cloud of dust (brownish pixels) blowing from northern Africa across the Mediterranean Sea on March 4, 2002. The dust can be seen clearly blowing across Southern Italy, Albania, Greece, and Turkey-all along the Mediterranean's northeastern shoreline. Notice that there also appears to be human-made aerosol pollution (greyish pixels) pooling in the air just south of the Italian Alps and blowing southeastward over the Adriatic Sea. The Alps can be easily identified as the crescent-shaped, snow-capped mountain range in the top center of this true-color scene. There also appears to be a similar haze over Austria, Hungary, and Yugoslavia to the north and east of Italy. Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  18. Food Processing and the Mediterranean Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Richard; Gerber, Mariette

    2015-01-01

    The benefits of the Mediterranean diet (MD) for protecting against chronic disorders such as cardiovascular disease are usually attributed to high consumption of certain food groups such as vegetables, and low consumption of other food groups such as meat. The influence of food processing techniques such as food preparation and cooking on the nutrient composition and nutritional value of these foods is not generally taken into consideration. In this narrative review, we consider the mechanistic and epidemiological evidence that food processing influences phytochemicals in selected food groups in the MD (olives, olive oil, vegetables and nuts), and that this influences the protective effects of these foods against chronic diseases associated with inflammation. We also examine how the pro-inflammatory properties of meat consumption can be modified by Mediterranean cuisine. We conclude by discussing whether food processing should be given greater consideration, both when recommending a MD to the consumer and when evaluating its health properties. PMID:26393643

  19. Water and tourism on Mediterranean islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igel, Wolf von; Candela, Lucila [Technical Univ. of Catalonia, Barcelona (Spain). Geotechnical Engineering and Geosciences Dept.

    2005-07-01

    An increased tourism development has taken place in the Mediterranean basin. This has induced some positive and negative consequences over diverse aspects of life and the natural system. One important consequence has been the increasing pressure put on natural resources, namely on fresh water resources. The patterns of water use related to tourism activity that lead to a situation of scarcity of water resources in a Mediterranean islands context are presented. Next are presented the main problems of hydrological, environmental and socio-economic nature that are a consequence of the increasing tourism development and accompanying increasing scarcity of water resources. As one of these main problems is often the insufficient water supply to meet the water demand, a discussion of the pros and cons of the diverse alternatives to increase the water supply and an explanation of some alternatives to control the water demand are presented. (orig.)

  20. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albino Maggio

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  1. Cave dwellings in the Mediterranean basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viedma Urdiales Eugenia María

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction and use of subterranean caves for different functions has been relatively commonplace throughout history in different regions around the world, especially in the Mediterranean basin. Some of them are still standing at the beginning of the 21st century, and are a good example of adaptation to the geographic environment, and a part of the historical heritage. Following a short overview of the different Mediterranean countries, this work pays special attention to the present use of caves as dwelling spaces in Italy, and particularly in Spain where the caves are currently in an interesting process of renovation to meet the needs of the present population. This process is helping to boost the local economy, and it is funded by both private and public sources in several towns in Andalusia (Spain.

  2. Ozone Damages to Mediterranean Crops: Physiological Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Fagnano

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In this brief review we analyzed some aspects of tropospheric ozone damages to crop plants. Specifically, we addressed this issue to Mediterranean environments, where plant response to multiple stresses may either exacerbate or counteract deleterious ozone effects. After discussing the adequacy of current models to predict ozone damages to Mediterranean crops, we present a few examples of physiological responses to drought and salinity stress that generally overlap with seasonal ozone peaks in Southern Italy. The co-existence of multiple stresses is then analyzed in terms of stomatal vs. non-stomatal control of ozone damages. Recent results on osmoprotectant feeding experiments, as a non-invasive strategy to uncouple stomatal vs. non stomatal contribution to ozone protection, are also presented. In the final section, we discuss critical needs in ozone research and the great potential of plant model systems to unravel multiple stress responses in agricultural crops.

  3. Mediterranean Diet in Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pelin Meryem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Bad eating habits lead to the emergence of chronic health problems such as coronary artery diseases, hypertension, dyslipidaemia, cancer and obesity and the relationship between diet and diseases is emphasized and the relationship between them is clearly revealed in studies conducted over many years. The Mediterranean diet, which is first described by Angel Keys at the beginning of the 1960’s, is not a specific diet but a natural way of eating in olive-growing region. With the properties such as the use of vegetable oils such as olive oil in particular, and the consumption of fish instead of red meat, the diet constitutes a health-protective nutrition. So, this review conducted the relationship between Mediterranean diet and chronic diseases.

  4. Mediterranean Diet Effect: an Italian picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzini Elena

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the overall diet quality effects, mainly on antioxidant nutritional status and some cytokines related to the cellular immune response as well as oxidative stress in a healthy Italian population group. Methods An observational study was conducted on 131 healthy free-living subjects. Dietary intake was assessed by dietary diary. Standardised procedures were used to make anthropometric measurements. On blood samples (serum, plasma and whole blood were evaluated: antioxidant status by vitamin A, vitamin E, carotenoids, vitamin C, uric acid, SH groups, SOD and GPx activities; lipid blood profile by total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, triglycerides; total antioxidant capacity by FRAP and TRAP; the immune status by TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokines; the levels of malondialdehyde in the erythrocytes as marker of lipid peroxidation. Results The daily macronutrients intake (g/day have shown a high lipids consumption and significant differences between the sexes with regard to daily micronutrients intake. On total sample mean Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS was 4.5 ± 1.6 and no significant differences between the sexes were present. A greater adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern increases the circulating plasma levels of carotenoids (lutein plus zeaxanthin, cryptoxanthin, α and β-carotene, vitamin A and vitamin E. The levels of endogenous antioxidants were also improved. We observed higher levels in anti-inflammatory effect cytokines (IL-10 in subjects with MDS ≥ 6, by contrast, subjects with MDS ≤ 3 show higher levels in sense of proinflammatory (TNF α P 4. Our data suggest a protective role of vitamin A against chronic inflammatory conditions especially in subjects with the highest adherence to the Mediterranean-type dietary pattern. Conclusions Mediterranean dietary pattern is associated with significant amelioration of multiple risk factors, including a better

  5. The refinery industry within the Mediterranean area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    During the period 1997-1998 Ome (Observatorie Mediterraneen de l'Energie) within a working group which was formed by the experts among the associated companies, has carried on an analysis on the prospects of refinery industry in the Mediterranean area in view of 2010. The aim of this study was to make clear, to the different operators, the consequences of the political choices in investments on refinery industry in the context of the progressive liberalization of the sector [it

  6. Sediment transport in two mediterranean regulated rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobera, G; Batalla, R J; Vericat, D; López-Tarazón, J A; Tena, A

    2016-01-01

    Mediterranean climate is characterized by highly irregular rainfall patterns with marked differences between wet and dry seasons which lead to highly variable hydrological fluvial regimes. As a result, and in order to ensure water availability and reduce its temporal variability, a high number of large dams were built during the 20th century (more than 3500 located in Mediterranean rivers). Dams modify the flow regime but also interrupt the continuity of sediment transfer along the river network, thereby changing its functioning as an ecosystem. Within this context, the present paper aims to assess the suspended sediment loads and dynamics of two climatically contrasting Mediterranean regulated rivers (i.e. the Ésera and Siurana) during a 2-yr period. Key findings indicate that floods were responsible for 92% of the total suspended sediment load in the River Siurana, while this percentage falls to 70% for the Ésera, indicating the importance of baseflows on sediment transport in this river. This fact is related to the high sediment availability, with the Ésera acting as a non-supply-limited catchment due to the high productivity of the sources (i.e. badlands). In contrast, the Siurana can be considered a supply-limited system due to its low geomorphic activity and reduced sediment availability, with suspended sediment concentration remaining low even for high magnitude flood events. Reservoirs in both rivers reduce sediment load up to 90%, although total runoff is only reduced in the case of the River Ésera. A remarkable fact is the change of the hydrological character of the River Ésera downstream for the dam, shifting from a humid mountainous river regime to a quasi-invariable pattern, whereas the Siurana experiences the opposite effect, changing from a flashy Mediterranean river to a more constant flow regime below the dam. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hydrological response characteristics of Mediterranean catchments: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Merheb , M.; Moussa , R.; Abdallah , C.; Colin , F.; Perrin , C.; Baghdadi , N.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This work examines 140 hydrological studies conducted in the Mediterranean region. It identifies key characteristics of the hydrological responses of Mediterranean catchments at various time scales and compares different methods and modelling approaches used for individualcatchmentstudies. The study area is divided into the northwestern (NWM), eastern (EM) and southern (SM) Mediterranean. The analysis indicates regional discrepancies in which the NWM shows the most ext...

  8. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    OpenAIRE

    P. Spinella; F. Oliviero; C. Sales

    2011-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective pr...

  9. "Towards an even healthier Mediterranean diet".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estruch, R; Salas-Salvadó, J

    2013-12-01

    Dietary guidelines to promote good health are usually based on foods, nutrients, and dietary patterns predictive of chronic disease risk in epidemiologic studies. However, sound nutritional recommendations for cardiovascular prevention should be based on the results of large randomized clinical trials with "hard" end-points as the main outcome. Such evidence has been obtained for the Mediterranean diet from the PREDIMED (Prevención con Dieta Mediterránea) trial and the Lyon Heart Study. The traditional Mediterranean diet was that found in olive growing areas of Crete, Greece, and Southern Italy in the late 1950s. Their major characteristics include: a) a high consumption of cereals, legumes, nuts, vegetables, and fruits; b) a relatively high-fat consumption, mostly provided by olive oil; c) moderate to high fish consumption; d) poultry and dairy products consumed in moderate to small amounts; e) low consumption of red meats, and meat products; and f) moderate alcohol intake, usually in the form of red wine. However, these protective effects of the traditional Mediterranean diet may be even greater if we upgrade the health effects of this dietary pattern changing the common olive oil used for extra-virgin olive oil, increasing the consumption of nuts, fatty fish and whole grain cereals, reducing sodium intake, and maintaining a moderate consumption of wine with meals. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (March 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. KARACHLE

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this Collective Article on “New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records”, we present additional records of species found in the Mediterranean Sea. These records refer to eight different countries throughout the northern part of the basin, and include 28 species, belonging to five phyla. The findings per country include the following species: Spain: Callinectes sapidus and Chelidonura fulvipunctata; Monaco: Aplysia dactylomela; Italy: Charybdis (Charybdis feriata, Carcharodon carcharias, Seriola fasciata, and Siganus rivulatus; Malta: Pomacanthus asfur; Croatia: Lagocephalus sceleratus and Pomadasys incisus; Montenegro: Lagocephalus sceleratus; Greece: Amathia (Zoobotryon verticillata, Atys cf. macandrewii, Cerithium scabridum, Chama pacifica, Dendostrea cf. folium, Ergalatax junionae, Septifer cumingii, Syphonota geographica, Syrnola fasciata, Oxyurichthys petersi, Scarus ghobban, Scorpaena maderensis, Solea aegyptiaca and Upeneus pori; Turkey: Lobotes surinamensis, Ruvettus pretiosus and Ophiocten abyssicolum. In the current article, the presence of Taractes rubescens (Jordan & Evermann, 1887 is recorded for the first time in the Mediterranean from Italy. The great contribution of citizen scientists in monitoring biodiversity records is reflected herein, as 10% of the authors are citizen scientists, and contributed 37.5% of the new findings.

  11. The mediterranean diet: a history of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altomare, Roberta; Cacciabaudo, Francesco; Damiano, Giuseppe; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Gioviale, Maria Concetta; Bellavia, Maurizio; Tomasello, Giovanni; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2013-01-01

    The Mediterranean tradition offers a cousine rich in colors, aromas and memories, which support the taste and the spirit of those who live in harmony with nature. Everyone is talking about the Mediterranean diet, but few are those who do it properly, thus generating a lot of confusion in the reader. And so for some it coincides with the pizza, others identified it with the noodles with meat sauce, in a mixture of pseudo historical traditions and folklore that do not help to solve the question that is at the basis of any diet: combine and balance the food so as to satisfy the qualitative and quantitative needs of an individual and in a sense, preserves his health through the use of substances that help the body to perform normal vital functions. The purpose of our work is to demonstrate that the combination of taste and health is a goal that can be absolutely carried out by everybody, despite those who believe that only a generous caloric intake can guarantee the goodness of a dish and the satisfaction of the consumers. That should not be an absolute novelty, since the sound traditions of the Mediterranean cuisine we have used for some time in a wide variety of tasty gastronomic choices, from inviting colors and strong scents and absolutely in line with health.

  12. Pre-collisional geodynamics of the Mediterranean Sea: the Mediterranean Ridge and the Tyrrhenian Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Chaumillon

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Today the Mediterranean Sea consists of a series of small-sized and almost geographically disconnected oceanic or continental crust rooted marine basins. It is also an area almost totally surrounded by mountain ranges, which chiefly belong to the alpine realm. This overall geodynamic setting results from a long term convergence between the two major, African and European, plates. Previous collisions have led to the edification of surrounding chains, while subduction and new-collisional processes tend to create new extensional back-arc basins and wide tectonized accretionary prisms. In this paper we briefly outline the most recent and almost land-locked back-arc basin that has developed in the Mediterranean,i.e., the Tyrrhenian Sea, and the Mediterranean Ridge, which may be regarded as a collisional sedimentary wedge predating a future mountain chain.

  13. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  14. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. PIGNATTI

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal zones. These Iris species are a significant component of Mediterranean floristic diversity. Their conservation and use in traditional Mediterranean landscape gardening are emphasised.

  15. Euro-mediterranean partnership in the energy field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perrin, F.

    1996-01-01

    The conference for a Euro-Mediterranean partnership in the energy field took place from the seventh to ninth of June 1996 and convened the officials of 15 european countries and 10 mediterranean countries; the discussions were about five themes: the adhesion of mediterranean countries to the european chart of energy or their association to this treaty; the harmonization of legislations and regulations concerning investments; the development of gas and electric networks in this area; the positioning of a system to guarantee energy investments; the creation of an Euro-Mediterranean energy forum proposed by the commission which allowed to associate the different partners to the following of this cooperation. (N.C.)

  16. Optically trapped atomic resonant devices for narrow linewidth spectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Lipeng

    This thesis focuses on the development of atomic resonant devices for spectroscopic applications. The primary emphasis is on the imaging properties of optically thick atomic resonant fluorescent filters and their applications. In addition, this thesis presents a new concept for producing very narrow linewidth light as from an atomic vapor lamp pumped by a nanosecond pulse system. This research was motivated by application for missile warning system, and presents an innovative approach to a wide angle, ultra narrow linewidth imaging filter using a potassium vapor cell. The approach is to image onto and collect the fluorescent photons emitted from the surface of an optically thick potassium vapor cell, generating a 2 GHz pass-band imaging filter. This linewidth is narrow enough to fall within a Fraunhefer dark zone in the solar spectrum, thus make the detection solar blind. Experiments are conducted to measure the absorption line shape of the potassium resonant filter, the quantum efficiency of the fluorescent behavior, and the resolution of the fluorescent image. Fluorescent images with different spatial frequency components are analyzed by using a discrete Fourier transform, and the imaging capability of the fluorescent filter is described by its Modulation Transfer Function. For the detection of radiation that is spectrally broader than the linewidth of the potassium imaging filter, the fluorescent image is seen to be blurred by diffuse fluorescence from the slightly off resonant photons. To correct this, an ultra-thin potassium imaging filter is developed and characterized. The imaging property of the ultra-thin potassium imaging cell is tested with a potassium seeded flame, yielding a resolution image of ˜ 20 lines per mm. The physics behind the atomic resonant fluorescent filter is radiation trapping. The diffusion process of the resonant photons trapped in the atomic vapor is theoretically described in this thesis. A Monte Carlo method is used to simulate the

  17. Nasal base narrowing: the combined alar base excision technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foda, Hossam M T

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the role of the combined alar base excision technique in narrowing the nasal base and correcting excessive alar flare. The study included 60 cases presenting with a wide nasal base and excessive alar flaring. The surgical procedure combined an external alar wedge resection with an internal vestibular floor excision. All cases were followed up for a mean of 32 (range, 12-144) months. Nasal tip modification and correction of any preexisting caudal septal deformities were always completed before the nasal base narrowing. The mean width of the external alar wedge excised was 7.2 (range, 4-11) mm, whereas the mean width of the sill excision was 3.1 (range, 2-7) mm. Completing the internal excision first resulted in a more conservative external resection, thus avoiding any blunting of the alar-facial crease. No cases of postoperative bleeding, infection, or keloid formation were encountered, and the external alar wedge excision healed with an inconspicuous scar that was well hidden in the depth of the alar-facial crease. Finally, the risk of notching of the alar rim, which can occur at the junction of the external and internal excisions, was significantly reduced by adopting a 2-layered closure of the vestibular floor (P = .01). The combined alar base excision resulted in effective narrowing of the nasal base with elimination of excessive alar flare. Commonly feared complications, such as blunting of the alar-facial crease or notching of the alar rim, were avoided by using simple modifications in the technique of excision and closure.

  18. Investigating the Temperature Problem in Narrow Line Emitting AGN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Sam; Richardson, Chris T.

    2018-06-01

    Our research investigates the physical conditions in gas clouds around the narrow line region of AGN. Specifically, we explore the necessary conditions for anomalously high electron temperatures, Te, in those clouds. Our 321 galaxy data set was acquired from SDSS DR14 after requiring S/N > 5.0 in [OIII] 4363 and S/N > 3.0 in all BPT diagram emission lines, to ensure both accurate Te and galaxy classification, with 0.04 study the effects these conditions have on gas cloud Te.

  19. Internalization of Calcium Oxalate Calculi Developed in Narrow Cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fèlix Grases

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available We describe the case of a patient with calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate calculi occluded in cavities. All those calculi were located inside narrow cavities covered with a thin epithelium that permits their visualization. Urinary biochemical analysis showed high calciuria, not hypercalciuria, hypocitraturia, and a ratio [calcium]/[citrate] >0.33. The existence of cavities of very low urodynamic efficacy was decisive in the formation of such calculi. It is important to emphasize that we observed a thin epithelium covering such cavities, demonstrating that this epithelium may be formed after the development of the calculi through a re-epithelialization process.

  20. Bubble departure diameter in narrow rectangular channel under rolling condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, T.; Chen, B.; Yan, X.; Xu, J.; Huang, Y.; Xiao, Z. [Nuclear Power Inst. of China, Chengdu, Sichuan (China)

    2014-07-01

    Forced convective subcooled boiling flow experiments were conducted in a vertical upward narrow rectangular channel under rolling motion. A high-speed digital video camera was used to capture the dynamics of the bubble nucleation process. Bubble departure diameters were obtained from the images. A bubble departure model based on force balance analysis was proposed to predict the bubble departure size under rolling condition by considering the additional centrifugal, tangential and Coriolis force. The proposed model agreed well with the experimental data within the averaged relative deviation of 5%. (author)

  1. The Chemical Vapour Deposition of Tantalum - in long narrow channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mugabi, James Atwoki

    protective layers of tantalum because of the process’ ability to coat complex geometries and its relative ease to control. This work focuses on studying the CVD of tantalum in long narrow channels with the view that the knowledge gained during the project can be used to optimise the commercial coating...... and that there is a major change in morphology between 850 – 900 °C. The effects of system pressure and precursor partial pressure are also studied, and were found to have relevance to the tantalum distribution along the substrates but little effect on the structural morphology of the deposited layer. In the implemented...

  2. Period Effects, Cohort Effects, and the Narrowing Gender Wage Gap

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, Colin; Pearlman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Despite the abundance of sociological research on the gender wage gap, questions remain. In particular, the role of cohorts is under investigated. Using data from the Current Population Survey, we use Age-Period-Cohort analysis to uniquely estimate age, period, and cohort effects on the gender wage gap. The narrowing of the gender wage gap that occurred between 1975 and 2009 is largely due to cohort effects. Since the mid-1990s, the gender wage gap has continued to close absent of period effe...

  3. Regioregular narrow-bandgap-conjugated polymers for plastic electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Lei; Huang, Fei; Bazan, Guillermo C.

    2017-03-01

    Progress in the molecular design and processing protocols of semiconducting polymers has opened significant opportunities for the fabrication of low-cost plastic electronic devices. Recent studies indicate that field-effect transistors and organic solar cells fabricated using narrow-bandgap regioregular polymers with translational symmetries in the direction of the backbone vector often outperform those containing analogous regiorandom polymers. This review addresses the cutting edge of regioregularity chemistry, in particular how to control the spatial distribution in the molecular structures and how this order translates to more ordered bulk morphologies. The effect of regioregularity on charge transport and photovoltaic properties is also outlined.

  4. The role of rare earths in narrow energy gap semiconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partin, D.L.; Heremans, J.; Morelli, D.T.; Thrush, C.M.

    1991-01-01

    Narrow energy band gap semiconductors are potentially useful for various devices, including infrared detectors and diode lasers. Rare earth elements have been introduced into lead chalcogenide semiconductors using the molecular beam epitaxy growth process. Europium and ytterbium increase the energy band gap, and nearly lattice-matched heterojunctions have been grown. In some cases, valence changes in the rare earth element cause doping of the alloy. In this paper some initial investigations of the addition of europium to indium antimonide are reported, including the variation of lattice parameter and optical transmission with composition and a negative magnetoresistance effect

  5. Are Narrow Line Seyfert 1 Galaxies Viewed Pole-on?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    0.2’’ respectively. Figure 1 displays the position of each slit over a Barbosa et al. (2009) GMOS IFU image of the [S III] flux (which originates...C. Winge, H. Schmitt: Gemini/ GMOS IFU gas velocity ’tomography’ of the narrow line region of nearby active galaxies, MNRAS, 396 (2009) 2. [2] D...1995) 81. 4 P o S ( N L S 1 ) 0 5 0 Are NLS1s Pole-on? Travis C. Fischer 5 Figure 1: NGC 4051 GMOS IFU image showing integrated [SIII] flux

  6. New narrow baryon resonances in pp inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatischeff, B.; Willis, N.; Comets, M.P.; Courtat, P.; Gacougnolle, R.; Le Bornec, Y.; Loireleux, E.; Reide, F.; Yonnet, J.; Boivin, M.

    1999-01-01

    The reaction pp → pπ + X has been studied at 3 energies (T p 1520, 1805 and 2100 MeV) and 6 angles from 0 angle up to 17 angle (lab.). Several narrow states have been observed in missing mass spectra at: 1004, 1044, 1094 MeV. Their widths are typically one order of magnitude smaller than the widths of N * of Δ. Possible biases are discussed. These masses are in agreement with those calculated within a simple phenomenological mass formula based on color magnetic interaction between two colored quark clusters. (authors)

  7. Experimental study on the boiling phenomena within a narrow gap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, S.; Inoue, A.; Aritomi, M.; Sakamoto, Y.

    1982-01-01

    Experiments were carried out with annular narrow gaps having the gap widths 0.2,0.3,0.4,0.5,1.0 and 1.5 mm for the following two cases: (a) for the ''open bottom'' case, the heat transfer coefficient was improved as the gap width decreases, but it was not affected by gap lengths in the range 40 <= L <= 100 mm. (b) for the ''closed bottom'' case, the heat transfer coefficient was not affected by gap width or length. The transition heat flux could be correlated by the equivalent gap length defined in terms of the cross-sectional area of the open end. (author)

  8. The Meteorology of Storms that Produce Narrow Bipolar Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Timothy; McCaul, Bill; Fuchs, Brody; Cummer, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Narrow Bipolar Event's (NBE) are compact ( 10 kW in VHF), and impulsive (approx 10 micro s) electrical discharges in thunderstorms, also known as compact intracloud discharges (CIDs). Can be either positive or negative polarity and have distinctive broadband waveform signatures sometimes confused for +CGs in the past by NLDN and other networks. NBEs are related to lightning but are likely optically "dark". As revealed by VHF sensors (both satellite and ground): (1) The most powerful lightning-­-related VHF sources observed (2) Tend to occur at the beginning of intracloud discharges (3) Difficult to estimate altitude properly due to receiver saturation.

  9. Narrow beam dosimetry for high-energy hadrons and electrons

    CERN Document Server

    Pelliccioni, M; Ulrici, Luisa

    2001-01-01

    Organ doses and effective dose were calculated with the latest version of the Monte Carlo transport code FLUKA in the case of an anthropomorphic mathematical model exposed to monoenergetic narrow beams of protons, pions and electrons in the energy range 10°— 400 GeV. The target organs considered were right eye, thyroid, thymus, lung and breast. Simple scaling laws to the calculated values are given. The present data and formula should prove useful for dosimetric estimations in case of accidental exposures to high-energy beams.

  10. Narrow Quasar Absorption Lines and the History of the Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebscher, Dierck-Ekkehard

    In order to get an estimation of the parameters of the cosmological model the statistics of narrow absorption lines in quasar spectra is evaluated. To this end a phenomenological model of the evolution of the corresponding absorbers in density, size, number and dimension is presented and compared with the observed evolution in the spectral density of the lines and their column density seen in the equivalent width. In spite of the wide range of possible models, the Einstein-deSitter model is shown to be unlikely because of the implied fast evolution in mass.

  11. BIS-2 spectrometer for search and investigation of narrow resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleev, A.N.; Aref'ev, V.A.; Balandin, V.P.

    1989-01-01

    The configuration and main characteristics of the BIS-2 spectrometer are described. The spectrometer was intended to search for and to investigate charmed particles and narrow resonances produced in neutron-nucleus interactions. It was placed on a neutron beam of the Serpukhov accelerator. The Monte-Carlo simulated and experimentally measured characteristics of individual elements and the spectrometer as a whole are described. A brief review of the principal results based on the analysis of more than 10 7 neutron-nucleus interactions registered by means of the BIS-2 spectrometer is given. 34 refs.; 8 figs.; 5 tabs

  12. Fast IMRT with narrow high energy scanned photon beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andreassen, Bjoern; Straaring t, Sara Janek; Holmberg, Rickard; Naefstadius, Peder; Brahme, Anders [Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Medical Radiation Physics, Karolinska Institutet and Stockholm University, P.O. Box 260, SE-171 76 Stockholm, Sweden and Department of Hospital Physics, Karolinska University Hospital, SE-171 76 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: Since the first publications on intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) in the early 1980s almost all efforts have been focused on fairly time consuming dynamic or segmental multileaf collimation. With narrow fast scanned photon beams, the flexibility and accuracy in beam shaping increases, not least in combination with fast penumbra trimming multileaf collimators. Previously, experiments have been performed with full range targets, generating a broad bremsstrahlung beam, in combination with multileaf collimators or material compensators. In the present publication, the first measurements with fast narrow high energy (50 MV) scanned photon beams are presented indicating an interesting performance increase even though some of the hardware used were suboptimal. Methods: Inverse therapy planning was used to calculate optimal scanning patterns to generate dose distributions with interesting properties for fast IMRT. To fully utilize the dose distributional advantages with scanned beams, it is necessary to use narrow high energy beams from a thin bremsstrahlung target and a powerful purging magnet capable of deflecting the transmitted electron beam away from the generated photons onto a dedicated electron collector. During the present measurements the scanning system, purging magnet, and electron collimator in the treatment head of the MM50 racetrack accelerator was used with 3-6 mm thick bremsstrahlung targets of beryllium. The dose distributions were measured with diodes in water and with EDR2 film in PMMA. Monte Carlo simulations with geant4 were used to study the influence of the electrons transmitted through the target on the photon pencil beam kernel. Results: The full width at half-maximum (FWHM) of the scanned photon beam was 34 mm measured at isocenter, below 9.5 cm of water, 1 m from the 3 mm Be bremsstrahlung target. To generate a homogeneous dose distribution in a 10 x 10 cm{sup 2} field, the authors used a spot matrix of 100 equal intensity

  13. Evidence for a narrow anti-charmed baryon state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bähr, J.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Berndt, T.; Bizot, J. C.; Böhme, J.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brisson, V.; Bröker, H.-B.; Brown, D. P.; Bruncko, D.; Büsser, F. W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A. J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Collard, C.; Contreras, J. G.; Coppens, Y. R.; Coughlan, J. A.; Cox, B. E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J. B.; Dau, W. D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E. A.; Diaconu, C.; Dingfelder, J.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Duprel, C.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, M.; Erdmann, W.; Faulkner, P. J. W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y. H.; Flucke, G.; Flügge, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formánek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Gabathuler, E.; Gabathuler, K.; Garutti, E.; Garvey, J.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, S.; Glazov, A.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Grab, C.; Grässler, H.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, G.; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R. C. W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Heremans, R.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K. H.; Höting, P.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jönsson, L.; Johnson, D. P.; Jung, H.; Kant, D.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kennedy, J.; Kenyon, I. R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Koblitz, B.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kroseberg, J.; Kückens, J.; Kuhr, T.; Landon, M. P. J.; Lange, W.; Laštovička, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leißner, B.; Lemrani, R.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lueders, H.; Lüke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marks, J.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S. J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A. B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michine, S.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morozov, I.; Morris, J. V.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, K.; Murín, P.; Nagovizin, V.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P. R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J. E.; Ossoskov, G.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G. D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Plačakyt≐, R.; Pöschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Raicevic, N.; Ratiani, Z.; Reimer, P.; Reisert, B.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Rybicki, K.; Sankey, D. P. C.; Sauvan, E.; Schätzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schleper, P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schneider, M.; Schoeffel, L.; Schöning, A.; Schröder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlák, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L. N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, A.; Spitzer, H.; Stamen, R.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P. D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truöl, P.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Uraev, A.; Urban, M.; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkár, S.; Valkárová, A.; Vallée, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Woehrling, E.-E.; Wolf, R.; Wünsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Žáček, J.; Zálešák, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; H1 Collaboration

    2004-05-01

    A narrow resonance in D∗ -p and D∗ +p¯ invariant mass combinations is observed in inelastic electron-proton collisions at centre-of-mass energies of 300 GeV and 320 GeV at HERA. The resonance has a mass of 3099±3(stat.)±5(syst.) MeV and a measured Gaussian width of 12±3(stat.) MeV, compatible with the experimental resolution. The resonance is interpreted as an anti-charmed baryon with a minimal constituent quark composition of uuddc¯, together with the charge conjugate.

  14. Narrow groove gas metal-arc welding of aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, R.E.

    1975-01-01

    The Gas Metal-Arc (GMA) welding process is explained and the equipment used described with an analysis of power supply function and the action of the arc, followed by discussion of general applications and problems. GMA braze welding of beryllium is then described, as is the development of a special high purity filler wire and a narrow deep groove joint design for improved weld strength in beryllium. This joint design and the special wire are applied in making high strength welds in high strength aluminum for special applications. High speed motion pictures of the welding operation are shown to illustrate the talk. (auth)

  15. Structural setting and tectonic control of mud volcanous from the central Mediterranean Ridge (Eastern Mediterranean)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huguen, C.; Mascle, J.; Chaumillon, E.; Kopf, A.; Woodside, J.M.; Zitter, T.A.C.

    2004-01-01

    Based on a recent marine geophysical data set, including swath bathymetry, acoustic imagery and six-channel seismics, recorded over a large area of the Mediterranean Ridge (MR) in early 1998 during the Prismed 2 survey, this paper presents a study of the various relationships observed between

  16. New records of Decapod Crustacea from the Mediterranean coast of Israel and the eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lewinsohn, Ch.; Holthuis, L.B.

    1964-01-01

    Since the publication by Holthuis & Gottlieb (1958) of a list of the Decapod Crustacea known at that time to inhabit the Mediterranean waters of Israel, several additional species, 18 in number, have been found in the area, while just prior to the issue of the paper by Holthuis & Gottlieb a

  17. Mediterranean Diet and cancer risk: an open issue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni; Silvestris, Franco

    2016-09-01

    The traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s meets the characteristics of an anticancer diet defined by the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research (WCRF/AIRC). A diet rich of whole grains, pulses, vegetables and fruits, limited in high-calorie foods (foods high in sugar or fat), red meat and foods high in salt, without sugary drinks and processed meat is recommended by the WCRF/AIRC experts to reduce the risk of cancer. The aim of this review was to examine whether Mediterranean Diet is protective or not against cancer risk. Three meta-analyses of cohort studies reported that a high adherence to the Mediterranean Diet significantly reduces the risk of cancer incidence and/or mortality. Nevertheless, the Mediterranean dietary pattern defined in the studies' part of the meta-analyses has qualitative and/or quantitative differences compared to the Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Therefore, the protective role of the Mediterranean Diet against cancer has not definitely been established. In epidemiological studies, a universal definition of the Mediterranean Diet, possibly the traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s, could be useful to understand the role of this dietary pattern in cancer prevention.

  18. INTRODUCTION: DESERTIFICATION AND SECURITY - PERSPECTIVES FOR THE MEDITERRANEAN REGION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book focuses on two basic concepts: security and desertification in the Mediterranean Region and their linkages. It emerged from a single meeting of the "Workshop on Desertification in the Mediterranean Region. A Security Issue" held in Valencia, Spain on 2-5 December 2003...

  19. Direct nitrous oxide emissions in Mediterranean climate cropping systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cayuela, Maria L.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Sanz-Cobena, Alberto; Adams, Dean C.; Abalos Rodriguez, Diego; Barton, Louise; Ryals, Rebecca; Silver, Whendee L.; Alfaro, Marta A.; Pappa, Valentini A.; Bouwman, Lex; Lassaletta, Luis

    2017-01-01

    Many recent reviews and meta-analyses of N2O emissions do not include data from Mediterranean studies. In this paper we present a meta-analysis of the N2O emissions from Mediterranean cropping systems, and propose a more robust and reliable regional emission factor (EF) for

  20. Measuring Implicit European and Mediterranean Landscape Identity: A Tool Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornara, Ferdinando; Dentale, Francesco; Troffa, Renato; Piras, Simona

    2016-01-01

    This study presents a tool – the Landscape Identity Implicit Association Test (LI-IAT) – devoted to measure the implicit identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes. To this aim, a series of prototypical landscapes was selected as stimulus, following an accurate multi-step procedure. Participants (N = 174), recruited in two Italian cities, performed two LI-IATs devoted to assess their identification with European vs. Not-European and Mediterranean vs. Not-Mediterranean prototypical landscapes. Psychometric properties and criterion validity of these measures were investigated. Two self-report measures, assessing, respectively, European and Mediterranean place identity and pleasantness of the target landscapes, were also administered. Results showed: (1) an adequate level of internal consistency for both LI-IATs; (2) a higher identification with European and Mediterranean landscapes than, respectively, with Not-European and Not-Mediterranean ones; and (3) a significant positive relationship between the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs and the corresponding place identity scores, also when pleasantness of landscapes was controlled for. Overall, these findings provide a first evidence supporting the reliability and criterion validity of the European and Mediterranean LI-IATs. PMID:27642284

  1. Climate Variability and Change in the Mediterranean Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lionello, Piero; Özsoy, Emin; Planton, Serge; Zanchetta, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    This special issue collects new research results on the climate of the Mediterranean region. It covers traditional topics of the MedCLIVAR programme (www.medclivar.eu, Lionello et al. 2006, Lionello et al. 2012b) being devoted to papers addressing on-going and future climate changes in the Mediterranean region and their impacts on its environment.

  2. Sustainability of the energy sector in the Mediterranean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cantore, Nicola

    2012-01-01

    Energy and climate change is a key priority issue mentioned by the Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development (MSSD) which explicitly claims that “Control, reduce or stabilize GhG (Greenhouse Gas) emissions” is a crucial target for Mediterranean countries. This paper uses the integrated assessment model IFs (International Futures) to implement a scenario analysis to investigate the mitigation potential of Mediterranean regions. It analyzes if the Mediterranean regions will be able to reach the MSSD climate change target and recommends amendments of the MSSD to implement with effectiveness climate change policies in the Mediterranean area. -- Highlights: ► In the majority of scenarios emissions in Mediterranean countries are not decreasing over 2020. ► Even in scenarios incorporating multiple policy actions emissions may not be decreasing over 2020. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development needs to go beyond the 2015 deadline to promote climate policies. ► The Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development is key to promote coordinated multiple actions to reduce emissions. ► Partial interventions could compromise the effectiveness of the overall regional emissions stabilization policies.

  3. Environmental Assessment for Selected Regions in the Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    7-23. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1972). Wide scale digital seismic exploration of the Mediterranean Sea. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 14...291-342. Finetti, I. and C. Morelli (1973). Geophysical exploration of the Mediterranean. Bollettino Di Geofisica Teorica Applicata 15: 263-341

  4. Climate change in Mediterranean mountains during the 21st century

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nogués Bravo, David; Araújo, Miguel B; Lasanta, Teodoro

    2008-01-01

    precipitation changes in Mediterranean mountains under different emission scenarios (Special Report on Emission Scenarios) and Atmosphere-Ocean-Coupled General Circulation Models for two periods: 2055 (2040-2069 period) and 2085 (2070-2099). Finally, the future climate trends projected for Mediterranean...

  5. Narrow-band radio flares from red dwarf stars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, S.M.; Kundu, M.R.; Jackson, P.D.

    1986-12-01

    VLA observations of narrow-band behavior in 20 cm flares from two red dwarf stars, L726 - 8A and AD Leo, are reported. The flare on L726 - 8A was observed at 1415 and 1515 MHz; the flux and the evolution differed significantly at the two frequencies. The flare on AD Leo lasted for 2 hr at 1415 MHz but did not appear at 1515 MHz. The AD Leo flare appears to rule out a source drifting through the stellar corona and is unlikely to be due to plasma emission. In the cyclotron maser model the narrow-band behavior reflects the range of magnetic fields present within the source. The apparent constancy of this field for 2 hr is difficult to understand if magnetic reconnection is the source of energy for the flare. The consistent polarization exhibited by red dwarf flares at 20 cm may be related to stellar activity cycles, and changes in this polarization will permit measuring the length of these cycles. 22 references.

  6. Narrow-band radio flares from red dwarf stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Stephen M.; Kundu, Mukul R.; Jackson, Peter D.

    1986-01-01

    VLA observations of narrow-band behavior in 20 cm flares from two red dwarf stars, L726 - 8A and AD Leo, are reported. The flare on L726 - 8A was observed at 1415 and 1515 MHz; the flux and the evolution differed significantly at the two frequencies. The flare on AD Leo lasted for 2 hr at 1415 MHz but did not appear at 1515 MHz. The AD Leo flare appears to rule out a source drifting through the stellar corona and is unlikely to be due to plasma emission. In the cyclotron maser model the narrow-band behavior reflects the range of magnetic fields present within the source. The apparent constancy of this field for 2 hr is difficult to understand if magnetic reconnection is the source of energy for the flare. The consistent polarization exhibited by red dwarf flares at 20 cm may be related to stellar activity cycles, and changes in this polarization will permit measuring the length of these cycles.

  7. Extended Narrow-Line Region in Seyfert Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Congiu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We present our recent results about the extended narrow-line region (ENLR of two nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies (IC 5063 and NGC 7212 obtained by modeling the observed line profiles and spectra with composite models (photoionization+shocks in the different regions surrounding the AGN. Then, we compare the Seyfert 2 ENLRs with the very extended one recently discovered in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1 galaxy Mrk 783. We have found several evidences of interaction between the ISM of the galaxies and their radio jets, such as (a the contribution of shocks in ionizing the high velocity gas, (b the complex kinematics showed by the profile of the emission lines, (c the high fragmentation of matter, etc. The results suggest that the ENLR of IC 5063 have a hollow bi-conical shape, with one edge aligned to the galaxy disk, which may cause some kind of dependence on velocity of the ionization parameter. Regarding the Mrk 783 properties, it is found that the extension of the optical emission is almost twice the size of the radio one and it seems due to the AGN activity, although there is contamination by star formation around 12 arcsec from the nucleus. Diagnostic diagrams excluded the contribution of star formation in IC 5063 and NGC 7212, while the shock contribution was used to explain the spectra emitted by their high velocity gas.

  8. Experiment on transient heat transfer in closed narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ochiai, Masaaki

    1985-01-01

    Heat transfer coefficients and transient pressures in closed narrow channels were obtained experimentally, in order to assess the gap heat transfer models in the computer code WTRLGD which were devised to analyze the internal pressure behavior of waterlogged fuel rods. Gap widths of channels are 0.1--0.5mm to simulate the gap region of waterlogged fuel rods, and test fluids are water (7--89.2 0 C) and Freon-113 (9.2 0 C). The results show that the heater temperature and the pressure measured in the experiments without the DNB occurrence are simulated fairly well by the calculational model of WTRLGD where the heat transfer in a closed narrow channel is evaluated with one-dimensional transient thermal conduction equation and Jens and Lottes' correlation for nucleate boiling. Consequently, it is also suggested that the above equations are available for evaluation of heat flux from fuel to internal water of waterlogged fuel rods. The film boiling heat transfer coefficient was in the same order of that evaluated by Bromley's correlation and the DNB heat flux was smaller than that obtained in quasi-steady experiments with ordinary systems, although the experimental data for them were not enough. (author)

  9. Extended Narrow-Line Region in Seyfert Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Congiu, Enrico [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Astronomical Observatory of Brera, National Institute for Astrophysics, Milan (Italy); Contini, Marcella [School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv (Israel); Ciroi, Stefano; Cracco, Valentina [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Di Mille, Francesco [Las Campanas Observatory, La Serena (Chile); Berton, Marco [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy); Astronomical Observatory of Brera, National Institute for Astrophysics, Milan (Italy); Frezzato, Michele; La Mura, Giovanni; Rafanelli, Piero, E-mail: enrico.congiu@phd.unipd.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia “G. Galilei”, Università di Padova, Padova (Italy)

    2017-10-24

    We present our recent results about the extended narrow-line region (ENLR) of two nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies (IC 5063 and NGC 7212) obtained by modeling the observed line profiles and spectra with composite models (photoionization+shocks) in the different regions surrounding the AGN. Then, we compare the Seyfert 2 ENLRs with the very extended one recently discovered in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Mrk 783. We have found several evidences of interaction between the ISM of the galaxies and their radio jets, such as (a) the contribution of shocks in ionizing the high velocity gas, (b) the complex kinematics showed by the profile of the emission lines, (c) the high fragmentation of matter, etc. The results suggest that the ENLR of IC 5063 have a hollow bi-conical shape, with one edge aligned to the galaxy disk, which may cause some kind of dependence on velocity of the ionization parameter. Regarding the Mrk 783 properties, it is found that the extension of the optical emission is almost twice the size of the radio one and it seems due to the AGN activity, although there is contamination by star formation around 12 arcsec from the nucleus. Diagnostic diagrams excluded the contribution of star formation in IC 5063 and NGC 7212, while the shock contribution was used to explain the spectra emitted by their high velocity gas.

  10. Review on two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tadrist, L.

    2007-01-01

    Instabilities in two-phase flow have been studied since the 1950s. These phenomena may appear in power generation and heat transfer systems where two-phase flow is involved. Because of thermal management in small size systems, micro-fluidics plays an important role. Typical processes must be considered when the channel hydraulic diameter becomes very small. In this paper, a brief review of two-phase flow instabilities encountered in channels having hydraulic diameters greater than 10 mm are presented. The main instability types are discussed according to the existing experimental results and models. The second part of the paper examines two-phase flow instabilities in narrow spaces. Pool and flow boiling cases are considered. Experiments as well as theoretical models existing in the literature are examined. It was found that several experimental works evidenced these instabilities meanwhile only limited theoretical developments exist in the literature. In the last part of the paper an interpretation of the two-phase flow instabilities linked to narrow spaces are presented. This approach is based on characteristic time scales of the two-phase flow and bubble growth in the capillaries

  11. Flow of pedestrians through narrow doors with different competitiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcimartín, A; Pastor, J M; Zuriguel, I; Parisi, D R; Martín-Gómez, C

    2016-01-01

    We report a thorough analysis of the intermittent flow of pedestrians through a narrow door. The observations include five different sets of evacuation drills with which we have investigated the effect of door size and competitiveness on the flow dynamics. Although the outcomes are in general compatible with the existence of the faster-is-slower effect, the temporal evolution of the instantaneous flow rate provides evidence of new features. These stress the crucial role of the number of people performing the tests, which has an influence on the obtained results. Once the transients at the beginning and end of the evacuation are removed, we have found that the time lapses between the passage of two consecutive pedestrians display heavy-tailed distributions in all the scenarios studied. Meanwhile, the distribution of burst sizes decays exponentially; this can be linked to a constant probability of finding a long-lasting clog during the evacuation process. Based on these results, a discussion is presented on the caution that should be exercised when measuring or describing the intermittent flow of pedestrians through narrow doors. (paper: interdisciplinary statistical mechanics)

  12. Extended Narrow-Line Region in Seyfert Galaxies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Congiu, Enrico; Contini, Marcella; Ciroi, Stefano; Cracco, Valentina; Di Mille, Francesco; Berton, Marco; Frezzato, Michele; La Mura, Giovanni; Rafanelli, Piero

    2017-01-01

    We present our recent results about the extended narrow-line region (ENLR) of two nearby Seyfert 2 galaxies (IC 5063 and NGC 7212) obtained by modeling the observed line profiles and spectra with composite models (photoionization+shocks) in the different regions surrounding the AGN. Then, we compare the Seyfert 2 ENLRs with the very extended one recently discovered in the narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLS1) galaxy Mrk 783. We have found several evidences of interaction between the ISM of the galaxies and their radio jets, such as (a) the contribution of shocks in ionizing the high velocity gas, (b) the complex kinematics showed by the profile of the emission lines, (c) the high fragmentation of matter, etc. The results suggest that the ENLR of IC 5063 have a hollow bi-conical shape, with one edge aligned to the galaxy disk, which may cause some kind of dependence on velocity of the ionization parameter. Regarding the Mrk 783 properties, it is found that the extension of the optical emission is almost twice the size of the radio one and it seems due to the AGN activity, although there is contamination by star formation around 12 arcsec from the nucleus. Diagnostic diagrams excluded the contribution of star formation in IC 5063 and NGC 7212, while the shock contribution was used to explain the spectra emitted by their high velocity gas.

  13. Comparison of Mediterranean diet compliance between European and non-European populations in the Mediterranean basin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhammou, Samira; Heras-González, Leticia; Ibáñez-Peinado, Diana; Barceló, Carla; Hamdan, May; Rivas, Ana; Mariscal-Arcas, Miguel; Olea-Serrano, Fatima; Monteagudo, Celia

    2016-12-01

    Fruit, vegetables, cereals, and olive oil are common elements of the Mediterranean diet (MD), but each country in the Mediterranean basin has its own gastronomic customs influenced by socio-cultural, religious, and economic factors. This study compared the dietary habits of three Mediterranean populations with different cultures and lifestyles, a total of 600 adults (61.9% females) between 25 and 70 yrs from Spain, Morocco, and Palestine. All participants completed a self administered questionnaire, including sociodemographic and anthropometric items, a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire adapted to the foods consumed in each country, and three 24-h recalls. MD adherence was estimated with the MD Serving Score (MDSS). All populations showed a moderate adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern. In comparison to the Palestine population, MDSS-assessed adherence to the MD was 6.36-fold higher in the Spanish population and 3.88-fold higher in the Moroccan population. Besides the country of origin, age was another predictive factor of MD adherence, which was greater (higher MDSS) in participants aged over 50 yrs than in those aged 30 yrs or younger. This preliminary study contributes initial data on dietary differences between European and non-European countries in the Mediterranean basin. The Spanish diet was shown to be closer to MD recommendations than the diet of Morocco or Palestine. Given the impact of good dietary habits on the prevention of chronic non-transmittable diseases, health policies should focus on adherence to a healthy diet, supporting traditional dietary patterns in an era of intense commercial pressures for change. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The Mediterranean Solar Plan: Project proposals for renewable energy in the Mediterranean Partner Countries region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablonski, Sophie; Tarhini, Mohamad; Touati, Manaf; Gonzalez Garcia, David; Alario, Juan

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a first assessment of the renewable energy projects, proposed by the nine Mediterranean Partner Countries (MPCs) under the Mediterranean Solar Plan (MSP) and the associated potential economic impacts. As one of the priority projects of the Union for the Mediterranean (UfM), the MSP's objective which attracted most attention until now is the intention to deploy an additional 20 GW of renewable electrical capacity in the Southern and Eastern Mediterranean region (covering the MPCs plus Turkey) by 2020. The main findings of this research are: (1) as of February 2010, a total of 10.3 GW of renewable project proposals were identified in the MPCs, corresponding to about half of the 20 GW target; (2) investment needs for the identified projects could amount to EUR 21 billion by 2020, which represents about five times the amount invested by the region in conventional electricity generation in the last decade; and (3) the difference between the cost of renewable electricity generation and the economic cost of its fossil fuel alternatives could amount to EUR 1.2 billion. Insights stemming from the results of this research can generate useful regional messages for energy policy leaders in the MPCs to accelerate the development of renewable energy projects. - Highlights: ► We conducted a systematic survey of renewable energy projects in the Mediterranean. ► The identified projects correspond to half the MSP 20 GW target. ► Maturity assessment is used to classify the advancement of the projects. ► We estimated the investment needs and required subsidies in the region by 2020.

  15. Proposal of a Mediterranean Diet Serving Score.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia Monteagudo

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have demonstrated a relationship between Mediterranean Diet (MD adherence and the prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and diabetes, etc. The study aim was to validate a novel instrument to measure MD adherence based on the consumption of food servings and food groups, and apply it in a female population from southern Spain and determining influential factors.The study included 1,155 women aged 12-83 yrs, classified as adolescents, adults, and over-60-yr-olds. All completed a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. The Mediterranean Dietary Serving Score (MDSS is based on the latest update of the Mediterranean Diet Pyramid, using the recommended consumption frequency of foods and food groups; the MDSS ranges from 0 to 24. The discriminative power or correct subject classification capacity of the MDSS was analyzed with the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC curve, using the MDS as reference method. Predictive factors for higher MDSS adherence were determined with a logistic regression model, adjusting for age. According to ROC curve analysis, MDSS evidenced a significant discriminative capacity between adherents and non-adherents to the MD pattern (optimal cutoff point=13.50; sensitivity=74%; specificity=48%. The mean MDSS was 12.45 (2.69 and was significantly higher with older age (p<0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed highest MD adherence by over 60-year-olds with low BMI and no habit of eating between meals.The MDSS is an updated, easy, valid, and accurate instrument to assess MD adherence based on the consumption of foods and food groups per meal, day, and week. It may be useful in future nutritional education programs to prevent the early onset of chronic non-transmittable diseases in younger populations.

  16. Plant biodiversity in French Mediterranean vineyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Marianne; Bilodeau, Clelia; Alexandre, Frédéric; Godron, Michel; Gresillon, Etienne

    2017-04-01

    In a context of agricultural intensification and increasing urbanization, the biodiversity of farmed plots is a key to improve the sustainability of farmed landscapes. The medium life-duration of the vineyards as well as their location in Mediterranean region are favorable to plant biodiversity. We studied 35 vineyards and if present, their edges, located in three French Mediterranean terroirs: Bandol, Pic Saint Loup and Terrasses du Larzac. We collected botanical information (floral richness et diversity, biological traits), and analyzed their relationships with different factors: social (management, heritage or professional concern), environmental (slope, exposition, geology), spatial (edges, surrounding landscape in a 500 meters radius, distance to the nearest large city). Vineyards are generally heavily disturbed by intensive practices like tilling and application of herbicides, and for this reason their floral diversity is low. This is particularly true in Bandol terroir, in accordance with the standards of the Bandol PDO wine sector. Farmed landscapes and proximity to a large town impact on functional groups, generalist species being overrepresented. If vineyards are surrounded with natural edges, it doubles the floral richness at the plot and edges scale. Species present in vineyards edges are perennial herbaceous species with Euro- Asian and Mediterranean distribution ranges characteristic of prairie and wasteland stages, increasing the functional diversity of vineyards (generalist species). Environmental factors have a lower influence: vineyards are generally located on flat lands. These results suggest that some practices should be encouraged to avoid the biological degradation of vineyards: conservation of tree-lined edges and their extensive management, reduction of chemical weeding, grass-growing using non-cosmopolitan species. These recommendations should also contribute to soil conservation.

  17. The Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Maramai

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A unified catalogue containing 290 tsunamis generated in the European and Mediterranean seas since 6150 B.C. to current days is presented. It is the result of a systematic and detailed review of all the regional catalogues available in literature covering the study area, each of them having their own format and level of accuracy. The realization of a single catalogue covering a so wide area and involving several countries was a complex task that posed a series of challenges, being the standardization and the quality of the data the most demanding. A “reliability” value was used to rate equally the quality of the data for each event and this parameter was assigned based on the trustworthiness of the information related to the generating cause, the tsunami description accuracy and also on the availability of coeval bibliographical sources. Following these criteria we included in the catalogue events whose reliability ranges from 0 (“very improbable tsunami” to 4 (“definite tsunami”. About 900 documentary sources, including historical documents, books, scientific reports, newspapers and previous catalogues, support the tsunami data and descriptions gathered in this catalogue. As a result, in the present paper a list of the 290 tsunamis with their main parameters is reported. The online version of the catalogue, available at http://roma2.rm.ingv.it/en/facilities/data_bases/52/catalogue_of_the_euro-mediterranean_tsunamis, provides additional information such as detailed descriptions, pictures, etc. and the complete list of bibliographical sources. Most of the included events have a high reliability value (3= “probable” and 4= “definite” which makes the Euro-Mediterranean Tsunami Catalogue an essential tool for the implementation of tsunami hazard and risk assessment.

  18. New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records (April 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Α. ΖΕΝΕΤΟΣ

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Collective Article ‘New Mediterranean Biodiversity Records’ of the Mediterranean Marine Science journal offers the means to publish biodiversity records in the Mediterranean Sea. The current article is divided in two parts, for records of native and alien species respectively. The new records of native fish species include: the slender sunfish Ranzania laevis and the scalloped ribbonfish Zu cristatus in Calabria; the Azores rockling Gaidropsarus granti in Calabria and Sicily; the agujon needlefish Tylosurus acus imperialis in the Northern Aegean; and the amphibious behaviour of Gouania willdenowi in Southern Turkey. As regards molluscs, the interesting findings include Ischnochiton usticensis in Calabria and Thordisa filix in the bay of Piran (Slovenia. The stomatopod Parasquilla ferussaci was collected from Lesvos island (Greece; the isopod Anilocra frontalis was observed parasitizing the alien Pteragogus trispilus in the Rhodes area. The asteroid Tethyaster subinermis and the butterfly ray Gymnura altavela were reported from several localities in the Greek Ionian and Aegean Seas. The new records of alien species include: the antenna codlet Bregmaceros atlanticus in Saronikos Gulf; three  new fish records and two decapods from Egypt; the establishment of the two spot cardinal fish Cheilodipterus novemstriatus and the first record of the Indo-Pacific marble shrimp Saron marmoratus in semi-dark caves along the Lebanese coastline; the finding of Lagocephalus sceleratus, Sargocentron rubrum, Fistularia commersonii and Stephanolepis diaspros around Lipsi island (Aegean Sea, Greece; the decapod Penaeus hathor in Aegean waters; the decapod Penaeus aztecus and the nudibranch Melibe viridis in the Dodecanese islands; the finding of Pinctada imbricata radiata in the Mar Grande of Taranto (Ionian Sea, Italy and the Maliakos Gulf (Greece.

  19. Medieval iconography of watermelons in Mediterranean Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paris, Harry S.; Daunay, Marie-Christine; Janick, Jules

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims The watermelon, Citrullus lanatus (Cucurbitaceae), is an important fruit vegetable in the warmer regions of the world. Watermelons were illustrated in Mediterranean Antiquity, but not as frequently as some other cucurbits. Little is known concerning the watermelons of Mediterranean Europe during medieval times. With the objective of obtaining an improved understanding of watermelon history and diversity in this region, medieval drawings purportedly of watermelons were collected, examined and compared for originality, detail and accuracy. Findings The oldest manuscript found that contains an accurate, informative image of watermelon is the Tractatus de herbis, British Library ms. Egerton 747, which was produced in southern Italy, around the year 1300. A dozen more original illustrations were found, most of them from Italy, produced during the ensuing two centuries that can be positively identified as watermelon. In most herbal-type manuscripts, the foliage is depicted realistically, the plants shown as having long internodes, alternate leaves with pinnatifid leaf laminae, and the fruits are small, round and striped. The manuscript that contains the most detailed and accurate image of watermelon is the Carrara Herbal, British Library ms. Egerton 2020. In the agriculture-based manuscripts, the foliage, if depicted, is not accurate, but variation in the size, shape and coloration of the fruits is evident. Both red-flesh and white-flesh watermelons are illustrated, corresponding to the typical sweet dessert watermelons so common today and the insipid citron watermelons, respectively. The variation in watermelon fruit size, shape and coloration depicted in the illustrations indicates that at least six cultivars of watermelon are represented, three of which probably had red, sweet flesh and three of which appear to have been citrons. Evidently, citron watermelons were more common in Mediterranean Europe in the past than they are today. PMID:23904443

  20. Thermodynamic Forecasts of the Mediterranean Sea Acidification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. GOYET

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic CO2 is a major driver of the present ocean acidification. This latter is threatening the marine ecosystems and has been identified as a major environmental and economic menace. This study aims to forecast from the thermodynamic equations, the acidification variation (ΔpH of the Mediterranean waters over the next few decades and beyond this century. In order to do so, we calculated and fitted the theoretical values based upon the initial conditions from data of the 2013 MedSeA cruise. These estimates have been performed both for the Western and for the Eastern basins based upon their respective physical (temperature and salinity and chemical (total alkalinity and total inorganic carbon properties. The results allow us to point out four tipping points, including one when the Mediterranean Sea waters would become acid (pH<7. In order to provide an associated time scale to the theoretical results, we used two of the IPCC (2007 atmospheric CO2 scenarios. Under the most optimistic scenario of the “Special Report: Emissions Scenarios” (SRES of the IPCC (2007, the results indicate that in 2100, pH may decrease down to 0.245 in the Western basin and down to 0.242 in the Eastern basin (compared to the pre-industrial pH. Whereas for the most pessimistic SRES scenario of the IPCC (2007, the results for the year 2100, forecast a pH decrease down to 0.462 and 0.457, for the Western and for the Eastern basins, respectively. Acidification, which increased unprecedentedly in recent years, will rise almost similarly in both Mediterranean basins only well after the end of this century. These results further confirm that both basins may become undersaturated (< 1 with respect to calcite and aragonite (at the base of the mixed layer depth, only in the far future (in a few centuries.

  1. Phytotoxic Activities of Mediterranean Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Fernando Rolim de Almeida

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Twelve essential oils from Mediterranean aromatic plants were tested for their phytotoxic activity, at different doses, against the germination and the initial radicle growth of seeds of Raphanus sativus, Lactuca sativa and Lepidium sativum. The essential oils were obtained from Hyssopus officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Majorana hortensis, Melissa officinalis, Ocimum basilicum, Origanum vulgare, Salvia officinalis and Thymus vulgaris (Lamiaceae, Verbena officinalis (Verbenaceae, Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare and Carum carvi (Apiaceae. The germination and radicle growth of tested seeds were affected in different ways by the oils. Thyme, balm, vervain and caraway essential oils were more active against both germination and radicle elongation.

  2. Wind energy in the Mediterranean countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaudiosi, G.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reviews the main findings relative to the European Communities OPET (Organization for the Promotion of Energy Technology) June 1992 conference on the potential for small and medium size wind energy applications in the Mediterranean countries and gives a panoramic look at progress being made by these countries in the development and use of wind energy turbines. One system which appears to be promising is the Danish 100 kW 'Bonus' wind turbine (23 m rotor, 30 m tower height) which has seen successful applications at a seaside resort and at a remote radio station in terms of performance, environmental compatibility and public acceptance

  3. Study of Anticyclogenesis Affecting the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzaki, M.; Flocas, H. A.; Simmonds, I.; Kouroutzoglou, J.; Garde, L.; Keay, K.; Bitsa, E.

    2014-12-01

    A comprehensive climatology of migratory anticyclones affecting the Mediterranean was generated by the University of Melbourne finding and tracking algorithm (MS algorithm), applied to 34 years (1979-2012) of ERA-Interim MSLP on a 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The algorithm was employed for the first time for anticyclones in this region, thus, its robustness and reliability in efficiently capturing the individual characteristics of the anticyclonic tracks in such a closed basin with complex topography were checked and verified. Then, the tracks and the statistical properties of the migratory systems were calculated and analyzed. Considering that cold-core anticyclones are shallow and weaken with height contrary to the warm-core that exhibit a vertically well-organized structure, the vertical thermal extend of the systems was studied with an algorithm developed as an extension module of the MS algorithm using ERA-Interim temperatures on several isobaric levels from 1000hPa to 100hPa on an 1.5°x1.5° resolution. The results verified that during both cold and warm period, cold-core anticyclones mainly affect the northern parts of the Mediterranean basin, with their behavior to be strongly regulated by cyclonic activity from the main storm track areas of the North Atlantic and Europe. On the other hand, warm-core anticyclones were found mainly in the southern Mediterranean and North African areas. Here, in order to get a perspective on the dynamic and thermodynamic processes in anticyclonic formation, a dynamical analysis at several vertical levels is performed. The study of mean fields of potential vorticity, temperature advection, vorticity advection at various levels can elucidate the role of upper and low levels during anticyclogenesis and system evolvement and help to further understand the dynamic mechanisms which are responsible for the anticyclogenesis over the Mediterranean region. Acknowledgement: This research project is implemented within the framework of the

  4. Mediterranean lifestyle and cardiovascular disease prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N; Mellor, Duane D; Naumovski, Nenad; Polychronopoulos, Evangelos; Tyrovolas, Stefanos; Piscopo, Suzanne; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Anastasiou, Foteini; Zeimbekis, Akis; Bountziouka, Vassiliki; Gotsis, Efthimios; Metallinos, George; Tyrovola, Dimitra; Foscolou, Alexandra; Tur, Josep-Antoni; Matalas, Antonia-Leda; Lionis, Christos; Sidossis, Labros; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes

    2017-04-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern is a well-established protective factor against cardiovascular disease (CVD). However, diet quality is only one aspect of the overall healthy lifestyle adopted by Mediterranean populations. The latter has never been evaluated as a multi-factorial composite lifestyle. Thus, the aim of the present study was to provide a broader picture of the Mediterranean lifestyle and its effects on CVD risk, among elderly individuals. During 2005-2015, 2,749 older (aged 65-100 years) from 21 Mediterranean islands (MEDIS) and the rural Mani region (Peloponnesus) of Greece were voluntarily enrolled onto the study. Dietary habits, physical activity status, socio-demographic characteristics, lifestyle parameters (sleep, smoking habits, social life and educational status) and clinical profile aspects were derived through standard procedures. The overall prevalence of the traditional CVD risk factors were 62.3% for hypertension, 22.3% for diabetes mellitus (type 2) and 47.7% for hypercholesterolemia. The presence of diabetes mellitus was positively predicted by the geriatric depression scale (GDS) [odds ratio (OR) =1.13, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.02-1.25] and by an urban residential environment (OR =2.57, 95% CI: 1.10-6.06) after adjusting for several confounders. Presence of hypertension was predicted by increasing age (OR =1.07, 95% CI: 1.02-1.12), increasing body mass index (BMI) (OR =1.12, 95% CI: 1.04-1.21), the habit of midday sleep (OR =2.07, 95% CI: 1.07-4.02) and inversely predicted by the frequency of socializing with friends (OR =0.767, 95% CI: 0.616-0.955). The estimated score in the GDS was the only independent positive predictor for the presence of hypercholesterolemia (OR =1.10, 95% CI: 1.01-1.21). Lifestyle parameters such as social life, midday sleep (siesta) and residential environment are strongly associated with the presence of CVD risk factors in elderly and should be part of broader CVD prevention strategies to

  5. Microplastic sampling in the Mediterranean Sea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biginagwa, Fares; Sosthenes, Bahati; Syberg, Kristian

    The extent of microplastic pollution in the Southwestern Mediterranean Sea is not yet known, although on Northwestern part has been previously studied. Plastic samples were collected at 7 transects during a 10 day expedition from Sicily (Italy) to Malaga (Spain) in September 2014. A 330 µM mesh...... manta trawl was used for surface water sampling. Physical and chemical characterization of plastic particles was performed with regard to size (1-5mm), shape (fragment, line, thin film, foam and pellets), color (transparent, white, black and colored), density and chemical composition according...

  6. Mediterranean Diet and Its Correlates among Adolescents in Non-Mediterranean European Countries: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Dario; Štefan, Lovro; Prosoli, Rebeka; Emeljanovas, Arunas; Mieziene, Brigita; Milanović, Ivana; Radisavljević-Janić, Snežana

    2017-02-22

    Little is known about the factors which might influence the adherence to a Mediterranean diet in non-Mediterranean European countries. Thus, the main purpose of this study was to determine the associations between socioeconomic, psychological, and physical factors on a Mediterranean diet. In this cross-sectional study, participants were 14-18-year-old adolescents ( N = 3071) from two non-Mediterranean countries: Lithuania ( N = 1863) and Serbia ( N = 1208). The dependent variable was Mediterranean diet, and was assessed with the Mediterranean Diet Quality Index for children and adolescents questionnaire. Independent variables were gender, body-mass index, self-rated health, socioeconomic status, psychological distress, physical activity, and sedentary behavior. The associations between dependent and independent variables were analyzed by using logistic regression. Results showed that higher adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with higher self-rated health, socioeconomic status, and physical activity, yet low adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with being female, having higher body-mass index, psychological distress, and sedentary behavior. Our findings suggest that future studies need to explore associations between lifestyle habits-especially in target populations, such as primary and secondary school students.

  7. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Á lvarez, Elena; Balau, Ana C.; Marbà , Nú rià N.; Afonso-Carrillo, Julio; Duarte, Carlos M.; Serrã o, Ester Á lvares

    2015-01-01

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  8. Genetic diversity and biogeographical patterns of Caulerpa prolifera across the Mediterranean and Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone

    KAUST Repository

    Varela-Álvarez, Elena

    2015-01-11

    Knowledge of spatial patterns of genetic differentiation between populations is key to understanding processes in evolutionary history of biological species. Caulerpa is a genus of marine green algae, which has attracted much public attention, mainly because of the impacts of invasive species in the Mediterranean. However, very little is known about the ecological and evolutionary history of the Mediterranean native Caulerpa prolifera, a species which is currently found at sites distributed worldwide. C. prolifera provides a good model to explore the patterns of genetic diversity at different scales across the Mediterranean and Atlantic area. This study aims to investigate the biogeographical patterns of diversity and differentiation of C. prolifera in the Mediterranean, with special focus on the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone. We used two nuclear (ITS rDNA and the hypervariable microsatellite locus CaPr_J2) and one chloroplast (tufA) DNA markers on samples of C. prolifera from its entire range. Analyses of 51 sequences of the cpDNA tufA of C. prolifera, 87 ITS2 sequences and genotypes of 788 ramets of C. prolifera for the locus CaPr_J2 revealed three different biogeographical areas: West Atlantic, East Atlantic and a larger area representing the Mediterranean, the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone and a Pacific site (Bali). It was found out that the Mediterranean/Atlantic transition zone is a biogeographical boundary for C. prolifera. A lack of connectivity was revealed between Atlantic and Mediterranean types, and identical sequences found in the Mediterranean and Indo-Pacific suggest either recent gene flow along the Red Sea connection or a possible ancient Indo-Pacific origin.

  9. Mediterranean Diet and Prevention of Chronic Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romagnolo, Donato F.; Selmin, Ornella I.

    2017-01-01

    A large body of research data suggests that traditional dietary habits and lifestyle unique to the Mediterranean region (Mediterranean diet, MD) lower the incidence of chronic diseases and improve longevity. These data contrast with troubling statistics in the United States and other high income countries pointing to an increase in the incidence of chronic diseases and the projected explosion in cost of medical care associated with an aging population. In 2013, the MD was inscribed by UNESCO in the “Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.” The 2015–2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans included the MD as a healthy dietary pattern. Therefore, specific objectives of this article are to provide an overview of the nutritional basis of this healthful diet, its metabolic benefits, and its role in multiple aspects of disease prevention and healthy aging. Whereas recommendations about the MD often focus on specific foods or bioactive compounds, we suggest that the eating pattern as a whole likely contributes to the health promoting effects of the MD. PMID:29051674

  10. Mediterranean Way of Drinking and Longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacosa, Attilio; Barale, Roberto; Bavaresco, Luigi; Faliva, Milena Anna; Gerbi, Vincenzo; La Vecchia, Carlo; Negri, Eva; Opizzi, Annalisa; Perna, Simone; Pezzotti, Mario; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-01-01

    The relation between alcohol consumption and mortality is a J-shaped curve in most of the many studies published on this topic. The Copenhagen Prospective Population Studies demonstrated in the year 2000 that wine intake may have a beneficial effect on all cause mortality that is additive to that of alcohol. Wine contains various poliphenolic substances which may be beneficial for health and in particular flavonols (such as myricetin and quercetin), catechin and epicatechin, proanthocyanidins, anthocyanins, various phenolic acids and the stilbene resveratrol. In particular, resveratrol seems to play a positive effect on longevity because it increases the expression level of Sirt1, besides its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic properties. Moderate wine drinking is part of the Mediterranean diet, together with abundant and variable plant foods, high consumption of cereals, olive oil as the main (added) fat and a low intake of (red) meat. This healthy diet pattern involves a "Mediterranean way of drinking," that is a regular, moderate wine consumption mainly with food (up to two glasses a day for men and one glass for women). Moderate wine drinking increases longevity, reduces the risk of cardiovascular diseases and does not appreciably influence the overall risk of cancer.

  11. Traditional Mediterranean and European herbal medicines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonti, Marco; Verpoorte, Robert

    2017-03-06

    Written history allows tracing back Mediterranean and European medical traditions to Greek antiquity. The epidemiological shift triggered by the rise of modern medicine and industrialization is reflected in contemporary reliance and preferences for certain herbal medicines. We sketch the development and transmission of written herbal medicine through Mediterranean and European history and point out the opportunity to connect with modern traditions. An ethnopharmacological database linking past and modern medical traditions could serve as a tool for crosschecking contemporary ethnopharmacological field-data as well as a repository for data mining. Considering that the diachronic picture emerging from such a database has an epidemiological base this could lead to new hypotheses related to evolutionary medicine. The advent of systems pharmacology and network pharmacology opens new perspectives for studying past and current herbal medicine. Since a large part of modern drugs has its roots in ancient traditions one may expect new leads for drug development from novel systemic studies, as well as evidence for the activity of certain herbal preparations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. New Mediterranean Marine biodiversity records (December, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BILECENOGLU

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on recent biodiversity studies carried out in different parts of the Mediterranean, the following 19 species are included as new records on the floral or faunal lists of the relevant ecosystems: the green algae Penicillus capitatus (Maltese waters; the nemertean Amphiporus allucens (Iberian Peninsula, Spain; the salp Salpa maxima (Syria; the opistobranchs Felimida britoi and Berghia coerulescens (Aegean Sea, Greece; the dusky shark Carcharhinus obscurus (central-west Mediterranean and Ionian Sea, Italy; Randall’s threadfin bream Nemipterus randalli, the broadbanded cardinalfish Apogon fasciatus and the goby Gobius kolombatovici (Aegean Sea, Turkey; the reticulated leatherjack Stephanolepis diaspros and the halacarid Agaue chevreuxi (Sea of Marmara, Turkey; the slimy liagora Ganonema farinosum, the yellowstripe barracuda Sphyraena chrysotaenia, the rayed pearl oyster Pinctada imbricata radiata and the Persian conch Conomurex persicus (south-eastern Crete, Greece; the blenny Microlipophrys dalmatinus and the bastard grunt Pomadasys incisus (Ionian Sea, Italy; the brown shrimp Farfantepenaeus aztecus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey; the blue-crab Callinectes sapidus (Corfu, Ionian Sea, Greece. In addition, the findings of the following rare species improve currently available biogeographical knowledge: the oceanic pufferfish Lagocephalus lagocephalus (Malta; the yellow sea chub Kyphosus incisor (Almuñécar coast of Spain; the basking shark Cetorhinus maximus and the shortfin mako Isurus oxyrinchus (north-eastern Levant, Turkey.

  13. Magnetization states and switching in narrow-gapped ferromagnetic nanorings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Li

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We study permalloy nanorings that are lithographically fabricated with narrow gaps that break the rotational symmetry of the ring while retaining the vortex ground state, using both micromagnetic simulations and magnetic force microscopy (MFM. The vortex chirality in these structures can be readily set with an in-plane magnetic field and easily probed by MFM due to the field associated with the gap, suggesting such rings for possible applications in storage technologies. We find that the gapped ring edge characteristics (i.e., edge profile and gap shape are critical in determining the magnetization switching field, thus elucidating an essential parameter in the controls of devices that might incorporate such structures.

  14. Plasma Reflection in Multigrain Layers of Narrow-Bandgap Semiconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, N. D.; Shishkin, M. I.; Rokakh, A. G.

    2018-04-01

    Qualitatively similar spectral characteristics of plasma-resonance reflection in the region of 15-25 μm were obtained for layers of electrodeposited submicron particles of InSb, InAs, and GaAs and plates of these semiconductors ground with M1-grade diamond powder. The most narrow-bandgap semiconductor InSb (intrinsic absorption edge ˜7 μm) is characterized by an absorption band at 2.1-2.3 μm, which is interpreted in terms of the model of optical excitation of electrons coupled by the Coulomb interaction. The spectra of a multigrain layer of chemically deposited PbS nanoparticles (50-70 nm) exhibited absorption maxima at 7, 10, and 17 μm, which can be explained by electron transitions obeying the energy-quantization rules for quantum dots.

  15. Charging dynamics of supercapacitors with narrow cylindrical nanopores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Alpha A.; Kondrat, Svyatoslav; Oshanin, Gleb; Kornyshev, Alexei A.

    2014-08-01

    We present a coarse-grained, continuum kinetic theory for charging supercapacitors with narrow cylindrical nanopores. The theory reveals that the occupancy of a nonpolarized pore and the energy barrier for ion-ion interdiffusion are the key issues controlling the different regimes of dynamic response. For ‘ionophobic’ pores, where the pore is empty at no applied voltage, charge density advances into the pore via diffusion-like dynamics. The mechanism of charging an ‘ionophilic’ pore is starkly different: for moderate ionophilicities, co-ions are expelled from the pore in a front-like manner, with significant ‘congestion’ at the pore entrance predicted for strong ionophilicity. We thus show that pore ionophilicity is detrimental to the speed of charging/discharging cycles, whereas making pores more ionophobic can substantially accelerate charging and cyclic recharging.

  16. Narrow band interference cancelation in OFDM: Astructured maximum likelihood approach

    KAUST Repository

    Sohail, Muhammad Sadiq

    2012-06-01

    This paper presents a maximum likelihood (ML) approach to mitigate the effect of narrow band interference (NBI) in a zero padded orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (ZP-OFDM) system. The NBI is assumed to be time variant and asynchronous with the frequency grid of the ZP-OFDM system. The proposed structure based technique uses the fact that the NBI signal is sparse as compared to the ZP-OFDM signal in the frequency domain. The structure is also useful in reducing the computational complexity of the proposed method. The paper also presents a data aided approach for improved NBI estimation. The suitability of the proposed method is demonstrated through simulations. © 2012 IEEE.

  17. Narrow bandwidth detection of vibration signature using fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sean; Soh, Daniel B.S.

    2018-05-08

    The various technologies presented herein relate to extracting a portion of each pulse in a series of pulses reflected from a target to facilitate determination of a Doppler-shifted frequency for each pulse and, subsequently, a vibration frequency for the series of pulses. Each pulse can have a square-wave configuration, whereby each pulse can be time-gated to facilitate discarding the leading edge and the trailing edge (and associated non-linear effects) of each pulse and accordingly, capture of the central portion of the pulse from which the Doppler-shifted frequency, and ultimately, the vibration frequency of the target can be determined. Determination of the vibration velocity facilitates identification of the target being in a state of motion. The plurality of pulses can be formed from a laser beam (e.g., a continuous wave), the laser beam having a narrow bandwidth.

  18. Density Fluctuations of Hard-Sphere Fluids in Narrow Confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Nygård

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Spatial confinement induces microscopic ordering of fluids, which in turn alters many of their dynamic and thermodynamic properties. However, the isothermal compressibility has hitherto been largely overlooked in the literature, despite its obvious connection to the underlying microscopic structure and density fluctuations in confined geometries. Here, we address this issue by probing density profiles and structure factors of hard-sphere fluids in various narrow slits, using x-ray scattering from colloid-filled nanofluidic containers and integral-equation-based statistical mechanics at the level of pair distributions for inhomogeneous fluids. Most importantly, we demonstrate that density fluctuations and isothermal compressibilities in confined fluids can be obtained experimentally from the long-wavelength limit of the structure factor, providing a formally exact and experimentally accessible connection between microscopic structure and macroscopic, thermodynamic properties. Our approach will thus, for example, allow direct experimental verification of theoretically predicted enhanced density fluctuations in liquids near solvophobic interfaces.

  19. Velocity Profiles of Slow Blood Flow in a Narrow Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinyu; Huang, Zuqia; Zhuang, Fengyuan; Zhang, Hui

    1998-04-01

    A fractal model is introduced into the slow blood motion. When blood flows slowly in a narrow tube, red cell aggregation results in the formation of an approximately cylindrical core of red cells. By introducing the fractal model and using the power law relation between area fraction φ and distance from tube axis ρ, rigorous velocity profiles of the fluid in and outside the aggregated core and of the core itself are obtained analytically for different fractal dimensions. It shows a blunted velocity distribution for a relatively large fractal dimension (D ˜ 2), which can be observed in normal blood; a pathological velocity profile for moderate dimension (D = 1), which is similar to the Segre-Silberberg effect; and a parabolic profile for negligible red cell concentration (D = 0), which likes in the Poiseuille flow. The project supported by the National Basic Research Project "Nonlinear Science", National Natural Science Foundation of China and the State Education Commission through the Foundation of Doctoral Training

  20. Narrow Field of View Zenith Radiometer (NFOV) Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, C; Marshak, A; Hodges, G; Barnard, JC; Schmelzer, J

    2008-11-01

    The two-channel narrow field-of-view radiometer (NFOV2) is a ground-based radiometer that looks straight up and measures radiance directly above the instrument at wavelengths of 673 and 870 nm. The field-of-view of the instrument is 1.2 degrees, and the sampling time resolution is one second. Measurements of the NFOV2 have been used to retrieve optical properties for overhead clouds that range from patchy to overcast. With a one-second sampling rate of the NFOV2, faster than almost any other ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) instrument, we are able, for the first time, to capture changes in cloud optical properties at the natural time scale of cloud evolution.

  1. Main features of narrow sociological theories explaining mental disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Opalić Petar

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the introduction, the author states that sociological theories explaining mental disorders in the narrow sense have originated as an opposition to medical, i.e. biological model of interpreting mental disorders. With regard to this, the following sociological theories explaining mental disorders are presented in more detail: theory of anomie by Durkheim and Merton (with Merton’s typology of deviant behavior, social roles theory by Parsons, labeling theory by Scheff and other authors, theoretical career model of the mentally ill, the concept of psychic disorder of etnomethodology and finally, the anti-psychiatric interpretation of mental disorders. It is concluded that, although historically older, sociological theories of the onset of mental disorders are filling the epistemological void that occurred in understanding the role of society on the whole and a series of social factors particularly on the different aspects of understanding mental disorders.

  2. Model for diffusion of a narrow beam of charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhauer, C.

    1980-01-01

    A simple analytic expression is presented to describe the three-dimensioned spatial distribution of flux or energy deposition by a narrow beam of charged particles. In this expression distances are expressed in terms of a scaling parameter that is proportional to the mean square scattering angle in a single collision. Finite ranges are expressed in terms of the continuous-slowing-down range. Track-length distributions for one-velocity particles and energy deposition for electrons are discussed. Comparisons with rigorous Monte Carlo calculations show that departures from the analytic expression can be expressed as a slowly varying function of order unity. This function can be used as a basis for interpolation over a wide range of source energies and materials

  3. Motion tracking in narrow spaces: a structured light approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Oline Vinter; Paulsen, Rasmus; Højgaard, Liselotte

    2010-01-01

    We present a novel tracking system for patient head motion inside 3D medical scanners. Currently, the system is targeted at the Siemens High Resolution Research Tomograph (HRRT) PET scanner. Partial face surfaces are reconstructed using a miniaturized structured light system. The reconstructed 3D...... the system to a standard optical motion tracker based on a rigid tracking tool. Our system achieves an angular RMSE of 0.11 degrees demonstrating its relevance for motion compensated 3D scan image reconstructions as well as its competitiveness against the standard optical system with an RMSE of 0.08 degrees...... point clouds are matched to a reference surface using a robust iterative closest point algorithm. A main challenge is the narrow geometry requiring a compact structured light system and an oblique angle of observation. The system is validated using a mannequin head mounted on a rotary stage. We compare...

  4. Implementation of Industrial Narrow Band Communication System into SDR Concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prokes

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The rapid expansion of the digital signal processing has penetrated recently into a sphere of high performance industrial narrow band communication systems which had been for long years dominated by the traditional analog circuit design. Although it brings new potential to even increase the efficiency of the radio channel usage it also forces new challenges and compromises radio designers have to face. In this article we describe the design of the IF sampling industrial narrowband radio receiver, optimize a digital receiver structure implemented in a single FPGA circuit and study the performance of such radio receiver architecture. As an evaluation criterion the communication efficiency in form of maximum usable receiver sensitivity, co-channel rejection, adjacent channel selectivity and radio blocking measurement have been selected.

  5. Gain-switched all-fiber laser with narrow bandwidth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Casper; Giesberts, M.; Nyga, S.

    2013-01-01

    pulse energy is 20 μJ in a duration of 135 ns at 7 kHz. The bandwidth increases for a higher pump pulse energy and repetition rate, and this sets the limit of the output pulse energy. A single power amplifier is added to raise the peak power to the kW-level and the pulse energy to 230 μJ while keeping......Gain-switching of a CW fiber laser is a simple and cost-effective approach to generate pulses using an all-fiber system. We report on the construction of a narrow bandwidth (below 0.1 nm) gain-switched fiber laser and optimize the pulse energy and pulse duration under this constraint. The extracted...

  6. The narrow range of perceived predation: a 19 group study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Mesly

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper rests largely on the works of Mesly (1999 to 2012. It argues that the phenomenon of perceived predation as a functional behavioural phenomenon is subjected to certain limits, a finding based on studies performed on 19 different groups spread over a four-year span. It also finds a constant of k = 1.3 which reflects the invariant nature of perceived predation. These findings add to the theory of financial predation which stipulates that financial predators operate below the limits of detection pertaining to their customers (and market regulators. They are experts at minimizing the perception that clients could have that they are after their money, causing them financial harm, by surprise (perceived predation. Understanding the narrow range in which financial predators operate is setting the grounds to offer better protection to investors and to implementing better control and punitive measures.

  7. Flow regimes and heat transfer in vertical narrow annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulke, A.; Goldberg, I.

    1993-01-01

    In shell side boiling heat exchangers narrow crevices that are formed between the tubes and the tube support structure provide areas for local thermal-hydraulic conditions which differ significantly from bulk fluid conditions. Understanding of the processes of boiling and dryout in flow restricted crevices can help in designing of tube support geometries to minimize the likelihood of tube support plate and tube corrosion observed in commercial power plant steam generators. This paper describes a one dimensional thermal-hydraulic model of a vertical crevice between a tube and a support plate with cylindrical holes. The annulus formed by the support plate hole and an eccentrically located tube has been represented by vertical strips. The formation, growth and collapse of a steam bubble in each strip has been determined. Based on the bubble history, and flow regimes characterized by ''isolated'' bubbles, ''coalesced'' bubbles and liquid deficient regions have been defined

  8. TESTS AND METHODOLOGIES FOR THE SURVEY OF NARROW SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Perfetti

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The research illustrated in this article aimed at identifying a good standard methodology to survey very narrow spaces during 3D investigation of Cultural Heritage. It is an important topic in today’s era of BIM modelling applied to Cultural Heritage. Spaces like staircases, corridors and passages are very common in the architectural or archaeological fields, and obtaining a 3D-oriented survey of those areas can be a very complex task when completeness of the model and high precision are requested. Photogrammetry appears to be the most promising solution in terms of versatility and manoeuvrability also considering the quality of the required data. Fisheye lenses were studied and tested in depth because of their significant advantage in the field of view if compared with rectilinear lenses. This advantage alone can be crucial to reduce the total amount of photos and, as a consequence, to obtain manageable data, to simplify the survey phase and to significantly reduce the elaboration time. In order to overcome the main issue that arise when using fisheye lenses, which is the lack of rules that can be employed to design the survey, a general mathematical formulation to precisely estimate the GSD (Ground Sampling Distance for every optical projection is presented here. A complete survey of a real complex case study was performed in order to test and stress the proposed methodology, and to handle a fisheye-based survey from beginning to end: the photogrammetric survey of the Minguzzi Staircase. It is a complex service spiral-staircase located in the Duomo di Milano with a total height of 25 meters and characterized by a narrow walkable space about 70 centimetres wide.

  9. II-VI Narrow-Bandgap Semiconductors for Optoelectronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ian

    The field of narrow-gap II-VI materials is dominated by the compound semiconductor mercury cadmium telluride, (Hg1-x Cd x Te or MCT), which supports a large industry in infrared detectors, cameras and infrared systems. It is probably true to say that HgCdTe is the third most studied semiconductor after silicon and gallium arsenide. Hg1-x Cd x Te is the material most widely used in high-performance infrared detectors at present. By changing the composition x the spectral response of the detector can be made to cover the range from 1 μm to beyond 17 μm. The advantages of this system arise from a number of features, notably: close lattice matching, high optical absorption coefficient, low carrier generation rate, high electron mobility and readily available doping techniques. These advantages mean that very sensitive infrared detectors can be produced at relatively high operating temperatures. Hg1-x Cd x Te multilayers can be readily grown in vapor-phase epitaxial processes. This provides the device engineer with complex doping and composition profiles that can be used to further enhance the electro-optic performance, leading to low-cost, large-area detectors in the future. The main purpose of this chapter is to describe the applications, device physics and technology of II-VI narrow-bandgap devices, focusing on HgCdTe but also including Hg1-x Mn x Te and Hg1-x Zn x Te. It concludes with a review of the research and development programs into third-generation infrared detector technology (so-called GEN III detectors) being performed in centers around the world.

  10. Water self-diffusion through narrow oxygenated carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Striolo, Alberto [School of Chemical Biological and Materials Engineering, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)

    2007-11-28

    The hydrophobic interior of carbon nanotubes, which is reminiscent of ion channels in cellular membranes, has inspired scientific research directed towards the production of, for example, membranes for water desalination, drug-delivery devices, and nanosyringes. To develop these technologies it is crucial to understand and predict the equilibrium and transport properties of confined water. We present here a series of molecular dynamics simulation results conducted to understand the extent to which the presence of a few oxygenated active sites, modeled as carbonyls, affects the transport properties of confined water. The model for the carbon nanotube is not intended to be realistic. Its only purpose is to allow us to understand the effect of a few oxygenated sites on the transport properties of water confined in a narrow cylindrical pore, which is otherwise hydrophobic. At low hydration levels we found little, if any, water diffusion. The diffusion, which appears to be of the Fickian type for sufficiently large hydration levels, becomes faster as the number of confined water molecules increases, reaches a maximum, and slows as water fills the carbon nanotubes. We explain our findings on the basis of two collective motion mechanisms observed from the analysis of sequences of simulation snapshots. We term the two mechanisms 'cluster-breakage' and 'cluster-libration' mechanisms. We observe that the cluster-breakage mechanism produces longer displacements for the confined water molecules than the cluster-libration one, but deactivates as water fills the carbon nanotube. From a practical point of view, our results are particularly important for two reasons: (1) at low hydration levels the presence of only eight carbonyl groups can prevent the diffusion of water through (8, 8) carbon nanotubes; and (2) the extremely fast self-diffusion coefficients observed for water within narrow carbon nanotubes are significantly decreased in the presence of only a

  11. Water self-diffusion through narrow oxygenated carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Striolo, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The hydrophobic interior of carbon nanotubes, which is reminiscent of ion channels in cellular membranes, has inspired scientific research directed towards the production of, for example, membranes for water desalination, drug-delivery devices, and nanosyringes. To develop these technologies it is crucial to understand and predict the equilibrium and transport properties of confined water. We present here a series of molecular dynamics simulation results conducted to understand the extent to which the presence of a few oxygenated active sites, modeled as carbonyls, affects the transport properties of confined water. The model for the carbon nanotube is not intended to be realistic. Its only purpose is to allow us to understand the effect of a few oxygenated sites on the transport properties of water confined in a narrow cylindrical pore, which is otherwise hydrophobic. At low hydration levels we found little, if any, water diffusion. The diffusion, which appears to be of the Fickian type for sufficiently large hydration levels, becomes faster as the number of confined water molecules increases, reaches a maximum, and slows as water fills the carbon nanotubes. We explain our findings on the basis of two collective motion mechanisms observed from the analysis of sequences of simulation snapshots. We term the two mechanisms 'cluster-breakage' and 'cluster-libration' mechanisms. We observe that the cluster-breakage mechanism produces longer displacements for the confined water molecules than the cluster-libration one, but deactivates as water fills the carbon nanotube. From a practical point of view, our results are particularly important for two reasons: (1) at low hydration levels the presence of only eight carbonyl groups can prevent the diffusion of water through (8, 8) carbon nanotubes; and (2) the extremely fast self-diffusion coefficients observed for water within narrow carbon nanotubes are significantly decreased in the presence of only a few oxygenated active

  12. Design, Construction, Demonstration and Delivery of an Automated Narrow Gap Welding System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-29

    DESIGN, CONSTRUCTION, DEMONSTRATION AND DELIVERY OF WE DA4I &NARROW GAP CONTRACT NO. NOOGOO-81-C-E923 TO DAVID TAYLOR NAVAL RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT...the automated * Narrow Gap welding process, is the narrow (3/8 - inch), square-butt joint *design. This narrow joint greatly reduces the volume of weld...AD-i45 495 DESIGN CONSTRUCTION DEMONSTRATION AiND DELIVERY OF RN 1/j AUrOMATED NARROW GAP WELDING SYSTEMI() CRC AUTOMATIC WELDING CO HOUSTON TX 29

  13. Evolution of Mediterranean diets and cuisine: concepts and definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radd-Vagenas, Sue; Kouris-Blazos, Antigone; Singh, Maria Fiatarone; Flood, Victoria M

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet has been demonstrated to provide a range of health benefits in observational and clinical trials and adopted by various dietary guidelines. However, a broad range of definitions exist impeding synthesis across trials. This review aims to provide a historical description of Mediterranean diets, from the ancient to the modern, to inform future educational and diet index tool development representing the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet. Nine databases were searched from inception to July 2015 to identify papers defining the Mediterranean diet. The definition accepted by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was also reviewed. The 'traditional' Mediterranean diet is described as high in unprocessed plant foods (grains, vegetables, fruits, legumes, nuts/seeds and extra virgin olive oil), moderate in fish/shellfish and wine and low in meat, dairy, eggs, animal fats and discretionary foods. Additional elements relating to cuisine and eating habits identified in this review include frequent intake of home cooked meals; use of moist, lower temperature, cooking methods; eating main meals in company; reduced snacking occasions; fasting practice; ownership of a vegetable garden; use of traditional foods and combinations; and napping after the midday meal. Scope exists for future tools to incorporate additional elements of the 'traditional' Mediterranean diet to improve the quality, consistency, and synthesis of ongoing research on the Mediterranean diet.

  14. River runoff influences on the Central Mediterranean overturning circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verri, Giorgia; Pinardi, N.; Oddo, P.; Ciliberti, S. A.; Coppini, G.

    2018-03-01

    The role of riverine freshwater inflow on the Central Mediterranean Overturning Circulation (CMOC) was studied using a high-resolution ocean model with a complete distribution of rivers in the Adriatic and Ionian catchment areas. The impact of river runoff on the Adriatic and Ionian Sea basins was assessed by a twin experiment, with and without runoff, from 1999 to 2012. This study tries to show the connection between the Adriatic as a marginal sea containing the downwelling branch of the anti-estuarine CMOC and the large runoff occurring there. It is found that the multiannual CMOC is a persistent anti-estuarine structure with secondary estuarine cells that strengthen in years of large realistic river runoff. The CMOC is demonstrated to be controlled by wind forcing at least as much as by buoyancy fluxes. It is found that river runoff affects the CMOC strength, enhancing the amplitude of the secondary estuarine cells and reducing the intensity of the dominant anti-estuarine cell. A large river runoff can produce a positive buoyancy flux without switching off the antiestuarine CMOC cell, but a particularly low heat flux and wind work with normal river runoff can reverse it. Overall by comparing experiments with, without and with unrealistically augmented runoff we demonstrate that rivers affect the CMOC strength but they can never represent its dominant forcing mechanism and the potential role of river runoff has to be considered jointly with wind work and heat flux, as they largely contribute to the energy budget of the basin. Looking at the downwelling branch of the CMOC in the Adriatic basin, rivers are demonstrated to locally reduce the volume of Adriatic dense water formed in the Southern Adriatic Sea as a result of increased water stratification. The spreading of the Adriatic dense water into the Ionian abyss is affected as well: dense waters overflowing the Otranto Strait are less dense in a realistic runoff regime, with respect to no runoff experiment, and

  15. Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Roman

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Roman1, Laura Carta2, Miguel Ángel Martínez-González3, Lluís Serra-Majem41Mediterranean Diet Foundation, University of Barcelona Science Park, Spain; 2Department of Biosystems and Applied Sciences, Unit of Physiology and Human Nutrition, University of Cagliari, Italy; 3Department of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Navarra, Spain; 4Department of Clinical Sciences, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, SpainAbstract: The Mediterranean diet is known to be one of the healthiest dietary patterns in the world due to its relation with a low morbidity and mortality for some chronic diseases. The purpose of this study was to review literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and healthy aging. A MEDLINE search was conducted looking for literature regarding the relationship between Mediterranean diet and cardiovascular disease (or risk factors for cardiovascular disease, cancer, mental health and longevity and quality of life in the elderly population (65 years or older. A selection of 36 articles met the criteria of selection. Twenty of the studies were about Mediterranean diets and cardiovascular disease, 2 about Mediterranean diets and cancer, 3 about Mediterranean diets and mental health and 11 about longevity (overall survival or mental health. The results showed that Mediterranean diets had benefits on risks factors for cardiovascular disease such as lipoprotein levels, endothelium vasodilatation, insulin resistance, the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome, antioxidant capacity, the incidence of acute myocardial infarction, and cardiovascular mortality. Some positive associations with quality of life and inverse associations with the risk of certain cancers and with overall mortality were also reported.Keywords: Mediterranean diet, elderly, health, review

  16. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JAIME ROZOWSKI

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece, both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes that are moving away from Chilean traditional diet and towards a western one. A new food pyramid for Chile is proposed based on the traditional Mediterranean-type diet

  17. Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cesaraccio, Carla; Piga, Alessandra; Ventura, Andrea; Arca, Angelo; Duce, Pierpaolo; Mereu, Simone

    2017-04-01

    The study of the vegetation features in a complex and highly vulnerable ecosystems, such as Mediterranean maquis, leads to the need of using continuous monitoring systems at high spatial and temporal resolution, for a better interpretation of the mechanisms of phenological and eco-physiological processes. Near-surface remote sensing techniques are used to quantify, at high temporal resolution, and with a certain degree of spatial integration, the seasonal variations of the surface optical and radiometric properties. In recent decades, the design and implementation of global monitoring networks involved the use of non-destructive and/or cheaper approaches such as (i) continuous surface fluxes measurement stations, (ii) phenological observation networks, and (iii) measurement of temporal and spatial variations of the vegetation spectral properties. In this work preliminary results from the ECO-SCALE (Integrated High Resolution Monitoring of Mediterranean vegetation) project are reported. The project was manly aimed to develop an integrated system for environmental monitoring based on digital photography, hyperspectral radiometry , and micrometeorological techniques during three years of experimentation (2013-2016) in a Mediterranean site of Italy (Capo Caccia, Alghero). The main results concerned the analysis of chromatic coordinates indices from digital images, to characterized the phenological patterns for typical shrubland species, determining start and duration of the growing season, and the physiological status in relation to different environmental drought conditions; then the seasonal patterns of canopy phenology, was compared to NEE (Net Ecosystem Exchange) patterns, showing similarities. However, maximum values of NEE and ER (Ecosystem respiration), and short term variation, seemed mainly tuned by inter annual pattern of meteorological variables, in particular of temperature recorded in the months preceding the vegetation green-up. Finally, green signals

  18. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives, Egypt - Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    Egypt is a significant oil producer and a rapidly growing natural gas producer. Its strategic location makes it an important transit corridor for world energy markets. Mediterranean Energy Perspectives - Egypt provides insights into the country's energy situation today and over the next two decades. It presents detailed data and analysis of interest to those who have a stake in both the supply and demand side of the energy equation. It is the first in-depth country review in OME's Mediterranean Energy Perspectives (MEP) series. The publication draws upon the extensive expertise of the Observatoire Mediterraneen de l'Energie (OME) and its members. MEP-Egypt is a unique and comprehensive analysis of the energy sector in Egypt. It contains data from the early days of its energy industry up to today as well as a view on its evolution to 2030 based on the supply and demand model developed by OME (Mediterranean Energy Model). Current efforts related to renewable energy sources are carefully considered as they are key issues for the Egyptian energy sector and for the whole economic and environment future of the country. MEP-Egypt presents: - Historical and forecast data on the supply and demand balance for each segment of the Egyptian energy sector. - Past, present and future of oil and gas exploration and discoveries. - Oil and gas fields: production and development. - Oil and gas production profiles and prospects to 2030. - Detailed information on refineries, pipelines, LNG terminals and storage facilities. - Evolution of electricity generation and installed capacity. - Developments of innovative and renewable energy sources. - Prospects for CO 2 emissions and sustainable development. - Fiscal regime of the energy industry. - Alternative energy scenarios: a Conservative scenario, a Proactive scenario and two High Economic Growth variants. MEP-Egypt has been prepared by a joint-team of Egyptian industry experts and OME staff, supported by related companies, institutions

  19. Exogenous and endogenous landforms in the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acar, Julia

    2017-04-01

    11th graders have already learned about endogenous forces and now we are having a closer look at the exogenous forces which act on the Earth's surface. The Po River-system, for example, is responsible for the formation of the alpine region. Students are asked to find out how this works with the help of the rock-cycle scheme, several suitable maps and information on weathering and the texture of rocks, erosion, etc. We will form groups that will look at different types of rock formations (including an example in the Mediterranean region each). Depending on the number of lessons available we will add the exogenous effect of flowing water and ice (glacial over forming) to the topic. At the end every group will present their findings explaining the scientific context by using topographic examples.

  20. Mediterranean Conference on Information & Communication Technologies 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Choubani, Fethi; Moussati, Ali

    2016-01-01

    This volume presents the first part of the proceedings of the Mediterranean Conference on Information & Communication Technologies (MedICT 2015), which was held at Saidia, Morocco during 7–9 May, 2015. MedICT provides an excellent international forum to the researchers and practitioners from both academia as well as industry to meet and share cutting-edge development. The conference has also a special focus on enabling technologies for societal challenges, and seeks to address multidisciplinary challenges in Information & Communication Technologies such as health, demographic change, wellbeing, security and sustainability issues. The proceedings publish high quality papers which are closely related to the various theories, as well as emerging and practical applications of particular interest to the ICT community. This first volume provides a compact yet broad view of recent developments in devices, technologies and processing, and covers recent research areas in the field including Microwave Devices...

  1. Genetic sexing of the Mediterranean fruit fly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    In the early 1980s, it was recognized by the FAO and the IAEA that a genetic sexing method for the Mediterranean fruit fly (medfly) would greatly improve the efficacy of the medfly sterile insect technique (SIT) and reduce its costs. These Proceedings summarize the research and development findings of the Agency's co-operators in the co-ordinated research programme to develop a genetic sexing method for the medfly. Great progress has been made in many aspects of medfly genetics. including the development of a number of genetic sexing strains. Contents: Genetics, Cytogenetics and Population Genetics. Genetic Sexing of Ceratitis Capitata by Morphological, Biochemical and other means. Recommendations. Refs, figs and tabs

  2. Least Disturbed Condition for European Mediterranean rivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feio, M J; Aguiar, F C; Almeida, S F P; Ferreira, J; Ferreira, M T; Elias, C; Serra, S R Q; Buffagni, A; Cambra, J; Chauvin, C; Delmas, F; Dörflinger, G; Erba, S; Flor, N; Ferréol, M; Germ, M; Mancini, L; Manolaki, P; Marcheggiani, S; Minciardi, M R; Munné, A; Papastergiadou, E; Prat, N; Puccinelli, C; Rosebery, J; Sabater, S; Ciadamidaro, S; Tornés, E; Tziortzis, I; Urbanič, G; Vieira, C

    2014-04-01

    The present report describes a three-step approach that was used to characterize and define thresholds for the Least Disturbed Condition in Mediterranean streams of four different types, regarding organic pollution and nutrients, hydrological and morphological alterations, and land use. For this purpose, a common database composed of national reference sites (929 records) from seven countries, sampled for invertebrates, diatoms and macrophytes was used. The analyses of reference sites showed that small (catchment rivers were the most affected by stressors: 25-43% of the samples showed at least slight alterations regarding channelization, connectivity, upstream dam influence, hydropeaking and degradation of riparian vegetation. Temporary streams were the least affected by hydromorphological changes, but they were nevertheless affected by alterations in riparian vegetation. There were no major differences between all permanent stream types regarding water quality, but temporary streams showed lower values for oxygenation (DO) and wider ranges for other variables, such as nitrates. A lower threshold value for DO (60%) was determined for this stream type and can be attributed to the streams' natural characteristics. For all other river types, common limits were found for the remaining variables (ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, total P, % of artificial areas, % of intensive and extensive agriculture, % of semi-natural areas in the catchment). These values were then used to select the list of reference sites. The biological communities were characterized, revealing the existence of nine groups of Mediterranean invertebrate communities, six for diatoms and five for macrophytes: each group was characterized by specific indicator taxa that highlighted the differences between groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Can the Mediterranean diet prevent prostate cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itsiopoulos, Catherine; Hodge, Allison; Kaimakamis, Mary

    2009-02-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men worldwide. Despite the global importance of this cancer, until recently little was known about risk factors apart from the well-established factors: age, family history and country of birth. The large worldwide variation in prostate cancer risk and increased risk in migrants moving from low to high risk countries provides strong support for modifiable environmental factors. We have based our review on the findings of a systematic review undertaken by an expert panel on behalf of the World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research, and new data since then, linking identified foods and nutrients with prostate cancer. Evidence indicates that foods containing lycopene, as well as selenium and foods containing it, probably protect against prostate cancer, and excess consumption of foods or supplements containing calcium are a probable cause of this cancer. The expert panel also concluded that it is unlikely that beta-carotene (whether from foods or supplements) has a substantial effect on the risk of this cancer. A recent review on environmental factors in human prostate cancer also found that there were protective effects of vitamin E, pulses, soy foods and high plasma 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels. The Mediterranean diet is abundant in foods that may protect against prostate cancer and is associated with longevity and reduced cardiovascular and cancer mortality. Compared with many Western countries Greece has lower prostate cancer mortality and Greek migrant men in Australia have retained their low risk for prostate cancer. Consumption of a traditional Mediterranean diet, rich in bioactive nutrients, may confer protection to Greek migrant men, and this dietary pattern offers a palatable alternative for prevention of this disease.

  4. Security and Political Stability in the Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marquina

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The author revises with a critical eye the treatment given the issue of security during the Euro-Mediterranean process from the Declaration of Barcelona to the Conference at Malta. According to Marquina, no idea of security exists which gives backbone to theEuro-Mediterranen process and the documents themselves contain incoherencies and significant imprecisions, especially regarding the concepts of cooperative security, preventative diplomacy and ‘good neighbor’ relations. These principles appear to be rather underexplained in both their conceptual and operative aspects. On one hand, the information about matters that affect security is exchanged on both a voluntary and official basis and can be, as such, thus opaque and not always reliable; on the other hand, the issues thataffect security are so wide-ranging that the operative approach - the communications network, mechanisms for early-warning, the conciliation and peaceful resolution of controversies - seems hardly realistic. With respect to confidence-building measures, the author considers that these should be linked to arms control agreements, which are more in accord with the stated objectives of defense sufficiency and the non-proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Marquina also maintains that the role of civil society and the importance of cultural dialogue - both fundamental to conflict prevention - have not been reinforced even though the principal problems of security in the region are due to structural imbalances –military, economical, political– and, precisely the disparities amongcultures. In this sense, the EU states might consider putting forward unilateral policies that restrict such disparities, provided that a certain reciprocity of policy is put forth from the southern states in the Mediterranean.

  5. Energy Efficiency in the Mediterranean Building Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thibault, H.L.; El Habib, El Andaloussi

    2011-01-01

    Despite the alerts that have been sounded since 1992, as international conferences aimed at curbing global warming have come and gone, and despite the plans for reducing the use of fossil fuel resources that call for the moderation of energy consumption, few actions or incentive measures (and even fewer directives) have actually been developed to act on the demand for energy. Yet, as Henri-Luc Thibault and El Habib El Andaloussi show here, some very concrete measures can have major effects in this area. This is the case with everything relating to the improvement of energy efficiency in building, where housing conditions, the housing stock and related energy consumption (heating, air-conditioning etc.) are concerned. Thibault and El Andaloussi show the potential impact of such measures in the Mediterranean region. Basing themselves on the work of the 'Plan Bleu' organization, which has worked out a revolutionary scenario for the energy field in the countries of the southern and eastern Mediterranean (to 2030), they begin by recalling the importance of buildings in regional energy consumption and the various levers that might be used to reduce that consumption (regulation, materials, efficiency of machinery etc.). In such a scenario, the potential for energy savings in this sector would seem considerable. Moreover, this would enable a substantial decrease in greenhouse gas emissions to be achieved, and would also have very positive effects in terms of job creation. In conclusion, the authors point out the need for investment over 20 years, depending on the particular country concerned, to put in place the five flagship measures of energy saving, which would be genuine investments for the future.. (authors)

  6. High-resolution nested model simulations of the climatological circulation in the southeastern Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Brenner

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Mediterranean Forecasting System Pilot Project (MFSPP we have implemented a high-resolution (2 km horizontal grid, 30 sigma levels version of the Princeton Ocean Model for the southeastern corner of the Mediterranean Sea. The domain extends 200 km offshore and includes the continental shelf and slope, and part of the open sea. The model is nested in an intermediate resolution (5.5 km grid model that covers the entire Levantine, Ionian, and Aegean Sea. The nesting is one way so that velocity, temperature, and salinity along the boundaries are interpolated from the relevant intermediate model variables. An integral constraint is applied so that the net mass flux across the open boundaries is identical to the net flux in the intermediate model. The model is integrated for three perpetual years with surface forcing specified from monthly mean climatological wind stress and heat fluxes. The model is stable and spins up within the first year to produce a repeating seasonal cycle throughout the three-year integration period. While there is some internal variability evident in the results, it is clear that, due to the relatively small domain, the results are strongly influenced by the imposed lateral boundary conditions. The results closely follow the simulation of the intermediate model. The main improvement is in the simulation over the narrow shelf region, which is not adequately resolved by the coarser grid model. Comparisons with direct current measurements over the shelf and slope show reasonable agreement despite the limitations of the climatological forcing. The model correctly simulates the direction and the typical speeds of the flow over the shelf and slope, but has difficulty properly re-producing the seasonal cycle in the speed.Key words. Oceanography: general (continental shelf processes; numerical modelling; ocean prediction

  7. Associations between Narrow Angle and Adult Anthropometry: The Liwan Eye Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yuzhen; He, Mingguang; Friedman, David S.; Khawaja, Anthony P.; Lee, Pak Sang; Nolan, Winifred P.; Yin, Qiuxia; Foster, Paul J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To assess the associations between narrow angle and adult anthropometry. Methods Chinese adults aged 50 years and older were recruited from a population-based survey in the Liwan District of Guangzhou, China. Narrow angle was defined as the posterior trabecular meshwork not visible under static gonioscopy in at least three quadrants (i.e. a circumference of at least 270°). Logistic regression models were used to examine the associations between narrow angle and anthropomorphic measures (height, weight and body mass index, BMI). Results Among the 912 participants, lower weight, shorter height, and lower BMI were significantly associated with narrower angle width (tests for trend: mean angle width in degrees vs weight p<0.001; vs height p<0.001; vs BMI p = 0.012). In univariate analyses, shorter height, lower weight and lower BMI were all significantly associated with greater odds of narrow angle. The crude association between height and narrow angle was largely attributable to a stronger association with age and sex. Lower BMI and weight remained significantly associated with narrow angle after adjustment for height, age, sex, axial ocular biometric measures and education. In analyses stratified by sex, the association between BMI and narrow angle was only observed in women. Conclusion Lower BMI and weight were associated with significantly greater odds of narrow angle after adjusting for age, education, axial ocular biometric measures and height. The odds of narrow angle increased 7% per 1 unit decrease in BMI. This association was most evident in women. PMID:24707840

  8. Dose calculations algorithm for narrow heavy charged-particle beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barna, E A; Kappas, C [Department of Medical Physics, School of Medicine, University of Patras (Greece); Scarlat, F [National Institute for Laser and Plasma Physics, Bucharest (Romania)

    1999-12-31

    The dose distributional advantages of the heavy charged-particles can be fully exploited by using very efficient and accurate dose calculation algorithms, which can generate optimal three-dimensional scanning patterns. An inverse therapy planning algorithm for dynamically scanned, narrow heavy charged-particle beams is presented in this paper. The irradiation `start point` is defined at the distal end of the target volume, right-down, in a beam`s eye view. The peak-dose of the first elementary beam is set to be equal to the prescribed dose in the target volume, and is defined as the reference dose. The weighting factor of any Bragg-peak is determined by the residual dose at the point of irradiation, calculated as the difference between the reference dose and the cumulative dose delivered at that point of irradiation by all the previous Bragg-peaks. The final pattern consists of the weighted Bragg-peaks irradiation density. Dose distributions were computed using two different scanning steps equal to 0.5 mm, and 1 mm respectively. Very accurate and precise localized dose distributions, conform to the target volume, were obtained. (authors) 6 refs., 3 figs.

  9. Clinical outcome of narrow diameter implants inserted into allografts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Franco

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Narrow diameter implants (NDI (i.e. diameter <3.75 mm are a potential solution for specific clinical situations, such as reduced interradicular bone, thin alveolar crest and replacement of teeth with small cervical diameter. NDI have been available in clinical practice since the 1990s, but only few studies have analyzed their clinical outcome and no study have investigated NDI inserted in fresh-frozen bone (FFB grafts. Thus, a retrospective study on a series of NDI placed in homologue FFB was designed to evaluate their clinical outcome. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In the period between December 2003 and December 2006, 36 patients (22 females and 14 males, mean age 53 years with FFB grafts were selected and 94 different NDI were inserted. The mean follow-up was 25 months. To evaluate the effect of several host-, surgery-, and implant-related factors, marginal bone loss (MBL was considered an indicator of success rate (SCR. The Kaplan Meier algorithm and Cox regression were used. RESULTS: Only 5 out of 94 implants were lost (i.e. survival rate - SVR 95.7% and no differences were detected among the studied variables. On the contrary, the Cox regression showed that the graft site (i.e. maxilla reduced MBL. CONCLUSIONS: NDI inserted in FFB have a high SVR and SCR similar to those reported in previous studies on regular and NDI inserted in non-grafted jaws. Homologue FFB is a valuable material in the insertion of NDI.

  10. Advantages and successful use of TIG narrow-gap welding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loehberg, R.; Pellkofer, D.; Schmidt, J.

    1986-01-01

    Narrow-gap welding, an advancement of the mechanized TIG impulse welding process with conventional seam geometry (V-shaped and/or U-shaped welds), not only assures great economic efficiency on account of the low weld volume but also offers considerable benefits in terms of quality. Thanks to the low number of beads, the following advantages are gained: less axial and radial shrinkage which reduces the strain in the root area, total heat input and, thus, the dwell time in the critical temperature range from 500 to 800 0 C leading to a chromium depletion at the grain boundaries during the welding process is minimized which markedly reduces the sensitivity of non-stabilized steels to intercrystalline stress corrosion cracking, and a relatively favourable residual welding stress profile in the heat affected zone. The process was used successfully in the past for welds of ferritic and austenitic steel pipes in the construction of nuclear power plants and in the remote-controlled welding during the replacement of piping in plants already in operation. (orig.) [de

  11. Voicing Strategies Employed in Narrow Listening Among Iranian Female Freshmen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Shahrokhi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study discusses the findings of a qualitative study on the strategies used by Iranian female freshmen in narrow listening. The data collected through semi-structured interview with 12 female freshmen (four learners as  advanced, four as intermediate and four as low chosen purposefully based on their scores in the Oxford Placement Test administered. Six out of 12 freshmen were identified for the think-aloud protocol to draw out the strategies they used. The data collected were analyzed using open, axial, and selective-coding. The analysis of the participants’ interview and think-aloud protocol data generated 12 major themes. Five themes (attention, readiness, evaluating, autonomous learning, and change the speech rate described meta-cognitive; five themes (imitating and repeating, references, visualization, making notes while listening and word-by-word and sentence-by-sentence attention described cognitive strategies and two themes (asking for help, self-talk described socio-affective strategies. These strategies need to be taught explicitly to increase learners’ understanding of the spoken texts in the second/foreign language. This study recommends that Iranian EFL female freshman university learners’ top-down, bottom-up processing and listening strategy awareness should be cultivated and integrated into the teaching of listening to improve the learners’ listening ability.

  12. Numerical Simulation for Mechanism of Airway Narrowing in Asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bando, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Daisuke; Ohba, Kenkichi

    A calculation model is proposed to examine the generation mechanism of the numerous lobes on the inner-wall of the airway in asthmatic patients and to clarify luminal occlusion of the airway inducing breathing difficulties. The basement membrane in the airway wall is modeled as a two-dimensional thin-walled shell having inertia force due to the mass, and the smooth muscle contraction effect is replaced by uniform transmural pressure applied to the basement membrane. A dynamic explicit finite element method is used as a numerical simulation method. To examine the validity of the present model, simulation of an asthma attack is performed. The number of lobes generated in the basement membrane increases when transmural pressure is applied in a shorter time period. When the remodeling of the basement membrane occurs characterized by thickening and hardening, it is demonstrated that the number of lobes decreases and the narrowing of the airway lumen becomes severe. Comparison of the results calculated by the present model with those measured for animal experiments of asthma will be possible.

  13. Prediction of Weld Residual Stress of Narrow Gap Welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jun Seog; Huh, Nam Su

    2010-01-01

    The conventional welding technique such as shield metal arc welding has been mostly applied to the piping system of the nuclear power plants. It is well known that this welding technique causes the overheating and welding defects due to the large groove angle of weld. On the other hand, the narrow gap welding(NGW) technique has many merits, for instance, the reduction of welding time, the shrinkage of weld and the small deformation of the weld due to the small groove angle and welding bead width comparing with the conventional welds. These characteristics of NGW affect the deformation behavior and the distribution of welding residual stress of NGW, thus it is believed that the residual stress results obtained from conventional welding procedure may not be applied to structural integrity evaluation of NGW. In this paper, the welding residual stress of NGW was predicted using the nonlinear finite element analysis to simulate the thermal and mechanical effects of the NGW. The present results can be used as the important information to perform the flaw evaluation and to improve the weld procedure of NGW

  14. Narrower bottlenecks could be more efficient for concentrating choanoflagellates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparacino, J.; Miño, G.; Koehl, M. A. R.; King, N.; Stocker, R.; Banchio, A. J.; Marconi, V. I.

    2015-11-01

    In evolutionary biology choanoflagellates are broadly investigated as the closest living relatives of the animal ancestors. Under diverse environmental cues, choanoflagellate Salpingoeca rosetta can differentiate in two types of solitary swimming cells: slow and fast microswimmers. Here we present a first phenomenological 2D-model for the choanoflagellates dynamics confined into a flat device divided by a wall of asymmetric microconstrictions. The model allow us to optimize the geometry of the microchannels for directing and concentrating cell populations under strict control. We solve our set of dynamical equations using Langevin dynamics. Experimental parameters for the motility of the slow and fast cells were measured and used for our numerical estimations of the directed transport efficiency, otherwise we have no adjustable parameters. We find remarkable differences in the rectification results for slow and fast choanoflagellates, which give us a strategy to develop a suitable microfluidic sorting device. For a given population velocity, narrower bottlenecks, of similar size to the cell dimension, show to be more efficient as concentrator of populations. Experiments and simulations are in good agreement.

  15. From Narrow to Wide Band Normalizer for LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Vismara, Giuseppe

    1997-01-01

    The narrow band normalizer (NBN) based on the phase processor is working to full satisfaction in the LEP BOM system for almost 10 years. Recently a new idea for a wide band normaliser (WBN) based on a time processor exploiting a single oscillation period has been developed. The position information is converted into a time difference between the zero crossing of two recombined and shaped electrode signals. It appears that the NBN can be easily adapted to perform as a wide band processor. To do so, the BP filter and the 90° Hybrid are replaced by low pass filter and delay lines. A prototype based on the present NBN has been developed and tested to prove the feasibility of the new idea. The paper gives an overview of the advantages and limitations of the BOM NB processor. It summarizes the useful LHC parameters and describes the specifications for the beam position acquisition system. After describing the basic principles, it analyzes in detail all the blocks of the processing chain and presents the measurem...

  16. Electrohydrodynamic channeling effects in narrow fractures and pores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolet, Asger; Linga, Gaute; Mathiesen, Joachim

    2018-04-01

    In low-permeability rock, fluid and mineral transport occur in pores and fracture apertures at the scale of micrometers and below. At this scale, the presence of surface charge, and a resultant electrical double layer, may considerably alter transport properties. However, due to the inherent nonlinearity of the governing equations, numerical and theoretical studies of the coupling between electric double layers and flow have mostly been limited to two-dimensional or axisymmetric geometries. Here, we present comprehensive three-dimensional simulations of electrohydrodynamic flow in an idealized fracture geometry consisting of a sinusoidally undulated bottom surface and a flat top surface. We investigate the effects of varying the amplitude and the Debye length (relative to the fracture aperture) and quantify their impact on flow channeling. The results indicate that channeling can be significantly increased in the plane of flow. Local flow in the narrow regions can be slowed down by up to 5 % compared to the same geometry without charge, for the highest amplitude considered. This indicates that electrohydrodynamics may have consequences for transport phenomena and surface growth in geophysical systems.

  17. Prosodic Marking of Narrow Focus in Seoul Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hae-Sung Jeon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores prosodic marking of narrow (corrective focus in Seoul Korean. Korean lacks lexical stress and it has a phonologized association between the Accentual Phrase (AP initial segment and intonation. In the experiment, 4 speakers read sentences including a two-item list which were designed to elicit either an L or H AP-initial tone. The durational variations, the pitch events at prosodic boundaries, and 'F''0 'span in 32 sentences read neutrally and 64 sentences read with one of the items under focus were analyzed. The results show that the focused constituent consistently initiates a new prosodic phrase. In comparison to the neutrally spoken or defocused counterpart, the focused constituent was more likely to be realized as an Intonational Phrase (IP in some contexts. Bitonal IP boundary tones were more likely to occur under focus than monotonal tones. In addition, in focused constituents, durational expansion particularly at the phrase-edges, expansion in 'F''0 'span, and raising of the phrase-initial pitch were observed. On the other hand, defocused constituents were not phonetically reduced compared to the neutral counterparts. The results imply that the phonetic cues spreading over the focused constituent complement the exaggerated prosodic boundaries.

  18. Peak Source Power Associated with Positive Narrow Bipolar Lightning Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bandara, S. A.; Marshall, T. C.; Karunarathne, S.; Karunarathne, N. D.; Siedlecki, R. D., II; Stolzenburg, M.

    2017-12-01

    During the summer of 2016, we deployed a lightning sensor array in and around Oxford Mississippi, USA. The array system comprised seven lightning sensing stations in a network approximately covering an area of 30 km × 30 km. Each station is equipped with four sensors: Fast antenna (10 ms decay time), Slow antenna (1.0 s decay time)), field derivative sensor (dE/dt) and Log-RF antenna (bandwidth 187-192 MHz). We have observed 319 Positive NBPs and herein we report on comparisons of the NBP properties measured from the Fast antenna data with the Log-RF antenna data. These properties include 10-90% rise time, full width at half maximum, zero cross time, and range-normalized amplitude at 100 km. NBPs were categorized according to the fine structure of the electric field wave shapes into Types A-D, as in Karunarathne et al. [2015]. The source powers of NBPs in each category were determined using single station Log-RF data. Furthermore, we also categorized the NBPs in three other groups: initial event of an IC flash, isolated, and not-isolated (according to their spatiotemporal relationship with other lightning activity). We compared the source powers within each category. Karunarathne, S., T. C. Marshall, M. Stolzenburg, and N. Karunarathna (2015), Observations of positive narrow bipolar pulses, J. Geophys. Res. Atmos., 120, doi:10.1002/2015JD023150.

  19. Azimuthal critical heat flux in narrow rectangular channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Hoon; Noh, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Joong; Suh, Kune Y. [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    Tests were conducted to examine the critical heat flux (CHF) on the one-dimensional downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap by changing the orientation of the copper test heater assembly in a pool of saturated water under the atmospheric pressure. The test parameters include both the gap sizes of 1, 2, 5 and 10mm, and the surface orientation angles from the downward-facing position (180{sup o}) to the vertical position (90{sup o}), respectively. Also, the CHF experiments were performed for pool boiling with varying heater surface orientations in the unconfined space at the atmospheric pressure using the rectangular test section. It was observed that the CHF generally decreases as the surface inclination angle increases and as the gap size decreases. In consistency with several studies reported in the literature, it was found that there exists a transition angle above which the CHF changes with a rapid slope. An engineering correlation is developed for the CHF during natural convective boiling in the inclined, confined rectangular channels with the aid of dimensional analysis.

  20. Extreme ultraviolet narrow band emission from electron cyclotron resonance plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, H. Y.; Zhao, H. W.; Sun, L. T.; Zhang, X. Z.; Wang, H.; Ma, B. H.; Li, X. X.; Zhu, Y. H.; Sheng, L. S.; Zhang, G. B.; Tian, Y. C.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) is considered as the most promising solution at and below dynamic random access memory 32 nm half pitch among the next generation lithography, and EUV light sources with high output power and sufficient lifetime are crucial for the realization of EUVL. However, there is no EUV light source completely meeting the requirements for the commercial application in lithography yet. Therefore, ECR plasma is proposed as a novel concept EUV light source. In order to investigate the feasibility of ECR plasma as a EUV light source, the narrow band EUV power around 13.5 nm emitted by two highly charged ECR ion sources--LECR2M and SECRAL--was measured with a calibrated EUV power measurement tool. Since the emission lines around 13.5 nm can be attributed to the 4d-5p transitions of Xe XI or the 4d-4f unresolved transition array of Sn VIII-XIII, xenon plasma was investigated. The dependence of the EUV throughput and the corresponding conversion efficiency on the parameters of the ion source, such as the rf power and the magnetic confinement configurations, were preliminarily studied

  1. Preliminary Study of ONB in Narrow-Vertical Rectangular Channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omar, S. AL-Yahia; Jo, Daeseong

    2015-01-01

    The location where the vapor bubble can first exist at the heated surface is called 'onset of nucleate boiling (ONB). The subcooled boiling is highly efficient to remove the heat owing to the high heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer is affected by the motion of the bulk liquid as well as the latent heat transport of the liquid microlayer between the bubble and the heated wall. However, with increasing in the wall temperature, the bubble growth will increase and may they aggregate at the heated surface forming a vapor film, which will prevent the heat transport from the wall and that leads to highly rise in wall temperature. This phenomenon called departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). Many experimental and numerical CFD methods were carried out to investigate the subcooled boiling because of its importance in the industrial applications. In the present study, vertical narrow rectangular channel heated from both side was simulated by using CFX-14 to investigate the subcooled wall boiling, and identical simulation is done by using TMAP to compare the ONB location between numerical simulation and empirical correlations that implemented in TMAP. The numerical results using CFX-14 are discussed and compared with the results obtained from TMAP. The coolant temperature increases gradually (linearly) in the downward direction owing to the uniform applied heat flux.

  2. Preliminary Study of ONB in Narrow-Vertical Rectangular Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omar, S. AL-Yahia; Jo, Daeseong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The location where the vapor bubble can first exist at the heated surface is called 'onset of nucleate boiling (ONB). The subcooled boiling is highly efficient to remove the heat owing to the high heat transfer coefficient. The heat transfer is affected by the motion of the bulk liquid as well as the latent heat transport of the liquid microlayer between the bubble and the heated wall. However, with increasing in the wall temperature, the bubble growth will increase and may they aggregate at the heated surface forming a vapor film, which will prevent the heat transport from the wall and that leads to highly rise in wall temperature. This phenomenon called departure from nucleate boiling (DNB). Many experimental and numerical CFD methods were carried out to investigate the subcooled boiling because of its importance in the industrial applications. In the present study, vertical narrow rectangular channel heated from both side was simulated by using CFX-14 to investigate the subcooled wall boiling, and identical simulation is done by using TMAP to compare the ONB location between numerical simulation and empirical correlations that implemented in TMAP. The numerical results using CFX-14 are discussed and compared with the results obtained from TMAP. The coolant temperature increases gradually (linearly) in the downward direction owing to the uniform applied heat flux.

  3. A narrow quasi-bound state of the DNN system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doté, A.; Bayar, M.; Xiao, C.W.; Hyodo, T.; Oka, M.; Oset, E.

    2013-01-01

    We have investigated a charmed system of DNN (composed of two nucleons and a D meson) by a complementary study with a variational calculation and a Faddeev calculation with fixed-center approximation (Faddeev-FCA). In the present study, we employ a DN potential based on a vector–meson exchange picture in which a resonant Λ c (2595) is dynamically generated as a DN quasi-bound state, similarly to the Λ(1405) as a K ¯ N one in the strange sector. As a result of the study of variational calculation with an effective DN potential and three kinds of NN potentials, the DNN(J π =0 − ,I=1/2) is found to be a narrow quasi-bound state below Λ c (2595)N threshold: total binding energy ∼225 MeV and mesonic decay width ∼25 MeV. On the other hand, the J π =1 − state is considered to be a scattering state of Λ c (2595) and a nucleon. These results are essentially supported by the Faddeev-FCA calculation. By the analysis of the variational wave function, we have found a unique structure in the DNN(J π =0 − ,I=1/2) such that the D meson stays around the center of the total system due to the heaviness of the D meson

  4. Narrow-line laser cooling by adiabatic transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew A.; Cline, Julia R. K.; Bartolotta, John P.; Holland, Murray J.; Thompson, James K.

    2018-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel laser cooling mechanism applicable to particles with narrow-linewidth optical transitions. By sweeping the frequency of counter-propagating laser beams in a sawtooth manner, we cause adiabatic transfer back and forth between the ground state and a long-lived optically excited state. The time-ordering of these adiabatic transfers is determined by Doppler shifts, which ensures that the associated photon recoils are in the opposite direction to the particle’s motion. This ultimately leads to a robust cooling mechanism capable of exerting large forces via a weak transition and with reduced reliance on spontaneous emission. We present a simple intuitive model for the resulting frictional force, and directly demonstrate its efficacy for increasing the total phase-space density of an atomic ensemble. We rely on both simulation and experimental studies using the 7.5 kHz linewidth 1S0 to 3P1 transition in 88Sr. The reduced reliance on spontaneous emission may allow this adiabatic sweep method to be a useful tool for cooling particles that lack closed cycling transitions, such as molecules.

  5. Active elastohydrodynamics of vesicles in narrow blind constrictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fai, T. G.; Kusters, R.; Harting, J.; Rycroft, C. H.; Mahadevan, L.

    2017-11-01

    Fluid-resistance limited transport of vesicles through narrow constrictions is a recurring theme in many biological and engineering applications. Inspired by the motor-driven movement of soft membrane-bound vesicles into closed neuronal dendritic spines, here we study this problem using a combination of passive three-dimensional simulations and a simplified semianalytical theory for the active transport of vesicles forced through constrictions by molecular motors. We show that the motion of these objects is characterized by two dimensionless quantities related to the geometry and to the strength of forcing relative to the vesicle elasticity. We use numerical simulations to characterize the transit time for a vesicle forced by fluid pressure through a constriction in a channel and find that relative to an open channel, transport into a blind end leads to the formation of a smaller forward-flowing lubrication layer that strongly impedes motion. When the fluid pressure forcing is complemented by forces due to molecular motors that are responsible for vesicle trafficking into dendritic spines, we find that the competition between motor forcing and fluid drag results in multistable dynamics reminiscent of the real system. Our study highlights the role of nonlocal hydrodynamic effects in determining the kinetics of vesicular transport in constricted geometries.

  6. Spectral narrowing of a 980 nm tapered diode laser bar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Deepak; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Lucas Leclin, Ga"lle; Petersen, Paul Michael; Thestrup, Birgitte

    2011-03-01

    High power diode laser bars are interesting in many applications such as solid state laser pumping, material processing, laser trapping, laser cooling and second harmonic generation. Often, the free running laser bars emit a broad spectrum of the order of several nanometres which limit their scope in wavelength specific applications and hence, it is vital to stabilize the emission spectrum of these devices. In our experiment, we describe the wavelength narrowing of a 12 element 980 nm tapered diode laser bar using a simple Littman configuration. The tapered laser bar which suffered from a big smile has been "smile corrected" using individual phase masks for each emitter. The external cavity consists of the laser bar, both fast and slow axis micro collimators, smile correcting phase mask, 6.5x beam expanding lens combination, a 1200 lines/mm reflecting grating with 85% efficiency in the first order, a slow axis focusing cylindrical lens of 40 mm focal length and an output coupler which is 10% reflective. In the free running mode, the laser emission spectrum was 5.5 nm wide at an operating current of 30A. The output power was measured to be in excess of 12W. Under the external cavity operation, the wavelength spread of the laser could be limited to 0.04 nm with an output power in excess of 8 W at an operating current of 30A. The spectrum was found to be tuneable in a range of 16 nm.

  7. Effect of regulatory architecture on broad versus narrow sense heritability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunpeng Wang

    Full Text Available Additive genetic variance (VA and total genetic variance (VG are core concepts in biomedical, evolutionary and production-biology genetics. What determines the large variation in reported VA /VG ratios from line-cross experiments is not well understood. Here we report how the VA /VG ratio, and thus the ratio between narrow and broad sense heritability (h(2 /H(2 , varies as a function of the regulatory architecture underlying genotype-to-phenotype (GP maps. We studied five dynamic models (of the cAMP pathway, the glycolysis, the circadian rhythms, the cell cycle, and heart cell dynamics. We assumed genetic variation to be reflected in model parameters and extracted phenotypes summarizing the system dynamics. Even when imposing purely linear genotype to parameter maps and no environmental variation, we observed quite low VA /VG ratios. In particular, systems with positive feedback and cyclic dynamics gave more non-monotone genotype-phenotype maps and much lower VA /VG ratios than those without. The results show that some regulatory architectures consistently maintain a transparent genotype-to-phenotype relationship, whereas other architectures generate more subtle patterns. Our approach can be used to elucidate these relationships across a whole range of biological systems in a systematic fashion.

  8. Structural properties of hard disks in a narrow tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, S; Gurin, P; Balló, G

    2011-01-01

    Positional ordering of a two-dimensional fluid of hard disks is examined in tubes so narrow that only nearest neighbor interactions take place. Using the exact transfer-matrix method the transverse and longitudinal pressure components and the correlation function are determined numerically. Fluid–solid phase transition does not occur even in the widest tube, where the method just loses its exactness, but the appearance of a dramatic change in the equation of state and the longitudinal correlation function shows that the system undergoes a structural change from a fluid to a solid-like order. The pressure components show that the collisions are dominantly longitudinal at low densities, while they are transverse in the vicinity of the close packing density. The transverse correlation function shows that the size of solid-like domains grows exponentially with increasing pressure and the correlation length diverges at close packing. It is possible to find an analytically solvable model by expanding the contact distance up to first order. The approximate model, which corresponds to a system of hard parallel rhombuses, behaves very similarly to the system of hard disks

  9. Narrow nuclear resonance profiling of Al with subnanometric depth resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, E.B.O. da; Krug, C.; Stedile, F.C.; Morais, J.; Baumvol, I.J.R.

    2002-01-01

    We report on the use of the narrow and isolated resonance at 404.9 keV in the cross-section curve of the 27 Al(p,γ) 28 Si nuclear reaction for profiling Al in ultrathin aluminum oxide films on Si. The samples were characterized as-deposited and after thermal annealing, so that Al transport could be studied. An estimated depth resolution of approximately 0.4 nm near the surface of the films could be obtained owing to: (i) the very small resonance width; (ii) the high stopping power of Al 2 O 3 for 404.9 keV protons; (iii) the high energy stability of the proton beam provided by the 500 kV HVEE ion implanter at Porto Alegre; and (iv) an apparent thickness magnification by a factor between 2.0 and 2.4 with the use of glancing incidence. This technique is compared to other methods for Al profiling like medium energy ion scattering and some sputtering-based techniques

  10. Expected Effects of Offshore Wind Farms on Mediterranean Marine Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Bray

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Current climate policy and issues of energy security mean wind farms are being built at an increasing rate to meet energy demand. As wind farm development is very likely in the Mediterranean Sea, we provide an assessment of the offshore wind potential and identify expected biological effects of such developments in the region. We break new ground here by identifying potential offshore wind farm (OWF “hotspots” in the Mediterranean. Using lessons learned in Northern Europe, and small-scale experiments in the Mediterranean, we identify sensitive species and habitats that will likely be influenced by OWFs in both these hotspot areas and at a basin level. This information will be valuable to guide policy governing OWF development and will inform the industry as and when environmental impact assessments are required for the Mediterranean Sea.

  11. Oxygen consumption in Mediterranean octocorals under different temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Previati, M.; Scinto, A.; Cerrano, C.; Osinga, R.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem resilience to climate anomalies is related to the physiological plasticity of organisms. To characterize the physiological response of some common Mediterranean gorgonians to fluctuations in temperature, four species (Paramuricea clavata, Eunicella singularis, Eunicella cavolinii and

  12. Visceral leishmaniasis and HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Begoña Monge-Maillo

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Visceral leishmaniasis is hypoendemic in Mediterranean countries, where it is caused by the flagellate protozoan Leishmania infantum. VL cases in this area account for 5%-6% of the global burden. Cases of Leishmania/HIV coinfection have been reported in the Mediterranean region, mainly in France, Italy, Portugal, and Spain. Since highly active antiretroviral therapy was introduced in 1997, a marked decrease in the number of coinfected cases in this region has been reported. The development of new diagnostic methods to accurately identify level of parasitemia and the risk of relapse is one of the main challenges in improving the treatment of coinfected patients. Clinical trials in the Mediterranean region are needed to determine the most adequate therapeutic options for Leishmania/HIV patients as well as the indications and regimes for secondary prophylaxis. This article reviews the epidemiological, diagnostic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of Leishmania/HIV coinfection in the Mediterranean region.

  13. The mediterranean diet model in inflammatory rheumatic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Spinella

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean diet is based on a pattern of eating that’s closely tied to the Mediterranean region, which includes Greece and southern Italy. Essentially, the traditional diet emphasizes foods from plant sources, limited meat consumption, small amounts of wine and olive oil as the main fat source. The beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet has been proven not only to cardiovascular diseases but also for diabetes, obesity, arthritis and cancer. Its anti-inflammatory and protective properties are linked to the large presence of ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamins, but especially to the constituents of extra virgin olive oil: oleic acid, phenolic compounds olecanthal, a new recently discovered molecule, with natural anti-inflammatory properties. It has been shown that the Mediterranean diet can reduce disease activity, pain and stiffness in patients with inflammatory arthritis and may thus constitute a valuable support for patients suffering from these diseases.

  14. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    KAUST Repository

    Marbà , Nú ria; Jordà , Gabriel; Agusti, Susana; Girard, Coraline; Duarte, Carlos M.

    2015-01-01

    on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50% of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature

  15. Effects of Mediterranean shrub species on rainfall interception

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Estringana, P.; Alonso-Blazquez, N.; Marques, M. J.; Bienes, R.; Alegre, J.

    2009-01-01

    Rainfall is intercepted by vegetation. Water intercepted could be evaporated, or it could drip from the leaves and stems to the soil or it could run down the stems to the base of the plant. In the Mediterranean, where water is a scant resource, interception loss could have an influence on hydrology. Water storage capacity depends on vegetation type. In the Mediterranean, there are many types of shrubs, and many of them are able to intercept large volumes of water depending on the shrub type. many lands of the Mediterranean basin of Europea Union have been abandoned in the last decades and consequently vegetation type changes too. This modifies hydrologic processes, changing the volume and the way in which the rainfall reaches the soil. The aim of this study was to characterize water storage capacity in 9 Mediterranean shrub species, working with the whole plant and comparing results obtained by two methods, rainfall simulation and submersion method in laboratory conditions. (Author) 12 refs.

  16. Status of greenhouses in Eastern Mediterranean coastal areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... climate control of greenhouses owned by villagers, having only small holdings barely adequate for supporting ... Mediterranean Sea cost line in Turkey and has rather ..... stove and combination of wood burning and gas tube.

  17. IRIS: A SIGNIFICANT ELEMENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPE

    OpenAIRE

    A. UBRIZSY SAVOIA; S. PIGNATTI; S. VAROLI PIAZZA

    2000-01-01

    The Southern European species of Iris growing in dry, rocky places, stony ground, terra rossa, sandy, basalt and/or calcareous hills, maquis and coastal rocky slopes, are a neglected bioplasm resource of the Mediterranean landscape. These species have traditional uses and cultural significance and have inspired artists. Both natural and naturalised ornamental Iris species may help to improve and maintain the Mediterranean landscape by avoiding land erosion, fixing dunes and preserving coastal...

  18. The links between openness and productivity in Mediterranean countries

    OpenAIRE

    Cecchini, Laurence; Lai-tong, Charles

    2008-01-01

    Abstract We examine the relation between the international trade, the foreign direct investment and the total factor productivity of the Mediterranean partner countries of Europe within the framework of a cointegrated panel model. The results, obtained from data on seven Mediterranean partner countries of Europe (Algeria, Egypt, Israel, Jordan, Morocco, Tunisia, Turkey), show that FDI and human capital are complementary in the acquisition of productivity gains. We identify the t...

  19. Skilled Labour market and economic development in the Mediterranean area

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Luciano; Roberto Di Monaco

    2011-01-01

    Steady growing literature has examined the relationship between human capital and economic development. However, there is no empirical evidence that the increase in education is always related to growth. The purpose of this paper is to explore the links between human capital and growth in Mediterranean countries to put the premises for further research on single countries and on the functioning of the Mediterranean high skill labour market and the relationship with the economic development of...

  20. The fuzzy outline of the Mediterranean automotive space (In French)

    OpenAIRE

    Jean-Bernard LAYAN (E3i-IFReDE-GRES); Yannick LUNG (E3i-IFReDE-GRES)

    2006-01-01

    The paper analyses the evolution of the automotive industry in the Mediterranean area during the last years. First part focuses on the impacts for this region of the geographical changes of the European automotive systems associated to location of multinational automotive firms in CEEC. This leads to difficulties for the automobile countries of the western part of the Mediterranean Europe (Italy, Spain, Portugal) on one side, and to a huge growth of the auto industry at the east, in Turkey, o...

  1. Is the Chilean Diet a Mediterranean-type Diet?

    OpenAIRE

    JAIME ROZOWSKI; ÓSCAR CASTILLO

    2004-01-01

    Food intake in Chile has changed markedly in the last decades, showing an increase in fat consumption and presently a small fruit and vegetables intake. A parallel is made between the Chilean and Mediterranean diet (mainly the one from Spain, Italy, and Greece), both currently and from 50 years ago. The main differences and similarities are based on food availability. Although Chilean diet seems to be approaching the traditional Mediterranean diet of the 60's, there is concern about changes t...

  2. A phylogenetic perspective on the evolution of Mediterranean teleost fishes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine N Meynard

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea is a highly diverse, highly studied, and highly impacted biogeographic region, yet no phylogenetic reconstruction of fish diversity in this area has been published to date. Here, we infer the timing and geographic origins of Mediterranean teleost species diversity using nucleotide sequences collected from GenBank. We assembled a DNA supermatrix composed of four mitochondrial genes (12S ribosomal DNA, 16S ribosomal DNA, cytochrome c oxidase subunit I and cytochrome b and two nuclear genes (rhodopsin and recombination activating gene I, including 62% of Mediterranean teleost species plus 9 outgroups. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic and dating analyses were calibrated using 20 fossil constraints. An additional 124 species were grafted onto the chronogram according to their taxonomic affinity, checking for the effects of taxonomic coverage in subsequent diversification analyses. We then interpreted the time-line of teleost diversification in light of Mediterranean historical biogeography, distinguishing non-endemic natives, endemics and exotic species. Results show that the major Mediterranean orders are of Cretaceous origin, specifically ~100-80 Mya, and most Perciformes families originated 80-50 Mya. Two important clade origin events were detected. The first at 100-80 Mya, affected native and exotic species, and reflects a global diversification period at a time when the Mediterranean Sea did not yet exist. The second occurred during the last 50 Mya, and is noticeable among endemic and native species, but not among exotic species. This period corresponds to isolation of the Mediterranean from Indo-Pacific waters before the Messinian salinity crisis. The Mediterranean fish fauna illustrates well the assembly of regional faunas through origination and immigration, where dispersal and isolation have shaped the emergence of a biodiversity hotspot.

  3. Diet in chronic kidney disease in a Mediterranean African country

    OpenAIRE

    Kammoun, Khawla; Chaker, Hanen; Mahfoudh, Hichem; Makhlouf, Nouha; Jarraya, Faical; Hachicha, Jamil

    2017-01-01

    Background Mediterranean diet is characterized by low to moderate consumption of animal protein and high consumption of fruits, vegetables, bread, beans, nuts, seeds and other cereals. It has been associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. However, it is not suitable for chronic kidney disease because of high potassium intake. Discussion Tunisia is an emerging Mediterranean country with limited resources, a high prevalence of chronic hemodialysis treatment and high dialysis expen...

  4. The Mediterranean Diet and ADHD in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos-Hernández, Alejandra; Alda, José A; Farran-Codina, Andreu; Ferreira-García, Estrella; Izquierdo-Pulido, Maria

    2017-02-01

    Although attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has been related to nutrient deficiencies and "unhealthy" diets, to date there are no studies that examined the relationship between the Mediterranean diet and ADHD. We hypothesized that a low adherence to a Mediterranean diet would be positively associated with an increase in ADHD diagnosis. A total of 120 children and adolescents (60 with newly diagnosed ADHD and 60 controls) were studied in a sex- and age-matched case-control study. ADHD diagnosis was made according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision. Energy, dietary intake, adherence to a Mediterranean diet, and familial background were measured. Logistic regression was used to determine associations between the adherence to a Mediterranean diet and ADHD. Lower adherence to a Mediterranean diet was associated with ADHD diagnosis (odds ratio: 7.07; 95% confidence interval: 2.65-18.84; relative risk: 2.80; 95% confidence interval: 1.54-5.25). Both remained significant after adjusting for potential confounders. Lower frequency of consuming fruit, vegetables, pasta, and rice and higher frequency of skipping breakfast and eating at fast-food restaurants were associated with ADHD diagnosis (P Mediterranean diet might play a role in ADHD development. Our data support the notion that not only "specific nutrients" but also the "whole diet" should be considered in ADHD. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  5. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    KAUST Repository

    Marbà, Núria

    2015-08-13

    The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15°C. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003, and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50% of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5°C and at summer surface temperature of 27.5°C. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV), the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  6. Footprints of climate change on Mediterranean Sea biota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Núria eMarbà

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean Sea ranks among the ocean regions warming fastest. There is evidence for impacts of climate change on marine Mediterranean organisms but a quantitative assessment is lacking. We compiled the impacts of warming reported in the literature to provide a quantitative assessment for the Mediterranean Sea. During the last three decades the summer surface temperature has increased 1.15 oC. Strong heat wave events have occurred in years 1994, 2003 and 2009. Impacts of warming are evident on growth, survival, fertility, migration and phenology of pelagic and benthic organisms, from phytoplankton to marine vegetation, invertebrates and vertebrates. Overall, 50 % of biological impacts in the Mediterranean Sea occur at summer surface temperature anomaly ≤ 4.5 ºC and at summer surface temperature of 27.5 ºC. The activation energy (geometric mean 1.58 ± 0.48 eV, the slope of the Arrhenius equation describing the temperature-dependence of biological processes, for the response of Mediterranean marine biota to warming reveals that these responses in the Mediterranean are far steepest than possibly explained by the direct effect of warming alone. The observations are biased toward the northern and western sectors of the basin, likely underestimating the impacts of warming in areas where warming is particularly intense.

  7. The Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries at risk from overexploitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanassios C Tsikliras

    Full Text Available The status of the Mediterranean and Black Sea fisheries was evaluated for the period 1970-2010 on a subarea basis, using various indicators including the temporal variability of total landings, the number of recorded stocks, the mean trophic level of the catch, the fishing-in-balance index and the catch-based method of stock classification. All indicators confirmed that the fisheries resources of the Mediterranean and Black Sea are at risk from overexploitation. The pattern of exploitation and the state of stocks differed among the western (W, central (C and eastern (E Mediterranean subareas and the Black Sea (BS, with the E Mediterranean and BS fisheries being in a worst shape. Indeed, in the E Mediterranean and the BS, total landings, mean trophic level of the catch and fishing-in-balance index were declining, the cumulative percentage of overexploited and collapsed stocks was higher, and the percentage of developing stocks was lower, compared to the W and C Mediterranean. Our results confirm the need for detailed and extensive stock assessments across species that will eventually lead to stocks recovering through conservation and management measures.

  8. Adherence to the Mediterranean Diet and Inflammatory Markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antoni Sureda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to assess inflammatory markers among adults and adolescents in relation to the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. A random sample (219 males and 379 females of the Balearic Islands population (12–65 years was anthropometrically measured and provided a blood sample to determine biomarkers of inflammation. Dietary habits were assessed and the adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern calculated. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome increased with age in both sexes. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet in adolescent males was 51.3% and 45.7% in adults, whereas in females 53.1% and 44.3%, respectively. In males, higher adherence to the Mediterranean diet was associated with higher levels of adiponectin and lower levels of leptin, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1 and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP in adults, but not in young subjects. In females, higher adherence was associated with lower levels of leptin in the young group, PAI-1 in adults and hs-CRP in both groups. With increasing age in both sexes, metabolic syndrome increases, but the adherence to the Mediterranean diet decreases. Low adherence to the Mediterranean dietary pattern (MDP is directly associated with a worse profile of plasmatic inflammation markers.

  9. Hull loss accident model for narrow body commercial aircraft

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somchanok Tiabtiamrat

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Accidents with narrow body aircraft were statistically evaluated covering six families of commercial aircraft includingBoeing B737, Airbus A320, McDonnell Douglas MD80, Tupolev TU134/TU154 and Antonov AN124. A risk indicator for eachflight phase was developed based on motion characteristics, duration time, and the presence of adverse weather conditions.The estimated risk levels based on these risk indicators then developed from the risk indicator. Regression analysis indicatedvery good agreement between the estimated risk level and the accident ratio of hull loss cases per number of delivered aircraft.The effect of time on the hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft was assessed for B737, A320 and MD80. Equationsrepresenting the effect of time on hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were proposed for B737, A320, and MD80,while average values of hull loss accident ratio per delivered aircraft were found for TU134, TU154, and AN 124. Accidentprobability equations were then developed for each family of aircraft that the probability of an aircraft in a hull loss accidentcould be estimated for any aircraft family, flight phase, presence of adverse weather factor, hour of day, day of week, monthof year, pilot age, and pilot flight hour experience. A simplified relationship between estimated hull loss accident probabilityand unsafe acts by human was proposed. Numerical investigation of the relationship between unsafe acts by human andfatality ratio suggested that the fatality ratio in hull loss accident was dominated primarily by the flight phase media.

  10. Illegal "no prescription" internet access to narrow therapeutic index drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Bryan A; Mackey, Tim K; Lovett, Kimberly M

    2013-05-01

    Narrow therapeutic index (NTI) drugs, because of proximity of therapeutic amounts to toxic amounts, require close professional oversight, particularly when switching formulations. However, safe use may be compromised by unsupervised switching through access to online "no prescription" Web sites. We assessed no prescription online availability of NTI drugs, using an academically published list (core NTI drugs). Using the Google search term "buy DRUG no prescription," we reviewed the first 5 search result pages for marketing of no prescription NTI drugs. We further assessed if National Association of Boards of Pharmacy (NABP) Not Recommended vendors were marketing NTI drugs. Searches were conducted from November 3, 2012 to January 3, 2013. For core NTI drugs, we found 13 of 14 NTI drugs (92%) marketed as available without prescription, all from NABP Not Recommended vendors. On the basis of these initial findings, we expanded our core list to 12 additional NTI drugs; 11 of 12 of these drugs (92%) were available from no prescription Web sites. Overall, 24 of 26 NTI drugs (92%) were illegally marketed as available online without the need for a prescription. Suspect online NTI drug access from no prescription vendors represents a significant patient safety risk because of potential patient drug switching and risk of counterfeit versions. Further, state health care exchanges with coverage limitations may drive patients to seek formulations online. Food and Drug Administration harmonization with tighter international NTI drug standards should be considered, and aggressive action against suspect online marketers should be a regulatory and public health priority. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. The narrow-band imaging examination method in otorhinolaryngology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Šifrer

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Early diagnostics could improve the prognosis of patients with squamous-cell carcinomas of the head and neck. Narrow-Band Imaging (NBI is the latest examination method in the group of biologic endoscopies. NBI improves the distinction between malignant and benign mucosal lesions. Early suspect oncologic lesions that may otherwise be missed by normal white light illumination can also be diagnosed. The biggest benefit of NBI technology is achieved by using it together with a HDTV camera that enables better contrast and higher resolution. NBI is based on better imaging of superficial mucosal vasculature. The biologic potential of mucosal lesions could be predicted from vascular changes. The colour of normal mucosa under NBI is blue and green and the vessels show no pathological features. Well-demarcated brownish areas and scattered thick dark spots and abnormal winding and branching out of vessels on the mucosa are all oncologically suspicious features. Authors report the experience from literature on the use of NBI to identify carcinomas of the oral cavity, epipharynx, oropharynx, hypopharynx and larynx and evaluation of unknown primaries. In addition, the literature reports the benefit of NBI in identifying early stage carcinomas in previously irradiated patients. Persistence and recurrence of carcinoma and the development of new primary tumour could easily be missed by using only standard white-light illumination. The method proved to be highly sensitive and specific for predicting malignant changes in the above-mentioned circumstances. Authors report their own experience with NBI technology as well. For further improvement of the method, new technologic development is expected to enable the connection of NBI and HDTV with flexible endoscopes.

  12. NARROW-K-BAND OBSERVATIONS OF THE GJ 1214 SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Gaidos, Eric, E-mail: colonk@hawaii.edu [Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)

    2013-10-10

    GJ 1214 is a nearby M dwarf star that hosts a transiting super-Earth-size planet, making this system an excellent target for atmospheric studies. Most studies find that the transmission spectrum of GJ 1214b is flat, which favors either a high mean molecular weight or cloudy/hazy hydrogen (H) rich atmosphere model. Photometry at short wavelengths (<0.7 μm) and in the K band can discriminate the most between these different atmosphere models for GJ 1214b, but current observations do not have sufficiently high precision. We present photometry of seven transits of GJ 1214b through a narrow K-band (2.141 μm) filter with the Wide Field Camera on the 3.8 m United Kingdom Infrared Telescope. Our photometric precision is typically 1.7 × 10{sup –3} (for a single transit), comparable with other ground-based observations of GJ 1214b. We measure a planet-star radius ratio of 0.1158 ± 0.0013, which, along with other studies, also supports a flat transmission spectrum for GJ 1214b. Since this does not exclude a scenario where GJ 1214b has an H-rich envelope with heavy elements that are sequestered below a cloud/haze layer, we compare K-band observations with models of H{sub 2} collision-induced absorption in an atmosphere for a range of temperatures. While we find no evidence for deviation from a flat spectrum (slope s = 0.0016 ± 0.0038), an H{sub 2}-dominated upper atmosphere (<60 mbar) cannot be excluded. More precise observations at <0.7 μm and in the K band, as well as a uniform analysis of all published data, would be useful for establishing more robust limits on atmosphere models for GJ 1214b.

  13. Narrowing the uncertainty for deep-ocean injection efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orr, J.C.; Aumont, O. [Laboratoire des Sciences du Climat et de l' Environnement, CEA-CNRS, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Yool, A. [Southampton Oceanography Centre, Southampton (United Kingdom); Plattner, G.K.; Joos, F. [Bern Univ., Bern (Switzerland). Physics Inst.; Maier-Reimer, E. [Max Planck Inst. fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany); Weirig, M.F.; Schlitzer, R. [Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany); Caldeira, K.; Wickett, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, CA (United States); Matear, R.J. [Australian Commonwealth Scientific and Research Organization, Hobart (Australia); Mignone, B.K.; Sarmiento, J.L. [Princeton Univ., Princeton, NJ (United States). AOS Program

    2005-07-01

    Ten ocean general circulation models (OCGMs) were compared as part of an international study investigating the ocean's ability to efficiently sequester carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}). The models were selected for their ability to simulate radiocarbon and CFC-11. All of the model simulations neglected the influence of marine biota, and the simulations used only dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) as a tracer in order to conserve computing resources. The models were integrated using standard ocean carbon-cycle model intercomparison project (OCMIP) formulations for gas exchange boundary conditions to obtain pre-industrial conditions. All models used the same predefined atmospheric CO{sub 2} records compiled from 1765 to 2000, as well as future scenarios in which atmospheric CO{sub 2} was stabilized at 650 ppm. Injections occurred over a period of 100 years. Results of the study showed that global budgets for CFC-11 and radiocarbon were correlated with global efficiencies for a 3000 m injection simulation. The 3000 m injection efficiency was then correlated with the global mean for deep natural radiocarbon. Results showed that simultaneously accounting for constraints from both CFC-11 and natural radiocarbon narrowed the range for a 3000 m injection efficiency in the year 2500 by a factor of 4. The study showed that models must be able to simulate global inventories for CFC-11 as well as global means for radiocarbon in deep ocean scenarios in order to be credible. It was concluded that models using both constraints will more accurately simulate global injection efficiencies.

  14. The narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin and assay variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, S S; Bibler, I; Charles, M A

    1999-12-01

    Glycated hemoglobin is measured by a variety of assays, each of which has a unique normal level. Our purpose is to show that among the different assays available in the United States, using the same patient's blood sample, assay results may vary widely and may more or less easily achieve a glycated hemoglobin value within the normal range. The following assays were compared using the same patient's blood sample for each pair of assays: glycohemoglobin affinity assay (GHB Reader; Isolab, Akron, OH) versus gel electrophoresis assay (n = 76); Isolab versus ion capture assay (IMX; Abbott Laboratories, Irving, TX) (n = 57); monoclonal antibody assay (DCA2000; Bayer Diagnostics, Pittsburgh, PA) versus IMX (n = 100); and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) assay (Bio-Rad Variant A1c; Bio-Rad Laboratories, Richmond, CA) versus IMX assay (n = 55). Our analyses indicate that a relative ranking can be established for the ease of achieving a normal glycated hemoglobin level. The ranking indicates that the most stringent or difficult assays for achieving a normal level are the Isolab and DCA2000 assays. The intermediate assays are the IMX and Bio-Rad Variant, and the easiest method for achieving a normal value is the gel electrophoresis assay. Our results indicate that various glycated hemoglobin assays vary widely and are associated with more or less difficulty for an individual patient to achieve a glycated hemoglobin level within the normal range. These results are especially significant with respect to (1) the clinically narrow therapeutic window of glycated hemoglobin values in type 1 diabetes to avoid rapidly advancing severe hypoglycemia rates and chronic microvascular complication rates, and (2) the glycated hemoglobin threshold for rapidly advancing macrovascular disease in both type 1 and type 2 patients.

  15. The propagation of sound in narrow street canyons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iu, K. K.; Li, K. M.

    2002-08-01

    This paper addresses an important problem of predicting sound propagation in narrow street canyons with width less than 10 m, which are commonly found in a built-up urban district. Major noise sources are, for example, air conditioners installed on building facades and powered mechanical equipment for repair and construction work. Interference effects due to multiple reflections from building facades and ground surfaces are important contributions in these complex environments. Although the studies of sound transmission in urban areas can be traced back to as early as the 1960s, the resulting mathematical and numerical models are still unable to predict sound fields accurately in city streets. This is understandable because sound propagation in city streets involves many intriguing phenomena such as reflections and scattering at the building facades, diffusion effects due to recessions and protrusions of building surfaces, geometric spreading, and atmospheric absorption. This paper describes the development of a numerical model for the prediction of sound fields in city streets. To simplify the problem, a typical city street is represented by two parallel reflecting walls and a flat impedance ground. The numerical model is based on a simple ray theory that takes account of multiple reflections from the building facades. The sound fields due to the point source and its images are summed coherently such that mutual interference effects between contributing rays can be included in the analysis. Indoor experiments are conducted in an anechoic chamber. Experimental data are compared with theoretical predictions to establish the validity and usefulness of this simple model. Outdoor experimental measurements have also been conducted to further validate the model. copyright 2002 Acoustical Society of America.

  16. A search for narrow states in radiative upsilon decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, S.T.

    1986-12-01

    A search for new states produced in radiative Υ(1S) decays is accomplished by observing the inclusive photon energy spectrum. A narrow resonance in the energy spectrum indicates the existence of a new state X produced by the process Υ → γX. The analysis is based on approximately 0.44 x 10 6 Υ(1S) events produced at the DORIS II e + e - storage ring. These data were collected with the Crystal Ball detector between April 1983 and May 1986. This analysis finds no evidence for a new state, so upper limits on the branching ratio BR(Υ → γX) are derived, assuming the state X decays primarily to high-multiplicity hadronic final states. In particular, if the state X were a minimal Higgs particle, its primary decay mode would be to the heaviest fermion-antifermion pair energetically available. For the radiative Υ(1S) decays studied here, the heavy fermions would be c anti c or s anti s quark states, over most of the relevant Higgs' mass range. The resulting upper limit for BR(Υ(1S) → γX) is highly energy dependent but for X mass between 1.5 GeV and 8.0 GeV, the 90% confidence level upper limit is better than 8.0 x 10 -4 . For a Higgs' mass near 5.0 GeV, the upper limit is about 2.0 x 10 -4 which is approximately equal to the lowest order calculation for the Wilczek mechanism. The Wilczek calculation with QCD radiative corrections predict branching ratios below the limits set here for all Higgs' masses

  17. Alcohol advertising and public health: systems perspectives versus narrow perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petticrew, M; Shemilt, I; Lorenc, T; Marteau, T M; Melendez-Torres, G J; O'Mara-Eves, A; Stautz, K; Thomas, J

    2017-03-01

    Alcohol consumption is influenced by a complex causal system of interconnected psychological, behavioural, social, economic, legal and environmental factors. These factors are shaped by governments (eg, licensing laws and taxation), by consumers (eg, patterns of alcohol consumption drive demand) and by alcohol industry practices, such as advertising. The marketing and advertising of alcoholic products contributes to an 'alcogenic environment' and is a modifiable influence on alcohol consumption and harm. The public health perspective is that there is sufficient evidence that alcohol advertising influences consumption. The alcohol industry disputes this, asserting that advertising only aims to help consumers choose between brands. We review the evidence from recent systematic reviews, including their theoretical and methodological assumptions, to help understand what conclusions can be drawn about the relationships between alcohol advertising, advertising restrictions and alcohol consumption. A wide evidence base needs to be drawn on to provide a system-level overview of the relationship between alcohol advertising, advertising restrictions and consumption. Advertising aims to influence not just consumption, but also to influence awareness, attitudes and social norms; this is because advertising is a system-level intervention with multiple objectives. Given this, assessments of the effects of advertising restrictions which focus only on sales or consumption are insufficient and may be misleading. For this reason, previous systematic reviews, such as the 2014 Cochrane review on advertising restrictions (Siegfried et al ) contribute important, but incomplete representations of 'the evidence' needed to inform the public health case for policy decisions on alcohol advertising. We conclude that an unintended consequence of narrow, linear framings of complex system-level issues is that they can produce misleading answers. Systems problems require systems perspectives

  18. Recovering physical properties from narrow-band photometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenell, W.; Cid Fernandes, R.; Benítez, N.; Vale Asari, N.

    2013-05-01

    Our aim in this work is to answer, using simulated narrow-band photometry data, the following general question: What can we learn about galaxies from these new generation cosmological surveys? For instance, can we estimate stellar age and metallicity distributions? Can we separate star-forming galaxies from AGN? Can we measure emission lines, nebular abundances and extinction? With what precision? To accomplish this, we selected a sample of about 300k galaxies with good S/N from the SDSS and divided them in two groups: 200k objects and a template library of 100k. We corrected the spectra to z = 0 and converted them to filter fluxes. Using a statistical approach, we calculated a Probability Distribution Function (PDF) for each property of each object and the library. Since we have the properties of all the data from the STARLIGHT-SDSS database, we could compare them with the results obtained from summaries of the PDF (mean, median, etc). Our results shows that we retrieve the weighted average of the log of the galaxy age with a good error margin (σ ≈ 0.1 - 0.2 dex), and similarly for the physical properties such as mass-to-light ratio, mean stellar metallicity, etc. Furthermore, our main result is that we can derive emission line intensities and ratios with similar precision. This makes this method unique in comparison to the other methods on the market to analyze photometry data and shows that, from the point of view of galaxy studies, future photometric surveys will be much more useful than anticipated.

  19. Large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate in a rigid narrow channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Lifang, E-mail: liu_lifang1106@yahoo.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Lu Daogang, E-mail: ludaogang@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Li Yang, E-mail: qinxiuyi@sina.com [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Zhang Pan, E-mail: zhangpan@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China); Niu Fenglei, E-mail: niufenglei@ncepu.edu.cn [School of Nuclear Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Zhuxinzhuang, Dewai, Beijing 102206 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: > FIV of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate exposed to axial flow was studied. > Special designed test section and advanced measuring equipments were adopted. > The narrow-band vibration phenomenon with large amplitude was observed. > Line of plate's vibration amplitude and flow rate was investigated. > The phenomenon and the measurement error were analyzed. - Abstract: An experiment was performed to analyze the flow-induced vibration behavior of a foursquare fix-supported flexible plate exposed to the axial flow within a rigid narrow channel. The large-amplitude and narrow-band vibration phenomenon was observed in the experiment when the flow velocity varied with the range of 0-5 m/s. The occurring condition and some characteristics of the large-amplitude and narrow-band vibrations were investigated.

  20. Nonlinear narrow Doppler-free resonances for optical transitions and annihilation radiation of a positronium atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Letokhov, V.S.; Minogin, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    The possibilities of obtaining narrow resonances without the Doppler broadening for transition between the fine structure levels of the ground and first excited states of a positronium atom are considered. An analysis is carried out of the conditions required for observation of the narrow resonances of saturation of single quantum absorption in the 1S-2P transitions and observation of narrow two-photon absorption resonances in the 1S-2S transitions. It is shown that narrow 2γ annihilation radiation lines of a positronium atom may be obtained with a width much smaller than the Doppler one

  1. Bandwidth-narrowed Bragg gratings inscribed in double-cladding fiber by femtosecond laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jiawei; Li, Yuhua; Liu, Shuhui; Wang, Haiyan; Liu, Ningliang; Lu, Peixiang

    2011-01-31

    Bragg gratings with the bandwidth(FWHM) narrowed up to 79 pm were inscribed in double-cladding fiber with femtosecond radiation and a phase mask followed by an annealing treatment. With the annealing temperature below a critical value, the bandwidth of Bragg gratings induced by Type I-IR and Type II-IR index change was narrowed without the reduction of reflectivity. The bandwidth narrowing is due to the profile transformation of the refractive index modulation caused by the annealing treatment. This mechanism was verified by comparing bandwidth narrowing processes of FBGs written with different power densities.

  2. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sáez-Almendros, Sara; Obrador, Biel; Bach-Faig, Anna; Serra-Majem, Lluis

    2013-12-30

    Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally-friendly model, adherence to which, in Spain would

  3. Variability of Shelf Growth Patterns along the Iberian Mediterranean Margin: Sediment Supply and Tectonic Influences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruth Durán

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Clinoform depositional features along the Iberian Mediterranean margin are investigated in this study, with the aim of establishing the causes of their varied shapes and other characteristics. We have analyzed the broad-scale margin physiography and seismic stratigraphic patterns based on high-resolution bathymetric data and previously interpreted seismic data. In addition, we have evaluated regional supply conditions and the uplift-subsidence regime of the different shelf sectors. The upper Quaternary record is strongly dominated by shelf-margin regressive wedges affected by the prevailing 100 ka cyclicity. However, the margins exhibit considerable lateral variability, as the result of the balance between the amount of sediment supply and the uplift-subsidence relationship. Three major shelf sectors with distinct morpho-sedimentary features have been defined. The relatively narrow northern shelves (Roses, La Planassa and Barcelona are supplied by discrete river outlets that collectively constitute a linear source and are mainly affected by tectonic tilting. The wide middle shelves (Ebro Shelf, the Gulf of Valencia, and the Northern Arc receive the sediment supply from the large Ebro River and other medium rivers. Although the tectonic regime changes laterally (strong subsidence in the north and uplift in the south, shelf growth is maintained by lateral advection of sediments. The southern shelves (the Southern Arc and the northern Alboran Shelf are very abrupt and narrow because of the uplifting Betic Cordillera, and the torrential fluvial regimes that determine a very efficient sediment by-pass toward the deep basin. Submarine canyons deeply incised in the continental margin constitute a key physiographic feature that may enhance the transport of sediment to the deep sea or individualize shelf sectors with specific sedimentation patterns, as occurs in the Catalan margin.

  4. Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troupin, Charles; Frontera, Biel; Sebastián, Kristian; Pau Beltran, Joan; Krietemeyer, Andreas; Gómara, Sonia; Gomila, Mikel; Escudier, Romain; Juza, Mélanie; Mourre, Baptiste; Garau, Angels; Cañellas, Tomeu; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2016-04-01

    "Medclic: the Mediterranean in one click" is a research and dissemination project focused on the scientific, technological and societal approaches of the Balearic Islands Coastal Observing and Forecasting System ({SOCIB}{www.socib.es}) in a collaboration with "la Caixa" Foundation. SOCIB aims at research excellence and the development of technology which enables progress toward the sustainable management of coastal and marine environments, providing solutions to meet the needs of society. Medclic goes one step forward and has two main goals: at the scientific level, to advance in establishing and understanding the mesoscale variability at the regional scale and its interaction, and thus improving the characterisation of the "oceanic weather" in the Mediterranean; at the outreach level: to bring SOCIB and the new paradigm of multi-platform observation in real time closer to society, through scientific outreach. SOCIB Data Centre is the core of the new multi-platform and real time oceanography and is responsible for directing the different stages of data management, ranging from data acquisition to its distribution and visualization through web applications. The system implemented relies on open source solutions and provides data in line with international standards and conventions (INSPIRE, netCDF Climate and Forecast, ldots). In addition, the Data Centre has implemented a REST web service, called Data Discovery. This service allows data generated by SOCIB to be integrated into applications developed by the Data Centre itself or by third parties, as it is the case with Medclic. Relying on this data distribution, the new web Medclic, www.medclic.es, constitutes an interactive scientific and educational area of communication that contributes to the rapprochement of the general public with the new marine and coastal observing technologies. Thanks to the Medclic web, data coming from new observing technologies in oceanography are available in real time and in one clic

  5. Pediatric jellyfish envenomation in the Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glatstein, Miguel; Adir, Dikla; Galil, Bella; Scolnik, Dennis; Rimon, Ayelet; Pivko-Levy, Dikla; Hoyte, Christopher

    2017-06-20

    Several species of jellyfish native to the western Indian Ocean have entered the Mediterranean Sea through the Suez Canal. Since the late 1980s, each summer Rhopilema nomadica forms swarms as long as 100 km in the southeastern Levant and since the millennium aggregations of additional nonnative jellyfish have been sighted. The aim of this study was to evaluate children seen in the emergency department after jellyfish envenomations and to establish patterns of toxicity associated with this organism. A retrospective chart review was performed of all children presenting after jellyfish envenomations to the pediatric emergency department during the jellyfish swarming seasons (June-August) between 2010 and 2015. Extracted data included age, location of envenomation, pain scores, local and systemic manifestations, treatment provided in the emergency department and hospital, and disposition. Forty-one patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria; their ages ranged from 1 to 16 years and the median age was 9.4 years. Clinical manifestations were evident in all patients. Pain, present in 100% of patients, and an erythematous, whip-like, linear rash present in 87.8%, were the most common manifestations. The majority of 'burns' associated with jellyfish stings were first and second degree. The upper limb was affected in 34% and the lower limb was affected in 61% of cases. One patient suffered a sting to the abdomen and three patients suffered a sting to the face. Treatment in the emergency department included pain control, with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and opiates, and antihistamines and topical corticosteroids in some cases. Nearly 49% of patients were seen during the summer of 2015 alone and seven patients in this group needed hospitalization. Reasons for hospitalization included systemic symptoms such as fever, chills, tachycardia, and muscle spasms. Two patients developed severe cellulitis, one patient had an anaphylactic reaction, and one was admitted to the

  6. Eilat virus displays a narrow mosquito vector range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasar, Farooq; Haddow, Andrew D; Tesh, Robert B; Weaver, Scott C

    2014-12-17

    mosquito host. As a consequence, EILV displays a narrow vector range in mosquito species responsible for the maintenance of other alphaviruses in nature.

  7. Observations and computations of narrow Kelvin ship wakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francis Noblesse

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Computations of far-field ship waves, based on linear potential flow theory and the Hogner approximation, are reported for monohull ships and catamarans. Specifically, far-field ship waves are computed for six monohull ships at four Froude numbers F≡V/gL=0.58, 0.68, 0.86, 1.58 and for six catamarans with nondimensional hull spacing s≡S/L=0.25 at two Froude numbers Fs≡V/gS=1 and 2.5. Here, g is the gravitational acceleration, V and L denote the ship speed and length, and S is the separation distance between the twin hulls of a catamaran. The computations show that, although the amplitudes of the waves created by a ship are strongly influenced by the shape of the ship hull, as well known, the ray angles where the largest waves are found are only weakly influenced by the hull shape and indeed are mostly a kinematic feature of the flow around a ship hull. An important practical consequence of this flow feature is that the apparent wake angle of general monohull ships or catamarans (with arbitrarily-shaped hulls can be estimated, without computations, by means of simple analytical relations; these relations, obtained elsewhere via parametric computations, are given here. Moreover, the influence of the two parameters Fs and s that largely determine the ray angles of the dominant waves created by a catamaran is illustrated via computations for three catamarans with hull spacings s=0.2, 0.35, 0.5 at four Froude numbers Fs=1, 1.5, 2, 2.5. These computations confirm that the largest waves created by wide and/or fast catamarans are found at ray angles that only depend on Fs (i.e. that do not depend on the hull spacing s in agreement with an elementary analysis of lateral interference between the dominant waves created by the bows (or sterns of the twin hulls of a catamaran. The dominant-waves ray angles predicted by the theory of wave-interference effects for monohull ships and catamarans are also compared with the observations of narrow Kelvin ship

  8. Revisiting "Narrow Bipolar Event" intracloud lightning using the FORTE satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, A. R.; Light, T. E. L.

    2012-02-01

    The lightning stroke called a "Narrow Bipolar Event", or NBE, is an intracloud discharge responsible for significant charge redistribution. The NBE occurs within 10-20 μs, and some associated process emits irregular bursts of intense radio noise, fading at shorter timescales, sporadically during the charge transfer. In previous reports, the NBE has been inferred to be quite different from other forms of lightning strokes, in two ways: First, the NBE has been inferred to be relatively dark (non-luminous) compared to other lightning strokes. Second, the NBE has been inferred to be isolated within the storm, usually not participating in flashes, but when it is in a flash, the NBE has been inferred to be the flash initiator. These two inferences have sufficiently stark implications for NBE physics that they should be subjected to further independent test, with improved statistics. We attempt such a test with both optical and radio data from the FORTE satellite, and with lightning-stroke data from the Los Alamos Sferic Array. We show rigorously that by the metric of triggering the PDD optical photometer aboard the FORTE satellite, NBE discharges are indeed less luminous than ordinary lightning. Referred to an effective isotropic emitter at the cloud top, NBE light output is inferred to be less than ~3 × 108 W. To address isolation of NBEs, we first expand the pool of geolocated intracloud radio recordings, by borrowing geolocations from either the same flash's or the same storm's other recordings. In this manner we generate a pool of ~2 × 105 unique and independent FORTE intracloud radio recordings, whose slant range from the satellite can be inferred. We then use this slant range to calculate the Effective Radiated Power (ERP) at the radio source, in the passband 26-49 MHz. Stratifying the radio recordings by ERP into eight bins, from a lowest bin (140 kW), we document a trend for the radio recordings to become more isolated in time as the ERP increases. The highest

  9. Optogenetic Central Amygdala Stimulation Intensifies and Narrows Motivation for Cocaine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warlow, Shelley M; Robinson, Mike J F; Berridge, Kent C

    2017-08-30

    Addiction is often characterized by intense motivation for a drug, which may be narrowly focused at the expense of other rewards. Here, we examined the role of amygdala-related circuitry in the amplification and narrowing of motivation focus for intravenous cocaine. We paired optogenetic channelrhodopsin (ChR2) stimulation in either central nucleus of amygdala (CeA) or basolateral amygdala (BLA) of female rats with one particular nose-poke porthole option for earning cocaine infusions (0.3 mg/kg, i.v.). A second alternative porthole earned identical cocaine but without ChR2 stimulation. Consequently, CeA rats quickly came to pursue their CeA ChR2-paired cocaine option intensely and exclusively, elevating cocaine intake while ignoring their alternative cocaine alone option. By comparison, BLA ChR2 pairing failed to enhance cocaine motivation. CeA rats also emitted consummatory bites toward their laser-paired porthole, suggesting that higher incentive salience made that cue more attractive. A separate progressive ratio test of incentive motivation confirmed that CeA ChR2 amplified rats' motivation, raising their breakpoint effort price for cocaine by 10-fold. However, CeA ChR2 laser on its own lacked any reinforcement value: laser by itself was never self-stimulated, not even by the same rats in which it amplified motivation for cocaine. Conversely, CeA inhibition by muscimol/baclofen microinjections prevented acquisition of cocaine self-administration and laser preference, whereas CeA inhibition by optogenetic halorhodopsin suppressed cocaine intake, indicating that CeA circuitry is needed for ordinary cocaine motivation. We conclude that CeA ChR2 excitation paired with a cocaine option specifically focuses and amplifies motivation to produce intense pursuit and consumption focused on that single target. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT In addiction, intense incentive motivation often becomes narrowly focused on a particular drug of abuse. Here we show that pairing central

  10. Mediterranean diet in the southern Croatia - does it still exist?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolčić, Ivana; Relja, Ajka; Gelemanović, Andrea; Miljković, Ana; Boban, Kristina; Hayward, Caroline; Rudan, Igor; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-10-31

    To assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in the population of Dalmatia in southern Croatia. A cross-sectional study was performed within the 10001 Dalmatians cohort, encompassing 2768 participants from Korčula and Vis islands and the City of Split, who were recruited during 2011-2014. Using the data obtained from food frequency questionnaire we calculated the Mediterranean Diet Serving Score (MDSS). Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify the characteristics associated with the adherence to the Mediterranean diet, with age, sex, place of residence, education attainment, smoking, and physical activity as covariates. The median MDSS score was 11 out of maximum 24 points (interquartile range 8-13), with the highest score recorded on the island of Vis. Participants reported a dietary pattern that had high compliance with the Mediterranean diet guidelines for consumption of cereals (87% met the criteria), potatoes (73%), olive oil (69%), and fish (61%), moderate for consumption of fruit (54%) and vegetables (31%), and low for consumption of nuts (6%). Overall, only 23% of the participants were classified as being adherent to the Mediterranean diet, with a particularly low percentage among younger participants (12%) compared to the older ones (34%). Men were less likely to show good adherence (odds ratio 0.52, 95% confidence interval 0.42-0.65). This study revealed rather poor compliance with the current recommendations on the Mediterranean diet composition in the population of Dalmatia. Public health intervention is especially needed in younger age groups and in men, who show the greatest departure from traditional Mediterranean diet and lifestyle.

  11. Adherence to Mediterranean diet in a sample of Tuscan adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santomauro, Francesca; Lorini, Chiara; Tanini, Tommaso; Indiani, Laura; Lastrucci, Vieri; Comodo, Nicola; Bonaccorsi, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet in a group of Italian high school students, in relation to their lifestyles and social and family contexts, and to compare the nutrition habits of the sample with other similar groups. The KIDMED index and an ad hoc questionnaire were administered to 1127 students (mean age 16.8 ± 1.6 y) in the province of Florence. Any significant associations between the level of adherence to the Mediterranean diet and the aforementioned variables were assessed by the χ(2) test and by logistic regression analysis. The adherence to the Mediterranean diet was good in 16.5%, average in 60.5%, and poor in 23% of the students. The students attending technical high schools, those who played sports less than "almost every day", those who spent >3 h/d in sedentary activities, those who defined their school performance as worse than "more than sufficient," and those who referred to use of a car/moped as the most frequent mode of transportation, had significantly higher odds of poor rather than average or good adherence to Mediterranean diet. Moreover, being normal weight or overweight/obese, and referring to health workers as source of information on diet, seem to be protective factors against poor adherence to Mediterranean diet. Our sample presents a departure from the Mediterranean dietary pattern. It is certainly necessary to implement public health policies targeting teenagers to promote healthier lifestyle choices; the nutritional patterns of the Mediterranean diet should be among these choices. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Dynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to greenhouse gases and aerosols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols and greenhouse gases affect cloud properties, radiative balance and, thus, the hydrological cycle. Observations show that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the beginning of the 20th century, and many studies have investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare the modeled dynamical response of Mediterranean precipitation to individual forcing agents in a set of global climate models (GCMs. Our analyses show that both greenhouse gases and aerosols can cause drying in the Mediterranean and that precipitation is more sensitive to black carbon (BC forcing than to well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs or sulfate aerosol. In addition to local heating, BC appears to reduce precipitation by causing an enhanced positive sea level pressure (SLP pattern similar to the North Atlantic Oscillation–Arctic Oscillation, characterized by higher SLP at midlatitudes and lower SLP at high latitudes. WMGHGs cause a similar SLP change, and both are associated with a northward diversion of the jet stream and storm tracks, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in northern Europe. Though the applied forcings were much larger, if forcings are scaled to those of the historical period of 1901–2010, roughly one-third (31±17 % of the precipitation decrease would be attributable to global BC forcing with the remainder largely attributable to WMGHGs, whereas global scattering sulfate aerosols would have negligible impacts. Aerosol–cloud interactions appear to have minimal impacts on Mediterranean precipitation in these models, at least in part because many simulations did not fully include such processes; these merit further study. The findings from this study suggest that future BC and WMGHG emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems and

  13. Mediterranean dietary pattern and risk of breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Couto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A Mediterranean diet has a recognized beneficial effect on health and longevity, with a protective influence on several cancers. However, its association with breast cancer risk remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate whether adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern influences breast cancer risk. DESIGN: The Swedish Women's Lifestyle and Health cohort study includes 49,258 women aged 30 to 49 years at recruitment in 1991-1992. Consumption of foods and beverages was measured at enrollment using a food frequency questionnaire. A Mediterranean diet score was constructed based on the consumption of alcohol, vegetables, fruits, legumes, cereals, fish, the ratio of unsaturated to saturated fat, and dairy and meat products. Relative risks (RR for breast cancer and specific tumor characteristics (invasiveness, histological type, estrogen/progesterone receptor status, malignancy grade and stage associated with this score were estimated using Cox regression controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: 1,278 incident breast cancers were diagnosed. Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was not statistically significantly associated with reduced risk of breast cancer overall, or with specific breast tumor characteristics. A RR (95% confidence interval for breast cancer associated with a two-point increment in the Mediterranean diet score was 1.08 (1.00-1.15 in all women, and 1.10 (1.01-1.21 and 1.02 (0.91-1.15 in premenopausal and postmenopausal women, respectively. When alcohol was excluded from the Mediterranean diet score, results became not statistically significant. CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern did not decrease breast cancer risk in this cohort of relatively young women.

  14. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G; Selmin, Ornella I; Doetschman, Tom C; Romagnolo, Donato F

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma-carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  15. Mediterranean Diet and Cardiodiabesity: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Fernández, Elena; Rico-Cabanas, Laura; Rosgaard, Nanna; Estruch, Ramón; Bach-Faig, Anna

    2014-01-01

    Cardiodiabesity has been used to define and describe the well-known relationship between type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (T2DM), obesity, the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and cardiovascular disease (CVD). The objective of this study was to perform a scientific literature review with a systematic search to examine all the cardiovascular risk factors combined and their relationship with adherence to the Mediterranean Diet (MedDiet) pattern as primary prevention against cardiodiabesity in a holistic approach. Research was conducted using the PubMed database including clinical trials, cross-sectional and prospective cohort studies. Thirty-seven studies were reviewed: fourteen related to obesity, ten to CVD, nine to MetS, and four to T2DM. Indeed 33 provided strong evidence on the association between adherence to a MedDiet and a reduced incidence of collective cardiodiabesity risk in epidemiological studies. This scientific evidence makes the MedDiet pattern very useful for preventive strategies directed at the general population and also highlights the need to consider all these diet-related risk factors and health outcomes together in daily primary care. PMID:25192027

  16. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donovan, Micah G.; Selmin, Ornella I.; Doetschman, Tom C.; Romagnolo, Donato F.

    2017-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern. PMID:29259973

  17. Local diffusion coefficient determination: Mediterranean Sea experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacciola, D.; Borghini, M.; Cannarsa, S.

    1993-10-01

    The Mediterranean is a semi/enclosed basin characterized by the presence of channels and straits influencing the circulation, temperature and salinity fields. The tides generally have amplitudes of the order of 10 cm and velocities of few cm/s. Conversely, the wind forced circulation is very strong and can assume velocity values of 1 m/s at the sea surface. The temperature and salinity fields have a high temporal and spatial variability, because of many mixing processes existing in the sea. For example, the waters coming from the Provencal basin meet those waters coming from the Tyrrhenian Sea in the eastern Ligurian Sea, creating meanders and eddies. Local runoff influences significantly the coastal circulation. This paper describes diffusion experiments carried out in this complex environment. The experimental apparatus for the detection of the fluorescine released at sea was composed by two Turner mod. 450 fluorometres. During the experiments, temperature and salinity vertical profiles were measured by using a CTD; meteorological data were acquired on a dinghy. The positioning was obtained by means of a Motorola system, having a precision of about 1 meter. The experiments were carried out under different stratification and wind conditions. From data analysis it was found that the horizontal diffusion coefficient does not depend on time or boundary conditions. The role of stratification is important with regard to vertical displacement of the dye. However, its role with regard to vertical diffusion cannot be assessed with the actual experimental apparatus

  18. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe.

  19. Mediterranean Diet: Prevention of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micah G. Donovan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer diagnosis and the second and third leading cause of cancer mortality in men and women, respectively. However, the majority of CRC cases are the result of sporadic tumorigenesis via the adenoma–carcinoma sequence. This process can take up to 20 years, suggesting an important window of opportunity exists for prevention such as switching toward healthier dietary patterns. The Mediterranean diet (MD is a dietary pattern associated with various health benefits including protection against cardiovascular disease, diabetes, obesity, and various cancers. In this article, we review publications available in the PubMed database within the last 10 years that report on the impact of a MD eating pattern on prevention of CRC. To assist the reader with interpretation of the results and discussion, we first introduce indexes and scoring systems commonly used to experimentally determine adherence to a MD, followed by a brief introduction of the influence of the MD pattern on inflammatory bowel disease, which predisposes to CRC. Finally, we discuss key biological mechanisms through which specific bioactive food components commonly present in the MD are proposed to prevent or delay the development of CRC. We close with a discussion of future research frontiers in CRC prevention with particular reference to the role of epigenetic mechanisms and microbiome related to the MD eating pattern.

  20. Fracture strength and probability of survival of narrow and extra-narrow dental implants after fatigue testing: In vitro and in silico analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordin, Dimorvan; Bergamo, Edmara T P; Fardin, Vinicius P; Coelho, Paulo G; Bonfante, Estevam A

    2017-07-01

    To assess the probability of survival (reliability) and failure modes of narrow implants with different diameters. For fatigue testing, 42 implants with the same macrogeometry and internal conical connection were divided, according to diameter, as follows: narrow (Ø3.3×10mm) and extra-narrow (Ø2.9×10mm) (21 per group). Identical abutments were torqued to the implants and standardized maxillary incisor crowns were cemented and subjected to step-stress accelerated life testing (SSALT) in water. The use-level probability Weibull curves, and reliability for a mission of 50,000 and 100,000 cycles at 50N, 100, 150 and 180N were calculated. For the finite element analysis (FEA), two virtual models, simulating the samples tested in fatigue, were constructed. Loading at 50N and 100N were applied 30° off-axis at the crown. The von-Mises stress was calculated for implant and abutment. The beta (β) values were: 0.67 for narrow and 1.32 for extra-narrow implants, indicating that failure rates did not increase with fatigue in the former, but more likely were associated with damage accumulation and wear-out failures in the latter. Both groups showed high reliability (up to 97.5%) at 50 and 100N. A decreased reliability was observed for both groups at 150 and 180N (ranging from 0 to 82.3%), but no significant difference was observed between groups. Failure predominantly involved abutment fracture for both groups. FEA at 50N-load, Ø3.3mm showed higher von-Mises stress for abutment (7.75%) and implant (2%) when compared to the Ø2.9mm. There was no significant difference between narrow and extra-narrow implants regarding probability of survival. The failure mode was similar for both groups, restricted to abutment fracture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Narrowing the Gap in Outcomes: Early Years (0-5 Years)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Springate, Ian; Atkinson, Mary; Straw, Suzanne; Lamont, Emily; Grayson, Hilary

    2008-01-01

    This report was commissioned by the Local Government Association (LGA) to inform the Department for Children, Schools and Families (DCSF) and LGA work on "Narrowing the Gap." It focuses on early years' provision and presents findings from a review of the best evidence on narrowing the gap in outcomes across the five Every Child Matters…

  2. Brief Daily Exposures to Asian Females Reverses Perceptual Narrowing for Asian Faces in Caucasian Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzures, Gizelle; Wheeler, Andrea; Quinn, Paul C.; Pascalis, Olivier; Slater, Alan M.; Heron-Delaney, Michelle; Tanaka, James W.; Lee, Kang

    2012-01-01

    Perceptual narrowing in the visual, auditory, and multisensory domains has its developmental origins during infancy. The current study shows that experimentally induced experience can reverse the effects of perceptual narrowing on infants' visual recognition memory of other-race faces. Caucasian 8- to 10-month-olds who could not discriminate…

  3. 76 FR 60733 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Smith Point Bridge, 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate bridge...

  4. 78 FR 23845 - Drawbridge Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-23

    ... Operation Regulations; Narrow Bay, Smith Point, NY AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Notice of temporary... deviation from the regulation governing the operation of the Smith Point Bridge, mile 6.1, across Narrow Bay, between Smith Point and Fire Island, New York. The deviation is necessary to facilitate the Smith Point...

  5. 77 FR 32938 - Narrow Woven Ribbons With Woven Selvedge From Taiwan: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... ribbons subject to the order include all narrow woven fabrics, tapes, and labels that fall within this... the manufacture of typewriter or printer ribbons; (5) Narrow woven labels and apparel tapes, cut-to... 1994 U.S.C.C.A.N. 4040, 4198-99. Furthermore, ``affirmative evidence of bad faith on the part of a...

  6. Burnout and distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boltenko, E. A.; Shpakovskii, A. A.

    2010-03-01

    Previous works on studying distribution of liquid between the flow core and wall films in narrow slot channels are briefly reviewed. Interrelation between mass transfer processes and burnout is shown. A procedure for calculating burnout on convex and concave heat-transfer surfaces in narrow slot channels is presented.

  7. Occurrence and Global Properties of Narrow CIV lambda 1549 Absorption Lines in Moderate-Redshift Quasars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Marianne

    2003-01-01

    A statistical study is presented of (a) the frequency of narrow CIV lambda 1549 absorption lines in 1.5 ~50%) of narrow CIV absorbers is detected for the radio-quiet and radio-loud quasars, and a constant ~25% of all the quasars, irrespective of radio type display associated CIV absorbers stronger...

  8. EU habitats of interest: an insight into Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredunes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feola, S.; Carranza, M.L.; Schaminee, J.H.J.; Acosta, A.T.R.; Janssen, J.A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We compared the Atlantic and Mediterranean beach and foredune habitats of European interest, focusing on floristic, structural and ecological features. We selected two representative sites of Atlantic (The Netherlands) and Mediterranean (Italy) coastal dunes. From a georeferenced vegetation

  9. Snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountain regions: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayad, Abbas; Gascoin, Simon; Faour, Ghaleb; López-Moreno, Juan Ignacio; Drapeau, Laurent; Page, Michel Le; Escadafal, Richard

    2017-08-01

    Water resources in Mediterranean regions are under increasing pressure due to climate change, economic development, and population growth. Many Mediterranean rivers have their headwaters in mountainous regions where hydrological processes are driven by snowpack dynamics and the specific variability of the Mediterranean climate. A good knowledge of the snow processes in the Mediterranean mountains is therefore a key element of water management strategies in such regions. The objective of this paper is to review the literature on snow hydrology in Mediterranean mountains to identify the existing knowledge, key research questions, and promising technologies. We collected 620 peer-reviewed papers, published between 1913 and 2016, that deal with the Mediterranean-like mountain regions in the western United States, the central Chilean Andes, and the Mediterranean basin. A large amount of studies in the western United States form a strong scientific basis for other Mediterranean mountain regions. We found that: (1) the persistence of snow cover is highly variable in space and time but mainly controlled by elevation and precipitation; (2) the snowmelt is driven by radiative fluxes, but the contribution of heat fluxes is stronger at the end of the snow season and during heat waves and rain-on-snow events; (3) the snow densification rates are higher in these regions when compared to other climate regions; and (4) the snow sublimation is an important component of snow ablation, especially in high-elevation regions. Among the pressing issues is the lack of continuous ground observation in high-elevation regions. However, a few years of snow depth (HS) and snow water equivalent (SWE) data can provide realistic information on snowpack variability. A better spatial characterization of snow cover can be achieved by combining ground observations with remotely sensed snow data. SWE reconstruction using satellite snow cover area and a melt model provides reasonable information that

  10. Soil erosion in a man-made landscape: the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerdà, A.; Ruiz Sinoga, J. D.; Cammeraat, L. H.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean-type ecosystems are characterised by a seasonally contrasted distribution of precipitation, by the coincidence of the driest and hottest season in summer, by an often-mountainous terrain, and by a long history of intense human occupation, especially around the Mediterranean Sea. The history of the Mediterranean lands is the history of human impacts on the soil system, and soil erosion is the most intense and widespread impact on this land where high intensity and uneven rainfall is found. A review of the soil erosion rates measured in the Mediterranean basin will be shown. The measurements done by means of erosion pins, topographical measurements, rainfall simulators, Gerlach collectors in open or close plots, watershed/basin measurements, reservoirs siltation and historical data will be shown. A review of the soil erosion models applied in the Mediterranean will be shown. The tentative approach done until October 2011 show that the soil erosion rates on Mediterranean type ecosystems are not as high as was supposed by the pioneers in the 70's. And this is probably due to the fact that the soils are very shallow and sediments are not available after millennia of high erosion rates. This is related to the large amount of rock fragments are covering the soil, and the rock outcrops that are found in the upper slope trams and the summits. Soil erosion in the Mediterranean is seasonal due to the rainfall concentration in winter, and highly variable within years as the high intensity rainfall events control the sediment production. Natural vegetation is adapted to the Mediterranean environmental conditions, and they are efficient to control the soil losses. An example are the forest fire that increase the soil losses but this is a temporal change as after 2-4 years the soil erosion rates are similar to the pre-fire period. Agriculture lands are the source of sediments although the highest erosion rates are found in badland areas that cover a small part of

  11. Influence of the narrow {111} planes on axial and planar ion channeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motapothula, M; Dang, Z Y; Venkatesan, T; Breese, M B H; Rana, M A; Osman, A

    2012-05-11

    We report channeling patterns where clearly resolved effects of the narrow {111} planes are observed in axial and planar alignments for 2 MeV protons passing through a 55 nm [001] silicon membrane. At certain axes, such as and , the offset in atomic rows forming the narrow {111} planes results in shielding from the large potential at the wide {111} planes, producing a region of shallow, asymmetric potential from which axial channeling patterns have no plane of symmetry. At small tilts from such axes, different behavior is observed from the wide and narrow {111} planes. At planar alignment, distinctive channeling effects due to the narrow planes are observed. As a consequence of the shallow potential well at the narrow planes, incident protons suffer dechanneled trajectories which are excluded from channeling within the wide planes, resulting in an anomalously large scattered beam at {111} alignment.

  12. Mediterranean diet adherence by patients with primary open angle glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu-Reyes, J A; Álvarez-Luis, D; Arteaga-Hernández, V; Sánchez-Mendez, M; Abreu-González, R

    2017-08-01

    To study the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients affected by primary open angle glaucoma (POAG). An observational study was conducted to assess the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in patients affected by POAG, and who attended the Ophthalmology Department of the Canary Islands University Hospital. The study included completing a 14-item questionnaire validated by the PREDIMED Study, in person or by telephone. A total of 100 questionnaires were completed successfully by 50 males and 50 females. The mean age was 69.58 years for the males and 67.42 years for women. The men had more comorbidities than women (tobacco 14 vs. 3%), arterial hypertension, and diabetes (30 vs. 28%, and 16 vs. 6%, respectively). Adherence to the Mediterranean diet in males, was low in 9 patients (18%), moderate in 37 (74%), and high in 4 (8%) cases. In women adherence was low in 14 patients (28%), moderate in 34 (68%), and high in 2 (6%) cases. The overall adhesion to the Mediterranean diet is low in 23%, moderate in 71% and high in 6% of the cases. Patients who are affected by POAG have moderate adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Mediterranean diet and inflammaging within the hormesis paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martucci, Morena; Ostan, Rita; Biondi, Fiammetta; Bellavista, Elena; Fabbri, Cristina; Bertarelli, Claudia; Salvioli, Stefano; Capri, Miriam; Franceschi, Claudio; Santoro, Aurelia

    2017-06-01

    A coherent set of epidemiological data shows that the Mediterranean diet has beneficial effects capable of preventing a variety of age-related diseases in which low-grade, chronic inflammation/inflammaging plays a major role, but the underpinning mechanism(s) is/are still unclear. It is suggested here that the Mediterranean diet can be conceptualized as a form of chronic hormetic stress, similar to what has been proposed regarding calorie restriction, the most thoroughly studied nutritional intervention. Data on the presence in key Mediterranean foods of a variety of compounds capable of exerting hormetic effects are summarized, and the mechanistic role of the nuclear factor erythroid 2 pathway is highlighted. Within this conceptual framework, particular attention has been devoted to the neurohormetic and neuroprotective properties of the Mediterranean diet, as well as to its ability to maintain an optimal balance between pro- and anti-inflammaging. Finally, the European Commission-funded project NU-AGE is discussed because it addresses a number of variables not commonly taken into consideration, such as age, sex, and ethnicity/genetics, that can modulate the hormetic effect of the Mediterranean diet. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute.

  14. Obesity, metabolic syndrome and Mediterranean diet: Impact on depression outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Toro, M; Vicens-Pons, E; Gili, M; Roca, M; Serrano-Ripoll, M J; Vives, M; Leiva, A; Yáñez, A M; Bennasar-Veny, M; Oliván-Blázquez, B

    2016-04-01

    Obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and low adherence to Mediterranean diet are frequent in major depression patients and have been separately related with prognosis. The aim of this study is to analyse their predictive power on major depression outcome, at 6 and 12 months. 273 Major depressive patients completed the Beck Depression Inventory for depressive symptoms and the 14-item Mediterranean diet adherence score. MetS was diagnosed according to the International Diabetes Federation (IDF). At the baseline Mediterranean diet adherence was inversely associated with depressive symptoms (p=0.007). Depression response was more likely in those patients with normal weight (p=0.006) and not MetS (p=0.013) but it was not associated with Mediterranean diet adherence (p=0.625). Those patients with MetS and obesity were less likely to improve symptoms of depression than patients with obesity but not MetS. Obesity and MetS, but not low adherence to the Mediterranean diet at baseline, predicted a poor outcome of depression at 12 months. Our study suggests that MetS is the key factor that impacts negatively in depression prognosis, rather than obesity or diet. If this finding is confirmed, clinicians should be aware about MetS diagnosis and treatment in overweight depressed patients, especially if outcome is not being satisfactory enough. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Compositional variability in Mediterranean archaeofaunas from Upper Paleolithic Southwest Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Emily Lena

    2018-03-01

    Recent meta-analyses of Upper Paleolithic Southwestern European archaeofaunas (Jones, 2015, 2016) have identified a consistent "Mediterranean" cluster from the Last Glacial Maximum through the early Holocene, suggesting similarities in environment and/or consistency in hunting strategy across this region through time despite radical changes in climate. However, while these archaeofaunas from this cluster all derive from sites located within today's Mediterranean bioclimatic region, many of them are from locations far from the Mediterranean Sea - Atlantic Portugal, the Spanish Meseta - which today differ significantly from each other in biotic composition. In this paper, I explore clustering (through cluster analysis and non-metric multidimensional scaling) within the Mediterranean archaeofaunal group. I test for the influence of sample size as well as the geographic variables of site elevation, latitude, and longitude on variability in the large mammal portions of archaeofaunal assemblages. ANOVA shows no relationship between cluster-defined groups and site elevation or longitude; instead, site latitude appears to be a primary contributor to patterning. However, the overall compositional similarity of the Mediterranean archaeofaunas in this dataset suggests more consistency than variability in Upper Paleolithic hunting strategy in this region.

  16. Contribution of Black Carbon Aerosol to Drying of the Mediterranean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, T.; Shindell, D. T.; Samset, B. H.; Boucher, O.; Forster, P.; Hodnebrog, Ø.; Myhre, G.; Sillmann, J.; Voulgarakis, A.; Andrews, T.; Faluvegi, G.; Fläschner, D.; Iverson, T.; Kasoar, M.; Kharin, V. V.; Kirkevag, A.; Lamarque, J. F.; Olivié, D.; Richardson, T.; Stjern, C.; Takemura, T.; Zwiers, F. W.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols affect cloud properties, radiative balance and thus, the hydrological cycle. Many studies have reported that precipitation has decreased in the Mediterranean since the mid-20th century, and investigated possible mechanisms. So far, however, the effects of aerosol forcing on Mediterranean precipitation remain largely unknown. Here we compare observed Mediterranean precipitation trends during 1951-2010 with responses to individual forcing in a set of state-of-the-art global climate models. Our analyses suggest that nearly one-third (30%) of the observed precipitation decrease may be attributable to black carbon forcing. The remainder is most strongly linked to forcing of well-mixed greenhouse gases (WMGHGs), with scattering sulfate aerosols having negligible impacts. Black carbon caused an enhanced positive North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO)/Arctic Oscillation (AO)-like sea level pressure (SLP) pattern, characterized by higher SLP at mid-latitudes and lower SLP at high-latitudes. This SLP change diverted the jet stream and storm tracks further northward, reducing precipitation in the Mediterranean while increasing precipitation in Northern Europe. The results from this study suggest that future black carbon emissions may significantly affect regional water resources, agricultural practices, ecosystems, and economy in the Mediterranean region.

  17. EVALUATION OF RAINFALL-RUNOFF MODELS FOR MEDITERRANEAN SUBCATCHMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Cilek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The development and the application of rainfall-runoff models have been a corner-stone of hydrological research for many decades. The amount of rainfall and its intensity and variability control the generation of runoff and the erosional processes operating at different scales. These interactions can be greatly variable in Mediterranean catchments with marked hydrological fluctuations. The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance of rainfall-runoff model, for rainfall-runoff simulation in a Mediterranean subcatchment. The Pan-European Soil Erosion Risk Assessment (PESERA, a simplified hydrological process-based approach, was used in this study to combine hydrological surface runoff factors. In total 128 input layers derived from data set includes; climate, topography, land use, crop type, planting date, and soil characteristics, are required to run the model. Initial ground cover was estimated from the Landsat ETM data provided by ESA. This hydrological model was evaluated in terms of their performance in Goksu River Watershed, Turkey. It is located at the Central Eastern Mediterranean Basin of Turkey. The area is approximately 2000 km2. The landscape is dominated by bare ground, agricultural and forests. The average annual rainfall is 636.4mm. This study has a significant importance to evaluate different model performances in a complex Mediterranean basin. The results provided comprehensive insight including advantages and limitations of modelling approaches in the Mediterranean environment.

  18. Input of transuranic elements through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukai, R.; Ballestra, S.; Thein, M.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am were carried out on river water as well as its suspended matter collected seasonally in 1977 from two Mediterranean rivers, the Var and the Rhone. The results show that although the concentrations of the soluble fractions of these radionuclides are higher in the Rhone than in the Var, even the elevated concentrations of soluble 137 Cs (approximately 40 fCi.ltr -1 ) and sup(239+240)Pu (approximately 0.1 fCi.ltr -1 ) in the Rhone are much lower than the average concentrations of these nuclides in Mediterranean surface waters. On the other hand, the concentrations of the nuclides measured in suspended matter are roughly an order of magnitude higher in the Rhone than in the Var. Based on the results of measurements on the two rivers, and assuming that the annual average concentrations of the radionuclides in the Var and the Rhone respectively represent those in radiologically uncontaminated and contaminated Mediterranean rivers, the total inputs of 137 Cs, 238 Pu, sup(239+240)Pu and 241 Am through rivers into the Mediterranean Sea have been estimated. Comparison of these estimated values with the inputs of fallout radionuclides by rain indicates that although local accumulation of transuranic nuclides may be observed on sediments taken from some limited estuarine areas, the geochemical behaviour of transuranic elements in the Mediterranean, as a whole, is exclusively governed today by the fallout input of these elements. (author)

  19. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myriokefalitakis, S; Daskalakis, N; Fanourgakis, G S; Voulgarakis, A; Krol, M C; Aan de Brugh, J M J; Kanakidou, M

    2016-09-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the Western basins and the boundary layer (BL) from the free troposphere (FT). The FT of the Eastern Mediterranean is shown to be a strong receptor of polluted air masses from the Western Mediterranean, and the most important source of polluted air masses for the Eastern Mediterranean BL, with about 40% of O3 and of CO in the BL to be transported from the FT aloft. Regional anthropogenic sources are found to have relatively small impact on regional air quality in the area, contributing by about 8% and 18% to surface levels of O3 and CO, respectively. Projections using anthropogenic emissions for the year 2050 but neglecting climate change calculate a surface O3 decrease of about 11% together with a surface CO increase of roughly 10% in the Eastern Mediterranean. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Euro-Mediterranean Partnership; State of affairs and key policy and research issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiper, M.H.; dell' Aquila, C.

    2004-01-01

    This study draws on a body of existing literature to take stock of the Euro-Mediterranean Partnership (EMP), which focuses on establishing a Mediterranean Free Trade Area. Despite considerable scope for reducing barriers on Mediterranean trade, current agreements are limited to a quasi-unilateral

  1. [Role of Mediterranean diet on the prevention of Alzheimer disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Arnoldo; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina; Mennickent, Sigrid

    2017-04-01

    Type 2 diabetes and obesity are possible risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and these can be modified by physical activity and changes in dietary patterns, such as switching to a Mediterranean diet. This diet includes fruits, vegetables, olive oil, fish and moderate wine intake. These foods provide vitamins, polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids. This diet should be able to reduce oxidative stress. The inflammatory response is also reduced by unsaturated fatty acids, resulting in a lower expression and a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. The Cardiovascular protection is related to the actions of polyphenols and unsaturated fatty acids on the vascular endothelium. The Mediterranean diet also can improve cardiovascular risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension and metabolic syndrome. These beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet should have a role in Alzheimer’s disease prevention.

  2. Mediterranean climate modelling: variability and climate change scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Somot, S.

    2005-12-01

    Air-sea fluxes, open-sea deep convection and cyclo-genesis are studied in the Mediterranean with the development of a regional coupled model (AORCM). It accurately simulates these processes and their climate variabilities are quantified and studied. The regional coupling shows a significant impact on the number of winter intense cyclo-genesis as well as on associated air-sea fluxes and precipitation. A lower inter-annual variability than in non-coupled models is simulated for fluxes and deep convection. The feedbacks driving this variability are understood. The climate change response is then analysed for the 21. century with the non-coupled models: cyclo-genesis decreases, associated precipitation increases in spring and autumn and decreases in summer. Moreover, a warming and salting of the Mediterranean as well as a strong weakening of its thermohaline circulation occur. This study also concludes with the necessity of using AORCMs to assess climate change impacts on the Mediterranean. (author)

  3. VIRAL HEPATITIS A TO E IN SOUTH MEDITERRANEAN COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanaa M. Kamal

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Viral hepatitis represents an important health problem in the South Mediterranean countries, Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco.  Emerging natural history and epidemiological information reveal differences in the overall epidemiology, risk factors and modes of transmission of viral hepatitis A, B, C, D, E infections in the South Mediterranean region. The differences in the in incidence and prevalence of viral hepatitis across North African countries is attributed to variations in health care  and sanitation standards, risk factors and immunization strategies. The active continuous population movement through travel, tourism and migration from and to the South Mediterranean countries contribute to the spread of infections due to hepatitis viruses across borders leading to outbreaks and emergence of new patterns of infection or introduction of uncommon genotypes in other countries, particularly in Europe.

  4. Marine Renewable Energy in the Mediterranean Sea: Status and Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takvor H. Soukissian

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, an extended overview of the marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean Sea is provided as regards current status, potential problems, challenges, and perspectives of development. An integrated and holistic approach is necessary for the economic viability and sustainability of marine renewable energy projects; this approach comprises three different frameworks, not always aligned, i.e., geotechnical/engineering, socio-economic, and environmental/ecological frameworks. In this context, the geomorphological, climatological, socio-economic, and environmental/ecological particularities of the Mediterranean basin are discussed, as they constitute key issues of the spatial context in which marine renewable energy projects are to be implemented. General guidelines for the sustainable development of marine renewable energy in the Mediterranean are also provided.

  5. AHP for indicators of sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valls-Donderis, P.; Vallés-Planells, M.; Galiana, F.

    2017-01-01

    Aim of study: To verify and prioritise a set of sustainable forestry indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Area of study: Participants were Spanish; indicators were meant to be applied in forest management units (FMUs) under Mediterranean conditions. Material and methods: An AHP questionnaire was developed and sent to experts. Main Results: the set of indicators aimed to be comprehensive. Indicators were ranked and the ranking allows ascertaining what aspects are more relevant in relation to Mediterranean sustainable forestry. Issues like regeneration or habitats conservation got high values, whereas others like hunting activity were not seen as important by most experts. Research highlights: - Sustainable forest management (SFM) considerations for Mediterranean forests. - Indicators adapt to ecosystem services.

  6. Sibling species of copepods in association with Mediterranean gorgorians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mercedes Conradi

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Hitherto a single species of Doridicola Leydig (Poecilostomatoida: Rhynchomolgidae has been found reported in association with gorgonians in Europe: Doridicola botulosus (Stock and Kleeton, 1963, living on the Mediterranean gorgonian Eunicella singularis (Esper, 1791. During a survey along the Iberian Mediterranean coast, several specimens of D. botulosus were collected from its reported host. Furthermore, an undescribed species of Doridicola was discovered living in association with Paramuricea clavata (Risso, 1826, a Mediterranean gorgonian usually living in overlaps with that of E. singularis. Although the new species is close to D. botulosus, they differ in the oral appendages. A common origin of these two species was suggested. This is a good example of sibling species produced by the colonisation of two hosts with overlapping habitats

  7. AHP for indicators of sustainable forestry under Mediterranean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valls-Donderis, P.; Vallés-Planells, M.; Galiana, F.

    2017-11-01

    Aim of study: To verify and prioritise a set of sustainable forestry indicators using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP). Area of study: Participants were Spanish; indicators were meant to be applied in forest management units (FMUs) under Mediterranean conditions. Material and methods: An AHP questionnaire was developed and sent to experts. Main Results: the set of indicators aimed to be comprehensive. Indicators were ranked and the ranking allows ascertaining what aspects are more relevant in relation to Mediterranean sustainable forestry. Issues like regeneration or habitats conservation got high values, whereas others like hunting activity were not seen as important by most experts. Research highlights: - Sustainable forest management (SFM) considerations for Mediterranean forests. - Indicators adapt to ecosystem services.

  8. Avoidance within a changing assessment paradigm for Mediterranean Hake stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. RAGONESE

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean hake Merluccius merluccius L., 1758, is the emblem of the so-called Mediterranean demersal fisheries paradox, showing a persistent, although stable, status of growth overexploitation and an impressive gap between current and any biological reference point. Almost full avoidance capability of large size females to bottom trawls, higher overall growth rates than previously believed and higher natural mortality in juveniles than adult, were considered among the most plausible explanation factors of such persistence. In the present note, arguments are illustrated to raise some concern about avoidance and highlight the important role of the other factors in improving assessments and launching a short term recovery plan for Mediterranean Hake stocks which is more acceptable to fishermen.

  9. Siracusa, EuroMediterranean Smart City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luigi Minozzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available About three years ago, the City of Siracusa has started a serious reflection about the crisis, about its model of development and its problems related to its territorial marginality. In this context, it lodged a service "Complex Programs and EU Policies" internal the Department of Public Works as the first embryo of the future Urban Center in Siracusa. The Smarter Cities Challenge program, sponsored by IBM, provides, for the years 2011-2012-2013 a selection through a call, a hundred cities around the world that offer a program of counseling on territorial issues, urban, social, exposed by the city in challenge. The program for 2012, selected Siracusa, the only Italian city in a hundred choices, with a theme that emphasizes the need to find methods (smart to integrate the two systems, the industrial and the historical, cultural, into the overall Siracusa system territorial. The advent of smart policies also confirms the trend that characterized the most evolved from the most marginal realities in Europe. For the realities of the Euro-Mediterranean area, such as Siracusa, the winners model’s urban policies originate from the most evolved and developed, where the economy is more structured and able to assume the active role of actors development and urban transformations. So, a universal language of transformations really exist? The same model development produces the same results everywhere, regardless the places and the people tribe? To promote smart Siracusa means, not only, economic innovation promotion, social inclusion and environmental sustainability, but also: Siracusa intends to strengthen its image as innovation land and to evolve into a center of excellence for smart policies.

  10. Sicily in its Mediterranean geological frame

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broquet, P.

    2016-10-01

    The Island of Sicily is generally considered to be the geological link between the North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, in Italy. This comes from a cylindristic meaning and is only partly exact. As a matter of fact, Sicily is essentially Greek; Ionian. Up to Middle Cretaceous time, the Sicilian area was a submerged shoal in the sea or the Panormide area, bordering the Ionian Ocean. This shoal lay between the future North African Fold Belt and the Appennines, forming an intermediate link between the Appenninic, Apulian, Panormian and Tunisian platforms. It was only during the Middle to Upper Cretaceous that the Atlantic and Ligure Oceans merged, making a continuous relationship between the Appenninic, Sicilian and North African sedimentary series. The key time periods are the Permian, Cretaceous and Oligo-Miocene periods leading to the formation of the actual Calabro-Sicilian arc. From the Permian to the present, the Sicilian geological history pertains to three oceanic domains: Ionian, Ligurian and Atlantic, of which the Ionian and Ligurian were under the influence of Tethys (Neo and Paleo-Tethys). The Tethysian identity of Sicily constitutes the major aspect of its geological history. However, the European and African plate tectonic movements complicated its structure. During the Middle Miocene subduction, southern Sicily became African, meanwhile its north-eastern part became, in Pliocene time, Maghrebian by accretion. Sicily is thus a truly geological patchwork, but its main section remains Ionian and now constitutes a link between North Africa and the Appennines. With older data, but also by means of recent results, we will replace Sicily in its Mediterranean frame, giving the mean stages of its paleogeographical and then its tectonic evolution. We will review the calabro-sicilian arc evolution from the Oligocene, developing the actual context and recalling the main fundamental play of the Numidian flysch. (Author)

  11. Mediterranean energy perspectives - Turkey. Executive summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-09-01

    This in-depth study provides insight into Turkey's energy profile from the early 1960's to the present and an outlook to 2030. MEP-Turkey presents detailed analysis and data on the supply and demand balance for the major components of the energy sector with particular emphasis on sectoral analysis. It is based on OME's proprietary Mediterranean Energy Econometric Model for Turkey developed for this publication. The outlook to 2030 presents two possible pathways for energy demand based on different assumptions. The conservative scenario considers past trends, policies in force and on-going projects, but takes a cautious approach regarding the implementation and timing of policy measures and planned projects. The proactive scenario assumes effective achievements to lessen dependence on imported fuels by giving emphasis to production of domestic resources, stronger efficiency programmes and a more diversified energy supply mix including more renewable energy. To achieve ambitious energy efficiency levels and implement as much renewable energy sources as foreseen in the Proactive Scenario will require unwavering political will, strong policies and measures, as well as sizeable investments, especially by the private sector. Both scenarios, built from the same assumption for population, economic growth, and international fossil-fuel prices, are based on the premise that energy demand will be met. Turkey's future, stimulated by a booming economy and population, an export-oriented industry and a blossoming domestic market, looks bright. The energy needed to fuel this growth will depend greatly on the paths chosen. In this context, the country finds itself at a historical crossroads in its development, as the energy policy choices it makes today will shape Turkey's energy future and its ability to attract the considerable investments required in the energy industry

  12. Elasmobranch spatial segregation in the western Mediterranean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Gouraguine

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Basic information on the distribution and habitat preferences of ecologically important species is essential for their management and protection. This study focuses on the depth related trends and the geographic patterns that shape the community of the elasmobranch species in the Balearic Islands (Mediterranean Sea using data collected from 2001 to 2009. Non-metric Multi-Dimensional Scaling (MDS ordination was used to detect zonation patterns in the community. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs were applied to analyse spatial and temporal variation in elasmobranch community descriptors (abundance, biomass, mean fish weight, number of species and diversity, as well as the abundance and mean length of the four individual species (S. canicula, G. melastomus, R. clavata, R. miraletus. Depth was the main factor determining the assemblage composition, and the MDS analysis identified four main groups with 60% of the similarity found to correspond to the continental shelf, shelf break, upper slope and middle slope of the surveyed area. GAM analysis identified spatial patterns that were independent of the bathymetric distribution preference. Although depth was a strong predictor for all the analyses performed, the geographic variation in the elasmobranch abundance was also important. The results also show a reduction in the mean length of the elasmobranch species in the areas with high fishing intensity. Our study evidences a clear spatial segregation of the main species throughout the ontogeny because the geographic and bathymetric effects were highly size dependent, with clear differences between the bathymetric distributions of juveniles and adults but no clear spatial overlapping. This study sheds new light on the spatial distribution of the elasmobranch species off the Balearic Islands, which is essential information for protecting marine organisms along with their habitats and promoting ecosystem based management.

  13. The Mediterranean diet, its components, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widmer, R Jay; Flammer, Andreas J; Lerman, Lilach O; Lerman, Amir

    2015-03-01

    One of the best-studied diets for cardiovascular health is the Mediterranean diet. This consists of fish, monounsaturated fats from olive oil, fruits, vegetables, whole grains, legumes/nuts, and moderate alcohol consumption. The Mediterranean diet has been shown to reduce the burden, or even prevent the development, of cardiovascular disease, breast cancer, depression, colorectal cancer, diabetes, obesity, asthma, erectile dysfunction, and cognitive decline. This diet is also known to improve surrogates of cardiovascular disease, such as waist-to-hip ratio, lipids, and markers of inflammation, as well as primary cardiovascular disease outcomes such as death and events in both observational and randomized controlled trial data. These enhancements easily rival those seen with more established tools used to fight cardiovascular disease such as aspirin, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and exercise. However, it is unclear if the Mediterranean diet offers cardiovascular disease benefit from its individual constituents or in aggregate. Furthermore, the potential benefit of the Mediterranean diet or its components is not yet validated by concrete cardiovascular disease endpoints in randomized trials or observational studies. This review will focus on the effects of the whole and parts of the Mediterranean diet with regard to both population-based and experimental data highlighting cardiovascular disease morbidity or mortality and cardiovascular disease surrogates when hard outcomes are not available. Our synthesis will highlight the potential for the Mediterranean diet to act as a key player in cardiovascular disease prevention, and attempt to identify certain aspects of the diet that are particularly beneficial for cardioprotection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Mediterranean diet adherence and body composition among Southern Italian adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mistretta, Antonio; Marventano, Stefano; Antoci, Mariagrazia; Cagnetti, Antonella; Giogianni, Gabriele; Nolfo, Francesca; Rametta, Stefania; Pecora, Giulia; Marranzano, Marina

    Adherence to the traditional Mediterranean diet has been associated with health benefits in young populations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and cardio-metabolic parameters in adolescents living in Sicily, Southern Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted during two school years (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) on 1643 adolescents of 11-16 years attending 15 secondary schools. Socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, and anthropometric data were collected. The KIDMED score was used to evaluate the adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Linear and logistic regression models were used to test the association between the variable of interest and the outcomes. A higher percentage of boys compared with girls was overweight (30.8% vs. 25.4%) and obese (28.7% vs. 18.5%) and only 9.1% had high adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Vegetable intake was negatively associated with being overweight/obese whereas higher intake of sweets, sugar-sweetened beverages, and fast foods was associated with overweight and obesity. A good adherence to the Mediterranean diet resulted in 30% decreased odds of being overweight or obese (odd ratio 0.70, 95% confidence interval: 0.56-0.87) in both boys and girls. An inverse correlation was found between KIDMED score and BMI, waist circumference and fat mass. No relation with blood pressure was found. Mediterranean dietary pattern resulted significantly associated with weight status in adolescents. These results underline the importance of providing lifestyle and dietary habits education to prevent overweight and obesity in adolescent. Copyright © 2016 Asia Oceania Association for the Study of Obesity. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Dementia in Eastern Mediterranean countries: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yaghmour, Sara Mahmoud; Bartlett, Ruth; Brannelly, Tula

    2018-01-01

    Globally, there is an increase in the older population, whose lives are affected by local cultural norms. In Eastern Mediterranean countries, dementia is conventionally hidden from view with few dedicated services or recognition for diagnosis. The aim of this systematic review is to explore the limited literature on dementia and cognitive impairment among older people in Eastern Mediterranean countries to present an evaluation of current practices and to consolidate knowledge for future planning. Thirty-three studies were identified for inclusion in the review, and four themes were apparent. Firstly, prevalence, comorbidity and gender: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, many studies identify that the prevalence of dementia is high. As is the case elsewhere, many older adults in Eastern Mediterranean countries have at least one coexisting long-term condition, and some experience low life-satisfaction. Secondly, culture: In Eastern Mediterranean countries, the older adult is highly respected, and placement outside of the family home is considered an abandonment of family duty. The term dementia carries stigma, and it is widely believed that dementia is caused by 'fate'. Thirdly, recognition and tools: There is a lack of verified assessment instruments to assess for dementia. Despite concerns about the cultural appropriateness of the Mini-Mental State Exam, particularly for people who have low literacy levels, and low literacy being the norm in Eastern Mediterranean countries, the Mini-Mental State Examination is the main assessment instrument. Translation and transition of non-Arabic assessment instruments and tools with psychometric properties presents a challenge for clinicians. Finally, workforce issues: health care workers lack knowledge about dementia, as dementia care is a relatively recent addition to the nursing and medical syllabi. While there were some inconsistencies in the papers published, many of the articles call for increasing educational programmes

  16. Environmental footprints of Mediterranean versus Western dietary patterns: beyond the health benefits of the Mediterranean diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Dietary patterns can substantially vary the resource consumption and environmental impact of a given population. Dietary changes such as the increased consumption of vegetables and reduced consumption of animal products reduce the environmental footprint and thus the use of natural resources. The adherence of a given population to the Mediterranean Dietary Pattern (MDP) through the consumption of the food proportions and composition defined in the new Mediterranean Diet pyramid can thus not only influence human health but also the environment. The aim of the study was to analyze the sustainability of the MDP in the context of the Spanish population in terms of greenhouse gas emissions, agricultural land use, energy consumption and water consumption. Furthermore, we aimed to compare the current Spanish diet with the Mediterranean Diet and in comparison with the western dietary pattern, exemplified by the U.S.A. food pattern, in terms of their corresponding environmental footprints. Methods The environmental footprints of the dietary patterns studied were calculated from the dietary make-up of each dietary pattern, and specific environmental footprints of each food group. The dietary compositions were obtained from different sources, including food balance sheets and household consumption surveys. The specific environmental footprints of food groups were obtained from different available life-cycle assessments. Results The adherence of the Spanish population to the MDP has a marked impact on all the environmental footprints studied. Increasing adherence to the MDP pattern in Spain will reduce greenhouse gas emissions (72%), land use (58%) and energy consumption (52%), and to a lower extent water consumption (33%). On the other hand, the adherence to a western dietary pattern implies an increase in all these descriptors of between 12% and 72%. Conclusions The MDP is presented as not only a cultural model but also as a healthy and environmentally

  17. The Mediterranean diet in relation to mortality and CVD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tognon, G.; Lissner, L.; Saebye, D.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the Mediterranean Diet Score (MDS) is associated with reduced total mortality, cardiovascular incidence and mortality in a Danish population. Analyses were performed on 1849 men and women sampled during the 1982-83 Danish MONICA (MONItoring...... trends and determinants of Cardiovascular disease) population study, whose diet was assessed by means of a validated 7d food record. The adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern was calculated by three different scores: one based on a classification excluding ingredients from mixed dishes and recipes...

  18. Natural gas and electrical interconnections in the Mediterranean Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grenon, M.

    1992-01-01

    Intermediate and long term socio-economical and energetic scenarios have shown that mediterranean basin countries will know a great growth of energy demand, particularly power demand. The first part of this paper describes the main projects for the establishment of interconnected natural gas systems through Mediterranean sea, by pipelines (Algeria-Tunisia-Libya project, Algeria-Morocco-Spain project, Libya-Italy project). The second part describes the main projects of electrical networks with the establishment of undersea links between Spain and Morocco, and between Italy and Tunisia; beefing up the interconnections between the North African countries; and developing ties in the Near East (from Egypt to Turkey)

  19. Analyzing satisfaction to tourists in the Spanish Mediterranean arc

    OpenAIRE

    Cutáková, Iveta

    2010-01-01

    The tourism sector has become one of the main wealth generating activities in the world economy. At the beginning of the 21st century, this sector accounts yet for more than 10% of the world GDP (World Travel and Tourism Council). Moreover, the Mediterranean coast is one of the world´s leading markets for sun and sand tourism in recent times. Forecast studies carried out by WTO estimate that international tourist arrivals to the Mediterranean coast will amount to 270 millions in 2010 and to 3...

  20. Trace Metals in Mussels from the N.W. Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, S.W.; Oregioni, B.

    1976-01-01

    A coastal survey in the northwestern Mediterranean region was initiated to measure existing levels of selected trace metals in mussels. For most metals the highest values were found in samples from port cities and areas in the vicinity of river discharge. Marked seasonal variation for many metals was evident; an overall increase in metal concentration in mussels from most stations during March 1974 was attributed to high precipitation and attendant run-off rather than to local pollution. Data comparison indicates that average metal levels in northwestern Mediterranean mussels do not differ markedly from those measured in similar species from different localities throughout the world. (author)

  1. Climate changes over the past millennium: Relationships with Mediterranean climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, M.E.

    2006-01-01

    Evidence is reviewed for climate change and its causes over the interval spanning roughly the past millennium. Particular emphasis is placed on patterns of climate change influencing Mediterranean climates of the Northern Hemisphere. The evidence is taken from studies using high-resolution climate proxy data sources, and climate modeling simulations. The available evidence suggests that forced changes in dynamical modes of variability including the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) have played a key role in the patterns of climate variability in Mediterranean regions over the past millennium

  2. Assessing the sampling strategy in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margirier, Félix; Testor, Pierre; Bosse, Anthony; Heslop, Emma; L'Hévéder, Blandine; Arsouze, Thomas; Houpert, Loic; Mortier, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The deployment of numerous autonomous platforms (gliders, argo floats, moorings) added to the repeated ship cruises in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea account for a considerable data coverage of the area through the past 10 years. In this study, we analyse the in-situ observations' ability to assess for the changes in the Northwester Mediterranean basin water masses properties over time. Comparing the observed time series for the different regions and different water masses to that of a glider simulator in the NEMO-Med12 model, we estimate both the quality of the model and the skill of the in-situ observations in reproducing the evolution of the basin properties.

  3. Wind mapping offshore in coastal Mediterranean area using SAR images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods...... of missing data. Here, we focus on evaluating the use of SAR for offshore wind mapping. Preliminary results from the analysis of SAR-based ocean winds in Mediterranean areas show interesting large scale wind flow features consistent with results from previous studies using numerical models and space borne...

  4. Estimating the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget: impact of RCM design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somot, S.; Elguindi, N.; Sanchez-Gomez, E.; Herrmann, M.; Déqué, M.

    2009-09-01

    The Mediterranean Sea can be considered as a thermodynamic machine that exchanges water and heat with the Atlantic Ocean through the Strait of Gibraltar and with the atmosphere through its surface. Considering the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget (MSWB) multi-year mean, the Mediterranean basin looses water at the surface due to an excess of evaporation over freshwater input (precipitation, river runoff, Black Sea input). Moreover the MSWB largely drives the Mediterranean Sea water mass formation and therefore a large part of its thermohaline circulation. This could even have an impact on the characteristics of the Atlantic thermohaline circulation through the Mediterranean Outflow Waters that flow into the Atlantic at a depth of about 1000 m. From a climate point of view, the MSWB acts as a water source for the Mediterranean countries and therefore plays an important role on the water resources of the region. The regional physical characteristics of the Mediterranean basin (complex orography, strong land-sea contrast, land-atmosphere coupling, air-sea coupling, river inflow, Gibraltar Strait constraint and complex ocean bathymetry) strongly influence the various components of the MSWB. Moreover extreme precipitation events over land and strong evaporation events over the sea due to local winds can play a non-negligible role on the mean MSWB despite their small spatial and temporal scales. Therefore, modelling the mean behaviour, the interannual variability and the trends of the MSWB is a challenging task of the Regional Climate Model community in the context of climate change. It is actually one of the highlighted issues of the HyMex project planned for the 2010-2020 period. We propose here to start investigating some key scientific issues of the regional modelling of the Mediterranean Sea Water Budget using a wide range of regional climate simulations performed at Météo-France or in the framework of FP6 European projects (ENSEMBLES, CIRCE). The addressed

  5. A case of acute quadriplegia complicating Mediterranean spotted fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caroleo, Santo; Longo, Chiara; Pirritano, Domenico; Nisticò, Rita; Valentino, Paola; Iocco, Maurizio; Santangelo, Ermenegildo; Amantea, Bruno

    2007-06-01

    Mediterranean spotted fever is a rickettsiosis caused by Rickettsia conorii. Mediterranean spotted fever is considered to be a benign disease, however, approximately 10% of patients present with a severe systemic manifestation in which neurologic involvement occurs. We present a case of an 80-year-old man with a R. conorii infection who developed an acute quadriplegia secondary to an axonal polyneuropathy. The characteristic tache noire was observed on the lateral region of the thigh and elevated IgM antibody titres against R. conorii were detected by an indirect immunofluorescence test.

  6. Climatic fluctuation of temperature and air circulation in the Mediterranean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartzokas, A.; Metaxas, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    The study of the long term fluctuation of sea surface temperature and 1000/500 mb thickness data in the Mediterranean sea during the last 45 years has shown that the global warming does not appear everywhere. Warming is not apparent in the East Mediterranean but only during the last years, the time series of surface pressure and relative geostrophic vorticity were examined for possible explanation: a strengthening of the northerly wind force have occurred. Thus it can be assumed that local atmospheric circulation changes may support or oppose the global warming in some places

  7. Omnidirectional narrow optical filters for circularly polarized light in a nanocomposite structurally chiral medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño, Carlos G; Palomares, Laura O

    2018-04-20

    We consider the propagation of electromagnetic waves throughout a nanocomposite structurally chiral medium consisting of metallic nanoballs randomly dispersed in a structurally chiral material whose dielectric properties can be represented by a resonant effective uniaxial tensor. It is found that an omnidirectional narrow pass band and two omnidirectional narrow band gaps are created in the blue optical spectrum for right and left circularly polarized light, as well as narrow reflection bands for right circularly polarized light that can be controlled by varying the light incidence angle and the filling fraction of metallic inclusions.

  8. Definition of Quality Criteria of the Technological Process of Narrow Web UV-Printing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volodymyr Shybanov

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The application of Narrow Web UV-flexographic printing has several advantages compared with offset printing. In particular, they are the lack of the operation of water-ink balance setting in the technological process, the ability to print on a wide range of materials and so on. Though the imprint quality is clearly based on standards in offset printing, there are no clearly indicated requirements for Narrow Web UV flexographic printing. The absence of such requirements on quality parameters of the technological process of Narrow Web UV-Printing predetermined conducting its analysis with the help of expert surveys.

  9. Mediterranean Diet in patients with acute ischemic stroke: Relationships between Mediterranean Diet score, diagnostic subtype, and stroke severity index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Casuccio, Alessandra; Buttà, Carmelo; Pecoraro, Rosaria; Di Raimondo, Domenico; Della Corte, Vittoriano; Arnao, Valentina; Clemente, Giuseppe; Maida, Carlo; Simonetta, Irene; Miceli, Giuseppe; Lucifora, Benedetto; Cirrincione, Anna; Di Bona, Danilo; Corpora, Francesca; Maugeri, Rosario; Iacopino, Domenico Gerardo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-11-01

    Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet appears to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and Parkinson's disease, as well as the risk of death due to cardiovascular disease. No study has addressed the association between diagnostic subtype of stroke and its severity and adherence to a Mediterranean Diet in subjects with acute ischemic stroke. To evaluate the association between Mediterranean Diet adherence, TOAST subtype, and stroke severity by means of a retrospective study. The type of acute ischemic stroke was classified according to the TOAST criteria. All patients admitted to our ward with acute ischemic stroke completed a 137-item validated food-frequency questionnaire adapted to the Sicilian population. A scale indicating the degree of adherence to the traditional Mediterranean Diet was used (Me-Di score: range 0-9). 198 subjects with acute ischemic stroke and 100 control subjects without stroke. Stroke subjects had a lower mean Mediterranean Diet score compared to 100 controls without stroke. We observed a significant positive correlation between Me-Di score and SSS score, whereas we observed a negative relationship between Me-Di score and NIHSS and Rankin scores. Subjects with atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke subtype had a lower mean Me-Di score compared to subjects with other subtypes. Multinomial logistic regression analysis in a simple model showed a negative relationship between MeDi score and LAAS subtype vs. lacunar subtype (and LAAS vs. cardio-embolic subtype). Patients with lower adherence to a Mediterranean Diet are more likely to have an atherosclerotic (LAAS) stroke, a worse clinical presentation of ischemic stroke at admission and a higher Rankin score at discharge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Age at maturity of Mediterranean marine fishes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. C. TSIKLIRAS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review we collected data on the age at maturity (tm and maximum reported age (tmax for 235 stocks of Mediterranean marine fishes, belonging to 82 species, 37 families, 12 orders and 2 classes (Actinopterygii and Elasmobranchii. Among Actinopterygii (mean tm ± SD = 2.20 ± 1.43 y, n = 215, tm ranged from 0.3 y, for the common goby Pomatoschistus microps, to 12 y, for dusky grouper Epinephelus marginatus, while among Elasmobranchii (mean tm ± SD = 5.94 ± 2.47 y, n = 20, tm ranged between 2.7 y, for brown ray Raja miraletus, and 12 y for picked dogfish Squalus acanthias. Overall, the tmax ranged between 1 y, for transparent goby Aphia minuta, and 70 y, for wreckfish Polyprion americanus. The mean tmax of Actinopterygii (tmax ± SD = 10.14 ± 9.42 y was lower than that of Elasmobranchii (tmax ± SD = 14.05 ± 8.47 y. The tm exhibited a strong positive linear relation with tmax for both Actinopterygii (logtm = 0.58 ´ logtmax – 0.25, r2 = 0.51, P < 0.001 and Elasmobranchii (logtm = 0.67 ´ logtmax – 0.006, r2 = 0.51, P = 0.007. The mean tm/tmax did not differ significantly with sex within Actinopterygii (ANOVA: F = 0.27, P = 0.60, n = 90; females: mean ± SD = 0.276 ± 0.143; males: mean ± SD = 0.265 ± 0.138 and Elasmobranchii (ANOVA: F = 1.44, P = 0.25, n = 10; females: mean ± SD = 0.499 ± 0.166; males: mean ± SD = 0.418 ± 0.133. Finally, the dimensionless ratio tm/tmax was significantly lower (ANOVA: F = 31.04, P < 0.001 for Actinopterygii (mean ± SD = 0.270 ± 0.135, n = 180 than for Elasmobranchii, (mean ± SD = 0.458 ± 0.152, n = 20, when stocks with combined sexes were excluded from the analysis.

  11. Cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John T. Fitzgerald

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cosmology is concerned with the order of the universe and seeks to provide an account, not only of that order, but also of the mind or reason behind it. In antiquity, the cosmos was usually understood religiously, such that the cosmologies of the ancient Mediterranean world were either religious in nature or constituted a reaction to a religiously conceived understanding of the structures of the universe. The oldest form in which ancient cosmologies occur is myth, which, owing to its elasticity as a form, enabled them to be appropriated, adapted and used by different groups. In addition, different cosmologies co-existed within the same ancient culture, each having an authoritative status. This article provides an introductory overview of these cosmological myths and argues that a comparative approach is the most fruitful way to study them. Emphasis is given to certain prominent cosmological topics, including theogony (the genesis of the divine or the relationship of the divine to the cosmos, cosmogony (the genesis of the cosmos, and anthropogony (the origin of humans within the cosmos. Although these myths vary greatly in terms of content and how they envision the origin of the cosmos, many of them depict death as part of the structure of the universe. Kosmologie het te doen met die orde van die heelal en wil rekenskap gee van hierdie orde en ook van die bewussyn daaragter. In die antieke tyd is die kosmos gewoonlik godsdienstig verstaan, met die gevolg dat die kosmologieë van die antieke Mediterreense wêreld óf ’n godsdienstige aard gehad het óf bestaan het uit ’n reaksie op ’n godsdienstig-geskepte begrip van die strukture van die heelal. Mites was die oudste vorm waarin antieke kosmologieë voorkom wat vanweë hulle plooibaarheid dit bewerk het dat hierdie kosmologieë deur verskillende groepe toegeëien, aangepas en gebruik kon word. Hierbenewens het verskillende kosmologieë in die antieke kultuur langs mekaar bestaan – elkeen

  12. The Mediterranean Diet: its definition and evaluation of a priori dietary indexes in primary cardiovascular prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Alessandro, Annunziata; De Pergola, Giovanni

    2018-01-18

    We have analysed the definition of Mediterranean Diet in 28 studies included in six meta-analyses evaluating the relation between the Mediterranean Diet and primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. Some typical food of this dietary pattern like whole cereals, olive oil and red wine were taken into account only in a few a priori indexes, and the dietary pattern defined as Mediterranean showed many differences among the studies and compared to traditional Mediterranean Diet of the early 1960s. Altogether, the analysed studies show a protective effect of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease but present different effects against specific conditions as cerebrovascular disease and coronary heart disease. These different effects might depend on the definition of Mediterranean Diet and the indexes of the adhesion to the same one used. To compare the effects of the Mediterranean Diet against cardiovascular disease, coronary heart disease and stroke a univocal model of Mediterranean Diet should be established as a reference, and it might be represented by the Modern Mediterranean Diet Pyramid. The a priori index to evaluate the adhesion to Mediterranean Diet might be the Mediterranean-Style Dietary Pattern Score that has some advantages in comparison to the others a priori indexes.

  13. Active halo control through narrow-band excitation with the ADT at injection

    CERN Document Server

    Wagner, Joschka; Garcia Morales, Hector; Redaelli, Stefano; Valentino, Gianluca; Valuch, Daniel; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department

    2016-01-01

    During this MD (MD1388), the capabilities of an active halo control for beam tail depletion in the LHC were tested. The studied method relies on using the Transverse Damper (ADT) to perform a narrow-band excitation.

  14. The effect of divided attention on emotion-induced memory narrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Waring, Jill D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorised to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants' attentional resources at encoding by dividing attention did not affect emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three separate manipulations: a digit ordering task (Experiment 1), an arithmetic task (Experiment 2) and an auditory discrimination task (Experiment 3). Across all three experiments, divided attention decreased memory across the board but did not affect the degree of memory narrowing. These findings suggest that theories to explain memory narrowing must be expanded to include other potential mechanisms beyond the limitations of attentional resources.

  15. The Effect of Divided Attention on Emotion-Induced Memory Narrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Katherine R. Mickley; Waring, Jill D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorized to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants’ attentional resources at encoding, by dividing attention, did not affect the emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three separate manipulations: a digit ordering task (Experiment 1), an arithmetic task (Experiment 2), and an auditory discrimination task (Experiment 3). Across all three experiments, divided attention decreased memory across-the-board but did not affect the degree of memory narrowing. These findings suggest that theories to explain memory narrowing must be expanded to include other potential mechanisms beyond limitations of attentional resources. PMID:24295041

  16. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen

    2014-05-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  17. Difficulties of supercurrents in narrow pores of 3He-A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thuneberg, E.V.; Kurkijaervi, J.

    1980-01-01

    We consider resistanceless supercurrents through narrow pores and find such currents to vanish in most cases because of end effects at the entries and exists of the pores. Under pressure dc-supercurrents are found to arise. (author)

  18. Selective CO2 gas adsorption in the narrow crystalline cavities of flexible peptide metallo-macrocycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Ryosuke; Kuwata, Chika; Masumoto, Yui

    2015-02-21

    Crystalline peptide Ni(ii)-macrocycles (BF4(-) salt) exhibited moderate CO2 gas adsorption (ca. 6-7 CO2 molecules per macrocycle) into very narrow cavities (narrowest part gas in preference to CH4 and N2 gases.

  19. Spark PRM: Using RRTs within PRMs to efficiently explore narrow passages

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Kensen; Denny, Jory; Amato, Nancy M.

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 IEEE. Probabilistic RoadMaps (PRMs) have been successful for many high-dimensional motion planning problems. However, they encounter difficulties when mapping narrow passages. While many PRM sampling methods have been proposed to increase the proportion of samples within narrow passages, such difficult planning areas still pose many challenges. We introduce a novel algorithm, Spark PRM, that sparks the growth of Rapidly-expanding Random Trees (RRTs) from narrow passage samples generated by a PRM. The RRT rapidly generates further narrow passage samples, ideally until the passage is fully mapped. After reaching a terminating condition, the tree stops growing and is added to the roadmap. Spark PRM is a general method that can be applied to all PRM variants. We study the benefits of Spark PRM with a variety of sampling strategies in a wide array of environments. We show significant speedups in computation time over RRT, Sampling-based Roadmap of Trees (SRT), and various PRM variants.

  20. Effect of bubble interface parameters on predicted of bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Jianjun; Xie Tianzhou; Zhou Wenbin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping

    2014-01-01

    The predicted model on the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel is built by analysis of forces acting on the bubble, and effects of bubble interface parameters such as the bubble inclination angle, upstream contact angle, downstream contact angle and bubble contact diameter on predicted bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are analysed by comparing with the visual experimental data. Based on the above results, the bubble interface parameters as the input parameters used to obtain the bubble departure diameter in a narrow channel are assured, and the bubble departure diameters in a narrow channel are predicted by solving the force equation. The predicted bubble departure diameters are verified by the 58 bubble departure diameters obtained from the vertical and inclined visual experiment, and the predicted results agree with the experimental results. The different forces acting on the bubble are obtained and the effect of thermal parameters in this experiment on bubble departure diameters is analysed. (authors)

  1. Narrow duplicated internal auditory canal: radiological findings and review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, Oezguen Ilhan; Cakmakci, Handan; Men, Sueleyman; Erdag, Taner Kemal

    2005-01-01

    Narrow duplicated internal auditory canal (IAC) is a rare malformation of the temporal bone that is associated with ipsilateral congenital sensorineural hearing loss. This may be an isolated finding or a part of a syndrome. Radiological examination should demonstrate aplasia or hypoplasia of the neural components of the narrow IAC, to guide the surgical approach. We report a 7-year-old boy with Klippel-Feil syndrome with a narrow double IAC with no sensorineural hearing loss but with conductive hearing loss. In this patient, the IAC consisted of two separate narrow bony canals clearly seen on 3D temporal bone CT and one nerve that was delineated on MRI. The contralateral external auditory canal was stenotic and the ossicles were dysplastic. (orig.)

  2. Onset of a nucleate boiling and incipient point of net vapor generation in narrow channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, G.

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study on onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) and incipient point of net vapor generation (IPNVG) in narrow rectangular channel was presented. Flow direction in the channel was vertical upward. The experimental results indicate that the classical correlations of ONB for conventional channels were not suitable for the present narrow rectangular channel. The wall superheat needed to initiate boiling is found to be higher for the same given values of heat and mass flux. The experimental results of IPNVG indicate that the heat flux, triggering net vapor generation in narrow rectangular channel, is litter lower than that calculated by correlations for conventional channels. The relative prediction error of qIPNVG by Griffith model, Saha model and Sun model ranges from -17.9% to +9.6%. A new correlation was developed to predict the ONB in narrow rectangular channel. The proposed correlation predictions agreed well with the experimental data. (author)

  3. The transition time induced narrow linewidth of the electromagnetically induced transparency in caesium vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Luming; Peng Xiang; Liu Cheng; Guo Hong; Chen Xuzong

    2004-01-01

    We observed a narrow linewidth (∼60 kHz) in a Doppler-broadened system showing electromagnetically induced transparency in caesium atomic vapour. The transition time induced reduction of the linewidth is illustrated both theoretically and experimentally

  4. Narrow Wavelength, Frequency Modulated Source at 1.5 Wavelength, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Ultrastable, narrow linewidth, tunable, high reliability sources at 1.5 or 2mm are needed for high performance LIDARs for several NASA applications, including wind...

  5. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Quezada, Itandehui; Román-Viñas, Blanca; Serra-Majem, Lluís

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD). Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR) cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups. PMID:24394536

  6. Mediterranean diet and colorectal cancer: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farinetti, Alberto; Zurlo, Valeria; Manenti, Antonio; Coppi, Francesca; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide, especially in developed countries where an estimated 60% of all cases occur. There is evidence of a higher risk for CRC in Western society, where people tend to eat more red and processed meat than those living along the Mediterranean coast, who have a decreased overall cancer mortality, which is correlated to their eating habits, such as Mediterranean diet. The aim of this review was to evaluate the correlation between three components of the Mediterranean diet (olive oil, red wine, and tomatoes) and incidence and progression of colorectal cancer. As such, we conducted a literature search using keywords "colorectal cancer," "dietary pattern," "Mediterranean diet," "olive oil," "protective effects," "resveratrol," and "lycopene." Olive oil polyphenols, red wine resveratrol, and tomato lycopene showed several characteristics in vitro that interfere with molecular cancer pathways. At the same time, many clinical studies have reported an association of these components with a reduction in cancer initiation and progression. More clinical studies are needed to identify the precise dose and administration of single agents or their combination to produce a coadjutant treatment to those already applied in chemoprevention and oncologic treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Impact of Mediterranean diet on metabolic syndrome, cancer and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Noce, Annalisa; Vidiri, Maria Francesca; Moriconi, Eleonora; Marrone, Giulia; Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, Margherita; D'Urso, Gabriele; Tesauro, Manfredi; Rovella, Valentina; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2017-01-31

    Obesity symbolizes a major public health problem. Overweight and obesity are associated to the occurrence of the metabolic syndrome and to adipose tissue dysfunction. The adipose tissue is metabolically active and an endocrine organ, whose dysregulation causes a low-grade inflammatory state and ectopic fat depositions. The Mediterranean Diet represents a possible therapy for metabolic syndrome, preventing adiposopathy or "sick fat" formation.The Mediterranean Diet exerts protective effects in elderly subjects with and without baseline of chronic diseases. Recent studies have demonstrated a relationship between cancer and obesity. In the US, diet represents amount 30-35% of death causes related to cancer. Currently, the cancer is the second cause of death after cardiovascular diseases worldwide. Furthermore, populations living in the Mediterranean area have a decreased incidence of cancer compared with populations living in Northern Europe or the US, likely due to healthier dietary habits. The bioactive food components have a potential preventive action on cancer. The aims of this review are to evaluate the impact of Mediterranean Diet on onset, progression and regression of metabolic syndrome, cancer and on longevity.

  8. The potential of lignocellulosic ethanol production in the Mediterranean Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faraco, Vincenza [Department of Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); School of Biotechnological Sciences, University of Naples ' ' Federico II' ' , Naples (Italy); Hadar, Yitzhak [Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, The Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Rehovot (Israel)

    2011-01-15

    This review provides an overview of the potential of bioethanol fuel production from lignocellulosic residues in the Mediterranean Basin. Residues from cereal crops, olive trees, and tomato and grape processing are abundant lignocellulosic wastes in France, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Egypt, where their use as raw materials for ethanol production could give rise to a potential production capacity of 13 Mtoe of ethanol. Due to the lack of sufficient amounts of agricultural residues in all of the other Mediterranean countries, use of the cellulosic content of municipal solid waste (MSW) as feedstock for ethanol fuel production is also proposed. A maximum potential production capacity of 30 Mtoe of ethanol could be achieved from 50% of the 180 million tons of waste currently produced annually in the Mediterranean Basin, the management of which has become a subject of serious concern. However, to make large-scale ethanol production from agricultural residues and MSW a medium-term feasible goal in the Mediterranean Basin, huge efforts are needed to achieve the required progress in cellulose ethanol technologies and to overcome several foreseeable constraints. (author)

  9. Fire behavior in Mediterranean shrub species (Maquis) | Saglam ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prediction of fire behavior in fire prone ecosystems is of vital importance in all phases of fire management including fire prevention, presuppression, suppression and fire use. This paper deals with an experimental burning exercise conducted in the Mediterranean region in Turkey. A series of 18 experimental fires were ...

  10. Strategies of Mediterranean Oaks to Survive Summer Drought

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegwolf, R.T.W.; Besson, C. [Inst. Sup. de Agronomia, ISA Lisboa (Portugal); Chaves, M.M. [ISA Lisboa (Portugal); Pereira, J. [ISA Lisboa (Portugal)

    2004-03-01

    In arid, Mediterranean regions the scarce water supply during summer limits plant growth. Yet trees and shrubs often grow in areas where no water supply is apparent. By means of the deuterium isotope ratio it could be shown that various plants can access different water sources, allowing them to endure long periods of severe drought. (author)

  11. Crisis, routine, consolidation: the politics of the Mediterranean migration crisis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeandesboz, J.; Pallister-Wilkins, P.

    2016-01-01

    The current ‘migration crisis’ is framed as a moment of reckoning in the EU’s dealings with its Mediterranean neighbourhood. Yet to what extent is crisis the most useful tool to account for migration and European border control practices in the current context? An exclusive focus on crisis, we

  12. Yield Response of Mediterranean Rangelands under a Changing Climate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daliakopoulos, Ioannis N.; Panagea, Ioanna S.; Tsanis, Ioannis K.; Grillakis, Manolis G.; Koutroulis, Aristeidis G.; Hessel, Rudi; Mayor, Angeles G.; Ritsema, Coen J.

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the Mediterranean rangelands degradation trends is a key element of mitigating their vulnerability and enhancing their resilience. Climate change and its inherent effects on mean temperature and the precipitation variability can regulate the magnitude, frequency and duration of

  13. Evaluating the Water Footprint of the Mediterranean and American Diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Blas

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Global food demand is increasing rapidly as a result of multiple drivers including population growth, dietary shifts and economic development. Meeting the rising global food demand will require expanding agricultural production and promoting healthier and more sustainable diets. The goal of this paper is to assess and compare the water footprint (WF of two recommended diets (Mediterranean and American, and evaluate the water savings of possible dietary shifts in two countries: Spain and the United States (US. Our results show that the American diet has a 29% higher WF in comparison with the Mediterranean, regardless of products’ origin. In the US, a shift to a Mediterranean diet would decrease the WF by 1629 L/person/day. Meanwhile, a shift towards an American diet in Spain will increase the WF by 1504 L/person/day. The largest share of the WF of both diets is always linked to green water (62%–75%. Grey water in the US is 67% higher in comparison with Spain. Only five products account for 36%–46% of the total WF of the two dietary options in both countries, being meat, oil and dairy products the food items with the largest WFs. Our study demonstrates that adopting diets based on a greater consumption of vegetables, fruits and fish, like the Mediterranean one, leads to major water savings.

  14. Pan-African - Mediterranean Migrations: Implications for Education and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napier, Diane Brook

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine features of the contemporary migrant and refugee flows across Africa northward to the Mediterranean and then to European countries (sometimes called the "new mass migration" and also migrant flows southward to South Africa. In addition, the purpose was to examine dimensions of response and…

  15. Spatial diversity of recent trends in Mediterranean tree growth

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galván, J. D.; Camarero, J. J.; Ginzler, C.; Büntgen, Ulf

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, 084001 (2014) ISSN 1748-9326 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : climate change * dendroecology * drought climatology * Mediterranean Basin * tree-ring research Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 3.906, year: 2014

  16. Drought-induced decline in Mediterranean truffle harvest

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Büntgen, Ulf; Egli, S.; Camarero, J. J.; Fischer, E. M.; Stobbe, U.; Kauserud, H.; Tegel, W.; Sproll, L.; Stenseth, N. C.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 2, č. 12 (2012), s. 827-829 ISSN 1758-678X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.20.0248 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : mediterranean truffle * melanosporum * satisfying explanations Subject RIV: DG - Athmosphere Sciences, Meteorology Impact factor: 14.472, year: 2012

  17. Causes of infectious abortion in the Mediterranean buffalo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Galiero

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria and viruses can cause abortion in buffaloes. This review describes the abortigenic infectious agents found in Mediterranean buffalo cows and the microbiological methods used for their diagnosis. The abortigenic agents are: Brucella spp., Arcanobacterium pyogenes, Chlamydophila spp., Coxiella burnetii, Bacillus licheniformis, E.coli, Leptospira spp., Bubaline Herpes Virus-1 (BuHV-1, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus.

  18. Impact of ozone on Mediterranean forests: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paoletti, E.

    2006-01-01

    Ozone impact on Mediterranean forests remains largely under-investigated, despite strong photochemical activity and harmful effects on crops. As representative of O 3 impacts on Mediterranean vegetation, this paper reviews the current knowledge about O 3 and forests in Italy. The intermediate position between Africa and European mid-latitudes creates a complex patchwork of climate and vegetation. Available data from air quality monitoring stations and passive samplers suggest O 3 levels regularly exceed the critical level (CL) for forests. In contrast, relationships between O 3 exposure and effects (crown transparency, radial growth and foliar visible symptoms) often fail. Despite limitations in the study design or underestimation of the CL can also affect this discrepancy, the effects of site factors and plant ecology suggest Mediterranean forest vegetation is adapted to face oxidative stress, including O 3 . Implications for risk assessment (flux-based CL, level III, non-stomatal deposition) are discussed. - Why Mediterranean forests are more ozone tolerant than mesophilic vegetation is explored

  19. Migration flyway of the Mediterranean breeding Lesser Crested Tern ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Lesser Crested Tern Thalasseus bengalensis emigratus breeding population in the Mediterranean is found exclusively in Libya, on the two coastal islands of Gara and Elba and one wetland on the mainland coast at Benghazi. In order to improve knowledge of the species migration to wintering quarters in West Africa, ...

  20. Primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weide, M.G.; Fakiri, F. el; Kulu Glasgow, I.; Grielen, S.J.; Zee, J. van der

    1998-01-01

    This book gives an overview of primary health care in the Southern Mediterranean region. For twelve countries detailed information is provided on the structure and financing of health care, the organisation of primary care (including mother and child health care and immunisation programmes), health

  1. CITRUS AS A COMPONENT OF THE MEDITERRANEAN DIET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilcar Duarte

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Citrus are native to southeastern Asia, but are present in the Mediterranean basin for centuries. This group of species has reached great importance in some of the Mediterranean countries and, in the case of orange, mandarin and lemon trees, they found here soil and climatic conditions which allows them to achieve a high level of fruit quality, even better than in the regions where they came from. Citrus fruits are present in the diet of the peoples living on the Mediterranean basin, at least since the time of the Roman Empire. In the 20th century they became the main crop in various agricultural areas of the Mediterranean, playing an important role in the landscape, in the diet of the overall population, and also in international trade. They are present in the gardens of palaces and monasteries, but also in the courtyards and orchards of the poorest families. Their fruits are not only a refreshing dessert, but also a condiment, or even a major component of many dishes. Citrus fruits have well-documented nutritional and health benefits. They can actually help prevent and cure some diseases and, above all, they are essential in a balanced and tasty diet.

  2. Sustainable management for the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berberoglu, Süha

    2003-03-01

    The objective of this article is to propose a program for the integrated coastal zone management that is required to stimulate and guide sustainable development of the Mediterranean coastal zone of Turkey. Improved data collection, quality control, analysis, and data management will provide a firm basis for future scientific understanding of the East Mediterranean coast of Turkey and will support long-term management. Various innovative procedures were proposed for a promising ecosystem-based approach to manage coastal wetlands in the Mediterranean: remote data acquisition with new technologies; environmental quality monitoring program that will provide a baseline for monitoring; linking a Geographic Information System (GIS) with natural resource management decision routines in the context of operational wetlands, fisheries, tourism management system; environmental sensitivity analysis to ensure that permitted developments are environmentally sustainable; and use of natural species to restore the wetlands and coastal dunes and sustain the system processes. The proposed management scheme will benefit the scientific community in the Mediterranean and the management/planning community in Eastern Turkey.

  3. Effects of wildfire on soil nutrients in Mediterranean ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caon, L.; Vallejo, V.R.; Ritsema, C.J.; Geissen, V.

    2014-01-01

    High-intensity and fast-spreading wildfires are natural in the Mediterranean basin. However, since 1960, wildfire occurrence has increased because of changes in land use, which resulted in extensive land abandonment, increases in the fuel load and continuity in the landscape. The level of soil

  4. Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-30

    Circulation in the Southeastern Mediterranean Sea (EGITTO-NICOP) Pierre-Marie Poulain Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica ...Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale,Borgo Grotta Gigante, 42/c,34010 Sgonico (Trieste), Italy, , 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  5. Antioxidant properties of Mediterranean food plant extracts: geographical differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, S; Schmitt-Schillig, S; Müller, W E; Eckert, G P

    2005-03-01

    Locally grown, wild food plants seasonally contribute a considerable portion of the daily diet in certain Mediterranean areas and it has been suggested that the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet on human health partly originate from the antioxidant effect of flavonoid-rich food plants. The nutrient content of most wild plants is higher than that of cultivated ones and may vary depending on the prevailing environmental conditions. Accordingly, three local Mediterranean plant foods (i.e. Cichorium intybus, Sonchus oleraceus, Papaver rhoeas) were collected in Greece (Crete), southern Italy, and southern Spain in order to assess possible differences in their in vitro antioxidant potential. The biological assays revealed diverse intra-plant specific antioxidant effects for the tested extracts ranging from no activity to almost complete protection. Furthermore, substantial differences in the polyphenol content were found for the nutritionally used part of the same plant originating from different locations. However, no clear correlations between the polyphenol content and the extracts' antioxidant activities were found. Taken together, the data suggest that certain local Mediterranean plant foods possess promising antioxidant activity and that the observed biological effects are possibly influenced by the geographically-dependent environmental conditions prevailing during plant growth.

  6. Modeling Mediterranean Ocean climate of the Last Glacial Maximum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. Mikolajewicz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A regional ocean general circulation model of the Mediterranean is used to study the climate of the Last Glacial Maximum. The atmospheric forcing for these simulations has been derived from simulations with an atmospheric general circulation model, which in turn was forced with surface conditions from a coarse resolution earth system model. The model is successful in reproducing the general patterns of reconstructed sea surface temperature anomalies with the strongest cooling in summer in the northwestern Mediterranean and weak cooling in the Levantine, although the model underestimates the extent of the summer cooling in the western Mediterranean. However, there is a strong vertical gradient associated with this pattern of summer cooling, which makes the comparison with reconstructions complicated. The exchange with the Atlantic is decreased to roughly one half of its present value, which can be explained by the shallower Strait of Gibraltar as a consequence of lower global sea level. This reduced exchange causes a strong increase of salinity in the Mediterranean in spite of reduced net evaporation.

  7. Pathways for resilience in Mediterranean cork oak land use systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acácio, V.C.; Holmgren, M.

    2014-01-01

    Context Loss of woodlands and degradation of vegetation and soil have been described for all Mediterranean-type ecosystems worldwide. In the Western Iberian Peninsula, overexploitation of evergreen cork oak land use systems has led to soil erosion, failures in oak recruitment, and loss of forests.

  8. The Mediterranean Diet and Nutritional Adequacy: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itandehui Castro-Quezada

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Mediterranean dietary pattern, through a healthy profile of fat intake, low proportion of carbohydrate, low glycemic index, high content of dietary fiber, antioxidant compounds, and anti-inflammatory effects, reduces the risk of certain pathologies, such as cancer or Cardiovascular Disease (CVD. Nutritional adequacy is the comparison between the nutrient requirement and the intake of a certain individual or population. In population groups, the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy can be assessed by the probability approach or using the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut-point method. However, dietary patterns can also be used as they have moderate to good validity to assess adequate intakes of some nutrients. The objective of this study was to review the available evidence on the Nutritional Adequacy of the Mediterranean Diet. The inclusion of foods typical of the Mediterranean diet and greater adherence to this healthy pattern was related to a better nutrient profile, both in children and adults, with a lower prevalence of individuals showing inadequate intakes of micronutrients. Therefore, the Mediterranean diet could be used in public health nutrition policies in order to prevent micronutrient deficiencies in the most vulnerable population groups.

  9. Offshore Wind Resource Estimation in Mediterranean Area Using SAR Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calaudi, Rosamaria; Arena, Felice; Badger, Merete

    Satellite observations of the ocean surface from Synthetic Aperture Radars (SAR) provide information about the spatial wind variability over large areas. This is of special interest in the Mediterranean, where spatial wind information is only provided by sparse buoys, often with long periods of m...

  10. Improvement of greenhouse design and climate control in mediterranean conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuzel, Yuksel; Zwart, de Feije; Sapounas, A.; Hemming, Silke; Stanghellini, Cecilia

    2017-01-01

    The Mediterranean Region is one of the most important areas of the world in terms of protected cultivation. Turkey, with its increasing greenhouse area, is one of the representative countries of the region. Thanks to the mild winter climatic conditions, cultivation of vegetables under simple

  11. Ozone and carbon monoxide budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Myriokefalitakis, S.; Daskalakis, N.; Fanourgakis, G.S.; Voulgarakis, A.; Krol, M.C.; Brugh, Aan de J.M.J.; Kanakidou, M.

    2016-01-01

    The importance of the long-range transport (LRT) on O3 and CO budgets over the Eastern Mediterranean has been investigated using the state-of-the-art 3-dimensional global chemistry-transport model TM4-ECPL. A 3-D budget analysis has been performed separating the Eastern from the

  12. A quantum criticality perspective on the charging of narrow quantum-dot levels

    OpenAIRE

    Kashcheyevs, V.; Karrasch, C.; Hecht, T.; Weichselbaum, A.; Meden, V.; Schiller, A.

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the charging of exceptionally narrow levels in quantum dots in the presence of interactions remains a challenge within mesoscopic physics. We address this fundamental question in the generic model of a narrow level capacitively coupled to a broad one. Using bosonization we show that for arbitrary capacitive coupling charging can be described by an analogy to the magnetization in the anisotropic Kondo model, featuring a low-energy crossover scale that depends in a power-law fashi...

  13. Modeling on bubbly to churn flow pattern transition in narrow rectangular channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yanlin; Chen Bingde; Huang Yanping; Wang Junfeng

    2012-01-01

    A theoretical model based on some reasonable concepts was developed to predict the bubbly flow to churn flow pattern transition in vertical narrow rectangular channel under flow boiling condition. The maximum size of ideal bubble in narrow rectangular channel was calculated based on previous literature. The thermal hydraulics boundary condition of bubbly to churn flow pattern transition was exported from Helmholtz and maximum size of ideal bubble. The theoretical model was validated by existent experimental data. (authors)

  14. The Effect of Divided Attention on Emotion-Induced Memory Narrowing

    OpenAIRE

    Steinmetz, Katherine R. Mickley; Waring, Jill D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2013-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorized to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants’ attentional resources at encoding, by dividing attention, did not affect the emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three sepa...

  15. The effect on lower spine muscle activation of walking on a narrow beam in virtual reality

    OpenAIRE

    Antley, Angus; Slater, Mel

    2011-01-01

    To what extent do people behave in immersive virtual environments as they would in similar situations in a physical environment? There are many ways to address this question, ranging from questionnaires, behavioral studies, and the use of physiological measures. Here, we compare the onsets of muscle activity using surface electromyography (EMG) while participants were walking under three different conditions: on a normal floor surface, on a narrow ribbon along the floor, and on a narrow platf...

  16. Green's function for electrons in a narrow quantum well in a parallel magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horing, Norman J. Morgenstern; Glasser, M. Lawrence; Dong Bing

    2005-01-01

    Electron dynamics in a narrow quantum well in a parallel magnetic field of arbitrary strength are examined here. We derive an explicit analytical closed-form solution for the Green's function of Landau-quantized electrons in skipping states of motion between the narrow well walls coupled with in-plane translational motion and hybridized with the zero-field lowest subband energy eigenstate. Such Landau-quantized modes are not uniformly spaced

  17. Definition of Quality Criteria of the Technological Process of Narrow Web UV-Printing

    OpenAIRE

    Volodymyr Shybanov; Vsevolod Senkivsky; Vyacheslav Repeta; Natalia Gurgal

    2013-01-01

    The application of Narrow Web UV-flexographic printing has several advantages compared with offset printing. In particular, they are the lack of the operation of water-ink balance setting in the technological process, the ability to print on a wide range of materials and so on. Though the imprint quality is clearly based on standards in offset printing, there are no clearly indicated requirements for Narrow Web UV flexographic printing. The absence of such requirements on quality parameters o...

  18. Mediterranean extension and the Africa-Eurasia collision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolivet, Laurent; Faccenna, Claudio

    2000-12-01

    A number of tectonic events occurred contemporaneously in the Mediterranean region and the Middle East 30-25 Myr ago. These events are contemporaneous to or immediately followed a strong reduction of the northward absolute motion of Africa. Geological observations in the Neogene extensional basins of the Mediterranean region reveal that extension started synchronously from west to east 30-25 Myr ago. In the western Mediterranean it started in the Gulf of Lion, Valencia trough, and Alboran Sea as well as between the Maures massif and Corsica between 33 and 27 Ma ago. It then propagated eastward and southward to form to Liguro-Provençal basin and the Tyrrhenian Sea. In the eastern Mediterranean, extension started in the Aegean Sea before the deposition of marine sediments onto the collapsed Hellenides in the Aquitanian and before the cooling of high-temperature metamorphic core complexes between 20 and 25 Ma. Foundering of the inner zones of the Carpathians and extension in the Panonnian basin also started in the late Oligocene-early Miocene. The body of the Afro-Arabian plate first collided with Eurasia in the eastern Mediterranean region progressively from the Eocene to the Oligocene. Extensional tectonics was first recorded in the Gulf of Aden, Afar triple junction, and Red Sea region also in the Oligocene. A general magmatic surge occurred above all African hot spots, especially the Afar one. We explore the possibility that these drastic changes in the stress regime of the Mediterranean region and Middle East and the contemporaneous volcanic event were triggerred by the Africa/Arabia-Eurasia collision, which slowed down the motion of Africa. The present-day Mediterranean Sea was then locked between two collision zones, and the velocity of retreat of the African slab increased and became larger than the velocity of convergence leading to backarc extension. East of the Caucasus and northern Zagros collision zone the Afro-Arabian plate was still pulled by the slab

  19. Mediterranean Agricultural Soil Conservation under global Change: The MASCC project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raclot, Damien; Ciampalini, Rossano

    2017-04-01

    The MASCC project (2016-2019, http://mascc-project.org) aims to address mitigation and adaptation strategies to global change by assessing current and future development of Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability to erosion in relation to projected land use, agricultural practices and climate change. It targets to i) assess the similarities/dissimilarities in dominant factors affecting the current Mediterranean agricultural soil vulnerability by exploring a wide range of Mediterranean contexts; ii) improve the ability to evaluate the impact of extreme events on both the current and projected agricultural soil vulnerability and the sediment delivery at catchment outlet; iii) evaluate the vulnerability and resilience of agricultural production to a combination of potential changes in a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, iv) and provide guidelines on sustainable agricultural conservation strategies adapted to each specific agro-ecosystem and taking into consideration both on- and off-site erosion effects and socio-economics issues. To achieve these objectives, the MASCC project consortium gather researchers from six Mediterranean countries (France, Morocco, Tunisia, Italy, Spain and Portugal) which monitor mid- to long-term environmental catchments and benefit from mutual knowledge created from previous projects and network. The major assets for MASCC are: i) the availability of an unrivalled database on catchment soil erosion and innovative agricultural practices comprising a wide range of Mediterranean contexts, ii) the capacity to better evaluate the impact of extreme events on soil erosion, iii) the expert knowledge of the LANDSOIL model, a catchment-scale integrated approach of the soil-landscape system that enables to simulate both the sediment fluxes at the catchment outlet and the intra-catchment soil evolving properties and iv) the multi-disciplinarity of the involved researchers with an international reputation in the fields of soil science

  20. Relationship between loss in parenchymal elastic recoil pressure and maximal airway narrowing in subjects with alpha1-antitrypsin deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheung, D.; Schot, R.; Zwinderman, A. H.; Zagers, H.; Dijkman, J. H.; Sterk, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    Airway hyperresponsiveness is characterized by an increase in sensitivity and excessive airway narrowing to inhaled bronchoconstrictor stimuli. There is experimental evidence that maximal airway narrowing is related to lung elasticity in normal and asthmatic subjects. We hypothesized that reduced